Crowell, Jenna; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Warner, Brian D.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.
We present an updated thermophysical model of 1627 Ivar, an Amor class near Earth asteroid (NEA) with a taxonomic type of Sqw . Ivar's large size and close approach to Earth in 2013 (minimum distance 0.32 AU) provided an opportunity to observe the asteroid over many different viewing angles for an extended period of time, which we have utilized to generate a shape and thermophysical model of Ivar, allowing us to discuss the implications that these results have on the regolith of this asteroid. Using the software SHAPE [2,3], we updated the nonconvex shape model of Ivar, which was constructed by Kaasalainen et al.  using photometry. We incorporated 2013 radar data and CCD lightcurves using the Arecibo Observatory's 2380Mz radar and the 0.35m telescope at the Palmer Divide Station respectively, to create a shape model with higher surface detail. We found Ivar to be elongated with maximum extended lengths along principal axes of 12 x 5 x 6 km and a rotation rate of 4.795162 ± 5.4 * 10-6 hrs . In addition to these radar data and lightcurves, we also observed Ivar in the near IR using the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF. These data cover a wide range of Ivar's rotational longitudes and viewing geometries. We have used SHERMAN [6,7] with input parameters such as the asteroid's IR emissivity, optical scattering law, and thermal inertia, in order to complete thermal computations based on our shape model and known spin state. Using this procedure, we find which reflective, thermal, and surface properties best reproduce the observed spectra. This allows us to characterize properties of the asteroid's regolith and study heterogeneity of the surface. We will compare these results with those of other S-complex asteroids to better understand this asteroid type and the uniqueness of 1627 Ivar. DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180  Magri, C. et al. 2011, Icarus 214, 210-227.  Crowell, J. et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46  Kaasalainen, M. et al. 2004, Icarus 167, 178
Özerk, Kamil; Vea, Gunvor Dalby; Eikeseth, Svein; Özerk, Meral
Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and…
Crowell, Jenna L.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yan R.; Marshall, Sean E.; Warner, Brian D.; Vervack, Ronald J.
We present updates to the thermophysical model of asteroid 1627 Ivar. Ivar is an Amor class near Earth asteroid (NEA) with a taxonomic type of Sqw  and a rotation rate of 4.795162 ± 5.4 * 10-6 hours . In 2013, our group observed Ivar in radar, in CCD lightcurves, and in the near-IR’s reflected and thermal regimes (0.8 - 4.1 µm) using the Arecibo Observatory’s 2380 MHz radar, the Palmer Divide Station’s 0.35m telescope, and the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF respectively. Using these radar and lightcurve data, we generated a detailed shape model of Ivar using the software SHAPE [3,4]. Our shape model reveals more surface detail compared to earlier models  and we found Ivar to be an elongated asteroid with the maximum extended length along the three body-fixed coordinates being 12 x 11.76 x 6 km. For our thermophysical modeling, we have used SHERMAN [6,7] with input parameters such as the asteroid’s IR emissivity, optical scattering law and thermal inertia, in order to complete thermal computations based on our shape model and the known spin state. We then create synthetic near-IR spectra that can be compared to our observed spectra, which cover a wide range of Ivar’s rotational longitudes and viewing geometries. As has been noted [6,8], the use of an accurate shape model is often crucial for correctly interpreting multi-epoch thermal emission observations. We will present what SHERMAN has let us determine about the reflective, thermal, and surface properties for Ivar that best reproduce our spectra. From our derived best-fit thermal parameters, we will learn more about the regolith, surface properties, and heterogeneity of Ivar and how those properties compare to those of other S-complex asteroids. References:  DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180  Crowell, J. et al. 2015, LPSC 46  Magri C. et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 152-177  Crowell, J. et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46  Kaasalainen, M. et al. 2004, Icarus 167, 178-196  Crowell, J. et
Crowell, Jenna L.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Nolan, Michael C.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Marshall, Sean E.
We seek to investigate the compositional surface variation of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). To do this, we employ detailed shape models and near-IR observations, taken over a range of viewing geometries, in order to create thermophysical models. The thermal spectra are therefore linked to regions on the asteroid, and we can seek out a set of thermal parameters that are capable of reproducing the thermal spectra over the entirety of the asteroid's surface. This method also enables us to characterize portions of the asteroid that may have different thermal properties than other regions, in which case there is no single set of thermal parameters that satisfy all of the thermal observations, indicating a heterogeneous surface.We present our findings on 1627 Ivar, an Amor class NEA with a taxonomic type of Sqw , and a rotation period of 4.7951689 hr ± 0.0000026 . During Ivar's apparition in 2013, we obtained CCD lightcurves, radar data, and near-IR spectra. Using the software SHAPE, we have used lightcurve and radar data to generate an improved shape model of Ivar .For the thermophysical modeling, we have used SHERMAN [3,4] to determine which reflective, thermal, and surface properties for Ivar best reproduce our spectra, taken using the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF . Input parameters for SHERMAN include the asteroid's IR emissivity, optical scattering law and thermal inertia in order to complete thermal computations based on the shape model. We also compare these results to those created by using the Kaasalainen lightcurve model . Since models created from lightcurve inversion techniques far outnumber those created using radar data, it is important to understand how these two models differ when studying thermal models.References:  DeMeo et al. 2009, Icarus 202, 160-180  Crowell et al. 2016, Icarus, in press  Crowell et al. 2014, AAS/DPS 46  Howell et al. 2015, AAS/DPS 47  Rayner et al. 2003, PASP 115, 362  Kaasalainen et al. 2004
Hahn, G.; Magnusson, P.; Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.; Belkora, L. A.
The 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar photoelectric lightcurves presently discussed indicate in the former case a drastic lightcurve shape change, in conjunction with a significant increase of the synodic rotation period; a substantial change in viewing conditions during the apparition, and a complex interaction between these changes and the asteroid's irregular shape, are indicated by the change. In the latter asteroid's case, a prograde rotation rate is apparent in the observed decrease in synodic period. Both asteroids' phase curves exhibit deviations from the H-G magnitude system phase function at large phase angles.
Smith, Tristram; Eikeseth, Svein
O. Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) devoted nearly half a century to ground-breaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In the 1960s, he pioneered applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to decrease severe challenging behaviors and establish communicative language. Later, he sought to improve outcomes by emphasizing early intervention for preschoolers with autism, provided in family homes with active parental participation. His studies indicated that many children who received early intensive ABA made dramatic gains in development. Lovaas also disseminated ABA widely through intervention manuals, educational films, and public speaking. Moreover, as an enthusiastic teacher and devoted mentor, he inspired many students and colleagues to enter the field of ABA and autism intervention.
The Human Engineering Methods (HEM) Research Laboratory is utilized for the development of human-response measurement technologies to assess the effects of advanced crew station concepts on the crews ability to perform flight-management tasks effectively. Behavioral response and psychophysiological response measurement systems have been developed to assess mental loading, stress, task engagement, and situation awareness. Measurement capabilities include topographic brainmapping (EEG and evoked responses), monitoring of pulse, heart and muscle electrical activity (EKG and EMG), skin temperature and conductance, respiration, and tracking of eye lookpoint (oculometry) and overt behavior (video analysis). A real-time multiattribute task (MAT) battery has been developed to recreate flight-management task conditions in the laboratory setting for initial testing of advanced human-response measurement concepts. Mobile physiological monitoring and behavioral response capture-stations are located at simulator sites to refine these measurement concepts for flight-management research.
operations; 1-year visual census; multiple eBirdRad radars; fiber- optic wired LAN (planned) NAS Patuxent River, MD X B X Medium-sized air station...introduced a multibeam avian radar antenna that purports to double the beam width (from 4° to 8°), while at the same time increasing the precision of the
controlled for unattended operations, and that they can detect 50 times more birds than human observers using conventional visual methods . Finally...number. These manual radar signal processing methods , while effective in improving bird detection , especially at night when visual methods are...criterion for the qualitative PA1.2 criterion that the detection and tracking of these targets would be “Achievable”. Methods We chose to demonstrate
Provides historical examples of intuitive discovery applicable to the teaching of physics for majors. Cites details for the discovery of Coulomb's law, emphasizing the roles of Joseph Priestley and Henry Cavendish. Also discusses the career of Ivar Giaever, a Nobel Prize winner of 1973 in solid state physics. (CS)
Ericson, Britta, Ed.
This book offers eight papers presented by specially invited delegates. The papers and their authors are as follows: "Dyslexia and Its Consequences in the Life of Dyslexics" (Hanna Jaklewicz); "Visually Related Reading Problems--Diagnosis and Treatment" (Ivar Lie); "How to Prevent Vision Problems among Children in…
Morris, A. Terry; Barker, L. Keith
Automation and robotic technologies are being developed and capabilities demonstrated which would increase the productivity of microgravity science and materials processing in the space station laboratory module, especially when the crew is not present. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley has been working in the area of intravehicular automation and robotics (IVAR) to provide a user-friendly development facility, to determine customer requirements for automated laboratory systems, and to improve the quality and efficiency of commercial production and scientific experimentation in space. This paper will describe the IVAR facility and present the results of a demonstration using a simulated protein crystal growth experiment inside a full-scale mockup of the space station laboratory module using a unique seven-degree-of-freedom robot.
limited additional benefit to the model based on R2 and predicted square error ( PSE ). From experience in this research, the maximum value was seen to be...CLIFT; 117 NORD =5; nord=[NORD NORD NORD]; maxord =5; 53 sig2 =0; auto =1; Iplot =1; ivar =0; bvar =0; 58 maxopt =0; [y,p,ip,crb , pse ,xp,a,ia,psi
Jim Courter and Alvin H. Bernstein 27 Whatever Happened to Defense Industrial Preparedness? by Ivars Gutmanis and John F. Starns 34 The Sisyphus...programs at the Alexis de Tocqueville Institution and Alvin H. Bernstein , founding director of the George C. Marshall European Center for Security...Fuller and Basil Liddell Hart were further off the mark. In fact, much of British failure on the battlefields of 1941–42 in North Africa was due to
Spinaci, M; Bucci, D; Mazzoni, M; Giaretta, E; Bernardini, C; Vallorani, C; Tamanini, C; Clavenzani, P; Galeati, G
During the transit in the female genital tract, spermatozoa are exposed to an environment that varies in composition from the vagina to the oviduct. Because G proteins, α-gustducin and α-transducin, are accepted as markers of chemosensitive cells, this study was aimed at assessing whether these proteins are expressed in boar germ cells. Ejaculated sperm extracts were analyzed by Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence was performed on testis sections, smears of epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa, sperm cells after in vitro induction of capacitation and acrosome reaction (IVAR), and in sperm cells bound to zona pellucida during IVF. Based on immunoblot results, both G proteins are present in boar sperm. In the testicular tissue sections, α-gustducin and α-transducin positivity was recorded in the germinal cells near the tubular lumen, whereas no positive signal was evident in spermatogonia located in the outer region of the seminiferous tubules. α-Gustducin expression in epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa was mainly detectable in both the acrosome and the principal piece of the tail, whereas α-transducin was confined to the acrosome and the midpiece. No changes after in vitro induction of capacitation and IVAR were observed, except for the disappearance of acrosomal positivity in reacted spermatozoa. In sperm bound to zona pellucida, the G protein signal was congruent with that observed in IVAR cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of α-transducin in mammalian sperm and the first description of α-gustducin in boar sperm. Further studies are needed to clarify the possible role of these G proteins in sperm physiology.
Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.
This thesis is a summary of the following papers: 1. A data base of observing conditions for Aten-Apollo-Amor objects during the 20th century, 1986. 2. A data base of observing conditions for Aten-Apollo-Amor objects during the 20th century. II. First update (through February 1988), 1988. 3. UBVRI and JHK photometry of the near-Earth asteroid 1862 Apollo, 1983. 4. Physical studies of Apollo-Amor asteroids: UBVRI photometry of 1036 Ganymed and 1627 Ivar, 1988. 5. Physical studies of asteroids XVII: JHK photometry of selected main-belt and near-Earth asteroids, 1988. 6. Asteroids in cometary orbits, 1985. 7. Orbital studies of 1982 YA, 1983 VA and 1984 BC, 1986. 8. Orbital evolution studies of planet-crossing asteroids, 1988.
Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Shoemaker, Carolyn S.
During the past decade, discovery of Earth-crossing asteroids has continued at the pace of several per year; the total number of known Earth crossers reached 70 as of September, 1986. The sample of discovered Earth crossers has become large enough to provide a fairly strong statistical basis for calculations of mean probabilities of asteroid collision with the Earth, the Moon, and Venus. It is also now large enough to begin to address the more difficult question of the magnitude-frequency distribution and size distribution of the Earth-crossing asteroids. Absolute V magnitude, H, was derived from reported magnitudes for each Earth crosser on the basis of a standard algorithm that utilizes a physically realistic phase function. The derived values of H range from 12.88 for (1627) Ivar to 21.6 for the Palomar-Leiden object 6344, which is the faintest and smallest asteroid discovered.
Ip, W.-H.; Mehra, R.
The orbital evolution of the Apollo asteroids 1620 Geographos and 1685 Toro and Amor asteroids 433 Eros, 1221 Amor, and 1627 Ivar are investigated by numerical integration. All these asteroids, with the exception of Geographos, exhibit systematic orbital couplings with the Earth during the time interval studied (1600-2350 A.D.). 1685 Toro is captured into libration once with Venus due to the 13.5 resonance, and once with the Earth due to the 8:5 resonance. Both librations are unstable because of the effect of the 13:8 near commensurability of the Venus-Earth system. 433 Eros exhibits no libration pattern; the regular variation of its orbital period is due to the beat-effect of the 4:7 resonance with the Earth.
Mccrosky, R. E.; Marsden, B. G.
During the past year some 500 observations were made on 66 nights and published on the MPCs (Minor Planet Circulars/Minor Planets and Comets). In addition, a handful of measurements of earlier plates were completed and published. 121 of the observations published referred to comets. Of special importance were observations of comets (P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley) in connection with the NASA ICE and ESA Giotto missions, but a special effort was made to get good coverage of almost all of the observable comets. Observations were also made of (2060) Chiron and of the earth-approaching objects (1627) Ivar, (1866) Sisyphys, (1943) Anteros, (3362) 1984 QA, 1985 JA, PA, TB and WA, and 1986 DA and EB. 46 minor planets were given permanent numbers entirely as a result of the observations.
For many years, O. Ivar Lovaas ran a small clinic for children with autism through the department of psychology at UCLA, with undergraduate students providing most of the direct instruction. Throughout the 1970s, the clinic enrolled just a few children in treatment at a time. By the early 1980s, the active caseload had increased to about 5–10 children, and this number rose slowly over the next few years. However, after the publication of Lovaas's landmark study of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in 1987, followed by an extraordinary firsthand account of one family's experience with the intervention (Maurice, 1993), Lovaas began receiving more requests for treatment in a single day than he had previously received over an entire year. PMID:27999637
For many years, O. Ivar Lovaas ran a small clinic for children with autism through the department of psychology at UCLA, with undergraduate students providing most of the direct instruction. Throughout the 1970s, the clinic enrolled just a few children in treatment at a time. By the early 1980s, the active caseload had increased to about 5-10 children, and this number rose slowly over the next few years. However, after the publication of Lovaas's landmark study of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) in 1987, followed by an extraordinary firsthand account of one family's experience with the intervention (Maurice, 1993), Lovaas began receiving more requests for treatment in a single day than he had previously received over an entire year.
Eason, Ernest D.; Odette, George Robert; Nanstad, Randy K; Yamamoto, Takuya
data. It contains two terms, corresponding to the best-understood radiation damage features, matrix damage and copper-rich precipitates, although the empirical calibration will ensure that all other damage processes that are occurring are also reflected in those terms. Effects of material chemical composition, product form, and radiation exposure are incorporated, such that all effects are supported by findings of statistical significance, physical understanding, or comparison with independent data from controlled experiments, such as the Irradiation Variable (IVAR) Program. In most variable effects, the model is supported by two or three of these different forms of evidence. The key variable trends, such as the neutron fluence dependence and copper-nickel dependence in the new TTS model, are much improved over RG1.99/2 and are well supported by independent data and the current understanding of embrittlement mechanisms. The new model includes the variables copper, nickel, and fluence that are in RG1.99/2, but also includes effects of irradiation temperature, neutron flux, phosphorus, and manganese. The calibrated model is a good fit, with no significant residual error trends in any of the variables used in the model or several additional variables and variable interactions that were investigated. The report includes a chapter summarizing the current understanding of embrittlement mechanisms and one comparing the IVAR database with the TTS model predictions. Generally good agreement is found in that quantitative comparison, providing independent confirmation of the predictive capability of the TTS model. The key new insight in the TTS modeling effort, that flux effects are evident in both low (or no) copper and higher copper materials, is supported by the IVAR data. The slightly simplified version of the TTS model presented in Section 7.3 of this report is recommended for applications.
Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael
Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our
Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael
Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling, D.E. et al. . Astron. J. 140, 770-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (˜0.7-2.5 μm) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with Band Area Ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a
Descriptions of various orbit-orbit resonance mechanisms in the solar system are brought together in such a manner that the physical processes underlying the traditional mathematical presentations are apparent. A simple qualitative model based on the resonance between Saturn's satellites Titan and Hyperion is presented, the same resonance is analyzed quantitatively, and the small-eccentricity mechanism is examined. The following resonances are investigated in detail: Enceladus-Dione, Mimas-Tethys, Neptune-Pluto, and Rhea-Titan (secular resonance). Coupled librations of several asteroids near mean motions commensurable with Jupiter's are modeled, the Laplace relation involving Io, Europa, and Ganymede is studied, and the 1:1 resonance between the Trojan asteroids and Jupiter is discussed. Some higher-order commensurabilities involving asteroids are considered, including the 3:1 resonance between Alinda and Jupiter, the 13:5 resonance of Toro with Venus, the 8:5 resonance of Toro with earth, and the 11:28 resonance of Ivar with earth.
Ostro, Steven J.
The aim is to make radar reconnaissance of near-Earth asteroids, mainbelt ateroids, the Galilean satellites, the Martian satellites, and the largest Saturnian satellites, using the Arecibo 13-cm and the Goldstone 3.5-cm systems. Measurements of echo strength, polarization, and delay/Doppler distribution of echo power provide information about dimensions, spin vector, large-scale topography, cm-to-m-scale morphology, and surface bulk density. The observations also yield refined estimates of target orbital elements. Radar signatures were measured for 31 mainbelt asteroids and 16 near-Earth asteroids since this task began eight years ago. The dispersion in asteroid radar albedoes and circular polarization ratios is extreme, revealing huge differences in surface morphologies, bulk densities, and metal concentration. For the most part, correction between radar signature and VIS/IR class is not high. Many near-Earth asteroids have extremely irregular, nonconvex shapes, but some have polar silhouettes that appear only slightly noncircular. The signatures of 1627 Ivar, 1986 DA, and the approximately 180-km mainbelt asteroid 216 Kleopatra suggest bifurcated shapes. Observational milestones during 1987 and 1988 are noted.
Schmitt, Roland W.
The GE Research Laboratory, founded in 1900, became the first laboratory of scientific research in U.S. industry. William Coolidge, a physicist, joined the laboratory in 1905 and produced two advances of immense importance. The first, ductile tungsten, is still the heart of every incandescent light bulb. The second, the "Coolidge" X-Ray tube, remains an essential tool of modern medicine. In the process, Coolidge explored two main approaches of physics in industry. One addresses a commercial problem or opportunity (better light bulbs) and finds interesting physics. The other explores interesting physics (X-rays) and creates a commercial opportunity. This paper addresses the mix of these approaches during GE's years as an "electric" (and therefore physics-based) company. Episodes include the following: the work of Irving Langmuir (1932 Nobel laureate in chemistry, but as much physicist as chemist); the post-World War II "golden age of industrial physics" when the endless frontier offered opportunities from nuclear power to diamond making to superconductivity; the Nobel-prize winning work of Ivar Giaever; and interdisciplinary efforts that enabled GE to become a world business leader in two medical diagnostic technologies it did not invent: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. I will speculate on whether this mix of problem-driven and opportunity-driven effort is as relevant to the 21st century as it was to the 20th.
Mcfadden, L. A.; Ahearn, M. F.
Near-infrared reflectance spectra 0.6 to 2.5 micrometer were acquired of asteroids 1627 Ivar (Amor), 43 Ariadne, 335 Roberta, 386 Siegena and 695 Bella (3:1 Kirkwood Gap) with the IRTF, Mauna Kea. CCD spectra 0.5-1.0 micrometer were acquired of 1866 Sisyphus (Apollo), 17 Thetis, 695 Bella, 797 Montana, and 877 Walkure (3:1 Kirkwood Gap) using facilities at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. An upper limit on the production rate of CN in asteroid 3200 Phaeton of < 4 x 10 to the 23rd power sec was determined based on photometric measurements at 3871A using facilities at Lowell Observatory. This value is in the range of the lowest production rate measured for a comet, however, it does not constitute a positive detection of CN in this asteroid. A first attempt of look for companion objects or evidence of dust debris associated with this asteroid was made with a CCD camera. Whereas the search extended to 19th magnitude (corresponding to 150m and 330m for albedos of 0.15 and 0.03 respectively), a look close enough to the asteroid was not attained to definitively eliminate the presence of coorbiting dust debris.
Skiff, Brian A.; Bowell, Edward; Koehn, Bruce W.; Sanborn, Jason J.; McLelland, Kyle P.; Warner, Brian D.
We report the results of the Lowell Observatory Near- Earth Asteroid Photometric Survey (NEAPS) for the interval 2008-05-01 to 2008-12-31. We obtained photometric data for 46 asteroids including 1036 Ganymed, 1620 Geographos, 1627 Ivar, 1865 Cerberus, 1980 Tezcatlipoca, 2363 Cebriones, 4179 Toutatis, 4257 Ubasti, 5332 Davidaguilar, 7358 Oze, (8567) 1996 HW1, (16960) 1998 QS52, (39572) 1993 DQ1, (53430) 1999 TY16, (66146) 1998 TU3, (85774) 1998 UT18, (87684) 2000 SY2, (136849) 1998 CS1, (137032) 1998 UO1, (137805) 1999 YK5, (138852) 2000 WN10, (142348) 2002 RX211, (144901) 2004 WG1, (162900) 2001 HG31, (163000) 2001 SW169, (164400) 2005 GN59, (171576) 1999 VP11, (185851) 2000 DP107, (185854) 2000 EU106, (189700) 2001 TA45, (190135) 2005 QE30, (190491) 2000 FJ10, (231134) 2005 TU45, (248818) 2006 SZ217, (257744) 2000 AD205, 1998 SJ70, 2004 XK3, 2006 VB14, 2007 VQ4, 2008 EV5, 2008 QS11, 2008 SA, 2008 SE, 2008 SQ1, 2008 SR1, and 2008 US4.
Hahn, Gerhard; Lagerkvist, Claes-Ingvar
Numerical integrations of 26 orbits of planet-crossing astetoids of Apollo-Amor type have been performed, in a solar system model including the perturbations by the planets from Venus to Neptune. The 15:th order RADAU integrator (Everhart, 1985) has been used. Orbits for the asteroids 433 Eros, 887 Alinda, 1036 Ganymed, 1221 Amor, 1580 Betulia, 1627 Ivar, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1863 Antinous, 1864 Daedalus, 1865 Cerberus, 1915 Quetzalcoatl and 1916 Boreas have been integrated over 100 000 years forward in time and for 1866 Sisyphus, 2102 Tantalus, 2201 Oljato, 2329 Orthos, 3360 1981 VA, 3552 1983 SA, 1981 EJ30, 1985 PA, 1985 WA, 1986 DA 1986 JK and 1986 RA a period of about 33 000 years has been covered. The orbital evolutions of these asteroids are discussed. This work is part of a larger study of the long-term orbital evolution of planet-crossing asteroids and will be continued within the project SPACEGUARD (Milani et al., 1987).
This talk briefly describes two recent studies on the impact of soil moisture information on hydrological and meteorological prediction. While the studies utilize soil moisture derived from the integration of large-scale land surface models with observations-based meteorological data, the results directly illustrate the potential usefulness of satellite-derived soil moisture information (e.g., from SMOS and SMAP) for applications in prediction. The first study, the GEWEX- and ClIVAR-sponsored GLACE-2 project, quantifies the contribution of realistic soil moisture initialization to skill in subseasonal forecasts of precipitation and air temperature (out to two months). The multi-model study shows that soil moisture information does indeed contribute skill to the forecasts, particularly for air temperature, and particularly when the initial local soil moisture anomaly is large. Furthermore, the skill contributions tend to be larger where the soil moisture initialization is more accurate, as measured by the density of the observational network contributing to the initialization. The second study focuses on streamflow prediction. The relative contributions of snow and soil moisture initialization to skill in streamflow prediction at seasonal lead, in the absence of knowledge of meteorological anomalies during the forecast period, were quantified with several land surface models using uniquely designed numerical experiments and naturalized streamflow data covering mUltiple decades over the western United States. In several basins, accurate soil moisture initialization is found to contribute significant levels of predictive skill. Depending on the date of forecast issue, the contributions can be significant out to leads of six months. Both studies suggest that improvements in soil moisture initialization would lead to increases in predictive skill. The relevance of SMOS and SMAP satellite-based soil moisture information to prediction are discussed in the context of these
Lucha, P.; Gutiérrez, F.; Guerrero, J.
The halite-bearing Barbastro Formation crops out in the core of the Barbastro Anticline (Ebro Tertiary Basin). This anticline is traversed perpendicularly by some of the most important Pyrenean drainages such as the Cinca and Noguera-Ribagorzana Rivers. The terrace sequences of these fluvial systems have been used as markers to identify and assess dissolution-induced subsidence and salt tectonics. In the limbs of the anticline, terrace deposits underlain by detrital bedrock do not show any evidence of deformation and have a consistent thickness of less than 10 m. The deposits of certain terrace levels of the Noguera-Ribagorzana River and its tributary, the Lo Reguer Creek, are locally thickened filling basins generated by dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence up to several kilometers long and more than 100 m deep. Conversely, terraces of the Cinca River do not show anomalously high thicknesses, but local uplifts related to differential upward flow of the halite-bearing bedrock. Locally, a minimum uplift rate of 0.3 mm/year has been estimated from a 64-ka terrace tilted away from the valley. The subsidence hazards occur chiefly in areas where the ground receives artificial water recharge. Serviceability of some canals has been notoriously affected by evaporite karstification. The problem has been mitigated to acceptable levels by grouting. Numerous buildings of Ivars de Noguera are severely damaged by dissolution subsidence, and possibly, by hydrocompaction of gypsiferous silts. The pipe network has been replaced to ameliorate the subsidence risk. In the Cinca River valley, cavities with a total volume of about 180,500 m3 have been created by solution mining at depths greater than 500 m. No investigation methods are applied in the brine field to monitor the distribution and evolution of artificial voids. Substantial increase in salinity of the Cinca River is another evidence of subjacent evaporite dissolution.
Bech, Joan; Arús, Joan; Castán, Salvador; Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar
This study presents a description of a quasi linear convective system that took place in Catalonia (NE Spain) on 21 March 2012 producing heavy rainfall, moderate lightning activity and a weak tornado in the village of Ivars d'Urgell around 19 UTC after local sunset. A post-event survey indicated EF0 and EF1 damage in houses of the village - roofs and ceilings, broken windows, fences and walls and trees knocked down - along a track approximately 4 km long and about 20 m wide. Doppler radar observations show that the parent thunderstorm that spawned the tornado was one of a series that developed along a convective line that moved from S to N, initiating convective activity in terms of precipitation and lightning in the Mediterranean Sea and moving inland in S Catalonia (Tarragona and Salou coastal areas, producing local flash floods). Convective activity remained several hours with series of thunderstorms developing along the same paths. The synoptic situation was dominated by a high pressure ridge extending from northern Africa to central Europe, with a closed maximum sea level pressure area around 1036 hPa over northern France, southern Germany and Austria. On the other hand a relative low pressure area seen on 850 hPa and upper levels was present over the Iberian Peninsula, favouring a southern maritime flow from the Mediterranean between the forward part of the low pressure area and the high pressure system which blocked the advance of the low to the east. In the study we examine both the synoptic environment and storm scale observations with Doppler radar and total lightning data (cloud to ground and intracloud flashes) that lead to this cool-season severe convective event which is remarkable given the fact that, unlike in this case, most reported tornadoes in the region occur during the warm season (with peaks in August and September) and during daylight hours (6 to 18 UTC).
Steele, A.; Benning, L. G.; Fogel, M. L.; Amundsen, H.; Schmitz, N.; Amase 2010 Team
The Arctic Mars Analogue Svalbard Expeditions (AMASE) 2010 was the latest of a series of expeditions that are NASA ASTEP and ESA funded and have as their primary goals 1) testing portable instruments for their robustness as field instruments for life detection, 2) assessing Mars analogue environments for abiosignatures and biosignatures, 3) refining protocols for contamination reduction, 4) defining a minimal instrument suite for Astrobiology science on Mars and 5) sample acquisition, collection and caching of suitable samples by rover platforms containing sample acquisition hardware: first Cliffbot, then Athena. As well as testing ESA instrumentation for the ExoMars mission and NASA instruments for Mars Science Laboratory, the goals and technologies used during this 2010 campaign are very similar to that proposed by the current MEPAG MAX-C mission concept and therefore set the stage for future sample return missions. As such the field-tested technologies, procedures and protocols can be used to address specific science objectives proposed for the 2018 Mars mission opportunity. As NASA and ESA enter a new era of collaboration, AMASE has provided and will continue to provide, a test bed for both current in-situ robotic missions and Mars Sample Return mission architectures. AMASE has proved to be a unique platform to build understanding and collaboration amongst scientists and engineers from Europe and the USA. AMASE 2010 team (other than those mentioned above): Ivar Midtkandal, Kjell Ove Storvik, Garret Huntress, Verena Starke, Pan Conrad, Francis McCubbin, Tor Viscor, Antonio Sensano, Laureline Josset, Jean-Luc Josset, Mihaela Glamoclija, Steve Squyres, Inge Loes Ten Kate, Kyong Hou, Jen Stern, Amy McAdam, Dave Blake, Dick Morris, Claire Cousins, Arnold Bauer, Carole Phillippon, Eckhard Steinmetz, Dave Potts, Dominique Tobler, Guillermo Lopez.
Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef
In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939–1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called “percutaneous transluminal dilatation”. Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920–1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig’s life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter’s first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig’s former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated
Fossum, J. O.
. Gog, C. Venkataraman, Observations of orientational ordering in aqueous suspensions of a nano-layered silicate, ENERGY The International Journal 30, 873 (2005). 2. D. M. Fonseca, Y. Méheust, J. O. Fossum, K. D. Knudsen, K. J. Måløy and K. P. S. Parmar, Phase behavior of platelet-shaped nanosilicate colloids in saline solutions: A small-angle X-ray scattering study J. Appl. Cryst. 40 292 (2007) 3. E. N. de Azevedo, M. Engelsberg, J. O. Fossum, R. E. de Souza, Anisotropic water diffusion in nematic self-assemblies of clay nano-platelets suspended in water, Langmuir 23, 5100 (2007) 4. Nils Ivar Ringdal, Master thesis, Department of Physics, NTNU (2008) 5. J.O. Fossum, Y. Meheust, K.P.S. Parmar, K.D. Knudsen, K.J. Maloy, D.d.M. Fonseca, Intercalation-enhanced electric polarization and chain formation of nano-layered particles, Europhys. Lett., 74, 438 (2006), and in the Scientific Highlights 2006 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - ESRF (2007) 6. K.P.S. Parmar, Y. Meheust, B. Schelderupsen and J.O. Fossum, Electrorheological suspensions of laponite in oil: rheometry studies, Langmuir 24,1814 (2008) 7. F. Bergaya, B. K. G. Theng, and G. Lagaly, editors. Handbook of Clay Science. Elsevier (2006)