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Sample records for jining shandong province

  1. Assessment of elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators: A comparative study of Jining in Shandong Province and Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Tian, Yuan; Gao, Xing

    2017-10-01

    The remarkably high proportions of centenarians are found in the Jining Prefecture in southwestern Shandong province, demonstrating remarkable regional longevity differentiation. In this paper, census data at county-level, samples of drinking water and staple grains in Jining Prefecture were collected. Guanzhong area in Shaanxi Province, a non-longevity region in northern China was chosen as the contrast area. The major and trace elements in the samples were determined by using ICP-MS, ICP-OES and HG-AFS. The major results show that Jinxiang County in Jining Prefecture exhibit obviously higher longevity level than adjacent counties and Chinese average level based on temporal and spatial variation of lifespan indicators. Meanwhile, the contents of Na, Mg, Mo and Cu in wheat, corn and drinking water show a similar decline trend in the order of Jinxiang County, non-longevity counties of Jining Prefecture and Guanzhong area. In addition, Na/Ca and Mg/Ca show obvious difference both in staple grains and drinking ground water, and Ca(2+) is the most abundance of major cations in drinking water samples from non-longevity counties which was different with the Jinxiang County showing Na(+) as of major cations. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the difference of elemental concentrations in drinking water was more remarkable than in staple grains between Jining and Guanzhong areas. Na, Li, Ni, and Zn in staple grains and Mg, Co, Cu, Mn, and Sr in drinking ground water can explain most of the total variance as principal component between Jining and Guanzhong areas. These findings may help to provide further insight into the elemental background values and their relation with lifespan indicators especially in northern China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Regional scale remote sensing-based yield estimation of winter wheat by using MODIS-NDVI data: a case study of Jining City in Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianqiang; Chen, Zhongxin; Tang, Huajun

    2006-12-01

    Taking Jining City of Shandong Province, one of the most important winter wheat production regions in Huanghuaihai Plain as an example, the winter wheat yield was estimated by using the 250 m MODIS-NDVI data smoothed by Savitzky-Golay filter. The NDVI values between 0. 20 and 0. 80 were selected, and the sum of NDVI value for each county was calculated to build its relation with winter wheat yield. By using stepwise regression method, the linear regression model between NDVI and winter wheat yield was established, with the precision validated by the ground survey data. The results showed that the relative error of predicted yield was between -3.6% and 3.9%, suggesting that the method was relatively accurate and feasible.

  3. Spatio-temporal evolution on geographic boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Xun; Wang, Zhi Qiang; Guo, Jing; Tang, Fang; Sun, Xiu Bin; Xue, Fu Zhong; Kang, Dian Min

    2013-12-01

    To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  4. Case 1. "Qi Yuling v. Chen Xiaoqi et al.": Opinion by the Higher People's Court of Shandong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the details of Qi Yuling v. Chen Xiaoqi et al case. The plaintiff Qi Yuling filed a lawsuit at the Intermediate People's Court in Zaozhuang, Shandong against defendants Chen Xiaoqi, Chen Kezheng, Jining Business School in Shandong ("Jining Business School"), the Eighth Middle School of Tengzhou, Shandong…

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics and Spatial-Temporal Clusters of Mumps in Shandong Province, China, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Li, Runzi; Cheng, Shenghui; Luo, Cheng; Rutherford, Shannon; Cao, Jin; Xu, Qinqin; Liu, Xiaodong; Liu, Yanxun; Xue, Fuzhong; Xu, Qing; Li, Xiujun

    2017-04-11

    Mumps presents a serious threat to public health in China. We conducted a descriptive analysis to identify the epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Shandong Province. Spatial autocorrelation and space-time scan analyses were utilized to detect spatial-temporal clusters. From 2005 to 2014, 115745 mumps cases were reported in Shandong, with an average male-to-female ratio of 1.94. Mumps occurred mostly in spring (32.17% of all reported cases) and in children aged 5 to 9 (40.79% of all reported cases). The Moran's I test was significant and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analysis revealed significant spatial clusters with high incidence. The results showed that the mid-west of Shandong Province and some coastal regions (Qingdao City and Weihai City) were high-risk areas, particularly in the center of the Jining City and the junction of Dongying City, Binzhou City and Zibo City. The results could assist local and national public health agencies in formulating better public health strategic planning and resource allocation.

  6. Drought monitoring of Shandong province in late 2010 using data acquired by Terra MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingzhi; Huang, He; Liu, Suihua; Yan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Drought has been a frequently happened type of disaster in China, and it has caused massive losses to people's lives. Especially the drought happened in Shandong province in the late 2010, which was recognized as the severest in the past five hundred years in some areas. Evaluation must be done in order to make proper rescue plans. Instead of collecting data site by site, remote sensing is an efficient way to acquire data in a large area, which is very helpful for drought identification. Some normal ways in remote sensing for drought analysis are explained and compared in this paper, and then the VSWI method is chosen to evaluation the drought in Shandong province. Because of its free data policy and wide availability, the data sets acquired by Terra-MODIS are chosen to identify the drought severity in Shandong province. From the drought severity level images we can see that almost the whole area of Shandong province was lack of water except the Weishan Lake and eastern coastline regions where large area of water exists. The southwest region, including Heze and Jining, is in moderate drought condition, where it is used to be an important grain-producing area. This drought condition will inevitably put a negative effect on its grain production. The central and southern areas were in severe drought condition, but fortunately these areas are of hills and mountains, so the drought will only affect the lives of residents. The northern parts, including Dezhou and Bingzhou areas, were also in severe drought condition, and these regions are also important for grain-producing, so the severe drought disaster will lead to a sharp grain output cut. This analysis results will not only shed light on the rescue process, but also give the government some clues on how to maintain the grain supply safety.

  7. Seroprevalence of Enterovirus A71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in Healthy People in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Pei, Yao-wen; Sun, Da-peng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xian-jun; Xu, Wen-bo; Ding, Shu-jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease has become very common in mainland of China in recent years, and enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 are its major etiologic factors. Here we investigated the seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 based on a large group of healthy individuals in Shandong province, China. Methods A total of 1378 healthy individuals were tested for serum neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 using a micro neutralization test. Results The overall seroprevalence of enterovirus A71 neutralizing antibodies was 74.75%. It increased significantly from 48.84% in children aged 0–1 years old to 88.64% in those aged 20–29 years (p < 0.01) and decreased to 85.71% in adults > 40 years old with a significant gender-specific difference (p < 0.01). The overall coxsackievirus A16 antibody prevalence was 71.77%. It increased significantly from 39.53% in children aged 0–1 years to 80.68% in those aged 10–19 years (p < 0.01) and decreased to 75.63% in adults >40 years without a gender-specific difference. Nearly 50% of the children <1 year were susceptible to enterovirus A71 infection versus 40% to coxsackievirus A16 infection. Sample collection time and place also played a role in the enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 positive rates. The overall rates in January were significantly lower than those in April and August (p < 0.01); enterovirus A71 positive rates in Jinan city (capital city of Shandong province) were lower than those in Jining city and Zibo city (p < 0.05); and oxsackievirus A16 positive rates in Jining city were significantly higher than those in Jinan city and Zibo city (p < 0.01). Conclusion There were significant differences among age groups, locations, and time points in the seroprevalence rates of enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 neutralizing antibodies in healthy people in Shandong province. PMID:27611441

  8. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  9. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).

  10. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P < 0.01). The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P < 0.05). The amount of condiment sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  12. [The species and ecological distribution of medical mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-Hai; Li, Na; Hu, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the species and distribution of mollusca with medical importance in Weifang, Shandong Province. Species identification and quantitative statistics analysis was studied based on field-collected snails from the districts of Weifang, Shouguang, Anqiu and Changyi, Shandong Province. A total of 1,791 medical mollusca specimens were collected, belonging to two Classes, 9 families and 14 species. Some important species were discovered including Parafossarulus striatulus (383), Alocinma longicornis (34), Galba pervia (63), Radix swinhoei (137), R. auricularia (95), Physa acuta (677) and Hippeutis cantori (22). The dominant species were P. acuta and P. striatulus. There remains a higher diversity of medical mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province.

  13. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24: Shandong Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    This image of the Shandong Province, China was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft. This image is from the MISR Where on Earth...? Mystery Quiz #24.

  14. Hospital medical waste management in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gai, Ruoyan; Kuroiwa, Chushi; Xu, Lingzhong; Wang, Xingzhou; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Chengchao; He, Jiangjian; Tang, Wei

    2009-06-01

    Medical waste refers to those hazardous waste materials generated by healthcare activities, including a broad range of materials, and remains as an issue on both public health and environment. In China, there was inadequate information on the implementation of management systems in hospitals based on the national regulatory framework. The objectives of this study were to assess the current situation of medical waste management and to identify factors determining the implementation of a management system based on the national regulatory framework in hospitals. We investigated 23 general hospitals in both urban and rural areas of Shandong Province, China, by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The medical waste generation rate was 0.744, 0.558 and 1.534 kg bed(-1) day(-1) in tertiary hospitals, urban secondary hospitals and county hospitals, respectively. There is a wide disparity between implementation in tertiary, secondary and county hospitals. With increasing financial, technological, and materials investment, a management system has been established in tertiary and secondary hospitals. Financial support and administrative monitoring by the government is urgently needed to build a sound management system in hospitals located at remote and less-developed areas. In those areas issues in the financial, administrative and technical aspects should be further examined.

  15. [Spatial distribution characteristics of iodine in drinking water in Shandong province between year 2008 and 2010].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-jie; Wang, Zeng-liang; Bian, Jian-chao; Wang, Jin-biao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiao-ming; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-01-01

    To detect the spatial distribution characteristics of iodine in drinking water of residents in Shandong province with spatial autocorrelation analysis. The county-based study set Shandong province as a research site. A total of 108 164 water samples from 140 counties were collected. The drinking water iodine data in county-level city between 2008 to 2010 were obtained from Shandong Institute of Prevention and Control for Endemic Disease and was merged with an electronic map to build a spatial database. Global and local Moran's I index were calculated, respectively, and spatial autocorrelation and cluster range of iodine distribution in drinking water in Shandong province were studied by SaTScan software. All counties were further grouped according to the "criteria of delimitation for IDD endemic areas" and "determination and classification of the areas of high water iodine and the endemic areas of iodine excess goiter", and 90 counties were iodine deficiency (< 10 µg/L), 31 were iodine suitable (10 - 150 µg/L), and 19 (> 150 µg/L) were high iodine. For the overall study area, the iodine distribution in drinking water in Shandong province existed spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, P < 0.01). For the local scale, the drinking water iodine in 18 counties of Dezhou, Liaocheng and Heze city in western Shandong province was clustered, the local Moran's I were between 0.22 - 1.00 (P < 0.01), which were all high-high clusters, indicating the positive spatial correlation. Spatial analysis using SaTScan software detected two cluster areas including 20 counties, which the centers located in Xiajin and Dingtao county, the cluster radiuses were 57.47 km and 65.58 km respectively. The analysis results were consistent with the results of local spatial autocorrelation. There are apparent spatial autocorrelation and strong spatial heterogeneity existed in the iodine distribution in drink water in Shandong province.

  16. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  17. The development and practices of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shujun; Liu Jian; Ren Lijun; Zhang Kai; Wang Renqing

    2009-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), a newly-developed decision-making support tool, has been used in many developed and developing countries for predicting and evaluating potential environmental impact of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), as well as for providing alternatives to avoid, mitigate, or compensate for these impacts. Unfortunately, due to the complexity and flexibility of SEA, to date there has been no consensus on a system which could be suitable for the contexts of different regions or countries. Different requirements and practices are observed in the different typical stages of SEA. Controversial areas include the appropriate indicators to apply in the early baseline setting stage, suitable methodologies for the impact assessment, and appropriate procedures for the SEA process. Given this, it is important to review and refine the SEA system specific to the context but informed by internationally agreed norms. As an illustration, this study reviews and proposes steps to refine the SEA system in Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, aiming to achieve sustainable development. Supported by the Environmental Impact Assessment Law of the People's Republic of China, Shandong Province employed SEA to reform the traditionally economy-oriented decision-making and incorporate consideration of environmental consequences into government deliberation on proposed PPPs. This paper illustrates the developmental process, procedures, and legal support for SEA in Shandong Province. By analyzing five SEA cases carried out by Shandong Province Environment Protection Bureau (SEPB) and Shandong University, problems in the SEA system were identified, and recommendations were made for improving the SEA system not only in Shandong Province but also other similar regions or countries.

  18. Spatiotemporal Trends and Climatic Factors of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Epidemic in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Li; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Qian, Quan; Li, Ya-Pin; Wei, Lan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Hong; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. Methods and Findings Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV) transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV) transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it remained high in the

  19. Analysis on the forms and regional characteristics of the traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiyong; Hu, Haiyan; Miao, Lei; Zhou, Bo

    2017-08-01

    The traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province show rich historic cultural deposits and distinctive regional characteristics under the influence of the geographic environment, resource endowment and historic culture. Research was done on the main construction patterns of the traditional dwellings in mountainous central Shandong Province, as well as relevant data and techniques, revealing the symbiotic interdependence between the traditional dwellings and nature in different natural and humanistic environments, providing a certain theoretical reference for the diversified conservation and heritage of the traditional dwellings.

  20. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  1. Research on the Foreign Students Education of Shandong Province under the Internationalization Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xianghua; Li, Wenxiu

    2016-01-01

    The foreign students' education has a great influence on the internationalization of higher education and the reputation of university. Since the 21st century, the foreign students' education has developed rapidly and has been extending continuously in Shandong Province. However, a series of problems still exist, such as the imperfect of the…

  2. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity. PMID:27658591

  3. Characteristics of Imported Malaria and Species of Plasmodium Involved in Shandong Province, China (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wei, Qing-Kuan; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Wang, Yong-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Li; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xin; Huang, Bing-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. In this study, data of malaria cases reported in Shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and Plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. Of all cases, P. falciparum was dominant (81.3%), followed by P. vivax (11.8%); P. ovale and P. malariae together accounted for 6.4% of cases. Notably, for the first time since 2012, no indigenous case had been reported in Shandong Province, a situation that continued through 2014. Total 95.2% of cases were imported from Africa. The ratio of male/female was 92.5:1, and 96.8% of cases occurred in people 20-54 years of age. Farmers or laborers represented 77.5% of cases. No significant trends of monthly pattern were found in the reported cases. All patients were in good condition after treatment, except for 3 who died. These results indicate that imported malaria has increased significantly since 2012 in Shandong Province, especially for P. falciparum, and there is an emergence of species diversity.

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of drought at various time scales in Shandong Province of Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Depeng; Cai, Siyang; Xu, Zongxue; Li, Fulin; Sun, Wenchao; Yang, Xiaojing; Kan, Guangyuan; Liu, Pin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal variations and spatial patterns of drought in Shandong Province of Eastern China were investigated by calculating the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month time scales. Monthly precipitation and air temperature time series during the period 1960-2012 were collected at 23 meteorological stations uniformly distributed over the region. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to explore the temporal trends of precipitation, air temperature, and the SPEI drought index. S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the spatial patterns of drought. The results showed that an insignificant decreasing trend in annual total precipitation was detected at most stations, a significant increase of annual average air temperature occurred at all the 23 stations, and a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI was mainly detected at the coastal stations for all the time scales. The frequency of occurrence of extreme and severe drought at different time scales generally increased with decades; higher frequency and larger affected area of extreme and severe droughts occurred as the time scale increased, especially for the northwest of Shandong Province and Jiaodong peninsular. The spatial pattern of drought for SPEI-1 contains three regions: eastern Jiaodong Peninsular and northwestern and southern Shandong. As the time scale increased to 3, 6, and 12 months, the order of the three regions was transformed into another as northwestern Shandong, eastern Jiaodong Peninsular, and southern Shandong. For SPEI-24, the location identified by REOF1 was slightly shifted from northwestern Shandong to western Shandong, and REOF2 and REOF3 identified another two weak patterns in the south edge and north edge of Jiaodong Peninsular, respectively. The potential causes of drought and the impact of drought on agriculture in the study area have also been discussed. The temporal variations and spatial patterns

  5. Urban Landscape Spatial Pattern Estimation of Cities in Shandong Province Using Nighttime Luminosity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; He, H.; Hu, T.; Li, G.; Gao, H.; Zhao, X.

    2017-09-01

    China's cities have been undergoing rapid and intense urbanization processes in the past few decades. Shandong is a coastal province which is located in East China with big economy and population scales, and which also plays an important role in the rapid process of China's modernization. The DMSP/OLS dataset has been widely used for the urban development assessments in long time-series and large spatial scales situations. In this paper, we used a time series of nighttime light data to estimate the landscape spatial pattern changes of cities in Shandong province from 1994 to 2012. Nine landscape metrics were calculated and analyzed to figure out the spatial patterns of urban area developments of the cities in Shandong province. The landscape metrics include the number of patches (NP), the landscape total area (TA), the aggregation index (AI), the largest patch index (LPI), the mean patch area (AREA_MN), the landscape shape index (LSI), the total edge length (TE), the edge density (ED), and the mean radius of gyration (GYRATE_MN). The experimental results reveal that, in 1994-2012, the total urban area of cities in Shandong province expanded for 1.17 times, the average urban area increased by about 93.00%, the average annual growth rate of the TE metric is 2.67 %, while the ED metric decreased about 1.44 % annually. Bigger cities in this area show relative slower urbanization development processes, such as Jinan and Qingdao. Coastal cities represented much more rapid expansion velocities than inland cities. In the middle area of Shandong province, the connectivity between developed urban areas was constantly increased.

  6. Diversity of tick species on domestic animals in Shandong Province, China, using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiling; Zhao, Aihua; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Zhong

    2017-08-28

    Ticks are considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In recent years, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, a new emerging tick-borne disease has been detected in many areas of China, including Shandong Province, Eastern China. Here, we report the tick species diversity based on surveys between 2014 and 2016 covering 16 locations in seven cities of Shandong. Based on DNA barcoding, 1859 ticks belonging to three species were identified: Haemaphysalis longicornis, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Haemaphysalis verticalis. Samples of the same species clustered together in a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, with intraspecific distances between 0 and 3.0% and interspecific distances ranged between 15.5 and 24.3%. Goats and dogs were the major hosts of ticks and H. longicornis was regarded as predominant tick species of Shandong. In order to reduce tick populations and prevent tick-borne diseases, effective control measures should be implemented on human and domestic animals, respectively.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China.

  8. [Analysis of malaria situation and discussion of control strategy in Shandong Province, 2013].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Bu, Xiu-qin; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ben-guang; Chen, Xi-xin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yong-bin

    2014-08-01

    To understand the malaria situation of Shandong Province in 2013, so as to provide the evidence for formulating targeted prevention and control strategy and measures. The data of malaria cases of Shandong Province in 2013 were collected from the Information Management System for Infectious Diseases Report and Information Management System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention. The data of epidemiological characteristics of malaria situation and the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007. There were 131 malaria cases reported in 2013, all of them were imported cases, and 127 cases (96.95%) were imported from African countries. A total of 116 cases (88.55% ) were falciparum malaria cases. Totally 97.71% of the cases were male and the average age of malaria cases was 39 years. A total of 61.83% of the cases were peasants and 65.65% of the cases only received junior high school education. The distribution of malaria cases was concentrated in Tai'an City (32 cases), Yantai City (19 cases) and Weihai City (17 cases),totally acounting for 53.13%. There was no significant seasonal variation in the reporting time of the cases. The median time from on- set to seeing doctor was four days and the median time from seeing doctor to being diagnosed was one day. Totally 35.88% of the cases were misdiagnosed when the first visit to a doctor. All of the cases were laboratory confirmed and 100% of them received the standard treatment after diagnosis. All of the malaria cases were imported cases in Shandong Province in 2013. To control the imported malaria in Shandong Province, it is necessary to further strengthen the multi-sectoral cooperation, health education, malaria screening and professional training.

  9. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province.

  10. Vehicle emission trends and spatial distribution in Shandong province, China, from 2000 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shida; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in Shandong province, which has experienced a sharp growth of vehicle numbers in recent years and now has the largest vehicle population in China. This paper combines the COPERT IV model with the vehicle age distribution to estimate the temporal trends and map the spatial distributions of vehicle emissions in Shandong province during the period ranging from 2000 to 2014. Both conventional air pollutants and greenhouse gases are included. In addition, a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory at the prefecture level is developed and mapped on a 0.05° × 0.05° grid based on road information. Our results show that the emissions of all of the conventional air pollutants have decreased to various extents over the recent past, but greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase due to the lack of effective control strategies. The total emissions of CO, NMVOC, NOX, PM10, CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Shandong vehicle fleet changed from 1734.5 Gg, 277.9 Gg, 177.0 Gg, 12.4 Gg, 19239.7 Gg, 11.3 Gg and 0.6 Gg, respectively, in 2000 to 1723.3 Gg, 234.2 Gg, 513.8 Gg, 29.5 Gg, 138,419.5 Gg, 15.3 Gg and 3.9 Gg, respectively, in 2014. Vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in cities and became more dispersed in Shandong province between 2000 and 2014.

  11. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in rural China: results from Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Qian, D; Chen, J; Hu, D; Hou, M; Chen, S; Wang, P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in rural areas in Shandong Province, China. The Luxemburg-WHO-Shandong Project on Rural Health Personnel Training and Chronic Disease Control, a cross-sectional study, examined 16 375 rural residents aged 25 years and over using multistage cluster sampling in April 2007. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure plasma glucose and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among people with a fasting blood glucose of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Information on the history of diabetes and hypoglycaemic medication was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Overall, the prevalence rates for diabetes, prediabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes in the rural population were estimated to be 3.5%, 6.0% and 1.2%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 34.8% were aware of their condition, 30.6% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 11.5% achieved glycaemic control. These results indicate that diabetes has become a public health problem in poor rural areas of China and the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes were relatively low. There is an urgent need for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes in the rural population in Shandong Province, China. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. [Prevalence and related risk factors on smoking among pupils in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xia; Sun, Tong; Zhou, Pei-jing; Chen, Ren-you; Kang, Dian-min

    2013-11-01

    To study the prevalence of smoking and its influential factors among pupils in Shandong. A multi-stage stratified-cluster random sampling method was used in the survey. 6050 students from 3 different cities of Shandong province were selected as the study population. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed and the survey was conducted by trained investigators. The rate of attempting smoking among pupils under study in Shandong province was 6.0% while the current smoking rate was 1.2%. The average age of children who initiated smoking cigarette was 7.8±2.1 with 80.5% of them due to curiosity. 34.7% of them got the cigarettes from their families. In terms of the motivation of buying cigarettes, 74.3% of them claimed that the access to purchase was easy. Data from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that the smoking behavior of pupils was influenced by their familial or surrounding environments. Tobacco control programs on pupils should be strengthened with more powerful control measures including health education.

  13. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  14. A General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iPhone Operating System of Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Xiang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles and the problem solutions during the design and implementation of the mobile GIS system, and base on the research result, we developed the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS of Shandong Province. The system is developed in the Objective-C programming language, and use the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for IOS as the development tool to call the "World-map Shandong" services to implement the development of the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS devices. The system is currently available for download in the Appstore and is chosen as the typical application case of ESRI China ArcGIS API for iOS.

  15. Temporal variation characteristics of shear-wave splitting for the Rushan earthquake swarm of Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qingjie; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-03-01

    The seismicity in Rushan region of Shandong Province is characterized by small swarms after the ML3.8 Rushan earthquake on October 1, 2013, and this situation continues up to now. Four earthquakes with ML4.7, ML4.5, ML4.1 and ML5.0 occurred from January of 2014 to May of 2015 cause great social effects. Based on the seismic records from the Rushan station, this paper calculated the shear-wave splitting parameters of 224 small earthquakes of Rushan earthquake swarm. The result shows that the polarization direction of the fast shear-wave is consistent with the principal compressive stress direction of the Shandong peninsula; on the other hand, the time delay has obvious change before and after the four earthquakes, that is, it raised about one month and declined about twelve days before earthquake. All the characteristics can be taken as the precursor indicator for earthquake prediction based on stress.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium perfringens from apparently healthy animals of the Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Chai, T; Wang, L; Wang, H; Duan, H; Müller, W; Zucker, B A

    2007-10-01

    In a pilot study the presence and frequency of Clostridium (C.) perfringens was investigated among apparently healthy farm animals in the Shandong province of China. 748 faecal samples were collected from 9 pig-, 4 sheep-, 7 cattle- and 5 rabbit farms. C. perfringens was isolated from 124 samples (16.6%). The isolates were classified into major toxin types by using PCR analysis detecting the genes encoding these toxins. All isolates were identified as C perfringens toxin type A. There are also some reports from different regions in China linking C. perfringens toxin type A strains to gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore further investigations about the epidemiologic role of C perfringens toxin type A strains in the Shandong region are necessary. Currently, cases of enterotoxemia from this region are investigated for the presence of C perfringens.

  17. Geographical Distribution Patterns of Iodine in Drinking-Water and Its Associations with Geological Factors in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran’s I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. PMID:24852390

  18. K-Ar ages and Pb, Sr isotopic characteristics of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in Shandong Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daogong, C.; Zicheng, P.; Lanphere, M.A.; Zartman, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    28 samples of Cenozoic volcanic rocks collected from Shandong Province have been dated by K-Ar method. They are mainly Neogene with an age range of 4-19 m. y. The basalts from Linqu and Yishui in west Shandong Province are Miocene and those from Penglai and Qixia in east Shandong Province are Miocene and Pliocene in age. The basalts from Wudi in north Shandong Province are Middle-Early Pleistocene in age. In each area the duration of volcanic eruption was estimated at about 2-3 m. y. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions and U, Th, Pb, Rb, Sr, and major elements in most of the samples were determined. The isotopic compositions are:206Pb/204Pb-16.92-18.48,207Pb/204Pb-15.30-15.59,208Pb/204Pb-37.83-38.54, and (87Sr/86Sr)i-0.70327-0.70632. There are some positive or negative linear correlations between206Pb/204Pb and207Pb/204Pb, Pb isotopes and Pb content, Pb isotopes and Sr isotopes, and Sr isotopes and other elements. The basaltic rocks from east and west Shandong Province have somewhat differences in isotopic composition and element content. The basalts probably are products of multi-stage evolution of the mantle. They have preserved the primary features of the source, although they were influenced, to some extent, by the contamination of crustal materials. ?? 1985 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p < 0.001). Two clusters for high iodine in drinking-water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  20. JPRS Report, China, Shandong Province 1988 Economic Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    visits. All 982 motions, criti- cisms, and suggestions submitted by People’s Congress deputies and CPPCC members last year have been handled. The... suggestions . The province and various localities conducted many investi- gations and studies on reform, opening up, development of the commodity economy, and... suggestions submitted by people’s deputies to make sure that every one of them is concluded and answered. Second, we should maintain close ties between

  1. Management of Postoperative Pain in Medical Institutions in Shandong Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghua; Ma, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zongwang; Yu, Ailan; Chen, Xueli; Feng, Cuicui; Lei, Weifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate current situation of postoperative pain management in medical institutions in Shandong Province.A questionnaire was developed on the basis of guidelines of acute pain and pain quality assessment scale. The questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the nature and scale of the medical institution, structure of pain management organization, implementation of pain assessment, and analgesic techniques and processes used in clinical practice. A multistage stratified and cluster sampling method was employed to investigate the current situation of postoperative pain management in 168 medical institutions in Shandong Province. For acute pain service (APS), 32% of the hospitals established postoperative pain management organizations similar to APS. For pain evaluation, 57.1% of the hospitals evaluated pain as the fifth vital sign, and 47.0% of the hospitals evaluated pain at rest and during activity. Furthermore, 43.0% of the surveyed hospitals employed patient-controlled analgesia mode, of which hospitals employing brachial plexus block, lumbar plexus block, and femoral nerve block analgesia accounted for 5.0%, 1.0%, and 4.0%, respectively. The survey revealed that 51.0% of the hospitals educated patients about pain and pain management, of which patients were postoperatively educated by ward nurses in 5.0% and patients were educated by APS during ward rounds in 2.0%. There is a lack of standardized postoperative pain management, the involvement of nurses in pain management is scarce, and the pain assessment and education and application of advanced analgesic management techniques were found to be inadequate in medical institutions in Shandong Province. PMID:26871800

  2. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of pseudorabies in Shandong province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dongfang; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Zhendong; Xiao, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Shandong province of China to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity due to pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in small- and medium-sized farrow-to-finish herds following outbreaks of variant PRV strains. A total of 6,035 blood samples from 224 randomly selected herds were screened. The results showed that 25.0% of the herds and 56.7% of the serum samples were seropositive for field strains of PRV. Herds consisting of 50–100 breeding sows had higher herd seroprevalence and serum sample seroprevalence than larger herds. Both the highest herd seroprevalence and highest serum sample seroprevalence were observed in western Shandong, followed northern Shandong. Based on univariate analysis, the following risk factors were utilized in subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis: region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts, and all-in/all-out practice. Upon multivariate analysis, region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts and all-in/all-out practice were significantly associated with PRV herd seropositivity. These findings indicate that we are facing a serious situation in the prevention and control of pseudorabies. The results could help predict the next outbreak and set out control measures. PMID:26726021

  3. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  4. Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in adults of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Hong; Xu, Ai Qiang; Lu, Zi Long; Yan, Liu Xia; Guo, Xiao Lei; Wang, Hui Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Zhang, Ji Yu; Dong, Jing; Wang, Lin Hong

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake and its impact factors in 2 140 adults aged 18-69 years were analyzed. The mean daily sodium intake was 5745.0 (5427.6-6062.5) mg per day, which was higher in males than in females (P<0.01). After having been adjusted for gender, age and urban/city areas, the mean daily sodium intake was significantly higher in participants with a lower education level, drinkers and smokers than in those with a higher education level, nondrinkers and nonsmokers (P<0.01). The dietary sodium intake in adults of Shandong Province is higher than the recommended standards.

  5. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions.

  6. Iodine nutritional status in the adult population of Shandong Province (China) prior to salt reduction program.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Guo, Xiaolei; Tang, Junli; Guo, Xiaowei; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Jiyu; Bi, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Tremendous differences in iodine status and daily iodine intake persist across provinces of China. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the iodine status and dietary iodine intake of Shandong adults before the implementation of the salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard. Data from a baseline survey of the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension project (2011) were analyzed. The iodine contents of 1949 24-h urine samples and 136 drinking water samples were assayed. Daily urinary iodine excretion and daily iodine intake were calculated, analyzed, stratified by different analytical variables and compared with Chinese Dietary Reference Values. The median urinary iodine concentration and median daily iodine intake of Shandong adults were 248.5 μg/L and 368.2 μg/day, respectively. The median iodine intake of different groups was between the estimated average requirements and the upper limit, except group in water iodine >300 μg/L with median iodine intake of 1200.7 μg/L. Salt intake and iodine levels in drinking water related to iodine intake significantly. Shandong adults had more than adequate iodine nutrition, and the dietary iodine intake of the population was generally appropriate and safe except residents in high water iodine areas. In the context of the implementation of a salt reduction program and a new salt iodization standard, the iodine status of high water iodine areas may remain in the recommended level, but in low water iodine areas, the risk of inadequate iodine intake may increase, needing monitoring of urine iodine excretion, dietary iodine intake and iodized salt consumption regularly.

  7. [Mr ZHENG Yugui's academic thoughts: in memory of the successor of Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaobin; Du, Guangzhong; Tian, Daozheng

    2016-03-01

    Mr ZHENG Yugui, a distinguished acupuncturist in Qilu area, is one of the successors of Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province. Through collecting the papers and works concerning Mr ZHENG, the academic thoughts are summarized, including careful and clear differentiation of syndrome, specific and precise selection of acupoints, reinforcing and reducing methods based on qi, and gentle and soft manipulation of needles. He has discovered new acupoints such as Fengyan point, etc. He also focuses on moxibustion and creates Taiyang moxibustion method. In addition, to develop acupuncture education, Mr ZHENG has played a deep and important role in spreading Chengjiang acupuncture school in Shandong province.

  8. HIV drug resistance in HIV positive individuals under antiretroviral treatment in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Sun, Xiaoguang; Su, Shengli; Lv, Cuixia; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Rui; Fu, Jihua; Kang, Dianmin

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs is limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to examine HIV drug resistance following the nationwide implementation of drug resistance testing in China since 2009. We conducted drug resistance testing in patients who were already on or new to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Shandong Province, China, from 2011 to 2013, and grouped them based on the presence or absence of drug resistance to determine the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, route of transmission and treatment status on drug resistance. We then examined levels of drug resistance the following year. The drug resistance rates of HIV patients on ART in Shandong from 2011 to 2013 were 3.45% (21/608), 3.38% (31/916), and 4.29% (54/1259), per year, respectively. M184V was the most frequently found point mutation, conferring resistance to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, while Y181C, G190A, K103N and V179D/E/F were the most frequent point mutations conferring resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition, the protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations I54V and V82A were identified for the first time in Shandong Province. Primary resistance accounts for 20% of the impact factors for drug resistance. Furthermore, it was found that educational level and treatment regimen were high-risk factors for drug resistance in 2011 (P<0.05), while treatment regimen was a high risk factor for drug resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P<0.05). Among the 106 drug-resistant patients, 77 received immediate adjustment of treatment regimen following testing, and 69 (89.6%) showed a reduction in drug resistance the following year. HIV drug resistance has a low prevalence in Shandong Province. However, patients on second line ART regimens and those with low educational level need continuous monitoring. Active drug resistance testing can effectively prevent the development of drug

  9. HIV drug resistance in HIV positive individuals under antiretroviral treatment in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bin; Sun, Xiaoguang; Su, Shengli; Lv, Cuixia; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lin, Lin; Wang, Rui; Kang, Dianmin

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs is limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to examine HIV drug resistance following the nationwide implementation of drug resistance testing in China since 2009. We conducted drug resistance testing in patients who were already on or new to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Shandong Province, China, from 2011 to 2013, and grouped them based on the presence or absence of drug resistance to determine the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, route of transmission and treatment status on drug resistance. We then examined levels of drug resistance the following year. The drug resistance rates of HIV patients on ART in Shandong from 2011 to 2013 were 3.45% (21/608), 3.38% (31/916), and 4.29% (54/1259), per year, respectively. M184V was the most frequently found point mutation, conferring resistance to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, while Y181C, G190A, K103N and V179D/E/F were the most frequent point mutations conferring resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition, the protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations I54V and V82A were identified for the first time in Shandong Province. Primary resistance accounts for 20% of the impact factors for drug resistance. Furthermore, it was found that educational level and treatment regimen were high-risk factors for drug resistance in 2011 (P<0.05), while treatment regimen was a high risk factor for drug resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P<0.05). Among the 106 drug-resistant patients, 77 received immediate adjustment of treatment regimen following testing, and 69 (89.6%) showed a reduction in drug resistance the following year. HIV drug resistance has a low prevalence in Shandong Province. However, patients on second line ART regimens and those with low educational level need continuous monitoring. Active drug resistance testing can effectively prevent the development of drug

  10. [Carbon storage of forest stands in Shandong Province estimated by forestry inventory data].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Mei; Yang, Chuan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Nian; Ge, Li-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Based on the 7th forestry inventory data of Shandong Province, this paper estimated the carbon storage and carbon density of forest stands, and analyzed their distribution characteristics according to dominant tree species, age groups and forest category using the volume-derived biomass method and average-biomass method. In 2007, the total carbon storage of the forest stands was 25. 27 Tg, of which the coniferous forests, mixed conifer broad-leaved forests, and broad-leaved forests accounted for 8.6%, 2.0% and 89.4%, respectively. The carbon storage of forest age groups followed the sequence of young forests > middle-aged forests > mature forests > near-mature forests > over-mature forests. The carbon storage of young forests and middle-aged forests accounted for 69.3% of the total carbon storage. Timber forest, non-timber product forest and protection forests accounted for 37.1%, 36.3% and 24.8% of the total carbon storage, respectively. The average carbon density of forest stands in Shandong Province was 10.59 t x hm(-2), which was lower than the national average level. This phenomenon was attributed to the imperfect structure of forest types and age groups, i. e., the notably higher percentage of timber forests and non-timber product forest and the excessively higher percentage of young forests and middle-aged forest than mature forests.

  11. Mycotoxins in wheat flour and intake assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zhou, Jingyang; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Fengjia

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the occurrence and contamination levels of eight mycotoxins were investigated in wheat flour samples (n = 359) from Shandong Province of China. Samples were determined using a multi-mycotoxin method based on isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the most frequently found mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol (DON) (97.2%), nivalenol (40.4%) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (33.4%), and mean contamination levels in positive samples were 86.7, 3.55 and 3.34 µg kg(-1), respectively. The obtained data were further used to estimate the daily intake of the local population, and indicated that wheat flour consumption contributes little to DON exposure. However, with the aim to keep the contamination levels under control and to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Shandong Province, more sample data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in the future.

  12. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lü, Hui; Yuan, Yuqi; Sun, Na; Bi, Zhenwang; Guan, Bing; Shao, Kun; Wang, Tongzhan; Bi, Zhenqiang

    Cholera continues to be a serious public health issue in developing countries. We analyzed the epidemiological data of cholera from 1976 to 2013 in Shandong Province, an eastern coastal area of China. A total of 250 Vibrio cholerae isolates were selected for PCR analysis of virulence genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analysis of the virulence genes showed that the positive rates for tcpA and tcpI were the highest among strains from the southwest region, which had the highest incidence rate of cholera. Low positive rates for tcpA, tcpI and ctxAB among isolates from after 2000 may be an influencing factor contributing to the contemporary decline in cholera incidence rates. Spatiotemporal serotype shifts (Ogawa, Inaba, Ogawa, Inaba and O139) generally correlated with the variations in the PFGE patterns (PIV, PIIIc, PIa, PIIIb, PIIIa, PIb, and PII). O1 strains from different years or regions also had similar PFGE patterns, while O139 strains exclusively formed one cluster and differed from all other O1 strains. These data indicate that V. cholerae isolates in Shandong Province have continually undergone spatiotemporal changes. The serotype switching between Ogawa and Inaba originated from indigenous strains, while the emergence of serogroup O139 appeared to be unrelated to endemic V. cholerae O1 strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B prevention program in Shandong Province, China. Evaluation and progress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Ko, Stephen; Lv, Jingjing; Ji, Feng; Yan, Bingyu; Xu, Fujie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) alone is highly effective in preventing perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and the World Health Organization recommends administering HepB to all infants within 24 h after delivery. Maternal screening for HBsAg and administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) in addition to HepB for infants born to HBsAg-positive pregnant women can increase the effectiveness of post-exposure prophylaxis for perinatal HBV transmission. In Shangdong Province, China which has a high prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HepB birth dose and HBIG were integrated into the routine childhood immunization program in 2002 and July 2011 respectively. We assessed progress toward implementation of these measures. Hospital-based reporting demonstrated an increase in maternal screening from 70.7% to 96.9% from 2004-2012; HepB birth dose coverage (within 24 h) remained high (96.3-97.1%) during this period. For infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers, the coverage of HBIG increased from 85.0% (before July 2011) to 92.1% (after July 2011). However, HBIG coverage in western areas of Shandong Province remained at 81.1% among infants with known HBsAg-positive mothers. Preterm/low-birth-weight and illness after birth were the most commonly reported reasons for delay in the first dose of HepB to >24 h of birth. Additional education on the safety and immune protection from HepB and HBIG might help to correct delays in administering the HepB birth dose and low HBIG coverage in the western areas of the Shandong Province.

  14. Disaster resilience in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as a hospital’s ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining critical functions, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one. This study aims to explore the status of resilience among tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Methods A stratified random sample (n = 50) was derived from tertiary A, tertiary B, and tertiary C hospitals in Shandong Province, and was surveyed by questionnaire. Data on hospital characteristics and 8 key domains of hospital resilience were collected and analysed. Variables were binary, and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies. Results A response rate of 82% (n = 41) was attained. Factor analysis identified four key factors from eight domains which appear to reflect the overall level of disaster resilience. These were hospital safety, disaster management mechanisms, disaster resources and disaster medical care capability. The survey demonstrated that in regard to hospital safety, 93% had syndromic surveillance systems for infectious diseases and 68% had evaluated their safety standards. In regard to disaster management mechanisms, all had general plans, while only 20% had specific plans for individual hazards. 49% had a public communication protocol and 43.9% attended the local coordination meetings. In regard to disaster resources, 75.6% and 87.5% stockpiled emergency drugs and materials respectively, while less than a third (30%) had a signed Memorandum of Understanding with other hospitals to share these resources. Finally in regard to medical care, 66% could dispatch an on-site medical rescue team, but only 5% had a ‘portable hospital’ function and 36.6% and 12% of the hospitals could surge their beds and staff capacity respectively. The average beds surge capacity within 1 day was 13%. Conclusions This study validated the broad utility of a framework for understanding and measuring the

  15. [The relationship between salt consumption and blood pressure among residents in Shandong province, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Yan, Liuxia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jiyu; Cai, Xiaoning; Lu, Zilomg; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-02-01

    To study the relationship between salt consumption and blood pressure among residents in Shandong province, and to provide basic information for guiding people to prevent hypertension by reducing salt intake. Using multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, 2 184 residents aged 18 to 69 were selected as the research subjects, which were extracted randomly from 20 counties in Shandong province in June, 2011. The blood pressure of the subjects were measured and weighted. Based on 72 h dietary recalls and weighing measurement, and according to the distribution of salt intake, the grouping cut-off points were 10, 14 and 18 g. The difference of subjects with different characteristics and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension by grouping salt intake and other characteristics were analyzed, and the relationship between salt intake and prevalence of hypertension were analyzed. The total of 2 133 residents were involved finally, the completion rate was 97.7%. After the complex weighted, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure's means (95%CI value) of the subjects were 121.0 (119.5-122.5) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) and 78.5(77.4-79.6) mmHg respectively, which were all elevated with increasing of salt consumption. The blood pressure of the subjects with salt intake <10 g was the lowest, which were 119.6 (116.9-122.4) mmHg and 77.5(76.2-78.7) mmHg respectively. The blood pressure of the subjects with salt intake ≥ 18 g was the highest, which were 122.3(120.1-124.5) mmHg and 79.6(78.2-80.9) mmHg respectively. The analysis results showed that, among residents with normal waistline, the prevalence of hypertension of people with salt intake ≥ 18 g was 1.70(95%CI:1.04-2.76) times compared to that of people who consumed less than 10 g salt per day. The hypertension prevalence of Shandong province is quite high, and there is a relationship between salt consumption and blood pressure.

  16. Non-polio enteroviruses from acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Ping; Liu, Guifang; Lin, Xiaojuan; Li, Manshi; Wang, Suting; Ji, Feng; Feng, Lei; Xiong, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Yi; Fan, Qingying; Yang, He; Yang, Jing; Chen, Peng; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Song, Lizhi

    2014-08-22

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer-fall seasonality was observed, with June-October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA--the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease--was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China.

  17. [Change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in recent 50 years in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xu-guang; Li, Sheng-li; Shi, Zhen-bin; Qiu, Can

    2015-01-01

    Based on the 1961-2010 ground surface data from 90 meteorological stations, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal change characteristics of agricultural climate resources (e.g. sunshine hours, thermal resources and water) for the growth season of winter wheat and summer maize in Shandong Province. Results indicated that temperature indicators showed a significant rising tendency especially in the winter wheat growth season. Both evapotranspiration and sunshine hours declined obviously, especially for the evapotranspiration in the summer maize growth season, while there was no clear change evidence in rainfall and aridity. Regarding the spatial distribution characteristics, agro-climatic resources presented meridional or zonal increment or decrement in the winter wheat and summer maize growth seasons. In different areas, variation features of agro-climatic resources appeared with distinct differences. In the western Shandong area, temperature indicators showed a slight rising tendency while evapotranspiration and aridity declined significantly. Sunshine hours decreased most significantly in the middle and west southern areas. Precipitation increment was relatively obvious in the winter wheat growth season in the middle and east southern areas and in the summer maize growth season in the middle and southern areas. Thermal resource increases benefited the growth of winter wheat in every phase during the growth period. However, it brought high risks of plant diseases and hot disaster as well. The decrease of sunshine hours was adverse to crop photosynthesis in the growth period while evapotranspiration decrement profited the water retention of soil.

  18. [Spatial analysis of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, 2006-2014].

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Zheng, L; Zhao, Z T

    2016-05-01

    To discuss the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic trends of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, and provide scientific evidence for further study for the prevention and control of the disease. The scrub typhus surveillance data during 2006-2014 were collected from Shandong Disease Reporting Information System. The data was analyzed by using software ArcGIS 9.3(ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA), GeoDa 0.9.5-i and SatScan 9.1.1. The Moran' s I, log-likelihood ratio(LLR), relative risk(RR)were calculated and the incidence choropleth maps, local indicators of spatial autocorrelation cluster maps and space scaning cluster maps were drawn. A total of 4 453 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2014, and the annual incidence increased with year. Among the 17 prefectures(municipality)in Shandong, 13 were affected by scrub typhus. The global Moran's I index was 0.501 5(P<0.01). The differences in local Moran' s I index among 16 prefectures were significant(P<0.01). The " high-high" clustering areas were mainly Wulian county, Lanshan district and Juxian county of Rizhao, Xintai county of Tai' an, Gangcheng and Laicheng districts of Laiwu, Yiyuan county of Zibo and Mengyin county of Linyi. Spatial scan analysis showed that an eastward moving trend of high-risk clusters and two new high-risk clusters were found in Zaozhuang in 2014. The centers of the most likely clusters were in the south central mountainous areas during 2006-2010 and in 2012, eastern hilly areas in 2011, 2013 and 2014, and the size of the clusters expanded in 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014. One spatial-temporal cluster was detected from October 1, 2014 to November 30, 2014, the center of the cluster was in Rizhao and the radius was 222.34 kilometers. A positive spatial correlation and spatial agglomerations were found in the distribution of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong. Since 2006, the epidemic area of the disease has expanded and the number of high-risk areas has

  19. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  20. Monitoring and probabilistic risk assessment of chlorothalonil residues in vegetables from Shandong province (China).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Nie, Yan; Zhang, Shuqiu; Wang, Wen Zheng; Li, Huidong; Wang, Fengen; Lv, Xiao; Chen, Zilei

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the contamination status of chlorothalonil pesticide residues in vegetables from Shandong province, and to assess the potential risk of chlorothalonil to consumers based on vegetable consumption and body weight using an improved non-parameter probabilistic model. The results showed that Young children (8 months-6 years old) were more sensitive than General population(above 1year-old). In general, the health risk of chlorothalonil residues to 2 consumer groups via vegetable exposure was low, and the level of residual chlorothalonil was below the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD). This result would provide useful information for re-evaluating pesticides and for revising the chlorothalonil standard in vegetables.

  1. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  2. [Investigation of a Patient with Pre-vaccine-derived Poliovirus in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yao; Wang, Suting; Zhang Xiao; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.

  3. [Survey of infections of intestinal parasites and related factors in north-west Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Miao, Feng; Kong, Xiang-Li; Wang, Yong-Bin; Bu, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Ben-Guang; Zhao, Chang-Lei; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    To understand the infection status of intestinal parasites and related knowledge and behavior factors of the residents in north-west Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for taking targeted preventive measures. Eighteen villages were randomly selected as survey spots by the stratified multi-stage sample method. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect intestinal parasite eggs among the residents and the cellophane tape anus test was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs among 3-12 years old children. Questionnaires were applied to investigate related knowledge and behavior factors about the intestinal parasite infections in the residents. Totally 6 366 residents were detected for intestinal parasites and the infection rate was 0.28% (18 cases). Totally 895 children were detected for E. vermicularis and the infection rate was 5.70% (51 cases). Totally 2 915 residents were investigated by questionnaires and the awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 26.72%. The formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC, washing fruit and vegetable before eating, never drinking unboiled water were 55.42%, 42.87%, 43.54% and 83.04% respectively. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases of 3-12 years old children was 12.24%; and the formation rates of washing hands before meal and after WC were 47.04% and 30.44% respectively. The total infection rate of intestinal parasites is low but the E. vermicularis infection rate is high among children in north-west Shandong Province. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases and the formation rates of healthy behaviors are all low. Therefore, the targeted health education should be taken to increase the awareness rate and guide the residents to develop their healthy behaviors.

  4. Seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of genotype 4 hepatitis E virus in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Jiang, Mei; Jin, Min; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Cui, Wei-Hong; Wang, Da-Ning; Gong, Lian-Feng; Li, Bo; Wang, Xin-Wei; Li, Jun-Wen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the ancestor of HEVs in China’s Shandong Province. METHODS: A total of 2028 serum, 60 fecal and 82 bile samples were collected from the general human population, patients and swine, respectively. This seroepidemiological study was conducted using an immunnosorbent assay and HEV RNA was detected by the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method. Complete genome sequences of the prevalent strains (CH-YT-HEV01, CH-YT-HEV02 and CH-YT-sHEV01) were determined, and the sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. In addition, the evolutionary dynamics of three HEV isolates were determined using the framework of coalescent analysis in the program package BEAST, and the time of the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of China-indigenous genotype 4 HEV isolates was calculated. RESULTS: The overall viral burden in the general human population was 0.1%, and the positive rates of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum specimens were 25.1% (509/2028) and 2.3% (51/2028), respectively. In addition, IgG positivity increased with age. The phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length nucleotide sequences showed that the strain CH-YT-HEV02 was directly related to CH-YT-sHEV01 with a 94% identity, suggesting that they were involved in cross-species transmission. The isolate CH-YT-HEV01 was close to HB-3 and CHN-SD-sHEV with a bootstrap value of 100%, sharing a 96.1%-96.4% identity with each other. Surprisingly, the HB-3 strain was a representative strain prevalent in swine in Hubei, and the isolate CHN-SD-sHEV was obtained from swine in Shandong in a previous report. TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and HB-3 was 2003, which was consistent with the TMRCA for the clade of CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3, and they were both earlier than the TMRCA for the clade of CH-YT-HEV01 and CHN-SD-sHEV (2004). CONCLUSION: The strains CH-YT-HEV01, CHN-SD-sHEV and HB-3 are involved

  5. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  6. [Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in older adults in rural Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hua; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Li, Yun; Yang, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Ting; Liu, Li-Ping; Zhou, Cheng-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment/blindness among older adults aged > or = 50 years in rural populations in Shandong Province, China. Population-based, cross-sectional study was designed in this survey. Three counties and one suburbs representative of the different levels of socioeconomic development were selected as the study areas within the province from April to July 2008. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting a cross-section of residents aged > or = 50 years from each county. Eligible persons were invited to local examination sites for visual acuity (VA) testing and eye examination. Those presenting with VA < or = 0.5 in either eye were refracted to achieve best-corrected VA. Chi2-test was used to compare the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in the different groups. Multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate the association of age, gender, education, and county with presenting and best-corrected visual impairment and blindness. Adjusted odds ratio was used to compare the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in the different counties. Of 19 583 enumerated eligible persons, 17 816 (90.98%) were examined and tested for VA. The prevalence of presenting visual impairment (0.05- < 0.3) in the better-seeing eye was 7.01% (the age-standardized rate was 6.56%) and presenting blindness (< 0.05) was 1.58% (the age-standardized rate was 1.48%). Across the 4 counties, presenting visual impairment ranged from 4.51% to 8.65%, and presenting blindness from 1.35% to 1.77%. With best-corrected VA, the prevalence of visual impairment was 3.66% (the age-standardized rate was 3.38%), and 1.33% for blindness (the age-standardized rate was 1.24%). The ranges across the 4 counties were 2.63% to 4.38% for visual impairment and 1.06%-1.54% for blindness. The prevalence of visual impairment with presenting VA was higher than that with best-corrected VA (2 = 201.262, P = 0.000). There was no significant

  7. [Ecological characteristics of Zostera japonica population in Swan Lake of Rongcheng, Shandong Province of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Feng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Xu-Jia; Yang, Hong-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a large area of well preserved Zostera japonica dominated meadow was found in a coastal lagoon, Swan Lake, in Rongcheng of Shandong Province. Due to its unique geographical position and high biomass, this meadow may act as a typical Z. japonica bed in the coastal area of Shandong. From September, 2011 to October, 2012, an annual investigation was conducted on the Z. japonica and its habitats in east coast of Swan Lake, and the distribution of the Z. japonica and its habitats ecological characteristics were preliminarily understood. The major ingredients of sediments particles in the Z. japonica bed was sand (81%) and silt (14%). The C and N contents in the sediments were the highest in winter, and the C/N ratio was the highest in autumn. The shoot density, shoot height, and biomass of the Z. japonica were all significantly correlated with water temperature (P < 0.05). There was an obvious change in the Z. japonica growth among seasons, with the peak biomass obtained in August-September. The C and N contents and C/N in Z. japonica leaves also varied with seasons. The leaf C content was significantly higher in autumn than in spring and summer (P < 0.05), the leaf N content was significantly lower in summer than in spring and autumn (P < 0.01), whereas the leaf C/N ratio was significantly higher in summer than in spring (P < 0.05). The annual carbon sequestration by the Z. japonica in the Swan Lake was estimated to be 111.4 g C x m(-2).

  8. The occurrence of an exotic bisexual Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, in two coastal salterns of Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo; Sun, Shichun; Ma, Lin

    2004-10-01

    The alien halophilous Artemia species, Artemia franciscana, was found in Chengkou Saltern and Yangkou Saltern of Shandong Province, P.R. China. Although the indigenous parthenogenetic Artemia is detectable, the exotic species is dominant in both salterns. The cross-breeding tests between the exotic A. franciscana and 5 bisexual Artemia species were conducted. The results of hybridization and morphological observations on the exotic A. franciscana are briefly presented in this short communication.

  9. [The analysis of "a" dominant mutation of hepatitis B virus in community-based population of Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yan, Bing-Yu; Ji, Feng; Li, Man-Shi; Song, Li-Zhi; Xu, Ai-Qiang

    2010-12-01

    To determine the rate and type of "a" dominant mutation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in community-based population of Shandong province and the possible effect of hepatitis B vaccination upon "a" dominant mutation. The anticipants aged 1-59 years were selected by multi-stage random sampling from the general population of Shandong province. Hepatitis B vaccination status was obtained by inquisition (for those over 15 years old) or immunization record (for those under 14 years old). The blood samples were collected and detected for HBsAg by ELISA. HBV DNA was extracted from the sera with positive HBsAg and S gene was amplified by nested-PCR. The PCR produce was sequenced and compared with the standard sequence. Overall, 7601 anticipants were investigated. HBV DNA was successfully amplified and sequenced in 102 of 239 samples with positive HBsAg. 14.70% sera samples mutated in HBV "a" determinant region and 13 mutation types were detected. There were no statistically differences in the mutation rate by age groups (born before or after national universal infant hepatitis B vaccination) and hepatitis B vaccination status. The "a" determinant mutation seemed to be uncommon in community-based population of Shandong province and the mutation sites were relatively scattered. Hepatitis B vaccination has no effect on "a" dominant mutation of hepatitis B virus.

  10. Aerosol optical properties at urban and coastal sites in Shandong Province, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Weida; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhao, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-05-01

    In-situ observations of aerosol optical properties were conducted in Jinan, an urban site, from December 2013 to May 2014 and on Tuoji Island, a coastal site, from December 2014 to January 2015; both locations are located in Shandong Province, Northern China. Aerosol optical properties, such as the scattering coefficient (σsp), absorption coefficient (σap) and single-scattering albedo (ω), were obtained using nephelometer and aethalometer. The mean values (± standard deviation) for σsp at 550 nm and σap at 532 nm, were 204 ± 188 Mm- 1 and 43 ± 33 Mm- 1, respectively, in Jinan and 210 ± 246 Mm- 1 and 8 ± 6 Mm- 1 on Tuoji Island, respectively. The average ω at 532 nm was 0.80 ± 0.09 in Jinan and 0.93 ± 0.04 on Tuoji Island. Pronounced diurnal cycles were observed at both locations for σsp, σap and ω, but the diurnal cycles at the two locations exhibited distinct properties for some of the aerosol optical parameters. The values of σsp and σap peaked between 0800 and 1100 local time (LT) due to traffic emissions and low wind speeds at both locations. And a unimodal ω diurnal cycle, which peaked between 1000 and 1400 LT, was observed in the spring in Jinan. This spring diurnal pattern was mainly related to secondary aerosol formation and aging processes. The high σsp and σap values in Jinan winter were accompanied by calm winds (< 2 m/s) from 0° to 90°, while the high σsp and σap values on Tuoji Island were observed during the period of stronger wind speeds (> 2 m/s) from 180° to 270°. This indicates that local emissions were a key source of strongly absorbing and scattering aerosols in Jinan during heating period, whereas, high σsp and σap values on Tuoji Island were mainly influenced by middle- and long-distance transport from Shandong Province and the Jing-Jin-Ji region. Additionally, middle- and long-distance regional transport from direction at 180° to 270° occasionally enhanced the σsp and σap values in the spring at Jinan after

  11. Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Ma, Ji-Xiang; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-Xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-Chong; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Lu, Zi-Long; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

  12. Dietary Sodium Intake: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Xu, Ai-qiang; Ma, Ji-xiang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Guo, Xiao-lei; Engelgau, Michael; Yan, Liu-xia; Li, Yuan; Li, Yi-chong; Wang, Hui-cheng; Lu, Zi-long; Zhang, Ji-yu; Liang, Xiao-feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China Methods In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the ‘intention to’ and ‘currently taking action to’ reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. Results KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. Conclusion Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area. PMID:23527061

  13. [Characteristics of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations among patients with phenylketonuria from Linyi region of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Li, Huafeng; Li, Yongli; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-10

    To explore the characteristics of (PAH) gene mutations among patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) from Linyi area of Shandong Province. For 51 children affected with PKU and their parents, the 13 exons and their flanking intronic sequences of the PAH gene were directly sequenced with Sanger method. PAH gene mutations were detected in all of the 102 alleles of the patients, which included 31 types of mutations. Common mutations included R243Q (17/102, 16.67%), IVS4-1G to A (9/102, 8.82%), R241C (8/102, 7.84%), R111X (8/102, 7.84%), and V399V (8/102, 7.84%). In addition, two novel mutations, D101N, 345-347del, have been detected. The 31 types of mutations included missense, nonsense, deletion, and splicing mutations, which were mainly located in exons 7 (29, 28.43%), 11 (18, 17.65%), 3 (16, 15.69%) and 12 (13, 12.75%). Mutations of the PAH gene in Linyi region mainly distributed in exons 7, 11, and 3, and the most common mutation were R243Q. Two novel mutations, D101N and 345-347del, have been detected.

  14. Reconstruction of cropland cover changes in the Shandong Province over the past 300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu; Wei, Xueqiong; Li, Fan; Fang, Xiuqi

    2015-09-01

    To advance global change rssearch, it is essential to reconstruct changes in historical cropland coverage on a regional scale in China. This paper presents data collected from 244 local gazetteers, government statistical records and remote-sensing land cover data from the Shandong Province. The study reconstructed the spatial distribution of the rate of reclaimed land at the county level and compared this map with a map of the current spatial distribution of suitable cropland. The following conclusions were drawn: (i) The rate of cultivated land grew exponentially. The extent of reconstruction in cropland areas during the 17th century, 18th~19th centuries, the beginning of the 20th century, the 1980 s, and the beginning of the 20th century are 4.51 mha, 6.51 mha, 7.52 mha, 8.53 mha and 11.80-12.00 mha, respectively. (ii) Several agricultural centers formed during the late 17th century. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the reclamation rate increased rapidly near the four southern lakes, which are located in the Zaozhuang and Linyi regions. (iii) Most reclamation activities before the 19th century occurred in suitable agricultural areas, and the cultivated land was already reclaimed by the beginning of the 20th century.

  15. Reconstruction of cropland cover changes in the Shandong Province over the past 300 years

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu; Wei, Xueqiong; Li, Fan; Fang, Xiuqi

    2015-01-01

    To advance global change rssearch, it is essential to reconstruct changes in historical cropland coverage on a regional scale in China. This paper presents data collected from 244 local gazetteers, government statistical records and remote-sensing land cover data from the Shandong Province. The study reconstructed the spatial distribution of the rate of reclaimed land at the county level and compared this map with a map of the current spatial distribution of suitable cropland. The following conclusions were drawn: (i) The rate of cultivated land grew exponentially. The extent of reconstruction in cropland areas during the 17th century, 18th~19th centuries, the beginning of the 20th century, the 1980 s, and the beginning of the 20th century are 4.51 mha, 6.51 mha, 7.52 mha, 8.53 mha and 11.80–12.00 mha, respectively. (ii) Several agricultural centers formed during the late 17th century. Until the beginning of the 20th century, the reclamation rate increased rapidly near the four southern lakes, which are located in the Zaozhuang and Linyi regions. (iii) Most reclamation activities before the 19th century occurred in suitable agricultural areas, and the cultivated land was already reclaimed by the beginning of the 20th century. PMID:26374089

  16. Study and analysis of the state of rare disease research in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhang, Xiumei; Xu, Shuangqing; Han, Jinxiang

    2012-11-01

    As the world's most populous country, China has the world's largest number of rare disease groups in terms of prevalence. However, the country has no system of registering cases of most rare diseases, so there is very little documented information on the epidemiology of those diseases. The purpose of this study was to study the state of rare disease research and survey doctors in Shandong Province regarding their level of awareness of rare diseases. Types of rare diseases and numbers of cases were tallied and their geographical distribution over the decades was analyzed. Eight hundred and twenty-four doctors in tertiary hospitals and maternity and child care hospitals were surveyed by questionnaire. Data were descriptively analyzed and a map of disease distribution was created. Articles about rare diseases were retrieved from the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to provide pertinent data. This study yielded 5,749 cases of 323 different types of rare diseases. The survey found that doctors lack awareness of research on rare diseases. An authoritative and information-rich platform for rare disease research is urgently needed. Key steps are to study epidemiological and statistical techniques and then obtain available data to provide a basis for the definition and regulation of rare diseases in China.

  17. [Arsenic accumulation in different agricultural soils in Shouguang of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-bai; Li, Lian-fang; Bai, Ling-yu; Mei, Xu-rong; Yang, Jia-bo; Hu, Liu-jie

    2007-02-01

    The study on the soil arsenic (As) accumulation under different types of agricultural use in Shouguang of Shandong Province showed that farmland soils had an average As content of 9. 63 mg x kg(-1) , with the highest being 15. 15 mg x kg(-1) . Compared with the local background value (9. 3 mg As x kg(-1)) , 53. 1% of soil samples was detected as As enrichment. The soil As content was high in the west, east and north parts of Shouguang, relatively lower in the middle part, and the lowest in the south part. Different agricultural use had an obvious effect on the soil As content, which was decreased in the order of wheat/maize land > cotton field > protected vegetable land > uncovered vegetable land. Such a difference in soil As content was mainly affected by agricultural activities. With the increasing year of vegetable planting, soil As content had an increasing trend, because the As input from pig dung and chicken feces was the main source of soil As in protected vegetable land. Soil As enrichment could be reduced to some degree by applying soybean cake fertiliz-

  18. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  20. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health. PMID:27800493

  1. Barefoot Doctors and the "Health Care Revolution" in Rural China: A Study Centered on Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sanchun; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    Barefoot doctors were rural medical personnel trained en masse, whose emergence and development had a particular political, economic, social, and cultural background. Like the rural cooperative medical care system, the barefoot doctor was a well-known phenomenon in the Cultural Revolution. Complicated regional differences and a lack of reliable sources create much difficulty for the study of barefoot doctors and result in differing opinions of their status and importance. Some scholars greatly admire barefoot doctors, whereas others harshly criticize them. This paper explores the rise and development of barefoot doctors based on a case study of Shandong province. I argue that the promotion of barefoot doctors was a consequence of the medical education revolution and an implementation of the Cultural Revolution in rural public health care, which significantly influenced medical services and development in rural areas. First, barefoot doctors played a significant role in accomplishing the first rural health care revolution by providing primary health care to peasants and eliminating endemic and infectious illnesses. Second, barefoot doctors were the agents who integrated Western and Chinese medicines under the direction of the state. As an essential part of the rural cooperative medical system, barefoot doctor personnel grew in number with the system's implementation. After the Cultural Revolution ended, the cooperative medical system began to disintegrate-a process that accelerated in the 1980s until the system's collapse in the wake of the de-collectivization. As a result, the number of barefoot doctors also ran down steadily. In 1985, "barefoot doctor" as a job title was officially removed from Chinese medical profession, demonstrating that its practice was non-universal and unsustainable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking, smoking cessation and tobacco control in rural China: a qualitative study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Chenghui; Jia, Chongqi; Liu, Yanxun; Liu, Junjie; Yan, Xiaona; Fang, Yufeng

    2014-09-04

    Smoking prevalence is high in China and even higher among rural residents. The aims of this study were: 1) to gain insights into the motivations of tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among rural village residents; 2) to understand the current tobacco control measures in the rural villages and barriers encountered or perceived for implementation. Qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were conducted of 59 rural villagers including 37 village residents, 10 village leaders and 12 village doctors in three counties in Shandong Province, China. Smoking initiation was most often out of curiosity when seeing others smoke, but pressure from cigarette sharing and gifting custom was the major barrier to smoking cessation. The most important reason for quitting successfully was a detrimental health problem. Although many attempted to quit at the advice of other family members, relapses were common and few were able to quit completely and for long-term unless accompanied by significant health issues. Although doctor's advice to quit is effective, many doctors do not offer advice to all patients. There is a lack of true understanding of the harm of smoking and second-hand smoking among the villagers and a lack of access to and knowledge of effective smoking cessation tools among both smokers and village doctors. Tobacco control activities at villages were rare and infrequent. This study highlighted the need to develop tobacco control measures that reflect the unique culture in rural China. Smoking cessation measures are not likely to achieve large scale effect unless the prevailing cigarette sharing and gifting custom is drastically changed. More educations of the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoking to village residents and educations of effective smoking cessation treatment to both village residents and healthcare providers are needed.

  3. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  4. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  5. [Linear scanning analysis of prehistoric human bones in Xigongqiao Site, Tengzhou, Shandong Province by use of SEM-EDS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao-wu; He, De-liang; Dong, Yu; Wang, Chang-sui; Gao, Ming-kui; Lan, Yu-fu

    2006-06-01

    Ancient human bones in Xigongqiao Site, Tengzhou, Shandong Province, were analyzed by use of SEM-EDS. SEM indicated that the microstructure of Haversian system was destroyed under the impact of bone diagenesis. The apparent difference in elemental distribution in the bone cross section showed that the enrichment or loss of elements can occur not only in the inner and outer surface, but also in the middle. This study will have great influence on how to deal with the ancient human bones before any palaeodietary research in the future.

  6. Study on influencing factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  7. [Carbon storage of Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia plantations on Nanchangshan Island, Changdao County of Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ai; Shi, Hong-Hua; Peng, Shi-Tao; Gong, Li-Peng; Qin, Xue-Bo

    2013-05-01

    Using indigenous tree species to transform large area pure plantations has been an effective close-to-nature forest management mode in China islands. By using the biomass allometric equation and combined with the investigation data from sampling plots, the carbon storage of the dominant species Pinus thunbergii and Robinia pseudoacacia in the plantations on the Nanchangshan Island of Miaodao Archipelago in Changdao County of Shandong Province was estimated. The average carbon storage in the arbor layer of P. thunbergii and R. pseudoacacia plantations was 56.81 and 37.26 t x hm(-2), respectively, being higher than the average carbon stock (27.62 t x hm(-2)) of tree plantations in Shandong Province. Slope aspect and stand density were the important environmental and biological factors affecting the tree's carbon stock in the Island, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the average cumulative rate of biomass in the arbor layer of P. thunbergi plantation and the stand age. The P. thunbergii with good carbon sequestration function could be an ideal tree species on Nanchangshan Island.

  8. Nitrate-nitrogen contamination in groundwater: Spatiotemporal variation and driving factors under cropland in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Jiang, L. H.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, P.; Zhao, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    High groundwater nitrate-N is a serious problem especially in highly active agricultural areas. In study, the concentration and spatialtemporal distribution of groundwater nitrate-N under cropland in Shandong province were assessed by statistical and geostatistical techniques. Nitrate-N concentration reached a maximum of 184.60 mg L-1 and 29.5% of samples had levels in excess of safety threshold concentration (20 mg L-1). The median nitrate-N contents after rainy season were significantly higher than those before rainy season, and decreased with increasing groundwater depth. Nitrate-N under vegetable and orchard area are significantly higher than ones under grain. The kriging map shows that groundwater nitrate-N has a strong spatial variability. Many districts, such as Weifang, Linyi in Shandong province are heavily contaminated with nitrate-N. However, there are no significant trends of NO3 --N for most cities. Stepwise regression analysis showed influencing factors are different for the groundwater in different depth. But overall, vegetable yield per unit area, percentages of orchard area, per capita agricultural production, unit-area nitrogen fertilizer, livestock per unit area, percentages of irrigation areas, population per unit area and annual mean temperature are significant variables for groundwater nitrate-N variation.

  9. An investigation of duck circovirus and co-infection in Cherry Valley ducks in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingxiao; Jiang, Shijin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Qin; Sun, Yani; Kong, Yibo; Li, Xiaoxia; Yao, Meiling; Chai, Tongjie

    2009-01-13

    The co-infection of duck circovirus (DuCV) with Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) or/and Escherichia coli (E. coli) or/and duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I) in Cherry Valley ducks in China's Shandong Province was investigated by using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based methods. For this study, 742 ducks sampled at random from 70 duck farms during 2006-2007 were examined using PCR and dot-blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Overall the DuCV infection rate was 33.29%. Compared with those at 2 weeks of age, the ducks at 3-4 weeks of age were more susceptible to DuCV infection. Compared with the DuCV-negative ones, the DuCV-positive ducks had a higher rate of infection by DHV-I (25.5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province.

  10. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great. PMID:24977216

  11. Coronary heart disease: incidence, risk factors and interventions in Jiaozhou of Shandong province.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Li, Dan; Chu, Xianming; An, Yi; Song, Tongxun; Feng, Huixin; Lin, Peilin; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Shaoyan; Guo, Linlin; Xu, Fengqiang; Liu, Zhengke; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease and cause of heart attacks. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of CHD and its risk factors in Jiaozhou, Shandong province, to ultimately find a way of reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and to provide a theoretical basis for establishing a cardiovascular disease management path under the regional medical collaborative mechanism. A questionnaire survey was performed including 1 952 people aged 35 years or older who were questioned by means of stratified, cluster, proportional sampling to investigate the prevalence of CHD and its risk factors. The data were inputted into SPSS11.0 statistical software for processing and analysis. We advised the local medical institutions to establish health files for the residents with CHD and risk factors. They were followed up regularly. Their risk factors and life-style were monitored, and advice was given as to proper medications. Green channels were established, and the patients were transmitted in a timely manner to superior hospitals for better treatment if the necessary treatments were not available in the local hospitals. The control of risk factors was observed after the follow-up for half a year. In Jiaozhou, the rates of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and overweight were 8.15%, 28.54%, 11.43%, 35.46%, and 18.70% respectively. The rates of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and overweight were higher than the data published in "The report of Chinese cardiovascular disease 2012"; which are 24%, 9.7%, 18.6%, and 9.7%, respectively. The control of risk factors improved significantly after the guidance of the residents lifestyle and medication for six months. The high prevalence of coronary artery disease in Jiaozhou is closely related to age, gender, diet structure, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, overweight, and unhealthy lifestyle

  12. [The genetic characterization of enteric cytopathic human orphanviruses type 13 isolated in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Mao, Nai-ying; Wang, Hai-yan; Zhu, Zhen

    2009-06-01

    To analysis the genetic characteristics of Echo 13 isolated from stool specimens of AFP patient in Shandong. The complete VP1 sequences of the 6 isolates were successfully amplified by RT-PCR and were compared with other Echovirus 13 isolates available from GenBank. 6 Shandong isolates were clearly identified as Echo 13 and were grouped into B cluster that agreed with neutralization result. The homogeneity analysis showed that the Shandong isolates share at least 80% similarity in nucleotide level and 94.4% in amino acid level. Phylogenetic tree base on complete VP1 sequence indicated there were many transmitting chains of Echovirus 13 prevailed in China. All Echo 13 isolates were divided into three genomic clusters A, B and C. It is suggested that enterovirus surveillance should be strengthened to prevent imported of Echo 13.

  13. [Prevalence and related factors of injury caused by agricultural machinery in the 3 provinces Shandong, Henan and Hebei of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-yu; Zhao, Na; Zheng, Lei; Hu, Mei-rong; Fu, Xiang-hua; Xiang, Hui-yun; Wang, Zeng-zhen

    2013-12-01

    To study the prevalent characteristics and related factors of injuries caused by agricultural machinery in 3 provinces Shandong, Henan and Hebei in China. A total of 1621 agricultural machinery operators aged between 18 and 60 years old from Shandong, Henan and Hebei provinces were selected by purposive-cluster sampling method in 2009. Demographic characteristics, injury history caused by agricultural machinery in the last year and the related social and psychological factors were collected by self-designed questionnaire. We used statistical description to report the injury prevalence, and adopted the univariate and multivariate analysis to explore the risk factors. The average incidence of injuries caused by agricultural machinery was 13.44% (213/1585) in the three provinces, of which 14.46% (202/1397) in males and 5.85% (11/188) in females (χ(2) = 10.56, P < 0.01). Most of injuries (155 cases, 72.77%) occurred between April and August. Being stuck by rolling starting handles (45 cases, 21.13%), being crushed by running or dropping machineries (32 cases, 15.02%), fall from machines (28 cases, 13.15%) ranked the top three causes of injuries. The main related machines were tractors and motor tricycles (133 cases, 62.44%). The leading types of injuries were scratch (115 cases, 53.99%), strain (68 cases, 31.92%) and fracture (37 cases, 17.37%). of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being male (OR = 3.18, 95%CI:1.65-6.15), educational level above high school(OR = 1.69, 95%CI:1.21-2.34), annual family income <2000 yuan (OR = 1.94, 95%CI:1.13-3.32), operating experience ≤ 5 years (OR = 1.70, 95%CI:1.13-2.55), daytime sleepiness (OR = 2.89, 95%CI:1.66-5.01), smoking during machinery operation (OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.05-1.96), bearing debts (OR = 1.88, 95%CI:1.35-2.63) and suffering from other diseases (OR = 1.42, 95%CI:1.02-1.98) were risk factors of agricultural machinery injuries. The average incidence of injuries caused by agricultural machinery in

  14. Spatio-temporal analysis of the relationship between climate and hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shandong province, China, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Xianjun; Pang, Chunkun; Yuan, Zhongshang; Li, Hongkai; Xue, Fuzhong

    2015-03-24

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is the most common communicable disease in China. Shandong Province is one of the most seriously affected areas. The distribution of HFMD had spatial heterogeneity and seasonal characteristic in this setting. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between climate and HFMD by a Bayesian approach from spatio-temporal interactions perspective. The HFMD data of Shandong Province during 2008-2012 were derived from the China National Disease Surveillance Reporting and Management System. And six climatic indicators were obtained from the Meteorological Bureau of Shandong Province. The global spatial autocorrelation statistic (Moran's I) was used to detect the spatial autocorrelation of HFMD cases in each year. The optimal one among four Bayesian models was further adopted to estimate the relative risk of the occurrence of HFMD via Markov chain Monte Carlo. The annual average incidence rate of HFMD was 104.40 per 100,000 in Shandong Province. Positive spatial autocorrelation appeared at county level (Moran's I≥0.30, P<0.001). The best fitting Spatio-temporal interactive model showed that annual average temperature, annual average pressure, annual average relative humidity, annual average wind speed and annual sunshine hours were significantly positive related to the occurrence of HFMD. The estimated relative risk of 36, 87, 91, 79, 65 out of 140 counties for 2008-2012 respectively were significantly more than 1. There were obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity of HFMD in Shandong Province, and the climatic indicators were associated with the epidemic of HFMD. Bayesian approach should be recommended to capture the spatial-temporal pattern of HFMD.

  15. Environmental surveillance of human enteroviruses in Shandong Province, China, 2008 to 2012: serotypes, temporal fluctuation, and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Tao, Zexin; Li, Yan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Song, Lizhi; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Suting; Cui, Ning; Xu, Wenbo; Song, Yanyan; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-08-01

    Environmental surveillance is an effective approach in investigating the circulation of polioviruses (PVs) and other human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. The present report describes the results of environmental surveillance conducted in Shandong Province, China, from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129 sewage samples were collected, and 168 PVs and 1,007 nonpolio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were isolated. VP1 sequencing and typing were performed on all isolates. All PV strains were Sabin-like, with the numbers of VP1 substitutions ranging from 0 to 7. The NPEVs belonged to 19 serotypes, and echovirus 6 (E6), E11, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), E3, E12, and E7 were the six main serotypes, which accounted for 18.3%, 14.8%, 14.5%, 12.9%, 9.0%, and 5.7% of NPEVs isolated, respectively. Typical summer-fall peaks of NPEV were observed in the monthly distribution of isolation, and an epidemic pattern of annual circulation was revealed for the common serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on environmental CVB3 and E3 strains with global reference strains and local strains from aseptic meningitis patients. Shandong strains formed distinct clusters, and a close relationship was observed between local environmental and clinical strains. As an EV-specific case surveillance system is absent in China and many other countries, continuous environmental surveillance should be encouraged to investigate the temporal circulation and phylogeny of EVs in the population.

  16. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns. Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Zhou, Nan; Thekdi, Arvind; Lan, Wang

    2011-07-01

    The study documented in this report was initiated in order to conduct an energy assessment and to identify the relationship between combustion issues and emissions from cement kilns. A new suspension preheater/precalciner (NSP) rotary cement kiln at one cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 1 in this report) and a vertical shaft kiln (VSK) at another cement manufacturing facility (referred to as Shui Ni 2 in this report), which are both in Shandong Province, were selected to conduct the energy and emission assessments through collection of data. Based on analysis of the data collected during this assessment, several actions are suggested that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction in emission of gaseous pollutants from the system.

  17. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    PubMed

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% (n=1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% (n=84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% (n=181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P(5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the eastern and the middle regions (P>0.05). The P(50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region (P<0.05), there was no significant difference between the

  18. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J.; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae. PMID:26701114

  19. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a hepatitis B vaccination catch-up program among children in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuanxi; Li, Li; Cui, Fuqiang; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen; Gong, Xiaohong; Zheng, Hui; Wu, Zhenhua; Miao, Ning; Sun, Xiaojin; Zhang, Li; Lv, Jingjing; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate long-term cost‑effectiveness of a hepatitis B vaccination catch-up program among children born between 1994 and 2001 (when they were 8‑15 y old) in Shandong province, China, to provide information for nationwide evaluation and future policy making. Methods: We determined the cost-effectiveness of the catch-up program compared with the status quo (no catch-up program). We combined a Decision Tree model and a Markov model to simulate vaccination and clinical progression after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Parameters in the models were from the literature, a field survey, program files, and the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS). The incremental cost‑effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to compare the 2 alternative strategies. One-way sensitivity analysis, 2-way sensitivity analysis, and probability sensitivity analysis were used to assess parameter uncertainties. Results: The catch-up program was dominant compared with the status quo. Using a total of 5.53 million doses of vaccines, the catch-up program could prevent 21,865 cases of symptomatic acute hepatitis B, 3,088 carrier states with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 812 deaths due to HBV infection. The catch-up program could add 28,888 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and save $192.01 million in the targeted population in the future. The models were robust, considering parameter uncertainties. Conclusion: The catch-up program in Shandong province among children born between 1994 and 2001 was ‘very cost-saving.’ It could save life years and reduce total future costs. Our study supported the desirability and impact of such a catch-up program throughout China. PMID:25483678

  1. Availability and use of essential medicines in China: manufacturing, supply, and prescribing in Shandong and Gansu provinces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Tang, Shenglan; Sun, Jing; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K

    2010-07-17

    The current health care reform in China launched in 2009 tackles the problem of access to appropriate medicines for its 1.3 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines to all. To provide evidence for the reform process, we investigated the manufacturing, purchasing, and prescribing of essential medicines in two provinces. We conducted surveys in 2007 of all manufacturers (n = 253) and of 59 purposively selected retail and 63 hospital pharmacies in Shandong and Gansu provinces to assess production and supply of products on the 2004 National Essential Medicines List (NEML), as well as factors underlying decision making about production and supply. We also reviewed prescriptions (n = 5456) in health facilities to calculate standard indicators of appropriate medicines use. Overall, manufacturers in Shandong and Gansu produced only 62% and 50%, respectively, of the essential medicines they were licensed to produce. Of a randomly selected 10% of NEML products, retail pharmacies stocked up to 60% of Western products. Median availability in hospital pharmacies ranged from 19% to 69%. Manufacturer and retail pharmacy managers based decisions on medicines production and stocking on economic considerations, while hospital pharmacy managers cited clinical need. Between 64% and 86% of prescriptions contained an essential medicine. However, overprescribing of antibiotics (34%-77% of prescriptions) and injectables (22%-61%) for adult non-infectious outpatient consultations was common. We found that manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies paid limited attention to China's 2004 NEML in their decisions to manufacture, purchase, and stock essential medicines. We also found that prescribing of essential medicines was frequently inappropriate. These results should inform strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform.

  2. Availability and use of essential medicines in China: manufacturing, supply, and prescribing in Shandong and Gansu provinces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The current health care reform in China launched in 2009 tackles the problem of access to appropriate medicines for its 1.3 billion people by focusing on providing essential medicines to all. To provide evidence for the reform process, we investigated the manufacturing, purchasing, and prescribing of essential medicines in two provinces. Methods We conducted surveys in 2007 of all manufacturers (n = 253) and of 59 purposively selected retail and 63 hospital pharmacies in Shandong and Gansu provinces to assess production and supply of products on the 2004 National Essential Medicines List (NEML), as well as factors underlying decision making about production and supply. We also reviewed prescriptions (n = 5456) in health facilities to calculate standard indicators of appropriate medicines use. Results Overall, manufacturers in Shandong and Gansu produced only 62% and 50%, respectively, of the essential medicines they were licensed to produce. Of a randomly selected 10% of NEML products, retail pharmacies stocked up to 60% of Western products. Median availability in hospital pharmacies ranged from 19% to 69%. Manufacturer and retail pharmacy managers based decisions on medicines production and stocking on economic considerations, while hospital pharmacy managers cited clinical need. Between 64% and 86% of prescriptions contained an essential medicine. However, overprescribing of antibiotics (34%-77% of prescriptions) and injectables (22%-61%) for adult non-infectious outpatient consultations was common. Conclusions We found that manufacturers, retail pharmacies, and hospital pharmacies paid limited attention to China's 2004 NEML in their decisions to manufacture, purchase, and stock essential medicines. We also found that prescribing of essential medicines was frequently inappropriate. These results should inform strategies to improve affordable access to essential medicines under the current health care reform. PMID:20637116

  3. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Cooked Meat and Seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hua-Ning; HOU, Pei-Bin; CHEN, Yu-Zhen; MA, Yu; LI, Xin-Peng; LV, Hui; WANG, Mei; TAN, Hai-Lian; BI, Zhen-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current food safety issues are deleteriously reshaping the lifestyle of the population in the developing world. The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. Methods: A total of 2305 samples including sauced meat, sausage, smoked meat, shrimp, sashimi and shellfish were collected from different farmer’s markets and supermarkets. The prevalence of selected foodborne pathogens was evaluated in cooked meat and seafood from 2010 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. Results: The average contamination rate was 6.39% (93.1456) for the selected pathogens in cooked meat and 16.84% (143.849) for V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. For the selected pathogens, 0.55%, 1.03%, 1.17%, 3.64% and 16.84% samples were contaminated with E.coli O157: H7, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and VP, respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference in the contamination rate between the farmer’s markets and supermarkets. Conclusion: The contamination was decreasing in cooked meat and maintaining a relatively high level in seafood from 2010 to 2013. E. coli O157: H7, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. existed at a relatively low rate in retail foods. For VP, the contamination rate has been maintained at a relatively high level in Shandong Province in China. Moreover, cooked meat and seafood obtained from farmer’s markets are more susceptible to be contaminated compared to those from supermarkets. PMID:28053923

  4. Serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in food-producing animals in Shandong province of China, 2009 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jing; Wu, Congming; Wu, Chenbin; Qi, Jing; Wang, Yang; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Yuqing; Shen, Jianzhong

    2014-06-16

    The aims of this study were to investigate the serotype distribution, genetic relationships and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella from food-producing animals in Shandong province of China in 2009 and 2012. A total of 362 out of 1825 samples from chickens, 53 out of 445 samples from ducks, and 50 out of 692 samples from pigs were positive for Salmonella. Isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing (15 antibiotics) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The most common serotypes recovered in the chicken samples were Enteritidis (n=294, 81.2%) and Indiana (n=45, 12.4%). For ducks, Cremieu (n=25, 47.2%), Indiana (n=13, 24.5%) and Typhimurium (n=9, 17%) were frequently isolated. In the pig samples, Derby (n=29, 58%), Typhimurium (n=9, 18%), and Enteritidis (n=6, 12%) were the most common serovars. PFGE results indicated that clonal dissemination of each serovar was prevalent, and that the Salmonella found on the poultry carcasses was caused by cross-contamination in the abattoirs. More than 99% of the Salmonella isolates collected were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The Salmonella resistance rates for 15 antibiotics in 2012 were significantly higher than those in 2009. In 2012, the highest resistance was to nalidixic acid (95.9%), followed by sulphafurazole (78.2%) and ampicillin (72.3%); the lowest levels of resistance were to kanamycin (40.1%) and amikacin (38.7%). Additionally, 41.5% and 42.2% of the Salmonella were resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftiofur, respectively. Noticeably, 25% of the serovar Enteritidis and all of the serovar Indiana were resistant to at least 10 antibiotics in 2012. The increasing trend of antibiotic resistance in Shandong province indicates the need for more careful use of antibiotics.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a hepatitis B vaccination catch-up program among children in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuanxi; Li, Li; Cui, Fuqiang; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen; Gong, Xiaohong; Zheng, Hui; Wu, Zhenhua; Miao, Ning; Sun, Xiaojin; Zhang, Li; Lv, Jingjing; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate long-term cost‑effectiveness of a hepatitis B vaccination catch-up program among children born between 1994 and 2001 (when they were 8‑15 y old) in Shandong province, China, to provide information for nationwide evaluation and future policy making. We determined the cost-effectiveness of the catch-up program compared with the status quo (no catch-up program). We combined a Decision Tree model and a Markov model to simulate vaccination and clinical progression after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Parameters in the models were from the literature, a field survey, program files, and the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS). The incremental cost‑effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to compare the 2 alternative strategies. One-way sensitivity analysis, 2-way sensitivity analysis, and probability sensitivity analysis were used to assess parameter uncertainties. The catch-up program was dominant compared with the status quo. Using a total of 5.53 million doses of vaccines, the catch-up program could prevent 21,865 cases of symptomatic acute hepatitis B, 3,088 carrier states with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and 812 deaths due to HBV infection. The catch-up program could add 28,888 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and save $192.01 million in the targeted population in the future. The models were robust, considering parameter uncertainties. The catch-up program in Shandong province among children born between 1994 and 2001 was 'very cost-saving.' It could save life years and reduce total future costs. Our study supported the desirability and impact of such a catch-up program throughout China.

  6. [Causes of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness in population aged 50 years or more in rural Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Bi, Hong-sheng; Wang, Li-hua; Wang, Ting; Yang, Shao-yuan; Liu, Li-ping; Zhou, Cheng-chao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the etiological spectrum of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness in population aged 50 years or more in rural Shandong province, China. A population based, random cluster sampling was used to screening the adults aged 50 years or more living in rural Shandong Province from April to July 2008. Three counties and one suburb representing the different levels of socioeconomic development within Shandong area were selected as the investigated areas. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting a cross-section of residents aged ≥ 50 years from each county. Best corrected visual acuity and intra-ocular pressure were evaluated in those with presenting visual acuity ≤ 0.5 and suspected glaucoma respectively. The major causes of visual impairment and blindness were diagnosed in those with presenting visual acuity ≤ 0.3. According to the results of presenting visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity, the etiology constituent ratios of the moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness were analyzed respectively. According to the number of people, the first three principal causes for blindness based on the presenting visual acuity were cataract (59.8%, 168/281), fundus disease (12.1%, 34/281) and corneal opacity (4.3%, 12/281) or ametropia (4.3%, 12/281). The first three principal causes for moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract (55.2%, 844/1530), uncorrected refractive error (18.2%, 278/1530) and fundus disease (11.9%, 182/1530). Based on the best corrected visual acuity, the first three principal causes for blindness were cataract (64.6%, 153/237), fundus disease (10.5%, 25/237) and corneal opacity (4.7%, 11/237), respectively. The first three principal causes for moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract (66.4%, 590/889), fundus disease (16.0%, 142/889) and optic nerve atrophy (3.0%, 27/889). According to number of the eyes, proportion of cataract in

  7. Seroprevalence of avian influenza H9N2 among poultry workers in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Wang, A-R; Liu, Z-H; Liang, W; Li, X-X; Tang, Y-J; Miao, Z-M; Chai, T-J

    2013-10-01

    H9N2 avian influenza virus has been circulating widely in birds, with occasional infection among humans. Poultry workers are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza due to their frequent exposure to chickens, but the frequency of H9N2 avian influenza virus infections among them is still indistinct. This study was carried out in order to identify the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus among poultry workers in Shandong, China. During the period from December 2011 to February 2012, a total of 482 subjects took part in this study, including 382 poultry workers and 100 healthy residents without occupational poultry exposure. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. Nine subjects (9/382 = 2.3%) were positive for antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus among poultry workers by either HI or MN assays using ≥40 cut-off, while none of the 100 healthy residents were seropositive. In conclusion, our study identified H9N2 avian influenza infections among poultry workers in Shandong, China, and continuous surveillance of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in humans should be carried out to evaluate the threat to public health.

  8. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Song, Yapei; Kang, Dianmin; Wang, Guoyong; Wei, Chongyi; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Zhu, Tiwen; Yang, Shan; Yu, Shaoqi; Wang, Hong; Ma, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Migrant women in China are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed that married migrant women with a history of extramarital sex were more likely to be from Yunnan province, be living in Yantai city, be in their first marriage, have lower family income, have poor relationship with spouses, use drug, have a history of sexually transmitted diseases, and have lower social support. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women are at higher risk for HIV infection and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population.

  9. Overuse of antibiotics for the common cold - attitudes and behaviors among doctors in rural areas of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Dyar, Oliver J; Zhao, Lingbo; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E; Grape, Malin; Song, Yanyan; Yan, Ling; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2015-03-31

    Irrational antibiotic use is common in rural areas of China, despite the growing recognition of the importance of appropriate prescribing to contain antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze doctors' attitudes and prescribing practices related to antibiotics in rural areas of Shandong province, focusing on patients with the common cold. A survey was conducted with doctors working at thirty health facilities (village clinics, township health centers and county general hospitals) in three counties within Shandong province. Questions were included on knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic prescribing. Separately, a random selection of prescriptions for patients with the common cold was collected from the healthcare institutions at which the doctors worked, to investigate actual prescribing behaviors. A total of 188 doctors completed the survey. Most doctors (83%, 149/180) had attended training on antibiotic use since the beginning of their medical practice as a doctor, irrespective of the academic level of their undergraduate training. Of those that had training, most had attended it within the past three years (97%, 112/116). Very few doctors (2%, 3/187) said they would give antibiotics to a patient with symptoms of a common cold, and the majority (87%, 156/179) would refuse to prescribe an antibiotic even if patients were insistent on getting them. Doctors who had attended training were less likely to give antibiotics in this circumstance (29% vs. 14%, p < 0.001). A diagnosis of common cold was the only diagnosis reported on 1590 out of 8400 prescriptions. Over half (55%, 869/1590) of them included an antibiotic. Prescriptions from village clinics were more likely to contain an antibiotic than those from other healthcare institutions (71% vs. 44% [township] vs. 47% [county], p < 0.001). Most doctors have recently attended training on antibiotic use and report they would not prescribe antibiotics for patients with a common cold, even when placed

  10. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control and sodium intake in Shandong Province, China: baseline results from Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling; Wang, Yu

    2014-05-22

    In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%-26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg-6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg-4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg-5,683 mg). Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China.

  11. Fumonisins B₁, B₂ and B₃ in corn products, wheat flour and corn oil marketed in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fenghua; Jiang, Dafeng; Zheng, Fengjia; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study a total of 522 samples were collected from Shandong province of China in 2014 and analysed for the occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2 and FB3 by isotope dilution ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fumonisins were detected in 98.1% of the corn products, with the average total level of 369.2 μg kg(-1). The individual average values of FB1, FB2 and FB3 in corn products were 268.3, 53.7 and 47.2 μg kg(-1), respectively. The simultaneous occurrence of FB1, FB2 and FB3 was observed in 76.7% of the corn products. Especially, the results demonstrated that the difference in the contamination levels for fumonisins in these three types of corn products was apparent. In addition, 6.2% of the wheat flour samples were contaminated with FB1, with concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 34.6 µg kg(-1). No FB2 or FB3 was detected in wheat flour. In corn oil samples no fumonisins were detected.

  12. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng

    2010-01-01

    Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), pH, available phosphorus (avail. P), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb), together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn. PMID:20616981

  13. [Contaminant levels and drug resistance analysis of Salmonella isolated from broiler production and processing course in Shandong Province in 2012].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaning; Chen, Yuzhen; Hou, Peibin; Wang, Qin; Hu, Guangchun; Li, Xinpeng; Wang, Mei; Bi, Zhenwang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the Salmonella contamination and its antibiotic resistance spectrum in the whole process of broiler hatching, cultivation, slaughtering, processing, distribution and retail in Shandong Province. 2496 samples were collected from the chicken farms, hatching factory, breeding farm, slaughterhouse, large supermarkets and farmers' market in Jinan and Zibo City. All samples were tested according to GB 4789.4-2010 and the antimicrobial susceptibilities by the broth microdilution method. The positive rate of the hatching process was 2.39%, the breeding process was 12.67%, the slaughter process was 27.00%, the distribution and retail process was 22.72%. There were 32 serotypes, the Indiara and Enteritidis Salmorella accounted for 42.25% and 34.21% respectively. 95.91% of the Salmorella strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 71.37% of the strains were resistant to at least three antibiotics, 28.21% of the strains were resistant to at least ten antibiotics, 7 strains were resistant to fourteen antibiotics, all of them are Indiana Salmonella. In Jinan and Zibo City, it is seriously contaminated by various aspects of Salmonella in broiler production and processing. The contamination rate of slaughter and Salmonella distribution is higher than the links of hatching process and breeding. The situation of broiler Salmonella is becoming severe.

  14. Summertime community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Xinzheng; Li, Baoquan; Wang, Hongfa

    2009-09-01

    The community structure of intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Archipelago (north of Shandong Peninsula, between Bohai Bay and the northern Yellow Sea) was examined based on samples collected from 14 stations in five transects in June 2007. Three stations corresponding to high, medium and low tidal areas were set up for each transect. A total of 68 macrobenthic species were found in the research region, most of which belonged to Mollusca and Crustacea. The average abundance and biomass of the macrobenthos was 1 383 ind./m2 and 372.41 g/m2, respectively. The use of an arbitrary similarity level of 20% resulted in identification of five groups among the 14 stations in the research region. There were remarkable differences in the biomass, abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of the different sediments. Specifically, the order of biomass was rocky shores > gravel > mud-sand > coarse sand > stiff mud, while the order of abundance was rocky shores > coarse sand > mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud, and that of the diversity index was mud-sand > gravel > stiff mud > rocky shores > coarse sand. The above results revealed that the sediment type was the most important factor affecting the structure of the macrobenthic community of the intertidal zone.

  15. Anatomically preserved seeds of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) from the Early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Iju; Manchester, Steven R; Chen, Zhiduan

    2004-08-01

    Well-preserved seeds from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong, China are assigned to the genus Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) based on morphology and anatomy. The seeds of Nuphar wutuensis sp. nov. are ellipsoidal to ovoid, 4-5 mm long with a clearly visible raphe ridge, and a truncate apex capped by a circular operculum ca. 1 mm in diameter bearing a central micropylar protrusion. These features, along with the testa composed of a uniseriate outer layer of equiaxial pentagonal to hexagonal surface cells and a middle layer 4-6 cells thick composed of thick-walled, periclinally elongate sclereids, correspond to the morphology and anatomy of extant Nuphar and distinguish this fossil species from all other extant and extinct genera of Nymphaeales. These seeds provide the oldest record for the genus in Asia and are supplemented by a similar well-preserved specimen from the Paleocene of North Dakota, USA. These data, together with the prior recognition of Brasenia (Cabombaceae) in the middle Eocene, indicate that the families Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae had differentiated by the early Tertiary.

  16. The nonlinear variation of drought and its relation to atmospheric circulation in Shandong Province, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been devoted to the linear trend of drought at the decadal to inter-decadal time scale; however, the nonlinear variation of drought at multi-decadal scales and its relation to atmospheric circulation need to be further studied. The linear and nonlinear variations of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) in Shandong from 1900 to 2012 and its relations to the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Siberian high (SH) and Southern Oscillation (SO) phase changes from multi-scale are detected using linear regression, the Mann–Kendall test, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the Pearson correlation analysis method. The results indicate that the PDSI shows no statistically significant linear change trend from 1900 to 2012; however, before (after) the late 1950s, PDSI shows a significant upward (downward) trend (P < 0.01) with a linear rate of 0.28/decade (−0.48/decade). From 1900 to 2012, the PDSI also exhibits a nonlinear variation trend at the inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-7-year), inter-decadal scale (quasi-14-year) and multi-decadal scale (quasi-46 and quasi-65-year). The variance contribution rate of components from the inter-annual scale is the largest, reaching 38.7%, and that from the inter-decadal scale and multi-decadal scale are 18.9% and 19.0%, respectively, indicating that the inter-annual change exerts a huge influence on the overall PDSI change. The results also imply that the effect of the four atmospheric circulations (PDO, ENSO, SH, SO) on PDSI at the multi-decadal variability scale are more important than that at the other scales. Consequently, we state that PDSI variation at the inter-annual scale has more instability, while that at the inter-decadal and multi-decadal scale is more strongly influenced by natural factors. PMID:26528402

  17. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence among farmers, veterinarians and control subjects in Jilin province, Shandong province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuan-Huan; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    China is commonly considered to be a HEV-endemic region but limited epidemiological data for HEV among farmers and veterinarians are available. Thus, a case-control study was carried out to detect the seroprevalence and assess potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by farmers and veterinarians in China from July 2013 to May 2015. Three hundred veterinarians and 600 farmers recruited from Jilin province, Shandong province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and 600 control subjects matched by gender, age, and residence were detected for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme immunoassays. The seroprevalences of HEV infection in farmers, veterinarians, and control subjects were 34.8%, 26.7%, and 20.2%, respectively. Farmers (P < 0.001) and veterinarians (P = 0.027) have significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects. The highest seroprevalence of HEV infection was detected in swine farmers (49.1%) and the lowest seroprevalence was found in cattle farmers (26.5%). In veterinarians, farm animal veterinarians have a higher seroprevalence than pet veterinarians, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Residence area, contact with swine and exposure with soil were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study farmers; contact with swine and source of drinking water were significantly associated with HEV infection in the study veterinarians. These results implied the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the dissemination of HEV infection in farmers and veterinarians in China. J. Med. Virol. 89:872-877, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Analysis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Shandong Province: a midterm report of multicenter GISSG1201 study].

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingsheng; Luo, Wenqiang; Li, Leping; Dai, Yong; Jiang, Lixin; Wang, Ailiang; Chu, Xianqun; Li, Yuming; Yang, Daogui; Lu, Chunlei; Yao, Linguo; Cui, Gang; Lin, Huizhong; Chen, Gang; Cui, Qing; Zhang, Huanhu; Lun, Zengjun; Xia, Lijian; Su, Yingfeng; Han, Guoxin; Hui, Xizeng; Wei, Zhixin; Sun, Zuocheng; Guo, Hongliang; Zhou, Yanbing

    2017-09-25

    To summarize the treatment status of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in Shandong province,by analyzing the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors. Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 1 165 patients with gastric GIST between January 2000 and December 2013 from 23 tertiary referral hospitals in Shandong Province were collected to establish a database. The risk stratification of all cases was performed according to the National Institutes of Health(NIH) criteria proposed in 2008. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used for univariate and multivariate prognostic analyses. Among 1 165 cases of gastric GIST, 557 were male and 608 were female. The median age of onset was 60 (range 15-89) years. Primary tumors were located in the gastric fundus and cardia in 623 cases(53.5%), gastric body in 346 cases(29.7%), gastric antrum in 196 cases(16.8%). All the cases underwent resection of tumors, including endoscopic resection (n=106), local resection (n=589), subtotal gastrectomy(n=399), and total gastrectomy(n=72). Based on the NIH risk stratification, there were 256 cases (22.0%) at very low risk, 435 (37.3%) at low risk, 251 cases (21.5%) at intermediate risk, and 223 cases (19.1%) at high risk. A total of 1 116 cases(95.8%) were followed up and the median follow-up period was 40 (range, 1-60) months. During the period, 337 patients relapsed and the median time to recurrence was 34 (range 1-60) months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 98.6%, 86.1% and 73.4%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of patients at very low, low, intermediate, and high risk were 93.1%, 85.8%, 63.0% and 42.3% respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.000). Multivariate analysis showed that primary tumor site (RR=0.580, 95%CI:0.402-0.835), tumor size (RR=0.450, 95%CI:0.266-0.760), intraoperative tumor rupture(RR=0.557, 95%CI:0.336-0.924), risk classification (RR=0

  19. Concentration estimation of heavy metal in soils from typical sewage irrigation area of Shandong Province, China using reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Chunfang; Wang, Jining; Cao, Wentao; Wu, Quanyuan

    2017-07-01

    Since sewage irrigation can markedly disturb the status of heavy metals in soils, a convenient and accurate technique for heavy metal concentration estimation is of utmost importance in the cropland using wastewater for irrigation. This study therefore assessed the feasibility of visible and near infrared reflectance (VINR) spectroscopy for predicting heavy metal contents including Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, and Hg in the north plain of Longkou city, Shandong Province, China. A total of 70 topsoil samples were taken for in situ spectra measurement and chemical analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and principal component regression (PCR) algorithms were applied to establish the associations between heavy metals and reflectance spectral data pretreated by different transformation methods. Based on the criteria that minimal root mean square error (RMSE), maximal coefficient of determination (R (2)) for calibration, and greater ratio of standard error of performance to standard deviation (RPD) is related to the optimal model, SMLR model using first deviation data (RD1) provided the best prediction for the contents of Ni, Pb, As, Cd, and Hg, calibration using SNV data for Cr and continuum removal spectra for Zn, while PCR equation employed RD1 values was fit for prediction of the contents of Cu. The determination coefficients of all the reasonable models were beyond 0.6, and RPD indicated a fair or good result. In general, first deviation preprocessing tool outperformed other methods in this study, while raw spectra reflectance performed unsatisfactory in all models. Overall, VINR reflectance spectroscopy technique could be applicable to the rapid concentration assessment of heavy metals in soils of the study area.

  20. [Serotype identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Shao, C C; Hu, B; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Fang, M; Chen, B L; Bi, Z Q

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To determine the serotypes and drug resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animal stools from the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China. To provide the basis for further study. Methods: Five hundred animal stool samples (from pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs and birds) were collected from the Weishan area and STEC strains were isolated from these samples. Strains were serotyped by a serum agglutination test, and their drug resistance profiles were determined through antimicrobial sensitivity experiments. In this study, PCR was used to detect tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM). Results: Sixteen strains of STEC were isolated from animal stool samples. Thirteen strains were isolated from pig stool samples, two from bovine stool samples and one from a sheep stool sample. Two of the strains were identified as E. coli O157:H7, and other 14 strains were non-O157 STEC of different serotypes. Antimicrobial sensitivity experiments showed that 15 of the strains were multidrug resistant. The rates of resistance were as follows: nalidixic acid (12/16 strains), sulfisoxazole (11/16), trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole (11/16), doxycycline (9/16), azithromycin (9/16), tetracycline (9/16), chloramphenicol (8/16) and streptomycin (8/16). Therefore, nalidixic acid showed the highest rate of resistance among the strains, followed by trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to cefepime or imipenem was not detected. In total, three types of drug resistance genes (tetA, tetB and tetC) were detected among the 16 strains. Conclusion: The results showed that STEC strains isolated from animals in the Weishan area were of a range of serotypes. The 16 strains of STEC isolated from animal stools in this area were resistant to a number of antibiotics, with many strains displaying multidrug resistance.

  1. Hepatitis E seroprevalence and related risk factors among seafood processing workers: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weihong; Sun, Yuan; Xu, Aiqiang; Gao, Rihong; Gong, Lianfeng; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Mei

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the potential risk factors for acquiring HEV infection in the seafood processing factories in Yantai City of Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five randomly selected seafood processing factories in Yantai City. Subjects were 15-66 years of age and were raw seafood processing workers, semi-finished products processing workers, and administrative staff, etc. Each participant completed a structured questionnaire and agreed to blood drawing. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was detected in the blood samples by ELISA method. A total of 1028 of 1044 eligible workers were tested for HEV IgG antibody (response rate 98.5%). The prevalence of HEV IgG seropositivity was found to be 22.20%. Occupation was significantly associated with anti-HEV IgG antibody seropositivity (p<0.05). Subjects who had direct contact with raw seafood had a higher anti-HEV IgG antibody prevalence (32.54%) than the semi-finished products processing workers (24.74%) and less exposed group (11.85%). HEV seroprevalence in the workers showed an increasing trend with the increase in working years, and this phenomenon was most obvious in raw seafood processing workers. There is a higher risk of HEV infection in those who have direct contact with raw seafood. This study will help identify the risk factors for HEV infection and provide guidance on controlling HEV infection in the seafood processing occupations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of increased market competition on hospital services in Shandong and Henan Provinces.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ian; Hindle, Don; Degeling, Pieter; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lingzhong; Meng, Qingyue; Wang, Jian

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese government began a major reform of the hospital sector in the early 1980s. The main aim was to increase productivity by phasing out prospective global budgets from the government, and encouraging between-hospital competition for the business of user-pay and insured patients. This goal was to be achieved without unreasonable prejudice to the financial sustainability of hospitals or to the fairness of access and service provision. We explored the effects of these changes by analysing data for four levels of hospital in two of the most populous provinces between 1985 and 1999. We used data envelope analysis, and found that the majority of hospitals experienced a decline in productivity. Social efficiency (measured by the level of provision of unnecessary services) also declined, especially in the largest hospitals that could easily increase the use of expensive technologies. Most hospitals increased their economic sustainability, measured as the ratio between revenue and expenditures. However, the lowest-level hospitals experienced stable or reduced sustainability due to their inability to compete with marketing by higher-level hospitals. We conclude that, although there were many benefits, the overall impact of the introduction of market forces may have been negative. An important factor was that not all aspects (such as supplier-induced demand) were adequately controlled by government agencies. We suggest ways of alleviating the most problematic elements of current arrangements.

  3. Multi-agent model-based historical cropland spatial pattern reconstruction for 1661-1952, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuhong; Jin, Xiaobin; Du, Xindong; Xiang, Xiaomin; Han, Juan; Shan, Wei; Fan, Yeting; Zhou, Yinkang

    2016-08-01

    To advance the research of global land use/cover change (LUCC), biodiversity, global carbon cycle, and other aspects of the earth system, it is essential to reconstruct changes in historical cropland cover with long time series and high-resolution grid. Currently, it is a general approach which is based on the view of combining the overall control of cropland area, selecting grid of high land suitability, and 'top-down' decision-making behaviors to reconstruct the historical cropland. Considering various factors that influenced cropland distribution, including behavioral agent's selection by itself and the limitation of nature and human factors, a spatiotemporal dynamical reconstruction model of historical cropland based on the multi-agent systems has been developed from the perspective of 'bottom-up', which combine macroscopic and microscopic decision-making behaviors of agents to simulate the government and farmer autonomously implementing the selection behaviors of farming area. Taking Shandong Province as the study area, this model was used to imitate its cropland spatiotemporal pattern with 1 km grid-resolution from 1661 combining the contemporary pattern and reconstructed amount of historical cropland as a maximum potential scope and control variable of reconstruction model, respectively, furthermore, followed the accuracy valuation and comparative analysis. The reconstructed results show that: 1) It is properly suitable for Multi-Agent to simulate and reconstruct the spatial distribution of historical cropland; 2) compared with historical map data sets (1930s) from the view of point to point, the correctly classified producer accuracy, user accuracy and overall accuracy of reconstructed result totally up to 59.09%, 80.62% and 62.31%, respectively, and shows our reconstruction map achieved a better agreement with the historical maps; 3) from the view of grid-level or county-level, our reconstruction approach can effectively keep away from the grid with

  4. [Survey of intestinal parasitic infections and related knowledge and behavior of residents in Jiaodong area of Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-bin; Xu, Yan; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhang, Ben-guang; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Zhang, Dian-bo; Miao, Fengi; Chen, Xi-xin; Wan, Gong-qun; Huang, Bing-cheng

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of intestinal parasitic infections and the related knowledge and behavior in residents of Jiaodong area of Shandong Province, so as to provide the evidence for making an appropriate preventive and control strategy. A total of 18 villages from 6 counties in Jiaodong area were selected as investigation sites according to the stratified sampling method. The feces samples of the permanent residents aged above 3 years were collected and examined by Kato-Katz technique to find the intestinal parasite eggs, and the children under 12 years old were examined by the method of cellophane anal swab to detect the Enterobius vennrmicularis eggs. In addition, 50 households in each survey sites were randomly selected to investigate the basic family situation and the condition of awareness on prevention knowledge and formation of correct behavior of residents by using a structured questionnaire. Totally 6 163 residents involved in the feces examinations, and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 6.91%. The infection rates of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 6.56%, 0.62% and 0.21%, respectively. The infection rate of E. vermicularis in children under 12 years old was 0.51%. The eggs of Clonorchis sinensis and Taenia solium were not found in this survey. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases was 49.54%. The formation rates of washing hands before eating, washing hands after using the toilet, never eating raw fruit and vegetable without washing clean, never working in the field with bare feet, and never drinking unboiled water were 97.78%, 91.95%, 88.81%, 92.42% and 86.48% respectively. The infection rate of intestinal parasites is low in Jiaodong area, but there is a significant difference among different counties. The awareness rate of knowledge about preventing parasitic diseases is low, but the formation rate of healthy behavior is high. In the future, the health education and the

  5. Geochemical fractions and risk assessment of trace elements in soils around Jiaojia gold mine in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feifei; Kong, Linghao; Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Soils located adjacent to the Jiaojia gold mine were sampled and analyzed to determine the degree of which they were contaminated by trace elements (Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in Shandong Province, China. All 18 samples exhibited mean Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in excess of local background values, while the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn were below the background values. In addition, the concentrations of trace elements in gold smelter (GS) soils were higher than in the gold mine (GM) soils. The result from a modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure was that with the exception of Cu in soils near the smelter, the trace elements were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. After residual fraction, most Hg was mainly humic acid and strong organic fraction, while most As was the humic acid. Cd was associated with the water soluble, ion exchange, and carbonate fractions compared with the other trace elements. Furthermore, Cu, Pb, and Zn were more concentrated in the humic acid and Fe/Mn oxide fraction. The fractions of trace elements were affected by soil pH and Ec (Electrical conductivity). The humic acid fraction of Hg as well as the ion exchange fraction of Cd and Zn displayed negative correlations with soil pH. The strong organic fraction of Hg, the Fe/Mn oxide fraction of Cd, and the carbonate fraction of Zn were positively related to the soil Ec. The strong organic fraction and ion exchange fraction of Zn were negatively related to soil Ec. However, the ion exchange and carbonate fractions of As showed significant positive correlations with soil pH. A calculated individual availability factor (A f (i) ) is used; the values of each trace element in the soils are in the following order: Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Hg. When combined with a risk assessment code, data suggest that Hg, As, Pb, and Zn levels showed low risk for the environment, whereas Cd levels in soils adjacent to the GM and Cu levels in soils adjacent to the GS showed

  6. Voluntary agreements for increasing energy-efficiency in industry: Case study of a pilot project with the steel industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  7. Voluntary Agreements for Increasing Energy-Efficiency in Industry: Case Study of a Pilot Project with the Steel Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes international experience with the use of Voluntary Agreements for increasing industrial sector energy-efficiency, drawing lessons learned regarding the essential elements of the more successful programs. The paper focuses on a pilot project for implementation of a Voluntary Agreement with two steel mills in Shandong Province that was developed through international collaboration with experts in China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Designing the pilot project involved development of approaches for energy-efficiency potential assessments for the steel mills, target-setting to establish the Voluntary Agreement energy-efficiency goals, preparing energy-efficiency plans for implementation of energy-saving technologies and measures, and monitoring and evaluating the project's energy savings.

  8. Micro-scale characterization of iron ores from a banded iron formation in Yishui county, western Shandong province of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely distributed in North China Craton (NCC). Yishui BIF is located in Yishui county, western Shandong Province of NCC and is categorized as Algoma-type. The origin of iron and silica of BIFs in this region have been studied extensively for decades. The trace elemental concentrations of magnetite and hematite in iron ores from Yishui BIF are focused in this study to better understand the origins of BIF. To discuss micro-structural signatures of iron ores, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer, electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized. Overall geochemical data represents abundance of trace elements, oxygen fugacity (fO2) condition during the formation of iron oxides, depositional environment of Yishui BIF, implying the involvement of volcanic eruption and hydrothermal exhalation during the chemical deposition.

  9. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China. PMID:26125619

  10. The Impact of Climate on the Spread of Rice to North-Eastern China: A New Look at the Data from Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Jin, Guiyun; Bocinsky, R Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Moving crops outside of their original centers of domestication was sometimes a challenging process. Because of its substantial heat requirements, moving rice agriculture outside of its homelands of domestication was not an easy process for farmers in the past. Using crop niche models, we examine the constraints faced by ancient farmers and foragers as they moved rice to its most northerly extent in Ancient China: Shandong province. Contrary to previous arguments, we find that during the climatic optimum rice could have been grown in the region. Climatic cooling following this date had a clear impact on the distribution of rice, one that may have placed adaptive pressure on rice to develop a temperate phenotype. Following the development of this temperate phenotype, rice agriculture could once again become implanted in select areas of north-eastern China.

  11. [Assessment of sources, spatial distribution and ecological risk of heavy metals in soils in a typical industry-based city of Shandong Province, Eastern China].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bin; Lü, Jian-Shu; Zhan, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Zu-Lu; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ru-Jia

    2015-02-01

    A total of 106 samples were collected from surface soils in Gangcheng District, Laiwu city (a Typical industry-based city of Shandong Province, Eastern China), and the contents of 9 heavy metals including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. Multivariate analysis and geostatistics were,applied to examine the sources and spatial distributions of heavy metals in soils; and the assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method. The average concentrations of 9 heavy metals were higher than the background values of Shandong Province; in particular, the mean contents of Cd, Hg, Pb and Zn were 2.42, 4.69, 1.74 and 1.54 times of their respective background values, which indicated there were obvious accumulations of these heavy metals in surface soils. The results from multivariate analysis suggested that all the 9 heavy metals could be classified as 3 Principal Components (PCs). Cd, Pb and Zn, having high loads in PC1, were dominated by industrial, agricultural and traffic sources. PC2 including Co, Cr and Ni came from natural sources, and were controlled by parent materials. As and Hg with high loads in PC3, were originated from coal combustion and smelting. Cu had some loads on different PCs, and was affected by both natural and human sources. Assessment on ecological risk indicated that the study area suffered from a critical level between high and moderate risks. Hg was at the high ecological risk level, and Cd was at the moderate ecological risk level, while other metals had low ecological risk level.

  12. Molecular variation and expansion of a rice black-streaked dwarf virus population based on analysis of segment 1 in Jining, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Meng, Qingchang; Chen, Yanping; Wu, Jirong; Hao, Zhuanfang; Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Degui; Li, Mingshun; Yong, Hongjun; Zhang, Shihuang; Li, Xinhai; Weng, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the variation in rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) in an area with high incidence of maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), the RBSDV S1 segment in a collection of 100 maize isolates (sample population A100) from Jining, Shandong Province, was sequenced. An additional 21 maize and rice isolates (subpopulation B21) that were sampled from nine other geographic locations in China in 2012 and 2013 were used as a control. A total of 914 nucleotide mutations, including 239 singleton variable and 675 parsimony-informative sites were detected among the segment 1 (S1) sequences from A100. A total of 614 nucleotide mutation sites including 164 singleton variable and 450 parsimony-informative sites were detected among the S1 sequences from B21, while 97.55 % of the parsimony-informative sites from B21 were also detected in A100. The nucleotide sequence diversities of A100 (π = 0.0479) and B21 (π = 0.0396) were significantly different (P = 0.0002) but showed similar trends. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 121 RBSDV isolates could be classified into two groups based on their S1 sequences, independent of subpopulation, with a combination of host species and locations. A100 and B21 were under the same level of negative and purifying selection, with Ka/Ks ratios of 0.0337 and 0.0369, respectively. The combined RBSDV population, including 121 isolates, was expanding, with negative values for Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F in both A100 and B21, except Tajima's D in A100. Based on S1, the RBSDV population in China has long-term phytogeographic stability, and there do not appear to be any newly-emerging strains.

  13. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  14. Clinical presentation, gene analysis and outcomes in young patients with early-treated combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocysteinemia (cblC type) in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingjuan; Cao, Zhiyang; Tian, Liping; Zou, Hui; Yang, Lian; Zhu, Weiwei; Liu, Yingxia

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the incidence of MMA on newborn screening in Shandong province from May 2011 to May 2014 and summarize the clinical presentation, biochemical features, mutation analysis, and treatment regime of early-treated patients with cblC disease. Between May 2011 and May 2014, 35,291 newborns were screened for MMA in Jinan maternal and Child Care Hospital, Shandong province. The levels of C3, C3/C2, methionine and tHcy were measured. Most patients received treatment with intramuscular hydroxocobalamin after diagnosis. Metabolic parameters, clinical presentation and mental development were followed up. Nine patients were identified among 35,291 by newborn screening, giving an estimated incidence of 1:3920 live births for MMA, and all were classified as cblC disease. Among them, five patients received treatment with intramuscular hydroxocobalamin and two patients did not receive any treatment. One patient died of metabolic crises triggered by infection at the age of 38 days. Seven different mutations (c.609G>A, c.455_457delCCC, c.394C>T, c.445_446insA, c.658_660delAAG, c.452A>G and IVS1+1G>A) were detected. The mutations (c.455_457delCCC and IVS1+1G>A) are novel. Five patients who received treatment had favorable metabolic response, with both reduction of urine MMA and tHcy and increase of methionine. We obtained 7 records of DQ assessment. The five patients who received treatment presented with developmental delay and obvious neurological manifestations. In two patients who did not receive any treatment, case 8 presented with severe mental retardation and developmental delay, while case 9 had nearly normal DQ values at the age of 1(1/12)years. Our study characterized variable phenotypes of neurodevelopment in early-treated cblC patients diagnosed on newborn screening. The long-term outcomes of cblC disease are unsatisfactory in spite of conventional treatment and improvement of biochemical abnormalities. Although the number of patients is too small, the

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Knowledge About Hepatitis B Among Migrant Workers in Shandong Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Yan, Ming; Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: China is a country with a high prevalence of hepatitis B. As a special population, migrant workers are more vulnerable to hepatitis B. Objectives: The present study was conducted to gain insight into the prevalence of hepatitis B and knowledge about hepatitis B among migrant workers in Shandong Province, China, as well as to explore a series of strategies for preventing and controlling the spread and prevalence of hepatitis B. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted without age restriction, in Shandong Province in China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The study population was selected using the random multistage cluster sampling. Personal information, including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, years of duration of stay in Jinan and health insurance were obtained from 2065 migrant workers. Moreover, blood samples were collected for hepatitis B infection screening. Knowledge about hepatitis B was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Correct response rates were calculated. Results: Of 2065 migrant workers tested for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), 167 (126 men and 41 women) tested positive for HBsAg; the overall prevalence was 8.1%. The prevalence rates in men and women were 9.6% and 5.4%, respectively. The prevalence rates in subjects 18 - 30 years old and 30 years older were 3.5% and 9.3%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between those groups (P < 0.05). Correct response rates for the transmission of hepatitis B questions were low, especially for a question regarding whether hepatitis B can be transferred by sexual contact (36.8%) and whether it can be transferred from mothers to infants (33.9%). A total of 80.9% of migrant workers correctly responded that vaccination is effective for hepatitis B. However, 68% of migrants also had the misconception that it is necessary to receive a booster vaccination. Conclusions: The hepatitis B virus infection rate

  16. Ecological footprint of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-jing; Luc, Hens; Zhu, Yong-guan; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-01-01

    Ecological footprint has been given much attention and widely praised as an effective heuristic and pedagogic device for presenting current total human resource use in a way that communicates easily to almost everyone since 1996 when Wackernagel and Rees proposed it as a sustainable development indicator. Ecological footprint has been improving on its calculation and still can be a benchmark to measure sustainable development although there are still ongoing debates about specific methods for calculating the ecological footprint. This paper calculates the ecological footprint of Shandong Province, China with the methodology developed by Wackernagel and analyzes the current situation of sustainable development in Shandong.

  17. Quantifying the co-benefits of energy-efficiency policies: a case study of the cement industry in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lobscheid, Agnes; Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn; Dai, Yue

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, China's cement industry accounted for more than half of the world's total cement production. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries, and thus a key industrial contributor to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40% of industrial PM emissions and 27% of total national PM emissions. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission reductions that result from energy-saving measures in the cement industry in Shandong Province, China. We use a modified form of the cost of conserved energy (CCE) equation to incorporate the value of these co-benefits. The results show that more than 40% of the PM and SO2 emission reduction potential of the electricity-saving measures is cost effective even without taking into account the co-benefits for the electricity-saving measures. The results also show that including health benefits from PM10 and/or SO2 emission reductions reduces the CCE of the fuel-saving measures. Two measures that entail changing products (production of blended cement and limestone Portland cement) result in the largest reduction in CCE when co-benefits were included, since these measures can reduce both PM10 and SO2 emissions, whereas the other fuel-saving measures do not reduce PM10. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Localization and characterization of the Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone in Zibo city, Shandong province, China, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Zhou, J.; Wang, H.

    2017-01-01

    A 2D ERT survey is performed along 10 cross-sections intersecting with the trace of Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone, a Quaternary active normal fault zone going from south to north across Zibo city, Shandong province, China. During the survey, the Wenner-α array with the strongest anti-electrical disturbance ability is adopted, and some ways to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of apparent resistivity data are performed. The reconstructed resistivity tomograms illustrate that Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone in Zibo city consists of 4 NW-striking normal faults which are the west branch (F1), the secondary fault of west branch (F1-1), the secondary fault of east branch (F2-1) and the east branch (F2). Fault F1 has NE apparent dip direction and 67° -75° apparent dip angle, and fault F2 SW and 60° -63°. The two faults are the main faults of Zhangdian-Renhe fault zone and form a graben. Subsequent geologic drilling records prove our inference. Our results present an important basis for the definition of seismic fortification level and new city planning in Zibo city.

  19. [Sequence analysis of VP1 gene of the duck hepatitis A virus type 3 strains isolated from Shandong Province of China in 2012].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Lin-lin; Zhang, Rui-hua; Yang, Lei; Xie, Zhi-jing; Zhu, Yan-li; Jiang, Shi-jin; Si, Xing-kui

    2013-09-01

    To reveal the genetic variation of the viral protein 1 (VP1) gene of the duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3), the VP1 gene of 13 virulent DHAV-3 strains isolated from Shandong province of China in 2012 were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that all the VP1 genes of the 13 isolates contained 720 nucleotides encoding 240 amino acids, and shared with nucleotide identities of 94. 6%-99.9% and amino acid identities of 95.0%-100%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence homologies between the 13 DHAV-3 isolates and other 31 DHAV-3 reference strains were 92.5%-100% and 90. 8%-100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the VP1 gene of DHAV-3 had distinct geographical characteristics. Distribution of genotypes of the 44 DHAV-3 strains was as follows: except the vaccine strain B63, all the other Chinese isolates belonged to genotype I (GI), Vietnamese wild isolates mainly belonged to subtype 1 (S1) of genotype II (GII), and all Korean isolates belonged to subtype 2 (S2) of GII.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Outpatients in Town Hospitals of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Wang, Lei; Song, Wengang; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from outpatients in town hospitals of Shandong province, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli was tested using the disk diffusion and resistance genes encoding for β-lactamases (blaTEM, blaCTXM, and blaSHV) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multilocus sequence typing (ST) of ESBL-producing E. coli was analyzed in this study. Our results showed that of 320 E. coli isolates, 201 carried ESBL genes (201/320, 62.8%), and these isolates all carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common being blaCTX-M-14 (116/201, 57.7%), followed by blaCTX-M-55 (47/201, 23.4%) and blaCTX-M-15 (31/201, 15.4%). ESBL-producing E. coli exhibited highly resistant to penicillin derivatives, fluoroquinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, and third-generation cephalosporins, but no carbapenem-resistant isolates were found in this study. Forty-two STs were found among the 201 ESBL-producing E. coli, and the most common ST was ST131 (27/201, 13.4%), followed by ST405 (19/201, 9.5%) and ST69 (15/201, 7.5%). Taken together, a high isolation rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (62.8%) was found among outpatients in town hospitals. blaCTX-M gene was most dominant and was composed of a variety of subtypes. No dominant ST was detected among ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that these ESBL-producing E. coli isolates derive from different clones.

  1. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and their potential removal by on-farm treatment processes in nine swine feedlots in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics in nine swine feedlots located in Shandong Province of China, and examined their potential removal by various on-farm treatment processes. Results indicate that the target ARGs were widely distributed in swine wastes, with mean relative abundances ranging from 3.3 × 10(-5) (tetC) to 5.2 × 10(-1) (tetO) in swine manure and from 7.3 × 10(-3) (tetC) to 1.7 × 10(-1) (tetO) in swine wastewater. The mean relative ARG abundances ranged from 9.9 × 10(-5) (tetW) to 1.1 × 10(-2) (tetO) in soils and from 3.1 × 10(-4) (tetW) to 1.1 × 10(-2) (sul2) in receiving river sediments, indicating that the farmland application of swine manure compost and the discharge of swine wastewater promoted the dissemination of ARGs into adjacent environments. Microbial fermentation bed (MFB) could reduce the relative ARG abundances by 0-1.18 logs. However, septic tank, biogas digester and natural drying methods were relatively ineffective for ARG removal, and the relative abundances of some ARGs (i.e., tetC, tetG, sul1, and sul2) even increased by 0.74-3.90 logs in treated wastes. Bacterial diversity analysis indicates that the evolution of bacterial communities in the MFB played a crucial role in eliminating the ARGs. This study helps the effective assessment and management of ecological risks arising from ARGs in swine feedlots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social support and HIV/STDs infections among a probability-based sample of rural married migrant women in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenkang; Kang, Dianmin; Song, Yapei; Wei, Chongyi; Marley, Gifty; Ma, Wei

    2015-11-24

    The increasing population of marriage-based migrant women is disproportionally affected by AIDS/STDs in China, and social support plays a critical role. This study aims to describe the social support level received by married migrant women in rural areas in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women, identifies the relevant factors of this social support condition among married migrant women, and observes the correlation between social support level and infection status of AIDS and STDs among this group. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the study. A pre-tested field questionnaire was administered to participants through a direct face-to-face interview. Questionnaire contained questions on socio-demographic information, AIDS and STDs prevalence information and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) which measures objective support, subjective support, and utilization of social support. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of social support in most dimensions. Multi-variable analysis revealed that relationship with spouse, family average income, number of children, education, engagement and claimed reasons of moving have various correlations with one or all dimensions of social support scores. Higher social support is also related to awareness of infection status of HIV and STDs among this group. Our findings provide further evidence that married migrant women have lower levels of social support which may be related to some social characteristics and their awareness status of AIDS and STDs infection status and that targeted interventions need to be developed for this population.

  3. Geochemical and isotopic investigation of the Laiwu-Zibo carbonatites from western Shandong Province, China, and implications for their petrogenesis and enriched mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jifeng; Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongfu

    2004-08-01

    Major and trace element and Nd-Sr isotope data of the Mesozoic Laiwu-Zibo carbonatites (LZCs) from western Shandong Province, China, provide clues to the petrogenesis and the nature of their mantle source. The Laiwu-Zibo carbonatites can be petrologically classified as calcio-, magnesio- and ferro-carbonatites. All these carbonatites show a similarity in geochemistry. On the one hand, they are extremely enriched in Ba, Sr and LREE and markedly low in K, Rb and Ti, which are similar to those global carbonatites, on the other hand, they have extremely high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7095-0.7106) and very low ɛNd (-18.2 to -14.3), a character completely different from those global carbonatites. The small variations in Sr and Nd isotopic ratios suggest that crustal contamination can not modify the primary isotopic compositions of LZC magmas and those values are representatives of their mantle source. The Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of LZCs and their similarity to those of Mesozoic Fangcheng basalts imply that they derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle. The formation of such enriched lithospheric mantle is connected with the major collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and the Yangtze Craton. Crustal materials from the Yangtze Craton were subducted beneath the NCC and melts derived from the subducted crust of the Yangtze Craton produced an enriched Mesozoic mantle, which is the source for the LZCs and Fangcheng basalts. The absence of alkaline silicate rocks, which are usually associated with carbonatites suggest that the LZCs originated from the mantle by directly partial melting.

  4. Genetic variation of the VP1 gene of the virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) isolates in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiming; Chen, Junhao; Si, Xingkui; Xie, Zhijing; Zhu, Yanli; Zhang, Xingxiao; Wang, Shujing; Jiang, Shijin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the relationship of the variation of virulence and the external capsid proteins of the pandemic duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) isolates, the virulence, cross neutralization assays and the complete sequence of the virion protein 1 (VP1) gene of nine virulent DHAV-1 strains, which were isolated from infected ducklings with clinical symptoms in Shandong province of China in 2007-2008, were tested. The fifth generation duck embryo allantoic liquids of the 9 isolates were tested on 12-day-old duck embryos and on 7-day-old ducklings for the median embryonal lethal doses (ELD(50)s) and the median lethal doses (LD(50)s), respectively. The results showed that the ELD(50)s of embryonic duck eggs of the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were between 1.9 × 10(6)/mL to 1.44 × 10(7)/mL, while the LD(50)s were 2.39 × 10(5)/mL to 6.15 × 10(6)/mL. Cross-neutralization tests revealed that the 9 DHAV-1 isolates were completely neutralized by the standard serum and the hyperimmune sera against the 9 DHAV-1 isolates, respectively. Compared with other virulent, moderate virulent, attenuated vaccine and mild strains, the VP1 genes of the 9 strains shared 89.8%-99.7% similarity at the nucleotide level and 92.4%-99.6% at amino acid level with other DHAV-1 strains. There were three hypervariable regions at the C-terminus (aa 158-160, 180-193 and 205-219) and other variable points in VP1 protein, but which didn't cause virulence of DHAV-1 change.

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Outpatients in Town Hospitals of Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Wang, Lei; Song, Wengang; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from outpatients in town hospitals of Shandong province, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli was tested using the disk diffusion and resistance genes encoding for β-lactamases (blaTEM, blaCTXM, and blaSHV) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multilocus sequence typing (ST) of ESBL-producing E. coli was analyzed in this study. Our results showed that of 320 E. coli isolates, 201 carried ESBL genes (201/320, 62.8%), and these isolates all carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common being blaCTX-M-14 (116/201, 57.7%), followed by blaCTX-M-55 (47/201, 23.4%) and blaCTX-M-15 (31/201, 15.4%). ESBL-producing E. coli exhibited highly resistant to penicillin derivatives, fluoroquinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, and third-generation cephalosporins, but no carbapenem-resistant isolates were found in this study. Forty-two STs were found among the 201 ESBL-producing E. coli, and the most common ST was ST131 (27/201, 13.4%), followed by ST405 (19/201, 9.5%) and ST69 (15/201, 7.5%). Taken together, a high isolation rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (62.8%) was found among outpatients in town hospitals. blaCTX-M gene was most dominant and was composed of a variety of subtypes. No dominant ST was detected among ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that these ESBL-producing E. coli isolates derive from different clones. PMID:28174570

  6. First detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in the tick species Haemaphysalis concinna in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Kai; Sun, Wenjing; Cheng, Ziqiang; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Chai, Tongjie

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in adult Haemaphysalis concinna ticks. A total of 72 adult H. concinna ticks were obtained from 35 goats, three adult H. concinna ticks (4.17 %) collected from two goats were found to be infected with SFTSV via PCR assay. Sequence analysis showed that the partial segment M glycoprotein gene of SFTSV was about 500 bases long by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and that the PCR products from the samples had an identical sequence (KP714259). With regard to the phylogenetic analysis, the Nei-Gojobri (Kimura 2-parameter) method was used to construct the phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the obtained sequence closely resembled SFTSV strain from Zhejiang Province (KC189856) and belonged to the same clade. The similarity of these strains was up to 96.62 % (only differing by 17 bases). In addition, phylogenetic analysis also indicated that the sequence obtained from adult H. concinna ticks was most closely related to the sequence isolated from Haemaphysalis longicornis (KF781498) with 97.22 % similarity (differing only by 4 bases) and belonged to the same clade.

  7. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control and Sodium Intake in Shandong Province, China: Baseline Results From Shandong–Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Zhenqiang; Liang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Aiqiang; Wang, Linghong; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jiyu; Ren, Jie; Yan, Liuxia; Lu, Zilong; Wang, Huicheng; Tang, Junli; Cai, Xiaoning; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Juan; Chu, Jie; Engelgau, Michael; Yang, Quanhe; Hong, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In China, population-based blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension are increasing. Meanwhile, sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension, is high. In 2011, to develop intervention priorities for a salt reduction and hypertension control project in Shandong Province (population 96 million), a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on sodium intake and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. Methods Complex, multistage sampling methods were used to select a provincial-representative adult sample. Blood pressure was measured and a survey conducted among all participants; condiments were weighed in the household, a 24-hour dietary recall was conducted, and urine was collected. Hypertension was determined by blood pressure measured on a single occasion and self-reported use of antihypertension medications. Results Overall, 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.9%–26.0%) of adults in Shandong were estimated to have hypertension. Among those classified as having hypertension, approximately one-third (34.5%) reported having hypertension, approximately one-fourth (27.5%) reported taking medications, and one-seventh (14.9%) had their blood pressure controlled (<140/<90 mm Hg). Estimated total average daily dietary sodium intake was 5,745 mg (95% CI, 5,428 mg–6,063 mg). Most dietary sodium (80.8%) came from salt and high-salt condiments added during cooking: a sodium intake of 4,640 mg (95% CI, 4,360 mg–4,920 mg). The average daily urinary sodium excretion was 5,398 mg (95% CI, 5,112 mg–5,683 mg). Conclusion Hypertension and excessive sodium intake in adults are major public health problems in Shandong Province, China. PMID:24854239

  8. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hu; Pan, Xing-Fu; Li, Jin-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements, including zinc (Zn) and germanium (Ge), are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302) from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) were 3.14 (3.08–3.20) mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6) μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1) μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001), while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001) and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095). Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002), Ge (p = 0.002), and Pb (p = 0.001). The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001), while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001). Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05). GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L), 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L), and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001). Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  9. Analysis of the 19 Y-STR and 16 X-STR loci system in the Han population of Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, H M; Wang, C; Han, S Y; Sun, S H; Xiao, D J; Wang, Y S; Li, C T; Zhang, M X

    2017-03-30

    The sex-linked short tandem repeats (STR), Y-STR and X-STR, are important for autosomal STRs in forensic paternity testing. We evaluated the forensic parameters of 19 Y-STRs and 16 X-STRs in the Han population of Shandong province, China. A Goldeneye 20Y kit (DYS391, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS348, DYS456, Y-GATA-H4, DYS447, DYS19, DYS392, DYS393, DYS388, DYS439, DYS635, DYS448, DYS460, DYS458, DYS437, DYS385 a/b) was used to analyze the forensic parameters of 534 unrelated males. A Goldeneye17X system (DXS6795, DXS9902, DXS8378, HPRTB, GATA165B12, DXS7132, DXS7424, DXS6807, DXS6803, GATA172D05, DXS6800, DXS10134, GATA31E08, DXS10159, DXS6789, DXS6810, amelogenin) was used to analyze 97 unrelated males and 214 females. In addition, we used the kits to examine 5 cases with abnormal amelogenin test results, as well as a male child with agenosomia typed by autosomal STR. We found 203 Y-STR haplotypes with allele frequencies ranging from 0.0019 to 0.7959, and GD ranging from 0.3429 to 0.9667. Expect in DXS6803, the allele frequencies of the other 15 X-STR loci showed no differences between females and males. PDF ranged from 0.5504 to 0.9638, while PDM ranged from 0.3176 to 0.8377. With the exception of DXS6803 and DXS6810, the allele frequencies of other X-STR loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in females. One amelogenin negative case was characterized as a deletion of Y-DYS458. This paper provided data regarding the genetic polymorphism of Y-STRs and X-STRs in the Han population, and demonstrated the importance of Y-STR and X-STR in forensic autosomal STR analysis.

  10. [Study on the prevalence and associated risk factors related to HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 among female sex workers in Jiaozhou, Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Dongmin; Liu, Huixin; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the prevalence rates and associated risk factors on HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Jiaozhou, Shandong province. Through convenient sampling, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted on female sex workers to collect related information. Blood specimens were drawn for serological tests on HIV, syphilis and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Patients with positive results from both treponema pallidum and HSV-2 tested by ELISA method, were defined as being superinfected. A total of 460 FSWs were recruited in this study. The prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, and syphilis/HSV-2 superinfection were 0.22% , 5.9% , 43.0% , and 11.7% , respectively. Among the methamphetamine users, the prevalence rates of syphilis, HSV-2, and syphilis/HSV-2 superinfection were 12.4%, 55.2%, and 22.9%, respectively. Results from multivariate analysis showed that factors that significantly associated with syphilis infection would include: methamphetamine use (OR = 3.61, 95% CI:1.62-8.06), having first commercial sex intercourse at under 20 years of age (OR = 2.80, 95% CI:1.15-6.85), more than 2 establishments that the FSWs worked in the last month (OR = 4.37, 95%CI:0.83-22.83). Factors associated with HSV-2 infection were methamphetamine use (OR = 2.30, 95%CI:1.43-3.70), having first commercial sex intercourse at under 20 years of age (OR = 1.77, 95% CI:1.16-2.69), working at low-end establishments (OR = 2.61, 95%CI:1.66-4.10), working at the local sex-work venues for more than one year (OR = 2.01, 95% CI:1.28-3.14), with low education backgrounds (OR = 2.27, 95% CI:1.18-4.36), using methamphetamine (OR = 3.95, 95% CI:2.09-7.44), low education background (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.10-5.36), 21-30 year-olds (OR = 2.95, 95%CI:1.08-8.03), older than 31 years of age (OR = 7.05, 95% CI:2.48-20.01) etc., were independent risk factors associated with the superinfection of syphilis and HSV-2. The prevalence rates of syphilis, HSV-2

  11. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Xu, Guang; Shao, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hu; Pan, Xing-Fu; Li, Jin-Ye

    2017-02-24

    Trace elements, including zinc (Zn) and germanium (Ge), are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people's living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302) from residents aged 6-60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM) concentrations (95% confidence interval) were 3.14 (3.08-3.20) mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3-20.6) μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2-25.1) μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001), while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001) and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095). Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002), Ge (p = 0.002), and Pb (p = 0.001). The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20-30-year-olds (p < 0.001), while Pb concentrations were highest in 12-16-year-olds (p < 0.001). Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05). GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1-2 times/month (18.7 μg/L), 1-2 times/week (20.9 μg/L), and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001). Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects who used cosmetics

  12. Prevalence of the mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from human faecal samples collected in 2012 in rural villages in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhenwang; Berglund, Björn; Sun, Qiang; Nilsson, Maud; Chen, Baoli; Tärnberg, Maria; Ding, Lilu; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Bi, Zhenqiang; Tomson, Göran; Yao, Jingjing; Gu, Zhanying; Yin, Xiao; Kou, Zengqiang; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2017-04-01

    Since its initial discovery in China in 2015, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been reported in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples, animals and meat worldwide. In this study, 706 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli from 411 persons were detected in a collection of faecal samples from 1000 rural residents in three counties in Shandong Province, China. These isolates were screened for mcr-1 and phenotypic colistin resistance. The gene was found in 3.5% of the isolates (from 4.9% of persons) from all three counties. All isolates with phenotypic colistin resistance carried mcr-1. These data indicate that commensal carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli with mcr-1 among persons in rural China was already present in 2012 and that mcr-1 was the most important colistin resistance mechanism. Interventions are necessary to minimise further dissemination of mcr-1, which would limit the future usefulness of colistin as a last-resort antibiotic.

  13. The influence of Zihe Stream on the groundwater resources of the Dawu well field and on the discharge at the Heiwang iron mine, Zibo City area, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Yu; Liu, Jian-Li; Qian, Xiao-Xing

    The Dawu well field, one of the largest in China, supplies most of the water for the Zibo City urban area in Shandong Province. The field yields 522,400-535,400m3/d from an aquifer in fractured karstic Middle Ordovician carbonate rocks. Much of the recharge to the aquifer is leakage of surface water from Zihe Stream, the major drainage in the area. Installation of the Taihe Reservoir in 1972 severely reduced the downstream flow in Zihe Stream, resulting in a marked reduction in the water table in the Dawu field. Since 1994, following the installation of a recharge station on Zihe Stream upstream from the well field that injects water from the Taihe Reservoir into the stream, the groundwater resources of the field have recovered. An average of 61.2×103m3/d of groundwater, mostly from the Ordovician aquifer, is pumped from the Heiwang iron mine, an open pit in the bed of Zihe Stream below the Taihe Reservoir. A stepwise regression equation, used to evaluate the role of discharge from the reservoir into the stream, confirms that reservoir water is one of the major sources of groundwater in the mine. Résumé Le champ captant de Dawu, l'un des plus importants de Chine, fournit l'essentiel de l'eau à la communauté urbaine de Zibo, dans la province de Shandong. Ce champ captant fournit entre 522,400 et 535,400m3/j à partir d'un aquifère fracturé karstique des carbonates de l'Ordovicien moyen. La plupart de la recharge de cet aquifère est assurée par des pertes d'eau de surface de la rivière Zihe, principal cours d'eau de la région. La mise en eau du réservoir de Taihe en 1972 a sévèrement réduit en aval l'écoulement de la Zihe, ce qui a provoqué une diminution nette du niveau de la nappe dans le champ captant de Dawu. Depuis 1974, après la mise en fonctionnement d'une station de recharge sur la rivière Zihe, injectant, en amont du champ captant, de l'eau du réservoir de Taihe dans la rivière, les ressources en eau souterraine ont été reconstitu

  14. [Construction of urban green space ecosystem by using corridor network: a case study in west urban area of Dongying City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Hui; Huang, Zhiji; Cai, Mantang; Kang, Junshui

    2006-09-01

    This paper discussed the ecological significance of urban green corridors network in urban green space ecosystem, analyzed the present status of green space ecosystem in the west urban area of Dongying in Shangdong Province, and figured out the ways of constructing urban green corridors network in this area to strengthen the linkage between its fragmented greenbelts, and between these greenbelts and rural natural environment. Through the construction of this network, the greenbelt area in the west urban area of Dongying would increase 1400 hm2, greenbelt area per capita would increase to 66 m2, and urban and rural greenbelts would be integrated into a whole system to serve the whole city, giving a powerful support to enhance the life quality of local people and the stability of urban ecosystem.

  15. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    The main task of studies on salt-water intrusion into coastal confined aquifers is to predict the position of the fresh- salt-water interface, which can be determined from the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea. Records of groundwater level affected by tides can be used to infer hydrological conditions and determine hydraulic parameters of an aquifer extending under the sea. In this paper, a three-dimensional, variable-density groundwater flow model has been developed to determine the equivalent roof length of an aquifer extending under the sea from the tidal-effected data of groundwater level in the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China. The seaward boundary is obtained by converging hydraulic head fluctuations observed in drill holes with calculated values, and the aquifer parameters in the extending zone are estimated. The impacts of aquifer roof length and aquifer parameters on the fluctuation of tidal groundwater are studied. It is concluded that the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea should correspond with certain aquifer parameters in the extrapolation zone. Therefore, the seaward boundary determined from tidal-effect information is the equivalent boundary in hydrodynamic characteristics rather than the true boundary of the confined aquifer Les sujets principaux des études d'instrusion saline dans les aquifères confinés en zone côtière sont la prédiction de la position de l'interface entre l'eau salée et l'eau fraîche, qui peut être déterminée à partir de l'extention du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer. Les enregistrements des niveaux des eaux souterraines influencés par les marées peuvent être utilisés pour préciser les conditions hydrologiques et déterminer les paramètres hydrauliques d'un aquifère possédant une extension sous la mer. Dans cet article, un modèle tridimensionnel comprenant des eaux souterraines de densité variable a été développé pour déterminer la longueur équivalente du toit

  16. [Antibody persistence following booster vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccines among low-response adults in Zhangqiu county of Shandong province: 24-month of follow-up from 2009].

    PubMed

    Yan, Bingyu; Lyu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiaye; Feng, Yi; Xu, Aiqiang; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Libo; Liang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Zhang, Li

    2014-12-01

    To assess the 24-month efficacy after booster vaccination with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine among low-response adults in Zhangqiu county of Shandong province. A total of 24 237 adults aged 18-49 years old, never received HepB vaccination, without HBV infection history, and had been living at 3 towns of Zhangqiu county in Shandong province for more than half a year in september, 2009, were collected blood samples of 3-5 ml. A total of 11 590 adults who were negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) , antibody to HBsAg (Anti-HBs) and antibody to HBV core antigen (Anti-HBc), were divided into four groups randomly and were vaccinated following the schedule of 0-1-6 with 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HepB-SC), 20 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by Chinese hamster ovary cell (HepB-CHO), 10 µg HepB-SC and 10 µg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid techniques in Hansenula Polymorpha (HepB-HP), respectively. The adults who were low-response to the primary hepatitis B vaccination (10 mU/ml ≤ anti-HBs<100 mU/ml) were divided into four groups by cluster random sampling. These groups were revaccinated with 3-dose of above-mentioned four kinds of HepB respectively. Blood samples were drawn from 1 month (T1) and 24 month (T24) after the 3 dose revaccination, respectively. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc was detected by Chemiluminescence Microparticle Imunoassay (CMIA). Out of the 8 592 adults who have accepted the primary vaccination of hepatitis B and been collected the blood samples, 1 306 subjects showed low-response. A total of 718 low-response subjects were collected blood samples after T1 and T24 following 3 doses of booster vaccination. The proportion of the four groups was 32.3% (232/718), 25.8% (185/718) , 19.3% (139/718) , 22.6% (162/718) , respectively. The average proportion of anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml were decreased from 77.58% after T1 to 35.63% after T

  17. Gene cloning, homology comparison and analysis of the main functional structure domains of beta estrogen receptor in Jining Gray goat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-gang; Li, Hong-mei; Wang, Shu-ying; Huang, Li-bo; Guo, Hui-jun

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the molecular evolution and characteristic of beta estrogen receptor (ERβ) gene in Jining Gray goat in China, the entire ERβ gene from Jining Gray goat ovary was amplified, identified and sequenced, and the gene sequences were compared with those of other animals. Functional structural domains and variations in DNA binding domains (DBD) and ligand binding domains (LBD) between Jining Gray goat and Boer goat were analyzed. The results indicate that the ERβ gene in Jining Gray goat includes a 1584bp sequence with a complete open-reading-frame (ORF), encoding a 527 amino acid (aa) receptor protein. Compared to other species, the nucleotide homology is 73.9-98.9% and the amino acid homology is 79.5-98.5%. The main antigenic structural domains lie from the 97th aa to the 286th aa and from the 403rd aa to the 527th aa. The hydrophilicity and the surface probability of the structural domains are distributed throughout a range of amino acids. There are two different amino acids in the DBD and three different amino acids in the LBD between Jining Gray and Boer goats, resulting in dramatically different spatial structures for ERβ protein. These differences may explain the different biological activities of ERβ between the two goat species. This study firstly acquired the whole ERβ gene sequence of Jining Gray goat with a complete open reading frame, and analyzed its gene evolutionary relationship and predicted its mainly functional structural domains, which may very help for further understanding the genome evolution and gene diversity of goat ERβ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment and characterization of outer root sheath (ORS) cell line from Jining grey goat.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhifeng; Hu, Yanxia; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Yongqing; Dong, Bin; Zhu, Houshun; Dong, Zhongdian; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2012-03-01

    A new line of outer root sheath (ORS) cells was established from hair follicles of Jining grey goat by using a mechanical separation combined with enzyme digestion. Cell morphology is described at different phases. The chromosome analysis of ORS cells, identification of the ORS cells and morphological reversion test were detected at the 4th and 40th passages. The ORS cells were healthy and the growth characteristics were stable with a population doubling time of 52 h. Chromosome analysis showed that >58% of cells were diploid. Test for ORS cell line CK19 expression was positive. This newly established ORS cell line not only lays the foundation for further studying on the growth, regeneration, development law of goat hair follicle but also provides a mirror for the research of human hair in medical field.

  19. [Soil and water losses and phosphorus output at the places between ridges in sloping peanut land under different planting modes in Yimeng mountainous area of Shandong Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Hua; Yu, Xing-Xiu; Liu, Qian-Jin; Wu, Yuan-Zhi

    2012-12-01

    Taking the typical land use type, sloping Arachis hypogaea land, in Yimeng mountainous area of Shandong as study object, an in-situ fixed-point field experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of soil and water losses and phosphorus output at the places between ridges in the sloping land under different planting modes (Arachis hypogaea + Cynodon dactylon, I; A. hypogae + Melilotus officinalis, II; A. hypogaea + Lolium multiflorum, III; A. hypogaea + Trifolium repens, IV; A. hypogaea + blank control, V). Planting grasses at the places between ridges could effectively decrease the soil and water losses. The runoff was 55.1%-61.3% of the control, and decreased in the order of II > I > IV> III. The sediment loss was 3.4% -32.3% of the control, and decreased in the order of IV > II > I > 11. A. hypogaea + L. multiflorum was effective in storing water and retaining sediment. During the early period of planting L. multiflorum, the sediment loss was more affected by rainfall and presented a fluctuated variation, but in late period, the sediment loss decreased continuously and performed more stable, and accordingly, the sediment retention increased continuously. Planting grasses effectively decreased the output of phosphorus, with the decrease of total phosphorus (TP) output being 52.8%-75.3% of the control, and was in the order of I > II > IV > III. As compared with the control, planting grasses decreased 27.5% -67.0% of the output of particle phosphorus (PP), but relatively increased the output of dissolvable phosphorus (DP). A. hypogaea + L. multiflorum had the best effect in decreasing the output of phosphorus, with the outputs of TP and PP being 58.4% and 27.5% of the control, respectively. In the growth period of the vegetations, the losses of different phosphorus forms differed, and the dissolvable inorganic phosphorus was the main form of the output of DP during whole rain season. After the peanut harvested, the output of different phosphorus forms in the

  20. The short-term association between meteorological factors and mumps in Jining, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Runzi; Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Yumin; Zhang, Tao; Luo, Cheng; Jiang, Zheng; Xu, Qinqin; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Xiujun

    2016-10-15

    An increasing trend of the incidence of mumps has been observed in a few developing countries in recent years, presenting a major threat to children's health. A few studies have examined the relationship between meteorological factors and mumps with inconsistent findings. The daily data of meteorological variables and mumps from 2009 to 2013 were obtained from Jining, a temperate inland city of China. A generalized additive model was used to quantify the association between meteorological factors and mumps based on the exposure-response relationship. A total of 8520 mumps cases were included in this study. We found a nonlinear relationship of daily mean temperature, sunshine duration and relative humidity with mumps, with an approximately linear association for mean temperature above 4°C (excess risk (ER) for 1°C increase was 2.72%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38%, 3.05% on the current day), for relative humidity above 54%, the ER for 1% increase was -1.86% (95% CI: -2.06%, -1.65%) at lag day 14; and for sunshine duration higher than 5h/d, the ER for per 1h/d increase was12.91% (95% CI: 11.38%, 14.47%) at lag day 1. While we found linear effects for daily wind speed (ER: 2.98%, 95% CI: 2.71%, 3.26% at lag day 13). This study suggests that meteorological factors might be important predictors of incidence of mumps, and should be considered in its control and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minister Peng inspects family planning work in Shandong.

    PubMed

    1991-06-01

    Family planning (FP) programs in various villages in Shandong Province, China are discussed in terms of Minister Peng Peiyun's inspection. The visit by the State FP Commission officer was conducted with the Vice Governor and the Provincial FP Committee Director. 8 townships and villages in Yantai and Waihai prefectures were involved in the visits: Nanche Village of Shitou Town of Rongchen City, Zhangjia Township of Wendeng City, Yujia Village of Penglai County, and Xibeizhang Village of Pinglidian Town of Laizhou City. FP efforts and Minister Peng's comments are provided for these areas. IN Nanche village, Minister Peng said that farmers will support FP when the vast masses of the people of childbearing age are served. FP is important to political and social stability and economic development. In Zhangjia, Minister Peng visited a subcenter on education and said a solid basis for implementing FP is derived from paying sufficient attention to education on the basic principles of FP. In Yujia Village where there were no unplanned births, the village head answered the inquiry about FP success by saying the community persevered in developing the economy while simultaneously controlling population reproduction. A collective economy was formed with 7 small factories and 3 orchards. Annual income/capita in 1990 was 1,400 RMB Yuan. 300,000 RMB Yuan is devoted to the establishment of a kindergarten and primary school. An insurance system is operable. Childbearing desires changed with the relief from worries and the intensified education on population and FP. In Xibeizhang Village, which was designated a model for FP by governments in Shandong Province and Laizhou City, a provincial FP worker spoke directly to Minister Peng about the local activities. Encouragement on developing the 3 (educational and publicity, contraception, and daily management) to a new level and on surging ahead to bring about new achievement in FP was provided by Minister Peng to FP workers.

  2. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  3. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  4. Changes in the nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional status during childhood plays an important role in the human life cycle. The present study examined the prevalence trends in different grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Data for the study were obtained from six cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren carried out in 1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014. Height and weight of all children were measured; BMI was calculated from their height and weight. International BMI cut-offs were used to define thinness, overweight and obesity. Shandong Province, China. A total of 56 045 students aged 7-18 years were included in the current analysis. In the past 29 years, the prevalence of thinness decreased from 18·22 % and 23·45 % in 1985 to 7·18 % and 9·49 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. Conversely, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity increased from 1·79 % and 1·66 % in 1985 to 31·12 % and 20·11 % in 2014 for boys and girls, respectively. The nutritional profile of Shandong children and adolescents had an obvious change over the past 29 years. Special attention should be paid to controlling the rapid rise of childhood overweight and obesity.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of 32 porcine circovirus type 2 isolates from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianli; Xu, Shaojian; Fu, Fang; Cong, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xiaoyuan; Peng, Zhe; Wu, Jiaqiang; Sun, Wenbo; Du, Yijun; Li, Jun; Huang, Baohua; Wang, Jinbao

    2015-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the essential causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), can be divided into distinct genotypes. Thirty-two PCV2 isolates obtained made from pigs in Shandong Province between 2005 and 2013. Complete genome sequences were obtained in three replicates for each virus isolate, and the sequences were submitted to the NCBI database. The ORF1-encoded amino acid sequences had 98.4 %-100 % identity among the 32 isolates, and there were no significant differences among the three potential glycosylation positions: aa 23-25 (NPS), aa 256-258 (NQT) and aa 286-288 (NAT). The amino acid sequences of ORF2 had 88 %-100 % identity among the 32 isolates and the potential glycosylation position in the cap protein, aa 143-145 (NYS), had no variation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PCV2b/1C genetic lineage was prevalent in swine populations in Shandong Province. It also suggested that selection pressure has made the PCV2 isolates more genetically distant from current vaccine strains.

  6. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  7. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  8. Health payment-induced poverty under China's New Cooperative Medical Scheme in rural Shandong.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyun; Sleigh, Adrian C; Carmichael, Gordon A; Jackson, Sukhan

    2010-09-01

    To measure the incidence and severity of health payment-induced poverty of rural households under the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in rural Shandong, China. We collected primary data from a household survey to identify catastrophic health payments and measure associated health payment-induced poverty in a county of Shandong province. From a stratified random cluster sample of 3101 households, 375 households that might be at risk of catastrophic payments were identified and interviewed. A validity test of the screening method was conducted, from which we obtained the adjusted total number of households with catastrophic payments in the sample of 3101. The health payment-induced poverty incidence and severity were compared without and with NCMS reimbursements. Before the NCMS intervention, 5.06% of the sample households fell below the national poverty line due to health payments in 2004, compared with 4.03% after reimbursements. With NCMS reimbursements, the health payment-induced poverty gap of those households still remaining below the Chinese national poverty line dropped by 19.2% to an average of 977.2 Yuan. Out-of-pocket health payments remain a severe burden for rural households. Financial protection from the NCMS was limited.

  9. Avian influenza H9N2 seroprevalence among pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Zhou, Yufa; Zhao, Yuxin; Li, Wenbo; Song, Wengang; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-03-01

    Shandong province of China has a large number of pig farms with the semi-enclosed houses, allowing crowds of wild birds to seek food in the pig houses. As the carriers of avian influenza virus (AIV), these wild birds can easily pass the viruses to the pigs and even the occupational swine-exposed workers. However, thus far, serological investigation concerning H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong is sparse. To better understand the prevalence of H9N2 AIV in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, the serum samples of pigs and occupational pig-exposed workers were collected and tested for the antibodies for H9N2 AIV by both hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and micro-neutralization (MN) assays. When using the antibody titers ≥40 as cut-off value, 106 (HI: 106/2176, 4.87%) and 84 (MN: 84/2176, 3.86%) serum samples of pigs were tested positive, respectively; 6 (HI: 6/287, 2.09%) and 4 (MN: 4/287, 1.39%) serum samples of the pig farm staff were positive, respectively; however, serum samples from the control humans were tested negative in both HI and MN assays. These findings revealed that there were H9N2 AIV infections in pig population and pig farm staff in Shandong, China. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to conduct the long-term surveillance of AIV in pig population and the pig farm staff.

  10. Changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China from 1995 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2011-07-01

    Nutritional status of children and adolescents has long been known to be a determinant of health and disease; both obesity and underweight are associated with health consequences. However, no studies have been reported on changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China. The present study assessed the changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong Province from 1995 to 2005. Data used derived from two national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2005 in Shandong Province, China. Increments of stature, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (Hb) for children and adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were reported. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were obtained according to the screening criteria of underweight, overweight and obesity for Chinese students using BMI and prevalence of anaemia was obtained according to the WHO criteria. Means of stature, body weight, BMI and Hb for both boys and girls surveyed in 2005 were significantly higher than 1995 values. The range of increments of stature and body weight for adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were 1.95-3.66 cm and 2.21-6.25 kg for boys and 1.40-2.91 cm and 1.48-3.10 kg for girls. In the past 10 years, rates of overweight and obesity increased, while underweight was not as evident: for overweight from 7.95% (boys) and 5.21% (girls) in 1995 to 13.62% (boys) and 8.25% (girls) in 2005; and for obesity from 3.48% (boys) and 2.07% (girls) in 1995 to 11.17% (boys) and 5.64% (girls) in 2005. The rate of anaemia decreased, from 19.99% (boys) and 23.43% (girls) in 1995 to 10.28% (boys) and 13.07% (girls) in 2005. The nutritional status of children and adolescents has shown some improvement, although prevalence of overweight and obesity increased significantly during the 10-year period. Concerted efforts should be made to appropriately control the prevalence of overweight and

  11. Paleoproterozoic multistage metamorphic events in Jining metapelitic rocks from the Khondalite Belt in the North China Craton: Evidence from petrology, phase equilibria modelling and U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia; Liu, Fulai; Liu, Pinghua

    2017-05-01

    Metapelitic rocks of the Jining Complex (sillimanite-cordierite-garnet (Sil-Crd-Grt) gneisses, sillimanite-garnet (Sil-Grt) gneisses and quartzofeldspathic rocks) are exposed in the eastern segment of the Khondalite Belt (KB) in the North China Craton (NCC). The Sil-Crd-Grt gneisses have preserved polyphase mineral assemblages and microstructural evidence of anatexis, resulting from biotite dehydration melting. Petrological observations revealed that the Sil-Crd-Grt gneisses contain three metamorphic assemblages: a peak assemblage of garnet porphyroblast and matrix biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite + magnetite, a post-peak near-isothermal decompressional assemblage of garnet + cordierite + biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite + magnetite, and a decompressional cooling assemblage of garnet + biotite + cordierite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite + magnetite. A clockwise P-T path was defined involving the inferred peak stage followed by post-peak near-isothermal decompression and decompressional cooling stages, with P-T conditions of 790-825 °C and 9-10 kbar, 810-890 °C and 6.0-6.5 kbar, and 780-810 °C and 4.0-5.5 kbar, respectively. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb analyses of the Sil-Crd-Grt gneisses and Sil-Grt gneisses for the detrital and metamorphic zircons yielded a protolith age of ∼2.0 Ga and the late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic age of 1895-1885 Ma. The results reveal that the metapelitic rocks of the Jining Complex underwent continent-continent subduction or collision in the peak metamorphic stage, followed by a post-collisional exhumation event in the post-peak decompressional stage, and a subsequent decompressional cooling stage between the Yinshan and Ordos blocks to form the Paleoproterozoic KB.

  12. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p < 0.01). However, a rapid increase in the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Contamination, source identification, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of vegetable greenhouses in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Qiqi; Wu, Juan; Zeng, Lusheng; Chen, Qinghua; Zhu, Xiangwei; Ma, Dong; Ge, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in soil (n=196) and vegetable (n=30) collected from greenhouses, and also in the soil (n=27) collected from agriculture fields close to the greenhouses in Shandong Province, China. The total PAH concentration (∑16PAH) ranged from 152.2µg/kg to 1317.7µg/kg, within the moderate range in agricultural soils of China. Three-ring PAHs were the dominant species, with Phe (16.3%), Ace (13.1%), and Fl (10.5%) as the major compounds. The concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW ≤3 rings) PAHs were high in the east and north of Shandong, while the concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW ≥4 rings) PAHs were high in the south and west of the study area. The PAH level in soils in industrial areas (IN) was higher than those in transport areas (TR) and rural areas (RR). No significant difference in concentration of ∑16PAH and composition was observed in soils of vegetable greenhouses and field soils. PAH concentration exhibited a weakly positive correlation with alkaline nitrogen, available phosphorus in soil, but a weakly negative correlation with soil pH. However, no obvious correlation was observed between PAH concentration and organic matter of soil, or ages of vegetable greenhouses. ∑16PAH in vegetables ranged from 89.9µg/kg to 489.4µg/kg, and LMW PAHs in vegetables positively correlated with those in soils. The sources of PAHs were identified and quantitatively assessed through positive matrix factorization. The main source of PAHs in RR was coal combustion, while the source was traffic in TR and IN. Moreover, petroleum source, coke source, biomass combustion, or mixed sources also contributed to PAH pollution. According to Canadian soil quality guidelines, exposure to greenhouse soils in Shandong posed no risk to human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Changes in skinfold thickness and body composition among children and adolescents in Shandong, China from 1995 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-X; Wang, S-R

    2013-06-01

    There is strong evidence of a upward secular trend in skinfold thickness (SFT) and the prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over recent decades in developed countries. However, no studies on this trend have been reported in Shandong Province, China. The present study aimed to assess the decennial change in SFT and body composition among children and adolescents in Shandong Province during the past 15 years (1995-2010). Data were obtained from two national surveys on student's constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2010 in Shandong Province, China. A total of 14 780 (7198 in 1995 and 7582 in 2010) students aged 7-18 years participated in the present study. Weight and SFT of all subjects were measured. Percentage body fat (%FM) was estimated by SFT, and fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated from: FM (kg) = %FM × weight (kg)/100; FFM (kg) = weight (kg)-FM(kg). The range of differences of weight, SFT, FM and FFM over the different age groups between the 1995 and 2010 samples were calculated. In the past 15 years, mean values of SFT have increased. The mean (range) increments of SFT were 6.28 (2.91-11.22) mm for boys and 3.29 (2.22-4.29) mm for girls, demonstrating a mean increase of 32% for boys and 14% for girls. The mean (range) increments of weight, FM and FFM were 7.26 (4.41-10.82) kg, 3.70 (1.47-6.58) kg and 3.56 (1.24-5.27) kg, at rates of 18%, 47% and 10% for boys, respectively, and 4.14 (2.78-5.64) kg, 1.68 (1.02-2.27) kg and 2.46 (1.52-3.49) kg, at rates of 11%, 20% and 8% for girls, respectively. The mean values of SFT, FM and FFM have increased over time. Rates of increase were greater for FM than FFM. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Trends in the Prevalence of Morbid Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Chu, Zun-Hua; Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Zhou, Jing-Yang

    2017-04-17

    : Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of morbid obesity is limited. The present study examined the prevalent trends in morbid obesity among children and adolescents during the past 19 years (1995-2014) in Shandong, China. : Data for this study were obtained from five cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014) of schoolchildren in Shandong Province, China. A total of 41 500 students aged 7-18 years were included in this study. Body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define morbid obesity. : The prevalence of morbid obesity was increasing continuously during the past 19 years (1995-2014), from 0.25% for boys and 0.11% for girls in 1995 to 2.73% for boys and 1.29% for girls in 2014. Boys had higher prevalence of morbid obesity than girls ( p <0.01). Regional socioeconomic status (SES) inequalities in morbid obesity were observed; children and adolescents from high SES district had a rapid increase in the prevalence of morbid obesity than their counterparts from moderate SES and low SES districts in the past 19 years. : Although the current prevalence of morbid obesity was at a relatively low level, a continuous increasing trend was observed between 1995 and 2014. We should not relax our vigilance, and policymakers and experts should pay more attention to the monitoring and prevention of morbid obesity among children and adolescents in the future decades.

  17. Cooperative medical insurance and the cost of care in Shandong, PR China: perspectives of patients and community members.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Raulli, Alexandra; Yan, Wang; Dong, Han; Aiguo, Zhang; Ping, Dong

    2015-03-01

    This research was conducted to identify the cost of care associated with utilization of village clinics and membership of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) in 2 counties of Shandong province, PR China. A total of 397 community members and 297 patients who used the village clinics were interviewed. The average cost for primary care treatment of 1 episode of illness was about 55 yuan (about US$8). Although more than 50% of people had NCMS membership, many consider the monetary reimbursements as insufficient. The low insurance reimbursement rates and inability to pay out-of-pocket expenses compromise access to care. Delays can cause more serious illnesses with potential to overburden the secondary care at the township and county hospitals. Those rural people who have not yet enjoyed the benefits of China's economic development may not benefit from recent health care reform and finance mechanisms unless schemes such as the NCMS provide more substantial subsidies.

  18. Environmental risk factors for congenital heart disease in the Shandong Peninsula, China: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Junxiu; Tang, Ji; Ji, Jiafen; Chen, Jingwu; Liu, Changyun

    2009-01-01

    In China, and in Shandong province, the proportionate contribution of birth defects to infant mortality has increased, and congenital heart disease (CHD) is now the most common cause of birth defects. The cause of approximately 90% of cases of congenital heart disease is multifactorial. Little is known about modifiable environmental risk factors or regional differences. We investigated putative environmental risk factors for congenital heart disease in the Shandong province of China in order to improve prevention of CHD. We conducted a hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study of 164 patients with congenital heart diseases and 328 controls, all of whom were retrospectively interviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify environmental risk factors for CHD. The environmental risk factors associated with CHD were mother's education level (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.67), neonatal asphyxia or hypoxia (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.25-11.18), number of previous pregnancies (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.44-4.97), maternal upper respiratory tract infection (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.56-10.85), maternal infection (OR, 7.98; 95% CI, 2.14-29.72), maternal B-mode ultrasound examination (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.48-11.08), and maternal mental stress (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.94-7.94) during early pregnancy. No significant interactions were observed among these factors. Augmenting maternal mental healthcare, obtaining regular health counseling and testing during pregnancy, preventing upper respiratory tract infections, limiting medication during early pregnancy, offering health promotion and health education to women of childbearing age (especially those with less formal education), and improving obstetric procedures and techniques may lower the occurrence of congenital heart disease.

  19. An IUR evolutionary game model on the patent cooperate of Shandong China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ma, Yinghong; Liu, Zhiyuan; You, Xuemei

    2017-06-01

    Organizations of industries and university & research institutes cooperate to meet their respective needs based on social contacts, trust and share complementary resources. From the perspective of complex network together with the patent data of Shandong province in China, a novel evolutionary game model on patent cooperation network is presented. Two sides in the game model are industries and universities & research institutes respectively. The cooperation is represented by a connection when a new patent is developed together by the two sides. The optimal strategy of the evolutionary game model is quantified by the average positive cooperation probability p ¯ and the average payoff U ¯ . The feasibility of this game model is simulated on the parameters such as the knowledge spillover, the punishment, the development cost and the distribution coefficient of the benefit. The numerical simulations show that the cooperative behaviors are affected by the variation of parameters. The knowledge spillover displays different behaviors when the punishment is larger than the development cost or less than it. Those results indicate that reasonable punishment would improve the positive cooperation. The appropriate punishment will be useful to enhance the big degree nodes positively cooperate with industries and universities & research institutes. And an equitable plan for the distribution of cooperative profits is half-and-half distribution strategy for the two sides in game.

  20. Pulmonary tuberculosis among migrants in Shandong, China: factors associated with treatment delay

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengchao; Chu, Jie; Geng, Hong; Wang, Xingzhou; Xu, Lingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective A timely initiation of treatment is crucial to better control tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study is to describe treatment delay among migrant patients with TB and to identify factors associated with treatment delay, so as to provide evidence for strategy development and improvement of TB control among migrants in China. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shandong province of China. A total of 314 confirmed smear positive migrant patients with pulmonary TB were included. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of variables with treatment delay among migrant patients with TB. A multilogistic regression model was developed to further assess the effect of variables on treatment delay. Results Of 314 migrant patients with TB, 65.6% experienced treatment delay (>1 day). Household income level, diagnosis symptom severity, understanding of whether TB is curable or not and knowledge about the free TB treatment policy are factors significantly associated with treatment delay. Conclusions Economic status and knowledge about TB are key barriers to accessing TB treatment. An integrated policy of carrying out TB-related health education and publicising the free TB treatment policy among migrants is needed. Health insurance schemes for migrants should be modified to make them transferrable and pro-poor. PMID:25534210

  1. Analysis of injection-induced failure for DuPont test 1#, Dongying, Shandong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing-Chuan; Guo, Biao; Qü, Guo-Sheng; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Li, Shun-Cheng; Chen, Jiu-Hui; Li, Yan-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Feng

    2007-05-01

    From December 3, 2005 to May 18, 2006, a water injection-induced seismicity test was conducted on DuPont test well 1# for about six months by China Earthquake Administration. To the vertical injected well, 11 water injection processes were conducted on four depth intervals, including middle Shahejie3, the top of the upper Shahejie3, the bottom of the upper Shahejie3 and Shahejie2, with the vertical span from 1 464 m to 3 034 m. Monitoring stations has been run throughout the procedure. From the recorded data, there were 5 090 events being picked out manually, 274 events located. It indicates that the energy of seismic signal is very small, and the largest magnitude is no more than M L0.5. And also, the major energy is centered on the vertical component, while amplitude of the other horizontal components is very small. From the start of water injection, the number of seismic events varied with time. And the event was most frequent in the period of upper Shahejie3 injection. The distribution of events extended from the injected well to the outside with time, and the direction of events distribution rotated in different injected interval. Of which, in the low permeability interval, events trend close to the direction of principal compressive stress direction; while in higher permeability interval, they trend close to the predominant seepage direction.

  2. Chewing ability in an urban and rural population over 40 years in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess chewing ability related to dental status. One thousand four hundred sixty-two Chinese subjects over 40 years, dentate in both jaws, were categorized in a hierarchical functional classification system with and without tooth replacements. Chewing ability was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression including five dental conditions ( "≥10 teeth in each jaw"; "complete anterior regions"; "sufficient premolar regions" (≥3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs)); "sufficient molar regions" (bilaterally ≥1 POP); and tooth replacement), adjusted for six background variables. Likelihood ratios for chewing problems were assessed at each level of the hierarchical classification system based on these dental conditions. Seventy-eight to 91 % of subjects reported no or minor chewing problems. The conditions "≥10 teeth in each jaw", and "complete anterior regions" were not associated, whereas "sufficient premolar regions" and "sufficient molar regions" were associated with chewing problems (Ors, 0.33–0.58). If classified hierarchically, the condition "≥10 teeth in each jaw" was relevant for chewing problems (likelihood ratios 3.3–3.7). "Sufficient premolar region" and "sufficient molar region" were relevant to reduce the likelihood ratios for having chewing problems (both approximately with a factor 2), both for soft and for hard foods. Subjects with artificial teeth added had similar chance for chewing problems compared to counterparts with natural teeth only. However, if comparing replaced teeth with natural teeth, subjects with tooth replacement showed higher chance for chewing problems. Chewing ability was strongly associated with dental conditions. The presence of at least 10 teeth in each jaw had highest impact on chewing ability.

  3. [Residues and Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides DDTs in Soil of Linyi City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Zeng-hui; Wang, Hong-jin; Dai, Jie-rui; Pang, Xu-gui; Zhao, Xi-qiang; Liu, Hua-feng

    2015-07-01

    Surface soil samples were collected every 36 km2 from Linyi City to study the residues, composition and origin, influencing factors, spatial distribution and environment quality characteristics of soil DDTs. Measurements were taken for DDTs, OrgC, N, etc. for all samples. The results indicated that the detectable rate of DDTs was 71. 75%, and the mean content of DDTs was 0. 035 µg.g-1. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were the predominant contaminant compounds, with mean concentrations of 0.033 µg.g-1 and 0.010 µg.g-1, and accounted for 60. 99% and 34. 62% of the detectable samples, respectively. The degradation rate of DDTs suggested that 58% surface soils were recently inputted, these newly inputted locations were especially distributed in the middle to south of the study area, meanwhile, p,p'-DDD/p,p'-DDE revealed that the degradation of DDTs was mainly under oxidizing condition, and o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT illustrated that 71. 37% DDTs in soils of the study area were concerned with technical DDTs sources. Besides, the correlation, analysis showed that the external factors affecting the distribution of DDTs included OrgC, N, C and pH etc. and the higher the p, p'-DDT proportion of DDTs, the greater the effect. The distribution of DDTs had an obvious point source characteristic, and significant concentration centers were located nearby the cities and counties, typically, the DDTs concentrations of middle to southern area were much higher. However, DDTs environmental quality assessment suggested that the pollution level was relatively low, and the soil was mainly classified into grade I or II, which accounted for 78. 95% and 21. 05% of the whole study area, respectively.

  4. [Pollution Status and Migration of Mercury in the Sediments of Nansi Lake in Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei-fei; Yang, Li-yuan; Pang, Xu-gui; Wang, Bing-hua; Wang, Yun-qian

    2015-05-01

    The content of mercury and fractions were determined, in order to discuss the pollution situation and migration ability of mercury in inflow rivers and surface sediments of Nansi Lake. The average content of mercury in the sediments of the Nansi Lake was 0.046 mg · kg(-1), significantly higher than the environmental background values, which showed that Nansi Lake suffered from mercury pollution. Mercury in sediments existed mainly in the residual fraction, accounting for 65. 15%. The proportion of non-residual fractions was relatively small, in the order of organic bound fraction (30.61%), extractable fraction (2.93%), and Fe/Mn oxide (1.31%). The spatial change of non-residual fractions was that Weishan Lake and Nanyang Lake had higher non-residual mercury content than Zhaoyang Lake and Dushan Lake, and the non-residual mercury had a certain potential ecological harm on Weishan Lake and Nanyang Lake. From the horizontal view, the mercury content in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake had visible difference and the pollution degree was different among sub-lakes, so horizontal migration of mercury was obvious. Vertically, the mercury content showed a trend of increasing from the bottom to the top in core sediments, which might be associated with social and economic conditions in different periods.

  5. Characterization of Integrons and Resistance Genes in Salmonella Isolates from Farm Animals in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Baozhen; Sun, Shuhong; Chang, Weishan

    2017-01-01

    A total of 154 non-duplicate Salmonella isolates were recovered from 1,105 rectal swabs collected from three large-scale chicken farms (78/325, 24.0%), three large-scale duck farms (56/600, 9.3%) and three large-scale pig farms (20/180, 11.1%) between April and July 2016. Seven serotypes were identified among the 154 isolates, with the most common serotype in chickens and ducks being Salmonella enteritidis and in pigs Salmonella typhimurium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that high antimicrobial resistance rates were observed for tetracycline (72.0%) and ampicillin (69.4%) in all sources. Class 1 integrons were detected in 16.9% (26/154) of these isolates and contained gene cassettes aadA2, aadA1, drfA1-aadA1, drfA12-aadA2, and drfA17-aadA5. Three β-lactamase genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried blaTEM−1(55/154), followed by blaPSE−1(14/154) and blaCTX−M−55 (11/154). Three plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected among the 154 isolates, and most of the isolates carried qnrA (113/154), followed by qnrB (99/154) and qnrS (10/154). Fifty-four isolates carried floR among the 154 isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that nine sequence types (STs) were identified; ST11 was the most frequent genotype in chickens and ducks, and ST19 was identified in pigs. Our findings indicated that Salmonella was widespread, and the overuse of antibiotics in animals should be reduced considerably in developing countries. PMID:28747906

  6. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  7. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence.

  8. Some new species of nannoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Tseng, C. K.; Guo, Yujie

    1993-06-01

    Three new species and a new variety of nannoplankton, Chrysochromulina papillata, Chrysochromulina chiton var. minuta, Paraphysomonas simplexocorbita and Paraphysomonas bisorbulina are reported in this paper. All were isolated from the preliminary culture samples of seawater collected from Jiaozhou Bay, Shandong, China. The three species occurred at Station 1 (120° 14.56' E, 36° 4'N) in November 1984, the new variety at Station 2 (120° 16.35'E, 36° 4.5'N) in January, 1985. The morphological features, especially the structures of the scales of these new nannoplankton, are described. The differences between the new species and the related ones are discussed; their movement and nutrition, and the temperature and salinity of their biotopes are also mentioned.

  9. Mental health inpatient treatment expenditure trends in China, 2005-2012: evidence from Shandong.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junfang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ruiyun; Xing, Jinshui; Su, Lei; Yu, Fenghua; Lu, Mingshan

    2014-12-01

    Mental health is increasingly becoming a huge public health issue in China. Yet for various cultural, healthcare system, and social economic reasons, people with mental health need have long been under-served in China. In order to inform the current on-going health care reform, empirical evidences on the economic burden of mental illnesses in China are urgently needed to contribute to health policy makers' understanding of the potential benefits to society from allocating more resources to preventing and treating mental illness. However, the cost of mental illnesses and particularly its trend in China remains largely unknown. To investigate the trend of health care resource utilization among inpatients with mental illnesses in China, and to analyze what are the factors influencing the inpatient costs. Our study sample included 15,721 patients, both adults and children, who were hospitalized over an eight-year period (2005-2012) in Shandong Center for Mental Health (SCMH), the only provincial psychiatric hospital in Shandong province, China. Data were extracted from the Health Information System (HIS) at SCMH, with detailed and itemized cost data on all inpatient expenses incurred during hospitalization. The identification of the patients was based on the ICD-10 diagnoses recorded in the HIS. Descriptive analysis was done to analyze the trend of hospitalization cost and length of stay during the study period. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis was conducted to assess the factors that influence hospitalization cost. Among the inpatients in our sample, the most common mental disorders were schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders. The disease which had the highest per capita hospital expense was behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence (RMB 8,828.4; US$ 1,419.4, as compared to the average reported household annual income of US$ 2,095.3 in China). The average annual growth rate of per capita

  10. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia: Ceratopsia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong, China and Its Implications for Neoceratopsian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Kebai; Zhao, Xijin; Sullivan, Corwin; Chen, Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    Background The ceratopsians represent one of the last dinosaurian radiations. Traditionally the only universally accepted speciose clade within the group was the Ceratopsidae. However, recent discoveries and phylogenetic analyses have led to the recognition of a new speciose clade, the Leptoceratopsidae, which is predominantly known from the Upper Cretaceous of North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a new leptoceratopsid taxon, Zhuchengceratops inexpectus gen. et sp. nov., based on a partial, articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. Although Zhuchengceratops is significantly different from other known leptoceratopsids, it is recovered as a derived member of the group by our phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, Zhuchengceratops exhibits several features previously unknown in leptoceratopsids but seen in ceratopsids and their close relatives, suggesting that the distribution of morphological features within ceratopsians is more complex than previously realized. Conclusion/Significance The discovery of Zhuchengceratops increases both the taxonomic diversity and the morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae, providing further support for the hypothesis that this clade represents a successful radiation of horned dinosaurs in parallel with the Ceratopsidae in the Late Cretaceous. This documents a surprising case of the coexistence and radiation of two closely-related lineages with contrasting suites of jaw and dental features that probably reflect adaptation to different food resources. PMID:21079798

  11. Provision and financial burden of TB services in a financially decentralized system: a case study from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyue; Li, Renzhong; Cheng, Gang; Blas, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Both challenges and opportunities have been created by health sector reforms for TB control programmes in developing countries. China has initiated radical economic and health reforms since the late 1970s and is among the highest TB endemic countries in the world. This paper examines the operation of TB control programmes in a decentralized financial system. A case study was conducted in four counties of Shandong Province and data were collected from document reviews, and key informant and TB patient interviews. The main findings include: direct government support to TB control weakened in poorer counties after its decentralization to township and county governments; DOTS programmes in poorer counties was not implemented as well as in more affluent ones; and TB patients, especially the low-income patients, suffered heavy financial burdens. Financial decentralization negatively affects the public health programmes and may have contributed to the more rapid increase in the number of TB cases seen over the past decade in the poorer areas of China compared with the richer ones. Establishing a financial transfer system at central and provincial levels, correcting financial incentives for health providers, and initiating pro-poor projects for the TB patients, are recommended.

  12. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Common Quails (Coturnix coturnix) Intended for Human Consumption in Three Provinces of Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Chi, Wan-Bo; Sun, Wu-Wen; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Common quails are nutritious food and are also used as medicine in some parts of the world. Until now, no information on Toxoplasma gondii infection in common quails intended for human consumption in China is available. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in common quails in six cities from Shandong, Liaoning, and Jilin provinces, China. Out of 620 common quails examined, 59 (9.52%) were seropositive for T. gondii by the modified agglutination test. T. gondii infection in male and female common quails was 8.10% and 10.71%, respectively. The highest prevalence (13.10%) was detected in a group of common quails from Rizhao of Shandong province, followed by common quails from Yantai of Shandong province (13.04%) and the lowest prevalence (5.56%) was detected in a group of common quails from Shenyang of Liaoning province. The results of this survey revealed the presence of T. gondii infection in common quails in China, indicating that common quails are a potential source for transmission of T. gondii to humans, therefore, posing a potential public health concern. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii infection in common quails in China.

  13. Ideal cardiovascular health status and its association with socioeconomic factors in Chinese adults in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Guo, X L; Lu, Z L; Zhang, J Y; Tang, J L; Chen, X; Gao, C C; Xu, C X; Xu, A Q

    2016-09-07

    population-based interventions to improve the cardiovascular risk factors in Shandong Province in China.

  14. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  15. Association of HLA-B*51:01 with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in the Chinese Han Population of the Shandong Coastal Areas

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoyun, Chi; Zhihui, Feng; Xiaohua, Liu; Zhanhui, Du; Bin, Hu; Lin, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background: A lot of work has been done to study the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in various populations. But the results of the currently available studies are not consistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 with PTC in the Chinese Han population of the coastal areas of Shandong Province with respect to age and sex. Methods: A total of 154 patients diagnosed with PTC were analyzed for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles by using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. Two hundred unrelated healthy individuals were typed as controls. Results: Compared with the controls, the HLA-B*51:01 (8.8% vs. 4.5%, p=0.029, OR 2.039 [CI 1.101–3.775]) and HLA-C*07:06 (2.6% vs. 0.5%, p=0.024, OR 5.307 [CI 1.119–25.171]) allele frequencies were higher in the PTC patients, while the HLA-C*07:01 (1.3% vs. 6.0%, p=0.001, OR 0.206 [CI 0.071–0.601]) allele frequency was lower in the PTC patients that did not persist after Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This showed no statistically significant correlation of the HLA-A, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles and PTC. The incidence of PTC was more frequent in females between 30 and 60 years old. There were no significant differences in the age and sex distributions between the total and the HLA-B*51:01 positive PTC patients. Conclusions: The HLA associations in this Chinese Han population differ markedly from studies done in Europeans and Caucasians. The results reveal that HLA-B*51:01 is more likely to be a susceptible allele for PTC in addition to age and sex in the coastal areas of Shandong Province. PMID:24308748

  16. Graphene-like nanosheets synthesized by natural flaky graphite in Shandong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu-Yun, Chuan

    2013-02-01

    Natural flaky graphite in Shandong, China was purified by H2O2, a new patent method to produce graphite without sulfur and used as precursor to prepare exfoliated graphite through microwave irradiated expansion with some chemicals (such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and acetic acid). With the centrifugation process, graphene was synthesized by using an efficient and simple method under ultrasonic and microwave irradiation at the room temperature. Natural graphite and exfoliated graphite were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, and the resultant graphene was investigated and confirmed by atomic force microscopy, Raman micro-spectrometer, etc. Natural graphite in Shandong, China, consisted of mainly hexagonal (2H) and a little rhombohedral structure (3R), was beneficial for the synthesis of graphene. Graphene-like nanosheets about 1 to 3 nm, around three to five carbon layers can be synthesized efficiently by microwave and ultrasonic irradiation with natural graphite.

  17. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Percentiles and regional distribution of skinfold thickness among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Skinfold thicknesses (SFT) have long been considered important and valid measurements of subcutaneous fat. The present study reported the percentiles and regional distribution of SFT among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42,268 students (21,200 boys and 21,068 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Triceps, subscapular, and abdomen SFT of all subjects were measured. Shandong children and adolescents had a high SFT level and substantial regional disparities in SFT were observed. Boys and girls resident in high socioeconomic status (SES) districts had higher SFT level than those living in moderate and low SES districts. The SFT level of children and adolescents is associated with regional SES in Shandong, China. This may be interpreted as a result of geographic variation between the districts in the process of urbanization, living standards, nutritional conditions, dietary patterns, and public health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Factors affecting patient delay of diagnosis and completion of Direct Observation Therapy, Short-course (DOTS) among the migrant population in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Xu, Lingzhong; Zhou, Chengchao; Yuan, Qing; Geng, Hong; Wang, Xingzhou

    2013-06-01

    In China, the epidemiological and socioeconomic status of the migrant population suggests that the vulnerable population should be prioritized for tuberculosis (TB) control. A face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire was performed on a total of 314 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients among the migrant population of 12 randomly selected counties in Shandong Province, China. From the results, the cases of patient delay of diagnosis accounted for 40.8%, and the completion rate of Direct Observation Therapy, Short-course (DOTS) was as low as 67.2%. There were 47.1% missed cases in the first diagnosis. Factors affecting detection and treatment were present in their socioeconomic status, working style, and the accessibility to related TB care. The findings indicated that migrant TB patients suffer delayed diagnosis, a low case detection rate and a low completion DOTS rate. Improvement of migrants' working conditions and accessibility to specialized TB care is essential and is expected to lead to better case detection and treatment completion.

  20. Inaccuracy of Self-reported Low Sodium Diet among Chinese: Findings from Baseline Survey for Shandong & Ministry of Health Action on Salt and Hypertension (SMASH) Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Guo, Xiao Lei; Seo, Dong Chul; Xu, Ai Qiang; Xun, Peng Cheng; Ma, Ji Xiang; Shi, Xiao Ming; Li, Nicole; Yan, Liu Xia; Li, Yuan; Lu, Zi Long; Zhang, Ji Yu; Tang, Jun Li; Ren, Jie; Zhao, Wen Hua; Liang, Xiao Feng

    2015-02-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the agreement between the self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level in Chinese. The 24-h urine collection was conducted among 2112 adults aged 18-69 years randomly selected in Shandong Province, China. The subjects were asked whether their sodium intake was low, moderate, or high. The weighted kappa statistics was calculated to assess the agreement between 24-h urine sodium excretion level and self-reported sodium intake level. One third of the subjects reported low sodium intake level. About 70% of the subjects had mean 24-h sodium excretion>9 g/d, but reported low or moderate sodium intake. The agreement between self-reported sodium intake level and 24-h urine sodium excretion level was low in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive subjects. These findings suggested that many subjects who reported low sodium intake had actual urine sodium excretion>9 g/d. Sodium intake is often underestimated in both hypertensive and normotensive participants in China. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and associated risk factors among children in Shandong and Jilin provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Feng; You, Hai-Long; Zhou, Na; Dong, Wei; Wang, Wei-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is generally prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. However, little is known about T. gondii infection among children in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to detect the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and estimate associated risk factors among children in eastern China. A cross-sectional study of 1500 children from three cities (Changchun, Qingdao, Weihai) was conducted between May 2013 and July 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with acquiring T. gondii infection in children in China. Demographic and blood samples were collected, and anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by ELISA. The mean age of the 1500 children participating in the study was 9.03 years (range 1-18). The overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was 15.13%, of which 13.13% were positive for only anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, 3.13% were positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies and 2.00% were IgM positive and IgG negative. Moreover, raising cats at home (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.288-2.912, P=0.002) and hand washing habits (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.230-0.635, P<0.001) were estimated to be risk and protective factors associated with Toxoplasma seroprevalence, respectively. The present study revealed for the first time that children's infection with T. gondii is common in eastern China. The present data indicate a need to implement methods of prevention and control measures against Toxoplasma infection in China. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Salinovum rubellum gen.nov., sp. nov., isolated from sediment of Jimo-Daqiao saltern in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lingyun; Tian, Xin Xin; Wang, Chen; Sun, Chenjun; Chen, Junhui

    2016-12-22

    An aerobic Gram-negative, oxidase-positive and catalase-positive strain YCWB25T was isolated from saltern farm sediment in Jimo-Daqiao of Qingdao, east coast of China. This strain has an absolute requirement for NaCl and can grow in the presence of 1% - 10% NaCl (w/v) (optimal growth at 3% - 5% NaCl). The bacteria could grow from pH 5.0 to pH 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 8.0) under temperature 4C-42C (optimal growth at 30C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain YCWB25T belonged to the Roseobacter clade of family Rhodobacteraceae, and the closest species were members of the genera Pseudooceanicola (similarity lower than 95.58%). However, the novel strain formed a robust, distinct clade different from other members of the Roseobacter clade. The DNA G+C content of strain YCWB25T was 65.6 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone of the strain YCWB25T was Q-10. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C18:1ω7c (62.76%), C16:0 (13.08%), C19:0 cyclo ω8c (7.64%), which together accounting for 83.48% of the total fatty acids. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data indicated that strain YCWB25T represented a novel genus and species, for which a name of Salinovum rubellum gen. nov., sp. nov was proposed, with strain YCWB25T (= MCCC 1K00272T = LMG 25394T) as the type strain.

  3. Factors affecting summer maize yield under climate change in Shandong Province in the Huanghuaihai region of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqing; Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Jiwang; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting

    2012-07-01

    Clarification of influencing factors (cultivar planted, cultivation management, climatic conditions) affecting yields of summer maize (Zea mays L.) would provide valuable information for increasing yields further under variable climatic conditions. Here, we report actual maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region over the past 50 years (1957-2007), simulated yields of major varieties in different years (Baimaya in the 1950s, Zhengdan-2 in the 1970s, Yedan-13 in the 1990s, and Zhengdan-958 in the 2000s), and factors that influence yield. The results show that, although each variety change has played a critical role in increasing maize yields, the contribution of variety to yield increase has decreased steadily over the past 50 years (42.6%-44.3% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 34.4%-47.2% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 21.0%-37.6% from the 1990s to the 2000s). The impact of climatic conditions on maize yield has exhibited an increasing trend (0.67%-22.5% from the 1950s to the 1970s, 2.6%-27.0% from the 1970s to the 1990s, and 9.1%-51.1% from the 1990s to the 2000s); however, interannual differences can be large, especially if there were large changes in temperature and rainfall. Among climatic factors, rainfall had a greater positive influence than light and temperature on yield increase. Cultivation measures could change the contribution rates of variety and climatic conditions. Overall, unless there is a major breakthrough in variety, improving cultivation measures will remain important for increasing future summer maize yields in the Huanghuaihai region.

  4. [Distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Li, Ha; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the abundance, group composition, and distribution of meiofauna at the Second Beach of Taiping Bay and the Shilaoren Beach in Qingdao in January, April, July, and October 2008, aimed to analyze the distribution and seasonal dynamics of meiofauna in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sandy beaches. The measurements of environmental factors, including sediment grain size, interstitial water salinity, interstitial water temperature, organic matter content (TOC), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, were made simultaneously. There existed obvious seasonal differences in the environment factors, which could be clustered into two groups, i. e. , spring-winter group (January and April) and summer-autumn group (July and October). At the Second Beach of Taiping Bay, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1167.3 +/- 768.3) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the most dominant group was Nematoda, accounting for 91% of the total. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance at the Second Beach differed horizontally, with the abundance ranked as high tide zone < middle tide zone < low tide zone. The meiofaunal group composition and abundance also varied seasonally, with high values in spring/winter and low values in summer/autumn (spring > winter > autumn > summer). The vertical distribution of the meiofauna in the high and middle tide zones of the Second Beach varied seasonally too. The meiofauna migrated downward with increasing temperature, concentrated in surface layer in winter and migrated downward in summer. At the Shilaoren Beach, the mean annual abundance of meiofauna was (1130.2 +/- 1419.1) ind x 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda accounted for 85% of the total. There was a great similarity of the environmental factors in the middle tide zone of the Second Beach and Shilaoren Beach, which led to no differences in the meiofaunal group composition and abundance. However, the vertical distribution of the meiofauna differed between the two beaches. When the temperature decreased, the meiofauna at Shilaoren Beach migrated downward. The ANOVA and BIOENV analyses showed that the TOC and MD phi were most responsible for the distribution of meiofauna among the tidal zones, the interstitial water temperature, MD phi, and TOC were the main causes of the seasonal variation of meiofaunal group composition and abundance, whereas the sediment Chl a affected the vertical migration of meiofauna. Tourism-induced sediment variation was another factor affecting the meiofaunal abundance, group composition, and distribution.

  5. [Land use change and its effects on ecosystem services value in Ji' nan City of Shandong Province, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Yong; Kong, Fan-Hua; Yin, Hai-Wei; Yan, Wei-Jiao; Sun, Chang-Feng; Xu, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Based on the GIS software platform, referring to the China 'Terrestrial ecosystem services per unit area value', and by using transition matrix, Costanza evaluation formula, and sensitivity analysis, this paper studied the change characteristics of land use and ecosystem services value in Ji' nan City in 1989-2009. During the study period, the built-up area in the City increased by 99.65 km2, while agriculture land and green space reduced by 103.21 km2, 90.4% of which was taken by the built-up land. The total ecosystem services value decreased from 256.22 x 10(6) yento 214.16 x 10(6) yen, with a decrement of 42.06 x 10(6) yen, mainly due to the decrease in the areas of agriculture land and green space. For the sustainable development of the population, resources, and environment in Ji'nan City, future urban planning should pay more attention on the natural resources protection, reasonable planning of land use structure, and maintenance of ecosystem stability and balance.

  6. Association Between Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (rs10019009) Polymorphism and Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Chinese Han Population from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Min; Cui, Ya-Zhou; Zhang, Geng-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Pang, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Xue-Zheng; Han, Jin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common rheumatic condition that is slowly progressive and predominantly affects adolescents. Pathological bone formation associated with AS is an important cause of disability. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible involvement of the genes related to endochondral ossification and ectopia ossification in genetic susceptibility to AS in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Sixty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 genes were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 300 AS patients and 180 healthy controls. The rs10019009 in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene shown as association with AS after multiple testing corrections in discovery cohorts was replicated in a validation independent cohort of 620 AS patients and 683 healthy controls. The rs10019009 was assessed with bioinformatics including phylogenetic context, F-SNP and FastSNP functional predictions, secondary structure prediction, and molecular modeling. We performed a functional analysis of rs10019009 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Results: Interestingly, the SNP rs10019009 was associated with AS in both the discovery cohort (P = 0.0012) and validation cohort (P = 0.0349), as well as overall (P = 0.0004) in genetic case–control association analysis. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the effect of this genetic variant was observed to be independent of linkage disequilibrium. Via bioinformatics analysis, it was found that the amino acid change of the rs10019009 led to changes of SNP function, secondary structure, tertiary conformation, and splice mode. Finally, functional analysis of rs10019009 in U2OS cells demonstrated that the risk T allele of the rs10019009 increased enzymatic activity of ALP, compared to that of the nonrisk allele (P = 0.0080). Conclusions: These results suggested that the DMP1 gene seems to be involved in genetic predisposition to AS, which may contribute to the ectopic mineralization or ossification in AS. In addition, DMP1 gene may be a promising intervention target for AS in the future. PMID:26960368

  7. Assessment of environmental risk for red mud storage facility in China: a case study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Chao; Ma, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Red mud storage facility (RM-SF) pollution remains a serious problem in China mainly due to the RM's huge quantity, little recyclability, and high alkalinity. And, there is also a risk of dam failure because almost all RM-SFs are processed by damming. In order to address this challenge and improve the level of risk management, it is necessary to evaluate the environmental risk of RM-SFs systematically. So, this paper firstly designs a comprehensive evaluation index system with a three-level evaluation index in the terms of RM characteristics, RM-SF characteristics, ambient environment of RM-SF, the management of RM-SF, and the application aspect of RM by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Then, a case of RM-SF from a typical alumina production enterprise is studied according to this system, as is assisted by several experts from different fields when determining the weights of all indicators. The results show that the risk of selected RM-SF primarily depends on the former factors, that is, RM and RM-SF characteristics, while the contributions of the other factors are quite smaller.

  8. Leaf cuticular lipids on the Shandong and Yukon ecotypes of saltwater cress, eutrema salsugineum, and their response to water deficiency and impact on cuticle permeability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of water deficit stress on leaf cuticular waxes and cutin monomers, and traits associated with cuticle permeability, were examined in Shandong and Yukon ecotypes of Eutrema salsugineum (syn. Thellungiella salsuginea). Although Shandong exhibits glaucous leaves, and Yukon is non-glaucous, ...

  9. One family cluster of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was identified in March, 2013 and the new H7N9 virus infected 134 patients and killed 45 people in China as of September 30, 2013. Family clusters with confirmed or suspected the new H7N9 virus infection were previously reported, but the family cluster of H7N9 virus infection in Shandong Province was first reported. Case presentation A 36-year-old man was admitted to Zaozhuang City Hospital with progressive respiratory distress and suspicion of impending acute respiratory distress syndrome on April 21. The chest radiography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacities and pulmonary lesions. The second case, the first case’s 4 year old son, was admitted to the same hospital on April 28 with fever and multiple patchy shadows in the bilateral lungs. Both of the two cases were confirmed to infect with H7N9 virus by the results of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction (rRT-PCR), virus isolation and serum antibody titer. At the same time, one environment samples was detected positive for H7N9 virus in the living poultry market in Zaozhuang. The homologous analysis of the full genome sequence indicated that both viruses from the patients were almost genetically identical. The field epidemiology investigation showed that the two cases had no recognized exposure to poultry, but had the exposure to the environment. The second case had substantial unprotected close exposure to his ill father and developed symptoms seven days after his last contact with his father. After surgery, the index case and his son were discharged on May 16 and May 6, respectively. 11 close contacts of both patients were identified and tested negative both the throat swabs and the serum antibody. Conclusion The infection of the index case probably resulted from contact with environmentally contaminated material. For the son, the probable infection source was from the index case during unprotected

  10. The imprint of China’s first emperor on the distant realm of eastern Shandong

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.; Hui, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Imperial expansion is recurrent in human history. For early empires, such as in ancient China, this process generally is known from texts that glorify and present the perspective of victors. The legacy of the Qin king, Shihuangdi, who first unified China in 221 BC, remains vital, but we have few details about the consequences of his distant conquests or how they changed the path of local histories. We integrate documentary accounts with the findings of a systematic regional survey of archaeological sites to provide a holistic context for this imperialistic episode and the changes that followed in coastal Shandong. PMID:20194758

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Meijie; Liu, Lijuan; Ma, Yunhua; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fusen; Zhao, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen prevalent in hospitals worldwide. In order to understand the molecular epidemiology of multi-drug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii, we investigated the genotypes of A. baumannii isolated from 10 hospitals in Shandong, China, from August 2013 to December 2013, by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial resistance genes were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. By PFGE analysis, we discovered 11 PFGE types in these 10 hospitals. By MLST, we assigned these isolates to 12 sequence types (STs), 10 of which belong to the cloning complex CC92, including the prevalent ST369, ST208, ST195, and ST368. Two new STs, namely ST794 and ST809, were detected only in one hospital. All isolates of the MDR A. baumannii were resistant to carbapenem, except 2 isolates, which did not express the blaOXA-23 carbapenemase gene, indicating blaOXA-23 is the major player for carbapenem resistance. We also discovered armA is likely to be responsible for amikacin resistance, and may play a role in gentamicin and tobramycin resistance. aac(3)-I is another gene responsible for gentamicin and tobramycin resistance. In summary, we discovered that the majority of the isolates in Shandong, China, were the STs belonging to the CC92. Besides, two new STs were detected in one hospital. These new STs should be further investigated for prevention of outbreaks caused by A. baumannii. PMID:27818659

  12. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants.

  13. Distribution of skinfold thickness and blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Ying-Xiu, Zhang; Shu-Rong, Wang

    2011-08-01

    This article reported the distribution of skinfold thickness (SFT) and blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 8568 students (4333 boys and 4235 girls) aged 7-18 years participated in this study. Triceps and subscapular SFT and BP of all subjects were measured, the sum of Triceps and subscapular SFT (SSFT) was used as an indicator of the overall SFT. The overall prevalence of relative high BP was 24.07% for boys and 22.36% for girls. The prevalence of relative high BP was increasing with SSFT percentiles, this trend was obvious especially in upper percentiles of SSFT. The prevalence of relative high BP increased from 13.27% (boys) and 13.33% (girls) in <5th SSFT percentile group to 55.50% (boys) and 48.17% (girls) in ≥95th SSFT percentile group, which increased by 3.2 and 2.6 times. There is a higher level of SSFT and higher prevalence of relative high BP among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

  14. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-12-10

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C₄-C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  15. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Tan, Dongfei; Geng, Yue; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture) were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake) from vegetables should be of concern in China. PMID:27973400

  16. Geochemical and grain-size evidence for the provenance of loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Ding, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    Widespread loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains yield valuable paleoclimatic records for this currently semi-humid monsoonal region of northern China. The grain-size distribution and major element composition for bulk samples and two grain-size fractions (< 20 and 20-63 μm) for the loess in the Central Shandong Mountains were compared with loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau and sediment from the Yellow River to help determine its provenance. The presence of a significant percentage of medium- and coarse-silt, and the difference in relatively immobile major element ratios of TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 for the < 20 and 20-63 μm fractions, suggests that sediment that forms the loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains was not blown directly from the northern deserts of China as is the case for the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Rather, this suggests that sediments exposed during glacial times on the North China fluvial plain, including the floodplain of the Yellow River, were the major dust source for the loess in the Central Shangong Mountains. In addition, the wide distribution of perimontane loess in the Central Shandong Mountains region indicates the occurrence of strengthened local aridification during glacial times since the middle Pleistocene.

  17. Increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in a coastal province in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Zhao, J; Chu, Z; Zhou, J

    2016-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity constitutes a serious public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The present study examined the prevalent trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong, China spanning 29 years (1985-2014). Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. A total of 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included in this study (14 458 in 1985, 7 198 in 1995, 8 568 in 2005 and 9 719 in 2014). Using IOTF criteria, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 1.73% and 0.05% for boys, 1.67% and 0.04% for girls in 1985 to 20.83% and 10.39% for boys, 15.81% and 4.35% for girls in 2014; Using World Health Organization criteria, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 2.76% and 0.45% for boys, 2.46% and 0.11% for girls in 1985 to 20.30% and 18.16% for boys, 18.89% and 6.58% for girls in 2014, respectively. Childhood overweight and obesity has entered the extensively epidemic stage in this region at present. Comprehensive strategies of intervention should include periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, oxygen-consuming physical exercises and healthy dietary behaviour. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Jizzax Province, Uzbekistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-10

    This image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Jizzax Province in eastern Uzbekistan, one of the main agricultural regions of the country. Uzbekistan is the world sixth largest producer and second-largest exporter of cotton.

  19. Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-07

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows Heilongjiang, a province of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Farms are small and long skinny rectangles in shape, surrounding regularly spaced villages.

  20. Prevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in five provinces of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Xusheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Jia-Ping; Ba, Heng-Xing; Rui-Du; Xing, Xiu Mei; Wang, Quan-Kai; Zhao, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The disease microsporidiosis is found worldwide and is mainly caused by Enterocytozoon bieneusi. E. bieneusi can infect a wide range of hosts; however, information regarding the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi infection in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is limited. Therefore, in 2015, we examined 305 faecel samples from 80 farmed raccoon dogs in Jilin Province, from 54 in Hebei Province, from 72 in Liaoning Province, from 29 in Shandong Province, and from 40 in Heilongjiang Province. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs was 22.30%. Logistic regression analysis suggests that age, gender and region of raccoon dogs were highly related to the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection. Moreover, six E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences, including four known genotypes, namely D, CHN-DC1, NCF2, and CHN-F1, and two novel genotypes (NCR1 and NCR2), were identified in the present study. The present study firstly indicated the existence of E. bieneusi genotypes NCF2, NCR1, NCR2and CHN-F1 in infected raccoon dogs in Northern China. Integrated control strategies should be implemented to limit E. bieneusi infection in farmed raccoon dogs, and to prevent transmission of this disease to other animals and humans.

  1. Varying high levels of faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural villages in Shandong, China: implications for global health.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiang; Tärnberg, Maria; Zhao, Lingbo; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Song, Yanyan; Grape, Malin; Nilsson, Maud; Tomson, Göran; Nilsson, Lennart E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire) were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18) the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.

  2. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-07-05

    The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Shandong province of China. A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Catastrophic health expenditure: a comparative analysis of empty-nest and non-empty-nest households with seniors in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Medina, Alexis; Li, Cuicui; Jiang, Shan; Zheng, Wengui; Sun, Liyuan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) prevalence and its determinants between empty-nest and non-empty-nest elderly households. Setting Shandong province of China. Participants A total of 2761 elderly households are included in the analysis. Results CHE incidence among elderly households was 44.9%. The CHE incidence of empty-nest singles (59.3%, p=0.000, OR=3.19) and empty-nest couples (52.9%, p=0.000, OR=2.45) are both statistically higher than that of non-empty-nest elderly households (31.4%). An inverse association was observed between CHE incidence and income level in all elderly household types. Factors including 1 or more household elderly members with non-communicable chronic diseases in the past 6 months, 1 or more elderly household members being hospitalised in the past year and lower household income, are significant risk factors for CHE in all 3 household types (p<0.05). Health insurance status was found to be a significant determinant of CHE among empty-nest singles and non-empty-nest households (p<0.05). Conclusions CHE incidence among elderly households is high in China. Empty-nest households are at higher risk for CHE than non-empty-nest households. Based on these findings, we suggest that special insurance be developed to broaden the coverage of health services and heighten the reimbursement rate for empty-nest elderly in the existing health insurance schemes. Financial and social protection interventions are also essential for identified at-risk subgroups among different types of elderly households. PMID:27381206

  4. Rural-urban difference in the use of annual physical examination among seniors in Shandong, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Qian, Yangyang; Zhang, Li; Sun, Long

    2017-05-23

    Regular physical examination contributes to early detection and timely treatment, which is helpful in promoting healthy behaviors and preventing diseases. The objective of this study is to compare the annual physical examination (APE) use between rural and urban elderly in China. A total of 3,922 participants (60+) were randomly selected from three urban districts and three rural counties in Shandong Province, China, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. We performed unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models to examine the difference in the utilization of APE between rural and urban elderly. Two adjusted logistic regression models were employed to identify the factors associated with APE use in rural and urban seniors respectively. The utilization rates of APE in rural and urban elderly are 37.4% and 76.2% respectively. Factors including education level, exercise, watching TV, and number of non-communicable chronic conditions, are associated with APE use both in rural and urban elderly. Hospitalization, self-reported economic status, and health insurance are found to be significant (p < 0.05) predictors for APE use in rural elderly. Elderly covered by Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) (p < 0.05, OR = 1.874) are more likely to use APE in urban areas. There is a big difference in APE utilization between rural and urban elderly. Interventions targeting identified at-risk subgroups, especially for those rural elderly, are essential to reduce such a gap. To improve health literacy might be helpful to increase the utilization rate of APE among the elderly.

  5. Heavy metals distribution and contamination in surface sediments of the coastal Shandong Peninsula (Yellow Sea).

    PubMed

    Li, Guogang; Hu, Bangqi; Bi, Jianqiang; Leng, Qinuan; Xiao, Chunqiao; Yang, Zhongcheng

    2013-11-15

    Selected heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in surface sediments from the coastal Shandong Peninsula (Yellow Sea) have been determined to evaluate the spatial distribution and potential ecological risk. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediments generally met the criteria of China Marine Sediment Quality. However, both the enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values suggested the elevation of Pb concentration in the region. Based on the effect-range classification (TEL-PEL SQGs), Cr, Cu and Ni were likely to pose environment risks. Spatial distribution of ecotoxicological index (mean-PEL-quotient) suggested that most of the surface sediments have a 21% probability of being toxic. Similar results were also obtained by pollution load index (PLI). The spatial distribution pattern of heavy metal in surface sediments is a basis for undertaking appropriate action to protect marine sediment quality.

  6. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  7. Leaf cuticular lipids on the Shandong and Yukon ecotypes of saltwater cress, Eutrema salsugineum, and their response to water deficiency and impact on cuticle permeability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojing; Feng, Jinchao; Lü, Shiyou; Lohrey, Greg T; An, Huiling; Zhou, Yijun; Jenks, Matthew A

    2014-08-01

    The impact of water-deficit stress on leaf cuticular waxes and cutin monomers, and traits associated with cuticle permeability were examined in Shandong and Yukon ecotypes of Eutrema salsugineum (syn. Thellungiella salsuginea). Although Shandong exhibits glaucous leaves, and Yukon is non-glaucous, wax amounts on non-stressed Yukon leaves were 4.6-fold higher than on Shandong, due mainly to Yukon's eightfold higher wax fatty acids, especially the C22 and C24 acid homologues. Water deficit caused a 26.9% increase in total waxes on Shandong leaves, due mainly to increased C22 and C24 acids; and caused 10.2% more wax on Yukon, due mainly to an increase in wax alkanes. Total cutin monomers on non-stressed leaves of Yukon were 58.3% higher than on Shandong. Water deficit caused a 28.2% increase in total cutin monomers on Shandong, whereas total cutin monomers were not induced on Yukon. With or without stress, more abundant cuticle lipids were generally associated with lower water loss rates, lower chlorophyll efflux rates and an extended time before water deficit-induced wilting. In response to water deficit, Shandong showed elevated transcription of genes encoding elongase subunits, consistent with the higher stress induction of acids by Shandong. Yukon's higher induction of CER1 and CER3 transcripts may explain why alkanes increased most on Yukon after water deficit. Eutrema, with its diverse cuticle lipids and responsiveness, provides a valuable genetic resource for identifying new genes and alleles effecting cuticle metabolism, and lays groundwork for studies of the cuticle's role in extreme stress tolerance.

  8. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  9. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  10. Renewable energy markets in China: An analysis of renewable energy markets in Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces, with updated information from Beijing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaupen, S.B.

    1999-12-13

    The People's Republic of China has undergone many changes over the past decade that have led to new growth and created opportunities for many industries, including the renewable energy industry. China has consistently had one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. This report is a continuation of a market assessment done in 1997, which analyzed six provinces (Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shandong, Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Zhejiang) in China. The information contained in this report comes mainly from interviews conducted with central and local government officials, state and local power bureau officials, and various company executives. The report provides valuable market information necessary for any company interested in entering China's renewable energy market. It also details the legal, competitive, sociocultural, technological, geographic, and economic environments of four provinces in China: Guangdong, Jiangxi, Jilin, and Yunnan. In addition, it outlines the major central government policies and contacts important to renewable energy development within China.

  11. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  12. The photometric system of the One-meter Telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shao-Ming; Han, Sheng-Hao; Guo, Di-Fu; Du, Jun-Ju

    2014-06-01

    The one-meter telescope at Weihai Observatory (WHO) of Shandong University is an f/8 Cassegrain telescope. Three sets of filters are installed in a dual layer filterwheel that use Johnson—Cousins UBVRI, Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r'i'z' and Strömgren uvby. The photometric system and the CCD camera are introduced, followed by detailed analysis of their performances, and determination of the relevant parameters, including gain, readout noise, dark current and linearity of the CCD camera. In addition, the parameters describing the site's astro-climate, including typical seeing, statistics on the number of clear nights and average sky brightness, based on data gathered from Sep. 2007 to Aug. 2013, are systematically studied and reported in this work. Photometric calibrations were done using Landolt standard star observations spanning eight nights, which yielded transformation coefficients, photometric precision and system throughput. The limiting magnitudes are simulated using the derived calibration parameters and classic observation conditions at WHO.

  13. The arsenic content in marketed seafood and associated health risks for the residents of Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Gao, Mi; Wang, Lei; Luo, Yongju; Bi, Ran; Li, Lixia; Xie, Lingtian

    2014-04-01

    Seafood is considered as the main source of arsenic in the human diet. In this study, we quantified the total arsenic content in 200 samples of 22 species collected from eight cities in Shandong, China. Subsequently, we evaluated the health risks associated with seafood consumption for three consumption scenarios based on the quantification of inorganic arsenic in three commonly consumed seafood species. The bivalves had the highest total arsenic concentrations in three categories of seafood (fish, shrimp, and bivalves) and the mean total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.037 μg/g ww in fish to 3.4 μg/g in bivalves. The results suggested that organisms which had a closer relationship with sediments may accumulate more arsenic. Bivalves were the major contributor for the arsenic intakes in the seafood consumers. The margins of exposure (MOEs) estimated in the present work showed that there existed a health risk for the consumers. The carcinogen risks exceeded the acceptable range for life cancer risk. Our results suggested that more attention should be paid to the safety of seafood consumption, especially of benthic economic species and for special consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive and bi-polar triggered lightning flashes in 2015 Shandong triggering lightning experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, X.; Jiang, R.; Liu, M.; Zhang, H.; Fan, Y.; Lu, G.; Li, S.; Pu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Two positive and two bi-polar lightning flashes were triggered with rocket-and-wire technique during three passing-over thunderstorms in 2015 SHAndong Triggering Lightning Experiment (SHATLE). Among them, one bi-polar flash contained 2 subsequent return strokes, while others only have initial continuous current stage. The bi-polar flash without return strokes inverted the discharge polarity from negative to positive during the initial stage, and that contained return strokes inverted the discharge polarity from negative to positive then back to negative polarity again during the initial stage. The positive flashes were triggered during the thunderstorms with frequent positive cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, at the period when the ground electric fields reached 5 7 kV/m (with definition of atmospheric electricity following convention), shortly after the mature stage. The bi-polar flashes were triggered after the strong center of the thunderstorm had moved away from the triggering site, with few natural lightning occurring nearby. The surface electric field was stable with a value of about -3 kV/m. The imaged discharge channels of the bi-polar flashes showed two branches toward separating areas. The upward negative leaders (UNLs) during the initial stage of positive triggered flashes were compared with the upward positive leaders (UPLs) in negative and bi-polar triggered flashes. Within the field of the camera, the UNLs branched for several times while the UPLs showed single channel. The UNLs, with brighter channel luminosity, propagated faster than the UPLs during the initial development. Nevertheless, the channel base current waveforms of them were quite similar to each other, except the polarity.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  16. Analysis of serum levels of 15 trace elements in breast cancer patients in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao; Jiang, Meng; Jing, Haiyan; Sheng, Wei; Wang, Xingwen; Han, Junqing; Wang, Luhua

    2015-05-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that serum levels of trace elements may be associated with breast cancer risk. We compared serum levels of 15 trace elements between breast cancer patients and normal controls from Shandong, China, for the first time to assess whether serum levels of trace elements were associated with breast cancer risk. Eighty-eight breast cancer patients and 84 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A Spectraspan V direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometer was used to determine the serum levels of 15 trace elements including Zn, Mn, Al, Cd, Fe, Mg, Ca, Pb, Cu, Se, Ni, Ti, Co, Li, and Cr. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher serum levels of Cd (p = 0.000), Mg (p = 0.001), Cu (p = 0.000), Co (p = 0.006), and Li (p = 0.003) and borderline higher Cr (p = 0.052), while significantly lower Mn (p = 0.000), Al (p = 0.000), Fe (p = 0.000), and Ti (p = 0.000) compared to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in serum levels of Zn (p = 0.824), Ca (p = 0.711), Pb (p = 0.274), Se (p = 0.236), and Ni (p = 0.185) between the two groups. Our study showed a possible association between serum levels of trace elements and breast cancer risk in eastern China, though it warrants further investigations to confirm the association. If confirmed, modulation of trace elements may help reduce breast cancer risk.

  17. How does the New Cooperative Medical Scheme influence health service utilization? A study in two provinces in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Baorong; Meng, Qingyue; Collins, Charles; Tolhurst, Rachel; Tang, Shenglan; Yan, Fei; Bogg, Lennart; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2010-05-10

    Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization in rural China, there is only limited evidence available. This paper aims to assess the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient services among different income groups and provinces under NCMS in rural China. Using multistage sampling processes, a cross-sectional household survey including 6,147 rural households and 22,636 individuals, was conducted in six counties in Shandong and Ningxia Provinces, China. Chi-square test, Poisson regression and log-linear regression were applied to analyze the association between NCMS and the utilization of outpatient and inpatient services and the length of stay for inpatients. Qualitative methods including individual interview and focus group discussion were applied to explain and complement the findings from the household survey. NCMS coverage was 95.9% in Shandong and 88.0% in Ningxia in 2006. NCMS membership had no significant association with outpatient service utilization regardless of income level and location.Inpatient service utilization has increased for the high income group under NCMS, but for the middle and low income, the change was not significant. Compared with non-members, NCMS members from Ningxia used inpatient services more frequently, while members from Shandong had a longer stay in hospital.High medical expenditure, low reimbursement rate and difference in NCMS policy design between regions were identified as the main reasons for the differences in health service utilization. Outpatient service utilization has not significantly changed under NCMS. Although utilization of inpatient service in general has increased under NCMS, people with high income tend to benefit

  18. Intraocular pressure and associated factors in children: the Shandong children eye study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen Jun; Wu, Jian Feng; Hu, Yuan Yuan; Wu, Hui; Sun, Wei; Lu, Tai Liang; Wang, Xing Rong; Bi, Hong Sheng; Jonas, Jost B

    2014-05-29

    We examined the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its associated factors in children. Using a random cluster sampling from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools from rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai, the school-based cross-sectional Shandong Children Eye Study included children aged 4 to 18 years. All participants underwent an ocular examination, including ocular biometry, cycloplegic refractometry, and noncontact tonometry. Mean IOP was 17.6 ± 2.7 mm Hg (range, 10-28 mm Hg). The IOP increased up to an age of 10 years and subsequently decreased with older age. In multivariate regression analysis, higher IOP was associated with female sex (P < 0.001; standardized correlation coefficient β, 0.06; regression coefficient β, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18, 0.50), higher body mass index (P < 0.001; correlation coefficient β, 0.09; regression coefficient β, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.04,0.09), younger age (P < 0.001; correlation coefficient β, -0.15; regression coefficient β, -0.13; 95% CI, -0.17,-0.10), maternal myopia (P < 0.001; correlation coefficient β, 0.05; regression coefficient β, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15,0.53), and more time spent indoors with reading/writing (P = 0.002; correlation coefficient β, 0.05; regression coefficient β, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03,0.11), and with the ocular parameters of longer axial length (P < 0.001; correlation coefficient β, 0.14; regression coefficient β, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.21,0.37) and smaller corneal horizontal diameter (P < 0.001; correlation coefficient β, -0.06; regression coefficient β, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.46,-0.15). In children aged 4 to 18 years, IOP showed an M-shaped association with age. Higher IOP was associated with the nonocular parameters of female sex (P < 0.001), higher body mass index (P < 0.001), younger age (P < 0.001), maternal myopia (P < 0.001), and more time spent indoors with reading/writing (P = 0.002), and with the ocular parameters of longer axial length (P

  19. [The drug resistance mutation detection and relevant factors analysis of HBV P region in chronic hepatitis B patients in Weifang City, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianqiang; Liu, Jiafa

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mutation of HBV polymerase gene reverse transcription conserved region (P region) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 212 CHB patients who took antiretroviral treatment with nucleotide analogues were chosen. The drug resistance mutations of HBV P region and HBV genotype were detected by Pyrosequencing. Sequence analysis showed that the drug resistance sites of HBV P region located at sites 173; 180; 181; 184; 204; 236 and 250. The main site of HBV P region drug resistance was 204 and 180, accounting for 35.8% and 23.5%, respectively. There were significant differences in the mutation rate of site 180 among different age groups. There were also significant differences in the mutation rate of site 204 among younger than 30 age group, 41 to 50 age group and 51 to 60 age group. (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The mutation rate of site 180 combined with site 204 was 66.6%. The mutation rate of site 181 combined with site 236 was 23.3%. The age of C genotype infected patients was significantly older than B genotype infected patients (P < 0.01). M204V/I mutation mostly existed in the form of joint L180M mutation, the mutation rate was age-related. The detection of HBV genotypes and drug resistance sites of HBV P region have important clinical implications for the treatment and prognosis of patients with CHB.

  20. Occurrence, diversity and community structure of culturable atrazine degraders in industrial and agricultural soils exposed to the herbicide in Shandong Province, P.R. China.

    PubMed

    Bazhanov, Dmitry P; Li, Chengyun; Li, Hongmei; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-08

    Soil populations of bacteria rapidly degrading atrazine are critical to the environmental fate of the herbicide. An enrichment bias from the routine isolation procedure prevents studying the diversity of atrazine degraders. In the present work, we analyzed the occurrence, diversity and community structure of soil atrazine-degrading bacteria based on their direct isolation. Atrazine-degrading bacteria were isolated by direct plating on a specially developed SM agar. The atrazine degradation genes trzN and atzABC were detected by multiplex PCR. The diversity of atrazine degraders was characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) genotyping followed by 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The occurrence of atrazine-degrading bacteria was also assessed by conventional PCR targeting trzN and atzABC in soil DNA. A total of 116 atrazine-degrading isolates were recovered from bulk and rhizosphere soils sampled near an atrazine factory and from geographically distant maize fields. Fifteen genotypes were distinguished among 56 industrial isolates, with 13 of them representing eight phylogenetic groups of the genus Arthrobacter. The remaining two were closely related to Pseudomonas alcaliphila and Gulosibacter molinativorax and constituted major components of the atrazine-degrading community in the most heavily contaminated industrial plantless soil. All isolates from the adjacent sites inhabited by cogon grass or common reed were various Arthrobacter spp. with a strong prevalence of A. aurescens group. Only three genotypes were distinguished among 60 agricultural strains. Genetically similar Arthrobacter ureafaciens bacteria which occurred as minor inhabitants of cogon grass roots in the industrial soil were ubiquitous and predominant atrazine degraders in the maize rhizosphere. The other two genotypes represented two distant Nocardioides spp. that were specific to their geographic origins. Direct plating on SM agar enabled rapid isolation of atrazine-degrading bacteria and analysis of their natural diversity in soil. The results obtained provided evidence that contaminated soils harbored communities of genetically distinct bacteria capable of individually degrading and utilizing atrazine. The community structures of culturable atrazine degraders were habitat-specific. Bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter were the predominant degraders of atrazine in the plant rhizosphere.

  1. An Investigation on Moving Rural Secondary Schools to Town in New Countryside Construction: Taking Ling County in Shandong Province as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Based on some problems lying in current rural secondary education taking Ling County as an example, this paper proves the necessity and feasibility of moving rural secondary schools to town in the current condition: it is an objective demand by the changes in students; it is a necessary demand to optimize resource allocation and to improve…

  2. Source identification and spatial distribution of heavy metals in tobacco-growing soils in Shandong province of China with multivariate and geostatistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xue; You, Xiuxuan; Shi, Yi; Xu, Jialai

    2017-02-01

    Samples of surface soil from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields were analysed for heavy metals and showed the following concentrations (mean of 246 samples, mg/kg): As, 5.10; Cd, 0.11; Cr, 49.49; Cu, 14.72; Hg, 0.08; Ni, 19.28; Pb. 20.20 and Zn, 30.76. The values of the index of geoaccumulation (I geo) and of the enrichment factor indicated modest enrichment with As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni or Pb. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis correctly allocated each investigated element to its source, whether anthropogenic or natural. The results were consistent with estimated inputs of heavy metals from fertilizers, irrigation water and atmospheric deposition. The variation in the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soil was mainly due to long-term agricultural practises, and that of Cr and Ni was mainly due to the soil parent material, whereas the source of Hg was industrial activity, which ultimately led to atmospheric deposition. Atmospheric deposition was the main exogenous source of heavy metals, and fertilizers also played an important role in the accumulation of these elements in soil. Identifying the sources of heavy metals in agricultural soils can serve as a basis for appropriate action to control and reduce the addition of heavy metals to cultivated soils.

  3. Quantifying the Co-benefits of Energy-Efficiency Programs: A Case Study of the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lobscheid, Agnes; Dai, Yue; Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    China’s cement industry accounted for more than half of the world’s total cement production in 2010. The cement industry is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and one of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, it is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of total national PM emissions. Although specific regulations and policies are needed to reduce the pollutant emissions from the cement industry, air pollution can also be reduced as a co-benefit of energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation policies and programs. Quantifying and accounting for these co-benefits when evaluating energy efficiency and climate-change mitigation programs reveals benefits beyond the programs’ energy and global warming impacts and adds to their cost effectiveness. In this study, we quantify the co-benefits of PM10 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reductions that result from energy-saving measures in China’s cement industry.

  4. Risk assessment of heavy metals in road and soil dusts within PM2.5, PM10 and PM100 fractions in Dongying city, Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Lu, Bing; Ji, Yaqin; Zhao, Xueyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Yonghai; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hua

    2012-03-01

    15 road and 14 soil dust samples were collected from an oilfield city, Dongying, from 11/2009-4/2010 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb within PM(2.5), PM(10) and PM(100) fractions synchronously. Metal concentrations, sources and human health risk were studied. Results showed that both soil and road dust exhibited higher values for Mn and Zn and lower values for Co and Cd for the three fractions. Mass concentration ratios of PM(2.5)/PM(10) and PM(10)/PM(100) for metals in road and soil dust indicate that most of the heavy metals tend to concentrate in fine particles. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factors analysis showed that Cu, Zn and Cd exhibited moderate or heavy contamination and significant enrichment, indicating the influence of anthropogenic sources. Vanadium, Cr, Mn and Co were mostly not enriched and were mainly influenced by crustal sources. For Ni, As and Pb, they ranged from not enriched to moderately enriched and were influenced by both crustal materials and anthropogenic sources. The conclusions were confirmed by multivariate analysis methods. Principle component analysis revealed that the major sources were vehicle emission, industrial activities, coal combustion, agricultural activities and crustal materials. The risk assessment results indicated that metal ingestion appeared to be the main exposure route followed by dermal contact. The most likely cause for cancer and other health risks are both the fine particles of soil and road dusts. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. [Ecological risk assessment of rural-urban ecotone based on landscape pattern: A case study in Daiyue District of Tai' an City, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Hao-Peng; Yu, Kai-Qin; Feng, Yong-jun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the land use type and landscape pattern in Daiyue District of Tai' an City from 2000 to 2010. The ecological risk index was built, that of the District was re-sampled and spatially interpolated, and the spatiotemporal pattern of the ecological risk in the rural-urban ecotone of the District was analyzed. In 2000-2010, the main variation trend of the land use type in the District was the shift from natural landscape to artificial landscape. The intensity of human disturbance was larger in cultivated land, garden plot, and forestland than in other landscape types, while the human disturbance in water area was smaller. The ecological loss degree of cultivated land and water area decreased somewhat, while that of the other land use types presented an increasing trend. The ecological risk distribution in the District was discrete in 2000 and 2010, but most centralized in 2005. The ecological risk of each ecological risk sub-area had an increasing trend in 2000-2005, but was in adverse in 2005-2010. In 2000-2010, the ecological risk of the District was mainly at medium level. Spatially, the distribution of the ecological risk in the District had an obvious differentiation, with an overall diffusive increasing from forestland as the center to the surrounding areas. In the District, the ecological risk was mainly at medium and higher levels, the area with lower ecological risk had an obvious dynamic change, while that with the lowest and highest ecological risk had less change.

  6. [Air negative ion concentration in different modes of courtyard forests in southern mountainous areas of Jinan, Shandong Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Hu, Ding-Meng; Zhao, Zhen-Lei; Zhang, Liu-dong

    2013-02-01

    Taking five typical courtyard forests and a non-forest courtyard in southern mountains areas of Jinan as test objects, a synchronous observation was conducted on the air negative ion concentration and related meteorological factors in March-December, 2010. The air negative ion concentration in the test courtyards showed an obvious seasonal variation, being in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. The diurnal variation of the air negative ion concentration presented a double peak curve, with the maximum in 10:00 - 11:00 and 16:00 - 17:00 and the minimum around 12:00. The daily air quality was the best at 10:00 and 16:00, and better in afternoon than in the morning. Summer time and garden sketch mode had the best air quality in a year. The mean annual air negative ion and the coefficient of air ion (CI) of the test courtyards were in the order of garden sketch > economic fruit forest > natural afforested forest > flowers and bonsai > farm tourist > non-forest, with the air negative ion concentration being 813, 745, 695, 688, 649, and 570 ions.cm-3, and the CI being 1.22, 1.11, 0.85, 0.84, 0.83, and 0.69, respectively. It could be concluded that garden sketch was the ideal courtyard forest mode. The air negative ion concentration was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, but irrelevant to light intensity.

  7. Formation of the soft-sediment deformation structures and its constraints on dinosaur fossil burial of the Cretaceous in Zhucheng, Shandong province, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bizhu; Qiao, Xiufu; Cai, Zhihui; Tian, Hongshui; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-04-01

    The triangular-shaped Zhucheng depression is located in the southwestern part of the Jiaolai basin, Jiaodong peninsula, East China. Various soft-sediment deformation structures are recognized in the southern Zhucheng depression, which have behaviour are plastic and/or brittle. Soft-sediment deformation structures mainly include undulate fold, mound and sag, diapir, convolute deformation and seismic-unconformity in the Lower Cretaceous, which are composed of fine-grained sediments in lacustrine environment, while load structure, ball and pillow structure, plunged sediment mixtures structure, fault-graded occurred in the Upper Cretaceous, which formed in a conglomeratic or coarse arenaceous alluvial fan and flood-plain setting. These soft-sediment deformation structures are proposed triggered by paleoearthquake. The deformed layers and undeformed layers developed in intervals, suggesting frequent seismic activities. In studied area, numerous giant hadrosaurid skeleton fossils have been found in the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group science 1958, and unusual and abundant dinosaur track fossils have been discovered in the Lower Cretaceous Yangzhuang Formation of Laiyang Group. The widespread identified soft-sediment deformation structures are proximately underlying or overlying these dinosaur fossil bearing strata. The depositional setting changed while multiple paleo-seismic events and tectonic activity happened. In the Early Cretaceous, after the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes and environmental changes, dinosaurs migrated and a lot of tracks with similar orientation on lacustrine offshore were preserved. In the Late Cretaceous, a large-scale dinosaur fossil layers and paleo-earthquake records occurred in intervals, indicating that the dinosaur fossils may be associated with large-scale debris flow and frequent earthquake events. Based on regional tectonic setting, distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures and predicted magnitude of paleo-earthquakes, the seismogenic fault is suggested to possibly be the Wulian Faults.

  8. [Structure and function of Lidao artificial reef ecosystem in Rongcheng of Shandong Province, East China: an evaluation based on Ecopath model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Xin; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Fei; Liu, Hong-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Based on the annual investigation data of biological resources in Lidao artificial reef zone in 2009, an Ecopath model of the Lidao artificial reef ecosystem was constructed to analyze the energy flow pattern and the system attributes of the ecosystem. The model was consisted of 19 functional groups, basically covering the main processes of the energy flow in the Lidao artificial reef ecosystem. The functional groups were divided according to the relationships of the corresponding positions between appeared fishes and artificial reefs, and the planktonic heterotrophic bacteria were included into the model as a functional group. The fishes appeared in the investigation zone were divided into seven functional groups, and the trophic levels of the functional groups varied from 1.00 to 3.72. The type I fishes had the highest trophic level. The total system throughput was estimated to be 10786.68 t x km(-2) x a(-1), 27% of which flowed to detritus, and 17% flowed out the ecosystem in the forms of fishing and sediment. The total net primary productivity of the system was 4131.97 t x km(-2) x a(-1) and the total energy transfer efficiency was 10.5%. The proportion of the total flow originated from detritus was 39%, and that from primary producers was 61%, indicating that the energy flow was dominated by food web rather than detritus. The ratio of total primary productivity to total respiration of the system was 1.84, the connectivity index was 0.20, and the Finn's cycling index and the mean path length of the energy flow were 4.5% and 2.62, respectively. This study showed that the Lidao artificial reef ecosystem had a relatively low maturity and stability, was at a developing stage, and had weak resistance against outside interference. The ecological environment and the output of fisheries in the artificial reef zone would have inter-annual fluctuations, and thus, the eco-environment restoration of the artificial reef ecosystem could only be realized by the sustainable maintaining of the ecosystem.

  9. Treatment of port wine stains with pulsed dye laser: a retrospective study of 848 cases in Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wenhao; Wang, Jinliang; Lin, Yan; Geng, Jianhui; Wang, Haixia; Gong, Yueqin; Liu, Huaxu; Zhang, Furen

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) therapy is offered as one of the effective treatments of port wine stains (PWSs). However, the efficacy of PDL differs in different populations. Objective The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy, and related factors, of 595 nm PDL in the treatment of PWSs in Chinese patients with skin type III to IV. Methods A total of 848 cases that were treated with PDL were enrolled and analyzed in this study. An independent dermatologist evaluated these lesions according to the before and after photographs. Results The response rate (RR) of all the 848 PWS patients was 69.9%, within which the cure rate was 6.3%. The patients aged ≤1 year had the highest RR (93.9%), whereas those treated after age 50 reacted the worst (RR =25%). We analyzed the anatomical distribution of the lesion and found that the temporal region had the highest lesion clearance (RR =75.3%), while the extremities had the lowest clearance (RR =44.5%). Compared with the patients whose lesion size was larger than 80 cm2, the patients with small lesion size, of 0–20 cm2, had better clinical effect (RR =73.8% vs 53.2%). The reactions of the patients with hyperplastic lesion were worse than those with red patches (RR =36.4% vs 71.7%). As well, increasing treatment numbers could achieve higher clearance rates (P=0.005). Conclusion The PDL had a relatively high RR but a low clearance rate in Chinese patients with PWS, although the earlier the intervention, the better was the efficacy. The response of PDL was, not only related to the anatomical area, but also, to the lesion size, type of lesion (ie, the presence of existing hyperplastic lesions), and the number of treatment, all of which are essential for the evaluation of therapeutic effect and acquisition of patients consent before treatment. PMID:25548515

  10. Previous cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus testing in a cohort of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinguo; Peng, Dezhi; Bi, Chunrui; Jiang, Lingbo; Zhao, Dongman; Tian, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, available data regarding previous cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) test results to detect invasive cervical cancer are limited and controversial in China. Therefore, this retrospective study in a population of Chinese women with invasive cervical carcinoma aimed to gain further insight into the roles of cytology and hrHPV testing in cervical cancer screening. Methods A total of 1214 cases with a histological diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer were retrieved from the Pathology Database of Jinan KingMed Diagnostics (JKD) over a 5-year period. Previous cytology and hrHPV test results of 469 patients carried out within the year before cancer diagnosis were documented. Results A higher percentage of patients who had undergone prior screening had micro-invasive cervical carcinoma than patients who had no prior screening (25.4% vs. 12.1%, P < 0.001). Of the 469 patients with available prior screening results, 170 had cytology alone, 161 had hrHPV testing alone, and 138 had both cytology and hrHPV testing. There was a significantly lower percentage of hrHPV-positive cases with adenocarcinoma than with squamous cell carcinoma (77.8% vs. 96.4%, P = 0.001). The hrHPV test showed a significantly higher sensitivity than cytology alone (94.4% vs. 85.3%, P = 0.006). The overall sensitivity of the combination of cytology and hrHPV testing (98.6%) was much higher than that of cytology alone (P < 0.001) but only marginally higher than that of hrHPV testing alone (P = 0.058). Conclusions The results revealed that prior cervical screening can detect a significantly larger number of micro-invasive cervical cancers. The hrHPV test can provide a more sensitive and efficient strategy than cytology alone. As the addition of cytology to hrHPV testing can only marginally increase the efficiency of the hrHPV test, hrHPV testing should be used as the primary screening approach, especially in the low-resource settings of China. PMID:28662160

  11. Zinc Fractional Absorption from a Representative Diet in Young Chinese Men and Women of the Shandong Rural Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiping; Lin, Xinying; Guo, Dongmei; Ding, Lili; Guo, Haifeng; Xu, Guifa; Cui, Xi; Wang, Xia

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the zinc fractional absorption of young Chinese men and women from the Shandong rural region under the routine dietary pattern by stable isotope technique. Ten men and 10 women, aged 20 to 35 years, and with a representative diet during the experiment were recruited from the Shandong rural region. Stable (67)Zn was used as a tracer to label ZnCl2, and Yb was used to monitor the excretion of (67)Zn in urine and feces. All volunteers were given rice containing 4.0 mg (67)Zn and 1.0 mg Yb on the fourth day. Then the food and fecal samples of all subjects were collected for 12 consecutive days. The total zinc and the stable zinc isotope ratio of all samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and thermal ionization mass spectrometer, respectively. The determination of the other nutrients was performed based on the Chinese National Standard Methods. Among volunteers, the daily intake of zinc was 15.50 mg, 103.33 % of recommended nutrient intake (RNI, set by the Chinese Nutrition Society) in men and 15.43 mg, 134.17 % in women. The fractional absorption of Zn was 23.42 ± 2.23 % in men, and 22.49 ± 2.19 % in women. The protein candidates got from the typical diets was 93.96 % of RNI in women. Calcium and ascorbic acid intakes were 76.23 % of RNI and 27.91 % of RNI in men, respectively and 51.17 % of RNI and 34.23 % of RNI in women, respectively. Our results showed that a typical meal for someone in the Shandong rural region presented an adequate intake of zinc and a moderate Zn bioavailability. The shortage of protein and the inappropriate protein pattern may play important roles in reducing zinc bioavailability.

  12. Sedimentary evolution of the Holocene subaqueous clinoform off the southern Shandong Peninsula in the Western South Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiandong; Liu, Jian; Saito, Yoshiki; Yang, Zigeng; Yue, Baojing; Wang, Hong; Kong, Xianghuai

    2014-10-01

    Based on the stratigraphic sequence formed since the last glaciation and revealed by 3000 km long high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and the core QDZ03 acquired recently off the southern Shandong Peninsula, we addressed the sedimentary characteristics of a Holocene subaqueous clinoform in this paper. Integrated analyses were made on the core QDZ03, including sedimentary facies, sediment grain sizes, clay minerals, geochemistry, micro paleontology, and AMS 14C dating. The result indicates that there exists a Holocene subaqueous clinoform, whose bottom boundary generally lies at 15-40 m below the present sea level with its depth contours roughly parallel to the coast and getting deeper seawards. The maximum thickness of the clinoform is up to 22.5 m on the coast side, and the thickness contours generally spread in a banded way along the coastline and becomes thinner towards the sea. At the mouths of some bays along the coast, the clinoform stretches in the shape of a fan and its thickness is evidently larger than that of the surrounding sediments. This clinoform came into being in the early Holocene (about 11.2 cal kyr BP) and can be divided into the lower and upper depositional units (DU 2 and DU 1, respectively). The unit DU 2, being usually less than 3 m in thickness and formed under a low sedimentation rate, is located between the bottom boundary and the Holocene maximum flooding surface (MFS), and represents the sediment of a post-glacial transgressive systems tract; whereas the unit DU 1, the main body of the clinoform, sits on the MFS, belonging to the sediment of a high-stand systems tract from middle Holocene (about 7-6 cal kyr BP) to the present. The provenance of the clinoform differs from that of the typical sediments of the Yellow River and can be considered as the results of the joint contribution from both the Yellow River and the proximal coastal sediments of the Shandong Peninsula, as evidenced by the sediment geochemistry of the core. As is

  13. Retraction statement: Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    The above article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong' by Chan, M. F., Lou, F.-l., Cao, F.-l., Li, P., Liu, L. and Wu, L. H. published online on 6 July 2009 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 2344-2354, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation carried out by the National University of Singapore due to major overlap with a previously published article: Chan MF, Lou F-l, Arthur DG, Cao F-l, Wu LH, Li P, Sagara-Rosemeyer M, Chung LYF & Lui L (2008) Investigating factors associate to nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care. Journal of Clinical Nursing 17: 509-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02007.x.

  14. Residual levels of rare earth elements in freshwater and marine fish and their health risk assessment from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Luping; Wang, Xining; Nie, Hongqian; Shao, Lijun; Wang, Guoling; Liu, Yongjun

    2016-06-15

    The total concentrations of rare earth elements (ΣREE) were quantified in 251 samples from 10 common species of freshwater and marine fish in seventeen cities of Shandong, China. ΣREE obtained from the freshwater fish ranged from 34.0 to 37.9ngg(-1) (wet weight) and marine fish from 12.7 to 37.6ngg(-1). The ratio of LREE to HREE was 13.7:1 and 10:1 for freshwater and marine fish, respectively. This suggests that freshwater fish exhibit greater REE concentrations than marine fish and the biological effects of LREE are higher than HREE. Results revealed a similar REE distribution pattern between those fish and coastal sediments, abiding the "abundance law". The health risk assessment demonstrated the EDIs of REEs in fish were significantly lower than the ADI, indicating that the consumption of these fish presents little risk to human health.

  15. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica.

  16. Suicide rates in Shandong, China, 1991-2010: rapid decrease in rural rates and steady increase in male-female ratio.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiandong; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiyu; Jia, Cunxian; Xu, Aiqiang

    2013-04-25

    China has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, the recent trends in suicide have not been adequately studied. This study aimed to examine the potential changes in the rates and characteristics in a Chinese population. Data on suicide deaths in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Shandong Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) mortality dataset based on ICD-10 codes. The temporal trend in age-adjusted suicide rates for each subpopulation was tested using log-linear Poisson regression analysis. From 1991 to 2010, there was a marked decrease in the overall suicide rate in Shandong, with an average reduction of 8% per year. The decrease trend was stronger in rural than in urban areas and more evident in females than in males. Similar decreases were observed for all age groups. Pesticide ingestion and hanging remained the top two methods for suicide. There are likely quality concerns in the morality data, such as underreporting and misclassification, as well as low accuracy in determining the underlying causes of deaths. The representativeness of the DSP system may also be problematic due to the rapid changes in economy and demography. Completed suicides in Shandong have sharply declined over the past 20 years. Higher rates in females versus males and in rural versus urban areas, which were previously considered to be distinguishing features of suicide in China, are becoming less pronounced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization of segments S7 to S10 of a southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolate from maize in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao; Xu, Fei-fei; Zheng, Fang-qiang; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Bao-shen; Zhang, Chun-qing

    2011-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel Fijivirus prevalent in rice in southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Its genome has 10 segments of double-stranded RNA named S1 to S10 according to their size. An isolate of SRBSDV, JNi4, was obtained from naturally infected maize plants from Ji'ning, Shandong province, in the 2008 maize season. Segments S7 to S10 of JNi4 share nucleotide identities of 72.6%-73.1%, 72.3%-73%, 73.9%-74.5% and 77.3%-79%, respectively, with corresponding segments of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolates, and identities of 99.7%, 99.1%-99.7%, 98.9%-99.5%, and 98.6%-99.2% with those of SRBSDV isolates HN and GD. JNi4 forms a separate branch with GD and HN in the phylogenetic trees constructed with genomic sequences of S7 to S10. These results confirm the proposed taxonomic status of SRBSDV as a distinct species of the genus Fijivirus and indicate that JNi4 is an isolate of SRBSDV. Shandong is so far the northernmost region where SRBSDV is found in China.

  18. Distribution and provenance of detrital minerals in southern coast of Shandong Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinqing; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Yong; Song, Hongying; Bi, Shipu; Cao, Zhimin; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-10-01

    Detrital minerals of 137 offshore and 22 river sediment samples collected from Qingdao coastal areas have been analyzed. Four mineral assemblage provinces can be classified by Q-mode cluster analysis. Factor analysis identifies two major factors that account for the total variability in most common minerals: 1) based on the relationship of quartz, hornblende, actinolite, micas, and authigenic pyrite, 41.55% of the variability is related to sediment sources; 2) based on the relationship of epidote, garnet, sphere, and ilmenite, 23.21% can be related to strong hydrodynamic conditions that control transport and sedimentation. By comparing mineral compositions of river waters in the study area, the following four mineral provenances can be identified. The Qingdao-Laoshan nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-epidote-hornblende-limenite-limonite-sphene assemblage, which is largely attributed to relict sediment and coastal erosion. The Jimo-Haiyang nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-hornblende-epidote-limonite-mica-actinolite assemblage, derived largely from the Wulong River and Rushan River, and is also affected by the Huanghe River, while the Qianliyan Island area in the deeper offshore area separated by a mud belt has a similar assemblage. The Haiyang-Rushan nearshore area has a quartz-feldspar-hornblende-epidote-micas-limonite assemblage, indicating multiple sources from the Rushan River, the Wulong River, the Huanghe River, and coastal erosion. The central area, located in an eddy center, has a mica-authigenic pyrite-hornblende-quartzfeldspar assemblage, indicating multiple sources dominated by Huanghe River distal sediments.

  19. Percentiles of waist-hip ratio and the relationship with blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong; Zhou, Jing-Yang; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Anthropometric indices such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) have been recognized as useful alternatives to visceral fat measurement in epidemiological studies. WHR has been used extensively in adults. However, there are very few published data for WHR among children and adolescents. The present study examined the distribution of WHR and the relationship with blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, PR China. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren carried out in 2010. A total of 38,822 students (19,456 boys and 19,366 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. WC, Hip circumference (HC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were measured; WHR was calculated as WC divided by HC. Abdominal obesity was defined by previously published WHR references based on Chinese children and adolescents living in Beijing. All subjects were divided into two groups (group 1 with WHR <85th; group 2 with WHR ≥85th) according to the percentiles of WHR and comparisons of the SBP and DBP between the two groups were made. The WHR levels in Shandong boys and girls were lower than those from German and Pakistani. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity was 9.53% (95% CI = 9.12-9.95%) for boys and 9.82% (95% CI = 9.40-10.24%) for girls, no statistical differences between the two genders were observed (p > 0.05). In both boys and girls, the Z-scores of SBP and DBP were all significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (p < 0.01), indicating that children and adolescents with high WHR tended to have higher BP values. WHR is useful in identifying children and adolescents at risk of developing high BP. These findings, together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood, highlight the importance of preventing overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in order to prevent the development of

  20. Chinese province-scale source apportionments for sulfate aerosol in 2005 evaluated by the tagged tracer method.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yumimoto, Keiya; Uno, Itsushi

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate policies to improve air quality by reducing anthropogenic emissions are urgently needed. This is typified by the particulate matter (PM) problem and it is well known that one type of PM, sulfate aerosol (SO4(2-)), has a large-scale impact due to long range transport. In this study we evaluate the source-receptor relationships of SO4(2-) over East Asia for 2005, when anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from China peaked. SO2 emissions from China have been declining since 2005-2006, so the possible maximum impact of Chinese contributions of SO4(2-) is evaluated. This kind of information provides a foundation for policy making and the estimation of control effects. The tagged tracer method was applied to estimate the source apportionment of SO4(2-) for 31 Chinese province-scale regions. In addition, overall one-year source apportionments were evaluated to clarify the seasonal dependency. Model performance was confirmed by comparing with ground-based observations over mainland China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, and the model results fully satisfied the performance goal for PM. We found the following results. Shandong and Hebei provinces, which were the largest and second largest SO2 sources in China, had the greatest impact over the whole of East Asia with apportionments of around 10-30% locally and around 5-15% in downwind receptor regions during the year. Despite large SO2 emissions, the impact of south China (e.g., Guizhou, Guangdong, and Sichuan provinces) was limited to local impact. These results suggest that the reduction policy in south China contributes to improving the local air quality, whereas policies in north and central China are beneficial for both the whole of China and downwind regions. Over Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, the impact of China was dominant; however, local contributions were important during summer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations.

  2. The association between suicidal ideation and sleep quality in elderly individuals: A cross-sectional study in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yangyang; Sun, Long; Zhou, Chengchao; Ge, Dandan; Zhang, Li

    2017-07-10

    Previous studies have identified global associations between sleep quality and suicidal ideation. However, little is known regarding the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults. We examined the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation in older adults in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3313 seniors in Shandong, China. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the interviewees' answers to the question "Have you ever seriously considered wanting to die?". Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for confounders. When controlling for sex, age, living condition, economic status, marital status, education, past occupation, relationship with children, non-communicable diseases, and mental health, the odds of suicidal ideation increased in association with an increase in the total score for sleep quality and its components (subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, and daytime dysfunction). Poor sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in Chinese older adults. Sleep-based interventions should be developed to prevent suicide in older adults in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Habitat suitability index model of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka): A case study of Shandong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Jian; Song, Jingjing; Wang, Qixiang; Liu, Hongjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-09-15

    A habitat suitability index (HSI) model for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was established in the present study. Based on geographic information systems, the HSI model was used to identify potential sites around the Shandong Peninsula suitable for restoration of immature (<25g) and mature (>25g) A. japonicus. Six habitat factors were used as input variables for the HSI model: sediment classification, water temperature, salinity, water depth, pH and dissolved oxygen. The weighting of each habitat factor was defined through the Delphi method. Sediment classification was the most important condition affecting the HSI of A. japonicus in the different study areas, while water temperature was the most important condition in different seasons. The HSI of Western Laizhou Bay was relatively low, meaning the site was not suitable for aquaculture-based restoration of A. japonicus. In contrast, Xiaoheishan Island, Rongcheng Bay and Qingdao were preferable sites, suitable as habitats for restoration efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

  5. [Research on the characteristics of Ulva prolifera in Shandong Peninsula during 2008-2012 based on MODIS data].

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng-Quan; Guo, Hao; Zhang, An-Ding; Jia, Li-Li; Xiao, Lu-Xiang; Wang, Jing-Pu

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the MODIS data were used to monitor the situation of Ulva prolifera in the Shandong Peninsula waters during the period of 2008-2012. Those studies mainly calculate the area of NDVI, and get the information of the time, area , scope , floating path of Ulva prolifera by using threshold segmentation method. The feasibility of monitoring Ulva prolifera information based on MODIS data and the macroscopic regularity of the outburst of Ulva prolifera was elementally studied. The results showed that Ulva prolifera first generated in the middle of May or early June, the time, area, scope of Ulva prolifera reached a maximum, but the relative crowding density was earlier or later when Ulva prolifera developed into a outburst. Finally, Ulva prolifera died away after existing for 71 days in the late July or the early August. Wholly, the floating path moved to the northwest from off the coast to offshore. Based on those aspects above, the outburst of Ulva prolifera in 2008 and 2009 was more serious than others.

  6. Heavy metals distribution and environmental quality assessment for sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yong; Bi, Shipu; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Manman; Hu, Gang

    2015-11-15

    A systematic study was conducted on the distribution characteristics of heavy metals and on associated influencing factors in sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China, based on the results of a heavy metals analysis on 157 surface sediment samples from coastal waters of the study area and on 46 samples from surrounding rivers flowing into the sea. An environmental quality assessment of heavy metals was performed using the Nemerow index. The results show that the distribution characteristics of sediment heavy metals in coastal waters outside of Qingdao can be divided into three classes: (1) Class I - Cr, Cu and Zn, with high-value areas extending from the northeast to the southwest in a banded or tongue-like pattern; (2) Class II - As, Cd and Pb, with high-value areas mainly distributed off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao; and (3) Class III - Hg only, with high-value areas mainly in the northern area of Jiaozhou Bay. Integrated assessment based on the Nemerow index reveals that heavy metals pollution has occurred in surface sediments in a number of coastal water areas outside of Qingdao. This pollution is mainly found off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao and in the northeastern section of Jiaozhou Bay. Results show that grain size of surface sediments, surrounding rivers and human activities are the main reasons for the element distribution pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  8. Concentrations and health risk assessment of rare earth elements in vegetables from mining area in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Maoqiang; Zhao, Jinshan; Li, Suyun; Liu, Danru; Wang, Kebo; Xiao, Peirui; Yu, Lianlong; Jiang, Ying; Song, Jian; Zhou, Jingyang; Wang, Liansen; Chu, Zunhua

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the concentrations of rare earth elements in vegetables and assess human health risk through vegetable consumption, a total of 301 vegetable samples were collected from mining area and control area in Shandong, China. The contents of 14 rare earth elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The total rare earth elements in vegetables from mining and control areas were 94.08 μg kg(-1) and 38.67 μg kg(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The leaf vegetable had the highest rare earth elements concentration (984.24 μg kg(-1) and 81.24 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) and gourd vegetable had the lowest rare earth elements concentration (37.34 μg kg(-1) and 24.63 μg kg(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively). For both areas, the rare earth elements concentration in vegetables declined in the order of leaf vegetable > taproot vegetable > alliaceous vegetable > gourd vegetable. The rare earth elements distribution patterns for both areas were characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements. The health risk assessment demonstrated that the estimated daily intakes (0.69 μg kg(-1) d(-1) and 0.28 μg kg(-1) d(-1) for mining and control areas, respectively) of rare earth elements through vegetable consumption were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake (70 μg kg(-1) d(-1)). The damage to adults can be neglected, but more attention should be paid to the effects of continuous exposure to low levels of rare earth elements on children.

  9. Prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Su-Yun

    2017-09-18

    Childhood obesity has increased markedly during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents are limited. The present study examined the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 44 630 (22 404 boys and 22 226 girls) students aged 7-18 years participated in the study. BMI cut-off points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define class I-III obesity. Relatively high BP status was defined as systolic BP and/or diastolic BP of at least 95th percentile for age and sex. The prevalence rates of class I, class II, and class III obesity were 6.67, 1.47, and 0.42% for boys and 2.88, 0.64, and 0.18% for girls, respectively; boys had a higher prevalence than girls (P<0.01). Substantial urban-rural disparities exist in childhood obesity; urban boys and girls had a higher prevalence of class I and class II obesity than their rural peers (P<0.05). Severe obesity is associated with elevated BP; the prevalence of relatively high BP increased from 39.93% (boys) and 39.53% (girls) in the class I obese group to 50.54% (boys) and 53.66% (girls) in the class III obese group (P<0.05). Although the current prevalence of severe obesity was at a relatively low level, but we should not relax our vigilance to the obesity epidemic. Our findings also emphasize the importance of the prevention of severe obesity to prevent future-related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  10. Gender difference in utilization willingness of institutional care among the single seniors: evidence from rural Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yangyang; Chu, Jie; Ge, Dandan; Zhang, Li; Sun, Long; Zhou, Chengchao

    2017-05-12

    Institutional care has become an urgent issue in rural China. Rural single seniors, compared with their counterparts, have lower income and are more vulnerable. Gender is also a significant factor determining long-term institutional care. This study is designed to examine the gender difference towards utilization willingness of institutional care among rural single seniors. A total of 505 rural single seniors were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to examine the gender difference towards utilization willingness for institutional care, and also to identify the determinants of the utilization willingness for institutional care among rural single male and female seniors. Our study found that about 5.7% rural single seniors had willingness for institutional care in Shandong, China. Single females were found to be less willing for institutional care than single males in rural areas (OR = 0.19; 95 CI 0.06-0.57). It's also found that psychological stress was associated with institutionalization willingness in both single males (P = 0.045) and single females (P = 0.013) in rural China. The rural single seniors who lived alone were found to be more willing for institutional care both in males (P = 0.032) and females (P = 0.002) compared with those who lived with children or others. This study found that there was a gender difference towards utilization willingness for institutional care among single seniors in rural China. Factors including psychological stress and living arrangements were determinants of institutionalization willingness both in single males and females. Targeted policies should be made for rural single seniors of different gender.

  11. Ozone concentrations, flux and potential effect on yield during wheat growth in the Northwest-Shandong Plain of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhilin; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhao, Fenghua; Meixner, Franz X

    2015-08-01

    Ozone (O3) concentration and flux (Fo) were measured using the eddy covariance technique over a wheat field in the Northwest-Shandong Plain of China. The O3-induced wheat yield loss was estimated by utilizing O3 exposure-response models. The results showed that: (1) During the growing season (7 March to 7 June, 2012), the minimum (16.1 ppbV) and maximum (53.3 ppbV) mean O3 concentrations occurred at approximately 6:30 and 16:00, respectively. The mean and maximum of all measured O3 concentrations were 31.3 and 128.4 ppbV, respectively. The variation of O3 concentration was mainly affected by solar radiation and temperature. (2) The mean diurnal variation of deposition velocity (Vd) can be divided into four phases, and the maximum occurred at noon (12:00). Averaged Vd during daytime (6:00-18:00) and nighttime (18:00-6:00) were 0.42 and 0.14 cm/sec, respectively. The maximum of measured Vd was about 1.5 cm/sec. The magnitude of Vd was influenced by the wheat growing stage, and its variation was significantly correlated with both global radiation and friction velocity. (3) The maximum mean Fo appeared at 14:00, and the maximum measured Fo was -33.5 nmol/(m(2)·sec). Averaged Fo during daytime and nighttime were -6.9 and -1.5 nmol/(m(2)·sec), respectively. (4) Using O3 exposure-response functions obtained from the USA, Europe, and China, the O3-induced wheat yield reduction in the district was estimated as 12.9% on average (5.5%-23.3%). Large uncertainties were related to the statistical methods and environmental conditions involved in deriving the exposure-response functions.

  12. The relationship of waist circumference distribution to blood pressure levels among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying Xiu; Wang, Shu Rong

    2013-09-30

    Several studies have documented a positive association between waist circumference (WC) and risk factors for chronic disease in children and adolescents. The present study examined the relationship of WC distribution to BP levels and prevalence of relatively high BP among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 6895 students (3442 boys and 3453 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, WC and BP of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated from their height, weight and WC. Relatively high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP)≥ 95th percentile for age and gender. SBP and DBP were positively correlated with WC, WHtR and BMI in both boys and girls. The strongest correlation observed for BP was with WC. Z-scores of BP and the prevalence of relatively high BP increased with WC percentiles, this trend being especially obvious in the upper percentiles of WC. The prevalence of relatively high BP increased from 9.21% (boys) and 11.76% (girls) in the <5th WC percentile group to 58.99% (boys) and 40.34% (girls) in the ≥ 95th WC percentile group, an increase of 5.4- and 2.4-times. Children and adolescents with elevated WC might have an increased risk of hypertension. These findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of overweight and obesity in order to prevent future-related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  14. [An analysis of eligibility for occupational health inspection agencies in eight provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Qi, Fang; Wang, Huanqiang; Li, Tao; Lyu, Xiangpei; Zhu, Qiuhong; Yu, Chen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the eligibility and main problems for occupational health inspection agencies in China, and to provide technical references for improvement of occupational health inspection. A survey was performed in occupational health inspection agencies that obtained eligibility before June 2011 in eight provinces: Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei, Guangxi, Shanghai, Chongqing, and Shenzhen. The survey used the General Information Questionnaire for Occupational Health Inspection Agency made by the project of Occupational Health Surveillance and Diagnosis and Identification of Occupational Diseases in China and Australia. A total of 650 agencies obtained eligibility for occupational health inspection in the eight provinces. These agencies contained 343 centers of disease control and prevention (CDC) or health and epidemic prevention stations (52.8%), 219 hospitals (33.7%), 25 institutes or centers for occupational disease prevention and control (3.8%), 29 community health service centers (4.5%), and 34 other agencies (5.2%) including departments of preventive and health care and preventive medicine outpatient departments. Four hundred and fifty-three agencies completed the questionnaire survey with a response rate of 69.7%. The main types of eligible agencies were different among various regions. A majority of occupational health inspection agencies were hospitals in Shanghai and Zhejiang (67.1%, 62.3%), departments of preventive and health care in Shenzhen (70.0%), and CDCs in Chongqing, Jiangsu, Hubei, and Guangxi. Each agency obtained 3.5 occupational health inspection eligibilities on average. Most of agencies could perform eligible health inspection for dust, harmful physical factors, or harmful chemical factors (84.8%, 87.9%, 87.2%). Moreover, 72.8% of agencies were eligible for all the three types of inspections. A few agencies were able to perform eligible health inspection for harmful biological factors or radiation work (22.5%, 23.0%). An occupational

  15. Strategic thinking regarding the immigration issue in Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X

    1997-01-01

    "Many people have been moving to Guangdong Province from other parts of China since 1978. This paper analyzes the immigration issue in the province and suggests that the provincial government should handle this matter carefully and should give consideration to both national (Chinese) and regional (Guangdong Province) interests. The government of Guangdong Province should place priority on admitting a work force with higher education or higher work skills, which will promote the economic progress of the province."

  16. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  17. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. [Factors related to syphilis and other infections among female drug users in Shandong women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center in 2015].

    PubMed

    Li, R; Liao, M Z; Huang, P X; Yang, X G; Zhu, X Y; Su, S L; Lin, B; Han, L; Zhang, K; Kang, D M

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and related factors among female drug users in Shandong women's compulsory drug rehabilitation center(SWCDRC). Methods: During May 2015, we used a cluster sampling method for drug users in SWCDRC, with a questionnaire and serological testing. We included respondents who volunteered to take part in this study, had clear histories of drug abuse, and had no symptoms of psychosis or current drug use; 451 women participated. The questionnaire addressed socio-demographic information and the participants' health knowledge, including AIDS knowledge, behavioral information, drug use, and STD treatment. We also drew 5 ml blood from each subject for serological tests of HIV and syphilis. Chi-square test was used to compare syphilis antibody positive rate among drug users who had different characteristics. Multi-factor unconditioned logistic regression model was used to explore related factors about syphilis infection of women drug users. Results: Subjects' mean age was(27.25±7.06)years. Of the 451 women, 33.5%(151/451)tested positive for syphilis and 2.2%(10/451)for HIV. The rate of syphilis antibody(SAb)positive whether providing commercial server, providing: 47.2%(25/53); no providing: 31.6%(125/396); χ(2)=5.12, P=0.024. The SAb (+) rate from whether having temporary sexual behavior, having: 47.4%(91/192); no having: 23.6%(60/254); χ(2)=27.6, P<0.001. The SAb(+) rate of subjects who tested positive for herpes simplex virus-2(HSV-2)was 39.4%(128/325); for those who tested negative it was 18.3%(23/126); χ(2)=18.2, P<0.001. The SAb(+) rate by frequency of drug use was ≥3 times a week: 36.9%(106/287);<3 times per week: 27.3%(42/154); χ(2)=4.20, P=0.041. Compared with subjects who were unmarried, divorced, or widowed drug users, the OR(95% CI)for SAb(+) among subjects who cohabited with a partner was 2.19(1.36- 3.51). Compared with subjects who had not been having temporary sexual behavior, the OR(95%CI)for SAb

  19. Martian Provinces From Neutron and Gamma Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, O.

    2003-12-01

    This study intends to identify and characterize the major provinces at the surface of Mars. We used the data from the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the Gamma-ray Sensor Head (GSH) aboard Mars Odyssey. NS data help to define broad provinces that should present uniform composition. GSH data can be then summed over these provinces to derive their chemical compositions with good statistics. At the present stage, we manage to conduct the first step that identifies the provinces, while the second step is still under progress to characterize them. Variations in NS epithermal and fast neutron data are largely dominated by the distribution of hydrogen and carbon at the surface or at shallow depths. Neutrons are also affected by the presence of an atmosphere. To limit these effects, we chose frost free data (i.e. measured during the summer at high-latitudes), between -60 and +60 degrees latitude, and corrected for atmospheric thickness (normalization to 16 g/cm2). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that neutron fluxes can be used as a proxy for composition: thermal neutrons are strongly attenuated by absorbing elements such as iron, titanium, chlorine, gadolinium, and samarium; on the contrary, the fast neutron flux increases in presence of high-atomic mass elements such as iron or titanium. For a dry and airless body it is known that the ratio of epithermal over fast neutron counts is correlated to the ratio of thermal over fast neutron counts. This correlation leads to a unique parameter, which characterizes the various soil compositions. A similar behaviour has been observed within our subset of NS data. Effects of hydrogen and carbon are quite obvious, allowing us to focus on secondary components, which are driven by soil composition. From there, we derived four provinces besides the poles. The first province is made of H-rich equatorial regions (Arabia Terra and south of Lucus Planum). The second and third provinces are found north and south of the crustal

  20. Sichuan province scores in antipollution efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-07

    According to State Council regulations, Sichuan Province has begun charging entrepreneurial units fees for discharging waste water, waste gas and waste residue in excess of state standards, and using the money to treat environmental pollution. Results have been notable. Charging fees for discharging wastes is a major economic measure which the state has adopted to promote environmental protection. So far over 120 cities and counties in the province have adopted this measure. From April 1980 to the end of 1982, the province collected a total of 68 million yuan to fund 1,200 waste treatment projects. As a spinoff of the measure, the enterprises began raising funds on their own to treat pollution. Before 1979, the province spent an average of 3 million yuan annually on treatment of pollution. Last year the figure reached 28 million yuan. Since effluent fees came into effect, Leshan City has invested more money on more pollution-treatment projects every year. Chengdu City invested 14 million yuan in 1982 on 514 projects, completing 292 projects the very same year. The completed projects treat 25,000 tons of effluent a day. Waste water containing disease germs discharged from the army-system hospitals in the province is by and large treated. Effluent fees have spurred the enterprises to strengthen management, conserve and comprehensively utilize resources and energy, thus improving the economic results of the enterprises.

  1. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  2. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  3. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  4. [Prevalence and antibiogram distribution of Salmonella isolated from broiler production and processing course in four provinces, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-wei; Bai, Li; Zhang, Xiu-li; Qiao, Xin; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Yu-zhen; Pei, Xiao-yan; Wu, Yong-ning; Guo, Yun-chang

    2013-05-01

    To determine the contamination condition of Salmonella in broiler breeding and slaughter processing in China and to investigate the distribution of antimicrobial resistance profiles. Five large-scale broiler holdings and fourteen slaughterhouses were chosen to detect Salmonella in Henan, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Shandong provinces in 2010. A total of 835 anal swabs and 744 chicken carcasses were sampled to compare the difference of Salmonella contamination rate.Salmonella isolates were identified by serotyping according to Kauffmann-White scheme.The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella isolates were determined by broth microdilution method and sixteen antimicrobial agents were chosen and examined. In total, Salmonella isolates were recovered in 56 (6.7%) specimens among 835 collected anal swabs and 122 (16.4%) specimens among 744 broiler carcasses. Positive rate of Salmonella in broiler carcasses was higher than anal swabs (χ(2) = 36.94, P < 0.05). The dominant Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler anal swabs were S.enterica serovar Indiana and S.enterica serovar Enteritidis, accounting for 58.9% (33/56) and 32.1% (18/56) respectively. The prevalent serovars in broiler carcasses were also the two serovars and occupied 29.8% (37/124), 32.2% (40/124) respectively. Nearly 95.0% (171/180) Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 78.3% (141/180) Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant isolates and 20 (11.1%) Salmonella isolates were resistant to 14 antimicrobials. Our findings indicated that Salmonella contamination was common and serious in commercial broiler production and processing course in China. Salmonella contamination rate in broiler slaughter processing performance was higher than broiler flocks. Additionally, antibiotic resistance of Salmonella was in serious situation.

  5. [Superposition impact character of air pollution from decentralization docks in a freshwater port].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-chang; Li, Xing-hua; Xu, Hong-lei; Cheng, Jin-xiang; Wang, Zhong-dai; Xiao, Yang

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution from freshwater port is mainly caused by dust pollution, including material loading and unloading dust, road dust, and wind erosion dust from stockpile, bare soil. The dust pollution from a single dock characterized in obvious difference with air pollution from multiple scattered docks. Jining Port of Shandong Province was selected as a case study to get superposition impact contribution of air pollution for regional air environment from multiple scattered docks and to provide technical support for system evaluation of port air pollution. The results indicate that (1) the air pollution from freshwater port occupies a low proportion of pollution impact on regional environmental quality because the port is consisted of serveral small scattered docks; (2) however, the geometric center of the region distributed by docks is severely affected with the most superposition of the air pollution; and (3) the ADMS model is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment to predict a superposition impact of multiple non-point pollution sources when the differences of high-altitude weather conditions was not considered on a large scale.

  6. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  7. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate.

  8. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  9. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  10. Seasonal variation in species composition and abundance of demersal fish and invertebrates in a Seagrass Natural Reserve on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Wentao; Wu, Zhongxin

    2016-03-01

    Seagrass habitats are structurally complex ecosystems, which support high productivity and biodiversity. In temperate systems the density of seagrass may change seasonally, and this may influence the associated fish and invertebrate community. Little is known about the role of seagrass beds as possible nursery areas for fish and invertebrates in China. To study the functioning of a seagrass habitat in northern China, demersal fish and invertebrates were collected monthly using traps, from February 2009 to January 2010. The density, leaf length and biomass of the dominant seagrass Zostera marina and water temperature were also measured. The study was conducted in a Seagrass Natural Reserve (SNR) on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China. A total of 22 fish species and five invertebrate species were recorded over the year. The dominant fish species were Synechogobius ommaturus, Sebastes schlegelii, Pholis fangi, Pagrus major and Hexagrammos otakii and these species accounted for 87% of the total number of fish. The dominant invertebrate species were Charybdis japonica and Octopus variabilis and these accounted for 98% of the total abundance of invertebrates. There was high temporal variation in species composition and abundance. The peak number of fish species occurred in August-October 2009, while the number of individual fish and biomass was highest during November 2009. Invertebrate numbers and biomass was highest in March, April, July and September 2009. Temporal changes in species abundance of fishes and invertebrates corresponded with changes in the shoot density and leaf length of the seagrass, Zostera marina.

  11. Retraction notice to "Ca. 2.5 billion year old mafic dykes in western Shandong Province: Implications for hybridization between subducted continental crust and the North China Craton, China"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Zhai, Mingguo; Hu, Ruizhong; Gao, Shan; Lai, Shaocong; Zou, Haibo; Yan, Jun

    2015-02-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. The article duplicates significant parts of a paper that had already appeared in, and was withdrawn from Precambrain Research (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.08.012") One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  12. An analysis of hospital preparedness capacity for public health emergency in four regions of China: Beijing, Shandong, Guangxi, and Hainan

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingming; Huang, Jianshi; Zhang, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Background Hospital preparedness is critical for the early detection and management of public health emergency (PHE). Understanding the current status of PHE preparedness is the first step in planning to enhance hospitals' capacities for emergency response. The objective of this study is to understand the current status of hospital PHE preparedness in China. Methods Four hundred hospitals in four city and provinces of China were surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Data related to hospital demographic data; PHE preparation; response to PHE in community; stockpiles of drugs and materials; detection and identification of PHE; procedures for medical treatment; laboratory diagnosis and management; staff training; and risk communication were collected and analyzed. Results Valid responses were received from 318 (79.5%) of the 400 hospitals surveyed. Of the valid responses, 264 (85.2%) hospitals had emergency plans; 93.3% had command centres and personnel for PHE; 22.9% included community organisations during the training for PHE; 97.4% could transport needed medical staff to a PHE; 53.1% had evaluated stockpiles of drugs; 61.5% had evaluated their supply systems; 55.5% had developed surveillance systems; and 74.6% could monitor the abnormity(See in appendix). Physicians in 80.2% of the analyzed hospitals reported up-to-date knowledge of their institution's PHE protocol. Of the 318 respondents, 97.4% followed strict laboratory regulations, however, only about 33.5% had protocols for suspected samples. Furthermore, only 59.0% could isolate and identify salmonella and staphylococcus and less than 5% could isolate and identify human H5N1 avian flu and SARS. Staff training or drill programs were reported in 94.5% of the institutions; 50.3% periodically assessed the efficacy of staff training; 45% had experts to provide psychological counselling; 12.1% had provided training for their medical staff to assess PHE-related stress. All of the above capacities related to

  13. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    to continue to fight a successful insurgency in Helmand province well into 2010. Their capacity to deny the Government of the Islamic Republic of...Sunni Islamic caliphate in Afghanistan. As the Mujahedeens continued to demonstrate a capability to resist the Soviet expansion in Afghanistan, the...population in vicinity of Marine bases. Small unit leaders within the Marine 17 Corps would engage with locals, and in a fashion developed an impression

  14. Quantitative geochemical mapping of martian elemental provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, Olivier; Jeffrey Taylor, G.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Dohm, James; Newsom, Horton; Forni, Olivier; Pinet, Patrick; Boynton, William V.

    2010-05-01

    We present an exploratory approach to the interpretation of the elemental maps produced by the Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). These maps benefit from a direct detection of elemental mass fractions and are used to delineate and characterize elementally homogeneous provinces in the mid-latitudinal martian surface on the basis of chemistry alone. This approach is different from assessing the elemental composition of regions previously defined by their geologic context. Multivariate statistical approaches are discussed and a combination of principal component and clustering analyses is applied on the GRS-based hydrogen, chlorine, potassium, silicon, iron, and calcium maps. At least three principal components must be considered to properly describe the compositional variability seen in the maps. The main component is likely driven by the degree of mantling through a GRS perspective, i.e. by materials enriched in mobile elements (Cl, H) and finer than 10-20 cm, at horizontal and depth scales of hundreds of kilometers and tens of centimeters, respectively. Elemental diversity is found in both mantled and less-mantled provinces, suggesting both local and regional sources for the surficial materials. The less-mantled regions appear to have compositions which include basaltic igneous rocks. Although there is an absence of obvious natural clusters in the data, a solution between five and eight elemental provinces seems optimal and is discussed (Amazonis-Tharsis and Sabaea-Arabia, Tempe and the southern highlands, Chryse and Utopia, Elysium-Tartarus, Acidalia-Arabia). Future investigation of the defined elemental provinces will involve integrating other types of data and geological information.

  15. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  16. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  17. Cockroach surveys in 14 provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S

    2001-12-01

    Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat.

  18. Rodent consumption in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and Northeast Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption may be a source of rodent-borne diseases. The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population's traditions, knowledge, cultural, and household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size, and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne disease was negatively associated. These results provide evidence-base information for further studies, such as participatory ac- tion research, to further explore how people interact with rodents in different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic diseases in relation to rodent consumption.

  19. Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongqing Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping

    2001-03-15

    A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.

  20. Recycled oceanic crust and marine sediment in the source of alkali basalts in Shandong, eastern China: Evidence from magma water content and oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Chen, Huan; Feng, Min

    2015-12-01

    The magma water contents and cpx δ18O values in alkali basalts from the Fuyanyshan (FYS) volcano in Shandong, eastern China, were investigated by an inverse calculation based on the water content of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts, the ivAlcpx-dependent water partitioning coefficient Dwatercpx>/melt, and secondary ion mass spectrometer, respectively. The calculated water content (H2O wt.) of magma ranges from 0.58% to 3.89%. It positively correlates with heavy rare earth element concentrations and bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and it negatively correlates with Nb/U ratios. However, it is not correlated with bulk Mg# (Mg# = 100 × Mg / (Mg + Fe)) and (La/Yb)n (n represents primitive mantle normalization). Combined with the rather homogenous distribution of water content within cpx grains, these correlations indicate that the water variations among different samples represent the original magma signature, rather than results of a shallow process, such as degassing and diffusion. The δ18O of cpx phenocrysts varies from 3.6‰ to 6.3‰ (±0.5‰, 2SD), which may be best explained by the involvement of components from the lower and upper oceanic crust with marine sediments within the mantle source. The H2O/Ce ratios of the calculated melts range from 113 to 696 and form a positive trend with bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr, which cannot be explained by the recycled Sulu eclogite or by the metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Our modeling calculation shows that the decoupling of ɛHf and ɛNd could be caused by the involvement of marine sediments. Combing the high Ba/Th ratios, positive Sr spikes, and low Ce/Pb ratios for the Fuyanshan basalts, we suggest that the hydrous nature of the FYS basalts was derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone with ancient sediments.

  1. Distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure among children aged 7 to 12 years in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used to assess the prevalence of childhood obesity in populations, and the relationship of BMI with blood pressure has been observed. However, no study has reported on the distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure. The present study examined the distribution of body composition index and the relationship with blood pressure among children aged 7 to 12 years in Shandong, China. A total of 4326 students (2165 boys and 2161 girls) aged 7 to 12 years participated in this study. Height, weight, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure of all the subjects were measured. Body fat percentage (BF%) was calculated by regression equation, and fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated according to following expressions: FMI = BF% × weight/height(2) and FFMI = (weight - BF% × weight)/height(2). The 50th percentile values of FMI and FFMI increased with age in both sexes. The mean values of FFMI were significantly higher in boys than in girls (P < .01), but no statistically significant differences in mean FMI between the 2 sexes were observed (P > .05). Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively related to FMI and FFMI in both boys and girls (P < .05). FMI and FFMI are potentially useful in evaluating the body composition of individuals with different stature. There is a strong positive relationship between FMI and blood pressure in children; these findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Xu, Minglei; Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9-17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter's age (P<0.01), mother's education level (P<0.01), mother's occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters' age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were "My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)", "The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)", "Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)". Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population.

  3. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016.

    PubMed

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  4. Maternal mortality audit in a Zimbabwean province.

    PubMed

    De Muylder, X

    1990-01-01

    A maternal mortality audit was introduced in the Midlands Province (Zimbabwe) in order to identify which avoidable factors were involved most frequently. During the two-year study period, the maternal mortality rate was 137 per 100,000 total births. The main causes of death were uterine rupture, eclampsia, haemorrhage and caesarean section related accidents. An avoidable factor was identified among 87% of these deaths involving the health system in 57% of the cases and the patient in 33%. Access to the health facilities and transport problems only played a minor role.

  5. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  6. Ottawa, Quebec Province, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-380 (22 June 1973) --- Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes. Photo credit: NASA

  7. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  8. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  9. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  10. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  12. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure. PMID:27483472

  13. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  14. The climate reconstruction in Shandong Peninsula, northern China, during the last millennium based on stalagmite laminae together with a comparison to δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Zhou, Houyun; Cheng, Ke; Chi, Hong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Changshan; Ma, Qianqian

    2016-04-01

    Stalagmite ky1, with a length of 75 mm and the upper part (from top to 42.769 mm depth) consisting of 678 laminae, was collected from Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of Shandong Peninsula, northern China, located in a warm temperate zone in the East Asia monsoon area. Based on high-precision dating with the U-230Th technique and continuous counting of laminae, the 1st and 678th laminae have been confirmed to be AD 1894 ± 20 and 1217 ± 20 from top to bottom, respectively. By the measurement of laminae thickness and δ18O ratios, we haved obtained the time series data of thickness of laminae and δ18O ratios from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, analyzed the climatic-environmental meaning of variations in the thickness of laminae, which have a good correspondence with the cumulative departure curve of the drought-waterlog index in the historical period. The results show that, in the ˜ 678 years from AD 1217 ± 20 to 1894 ± 20, both the thickness of the laminae and the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae of stalagmite ky1 have obvious stages of variation and are completely synchronized with the contemporaneous intensity of the summer monsoons and precipitation as time changed. There is a negative correlation between the thickness of the laminae and the summer monsoon intensity and precipitation. There is a positive correlation between the degree of fluctuation in the thickness of the laminae and both the intensity of the summer monsoons and the precipitation. Therefore, for the Kaiyuan Cave in the coastal area of both the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the variations in the thickness of the laminae are not only related to the change in the climatic factors themselves but also related to the degree of climatic stability. In the coastal area belonging to the warm temperate zone and the East Asia monsoon area, the climate change between the LIA (Little Ice Age) and the MWP (Medieval Warm Period), in addition to less precipitation

  15. Mantle Provinces under Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.

    2010-12-01

    I present a survey of mantle provinces (large-scale seismic anomalies) under North America, from the surface down to approximately 1500 km depth, and with a focus on the eastern half of the continent. It is based on multi-frequency tomography, which uses systematically frequency-dependent traveltime and amplitude measurements of teleseismic P-waves, together with finite-frequency modeling. A novel kind of rendering technique (``color-banded 3-D maps'') is used to make the mantle model's considerable structural complexity accessible. In the transition zone and below, the North American mantle is dominated by seismically fast provinces, which appear to be distinct subduction episodes of the Farallon plate. I attempt to date and interpret the various slab fragments by reconciling their present positions with paleo-trench locations from plate tectonic reconstructions, and with major geological surface episodes. The first-order surface division between stable East and tectonic West is found to have its equivalent in the mantle: slabs that were laid down before or after (east or west of) a big slab break that happened between 50 and 60 Myr. Some of the mantle provinces have not been discussed much previously, including (1) a seismically slow blanket overlying the oldest Farallon subduction beneath the East Coast; (2) a transition zone slab co-eval with the Laramide orogeny (ca. 80-60 Myr), which I discuss in analogy to the ``stagnant slab'' subduction style commonly found in the Western Pacific today; (3) the surprisingly deep, lower-mantle root of present-day Cascadia subduction; and (4) the very sharp boundaries (plate tears and breaks) that delineate slab fragments. Because it can be dated, the stagnating ``Laramide'' fragment turns out to be an anchor piece, about halfway through the Farallon's subduction history, relative to which the other fragments may be evaluated. Large vertical offsets across co-eval slabs indicate that vertical sinking velocity was highly

  16. Chemical provinces reveal Elysium Volcano's compositional evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susko, D. A.; Karunatillake, S.; Wray, J. J.; Skok, J. R.; Hurowitz, J.; Ojha, L.; Judice, T.; Bently, R. O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars became definable[1-3] with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data[4,5]. Previous work highlighted the Elysium lava flow province as anomalous, with a depletion in K and Th relative to the average crust in the rest of Mars (ROM).[3] We characterize the elemental composition, geology, and geomorphology of the region to constrain the processes that have contributed to its evolution. We compare SE Elysium with its North West lava fields, advancing prior work on thermal evolution of the martian mantle.[6] Lava fields at both sites probably source from Elysium eruptions. Both show similar Si content, as well as a Ca-enrichment compared to ROM, consistent with prior models.[6,7] Nevertheless, the two fields are compositionally distinct from each other, with NW Elysium decisively depleted in Ca and Fe, but enriched in K and Th. Such distinctness, in elements that reflect magmatic fractionation, reveals the possibility that a single volcanic complex on Mars may evolve rapidly during the Amazonian era, causing variable flow compositions. Interestingly, a chemical province containing volcanics that is contemporaneous with Elysium, overlaps the Tharsis region.[3] Unlike Elysium, the K and Th distributions within Tharsis are indistinguishable from ROM. Meanwhile, the mass fraction signature in Tharsis is enriched in Cl and depleted in Si. Such contrast, in chemical anomalies between volcanic constructs of similar age, may indicate that the depletion of K and Th in SE Elysium did not arise from temporal evolution of the mantle. [1] Taylor, G. et al. Geology 38, 183-186, 2010 [2] Gasnault, O. et al. 207, 226-247, 2010 [3] Karunatillake, S. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E12001, 2009 [4] Boynton, W. V. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E12S99, 2007 [5] Feldman, W. C. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E09006, 2004 [6] Baratoux, D. et al. Nature 472, 338-41, 2011 [7] Balta, J. et al. Geology 41, 1115

  17. Large igneous provinces linked to supercontinent assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Santosh, M.; Luo, Zhaohua; Hao, Jinhua

    2015-04-01

    Models for the disruption of supercontinents have considered mantle plumes as potential triggers for continental extension and the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs). An alternative hypothesis of top-down tectonics links large volcanic eruptions to lithospheric delamination. Here we argue that the formation of several LIPs in Tarim, Yangtze, Lhasa and other terranes on the Eurasian continent was coeval with the assembly of the Pangean supercontinent, in the absence of plumes rising up from the mantle transition zone or super-plumes from the core-mantle boundary. The formation of these LIPs was accompanied by subduction and convergence of continents and micro-continents, with no obvious relation to major continental rifting or mantle plume activity. Our model correlates LIPs with lithospheric extension caused by asthenospheric flow triggered by multiple convergent systems associated with supercontinent formation.

  18. Exploring the Sandy Province of Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    This view from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the downwind stretches of a sand sheet in central part of the much larger Herschel Crater. This sandy province began kilometers upwind in a string of barchan sand dunes. As the north-to-south blowing wind weakened downwind, it could no longer fashion the sand into dunes but rather into amorphously-shaped sand sheets. While perhaps not awe-inspiringly beautiful, sand sheets can tell us about Mars' current and past environmental conditions as a piece of the puzzle for understanding habitability. Having dunes upwind of sheets is the opposite situation Earth has, where upwind sand sheets evolve downwind into sand dunes. This mystery is receiving ongoing research to to understand these sandy differences between Earth and Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21933

  19. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  20. PRB - a province that never quits

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, R.

    1983-08-01

    Wyoming's Powder River Basin is one of those oil provinces that never quits. It currently is one of the more active areas in the Rocky Mountain region, and there are indications that suggest the latter half of this year could be more lively than the first half. The Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission listed 251 applications for drilling permits in June; 150 of them were for Powder River Basin counties. Operators indicate interest is building in the area for several reasons. Economic considerations are more favorable, money is more available, and there are ready markets for oil and associated natural gas. Drilling costs have decreased considerably, from $17/ft two years ago to $6.90-$7.70/ft.

  1. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-04

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%).

  2. South Korea: An overlooked hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Sturt, D.C.; Quinton, N.A. )

    1993-11-01

    A forthcoming well about to spud off South Korea is planned to test the potential of an essentially unexplored rift basin. Should the well prove successful, it could open up a major new hydrocarbon producing province with substantial reserves. The well is being drilled in Block V which covers 7,000 sq km. is divided into two parts, and lies about 150 km south of the Korean peninsula close to Cheju Island. The larger Northern Block overlies the Fukue basin, which is a linear graben system oriented northeast-southwest. The Fukue basin is equivalent in size to the South Viking graben of the North Sea and the existence of a restricted marine source rock and play types at several stratigraphic levels helps to reinforce such a comparison Seismic mapping has revealed five prospects with combined most likely reserves of more than 1 billion bbl. The paper describes the basin evolution, source and migration of petroleum, reservoir and seals, and well location.

  3. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age <4 years and residency in urban areas were the major factors increasing the risk of burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  4. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  5. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba- Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: (1) the North Oman Huqf?Shu?aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and (2) the middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general ?North Oman Huqf? type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant ?questionable unidentified source? or ?Q?-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout northcentral Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (middle Carboniferous to Lower Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu?aiba and middle Cretaceous

  6. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/`Q'? Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba-Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: 1) the North Oman Huqf ? Shu'aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and 2) the Middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply-buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general `North Oman Huqf' type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant `questionable unidentified-source' or `Q'-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout north-central Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (M. Carboniferous to L. Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/`Q' ? Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu'aiba and Middle Cretaceous

  7. An isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Phillips, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism.

  8. Bayesian adjustment for over-estimation and under-estimation of gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Abadi, Alireza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To correct the misclassification in registered gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces in cancer registry data. METHODS Gastric cancer data is extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration report 2008. A Bayesian method with beta prior is implemented to estimate the rate of misclassification in registering patient’s permanent residence in neighboring province. Each time two neighboring provinces with lower and higher than 100% expected coverage of cancer cases are selected to be entered in the model. The expected coverage of cancerous patient is reported by medical university of each province. It is assumed that some cancer cases from a province with a lower than 100% expected coverage are registered in their neighboring province with more than 100% expected coverage. RESULTS The condition was true for 21 provinces from a total of 30 provinces of Iran. It was estimated that 43% of gastric cancer cases of North and South Khorasan provinces in north-east of Iran was registered in Razavi Khorasan as the neighboring facilitate province; also 72% misclassification was estimated between Sistan and balochestan province and Razavi Khorasan. The misclassification rate was estimated to be 36% between West Azerbaijan province and East Azerbaijan province, 21% between Ardebil province and East Azerbaijan, 63% between Hormozgan province and Fars province, 8% between Chaharmahal and bakhtyari province and Isfahan province, 8% between Kogiloye and boyerahmad province and Isfahan, 43% Golestan province and Mazandaran province, 54% between Bushehr province and Khozestan province, 26% between Ilam province and Khuzestan province, 32% between Qazvin province and Tehran province (capital of Iran), 43% between Markazi province and Tehran, and 37% between Qom province and Tehran. CONCLUSION Policy makers should consider the regional misclassification in the time of programming for cancer control, prevention and resource allocation. PMID:28255430

  9. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  10. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  11. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  12. [The casuistics of nematodiases in man in Tula Province].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T Iu; Bogachkina, S I; Oshevskaia, Z A

    1991-01-01

    Cases of human gongylonemiasis (G. pulchrum) and dirofilariasis (D. repens) in Tula Province are reported. It is assumed that the source of infection is local as the patients haven't migrated anywhere outside the region during several years.

  13. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Keller, J.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Maruyama, S.; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-03-01

    Based on a synthesis of published geologic, paleohydrologic, topographic, and geophysical information, we have defined geologic provinces that represent significant windows into the geologic evolution of Mars, consistent with the GEOMARS theory and supported by GRS data.

  14. Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. In this study we identified estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeographic Province using available monitor...

  15. The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

  16. Characterization of Arctic Highly Magnetic Domains - the Geophysical Expression of Inferred Large Igneous Province(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G.; Miller, E. L.; Jackson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain (1000 x 1700 km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH) consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic, domains. The magnetic potential anomaly field (also known as pseudogravity) of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature (which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps). The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography. The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features. Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province. The term "Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province" is given to a domain mapped by tracing magnetic anomalies in a recent map published by AAPG (Grantz and others, 2009). On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between 120 and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity. In

  17. [Investigation and identification of varieties of wulingzhi in Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wan, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports the investigation and identification of varieties of Wulingzhi used as drugs in Qinghai province. The results show Wulingzhi varieties from the province and the parts of northwest districts are different with the Wulinzhi recorded in China Pharmacopoeia, which has itself special varieties and identified standard, their originals are the excrements from Petaurista xanthotis, Ochotona erythrotis, O. curzoniae. O. daurica and O. causus.

  18. The suicide rates in the Yunnan Province, a multi-ethnic province in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Xiao, Yize; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Qingping; Yang, Yunjuan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown a high rate and a unique pattern of suicide in China. We aim to present the current suicide rates and patterns in the Yunnan province, a multi-ethnic region in Southwestern China. This is a descriptive study based on the 3rd Chinese national mortality survey. We reported the suicide rates by sex, 5-year age group, region (urban or rural), and minority group from 2004 to 2005 in the Yunnan province. We estimated a mean annual suicide rate of 19.82 per 100,000 and a total of 8751 suicide deaths per year. Sex-specific rate estimates were 21.09 per 100,000 and 18.46 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. The male/female ratio was 1.14. Region-specific rate estimates were 20.60 per 100,000 and 19.18 per 100,000 for rural and urban regions, respectively. The rural-to-urban ratio was 1.07. Suicide accounted for 4.83% of all deaths in the Yunnan province and represented the fifth leading cause of death. In minority groups, the highest suicide rates were found in the Li su minority (50.75 per 100,000), the Jing po minority (36.38 per 100,000), the Meng gu minority (32.65 per 100,000) and the Miao minority (30.75 per 100,000). The lowest rates were found in the Hui minority (0.96 per 100,000) and the Ha ni minority (1.64 per 100,000). The suicide characteristics of this multi-ethnic region of China are different from those of the rest of China and the world, which indicates that the development of a special intervention strategy in multi-ethnic areas for suicide prevention is needed.

  19. [Evaluation of forest ecosystem services value in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-wei; You, Wen-zhong; Ren, Xiao-xu; Xing, Zhao-kai; Wang, Shi-ming

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term located observation of forest ecosystem, and by using the 2006 forest resources inventory data of Liaoning Province and the forest industry standard of the People's Republic of China( LY/T 1721-2008, specification for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China), an evaluation was made on the material quantity and services value of main forest ecosystems in fourteen cities of Liaoning Province. In this province, the forest ecosystem services value supplied by water storage, soil conservation, C fixation, O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation, and forest recreation in 2006 was 2591.72 x 10(8) yuan, which was 8.54 times of the forestry production value and 28.02% in the GDP of the province. The services value of water storage, biodiversity conservation, C fixation, and O2 release occupied 79.09% of the total, being the main forest ecosystem services in the province. Economic forest and shrub had smaller per unit services value but larger area, and hence, their ecosystem services value should not be ignored. Abies fargesii forest, Phellodendron amurense forest, Juglans mandshurica forest, and Fraxinus mandshurica forest were the representative zonal vegetations in Liaoning Province, which had high value in biodiversity conservation. Under the effects of climate and other factors, the forest area and forest quality in west Liaoning were lower than those in east Liaoning.

  20. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  1. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  2. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-02-02

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition.

  3. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  4. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    PubMed

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  5. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  6. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  7. Petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The recent discovery of major oil resources on Alaska's North Slope has rekindled interest in the petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks stretching along the west coast of Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta. Attention was first focused on this region in the early 1950's, after oil and gas were discovered in the Cretaceous of the North Slope by the U.S. Navy. The presence of similar Cretaceous strata in the Yukon-Koyukuk province and the possibility that some of the broad alluviated lowlands within the province might be underlain by Tertiary basins were pointed out by Gryc and others (1951) and Payne (1955). Between 1954 and 1961 large parts of the province were reconnoitered by oil company surface parties and a small amount of geophysical work was carried out in the Nulato-Kateel and Bethel areas. The explorational activity culminated in 1960-61 with the drilling of two deep tests, a 12,000-foot hole near Nulato on the Yukon River and a 15,000-foot hole at Napatuk Creek in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Coastal Lowland. Apparently neither test revealed oil shows or favorable reservoir rocks, as exploration and leasing activity in the province declined sharply thereafter.

  8. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  9. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

  10. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  11. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats in Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of the province of Ravenna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Marchettini, Nadia; Panzieri, Margherita; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2002-09-01

    This is a thermodynamic analysis of the Province of Ravenna (Italy) and its districts (Ravenna, Faenza and Lugo) and an evaluation of entropy waste production based on a balance sheet of greenhouse gases. The method used is energy analysis. The results show that the Province and Ravenna are characterized by a heavy exploitation of local non renewable resources, Faenza strikes a good balance between economic development and environment conservation and Lugo is less sustainable than the others. The greenhouse gas balance shows that the Province emits 10.5 times the quantity of greenhouse gases that it adsorbs and that the emissions reduction is required in the energy sector, which is responsible for 92% of the total.

  14. [Malignant pustule in province of Milan, Italy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gelosa, L

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary the statistical data are reported about human malignant pustule denounced in Italy in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Correlatively the outbreaks and cases of haematic anthrax in animals declared in Italy, in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Then the outbreaks of malignant pustule in Province of Milan are related in 1975-1977 period in the resident population where is considerable concentration of the leather manufactures. The epidemiological and microbiological researches have determined the relation among the outbreak of malignant pustule and the working of the hides imported from African Countries (Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa, Burundi-Kenya, Uganda) containing the spores of b. anthrax. The spores besides to cause infections of the workmen employed in the hide manufacture (industrial anthrax) through the effluents and solid refuses from the tanneries, are dispended upon the tiled ground and determine outbreak the haematic anthrax in the animals and agricultural coutaneus anthrax in the men.

  15. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  16. [Seroepidemiology of Chagas disease in the Province of Jujuy].

    PubMed

    Tortora, C C; Quincoces, V; Dipierri, J E

    1996-01-01

    Chagas disease is the principal zoonosis of the Province of Jujuy where it represents a major public health problem. In this paper the results of a serological screening of T. cruzi infection carried out in the Province of Jujuy are analyzed to determine the general prevalence, age and geographic distribution, sex ratio, prevalence in foreign population and their relation with migratory process. In every individual (N = 16482) indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and immunofluorescence (TIF) tests have been carried out. In 5879 of them the birth place in the territory of the Province and the number of foreign individuals (313, all Bolivians) were confirmed. Based on these data the individuals were grouped according to: a) the four geographical regions of the Province located at different altitude levels, Puna, Quebrada, Valle and Ramal; b) towns placed on or away from the main routes of communication of the Province. For the statistical analysis the X2 and Z tests were employed. The results show that: 1) the general prevalence was of 11.50%; 2) no differences existed between the sexes: 3) the region with the highest prevalence was the Valley (12.84%) followed by Ramal (10.43%), Quebrada (8.53%) and Puna (2.98%); 4) differences of the serum prevalence can be observed between the residents on and away from the main routes of communication denoting the existence of a migratory effect in the distribution of chagasic infection; 5) prevalence differences exist between naturalized foreigns (39.30%) and Argentines (10.25%), data which strengthen the previous remark. Except for the general prevalence, there are no similar serological surveys which might allow us to establish relationships with our results of which the outstanding one is the influence of the migratory aspect upon the prevalence and distribution of T. cruzi in the Province of Jujuy.

  17. Geological provinces of the near side of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the near side of the Moon has provided the basis for defining and delineating the major geological provinces of the near side. From the nature of the provinces and their distribution patterns a general historical sequence evolves. Five main surface-shaping periods are recognized: (1) one of intense early impact cratering; (2) another, probably overlapping the first, during which the impact basins were formed; (3) a prolonged period of varied terra volcanism; (4) a short period of mare volcanism that resulted in filling of the multiring basins; and (5) a period of diminishing volcanic activity continuing up to the time of formation of the last ray craters. ?? 1972.

  18. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  19. Analysis of the impact of population growth in Henan Province on its environment and ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the effects of population growth on the...environment and ecosystem [of China's Henan Province]. This paper also proposes a key countermeasure to deal with the population growth and environmental improvement of Henan Province." excerpt

  20. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two

  1. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  2. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  3. Prevalence and Trends of HIV, Syphilis, and HCV in Migrant and Resident Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shandong, China: Results from a Serial Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Gu, Xu; Tao, Xiaorun; Qian, Yaosheng; Babu, Giridhara R.; Wang, Guoyong; Liao, Meizhen; Han, Larry; Kang, Dianmin; Tang, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Background Migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) have a higher predisposition for HIV transmission. We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and trends of HIV, Syphilis, and HCV between migrant and resident MSM in Shandong, China. Methods A serial cross-sectional study was conducted in eight cities in Shandong, China from 2010 to 2014. The surveys collected information on demographics, HIV-related knowledge, and HIV-related behaviors including the serologic status of HIV, syphilis, and HCV. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine differences between migrant and resident MSM. Results The overall prevalence of HIV among the 15,705 MSM (14120 were resident, 1580 were migrant and 5 were missing) was 2.6%, with an increase of 1.0% in 2010 to 4.4% in 2014. Prevalence of HIV was higher among migrant MSMs (5.5%) compared to resident MSMs (2.3%). Compared to residents, migrants also had higher prevalence of syphilis (7.5% vs 4.9%) and HCV (1.1% vs 0.6%). We found that there was an increase in the proportion of migrant MSM engaging in anal sex [adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.41 in migrants vs 1.12 in residents], condom use during last anal sex (AOR = 1.14 in residents, P for trend = 0.32), consistent condom use (AOR = 1.04 residents, P for trend = 0.11) and drug use (AOR = 1.51 in migrants and 1.29 among residents). Except in the year 2011, receiving some health services in last year was significant for people who were HIV-positive compared to negative. (P for trend <0.05). Conclusions Prevalence of HIV increased in resident as well as migrant MSMs. The migrant MSMs had higher STIs compared to resident MSMs and therefore, should be targeted for effective interventions aimed at reducing their risk behaviors. Deeper understanding of the role of migration in health issues is required for combating the persistently high and gradually increasing HIV burden in MSM in China. PMID:28103295

  4. Status of beech bark disease in the Province of Quebec

    Treesearch

    Denis. Lachance

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of beech bark disease has not changed significantly in recent years in Quebec. It has remained as scattered infected stands located within relatively old beech-scale-infested areas. This scale covers the southeastern half of the beech natural range in the province and it is spreading slowly westward.

  5. EMAP-VIRGINIAN PROVINCE FOUR YEAR ASSESSMENT (1990-1993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments with the four years (1990-93) of ecological condition data collected by the USEPA Environmntal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) in estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) were presented. EMAP data were used to quantify, with ...

  6. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  7. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  8. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  9. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  10. [Preliminary investigation on Paragonimus in Lvchun county of Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Li, Ru-Qing; Bai, Zhong-Wen; Wu, Ou-Bao; Gao, Xiu-Fang

    2007-12-01

    69 crabs were collected from Daxing, Gekui and Niukong townships of Lvchun county, Yunnan Province in 2006 and excysted metacercariae were only obtained from crabs of Niukong. The infection rate was 27.6% (8/29) with an average metacercaria number of 2.25 each crab. No encysted metacercariae were found. The excysted metacercariae were morphologically identified as Paragonimus proliferus.

  11. Critically Pressured Free Gas Reservoirs Below Gas Hydrate Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbach, M. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    Paleoceanographic evidence suggests that methane hydrates play a significant role in global climate change; however, mechanisms for sustained methane release into the biosphere during periods of global warming are poorly understood (Katz et al. 1999, Kennett et al., 2000). Here, we evaluate the possibility that gas flux into the hydrate stability zone, and perhaps into the oceans and atmosphere is mechanically regulated by hydrofracture or fault reactivation in overlying hydrate-bearing sediments. Our results reveal that a critical gas column thickness exists below most hydrate provinces in basin settings, implying that these hydrate provinces are poised for mechanical failure. Our results suggest that a free gas "wedge" of increasing thickness with BSR depth occurs in hydrate basins, and that a mechanically regulated maximum thickness of free gas exists. Furthermore, our results are consistent with observations of thicker free gas zones in deep hydrate basins and thin free gas zones on active, possibly water-phase overpressured, continental margins. Incorporating our result with Dickens' 2001 model for estimating BSR depths along ocean margins, and assuming 50% sediment porosity with gas filling 1% of the pore space, we calculate a value for the total free methane gas reservoir below all hydrate provinces to be 1/8 the total methane trapped in hydrate, or ~1300 Gt if 10,000 Gt of methane exists in hydrate (Kvenvolden, 1993). One key implication is that a significant reservoir of methane may exist as free gas beneath hydrate provinces that is highly sensitive to changes in pressure and temperature.

  12. Aedes aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Cecchini, R; Harrington, M E; Cichero, J; Asis, R; Rios, C

    1997-09-01

    In 1955, the area infested by Aedes aegypti in Argentina was estimated as 1,500,000 km2; and in 1963, the species was considered to be eradicated from Argentina. In 1995, the Argentine Ministry of Health reported reinfestation by Ae. aegypti. During 1994-95, the Ministry of Health of Córdoba Province, Zoonosis Department, established a surveillance system for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina. This report is a summary of results obtained thus far. In total, 74 localities in Córdoba Province were sampled during August 1994-April 1996, resulting in 5 positives (6.7%): Villa María city, Villa Nueva, and Córdoba city in 1995, and Juarez Celman and Jesús María in 1996. In Villa María and Villa Nueva, Ae. aegypti was present until June 1995 (autumn) and reappeared in December 1995. In Córdoba city, Ae. aegypti was eliminated from the only positive house in May 1995, but it reappeared in March 1996. Reappearance of Ae. aegypti in this temperate area in early summer may have been due to the survival of individuals during winter and not to reintroduction during summertime. The last previous active surveillance for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province was carried out more than 30 years ago.

  13. Ozone monitoring in the Krakow Province, southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Godzik

    1998-01-01

    From June to mid-October in 1995, the concentration of tropospheric ozone in 18 localities in the Krakow Province of southern Poland was measured by using ultraviolet monitors and Ogawa passive samplers. At three active monitoring stations, tropospheric ozone was recorded in the downtown and western part of Krakow and in Szarow, 30 km to the east. The passive method...

  14. A bibliography for the northern Madrean Biogeographic Province

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried; Daniel P. Huebner; Carl B. Edminster

    1999-01-01

    An online bibliography was compiled to furnish a literature basis for implementing of land management activities and planning research endeavors in the Madrean Biogeographic Province, which includes the Madrean Archipelago region in the southwestern United States. Citations are listed alphabetically by author in categories appropriate to the subject-matter presented....

  15. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  16. Service Needs and Provision in the Northern Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, B. M., Ed.; Govind, V., Ed.; Schwabe, C. A., Ed.; Taylor, J. M., Ed.

    This book, one of a series that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to outline the need for and provision of services (education, health, housing, electricity, roads, telecommunications, postal services, and police services) in each of the nine South African provinces, presents a global view or indicator of the simultaneous influence of the…

  17. Service Needs and Provision in the North West Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, B. M., Ed.; Govind, V., Ed.; Schwabe, C. A., Ed.; Taylor, J. M., Ed.

    This book, one of a series that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to outline the need for and provision of services (education, health, housing, electricity, roads, telecommunications, postal services, and police services) in each of the nine South African provinces, presents a global view or indicator of the simultaneous influence of the…

  18. Special Education in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Peter R.; Matthews, Barbara S.

    The report is based on a study of special education in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The educational structure of the province is discussed in the first section, with information on administration and policy formation. Information on general education at the preschool, primary, and adult levels is presented along with an overview of special education…

  19. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem.

  20. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T.; Newton, Paul N.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.–positive and Borrelia spp.–positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  1. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  2. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  3. [Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China].

    PubMed

    Han, X; Jiang, Y; Shang, H

    2001-12-01

    To study the prevalence of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China. Nuclear acids were extracted from blood samples of 16 HIV-1 infected individuals collected locally in Liaoning province of China from Jun. 1997 to Dec. 2000. The 0.7 kb or 1.2 kb segments of HIV-1 env gene were amplified using nested-PCR and the HIV-1 genetic subtypes were then assayed by heteroduplex mobility assay. Fifteen of 16 samples were positive by PCR amplification of HIV-1 env region and samples were found to be genetic subtype A,B',C,E. The proportion due to sexual transmission in all HIV infection was 31.25% (5/15), among which subtype B' (3/5) was the majority. A man who returned from Africa together with his spouse both had type A (2/5) infection. Intravenous drug users (IDUs) took up 31.25% (5/15) of all the HIV infections. Subtype C (2/4) and E were predominant among intravenous drug users. However, there was one IDU with subtype B or E. Nearly all blood recipients and blood donors were B' (4/5) except one with C. There have been several subtypes of HIV-1 existed in Liaoning province, demonstrating the complexity of HIV epidemology in Liaoning province and the difficulty conducting prevention and treatment.

  4. [Calculation of regional carbon emission: a case of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shi-Yan; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Rui; Liu, Chang-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Bin

    2011-06-01

    By using IPCC carbon emission calculation formula (2006 edition), economy-carbon emission dynamic model, and cement carbon emission model, a regional carbon emission calculation framework was established, and, taking Guangdong Province as a case, its energy consumption carbon emission, cement production CO2 emission, and forest carbon sink values in 2008-2050 were predicted, based on the socio-economic statistical data, energy consumption data, cement production data, and forest carbon sink data of the Province. In 2008-2050, the cement production CO2 emission in the Province would be basically stable, with an annual carbon emission being 10-15 Mt C, the energy consumption carbon emission and the total carbon emission would be in inverse U-shape, with the peaks occurred in 2035 and 2036, respectively, and the carbon emission intensity would be decreased constantly while the forest carbon sink would have a fluctuated decline. It was feasible and reasonable to use the regional carbon emission calculation framework established in this paper to calculate the carbon emission in Guangdong Province.

  5. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  6. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  7. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  8. Historical occupational isocyanate exposure levels in two Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Peters, Cheryl E; Jardine, Katherine J; Arrandale, Victoria H

    2017-01-01

    Isocyanates such as toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI), methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) are known sensitizers and exposure to these chemicals can result in isocyanate-induced asthma-the leading cause of occupational asthma. A newly created exposure database was available containing occupational isocyanate measurements spanning 1981-1996 from Ontario and British Columbia (BC)-two of the largest provinces in Canada. The aim was to describe the historical measurements relative to exposure thresholds, ascertain differences in the data between provinces, and identify time trends. Descriptive statistics of the observations were summarized and stratified by isocyanate species and province. Chi-square tests and Student's t-test were performed to determine differences between provinces. To investigate time trends in the odds of a measurement exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) and time-weighted average (TWA), mixed effects logistic regression models were constructed. In total, 6,984 isocyanate measurements were analyzed, the majority of which were below the LOD (79%). Overall, 8.3% of samples were in excess of the 2014 TLV-TWA of 0.005 ppm. Comparing the two provinces, the proportion of samples exceeding the LOD and TLV-TWA was greater in BC for all isocyanate species. Differences in time trends were also observed between provinces-the odds of a sample exceeding the TLV-TWA decreased over time in the case of MDI (Ontario only), TDI (both Ontario and BC), and other isocyanates (BC only). Our finding that a majority of the exposure measurements was below the LOD is similar to that reported by others. Differences between provinces may be due the fact that isocyanates are classified as a designated substance in Ontario and must adhere to specific exposure control regulations. Limitations of the database, such as finite number of variables and measurements available until 1996 only, presents challenges for more in-depth analysis and

  9. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  10. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  11. Eruption frequency record of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Michael, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Syrtis Major is one of the most prominent Hesperian-aged volcanic provinces on Mars, located near the dichotomy boundary, west of Isidis Planitia. It extends over approximately 740,000 km² and has a N-S elongated central depression containing the calderas of Meroe Patera and Nili Patera. Lava thicknesses range from approximately 0.5-1.0 km and total volume of erupted material has been estimated at about 320,000 km³. This province is another target area of our ongoing study to quantify the global volatile release during volcanic eruptions on Mars. Estimates of eruption frequency, associated volume of erupted material, and gas release to the atmosphere are the key parameters of this research. Reconstruction of the eruption history of volcanic provinces is one of the steps to be taken in order to constrain these parameters. In total, 58 lava flows were mapped of which 39 were suitable for age determination using crater size-frequency distributions. In addition, the caldera of Meroe Patera was also dated using crater statistics. Model ages range between 0.87 Ga and 3.63 Ga. There is no apparent time-space correlation observed. The broad spectrum of model ages, ranging from Early Hesperian to Middle Amazonian, points to long-lasting volcanic activity of the studied province. This fact together with post-emplacement deformation of lava flows indicates a much longer eruption and volcano-tectonic history of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province than previously thought, extending it to the Middle Amazonian period

  12. [Mortality in the municipalities of Brindisi Province, 1981-2001].

    PubMed

    Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Serinelli, Maria; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Brindisi is a town on the South coast of the Adriatic sea, where many sources of airpollutants are located nearby the urban area. A part from the airport and the harbour, mainly for passenger traffic to Greece, a wide industrial area is present (petrochemical, power plants, chemical pharmaceutical, metallurgical, manufacturing). In seven municipalities, illegal dumps have been found. South west of Brindisi is the province of Taranto, whose industrial area includes steels factory a refinery and a cement factory. In both provinces, an area at "high risk of environmental crisis, has been identified by the Italian Ministry of Environment. In the Brindisi area, mortality from all causes, cancers and respiratory diseases. in 1990-1994 was found to be in excess. to estimate mortality among residents in the twenty municipalities of the province aggregated in four geographic areas: the one at "high risk" including the main town, and the areas located North. West and South of the Brindisi "high risk" area. descriptive geographical study. mortality analysis by gender, specific causes of death and two ten-year periods between 1981 and 2001. Standardised mortality ratios (Puglia region as referent population) and directly as well as age-standardized rates (ref. European population) have been computed. mortality from all causes and from forty selected causes. about 3,200 annual deaths have occurred in the province. Results for the high risk area confirm previous analyses while excesses in the other areas have appeared. A few municipalities, requiring a deeper investigation have been identified. Such excesses refer to mortality due to all causes, all cancers, stomach and lung cancers, respiratory and ischemic diseases. this study confirms excesses in the high risk areas and found mortality excesses in other municipality both among males and females. The results suggest to further investigate mortality both in the main town and in the small municipalities where illegal dump have

  13. [Serum retinol and carotenoid of rural infants and young children in Linyi of Shangdong Province and analysis on their related influencing dietary factors].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ping; Shen, Yao; Li, Yonghua; Ma, Aiqin; Sun, Zhongqing; Wang, Zhixu

    2012-05-01

    The study was carried out to determine serum retinol and carotenoid of infants and young children in rural areas, and to explore their related dietary factors. A total of 254 rural healthy infants and young children aged 6-24 month-old were recruited from a program for health examination and feeding survey conducted in villages in Meibu of Linyi of Shandong Province by cluster sampling method. Serum retinol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were detected with HPLC. The frequency of food intake of babies during the past month was inquired from their mothers or baby-sitters. The relationship between serum retinol and carotenoid level with some factors related to feeding pattern was analyzed. The average serum retinol was (0.96 +/- 0.55) micromol/L with little variation by age (P > 0.05). The prevalence of serum vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were 40.6% and 32.6%. The average serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein + zeaxanthin were (0.056 +/- 0.088) micromol/L, (3.3 +/- 12.1) nmol/L, (27.0 +/- 45.2) nmol/L and (0.22 +/- 0.22) micromol/L, respectively, and no significant difference between age groups on serum beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (all were P > 0.05) except lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.05). Breast feeding and formula feeding were significant dietary factors influencing serum retinol and carotenoids levels. The frequency of breast-feeding was correlated significantly with serum beta-carotene (P < 0.05). Serum retinol was correlated positively with carotenoids and among carotenoids with each other (all were P < 0.001). Vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency were prevalent in the investigated infants and young children. Serum carotenoid was little variation with age, but was different significantly with dietary patterns fed by breast milk, formula, or fruits and vegetables.

  14. A Research of Construction Mechanism of Vassal State's City Group during Spring and Autumn Period Based on the Analyzation of Geographic Image - Take south region of Shandong as example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Li, B.; Zhou, X.

    2015-08-01

    Spring and Autumn period, the vassal states began to carry out country defense construction actively, brought changes to building the ideological. At that time, the south region of Shandong, as an independent unit of geography, seldom affected by external factors, and had striking cultural characteristics. Vassal states there constructed their capital mainly to defense the neighboring countries and cope with small scale mergers war, not involving the nationwide military deployment. Therefore, the region reflect the construction thought changes during the Spring and Autumn Period, and consistent with the research purpose. Based on this judgment, the author analyzed each capital's location and terrain feature by topographic map. In brief, the Spring and Autumn Period, feudal states acted of one's own free will, the relationship between cities contained the one within and between vassal states. Within vassal state relationships included economic support, entrenching each other and protecting the country together. Meanwhile, strategic defensing, scrambling for resources and geographical location comprised of the competition between vassal states. In the agrarian age, the political centers and agricultural areas were interdependent, giving priority to the development of political cities. Transformation of capitals' space layout was actually the process of carving up farming plains, the powerful states occupy favorable geographical position, and the small countries would be encroached and annexed gradually.

  15. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  16. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  17. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  18. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  19. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  20. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella

    2014-08-06

    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  1. The effect of field modulation on the vibrational population of the photoassociated NaK and its dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Yue, Da-Guang; Zhou, Xu-Cong; Guo, Ya-Hui; Meng, Qing-Tian

    2017-04-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11674198) and the Natural Science Foundations of Shandong Province, China (Grant Nos. ZR2014AM022 and ZR2015AL023). Partial financial support from Taishan Scholar Project of Shandong Province is also acknowledged.

  2. Interaction Between the Supercontinent Cycle and the Evolution of Intrinsically Dense Provinces in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Shear-wave travel times in the Earth's deep mantle reveal broad steep-sided seismologically distinct provinces lying on the Core-Mantle Boundary (CMB). The longevity and permanence of the two large principal provinces, located below the sites of present-day Africa and the Pacific Ocean, have become a matter of great interest. Examination of the flood basalt record and kimberlite eruption dating suggests the presence of these provinces may disclose a deep mantle component with a compositionally distinct origin playing a role in the generation of mantle plumes at preferred locations. By extension, the presence of these provinces may affect the supercontinent cycle. Implementing a mantle convection model featuring distinct continental lithosphere and a Compositionally Anomalous and Intrinsically Dense (CAID) component, we study the distribution and mobility of naturally forming compositionally distinct provinces and their impact on model supercontinent assembly. In calculations featuring Earth-like convective vigor and global scale we find that an intrinsically dense mantle component generally aggregates into one or two broad provinces. The positions of the provinces are time-dependent but in many of our calculations the province locations are characterized by periods of fixity that reach several hundred million years. Eras of province and associated plume fixity are punctuated by periods of relatively rapid migration. A correlation between supercontinent position and the locations of CAID provinces is not supported by our findings. However, we find the frequency of supercontinent assemblies increases when CAID provinces are present.

  3. [Applying analytical hierarchy process to assess eco-environment quality of Heilongjiang province].

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-liang; Liu, Zheng-mao

    2006-05-01

    The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted to study the index system of eco-province and the index system was set up for eco-province construction. The comparison matrix was constructed on the basis of experts' investigation questionnaires. MATLAB 6.5 was used to confirm the weights of the indices. The general environment quality index model was used to grade the environment quality and assessed the progress of constructing eco-province in Heilongjiang province. The results indicate that it is feasible to apply the AHP to assess quantitatively the ecological environmental quality province-wide. The ecological environment quality of Heilongjiang province has been improved obviously from the beginning of eco-province construction.

  4. Improving immunisation: coverage in a province in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van Zwanenberg, T D; Hull, Cathy

    1988-01-01

    The effect on immunisation coverage of applying guiding principles to the management of primary health care services in a province in Papua New Guinea is described. These principles were: (a) Each health centre should have a defined geographical area of responsibility. (b) Each health centre should be responsible for a defined population. (c) Each health centre should have defined target groups for immunisation and child health clinic enrolment. (d) An accurate and meaningful reporting system is essential. (e) Each health centre should receive regular feedback on its achievements. Immunisation coverage in the province, as judged by the proportion of children under 1 year of age receiving their second dose of triple antigen, improved from 57-67% in 1980-2 to 89-94% in 1983-4. Immunisation is the most cost effective preventive activity undertaken in child health care. The application of these guiding principles would be relevant in the United Kingdom. PMID:3135060

  5. Louisianian province demonstration report. EMAP-estuaries: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Brooks, G.T.; Heitmuller, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The report summarizes the Louisianian Demonstration Project conducted by the Estuaries Resource Group of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program initiated by EPA to integrate efforts of governmental agencies in evaluations of status and trends of ecological resources of the U.S. The Louisianian Province represents a single biogeographic area corresponding to the Gulf of Mexico. The demonstration project was conducted during July and August 1991, using a probability-based sampling design to evaluate the condition of Gulf of Mexico estuarine resources. The assessment is preliminary and its findings should be confirmed by subsequent years of sampling in the Louisianian Province, which extends from Rio Grande, Texas, to Anclote Anchorage, Florida.

  6. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  7. The east coast petroleum province: Science and society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Atlantic offshore, especially the mid-Atlantic, was an exciting exploration area from the 1970s into the 1980s. Much pioneering 'frontier' activity in both scientific and policy matters occurred in this area. Although production was not achieved, objective geological evidence indicates that the province does have potential. Major population centers of the mid-Atlantic area demand large amounts of energy and enormous amounts of crude and product are shipped through East Coast waters. Nevertheless, exploration has been shut down by moratoria, environmental concerns, and international pricing. It is suggested that the province will be revisited in the future and that the geologic and environmental information that has been generated at great cost should be preserved for use by the next generation of explorationists and policy-makers.

  8. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  9. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  10. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  11. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  12. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  13. Freshwater mollusks of medical importance in Kalasin Province, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsomboon, Jaremate; Kerdpuech, Yupa; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2005-05-01

    A snail survey was performed in six districts around irrigation areas of Lampao Dam, in Kalasin Province. The survey caught a total of 5,479 live snails and classed them into five families, 12 genera and 15 species, of which 7 species are suspected of transmitting human parasitic diseases. The seven species were Pila polita, Pomacea canaliculata, Filopaludina (S.) m. martensi, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) siamensis goniomphalos, Melanoides tuberculata, Radix rubiginosa, and Indoplanorbis exustus. Of these, B. (D.) s. goniomphalos and I. exustus were found to harbor emergent cercariae. Only B. (D.) s. goniomphalos hosted several types of cercariae--Opisthorchis viverrini, unidentified species of intestinal flukes, echinostomes, xyphidio and furcocercous cercariae. Indoplanorbis exustus shed only echinostome cercariae. B. (D.) s. goniomphalos showed a rather high natural infection rate with O. viverrini, 1.3% in Yang Talat district, and 0.61% in Kamalasai district, in Kalasin Province.

  14. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  15. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  16. Geologic hazards in Navarin Basin Province, Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Paul R.; Karl, Herman A.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Edwards, Brian D.

    Navarin Basin, scheduled for leasing in 1984 (OCS sale 83), may contain vast accumulations of oil and gas. Several geologic and oceanographic processes that may be active in and around Navarin Basin province could be hazardous to commercial development. These potential hazards include submarine slides; sea-floor instability resulting from disturbance of gas-charged sediment; sediment transport and erosion caused by storm waves, tsunamis, internal waves, or bottom currents; pack ice; and active faults and ground motion.

  17. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  18. ‘Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs)’: Definition, recommended terminology, and a hierarchical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.

    2007-12-01

    This article is an appeal for the adoption of a correct and appropriate terminology with respect to the so-called Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). The term LIP has been widely applied to large basaltic provinces such as the Deccan Traps, and the term Silicic Large Igneous Province (SLIP) to volcanic provinces of dominantly felsic composition, such as the Whitsunday Province. However, neither term (LIP, SLIP) has been applied to the large granitic batholiths of the world (e.g., Andes) to which both terms are perfectly applicable. LIP has also not been applied to broad areas of contemporaneous basalt magmatism (e.g., Indochina, Mongolia) and sizeable layered mafic intrusions (e.g., Bushveld) which in many significant respects may also be considered to represent 'Large Igneous Provinces'. Here, I suggest that the term LIP is used in its broadest sense and that it should designate igneous provinces with outcrop areas ≥ 50,000 km 2. I propose a simple hierarchical classification of LIPs that is independent of composition, tectonic setting, or emplacement mechanism. I suggest that provinces such as the Deccan and Whitsunday provinces should be called Large Volcanic Provinces (LVPs), whereas large intrusive provinces (mafic-ultramafic intrusions, dyke/sill swarms, granitic batholiths) should be called Large Plutonic Provinces (LPPs). LVPs and LPPs thus together cover all LIPs, which can be felsic, mafic, or ultramafic, of sub-alkalic or alkalic affinity, and emplaced in continental or oceanic settings. LVPs are subdivided here into four groups: (i) the dominantly/wholly mafic Large Basaltic Provinces (LBPs) (e.g., Deccan, Ontong Java); (ii) the dominantly felsic Large Rhyolitic Provinces (LRPs) (e.g., Whitsunday, Sierra Madre Occidental); (iii) the dominantly andesitic Large Andesitic Provinces (LAPs) (e.g., Andes, Indonesia, Cascades), and (iv) the bimodal Large Basaltic-Rhyolitic Provinces (LBRPs) (e.g., Snake River-High Lava Plains). The intrusive equivalents of LRPs

  19. The greenhouse gas balance of the Province of Siena.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, R; Kneller, M; Donati, A; Pulselli, R M

    2008-01-01

    There is a profound debate over how to assign greenhouse gas (GHG) responsibilities; therefore, we have decided to follow IPCC guidelines, as they offer the only standardized method. We have identified each type of greenhouse emission and its level of absorption. We have studied the province and its districts and municipalities. We have determined that the energy sector is that with the highest level of emissions, even if the per capita emissions of the Province of Siena are very low. This is caused by a very low level of industrialization and the presence of a local geothermal production of energy. In order to highlight this aspect, we have considered scenarios both with and without geothermal production. Our research was then focused on single districts (groups of homogenous municipalities) and municipalities, where we found great differences among the greenhouse emissions of the areas. We have constructed a map of the greenhouse emissions of the whole province. It has been interesting to note that there are 14 municipalities with net negative emissions, seven with low positive emissions, 12 with medium positive emissions and three with elevated positive emissions. These latter correspond to the main city and to two of the most industrialized municipalities.

  20. Incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Assiri, A A; Yousuf, B I; Quantock, A J; Murphy, P J

    2005-11-01

    To assess the incidence and associated signs and symptoms of patients with keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. 125 new keratoconus patients (51 male, 74 female; mean age 18.5 (SD 3.8) years; range 8--28 years) were recruited from referrals to the department of ophthalmology, Asir Central Hospital, over a 1 year period. Age, visual acuity, and keratometry were recorded along with clinical signs and symptoms. The incidence of keratoconus in Asir Province is 20 cases per 100,000 population. Also, the disease severity is high, as indicated by an early mean age (17.7 (3.6) years) with advanced stage keratoconus. Visual acuity, with either spectacles or rigid contact lenses, was 6/12 or better in 98% of eyes measured. Just over half (56%) of patients had atopic ocular disease. 16% of patients had a positive family history of the disease and 16% had atopic dermatitis (eczema and/or vitiligo). The incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia, is high with an early onset and more rapid progress to the severe disease stage at a young age. This might reflect the influence of genetic and/or environmental factor(s) in the aetiology of keratoconus.

  1. Traffic Perception in Eskişehir Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacasu, Murat; Altin, Arzu Yavuz; Ergül, Bariş; Berkhan Akalin, Kadir

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of the world population that is becoming increasingly the use of motor vehicles. Also, due to technological advances that have become more accessible to a case having a motor vehicle. However, these developments have led to the emergence of some problems. Especially, highways of serious accidents occurred in transportation, to investigate measures that can be taken and identification of the problem is an important issue in Turkey. First, you need to identify the individual's perception of traffic. This process is important to identify gaps in the application. This study was planned and carried out in order to measure the traffic perceptions of living in Eskisehir Province. For this purpose, a questionnaire aimed at determining demographic and socio-economic characteristics and attitudes of the individual's perception of traffic was prepared. Data sets were analysed by factor analysis known as one of the most known multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The result of analysis obtained over the dimensions, traffic perceptions of individual's in Eşkisehir Province modelled. Looking for solutions for the traffic problem in institutions of the Eşkisehir Province has obtained a series of results that could benefit in creating attitudes and behaviours about traffic.

  2. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  3. Brackish-water mollusks of Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Harada, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Brackish-water mollusks inhabiting the mangrove areas along the Gulf of Thailand of Surat Thani Province were investigated for distribution, abundance and natural infections. Nine families and 32 species of brackish-water snails were recovered from 14 sampling stations. Species belonging to the genus Ceritidea of the family Potamididae were mainly examined and Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) Cingulata, C. (C.) djadjariensis, and C. (Cerithidea) charbonnieri were naturally infected with 2 types of trematode cercariae, and one which was undetermined. C. (C.) cingulata had the highest infection rate (38.5%). Viewing two snail communities, the first community on the mainland and the second on Samui Island in Surat Thani Province, 28 brackish-water mollusk species were present on the mainland, 15 species were evident on Samui Island, and 11 snail species were common to both the mainland and Samui Island. Measurement of community similarity based on species presence revealed an index of similarity of 0.51. Concerning land use by the local people in the station areas investigated, brackish-water snails in Surat Thani Province are facing habitat degradation by human use.

  4. Electrification ratio and renewable energy in Papua Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innah, Herbert; Kariongan, Jackobus; Liga, Marthen

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in the beginning of year 2016, introduced a program named "Indonesia Terang" or Bright Indonesia. The aimed of this program is to speed up Electrification Rate (ER) with priority to the six provinces at Eastern area of Indonesia including Papua Province. The target of Indonesian's ER by 2019 is 97%. While the Indonesian's national ER already high (88.30%) in 2015, Papua still the lowest ER (45.93%) among the provinces. The scenario to boost up ER in the Eastern area by connected the consumers at villages which not electrified yet to the new Renewable Energy sources. This paper presents an overview of current situation of Electricity Infrastructure and Operation particularly on the mountain area which has high populated compare to coastal area but the average RE below 10%. Case studies of electricity infrastructure profile from mountain area were conducted to identify and reveal the challenge to achieve the Bright Indonesia objectives. Also, the assessment of the visibility according to the high target from this program will be presented.

  5. [Investigation of medical journal website construction in Guangdong province].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-hui; Wang, Zheng-ai

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the current status of internet-based publication of biomedical journals and website construction in Guangdong province. On the platform of the currently available databases for academic science journals (Wanfang Datebase, China Acdemic Journal Network, PubMed and SCI) with the assistance general searching engines, the websites of the medical journals in Guangdong province were evaluated and the editorial offices of the core medical journals in Guangdong province were interviewed. At present, the internet-based publication of the journals was executed predominantly by 3 means, namely utilization of the access to the websites of the direct sponsor, authoritative websites of science and technology, or independent websites. Relying on the database system of Wanfang and China Academic Journal Network, for instance, most of the journals can provide access to their full-text resources, but this internet-based publication is somehow delayed in comparison with the print publication. At present, only a few medical journals in Guangdong have built their independent websites, and among those which already have, Journal of First Military Medical University and Cancer are indexed by IM and PubMed, therefore they provide online abstracts of the papers ahead of the print copy publication.

  6. [Prevalence of mental subnormality recorded in the province of Jaen].

    PubMed

    Delgado Rodríguez, M; Moreno de la Casa, A; Rodríguez-Contreras Pelayo, R; Sillero Arenas, M; López Gigosos, R; Gálvez Vargas, R

    1989-01-01

    It is done a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of mental retardation in the province of Jaén (Spain), based on the cumulated cases reported to the Institute of Social Services of the Social Security (INSERSO) until January 1, 1984. The main objective of this research is to know the prevalence of mental retardation in our province, and to analize its relationship with some sociodemographic variables. The prevalence obtained has been 4.09%, being a 59.27% of the prevalence due to endogenous/unexplained etiology. Mild subnormality constitutes a 8.4% of cases, being closely related with the size of the locality (municipio). Prevalence of mental subnormality showed a significative linear association with the size of the locality (r = -0.904, p less than 0.05), and with the population growth (r = -0.929, p less than 0.01). This relationship was not observed neither with the level of per capita income nor the altitude of the locality. A multiple regression analysis is made for every etiology of mental retardation and several social and geographic variables. We conclude that the figures for mental retardation in our province show a direct relationship with local development parameters.

  7. Incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in Tokat province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Bülent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Köseoğlu, Reşid Doğan; Güneri, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in Tokat province, Turkey. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated at one university hospital, six government hospitals, and one specialist hospital in Tokat province between January 2005 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Results During the study period, there were 59,754 births and GTD was diagnosed in 73 cases. The calculated GTD incidence was 1.22/1000. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with GTD was 28.6±7.3 (range 17–51) years. In GTD, complete moles occurred in 26%, partial moles in 74%, and no invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, or placental site trophoblastic tumours were found. Only two patients received chemotherapy (methotrexate). There was no mortality associated with the disease during follow-up. Conclusion The incidence of GTD in Tokat province was 1.2 per 1000 births. Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up play a critical role in preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with disease. The incidence of GTD, which has a high recovery rate with adequate treatment and follow-up, can be determined from regional and community-based research. PMID:24790512

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province

    PubMed Central

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5–2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students’ thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words “HBV,” “HBsAg,” “prevalence,” “Isfahan,” “Esfahan,” and “Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  9. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  10. Occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia.

    PubMed

    Baccarelli, A; Tretiakova, Maria; Gorbanev, S; Lomtev, A; Klimkina, Irina; Tchibissov, V; Averkina, Olga; Dosemeci, M

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the association between occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia, we identified 540 pathologically diagnosed lung cancer cases (474 males and 66 females) and 582 controls (453 males and 129 females) from the 1993-1998 autopsy records of the 88 state hospitals of the Province. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained from personal records coded according to the standard Russian occupational classification system. Lung cancer risk was increased in workers in the manufacturing industry, particularly in the food industry and wholesale/retail trade and in the miscellaneous manufacturing industry. An increased risk was also found in subjects employed in chemical and metal production for 10 years or more. When we considered the association between specific occupations and lung cancer, waste incineration operators and loaders exhibited an excess risk that increased with employment duration. The present study, which is the first to evaluate the risk of lung cancer by occupation in Russia, suggests the presence in Leningrad Province of exposure in the workplace to lung carcinogens that require further characterization to develop targeted and effective preventive measures.

  11. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  12. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  13. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  14. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  15. Special Data Collection System (SDCS) Event Report, Southern Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-13

    34■ r»" ’www AD~A021 395 SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM (SDCS) EVENT REPORT, SOUTHERN SINKIANG PROVINCE, 27 OCTOBER 1975 K... Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975 K.J. Hill, M.S. DsMkins, R.R. Baumstark, and M. D. Gillispie Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne Geotech, 314 Montgomery...ACCESSION NO 4 TITLE \\*nrl Suhllllr) SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM (SDCS) £##*? ApMCr Southern Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975

  16. Need for an improved submission process for listing drugs for reimbursement in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    West, Roy; Borden, E Keith; Collet, Jean-Paul; Rawson, Nigel S B; Tonks, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    To have a drug listed in a province's formulary, manufacturers must submit an application providing data required by the provincial rules and guidelines. The procedures for the scientific evaluation of drugs considered for listing for reimbursement in five provinces have been examined previously. The present study investigates the clarity of the same five provinces' rules and guidelines about effectiveness and cost data that should be included in listing submissions from the perspective of the pharmaceutical company. The manufacturers of five recently introduced drugs selected by the investigators received questionnaires asking about the departments within their companies that are responsible for the submission, the data required by each of the five provinces and the clarity of each province's requirements for submission. Each company was also asked similar questions about its own submission experience with its drug. Investigators visited each manufacturer to review the questionnaires and answer questions. The manufacturers perceived the rules and guidelines on effectiveness and economic data of several provinces as being neither clear nor consistent. Consequently, information that companies submit in their attempts at compliance with the rules and guidelines varies substantially. The manufacturers' perceptions of the information required by the provinces on effectiveness and cost information were inconsistent. Previous work indicated that the provinces make significant decisions about listings based on inadequate information resulting in a scientifically flawed system that contributes to considerable inequality in access to new drugs between provinces. The findings of the present work reinforce this conclusion.

  17. Early to Middle Proterozoic Construction of the Mojave Province, Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronology of rocks in the western Mojave province of the southwest US reveals that the Proterozoic arc exposed there shares an intrusive and deformational history with rocks exposed further east in the Yavapai and Mazatzal belts after approximately 1780 Ma. Consequently, it seems likely that the Mojave province was contiguous with these other Laurentian provinces by that time. Isotopic and geochronologic data also suggest that Mojave province plutonic rocks inherit their distinctive isotopic compositions, at least in part, from an enriched lithospheric mantle source and interaction with sedimentary rocks containing Archean detritus.

  18. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P < 0.05). Among the HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, Phylogenetic analyses showed that HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  19. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  20. Epidemiology of Accidents and Traumas in Qom Province in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Karami Joushin, Moharram; Saghafipour, Abedin; Noroozi, Mehdi; Soori, Hamid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background Accidents are the most important public health challenges in our society. To prevent the accidents, the identification of their epidemiological features seems necessary. Objectives This study was conducted to reveal the epidemiological features of accidents and their casualties in Qom province in 2010. Patients and Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted on 29426 injured people referred to Qom province hospitals in 2010. Information about place, time, type of accidents and traumas and demographic variables had been collected in a veteran hospital. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16) software, using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results The incidence of accidents was about 27/1000 per year. The incidences of traffic accidents, motorcycle accidents, violence, burns, poisoning and suicides were 3, 1.6, 1.2, 0.3, 0.8, 0.37 cases per 1000 people respectively. Strikes (65%) and falls (12%) were the main causes of traumas. Forty-six percent of all injuries had occurred in 16 - 30 years groups. Most frequent accidents were as follows: fall (97%) and strike (50%) in < 12, violence (46%) in 20 - 29, suicide (71%) in 15 - 29, poisoning (34%) and burns (20%) among < 5 years old. Pedestrian and motorcycle accidents among +60 years old people were significantly higher than other (P = 0.000). Odds ratio for suicide among female was about 3.36 and in 16 - 30 age-group was 15.7 more than +60 years old group (P = 0.000). Conclusions Most traumas in Qom province occurred among younger age-groups and strikes and falls are the main causes of such traumas. Therefore, safeties to prevent falls and traffic regulations to reduce strikes can be effective strategies. PMID:24693520

  1. Air pollution characteristics and health risks in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fuzhen; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Nie, Dongyang; Tian, Li; Chen, Mindong

    2017-07-01

    Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations exceed the second grade of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (75μg/m(3)) at both 2014 and 2015. PM2.5 is typically the major pollutant, but ozone pollution can be significant during summer. Furthermore, as the commonly used air quality index (AQI) neglects the mutual health effects from multiple pollutants, we introduced the aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) to evaluate the health risks. Results show that based on HAQI, the current AQI system likely significantly underestimate the health risks of air pollution, highlighting that the general public may need stricter health protection measures. The population-weighted two-year average HAQI data further demonstrates that all population in the studied cities in Henan province live with polluted air - 72% of the population is exposed to air that is unhealthy for sensitive people, while 28% of people is exposed to air that can be harmful to healthy people; and the health risks are much greater during winter than during other seasons. Future works should further improve the HAQI algorithm, and validate the links between the clinical/epidemiologic data and the HAQI values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Xue; Zhao, Yan Lin; Jiang, Guang Lu; Liu, Yu Hong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Sheng Fen; Wang, Li Xia; Borgdorff, Martien W; van der Werf, Marieke J; van den Hof, Susan

    2008-12-11

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6%) was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79%) were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%-10.4%); 5.4% (range 2.1% - 10.4%) among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%-36.9%) among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.

  3. Blood donation in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong. These data were analysed to explore trends in blood donation in Guangdong Province, and to detect differences among the province's four regions. The number of blood donations in Guangdong increased by 38·23% from 2006 to 2014; overall, the rate increased annually, although it fluctuated in the eastern region. Family replacement/mutual whole blood and platelet donation rates decreased dramatically from 2006 to 2014 (from 39·99% to 20·16% and from 64·15% to 26·51%, respectively), but remained high. Marked disparities in blood donation development were detected among the four regions. With nearly a decade of efforts, blood donation in Guangdong has developed rapidly and sustainably. All blood collection and supply institutions must strengthen efforts to improve awareness of blood donation among the population, retain repeat and regular donors and reduce the rate of FRMBD in favor of the development of VNRBD. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Resurgence of vivax malaria in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A. C.; Liu, X. L.; Jackson, S.; Li, P.; Shang, L. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Henan Province (population, 90 million) in China has nonstable endemic malaria. After 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. By 1992 only 318 cases were reported. In 1992 Henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. Subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern Henan. In 1995 we conducted a household survey for malaria transmission in southern Henan. Blood smears and serum samples for immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing were collected from 2329 people and 3.1% (73/2329) were positive for infection with Plasmodium vivax and 13% (301/2329) positive for malaria (titre > or = 1:20). All age groups were affected. Exophilic Anopheles sinensis occurs throughout the province; endo-anthropophilic A. anthropophagus, whose vectorial capacity is 20 times greater than that of A. sinensis, occurs mainly in southern Henan (S of latitude 33 degrees N) and was greatly reduced in numbers during 1985-92. Comparison of 1995 entomological data with historical data showed that A. anthropophagus increased in proportion to other anophelines after spraying activities and impregnation of bednets ceased. Over 10% of 9377 residents reported having malaria. The true number affected among the at-risk population of 700,000 must be larger. We conclude that impregnated bednets and malaria surveillance should continue even after an area is declared to have "basically eliminated" malaria. PMID:9744246

  5. The Burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd Province - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Mahmood; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Pirdehghan, Azar; Sadeghian, Mohamadreza; Jafarizadeh, Majid; Alimi, Mojtaba; Naderian, Shadi; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the Disabled-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of Road Traffic Accidents in patients referred to hospitals in Yazd Province, central Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Yazd province during 2010. To calculate the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature death and to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD), the data were collected from Yazd death registration system and hospital records. The causes of death and nature of non-fatal injuries were classified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). We estimated Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) on the guidelines of the Global Burden of Disease Study (discount rate: 0.03, age weight: 0.04, constant age weight correction factor: 0.165). Age and sex composition was taken from the National Statistical Center for the year 2010. Results: During 2009, 483 deaths were caused by traffic accidents in Yazd Province, 382 (79.09%) of which were males, and 101 (20.91%) were females. The mortality rates for males and females were 70.98 and 20.15 in 100,000, respectively. The years of life lost due to premature deaths were 15.84/1000 in men and 4.75/1,000 in women. Total YLLs caused by traffic accidents were 10,908 years. The injuries caused by traffic accidents were calculated as 15.21 and 3.73/1,000 in males and females, respectively. The total YLDs was calculated 1.51/1,000. The total burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd province was 12478 years (DALYs), 87.41% of which was due to premature death, and 12.59% was related to disability. Also, 78.32% was lost in males. The age specific peak of burden was in 15-29 year. Conclusion: This study showed that traffic accidents in Yazd impose a high burden. It seems that it is one of the health sector priorities. It is recommended to revise laws on use of motorcycles, especially on helmet use for motorcyclists, enforce strict laws in residential areas, and review social determinant

  6. Mercury content in agricultural soils (Vojvodina Province, Serbia).

    PubMed

    Ninkov, Jordana; Marković, Slobodan; Banjac, Dušana; Vasin, Jovica; Milić, Stanko; Banjac, Borislav; Mihailović, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    The Vojvodina Province in northern Serbia is well known for its intensive field crops production. Over 90 % of total arable land, which represents more than 1500.000 ha, is used for field or vegetable crop production. A grid superimposed on Vojvodina land by means of a GIS tool (GIS ArcView 10) has divided land into 4 × 4 km units, each representing an area of 1600 ha. Total number of 1370 bulked soil samples were taken (0-30 cm depth) from agricultural land and analysed for total mercury content THg. The samples were analysed using Direct Mercury Analyzer DMA 80 Milestone. Quality control was carried out with IRMM BCR reference materials 143R. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of Hg in agricultural soils and its spatial distributions in different parts of Vojvodina Province. The obtained results were within interval 0.008-0.974 mg kg(-1). The average concentration of Hg was 0.068, with median 0.048 mg kg(-1). The correlation was determined between Hg concentration and organic matter content in the soil. Content of Hg coincides with main geomorphological units of Vojvodina Province. Average values of Hg concentrations for soils formatted on different geomorphological units were 0.031 for sandy area with dune fields, 0.048 for alluvial terraces, 0.055 for upper Pleistocene terraces, 0.058 for loess plateaus, 0.083 for mountains and 0.092 mg kg(-1) for alluvial plains. Hg spatial distribution confirmed that most of Vojvodina Province area has geochemical origin of Hg. Higher concentration of Hg on alluvial plains indicated that the origin of Hg near rivers could be from anthropogenic source. The main rivers in Vojvodina have been dammed more than a century ago. Thus, higher concentrations of Hg in their alluvial plains out of narrow dammed zone around the rivers must be related to natural and anthropogenic sources located in their huge catchments. Higher content of Hg in mountain region can be explained by high clay content in

  7. [Experience with the development of vaccinal prophylaxis in Perm Province].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T M; Fel'dblium, I V; Komkov, B D; Skovorodin, A N; Deviatkov, M Iu; Sarmometov, E V; Perminova, O A; Vorozhtsova, T N

    1999-01-01

    The results of the introduction of the system of epidemiological surveillance on vaccinal prophylaxis on the territory of Perm Province are presented. This system has permitted the realization of the principles of the regional tactics of immunization, while following the unified strategy acting on the territory of the Russian Federation. The optimization of the organizational foundations of vaccinal prophylaxis has made it possible to maintain the morbidity rates if infections, controlled by means of specific prophylaxis, on the levels below the average figures for the Federation and to preserve more stable tendencies to their decrease.

  8. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Isfahan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Naeimi, B; Diba, K

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of keratophilic fungi in Isfahan province, Iran. The present research has been conducted on soil samples collected from 16 townships of Isfahan province. For isolate geophilic dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi, the keratin baiting technique has been applied. Of 800 soil samples examined, 588 (73.5%) keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The present studied recognized 727 isolates including 16 species of 11 genus, as follows: Chrysosporium keratinophilum (31.4%), C. pannicola (16.9%), C. tropicum (15.4%), Microsporum gypseum (12.4%), Chrysosporium spp. (9.9%), C. indicum (7%), Sepedonium spp. (3.3%), Malbranchia spp. (1%), Trichophyton terrestre (0.8%), T. ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus (0.4%), Engyodontium album and Acremonium spp. (0.3%), Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Ulocladium spp. (0.1%). In this study, E. album was isolated for the first time in this country (Iran). The frequency these keratinophilic fungi are discussed in relation to different agents such as soil pH. This study contributes to the knowledge of keratophilic fungi in Iran. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Flexurally-resisted uplift of the Tharsis Province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Sleep, N. H.

    1987-01-01

    The tectonic style of Mars is dominated by vertical motion, perhaps more than any of the terrestrial planets. The imprint of this tectonic activity has left a surface widely faulted even though younger volcanism has masked the expression of tectonism in many places. Geological activity associated with the Tharsis and, to a lesser extent, Elysium provinces is responsible for a significant portion of this faulting, while the origins of the remaining features are enigmatic in many cases. The origin and evolution of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces, in terms of their great elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style, has sparked intense debate over the last fifteen years. Central to these discussions are the relative roles of structural uplift and volcanic construction in the creation of immense topographic relief. For example, it is argued that the presence of very old and cratered terrain high on the Tharsis rise, in the vicinity of Claritas Fossae, points to structural uplift of an ancient crust. Others have pointed out, however, that there is no reason that this terrain could not be of volcanic origin and thus part of the constructional mechanism.

  10. Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alper, O M; Erengin, H; Manguoğlu, A E; Bilgen, T; Cetin, Z; Dedeoğlu, N; Lüleci, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications.

  11. Genetic characterization of Shigella flexneri isolates in Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China.

  12. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kun; Song, Deyong

    2016-05-01

    Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. The Global Moran's I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran's I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. The overall Moran's I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran's I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions.

  13. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Distribution in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin

    2017-04-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.

  15. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  16. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  17. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors. PMID:25356077

  18. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  19. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  20. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  1. Prevalence of OV infection in Yasothon Province, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengsawang, Phubet; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrrini (OV), is the major cause of the high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. The prevalence of OV infection remains high in various parts of the country, especially in Northeast Thailand and particularly in wetland rural areas where a large proportion of the community work in agriculture and continue the traditional practice of eating raw or undercooked cyprinoid fish products. The national control program seems to have had little impact in many of these areas, and it has been difficult to make precise assessments of the overall effectiveness of the program. This paper is the first report of prospective research project designed to monitor the impact of the national control program in rural communities located in a northeastern province and at high risk of OV infection. The participants in this initial survey were 1,569 villagers, aged 20-65 years, living in two subdistricts of Yasothon Province. Stool examinations showed that 38.68% were infected with OV. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the difference was not statistically significant. Infection was found to be positively associated with age in both males and females. The preliminary data indicate that the population selected for study is suitable for the purpose of the monitoring project.

  2. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  3. [Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.

  4. [Plantation stocks and their affecting factors in western Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Liu, Zuoxin; Cai, Congguang

    2005-05-01

    Employing real-site investigation and data analysis methods, this paper analyzed the distribution of plantation stocks and its affecting factors in western Liaoning Province. The results showed that the average plantation stock of western Liaoning was 49.08 m3.hm(-2), which has been improved obviously since 1949. At the time of the third forest resource investigation, the plantation stock increased 20.19 m3.hm(-2), 5.16 times higher than that of the first forest resource investigation. But, the general plantation stock of western Liaoning was still at a rather lower level, with only a 63.5% increase of the whole province and 51.1% of the national average plantation stock at the same period. The difference of plantation stock among cities in western Liaoning was observable, that even reached 68.47 m3.hm(-2). In general, the proportion of young forest was too high, reached to 49 % of the total plantation, while the stock of mature forest was much lower, only 38% of the national average level. The plantation stock of national property was only 55.1% and 32.3% of the personal and collective property, respectively. Moreover, the plantation stock of timber forest was 36.4% lower than that of windbreak. Besides climatic factors, simple plantation structure, few forest tree species, and poor plantation management were the main causes of the low plantation stock.

  5. Immigrating to Quebec: The Demographic Challenges of a Province Experiencing Low Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Arnold; Cragin, Jeanne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the shifting population of Quebec Province; the cultural, social, and political issues regarding the province's low fertility rate; and how these affect immigration policy. Along with policies encouraging immigration, Quebec encourages enrollment of immigrant children in French-speaking schools. (SLD)

  6. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…