Science.gov

Sample records for jnk pkc fak

  1. Requirements for PKC-augmented JNK activation by MKK4/7

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated in response to stress, DNA damage, and cytokines by MKK4 and MKK7. We recently demonstrated that PKC can augment the degree of JNK activation by phosphorylating JNK, which requires the adaptor protein RACK1. Here we report on the conditions required for PKC-dependent JNK activation. In vitro kinase assays reveal that PKC phosphorylation of JNK is not sufficient for its activation but rather augments JNK activation by canonical JNK upstream kinases MKK4 or MKK7 alone or in combination. Further, to enhance JNK activity, PKC phosphorylation of JNK should precede its phosphorylation by MKK4/7. Inhibition of PKC phosphorylation of JNK affects both early and late phases of JNK activation following UV-irradiation and reduces the apoptotic response mediated by JNK. These data provide important insight into the requirements for PKC activation of JNK signaling. PMID:18182317

  2. Angiotensin II induces MMP 2 activity via FAK/JNK pathway in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Eugenio; Pérez de la Blanca, Enrique; Urso, Loredana; González, Irene; Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes

    2009-03-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and are modified in response to a variety of stimuli such as bioactive peptides, cytokines and/or grown factors. In this study, we demonstrated that angiotensin II (Ang II) induces a time- and dose-dependent increase in the activity of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The effect of Ang II was markedly attenuated in cells pretreated with wortmannin and LY294002, two selective inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), indicating that PI3K plays a key role in regulating MMP 2 activity. Similar results were observed when HUVEC were pretreated with genistein, a non-selective tyrosine kinases inhibitor, or with the specific Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, demonstrating the involvement of protein tyrosine kinases, and particularly Src-family tyrosine kinases on the downstream signaling pathway of Ang II receptors. Furthermore, Ang II-induced MMP 2 activation was markedly blocked by SP600125, a selective c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, or pre-treatment of cells with antisense oligonucleotide to focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating that both molecules were important for the activation of MMP 2 by Ang II receptor stimulation. In conclusion, these results suggest that Ang II mediates an increase in MMP 2 activity in macrovascular endothelial cells through signal transduction pathways dependent on PI3K and Src-family tyrosine kinases activation, as well as JNK and FAK phosphorylation.

  3. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Contraction in the Isolated Endothelium-Denuded Rat Aorta Involves PKC-δ-mediated JNK Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jongsun; Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Vasoconstriction mediated by the highly selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine leads to transiently increased blood pressure and severe hypertension. The dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated pathway. However, the main PKC isoform involved in the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction remains unknown. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the specific PKC isoform that contributes to the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction in the isolated rat aorta. The endothelium-denuded rat aorta was suspended for isometric tension recording. Dexmedetomidine dose-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the pan-PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine; the PKC-α and -β inhibitor, Go6976; the PKC-α inhibitor, safingol; the PKC-β inhibitor, ruboxistaurin; the PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin; the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125; and the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7 hydrochloride. Western blot analysis was used to examine the effect of rottlerin on dexmedetomidine-induced PKC-δ expression and JNK phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on PKC-δ expression in VSMCs transfected with PKC-δ small interfering RNA (siRNA) or control siRNA. Chelerythrine as well as SP600125 and ML-7 hydrochloride attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Go6976, safingol, and ruboxistaurin had no effect on the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction, whereas rottlerin inhibited the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Dexmedetomidine induced PKC-δ expression, whereas rottlerin and PKC-δ siRNA transfection inhibited dexmedetomidine-induced PKC-δ expression. Dexmedetomidine also induced JNK phosphorylation, which was inhibited by rottlerin. Taken together, these results suggest that the dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves PKC-δ-dependent JNK phosphorylation in the isolated rat aorta.

  4. PKC{eta} confers protection against apoptosis by inhibiting the pro-apoptotic JNK activity in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem-Dai, Noa; Oberkovitz, Galia; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Livneh, Etta

    2009-09-10

    Apoptosis is frequently regulated by different protein kinases including protein kinase C family enzymes. Both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were demonstrated for several of the different PKC isoforms. Here we show that the novel PKC isoform, PKC{eta}, confers protection against apoptosis induced by the DNA damaging agents, UVC irradiation and the anti-cancer drug - Camptothecin, of the breast epithelial adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. The induced expression of PKC{eta} in MCF-7 cells, under the control of the tetracycline-responsive promoter, resulted in increased cell survival and inhibition of cleavage of the apoptotic marker PARP-1. Activation of caspase-7 and 9 and the release of cytochrome c were also inhibited by the inducible expression of PKC{eta}. Furthermore, JNK activity, required for apoptosis in MCF-7, as indicated by the inhibition of both caspase-7 cleavage and cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the presence of the JNK inhibitor SP600125, was also suppressed by PKC{eta} expression. Hence, in contrast to most PKC isoforms enhancing JNK activation, our studies show that PKC{eta} is an anti-apoptotic protein, acting as a negative regulator of JNK activity. Thus, PKC{eta} could represent a target for intervention aimed to reduce resistance to anti-cancer treatments.

  5. Silencing Fibronectin Extra Domain A Enhances Radiosensitivity in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas Involving an FAK/Akt/JNK Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ou Juanjuan; Pan Feng; Geng Peiliang; Wei Xing; Xie Ganfeng; Deng Jia; Pang Xueli; Liang Houjie

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Fibronectin extra domain A (EDA) is known to play important roles in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis in malignant tumors. The present study examined the effect of EDA on the radioresistance potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: EDA expression levels in blood samples and tumor tissues of NPC patients were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Radiosensitivity was tested by colony survival assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The expressions of EDA, cleaved caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, and the levels of phosphorylated FAK, Akt, and JNK were measured by Western blot. Xenografts were used to confirm the effect of EDA on radiosensitivity in vivo. Results: EDA levels in blood samples of advanced NPC patients were much higher than those in early-stage patients. In tumor tissues, the positive expressions of EDA in NPC tumor tissues were shown to be correlated with the differentiation degrees of cancer cells and lymph node metastases. Additionally, the expression of EDA is positively correlated with the expression of antiapoptotic gene (Bcl2), but negatively correlated with the expressions of apoptotic genes (cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP). In vitro, EDA-silenced NPC cells CNE-2 shows substantially enhanced radiosensitivity with lower colony survival and more apoptosis in response to radiation. In vivo, EDA-silenced xenografts were more sensitive to radiation. At the molecular level, FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was demonstrated to be inactivated in EDA-silenced CNE-2 cells. Conclusions: EDA strongly affected the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. FAK/Akt/JNK signaling was found to be a potential signaling mediating EDA function.

  6. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P < 0.05) and apoptotic cell death rate decreased from 16.4 ± 0.21% (control) to 4.5 ± 0.13% (P < 0.05) applied at 0.1 Hz. Expression of PKC was upregulated with slight increase in JNK and no change in p38MAPK after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.075 ± 0.024, P < 0.05 GF109203X); (1.418 ± 0.021, P > 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs.

  7. Antitumor effects of the flavone chalcone: inhibition of invasion and migration through the FAK/JNK signaling pathway in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-Hsuan; Shih, Yuan-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Chalcones (benzylideneacetophenone) are cancer-preventive food components found in a human diet rich in fruits and vegetables. In this study, we first report the chemopreventive effect of chalcone in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines: AGS. The results showed that chalcone could inhibit the abilities of the adhesion, invasion, and migration by cell-matrix adhesion assay, Boyden chamber invasion/migration assay, and wound-healing assay. Molecular data showed that the effect of chalcone in AGS cells might be mediated via sustained inactivation of the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 and 2 (JNK1/2) signal involved in the downregulation of the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Next, chalcone-treated AGS cells showed tremendous decrease in the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of kappaBα (IκBα), the nuclear level of NF-κB, and the binding ability of NF-κB to NF-κB response element. Furthermore, treating FAK small interfering RNA (FAK siRNA) and specific inhibitor for JNK (SP600125) to AGS cells could reduce the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our results revealed that chalcone significantly inhibited the metastatic ability of AGS cells by reducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions concomitantly with a marked reduction on cell invasion and migration through suppressing and JNK signaling pathways. We suggest that chalcone may offer the application in clinical medicine.

  8. Wnt5a through Noncanonical Wnt/JNK or Wnt/PKC Signaling Contributes to the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shixia; Dong, Liang; Liu, Le; Yang, Yi; Guo, Fengmei; Lu, Xiaomin; He, Hongli; Chen, Qihong; Hu, Shuling; Qiu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and Wnt signaling was considered to be the underlying mechanisms. In our previous study, we found that canonical Wnt pathway promoted the differentiation of MSCs into AT II cells, however the role of the noncanonical Wnt pathway in this process is unclear. It was disclosed in this study that noncanonical Wnt signaling in mouse bone marrow–derived MSCs (mMSCs) was activated during the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells in a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 cells and small airway growth media. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, increased in mMSCs when Wnt5a was added to activate noncanonical Wnt signaling, while pretreatment with JNK or PKC inhibitors reversed the promotion of Wnt5a. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. We found that the Wnt5a supplement promoted the vertical and horizontal migration of mMSCs, ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H2O2. The effect of Wnt5a on the migration of mMSCs and their survival after H2O2 exposure were partially inhibited with PKC or JNK blockers. In conclusion, Wnt5a through Wnt/JNK signaling alone or both Wnt/JNK and Wnt/PKC signaling promoted the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells and the migration of mMSCs; through Wnt/PKC signaling, Wnt5a increased the survival of mMSCs after H2O2 exposure in vitro. PMID:24658098

  9. FERM Domain Interaction Promotes FAK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dunty, Jill M.; Gabarra-Niecko, Veronica; King, Michelle L.; Ceccarelli, Derek F. J.; Eck, Michael J.; Schaller, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    From the results of deletion analyses, the FERM domain of FAK has been proposed to inhibit enzymatic activity and repress FAK signaling. We have identified a sequence in the FERM domain that is important for FAK signaling in vivo. Point mutations in this sequence had little effect upon catalytic activity in vitro. However, the mutant exhibits reduced tyrosine phosphorylation and dramatically reduced Src family kinase binding. Further, the abilities of the mutant to transduce biochemical signals and to promote cell migration were severely impaired. The results implicate a FERM domain interaction in cell adhesion-dependent activation of FAK and downstream signaling. We also show that the purified FERM domain of FAK interacts with full-length FAK in vitro, and mutation of this sequence disrupts the interaction. These findings are discussed in the context of models of FAK regulation by its FERM domain. PMID:15169899

  10. Apoptosis induced by penta-acetyl geniposide in C6 glioma cells is associated with JNK activation and Fas ligand induction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.-H.; Tseng, T.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Hsu, S.-P.; Wang, C.-J. . E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-01-15

    In our previous study, penta-acetyl geniposide ((AC){sub 5}GP) is suggested to induce tumor cell apoptosis through the specific activation of PKC{delta}. However, the downstream signal pathway of PKC{delta} has not yet been investigated. It was shown that JNK may play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis and could be a possible downstream signal of PKC{delta} isoforms. In the present study, we investigate whether JNK is involved in (AC){sub 5}GP induced apoptosis. The result reveals that (AC){sub 5}GP induces JNK activation and c-Jun phosphorylation thus stimulating the expression of Fas-L and Fas. Using SP600125 to block JNK activation shows that (AC){sub 5}GP-mediated apoptosis and related proteins expression are attenuated. Furthermore, we find that the (AC){sub 5}GP induces apoptosis through the activation of JNK/Jun/Fas L/Fas/caspase 8/caspase 3, a mitochondria-independent pathway. The JNK pathway is suggested to be the downstream signal of PKC{delta}, since rottlerin impedes (AC){sub 5}GP-induced JNK activation. Therefore, (AC){sub 5}GP mediates cell death via activation of PKC{delta}/JNK/FasL cascade signaling.

  11. PKC412 (CGP41251) modulates the proliferation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi . E-mail: hinoue@genome.tokushima-u.ac.jp; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Takata, Yoichiro; Nakano, Shunji; Yasui, Natsuo; Itakura, Mitsuo

    2007-08-17

    PKC412 (CGP41251) is a multitarget protein kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Here, we investigated the effects of PKC412 on macrophages. PKC412 inhibited the proliferation of murine RAW 264.7 macrophages through induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. At non-toxic drug concentrations, PKC412 significantly suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of TNF-{alpha} and nitric oxide, while instead enhancing IL-6 secretion. PKC412 attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylations of MKK4 and JNK, as well as AP-1 DNA binding activities. Furthermore, PKC412 suppressed LPS-induced Akt and GSK-3{beta} phosphorylations. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory effects of PKC412 are, at least in part, mediated through its interference with the MKK4/JNK/AP-1 and/or Akt/GSK-3{beta} pathways. Since macrophages contribute significantly to the development of both acute and chronic inflammation, PKC412 may have therapeutic potential and applications in treating inflammatory and/or autoimmune diseases.

  12. Activation of JNK pathway in spinal astrocytes contributes to acute ultra-low-dose morphine thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla; Galeotti, Nicoletta

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that opioid analgesics can lead to paradoxical sensitization to pain when delivered in different administration patterns. Although opioid tolerance-induced hyperalgesia is largely studied, little is known about the mechanisms underlying acute ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia. Activation of spinal glial cells is reported to regulate pain hypersensitivity. To elucidate the mechanism involved in acute ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia, we tested whether an opioid agonist promoted the activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia and investigated the cellular pathways involved. Ultra-low-dose morphine activated spinal astrocytes with no effect on microglia. The astrocyte activation was selectively prevented by the opioid antagonist naloxone, the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) silencing and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Morphine elevated spinal JNK1, JNK2, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Conversely, phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) was not elevated, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels remained unmodified. Administration of SP600125 and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK801 prevented morphine hyperalgesia. Ultra-low-dose morphine increased protein kinase C (PKC) γ phosphorylation. Pretreatment with a PKC inhibitor prevented morphine hyperalgesia and JNK and c-Jun overphosphorylation, indicating PKC is a JNK upstream modulator and illustrating the presence of a pathway involving PKC, NMDA, and JNK activated by morphine. Immunofluorescence experiments indicated the neuronal localization of spinal MOR. However, JNK was not detected in MOR-expressing cells, showing the presence of a neuron-astrocyte signaling pathway. These results illustrate the selective activation of an astrocyte JNK pathway after the stimulation of neuronal MOR, which contributes to ultra-low-dose morphine hyperalgesia.

  13. LRRK2 Inhibits FAK Activity by Promoting FERM-mediated Autoinhibition of FAK and Recruiting the Tyrosine Phosphatase, SHP-2

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Insup; Byun, Ji-won; Park, Sang Myun; Jou, Ilo

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported that LRRK2 directly binds to and phosphorylates the threonine 474 (T474)-containing Thr-X-Arg(Lys) (TXR) motif of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine (Y) 397 residue (pY397-FAK), which is a marker of its activation. Mechanistically, however, it remained unclear how T474-FAK phosphorylation suppressed FAK activation. Here, we report that T474-FAK phosphorylation could inhibit FAK activation via at least two different mechanisms. First, T474 phosphorylation appears to induce a conformational change of FAK, enabling its N-terminal FERM domain to autoinhibit Y397 phosphorylation. This is supported by the observation that the levels of pY397-FAK were increased by deletion of the FERM domain and/or mutation of the FERM domain to prevent its interaction with the kinase domain of FAK. Second, pT474-FAK appears to recruit SHP-2, which is a phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating pY397-FAK. We found that mutation of T474 into glutamate (T474E-FAK) to mimic phosphorylation induced more strong interaction with SHP-2 than WT-FAK, and that pharmacological inhibition of SHP-2 with NSC-87877 rescued the level of pY397 in HEK293T cells. These results collectively show that LRRK2 suppresses FAK activation through diverse mechanisms that include the promotion of autoinhibition and/or the recruitment of phosphatases, such as SHP-2. PMID:27790061

  14. Induction of ANGPTL4 expression in human airway smooth muscle cells by PMA through activation of PKC and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Cliona M; Joo, Joung Hyuck; Kim, Yong-Sik; Liao, Grace; Panettieri, Reynold A; Jetten, Anton M

    2010-02-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC) activators, including phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG), and platelet-derived growth factor alpha are potent inducers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) expression in several normal lung cell types and carcinoma cell lines. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells induction of ANGPTL4 expression is observed as early as 2 h after the addition of PMA. PMA also increases the level of ANGPTL4 protein released in the medium. PKC inhibitors Ro31-8820 and Gö6983 greatly inhibit the induction of ANGPTL4 mRNA by PMA suggesting that this up-regulation involves activation of PKC. Knockdown of several PKCs by corresponding siRNAs suggest a role for PKCalpha. PMA does not activate MAPK p38 and p38 inhibitors have little effect on the induction of ANGPTL4 indicating that p38 is not involved in the regulation of ANGPTL4 by PMA. In contrast, treatment of HASM by PMA induces phosphorylation and activation of Ra, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JNK, Elk-1, and c-Jun. The Ras inhibitor manumycin A, the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125, greatly reduce the increase in ANGPTL4 expression by PMA. Knockdown of MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 expression by corresponding siRNAs inhibits the induction of ANGPTL4. Our observations suggest that the induction of ANGPTL4 by PMA in HASM involves the activation of PKC, ERK, and JNK pathways. This induction may play a role in tissue remodeling during lung injury and be implicated in several lung pathologies.

  15. FAK signalling controls insulin sensitivity through regulation of adipocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Cynthia T.; Shi, Sally Yu; Cai, Erica P.; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Krishnamurthy, Mansa; Brunt, Jara J.; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Winer, Daniel A.; Woo, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a central role in integrin signalling, which regulates growth and survival of tumours. Here we show that FAK protein levels are increased in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant obese mice and humans. Disruption of adipocyte FAK in mice or in 3T3 L1 cells decreases adipocyte survival. Adipocyte-specific FAK knockout mice display impaired adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance on prolonged metabolic stress from a high-fat diet or when crossed on an obese db/db or ob/ob genetic background. Treatment of these mice with a PPARγ agonist does not restore adiposity or improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, inhibition of apoptosis, either genetically or pharmacologically, attenuates adipocyte death, restores normal adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity. Together, these results demonstrate that FAK is required for adipocyte survival and maintenance of insulin sensitivity, particularly in the context of adipose tissue expansion as a result of caloric excess. PMID:28165007

  16. McEliece PKC Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Repka

    2015-01-01

    The original McEliece PKC proposal is interesting thanks to its resistance against all known attacks, even using quantum cryptanalysis, in an IND-CCA2 secure conversion. Here we present a generic implementation of the original McEliece PKC proposal, which provides test vectors (for all important intermediate results), and also in which a measurement tool for side-channel analysis is employed. To our best knowledge, this is the first such an implementation. This Calculator is valuable in implementation optimization, in further McEliece/Niederreiter like PKCs properties investigations, and also in teaching. Thanks to that, one can, for example, examine side-channel vulnerability of a certain implementation, or one can find out and test particular parameters of the cryptosystem in order to make them appropriate for an efficient hardware implementation. This implementation is available [1] in executable binary format, and as a static C++ library, as well as in form of source codes, for Linux and Windows operating systems.

  17. FAK kinase activity is required for the progression of c-Met/β-catenin-driven HCC

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Na; Arteaga, Maribel; Zaidi, Ali; Cotler, Scott J.; Breslin, Peter; Ding, Xianzhong; Kuo, Paul; Nishimura, Michael; Zhang, Jiwang; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims There is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies and agents to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently found that deletion of Fak in hepatocytes before tumors form inhibits tumor development and prolongs survival of animals in a c-Met (MET)/β-catenin (CAT)-driven HCC mouse model. However, it has yet to be determined whether FAK expression in hepatocytes promotes MET/CAT-induced HCC progression after tumor initiation. In addition, it remains unclear whether FAK promotes HCC development through its kinase activity. Methods We generated hepatocyte-specific inducible Fak-deficient mice (Alb-creERT2; Fakflox/flox) to examine the role of FAK in HCC progression. We re-expressed wild-type and mutant FAK in Fak-deficient mice to determine FAK’s kinase activity in HCC development. We also examined the efficacy of a FAK kinase inhibitor PF-562271 on HCC inhibition. Results We found that deletion of Fak after tumors form significantly repressed MET/CAT-induced tumor progression. Ectopic FAK expression restored HCC formation in hepatocyte-specific Fak-deficient mice. However, overexpression of a FAK kinase-dead mutant led to reduced tumor load compared to mice which express wild-type FAK. Furthermore, PF-562271 significantly suppressed progression of MET/CAT-induced HCC. Conclusion Fak kinase activity is important for MET/CAT-induced HCC progression. Inhibiting FAK kinase activity provides a potential therapeutic strategy to treat HCC. PMID:27142958

  18. Distinct FAK activities determine progenitor and mammary stem cell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Song; Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S.; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Mammary stem (MaSCs) and progenitor cells are important for mammary gland development and maintenance and may give rise to mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs). Yet there remains limited understanding of how these cells contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we show that conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in embryonic mammary epithelial cells (MaECs) decreases luminal progenitors (LPs) and basal MaSCs, reducing their colony-forming and regenerative potentials in a cell autonomous manner. Loss of FAK kinase activity in MaECs specifically impaired LP proliferation and alveologenesis, whereas a kinase-independent activity of FAK supported ductal invasion and basal MaSC activity. Deficiency in LPs suppressed tumorigenesis and MaCSC formation in a mouse model of breast cancer. In contrast to the general inhibitory effect of FAK attenuation, inhibitors of FAK kinase preferentially inhibited proliferation and tumorsphere formation of LP-like, but not MaSC-like, human breast cancer cells. Our findings establish distinct kinase dependent and independent activities of FAK that differentially regulate LPs and basal MaSCs. We suggest that targeting these distinct functions may tailor therapeutic strategies to address breast cancer heterogeneity more effectively. PMID:23832665

  19. Dasatinib reduces FAK phosphorylation increasing the effects of RPI-1 inhibition in a RET/PTC1-expressing cell line

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background TPC-1 is a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)-derived cell line that spontaneously expresses the oncogene RET/PTC1. TPC-1 treated with the RET/PTC1 inhibitor RPI-1 displayed a cytostatic and reversible inhibition of cell proliferation and a strong activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). As dasatinib inhibition of Src results in reduction of FAK activation, we evaluated the effects of TPC-1 treatment with dasatinib in combination with RPI-1. Results Dasatinib (100 nM) strongly reduced TPC-1 proliferation and induced marked changes in TPC-1 morphology. Cells appeared smaller and more contracted, with decreased cell spreading, due to the inhibition of phosphorylation of important cytoskeletal proteins (p130CAS, Crk, and paxillin) by dasatinib. The combination of RPI-1 with dasatinib demonstrated enhanced effects on cell proliferation (more than 80% reduction) and on the phosphotyrosine protein profile. In particular, RPI-1 reduced the phosphorylation of RET, MET, DCDB2, CTND1, and PLCγ, while dasatinib acted on the phosphorylation of EGFR, EPHA2, and DOK1. Moreover, dasatinib completely abrogated the phosphorylation of FAK at all tyrosine sites (Y576, Y577, Y861, Y925) with the exception of the autoactivation site (Y397). Notably, the pharmacological treatments induced an overexpression of integrin β1 (ITB1) that was correlated with a mild enhancement in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3, known for their roles in prevention of apoptosis and in increase of proliferation and survival. A reduction in Akt, p38 and JNK1/2 activation was observed. Conclusions All data demonstrate that the combination of the two drugs effectively reduced cell proliferation (by more than 80%), significantly decreased Tyr phosphorylation of almost all phosphorylable proteins, and altered the morphology of the cells, supporting high cytostatic effects. Following the combined treatment, cell survival pathways appeared to be mediated by STAT3 and ERK activities resulting from

  20. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  1. PKC Isoform Expression in Modeled Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that modeled (MMG) and true (USA Space Shuttle Missions STS-54 and STS-56) microgravity (MG) inhibit human lymphocyte locomotion, Modeled MG also suppressed polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Activation of PKC by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) restored the microgravity-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion as well as activation by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), whereas calcium ionophore (ionomycin) was unable to restore these functions. Based on these results we hypothesized that MG-induced changes in lymphocyte functions are caused by a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism. This defect may be localized either at the PKC level or upstream of PKC, most likely, at the cell membrane level. In this study we examined the expression of PKC isoforms alpha, epsilon and delta in PBMC cultured in rotating wall vessel bioreactor, developed at NASA JSC, which models microgravity by sustaining cells in continuous free fall. The assessment of the isoforms was performed by FACS analysis following cell permeabilization. A decrease in the expression of isoforms epsilon and delta, but not isoform a, was observed in PBMC cultured in microgravity conditions. These data suggest that MMG might selectively affect the expression of Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC Molecular analysis confirm selective suppression of Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC.

  2. Phospholipid binding to the FAK catalytic domain impacts function

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in development, in homeostasis and in the progression of human disease. Multiple stimuli activate FAK, which requires a change in structure from an autoinhibited to activated conformation. In the autoinhibited conformation the FERM domain associates with the catalytic domain of FAK and PI(4,5)P2 binding to the FERM domain plays a role in the release of autoinhibition, activating the enzyme. An in silico model of FAK/PI(4,5)P2 interaction suggests that residues on the catalytic domain interact with PI(4,5)P2, in addition to the known FERM domain PI(4,5)P2 binding site. This study was undertaken to test the significance of this in silico observation. Mutations designed to disrupt the putative PI(4,5)P2 binding site were engineered into FAK. These mutants exhibited defects in phosphorylation and failed to completely rescue the phenotype associated with fak -/- phenotype fibroblasts demonstrating the importance of these residues in FAK function. The catalytic domain of FAK exhibited PI(4,5)P2 binding in vitro and binding activity was lost upon mutation of putative PI(4,5)P2 binding site basic residues. However, binding was not selective for PI(4,5)P2, and the catalytic domain bound to several phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation variants. The mutant exhibiting the most severe biological defect was defective for phosphatidylinositol phosphate binding, supporting the model that catalytic domain phospholipid binding is important for biochemical and biological function. PMID:28222177

  3. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration.

  4. The FAK scaffold inhibitor C4 disrupts FAK-VEGFR-3 signaling and inhibits pancreatic cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kurenova, Elena; Liao, Jianqun; He, Di-Hua; Hunt, Darrell; Yemma, Michael; Bshara, Wiam; Seshadri, Mukund; Cance, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Even with successful surgical resection and perioperative chemotherapy and radiation, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a high incidence of recurrence. Tumor cell survival depends on activation of signaling pathways that suppress the apoptotic stimuli of invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical signaling molecule that has been implicated in tumor cell survival, invasion and metastasis. We have previously shown that FAK and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) are overexpressed in cancer cells and physically interact to confer a significant survival advantage. We subsequently identified a novel small molecule inhibitor C4 that targeted the VEGFR-3-FAK site of interaction. In this study, we have shown that C4 disrupted the FAK-VEGFR-3 complexes in PDA cells. C4 treatment caused dose-dependent dephosphorylation and inactivation of the VEGFR-3 and FAK, reduction in cell viability and proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PDA cells. C4 increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to gemcitabine chemotherapy in vitro that lead to apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations of both drugs. C4 reduced tumor growth in vivoin subcutaneous and orthotopic murine models of PDA. The drug alone at low dose, decreased tumor growth; however, concomitant administration with low dose of gemcitabine had significant synergistic effect and led to 70% tumor reduction. Combination of C4 with gemcitabine had a prolonged cytostatic effect on tumor growth after treatment withdrawal. Finally, we report an anecdotal case of stage IV pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine in combination with C4 that showed a significant clinical response in primary tumor and complete clinical response in liver metastasis over an eight month period. Taken together, these results demonstrate that targeting the scaffolding function of FAK with a small-molecule FAK-VEGFR-3 inhibitor can be an effective therapeutic strategy against PDA. PMID:24142503

  5. Nuclear FAK: a New Mode of Gene Regulation from Cellular Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ssang-Taek Steve

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) crucial in regulation of cell migration and proliferation. In addition to its canonical roles as a cytoplasmic kinase downstream of integrin and growth factor receptor signaling, recent studies revealed new aspects of FAK action in the nucleus. Nuclear FAK promotes p53 and GATA4 degradation via ubiquitination, resulting in enhanced cell proliferation and reduced inflammatory responses. FAK can also serve as a co-transcriptional regulator that alters a gene transcriptional activity. These findings established a new paradigm of FAK signaling from cellular adhesions to the nucleus. Although physiological stimuli for controlling FAK nuclear localization have not been completely characterized, FAK shuttles from focal adhesions to the nucleus to directly convey extracellular signals. Interestingly, nuclear translocation of FAK becomes prominent in kinase-inhibited conditions such as in de-adhesion and pharmacological FAK inhibition, while a small fraction of nuclear FAK is observed a normal growth condition. In this review, roles of nuclear FAK in regulating transcription factors will be discussed. Furthermore, a potential use of a pharmacological FAK inhibitor to target nuclear FAK function in diseases such as inflammation will be emphasized. PMID:23686429

  6. Tac-beta1 inhibits FAK activation and Src signaling.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Allison L; Jones, Christopher W; LaFlamme, Susan E

    2008-03-28

    The binding of integrins to extracellular matrix triggers signals that promote cell spreading. We previously demonstrated that expression of the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain in the context of a chimeric transmembrane receptor with the Tac subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (Tac-beta1) inhibits cell spreading. To study the mechanism whereby Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, we examined the effect of Tac-beta1 on early signaling events following integrin engagement namely FAK and Src signaling. We infected primary fibroblasts with adenoviruses expressing Tac or Tac-beta1 and found that Tac-beta1 prevented FAK activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397. In contrast, Src activation was maintained, as phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-419 and Tyr-530 were not responsive to expression of Tac-beta1. Importantly, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src substrates p130Cas and paxillin was inhibited, indicating that Src signaling was blocked by Tac-beta1. These Src-dependent signaling events were found to require FAK signaling. Our results suggest that Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, at least in part, by preventing the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 and the assembly of signaling complexes necessary for phosphorylation of p130Cas and other downstream effectors.

  7. Contraction stimulates muscle glucose uptake independent of atypical PKC.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyan; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Toyoda, Taro; An, Ding; Farese, Robert V; Leitges, Michael; Hirshman, Michael F; Mul, Joram D; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2015-11-01

    Exercise increases skeletal muscle glucose uptake, but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms λ and ζ (PKC-λ/ζ) have been shown to be necessary for insulin-, AICAR-, and metformin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but not for treadmill exercise-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. To investigate if PKC-λ/ζ activity is required for contraction-stimulated muscle glucose uptake, we used mice with tibialis anterior muscle-specific overexpression of an empty vector (WT), wild-type PKC-ζ (PKC-ζ(WT)), or an enzymatically inactive T410A-PKC-ζ mutant (PKC-ζ(T410A)). We also studied skeletal muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout (MλKO) mice. Basal glucose uptake was similar between WT, PKC-ζ(WT), and PKC-ζ(T410A) tibialis anterior muscles. In contrast, in situ contraction-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in PKC-ζ(T410A) tibialis anterior muscles compared to WT or PKC-ζ(WT) tibialis anterior muscles. Furthermore, in vitro contraction-stimulated glucose uptake was greater in soleus muscles of MλKO mice than WT controls. Thus, loss of PKC-λ/ζ activity increases contraction-stimulated muscle glucose uptake. These data clearly demonstrate that PKC-λζ activity is not necessary for contraction-stimulated glucose uptake.

  8. β1 integrin- and JNK-dependent tumor growth upon hypofractionated radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sayeed, Aejaz; Lu, Huimin; Liu, Qin; II, David Deming; Duffy, Alexander; McCue, Peter; Dicker, Adam P.; Davis, Roger J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Rodeck, Ulrich; Altieri, Dario C.; Languino, Lucia R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment modality although tumors invariably become resistant. Using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model system, we report that a hypofractionated radiation schedule (10 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days) effectively blocks prostate tumor growth in wild type (β1wt /TRAMP) mice as well as in mice carrying a conditional ablation of β1 integrins in the prostatic epithelium (β1pc-/- /TRAMP). Since JNK is known to be suppressed by β1 integrins and mediates radiation-induced apoptosis, we tested the effect of SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in the TRAMP model system. Our results show that SP600125 negates the effect of radiation on tumor growth in β1pc-/- /TRAMP mice and leads to invasive adenocarcinoma. These effects are associated with increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and phosphorylation in prostate tumors in β1pc-/- /TRAMP mice. In marked contrast, radiation-induced tumor growth suppression, FAK expression and phosphorylation are not altered by SP600125 treatment of β1wt /TRAMP mice. Furthermore, we have reported earlier that abrogation of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in prostate cancer cells enhances the sensitivity to radiation. Here we further explore the β1/IGF-IR crosstalk and report that β1 integrins promote cell proliferation partly by enhancing the expression of IGF-IR. In conclusion, we demonstrate that β1 integrin-mediated inhibition of JNK signaling modulates tumor growth rate upon hypofractionated radiation. PMID:27438371

  9. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus alters hippocampal PKC expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian Xin; Liu, Yong; Tang, Feng Ru

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the protein expression of different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (PKC-alpha, PKC-beta1, PKC-beta2, PKC-gamma, PKC-delta, PKC-epsilon, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta) in the hippocampus of normal control mice and progressive changes in PKC isoforms expression during and after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (PISE). We showed the reduced expression of PKC-delta, PKC-eta and PKC-zeta in interneurons in the CA1 area and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus during or after PISE. Increased expression of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta1 was demonstrated in the stratum pyramidale of CA3 area, and PKC-epsilon was up-regulated in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 area during or after PISE. Our results suggest that hippocampal PKC isoforms may play different roles in seizure generation, and be targets for development of anti-convulsive drugs.

  10. FAK and paxillin, two potential targets in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanteti, Rajani; Batra, Surinder K.; Lennon, Frances E.; Salgia, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating cancer in large part due to late diagnosis and a lack of effective screening tests. In spite of recent progress in imaging, surgery and new therapeutic options for pancreatic cancer, the overall five-year survival still remains unacceptably low. Numerous studies have shown that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is activated in many cancers including PDAC and promotes cancer progression and metastasis. Paxillin, an intracellular adaptor protein that plays a key role in cytoskeletal organization, connects integrins to FAK and plays a key role in assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions. Here, we have reviewed evidence in support of FAK as a potential therapeutic target and summarized related combinatorial therapies. PMID:26980710

  11. Morus alba Leaf Lectin (MLL) Sensitizes MCF-7 Cells to Anoikis by Inhibiting Fibronectin Mediated Integrin-FAK Signaling through Ras and Activation of P38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, Jayaram; Shilpa, Ganesan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G.; Priya, Sulochana

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a unique class of carbohydrate binding proteins/glycoproteins, and many of them possess anticancer properties. They can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibit protein synthesis, telomerase activity and angiogenesis in cancer cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of Morus alba leaf lectin (MLL) on anoikis induction in MCF-7 cells. Anoikis induction in cancer cells has a significant role in preventing early stage metastasis. MLL treatment in monolayers of MCF-7 cells caused significant detachment of cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. The detached cells failed to re-adhere and grew even to culture plates coated with different matrix proteins. DNA fragmentation, membrane integrity studies, annexin V staining, caspase 9 activation and upregulation of Bax/Bad confirmed that the detached cells underwent apoptosis. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) caused a decrease in fibronectin (FN) production which facilitated the cells to detach by blocking the FN mediated downstream signaling. On treatment with MLL, we have observed downregulation of integrin expression, decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), loss in FAK-integrin interaction and active Ras. MLL treatment downregulated the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PI3K. Also, we have studied the effect of MLL on two stress activated protein kinases p38 MAPK and JNK. p38 MAPK activation was found to be elevated, but there was no change in the level of JNK. Thus our study substantiated the possible antimetastatic effect of MLL by inducing anoikis in MCF-7 cells by activation of caspase 9 and proapoptotic Bax/Bad by blockage of FN mediated integrin/FAK signaling and partly by activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:28223935

  12. Pyk2 and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases compensate for the loss of FAK in fibronectin-stimulated signaling events but Pyk2 does not fully function to enhance FAK- cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Sieg, D J; Ilić, D; Jones, K C; Damsky, C H; Hunter, T; Schlaepfer, D D

    1998-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) links transmembrane integrin receptors to intracellular signaling pathways. We show that expression of the FAK-related PTK, Pyk2, is elevated in fibroblasts isolated from murine fak-/- embryos (FAK-) compared with cells from fak+/+ embryos (FAK+). Pyk2 was localized to perinuclear regions in both FAK+ and FAK- cells. Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation was enhanced by fibronectin (FN) stimulation of FAK- but not FAK+ cells. Increased Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation paralleled the time-course of Grb2 binding to Shc and activation of ERK2 in FAK- cells. Pyk2 in vitro autophosphorylation activity was not enhanced by FN plating of FAK- cells. However, Pyk2 associated with active Src-family PTKs after FN but not poly-L-lysine replating of the FAK- cells. Overexpression of both wild-type (WT) and kinase-inactive (Ala457), but not the autophosphorylation site mutant (Phe402) Pyk2, enhanced endogenous FN-stimulated c-Src in vitro kinase activity in FAK- cells, but only WT Pyk2 overexpression enhanced FN-stimulated activation of co-transfected ERK2. Interestingly, Pyk2 overexpression only weakly augmented FAK- cell migration to FN whereas transient FAK expression promoted FAK- cell migration to FN efficiently compared with FAK+ cells. Significantly, repression of endogenous Src-family PTK activity by p50(csk) overexpression inhibited FN-stimulated cell spreading, Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb2 binding to Shc, and ERK2 activation in the FAK- but not in FAK+ cells. These studies show that Pyk2 and Src-family PTKs combine to promote FN-stimulated signaling events to ERK2 in the absence of FAK, but that these signaling events are not sufficient to overcome the FAK- cell migration defects. PMID:9774338

  13. Simultaneous deactivation of FAK and Src improves the pathology of hypertrophic scar

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Xue; Hui, Bo; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Li, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Zhu, Huayu; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a serious fibrotic skin condition with currently no satisfactory therapy due to undefined molecular mechanism. FAK and Src are two important non-receptor tyrosine kinases that have been indicated in HS pathogenesis. Here we found both FAK and Src were activated in HS vs. normal skin (NS), NS fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 also exhibited FAK/Src activation. Co-immunoprecipitation and dual-labelled immunofluorescence revealed an enhanced FAK-Src association and co-localization in HS vs. NS. To examine effects of FAK/Src activation and their interplay on HS pathogenesis, site-directed mutagenesis followed by gene overexpression was conducted. Results showed only simultaneous overexpression of non-phosphorylatable mutant FAK Y407F and phosphomimetic mutant Src Y529E remarkably down-regulated the expression of Col I, Col III and α-SMA in cultured HS fibroblasts, alleviated extracellular matrix deposition and made collagen fibers more orderly in HS tissue vs. the effect from single transfection with wild-type or mutational FAK/Src. Glabridin, a chemical found to block FAK-Src complex formation in cancers, exhibited therapeutic effects on HS pathology probably through co-deactivation of FAK/Src which further resulted in FAK-Src de-association. This study suggests FAK-Src complex could serve as a potential molecular target, and FAK/Src double deactivation might be a novel strategy for HS therapy. PMID:27181267

  14. Regionally selective activation of ERK and JNK in morphine paradoxical hyperalgesia: a step toward improving opioid pain therapy.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla; Galeotti, Nicoletta

    2014-11-01

    In addition to analgesia, opioid agonists may increase pain sensitivity under different conditions varying dose and administration pattern. While opioid hyperalgesia induced by tolerance and withdrawal is largely studied, little is known on the mechanisms underlying ultra-low dose morphine hyperalgesia. This pronociceptive response appears to play an opposing role in morphine analgesia and might have clinical relevance. Ultra-low dose morphine elicited thermal hyperalgesia through activation of μ opioid receptors. To elucidate the intracellular mechanism of morphine nociceptive behaviour, we investigated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), crucial pathways in pain hypersensitivity. The catalytic activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), upstream modulators and transcription factors was investigated in the mouse periaqueductal grey matter (PAG), thalamus and prefrontal cortex by western blotting. Ultra-low dose morphine intensively increased pERK1 contents in the PAG and cortex and, to a lesser extent, increased cortical ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation. No involvement of p38 was detected. Morphine exposure also increased phosphorylation of cortical c-Jun whereas levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) remained unmodified. Blockade of protein kinase C (PKC) prevented increases in phosphorylation showing a PKC-dependent mechanism of activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of PKC, ERK, and JNK activity prevented morphine hyperalgesia. No modulation of MAPK and transcription factors' activity was detected in the thalamus. These results support the concept that selective activation of ERK and JNK on descending pathways plays an important role in ultra-low dose morphine hyperalgesia. The modulation of these signalling processes might improve pain management with opiate analgesics.

  15. PIAS1-FAK Interaction Promotes the Survival and Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Constanzo, Jerfiz D; Tang, Ke-Jing; Rindhe, Smita; Melegari, Margherita; Liu, Hui; Tang, Ximing; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wistuba, Ignacio; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The sequence of genomic alterations acquired by cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis is poorly understood. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that integrates cytoskeleton remodeling, mitogenic signaling and cell survival. FAK has previously been reported to undergo nuclear localization during cell migration, cell differentiation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism behind FAK nuclear accumulation and its contribution to tumor progression has remained elusive. We report that amplification of FAK and the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 gene loci frequently co-occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and that both gene products are enriched in a subset of primary NSCLCs. We demonstrate that endogenous FAK and PIAS1 proteins interact in the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus of NSCLC cells. Ectopic expression of PIAS1 promotes proteolytic cleavage of the FAK C-terminus, focal adhesion maturation and FAK nuclear localization. Silencing of PIAS1 deregulates focal adhesion turnover, increases susceptibility to apoptosis in vitro and impairs tumor xenograft formation in vivo. Nuclear FAK in turn stimulates gene transcription favoring DNA repair, cell metabolism and cytoskeleton regulation. Consistently, ablation of FAK by CRISPR/Cas9 editing, results in basal DNA damage, susceptibility to ionizing radiation and impaired oxidative phosphorylation. Our findings provide insight into a mechanism regulating FAK cytoplasm-nuclear distribution and demonstrate that FAK activity in the nucleus promotes NSCLC survival and progression by increasing cell-ECM interaction and DNA repair regulation.

  16. FAK deletion accelerates liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Na; Arteaga, Maribel; Chitsike, Lennox; Wang, Fang; Viswakarma, Navin; Breslin, Peter; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration is essential to improve the survival rate of patients after surgical resection of large amounts of liver tissue. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates different cellular functions, including cell survival, proliferation and cell migration. The role of FAK in liver regeneration remains unknown. In this study, we found that Fak is activated and induced during liver regeneration after two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx). We used mice with liver-specific deletion of Fak and investigated the role of Fak in liver regeneration in 2/3 PHx model (removal of 2/3 of the liver). We found that specific deletion of Fak accelerates liver regeneration. Fak deletion enhances hepatocyte proliferation prior to day 3 post-PHx but attenuates hepatocyte proliferation 3 days after PHx. Moreover, we demonstrated that the deletion of Fak in liver transiently increases EGFR activation by regulating the TNFα/HB-EGF axis during liver regeneration. Furthermore, we found more apoptosis in Fak-deficient mouse livers compared to WT mouse livers after PHx. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Fak is involved in the process of liver regeneration, and inhibition of FAK may be a promising strategy to accelerate liver regeneration in recipients after liver transplantation. PMID:27677358

  17. Focal Adhesion Targeting: The Critical Determinant of FAK Regulation and Substrate Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu; Schaller, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is discretely localized to focal adhesions via its C-terminal focal adhesion–targeting (FAT) sequence. FAK is regulated by integrin-dependent cell adhesion and can regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of downstream substrates, like paxillin. By the use of a mutational strategy, the regions of FAK that are required for cell adhesion–dependent regulation and for inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin were determined. The results show that the FAT sequence was the single region of FAK that was required for each function. Furthermore, the FAT sequence of FAK was replaced with a focal adhesion–targeting sequence from vinculin, and the resulting chimera exhibited cell adhesion–dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and could induce paxillin phosphorylation like wild-type FAK. These results suggest that subcellular localization is the major determinant of FAK function. PMID:10436008

  18. IKKε inhibits PKC to promote Fascin-dependent actin bundling

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yosuke; Misaki, Kazuyo; Maeda, Takuya; Kimpara, Akiyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Signaling molecules have pleiotropic functions and are activated by various extracellular stimuli. Protein kinase C (PKC) is activated by diverse receptors, and its dysregulation is associated with diseases including cancer. However, how the undesired activation of PKC is prevented during development remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that a protein kinase, IKKε, is active at the growing bristle tip and regulates actin bundle organization during Drosophila bristle morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IKKε regulates the actin bundle localization of a dynamic actin cross-linker, Fascin. IKKε inhibits PKC, thereby protecting Fascin from inhibitory phosphorylation. Excess PKC activation is responsible for the actin bundle defects in IKKε-deficient bristles, whereas PKC is dispensable for bristle morphogenesis in wild-type bristles, indicating that PKC is repressed by IKKε in wild-type bristle cells. These results suggest that IKKε prevents excess activation of PKC during bristle morphogenesis. PMID:27578797

  19. FAK dimerization controls its kinase-dependent functions at focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Brami-Cherrier, Karen; Gervasi, Nicolas; Arsenieva, Diana; Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Boutterin, Marie-Claude; Ortega, Alvaro; Leonard, Paul G; Seantier, Bastien; Gasmi, Laila; Bouceba, Tahar; Kadaré, Gress; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Arold, Stefan T

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls adhesion-dependent cell motility, survival, and proliferation. FAK has kinase-dependent and kinase-independent functions, both of which play major roles in embryogenesis and tumor invasiveness. The precise mechanisms of FAK activation are not known. Using x-ray crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, and biochemical and functional analyses, we show that the key step for activation of FAK's kinase-dependent functions—autophosphorylation of tyrosine-397—requires site-specific dimerization of FAK. The dimers form via the association of the N-terminal FERM domain of FAK and are stabilized by an interaction between FERM and the C-terminal FAT domain. FAT binds to a basic motif on FERM that regulates co-activation and nuclear localization. FAK dimerization requires local enrichment, which occurs specifically at focal adhesions. Paxillin plays a dual role, by recruiting FAK to focal adhesions and by reinforcing the FAT:FERM interaction. Our results provide a structural and mechanistic framework to explain how FAK combines multiple stimuli into a site-specific function. The dimer interfaces we describe are promising targets for blocking FAK activation. PMID:24480479

  20. Identification of Novel Focal Adhesion Kinase Substrates: Role for FAK in NFκB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Sheila Figel; Gao, Lingqiu; Gelman, Irwin H.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a major signaling molecule which functions downstream of integrins or in conjunction with mitogenic signaling pathways. FAK is overexpressed and/or activated in many types of human tumors, in which it promotes cell adhesion, survival, migration and invasion. In addition to FAK's ability to regulate signaling through its scaffolding activities, FAK encodes an intrinsic kinase activity. Although some FAK substrates have been identified, a more comprehensive analysis of substrates is lacking. In this study, we use a protein microarray to screen the human proteome for FAK substrates. We confirm that several of the proteins identified are bona fide in vitro FAK substrates, including several factors which are known to regulate the NFκB pathway. Finally, we identify a role for FAK's kinase activity in both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signaling. Our screen therefore represents the first high throughput screen for FAK substrates and provides the basis for future in-depth analysis of the role of FAK's kinase activity in the processes of tumorigenesis. PMID:25798060

  1. FAK and PAX-illin get involved in leukocyte diapedesis.

    PubMed

    Luscinskas, Francis W

    2012-02-01

    A major focus of researchers studying leukocyte recruitment has been to identify and understand how cell surface endothelial adhesion molecules, cell-to-cell junctional protein complexes, secreted chemokines and chemoattractants, and the vessel basement membrane structure organization coordinate the process of leukocyte recruitment. As research expands beyond the components initially identified as being necessary for leukocyte recruitment, attention has turned to the structures that regulate endothelial cell-to-matrix adhesion. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Parsons et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 436-446] identify new players in the regulation of neutrophil diapedesis (transendothelial migration), namely the focal adhesion proteins, paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). While understudied, and indeed previously underappreciated, in leukocyte diapedesis, this Commentary discusses how the work by Parsons et al. implicates FAK and paxillin in the proximal (leukocyte rolling) and distal (diapedesis) steps of the multistep adhesion cascade of leukocyte recruitment.

  2. Kisspeptin-10 inhibits cell migration in vitro via a receptor-GSK3 beta-FAK feedback loop in HTR8SVneo cells.

    PubMed

    Roseweir, A K; Katz, A A; Millar, R P

    2012-05-01

    Kisspeptin inhibits cancer cell metastasis and placental trophoblast cell migration. Kisspeptin gene expression in the placenta and circulating kisspeptin levels change during normal pregnancy and they are altered in preeclampsia. We therefore assessed the effect of kisspeptin-10 on the in vitro migration of a human placental cell line derived from first trimester extravillious trophoblasts (HTR8SVneo). HTR8SVneo cells specifically bound 125I-Kisspeptin-10 but kisspeptin-10 did not induce inositol phosphate production. Cell migration was inhibited by kisspeptin-10 with a maximal inhibition at 100nM. The signaling pathways involved in inhibition of cell migration were examined. Treatment with kisspeptin-10 elicited phosphorylation of GSK3 beta at Ser9 (which inhibits activity), with a 3-fold increase at 5 min. Transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK peaked at 10min. Phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr925 increased 3-fold at 10 min. Inhibition of GSK3 beta correlated with release of beta-catenin into the cytoplasm. These signaling events were differentially blocked by inhibitors of G(q/11), Src, EGFR, PI(3)K, PKC and MEK. The data suggest that kisspeptin/GPR54 EGF-receptor transactivation leads to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, causing activation of p90rsk which in turn inhibits GSK3 beta via Ser9 phosphorylation. Inactivation of GSK3 beta results in release of beta-catenin into the cytoplasm, affecting cell-cell adhesion and Tyr925 phosphorylation of FAK, which increases phosphorylation of ERK1/2 via RAS/Raf-1 creating a feedback loop to enhance the effects on migration. These findings indicate that kisspeptin-10 inhibits the migration of human placental trophoblast-derived HTR8SVneo cells by stimulating complex ERK1/2-p90rsk-GSK3 beta-FAK feedback interactions.

  3. Endothelial paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) play a critical role in neutrophil transmigration.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean A; Sharma, Ritu; Roccamatisi, Dawn L; Zhang, Hong; Petri, Björn; Kubes, Paul; Colarusso, Pina; Patel, Kamala D

    2012-02-01

    During an inflammatory response, endothelial cells undergo morphological changes to allow for the passage of neutrophils from the blood vessel to the site of injury or infection. Although endothelial cell junctions and the cytoskeleton undergo reorganization during inflammation, little is known about another class of cellular structures, the focal adhesions. In this study, we examined several focal adhesion proteins during an inflammatory response. We found that there was selective loss of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) from focal adhesions in proximity to transmigrating neutrophils; in contrast the levels of the focal adhesion proteins β1-integrin and vinculin were unaffected. Paxillin was lost from focal adhesions during neutrophil transmigration both under static and flow conditions. Down-regulating endothelial paxillin with siRNA blocked neutrophil transmigration while having no effect on rolling or adhesion. As paxillin dynamics are regulated partly by FAK, the role of FAK in neutrophil transmigration was examined using two complementary methods. siRNA was used to down-regulate total FAK protein while dominant-negative, kinase-deficient FAK was expressed to block FAK signaling. Disruption of the FAK protein or FAK signaling decreased neutrophil transmigration. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel role for endothelial focal adhesion proteins paxillin and FAK in regulating neutrophil transmigration.

  4. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  5. FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p<0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p<0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heat-shock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  6. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways.

  7. Regulation of Drosophila lifespan by JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Benoit; Karpac, Jason; Hwangbo, DaeSung; Jasper, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Cellular responses to extrinsic and intrinsic insults have to be carefully regulated to properly coordinate cytoprotection, repair processes, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Stress signaling pathways, most prominently the Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway, are critical regulators of such cellular responses and have accordingly been implicated in the regulation of lifespan in various organisms. JNK signaling promotes cytoprotective gene expression, but also interacts with the Insulin signaling pathway to influence growth, metabolism, stress tolerance and regeneration. Here, we review recent studies in Drosophila that elucidate the tissue-specific and systemic consequences of JNK activation that ultimately impact lifespan of the organism. PMID:21111799

  8. Arsenic alters vascular smooth muscle cell focal adhesion complexes leading to activation of FAK-src mediated pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Pysher, Michele D. Chen, Qin M.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2008-09-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic has been linked to tumorigenesis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and peripheral vascular disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological effects remain elusive. In this study, we investigated arsenic-induced alteration of focal adhesion protein complexes in normal, primary vascular smooth muscle cells. We demonstrate that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic (50 ppb As{sup 3+}) can alter focal adhesion protein co-association leading to activation of downstream pathways. Co-associated proteins were identified and quantitated via co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis followed by scanning densitometry. Activation of MAPK pathways in total cell lysates was evaluated using phosphor-specific antibodies. In our model, arsenic treatment caused a sustained increase in FAK-src association and activation, and induced the formation of unique signaling complexes (beginning after 3-hour As{sup 3+} exposure and continuing throughout the 12-hour time course studied). The effects of these alterations were manifested as chronic stimulation of downstream PAK, ERK and JNK pathways. Past studies have demonstrated that these pathways are involved in cellular survival, growth, proliferation, and migration in VSMCs.

  9. CCK causes PKD1 activation in pancreatic acini by signaling through PKC-δ and PKC-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Marc J.; Hoffmann, K. Martin; Tapia, Jose A.; Thill, Michelle; Pace, Andrea; Mantey, Samuel A.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in cellular processes including protein secretion, proliferation and apoptosis. Studies suggest PKD1 is activated by various stimulants including gastrointestinal (GI) hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors in a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. However, little is known about the mechanisms of PKD1 activation in physiologic GI tissues. We explored PKD1 activation by GI hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors and the mediators involved in rat pancreatic acini. Only hormones/neurotransmitters activating phospholipase C caused PKD1 phosphorylation (S916, S744/748). CCK activated PKD1 and caused a time- and dose-dependant increase in serine phosphorylation by activation of high- and low-affinity CCKA receptor states. Inhibition of CCK-stimulated increases in phospholipase C, PKC activity or intracellular calcium decreased PKD1 S916 phosphorylation by 56%, 62% and 96%, respectively. PKC inhibitors GF109203X/Go6976/Go6983/PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate caused a 62/43/49/0% inhibition of PKD1 S916 phosphorylation and an 87/13/82/0% inhibition of PKD1 S744/748 phosphorylation. Expression of dominant negative PKC-δ, but not PKC-ε, or treatment with PKC-δ translocation inhibitor caused marked inhibition of PKD phosphorylation. Inhibition of Src/PI3K/MAPK/tyrosine phosphorylation had no effect. In unstimulated cells, PKD1 was mostly located in the cytoplasm. CCK stimulated translocation of total and phosphorylated PKD1 to the membrane. These results demonstrate that CCKA receptor activation leads to PKD activation by signaling through PKC-dependent and PKC-independent pathways. PMID:17306383

  10. FAK-inhibition opens the door to checkpoint immunotherapy in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Symeonides, Stefan N; Anderton, Stephen M; Serrels, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy has had remarkable success in the treatment of some cancer types. However, pancreatic cancer has remained largely refractory to immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recently, Jiang and colleagues identified a key role for FAK in regulating the composition of the fibrotic and immuno-suppressive pancreatic tumour niche, and showed that FAK inhibitors can be used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade and gemcitabine chemotherapy to significantly delay pancreatic tumour progression. This study further supports the use of FAK inhibitors in combination with immunotherapy.

  11. Antioxidant Therapy Alters Brain MAPK-JNK and BDNF Signaling Path-ways in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Zilli; Bernardini Dos Santos, Maria Augusta; Abelaira, Helena Mendes; Maciel, Amanda Luis; Arent, Camila Orlandi; Matias, Beatriz Iladi; Bruchchen, Lívia; Ignácio, Zuleide Maria; Michels, Monique; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Carvalho, André Ferrer; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Quevedo, João

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of treatment with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and deferoxamine (DFX) in intracellular pathways in the brain of diabetic rats. To conduct this study we induced diabetes in Wistar rats with a single injection of alloxan, and afterwards rats were treated with NAC or DFX for 14 days. Following treatment completion, the immunocontent of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-38 (MAPK38), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC) were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAc). DFX treatment increased JNK content in the PFC and NAc of diabetic rats. In the amygdala, JNK was increased in diabetics treated with saline or NAC. MAPK38 was decreased in the PFC of control and in diabetic rats treated with NAC or DFX; and in the NAc in all groups. PKA was decreased in the PFC with DFX treatment. In the amygdala, PKA content was increased in diabetic rats treated with either saline or NAC, compared to controls; and it was decreased in either NAC or DFX-treated groups, compared to saline-treated diabetic animals. In the NAc, PKA was increased in NAC-treated diabetic rats. PKC was increased in the amygdala of NAC-treated diabetic rats. In the PFC, the BDNF levels were decreased following treatment with DFX in diabetic rats. In the hippocampus of diabetic rats the BDNF levels were decreased. However, treatment with DFX reversed this effect. In the amygdala the BDNF increased with DFX in non-diabetic rats. In the NAc DFX treatment increased the BDNF levels in diabetic rats. In conclusion, both diabetes and treatment with antioxidants were able to alter intracellular pathways involved in the regulation of cell survival in a brain area and treatment-dependent fashion.

  12. Breast Cancer Malignant Processes are Regulated by Pax-5 Through the Disruption of FAK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Guerrette, Roxann; O'Brien, Pierre; Jean, Stéphanie; Crapoulet, Nicolas; Robichaud, Gilles A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of genetic factors regulating breast cancer malignancy is a top priority to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. One of these factors, Pax-5, modulates cancer aggressiveness through the regulation of various components of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitioning (EMT) process. We have previously reported that Pax-5 expression profiles in cancer tissues inversely correlate with those of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), a potent activator of breast cancer malignancy. In this study, we set out to elucidate the molecular and regulatory relationship between Pax-5 and FAK in breast cancer processes. Interestingly, we found that Pax-5 mediated suppression of breast cancer cell migration is dependent of FAK activity. Our mechanistic examination revealed that Pax-5 inhibits FAK expression and activation. We also demonstrate that Pax-5 is a potent modulator of FAK repressors (p53 and miR-135b) and activator (NFκB) which results in the overall suppression of FAK-mediated signaling cascades. Altogether, our findings bring more insight to the molecular triggers regulating phenotypic transitioning process and signaling cascades leading to breast cancer progression. PMID:28070224

  13. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  14. Soft matrices downregulate FAK activity to promote growth of tumor-repopulating cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Youhua; Wood, Adam Richard; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Wenwen; Luo, Junyu; Yang, Fang; Chen, Junwei; Chen, Junjian; Sun, Jian; Seong, Jihye; Tajik, Arash; Singh, Rishi; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-29

    Tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) are a tumorigenic sub-population of cancer cells that drives tumorigenesis. We have recently reported that soft fibrin matrices maintain TRC growth by promoting histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation and Sox2 expression and that Cdc42 expression influences H3K9 methylation. However, the underlying mechanisms of how soft matrices induce H3K9 demethylation remain elusive. Here we find that TRCs exhibit lower focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and H3K9 methylation levels in soft fibrin matrices than control melanoma cells on 2D rigid substrates. Silencing FAK in control melanoma cells decreases H3K9 methylation, whereas overexpressing FAK in tumor-repopulating cells enhances H3K9 methylation. Overexpressing Cdc42 or RhoA in the presence of FAK knockdown restores H3K9 methylation levels. Importantly, silencing FAK, Cdc42, or RhoA promotes Sox2 expression and proliferation of control melanoma cells in stiff fibrin matrices, whereas overexpressing each gene suppresses Sox2 expression and reduces growth of TRCs in soft but not in stiff fibrin matrices. Our findings suggest that low FAK mediated by soft fibrin matrices downregulates H3K9 methylation through reduction of Cdc42 and RhoA and promotes TRC growth.

  15. Regulation of FAK Activity by Tetraspan Proteins: Potential Clinical Implications in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lynn; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates multiple cell signaling pathways in both physiological and pathological conditions. Overexpression and activation of FAK is associated with many advanced stage cancers through promoting cancer cell tumorigenicity and progression as well as by regulating the tumor microenvironment. FAK has multiple binding partners through which FAK exerts its functions including RhoGEF, Src family, talin, cortactin, and paxilin. Over the last few years, it has been proposed that a novel group of four transmembrane proteins can interact with FAK and regulate its activity. These include select tetraspanins such as CD151 and CD9 as well as the GAS3 family members epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) and peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22). In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the interaction between FAK and tetraspan proteins in physiological and pathological conditions, with an emphasis on the potential of tetraspan family members as therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:27279237

  16. Modulation of cell spreading and migration by pp125FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S.; Mahooti-Brooks, N.; Hu, G.; Madri, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for both matrix-dependent and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell migration via tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK, a focal adhesion kinase, thought to be involved in integrin-mediated signaling. Enhanced pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell spreading was associated with decreased migration. Cells plated on type I collagen were less spread and exhibited lower levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and faster migration rates compared with cells on fibronectin that were well spread, which exhibited enhanced levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and slower migration rates. Inside-out signaling via expression of pp60v-src or its kinase-negative mutant caused a decrease in cell migration by changing the extent of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation to above or below the levels obtained with control cells plated on fibronectin. Hence, pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to play a role in the signaling cascade pathway involved in regulation of extracellular matrix-modulated, integrin-mediated cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7677174

  17. Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Hui-fang; Takaoka, Munenori; Bao, Xiao-hong; Wang, Zhi-gang; Tomono, Yasuko; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Ohara, Toshiaki; Fukazawa, Takuya; Yamatsuji, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Naomoto, Yoshio

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel FAK inhibitor TAE226 suppressed FAK activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 suppressed proliferation and migration, with a modest effect on adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FAK by siRNA made no obvious difference on cancer cell attachment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TAE226 treatment suppressed the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oral administration of TAE226 prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. -- Abstract: Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken

  18. Prognostic Value of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Human Solid Carcinomas: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Li; Tseng, Yu-Jen; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Chen, Shi-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of reports on focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a vital therapeutic target in solid carcinomas has increased; however, the prognostic role of FAK status remains poorly understood. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic effect of FAK by means of a meta-analysis. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in order to examine the correlation between expression of FAK and overall survival(OS). The hazard ratio (HR) of OS was used to measure survival. A random-effects model was used to pool study statistics. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were also conducted. Results Thirty eligible studies involving 4702 patients were included. The median expression rate of FAK was 54%. Meta-analysis of the HRs demonstrated that high FAK expression was associated with worse OS (average HR = 2.073, 95%confidence interval[CI]:1.712–2.510, p = 0.000). Regarding cancer type, FAK was associated with worse OS in gastric cancer (HR = 2.646,95% CI:1.743–4.017, p = 0.000), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR = 1.788,95% CI:1.228–2.602, p = 0.002), ovarian cancer (HR = 1.815, 95% CI: 1.193–2.762, p = 0.005), endometrial cancer (HR = 4.149, 95% CI:2.832–6.079, p = 0.000), gliomas (HR = 2.650, 95% CI: 1.205–5.829, p = 0.015), and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 1,696, 95% CI: 1.030–2.793, p = 0.038). No association was found between HR and disease staging according to our meta-regression analysis. Conclusions Our study shows that high expression of FAK is associated with a worse OS in patients with carcinomas, but the association between FAK and prognosis varies according to cancer type. The value of FAK status in clinical prognosis in cancer needs further research. PMID:27637100

  19. Myc inhibits JNK-mediated cell death in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiuhong; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xinhong; Li, Wenzhe; Xue, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The proto-oncogene Myc is well known for its roles in promoting cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. However, in this study, we found from a genetic screen that Myc inhibits, rather than promotes, cell death triggered by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in Drosophila. Firstly, expression of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) suppresses, whereas loss of dMyc enhances, ectopically activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Secondly, dMyc impedes physiologically activated JNK pathway-mediated cell death. Thirdly, loss of dMyc triggers JNK pathway activation and JNK-dependent cell death. Finally, the mammalian cMyc gene, when expressed in Drosophila, impedes activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Thus, besides its well-studied apoptosis promoting function, Myc also antagonizes JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila, and this function is likely conserved from fly to human.

  20. Role of protein kinase C (PKC) in short- and long-term cellular responses: inhibition of agonist-mediated calcium transients and down-regulation of PKC

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbro, D.; Mazurek, N.; Borner, C.; Conscience, J.F.; Erne, P.

    1988-01-01

    Active tumor promoters such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or membrane-diffusible synthetic diacylglycerols such as 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8), which specifically activate protein kinase C (PKC), inhibited the agonist-mediated rise in cytosolic calcium ((Ca2+)i) in a mast cell line (PB-3c) and human platelets. TPA inhibition of agonist-mediated calcium transient in platelets was readily reversed by the PKC inhibitor staurosporine. In contrast to DiCs, only active tumor promoters induced a time- and dose-dependent translocation of cytosolic PKC to membranes as determined both enzymatically or by immunoblotting. However, the concentration of TPA required to induce a half-maximal subcellular redistribution of immunodetectable PKC activity was an order of magnitude greater than the half-maximal dose required to inhibit the intracellular rise in (Ca2+)i. Thus, activation of PKC seems not to be exclusively coupled to its translocation to membranes, suggesting that translocation of PKC is mainly involved in the down-regulation of PKC. Down-regulation of immunoprecipitable PKC was studied in various human breast cancer cell lines that display differential growth inhibitory responses toward the tumor promoter. TPA induced translocation of (35S)methionine-prelabeled cytosolic 80 kDa PKC to membranes followed by complete degradation of the enzyme (t1/2 = 2 h) without affecting PKC synthesis. During prolonged TPA exposure, 20-80% of total 80 kDa PKC of control cells was still synthetized as a membrane-bound 74/80 kDa PKC doublet. Although both proteins lacked PKC activity and phorbol ester binding, they revealed structural similarity with the active 80 kDa PKC form of untreated cells.

  1. PKC-β as a therapeutic target in CLL: PKC inhibitor AEB071 demonstrates preclinical activity in CLL.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Dalia; Williams, Katie; LaFollette, Taylor D; Cannon, Matthew; Blachly, James S; Zhong, Yiming; Woyach, Jennifer A; Williams, Erich; Awan, Farrukh T; Jones, Jeffrey; Andritsos, Leslie; Maddocks, Kami; Wu, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lehman, Amy; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lapalombella, Rosa; Byrd, John C

    2014-08-28

    Targeting B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been successful with durable remissions observed with several targeted therapeutics. Protein kinase C-β (PKC-β) is immediately downstream of BCR and has been shown to be essential to CLL cell survival and proliferation in vivo. We therefore evaluated sotrastaurin (AEB071), an orally administered potent PKC inhibitor, on CLL cell survival both in vitro and in vivo. AEB071 shows selective cytotoxicity against B-CLL cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, AEB071 attenuates BCR-mediated survival pathways, inhibits CpG-induced survival and proliferation of CLL cells in vitro, and effectively blocks microenvironment-mediated survival signaling pathways in primary CLL cells. Furthermore, AEB071 alters β-catenin expression, resulting in decreased downstream transcriptional genes as c-Myc, Cyclin D1, and CD44. Lastly, our preliminary in vivo studies indicate beneficial antitumor properties of AEB071 in CLL. Taken together, our results indicate that targeting PKC-β has the potential to disrupt signaling from the microenvironment contributing to CLL cell survival and potentially drug resistance. Future efforts targeting PKC with the PKC inhibitor AEB071 as monotherapy in clinical trials of relapsed and refractory CLL patients are warranted.

  2. Tumor-secreted LOXL2 Activates Fibroblasts Through FAK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Holly E.; Bird, Demelza; Lang, Georgina; Erler, Janine T.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts enhance cancer progression when activated by tumor cells through mechanisms not yet fully understood. Blocking mammary tumor cell-derived lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) significantly inhibited mammary tumor cell invasion and metastasis in transgenic and orthotopic mouse models. Here we discovered that tumor-derived LOXL2 directly activated stromal fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment. Genetic manipulation or antibody inhibition of LOXL2 in orthotopically grown mammary tumors reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Using a marker for reticular fibroblasts, it was determined that expression of α-SMA was localized to fibroblasts recruited from the host tissue. This marker also revealed that the matrix present in tumors with reduced levels of LOXL2 was more scattered compared to control tumors which exhibited matrices with dense, parallel alignments. Importantly, in vitro assays revealed that tumor-derived LOXL2 and a recombinant LOXL2 protein induced fibroblast branching on collagen matrices, as well as increased fibroblast-mediated collagen contraction and invasion of fibroblasts through extracellular matrix (ECM). Moreover, LOXL2 induced the expression of α-SMA in fibroblasts grown on collagen matrices. Mechanistically, it was determined that LOXL2 activated fibroblasts through integrin-mediated FAK activation. These results indicate that inhibition of LOXL2 in tumors not only reduces tumor cell invasion but also attenuates the activation of host cells in the tumor microenvironment. Implications: These findings reveal new insight into the mechanisms of fibroblast activation, a novel function of LOXL2, and further highlight the importance of generating LOXL2-targeted therapies for the prevention of tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24008674

  3. Somatic mutational analysis of FAK in breast cancer: A novel gain-of-function mutation due to deletion of exon 33

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Xu-Qian; Liu, Xiang-Fan; Yao, Ling; Chen, Chang-Qiang; Gu, Zhi-Dong; Ni, Pei-Hua; Zheng, Xin-Min; Fan, Qi-Shi

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A novel FAK splicing mutation identified in breast tumor. •FAK-Del33 mutation promotes cell migration and invasion. •FAK-Del33 mutation regulates FAK/Src signal pathway. -- Abstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. We identified a novel splicing mutant, FAK-Del33 (exon 33 deletion, KF437463), in both breast and thyroid cancers through colony sequencing. Considering the low proportion of mutant transcripts in samples, this mutation was detected by TaqMan-MGB probes based qPCR. In total, three in 21 paired breast tissues were identified with the FAK-Del33 mutation, and no mutations were found in the corresponding normal tissues. When introduced into a breast cell line through lentivirus infection, FAK-Del33 regulated cell motility and migration based on a wound healing assay. We demonstrated that the expression of Tyr397 (main auto-phosphorylation of FAK) was strongly increased in FAK-Del33 overexpressed breast tumor cells compared to wild-type following FAK/Src RTK signaling activation. These results suggest a novel and unique role of the FAK-Del33 mutation in FAK/Src signaling in breast cancer with significant implications for metastatic potential.

  4. Synergism of FAK and tyrosine kinase inhibition in Ph+ B-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Churchman, Michelle L.; Richmond, Jennifer; Robbins, Alissa; Jones, Luke; Shapiro, Irina M.; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Weaver, David T.; Houghton, Peter J.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Lock, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL1+ B progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ B-ALL) is an aggressive disease that frequently responds poorly to currently available therapies. Alterations in IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor Ikaros, are present in over 80% of Ph+ ALL and are associated with a stem cell–like phenotype, aberrant adhesion molecule expression and signaling, leukemic cell adhesion to the bone marrow stem cell niche, and poor outcome. Here, we show that FAK1 is upregulated in Ph+ B-ALL with further overexpression in IKZF1-altered cells and that the FAK inhibitor VS-4718 potently inhibits aberrant FAK signaling and leukemic cell adhesion, potentiating responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, inducing cure in vivo. Thus, targeting FAK with VS-4718 is an attractive approach to overcome the deleterious effects of FAK overexpression in Ph+ B-ALL, particularly in abrogating the adhesive phenotype induced by Ikaros alterations, and warrants evaluation in clinical trials for Ph+ B-ALL, regardless of IKZF1 status. PMID:27123491

  5. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L.; Hansen, Jean M.; Dalton, Heather J.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Pecot, Chad V.; Burns, Alan R.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  6. Class 3 semaphorin mediates dendrite growth in adult newborn neurons through Cdk5/FAK pathway.

    PubMed

    Ng, Teclise; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Sohn, Jae Ho; Tan, Terence; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2013-01-01

    Class 3 semaphorins are well-known axonal guidance cues during the embryonic development of mammalian nervous system. However, their activity on postnatally differentiated neurons in neurogenic regions of adult brains has not been characterized. We found that silencing of semaphorin receptors neuropilins (NRP) 1 or 2 in neural progenitors at the adult mouse dentate gyrus resulted in newly differentiated neurons with shorter dendrites and simpler branching in vivo. Tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr 397) and serine phosphorylation (Ser 732) of FAK were essential for these effects. Semaphorin 3A and 3F mediate serine phosphorylation of FAK through the activation of Cdk5. Silencing of either Cdk5 or FAK in newborn neurons phenocopied the defects in dendritic development seen upon silencing of NRP1 or NRP2. Furthermore, in vivo overexpression of Cdk5 or FAK rescued the dendritic phenotypes seen in NRP1 and NRP2 deficient neurons. These results point to a novel role for class 3 semaphorins in promoting dendritic growth and branching during adult hippocampal neurogenesis through the activation of Cdk5-FAK signaling pathway.

  7. Thrombin/Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Dependent SK-N-SH Cell Migration is Mediated Through a PLC/PKC/MAPKs/NF-κB Cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Chung; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-11-01

    Thrombin has been known to activate inflammatory genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The elevated expression of MMP-9 has been observed in patients with neuroinflammatory diseases and may contribute to the pathology of brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in SK-N-SH cells remain unknown. The effects of thrombin on MMP-9 expression were examined in SK-N-SH cells by gelatin zymography, Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity assay, and cell migration assay. The detailed mechanisms were analyzed by using pharmacological inhibitors and small intefering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of proform MMP-9 and migration of SK-N-SH cells, which were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of thrombin (PPACK), Gq (GPA2A), PC-PLC (D609), PI-PLC (ET-18-OCH3), nonselective protien kinase C (PKC, GF109203X), PKCα/βII (Gö6983), PKCδ (Rottlerin), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), or NF-κB (Bay11-7082 or Helenalin) and transfection with siRNA of Gq, PKCα, PKCβ, PKCδ, p38, JNK1/2, IKKα, IKKβ, or p65. Moreover, thrombin-stimulated PKCα/βII, PKCδ, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, or p65 phosphorylation was abrogated by their respective inhibitor of PPACK, GPA2A, D609, ET-18-OCH3, Gö6983, Rottlerin, SB202190, SP600125, Bay11-7082, or Helenalin. Pretreatment with these inhibitors or transfection with MMP-9 siRNA also blocked thrombin-induced SK-N-SH cell migration. Our results show that thrombin stimulates a Gq/PLC/PKCs/p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 cascade, which in turn triggers NF-κB activation and ultimately induces MMP-9 expression and cell migration in SK-N-SH cells.

  8. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2016-09-02

    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  9. Differential expression of the FAK family kinases in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis synovial tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shahrara, Shiva; Castro-Rueda, Hernan P; Haines, G Kenneth; Koch, Alisa E

    2007-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family kinases, including FAK and proline-rich kinase 2 (Pyk)2, are the predominant mediators of integrin αvβ3 signaling events that play an important role in cell adhesion, osteoclast pathology, and angiogenesis, all processes important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using immunohistochemical and western blot analysis, we studied the distribution of phospho (p)FAK, pPyk2, pSrc, pPaxillin and pPLCγ in the synovial tissue (ST) from patients with RA, osteoarthritis (OA) and normal donors (NDs) as well as in RA ST fibroblasts and peripheral blood differentiated macrophages (PB MΦs) treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or interleukin-1β (IL1β). RA and OA STs showed a greater percentage of pFAK on lining cells and MΦs compared with ND ST. RA ST fibroblasts expressed pFAK at baseline, which increased with TNFα or IL1β stimulation. Pyk2 and Src were phosphorylated more on RA versus OA and ND lining cells and MΦs. pPyk2 was expressed on RA ST fibrobasts but not in MΦs at baseline, however it was upregulated upon TNFα or IL1β activation in both cell types. pSrc was expressed in RA ST fibroblasts and MΦs at baseline and was further increased by TNFα or IL1β stimulation. pPaxillin and pPLCγ were upregulated in RA versus OA and ND lining cells and sublining MΦs. Activation of the FAK family signaling cascade on RA and OA lining cells may be responsible for cell adhesion and migration into the diseased STs. Therapies targeting this novel signaling pathway may be beneficial in RA. PMID:17963503

  10. Autophosphorylation properties of inactive and active JNK2.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Genaro; Ficarro, Scott B; Gutierrez, Gustavo J; Bhoumik, Anindita; Peters, Eric C; Ronai, Ze'ev; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-07-15

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are ubiquitous proteins that phosphorylate their substrates, such as transcription factors, in response to physical stress, cytokines or UV radiation. This leads to changes in gene expression, ensuing either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Active phospho JNK1 is the main in vivo kinase component of the JNK cascade, whereas JNK2 is presumed not to participate as a kinase during JNK signalling. However, there is evidence that JNK isoforms interact functionally in vivo. Also, a recent chemical genetics investigation has confirmed that JNK transient activation leads to cellular proliferation, whereas a sustained one is pro-apoptotic. Here we investigate the phosphorylation pattern of JNK2, with protein biochemistry tools and tandem mass spectrometry. We choose to focus on JNK2 because of its reported constitutive activity in glioma cells. Our results indicate that purified JNK2 from transfected nonstressed 293T cells is a mixture of the mono-sites pThr183 and pTyr185 of its activation loop and of pThr386 along its unique C-terminal region. Upon UV stimulation, its phosphorylation stoichiometry is upregulated on the activation loop, generating a mixture of mono-pTyr185 and the expected dual-pThr183/pTyr185 species, with the pThr386 specie present but unaltered respect to the basal conditions.

  11. Locomotion in Lymphocytes is Altered by Differential PKC Isoform Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphocyte locomotion is critical for proper elicitation of the immune response. Locomotion of immune cells via the interstitium is essential for optimal immune function during wound healing, inflammation and infection. There are conditions which alter lymphocyte locomotion and one of them is spaceflight. Lymphocyte locomotion is severely inhibited in true spaceflight (true microgravity) and in rotating wall vessel culture (modeled microgravity). When lymphocytes are activated prior to culture in modeled microgravity, locomotion is not inhibited and the levels are comparable to those of static cultured lymphocytes. When a phorbol ester (PMA) is used in modeled microgravity, lymphocyte locomotion is restored by 87%. This occurs regardless if PMA is added after culture in the rotating wall vessel or during culture. Inhibition of DNA synthesis also does not alter restoration of lymphocyte locomotion by PMA. PMA is a direct activator of (protein kinase C) PKC . When a calcium ionophore, ionomycin is used it does not possess any restorative properties towards locomotion either alone or collectively with PMA. Since PMA brings about restoration without help from calcium ionophores (ionomycin), it is infer-red that calcium independent PKC isoforms are involved. Changes were perceived in the protein levels of PKC 6 where levels of the protein were downregulated at 24,72 and 96 hours in untreated rotated cultures (modeled microgravity) compared to untreated static (1g) cultures. At 48 hours there is an increase in the levels of PKC & in the same experimental set up. Studies on transcriptional and translational patterns of calcium independent isoforms of PKC such as 8 and E are presented in this study.

  12. Tissue angiotensin II during progression or ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertensive rats; differential effects on PKC epsilon and PKC beta.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Koichi; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Sarai, Nobuaki; Onozawa, Yoko; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Kihara, Yasuki

    2002-10-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family has been implicated as second messengers in mechanosensitive modulation of cardiac hypertrophy. However, little information is available on the role of expression and activation of specific cardiac PKC isozymes during development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and failure (LVF). Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed an 8% salt diet developed systemic hypertension and concentric LVH at 11 weeks of age that is followed by left ventricle (LV) dilatation and global hypokinesis at 17 weeks. Among several PKC isozymes expressed in the LV myocardium, only PKC epsilon showed a 94% increase at the LVH stage. At the LVF stage, however, PKC epsilon returned to the control level, whereas PKC beta I and beta II increased by 158% and 155%, respectively. Hearts were studied at each stage using the Langendorff set-up, and a LV balloon was inflated to achieve an equivalent diastolic wall stress. Following mechanical stretch, PKC epsilon was significantly activated in LVH myocardium in which tissue angiotensin II levels were increased by 59%. Pre-treatment with valsartan, an AT(1)-receptor blocker, abolished the stretch-mediated PKC epsilon activation. Mechanical stretch no longer induced PKC epsilon activation in LVF. Chronic administration of valsartan blunted the progression of LVF and inhibited the increase in PKC beta. Mechanosensitive PKC epsilon activation is augmented and therefore may contribute to the development of compensatory hypertrophy. This effect was dependent on activation of tissue angiotensin II. However, this compensatory mechanism becomes inactive in LVF, where PKC beta may participate in the progression to cardiac dysfunction and LV remodeling.

  13. Pre-clinical characterization of PKC412, a multi-kinase inhibitor, against colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi-Chan; Shao, Yun; He, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Su-Rong; Wang, Dong-Dong; Qin, Li-Sen; Sun, Wei-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The potential effect of PKC412, a small molecular multi-kinase inhibitor, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was evaluated here. We showed that PKC412 was cytotoxic and anti-proliferative against CRC cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116, HT-15 and DLD-1) and primary CRC cells. PKC412 provoked caspase-dependent apoptotic death, and induced G2-M arrest in the CRC cells. AKT activation was inhibited by PKC412 in CRC cells. Reversely, expression of constitutively-active AKT1 (CA-AKT1) decreased the PKC412's cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. We propose that Bcl-2 could be a primary resistance factor of PKC412. ABT-737, a Bcl-2 inhibitor, or Bcl-2 siRNA knockdown, dramatically potentiated PKC412's lethality against CRC cells. Forced Bcl-2 over-expression, on the other hand, attenuated PKC412's cytotoxicity. Significantly, PKC412 oral administration suppressed AKT activation and inhibited HT-29 tumor growth in nude mice. Mice survival was also improved with PKC412 administration. These results indicate that PKC412 may have potential value for CRC treatment. PMID:27780925

  14. Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances FAK and ERK activation by distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianbo; Price, Matthew A; Neudauer, Cheryl L; Wilson, Christopher; Ferrone, Soldano; Xia, Hong; Iida, Joji; Simpson, Melanie A; McCarthy, James B

    2004-06-21

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, implicated in tumor growth and survival, has also been linked to clinical melanoma progression. We have cloned the MCSP core protein and expressed it in the MCSP-negative melanoma cell line WM1552C. Expression of MCSP enhances integrin-mediated cell spreading, FAK phosphorylation, and activation of ERK1/2. MCSP transfectants exhibit extensive MCSP-rich microspikes on adherent cells, where it also colocalizes with alpha4 integrin. Enhanced activation of FAK and ERK1/2 by MCSP appears to involve independent mechanisms because inhibition of FAK activation had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that MCSP may facilitate primary melanoma progression by enhancing the activation of key signaling pathways important for tumor invasion and growth.

  15. Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan enhances FAK and ERK activation by distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Price, Matthew A.; Neudauer, Cheryl L.; Wilson, Christopher; Ferrone, Soldano; Xia, Hong; Iida, Joji; Simpson, Melanie A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2004-01-01

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is an early cell surface melanoma progression marker implicated in stimulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a pivotal role in integrating growth factor and adhesion-related signaling pathways, facilitating cell spreading and migration. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, implicated in tumor growth and survival, has also been linked to clinical melanoma progression. We have cloned the MCSP core protein and expressed it in the MCSP-negative melanoma cell line WM1552C. Expression of MCSP enhances integrin-mediated cell spreading, FAK phosphorylation, and activation of ERK1/2. MCSP transfectants exhibit extensive MCSP-rich microspikes on adherent cells, where it also colocalizes with α4 integrin. Enhanced activation of FAK and ERK1/2 by MCSP appears to involve independent mechanisms because inhibition of FAK activation had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These results indicate that MCSP may facilitate primary melanoma progression by enhancing the activation of key signaling pathways important for tumor invasion and growth. PMID:15210734

  16. Calpain-Mediated Proteolysis of Talin and FAK Regulates Adhesion Dynamics Necessary for Axon Guidance.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Patrick C; Patel, Kevin M; Gomez, Timothy M

    2017-02-08

    Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing effects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain. However, how calpain regulates growth cone motility remains unclear. Here, we identify the adhesion proteins talin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as proteolytic targets of calpain in Xenopus laevis spinal cord neurons both in vivo and in vitro Inhibition of calpain increases the localization of endogenous adhesion signaling to growth cone filopodia. Using live cell microscopy and specific calpain-resistant point-mutants of talin (L432G) and FAK (V744G), we find that calpain inhibits paxillin-based adhesion assembly through cleavage of talin and FAK, and adhesion disassembly through cleavage of FAK. Blocking calpain cleavage of talin and FAK inhibits repulsive turning from focal uncaging of Ca(2+) within filopodia. In addition, blocking calpain cleavage of talin and FAK in vivo promotes Rohon-Beard peripheral axon extension into the skin. These data demonstrate that filopodial Ca(2+) signals regulate axon outgrowth and guidance through calpain regulation of adhesion dynamics through specific cleavage of talin and FAK.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The proper formation of neuronal networks requires accurate guidance of axons and dendrites during development by motile structures known as growth cones. Understanding the intracellular signaling mechanisms that govern growth cone motility will clarify how the nervous system develops and regenerates

  17. Ambra1 spatially regulates Src activity and Src/FAK-mediated cancer cell invasion via trafficking networks

    PubMed Central

    Schoenherr, Christina; Byron, Adam; Sandilands, Emma; Paliashvili, Ketevan; Baillie, George S; Valacca, Cristina; Cecconi, Francesco; Serrels, Bryan; Frame, Margaret C

    2017-01-01

    Here, using mouse squamous cell carcinoma cells, we report a completely new function for the autophagy protein Ambra1 as the first described ‘spatial rheostat’ controlling the Src/FAK pathway. Ambra1 regulates the targeting of active phospho-Src away from focal adhesions into autophagic structures that cancer cells use to survive adhesion stress. Ambra1 binds to both FAK and Src in cancer cells. When FAK is present, Ambra1 is recruited to focal adhesions, promoting FAK-regulated cancer cell direction-sensing and invasion. However, when Ambra1 cannot bind to FAK, abnormally high levels of phospho-Src and phospho-FAK accumulate at focal adhesions, positively regulating adhesion and invasive migration. Spatial control of active Src requires the trafficking proteins Dynactin one and IFITM3, which we identified as Ambra1 binding partners by interaction proteomics. We conclude that Ambra1 is a core component of an intracellular trafficking network linked to tight spatial control of active Src and FAK levels, and so crucially regulates their cancer-associated biological outputs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23172.001 PMID:28362576

  18. Abnormal Cell Properties and Down-Regulated FAK-Src Complex Signaling in B Lymphoblasts of Autistic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hongen; Malik, Mazhar; Sheikh, Ashfaq M.; Merz, George; Ted Brown, W.; Li, Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that one of the major pathways to the pathogenesis of autism is reduced cell migration. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has an important role in neural migration, dendritic morphological characteristics, axonal branching, and synapse formation. The FAK-Src complex, activated by upstream reelin and integrin β1, can initiate a cascade of phosphorylation events to trigger multiple intracellular pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase–extracellular signal–regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt signaling. In this study, by using B lymphoblasts as a model, we tested whether integrin β1 and FAK-Src signaling are abnormally regulated in autism and whether abnormal FAK-Src signaling leads to defects in B-lymphoblast adhesion, migration, proliferation, and IgG production. To our knowledge, for the first time, we show that protein expression levels of both integrin β1 and FAK are significantly decreased in autistic lymphoblasts and that Src protein expression and the phosphorylation of an active site (Y416) are also significantly decreased. We also found that lymphoblasts from autistic subjects exhibit significantly decreased migration, increased adhesion properties, and an impaired capacity for IgG production. The overexpression of FAK in autistic lymphoblasts countered the adhesion and migration defects. In addition, we demonstrate that FAK mediates its effect through the activation of Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades and that paxillin is also likely involved in the regulation of adhesion and migration in autistic lymphoblasts. PMID:21703394

  19. Ambra1 spatially regulates Src activity and Src/FAK-mediated cancer cell invasion via trafficking networks.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Christina; Byron, Adam; Sandilands, Emma; Paliashvili, Ketevan; Baillie, George S; Valacca, Cristina; Cecconi, Francesco; Serrels, Bryan; Frame, Margaret C

    2017-03-31

    Here, using mouse squamous cell carcinoma cells, we report a completely new function for the autophagy protein Ambra1 as the first described 'spatial rheostat' controlling the Src/FAK pathway. Ambra1 regulates the targeting of active phospho-Src away from focal adhesions into autophagic structures that cancer cells use to survive adhesion stress. Ambra1 binds to both FAK and Src in cancer cells. When FAK is present, Ambra1 is recruited to focal adhesions, promoting FAK-regulated cancer cell direction-sensing and invasion. However, when Ambra1 cannot bind to FAK, abnormally high levels of phospho-Src and phospho-FAK accumulate at focal adhesions, positively regulating adhesion and invasive migration. Spatial control of active Src requires the trafficking proteins Dynactin one and IFITM3, which we identified as Ambra1 binding partners by interaction proteomics. We conclude that Ambra1 is a core component of an intracellular trafficking network linked to tight spatial control of active Src and FAK levels, and so crucially regulates their cancer-associated biological outputs.

  20. Claudin-7 indirectly regulates the integrin/FAK signaling pathway in human colon cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Liyong; Sui, Leiming; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Xiaoxue; Li, Tengyan; Wang, Xiaonan; Li, Wenjing; Zhou, Ping; Kong, Lu

    2016-08-01

    The claudin family of proteins is integral to the structure and function of tight junctions. The role of claudin-7 (Cldn-7, CLDN7) in regulating the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/ERK signaling pathway remains poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated differences in gene expression, primarily focusing on CLDN7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway genes, between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to verify the results of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. In silico analysis was used to predict co-regulation between Cldn-7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway components, and the STRING database was used to analyze protein-protein interaction pairs among these proteins. Meta-analysis of expression microarrays in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify significant correlations between Cldn-7 and components of predicted genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Our results showed marked cancer stage-specific decreases in the protein expression of Cldn-7, Gelsolin, MAPK1 and MAPK3 in colon cancer samples, and the observed changes for all proteins except Cldn-7 were in agreement with changes in the corresponding mRNA levels. Cldn-7 might indirectly regulate MAPK3 via KRT8 due to KRT8 co-expression with MAPK3 or CLDN7. Our bioinformatics methods supported the hypothesis that Cldn-7 does not directly regulate any genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. These factors may participate in a common network that regulates cancer progression in which the MAPK pathway serves as the central node.

  1. Pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation decreases human glioblastoma tumor growth and synergizes with temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Yemma, Michael; Morrison, Carl D; Lee, Jisook; Eliceiri, Brian P; Cance, William G

    2013-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by aggressive tumor growth with a mean survival of 15 to 18 months and frequently developed resistance to temozolomide. Therefore, strategies that sensitize glioma cells to temozolomide have a high translational impact. We have studied focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase and emerging therapeutic target that is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma. In this report, we tested the FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15, in DBTRG and U87 glioblastoma cells. Y15 significantly decreased viability and clonogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, increased detachment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, caused apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion in both cell lines. In addition, Y15 treatment decreased autophosphorylation of FAK in a dose-dependent manner and changed cell morphology by causing cell rounding in DBTRG and U87 cells. Administration of Y15 significantly decreased subcutaneous DBTRG tumor growth with decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, activated caspase-3 and PARP. Y15 was administered in an orthotopic glioma model, leading to an increase in mouse survival. The combination of Y15 with temozolomide was more effective than either agent alone in decreasing viability and activating caspase-8 in DBTRG and U87 cells in vitro. In addition, the combination of Y15 and temozolomide synergistically blocked U87 brain tumor growth in vivo. Thus, pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation with the oral administration of a small-molecule inhibitor Y15 has a potential to be an effective therapy approach for glioblastoma either alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide.

  2. PKC Epsilon: A Novel Oncogenic Player in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    levels. (A) RWPE-1 cells were infected with ViraPower lentiviruses containing a human PKCε construct cloned into pLenti6/V-5 DESTRWPE-1. Expression...kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a member of the PKC family of phorbol ester/diacylglycerol receptors, is up-regulated in many human cancers, including prostate...In prostate cancer cells PKCε mediates survival through Bad -dependent and Bad -independent mechanisms and is involved in the transition to androgen

  3. PKC Epsilon: A Novel Oncogenic Player in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    determine if COX-2 inhibition could also affect the signaling event in adenocarcinoma formed in the compound PKC;Pten mice. Our results showed that PKC...responsive probasin (PB) promoter[ 29 ]. Interestingly, only PB-PKC mice developed dysplastic changes characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia...alteration in human prostate cancer, resulted in a compound mutant mice (PB-PKC;Pten+/- mice) that developed fully invasive adenocarcinoma. We recently

  4. Arrestin-3 binds c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and JNK2 and facilitates the activation of these ubiquitous JNK isoforms in cells via scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Kook, Seunghyi; Zhan, Xuanzhi; Kaoud, Tamer S; Dalby, Kevin N; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2013-12-27

    Non-visual arrestins scaffold mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of MAPK family. Arrestin-3 has been shown to enhance the activation of JNK3, which is expressed mainly in neurons, heart, and testes, in contrast to ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2. Although all JNKs are activated by MKK4 and MKK7, both of which bind arrestin-3, the ability of arrestin-3 to facilitate the activation of JNK1 and JNK2 has never been reported. Using purified proteins we found that arrestin-3 directly binds JNK1α1 and JNK2α2, interacting with the latter comparably to JNK3α2. Phosphorylation of purified JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 by MKK4 or MKK7 is increased by arrestin-3. Endogenous arrestin-3 interacted with endogenous JNK1/2 in different cell types. Arrestin-3 also enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous JNK1/2 in intact cells upon expression of upstream kinases ASK1, MKK4, or MKK7. We observed a biphasic effect of arrestin-3 concentrations on phosphorylation of JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, arrestin-3 acts as a scaffold, facilitating JNK1α1 and JNK2α2 phosphorylation by MKK4 and MKK7 via bringing JNKs and their activators together. The data suggest that arrestin-3 modulates the activity of ubiquitous JNK1 and JNK2 in non-neuronal cells, impacting the signaling pathway that regulates their proliferation and survival.

  5. Localized JNK signaling regulates organ size during development

    PubMed Central

    Willsey, Helen Rankin; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Carlos Pastor-Pareja, José; Willsey, A Jeremy; Beachy, Philip A; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question of biology is what determines organ size. Despite demonstrations that factors within organs determine their sizes, intrinsic size control mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Drosophila wing size is regulated by JNK signaling during development. JNK is active in a stripe along the center of developing wings, and modulating JNK signaling within this stripe changes organ size. This JNK stripe influences proliferation in a non-canonical, Jun-independent manner by inhibiting the Hippo pathway. Localized JNK activity is established by Hedgehog signaling, where Ci elevates dTRAF1 expression. As the dTRAF1 homolog, TRAF4, is amplified in numerous cancers, these findings provide a new mechanism for how the Hedgehog pathway could contribute to tumorigenesis, and, more importantly, provides a new strategy for cancer therapies. Finally, modulation of JNK signaling centers in developing antennae and legs changes their sizes, suggesting a more generalizable role for JNK signaling in developmental organ size control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11491.001 PMID:26974344

  6. Genetic inhibition of JNK3 ameliorates spinal muscular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Genabai, Naresh K.; Ahmad, Saif; Zhang, Zhanying; Jiang, Xiaoting; Gabaldon, Cynthia A.; Gangwani, Laxman

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs in early childhood. Degeneration of spinal motor neurons caused by SMN deficiency results in progressive muscle atrophy and death in SMA. The molecular mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in SMA is unknown. No treatment is available to prevent neurodegeneration and reduce the burden of illness in SMA. We report that the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates neurodegeneration in SMA. The neuron-specific isoform JNK3 is required for neuron degeneration caused by SMN deficiency. JNK3 deficiency reduces degeneration of cultured neurons caused by low levels of SMN. Genetic inhibition of JNK pathway in vivo by Jnk3 knockout results in amelioration of SMA phenotype. JNK3 deficiency prevents the loss of spinal cord motor neurons, reduces muscle degeneration, improves muscle fiber thickness and muscle growth, improves motor function and overall growth and increases lifespan of mice with SMA that shows a systemic rescue of phenotype by a SMN-independent mechanism. JNK3 represents a potential (non-SMN) therapeutic target for the treatment of SMA. PMID:26423457

  7. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel FAK scaffold inhibitors targeting the FAK–VEGFR3 protein–protein interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kurenova, Elena V.; Magis, Andrew T.; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Cance, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) are tyrosine kinases, which function as key modulators of survival and metastasis signals in cancer cells. Previously, we reported that small molecule chlorpyramine hydrochloride (C4) specifically targets the interaction between FAK and VEGFR3 and exhibits anti-tumor efficacy. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of 1 (C4) analogs on the basis of structure activity relationship and molecular modeling. The resulting new compounds were evaluated for their binding to the FAT domain of FAK and anti-cancer activity. Amongst all tested analogs, compound 29 augmented anti-proliferative activity in multiple cancer cell lines with stronger binding to the FAT domain of FAK and disrupted the FAK–VEGFR3 interaction. In conclusion, we hope that this work will contribute to further studies of more potent and selective FAK–VEGFR3 protein–protein interaction inhibitors. PMID:24780592

  8. FAK Is Required for Schwann Cell Spreading on Immature Basal Lamina to Coordinate the Radial Sorting of Peripheral Axons with Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  9. A pseudosubstrate of PKC inhibits the phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) effect on permeabilized smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.S.; Wells, J.N. )

    1991-03-11

    Phorbol esters can induce contraction of vascular smooth muscle and potentiate calcium-induced contractions of permeabilized smooth muscle strips. The authors have used a synthetic peptide inhibitor based on residues 19-31 of PKC (PKC-I) to determine the importance of PKC in the PDBu potentiation of calcium-induced contractions in permeabilized coronary artery smooth muscle. Although peptides similar to PKC-I have been shown to also inhibit MLCK in vitro, MLCK was presumably not inhibited in our system since 30 {mu}M PKC-I alone did not alter the calcium-induced contractions. However, the potentiation of these contractions by 1 {mu}M PDBu was reduced by about 50% in the presence of 10 {mu}M PKC-I, and the potentiation was completely abolished by 30 {mu}M PKC-I. These data indicate that, in this system, PKC is not involved in calcium-induced contractions but that activation of PKC may be the mechanism by which PDBu potentiates calcium-induced contractions in permeabilized coronary artery smooth muscle.

  10. Regulation of aPKC activity by Nup358 dependent SUMO modification

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Magre, Indrasen; Singh, Aditi; Khuperkar, Deepak; Joseph, Jomon

    2016-01-01

    Atypical PKC (aPKC) family members are involved in regulation of diverse cellular processes, including cell polarization. aPKCs are known to be activated by phosphorylation of specific threonine residues in the activation loop and turn motif. They can also be stimulated by interaction with Cdc42~GTP-Par6 complex. Here we report that PKCζ, a member of the aPKC family, is activated by SUMOylation. We show that aPKC is endogenously modified by SUMO1 and the nucleoporin Nup358 acts as its SUMO E3 ligase. Results from in vitro SUMOylation and kinase assays showed that the modification enhances the kinase activity of PKCζ by ~10-fold. By monitoring the phosphorylation of Lethal giant larvae (Lgl), a downstream target of aPKC, we confirmed these findings in vivo. Consistent with the function of Nup358 as a SUMO E3 ligase for aPKC, depletion of Nup358 attenuated the extent of SUMOylation and the activity of aPKC. Moreover, overexpression of the C-terminal fragment of Nup358 that possesses the E3 ligase activity enhanced SUMOylation of endogenous aPKC and its kinase activity. Collectively, our studies reveal a role for Nup358-dependent SUMOylation in the regulation of aPKC activity and provide a framework for understanding the role of Nup358 in cell polarity. PMID:27682244

  11. Antroquinonol Targets FAK-Signaling Pathway Suppressed Cell Migration, Invasion, and Tumor Growth of C6 Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Varadharajan; Tsai, May-Jywan; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a pivotal role in multiple cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration, and proliferation. This study attempts to determine the effect of synthesized antroquinonol on the modulation of FAK signaling pathways and explore their underlying mechanisms. Antroquinonol significantly inhibits cell viability with an MTT assay in both N18 neuroblastoma and C6 glioma cell lines, which exhibits sub G1 phase cell cycle, and further induction of apoptosis is confirmed by a TUNEL assay. Antroquinonol decreases anti-apoptotic proteins, whereas it increases p53 and pro-apoptotic proteins. Alterations of cell morphology are observed after treatment by atomic force microscopy. Molecular docking results reveal that antroquinonol has an H-bond with the Arg 86 residue of FAK. The protein levels of Src, pSrc, FAK, pFAK, Rac1, and cdc42 are decreased after antroquinonol treatment. Additionally, antroquinonol also regulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins. Furthermore, antroquinonol suppresses the C6 glioma growth in xenograft studies. Together, these results suggest that antroquinonol is a potential anti-tumorigenesis and anti-metastasis inhibitor of FAK. PMID:26517117

  12. Vascular growth responses to chronic arterial occlusion are unaffected by myeloid specific focal adhesion kinase (FAK) deletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuslein, Joshua L.; Murrell, Kelsey P.; Leiphart, Ryan J.; Llewellyn, Ryan A.; Meisner, Joshua K.; Price, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    Arteriogenesis, or the lumenal expansion of pre-existing arterioles in the presence of an upstream occlusion, is a fundamental vascular growth response. Though alterations in shear stress stimulate arteriogenesis, the migration of monocytes into the perivascular space surrounding collateral arteries and their differentiation into macrophages is critical for this vascular growth response to occur. Focal adhesion kinase’s (FAK) role in regulating cell migration has recently been expanded to primary macrophages. We therefore investigated the effect of the myeloid-specific conditional deletion of FAK on vascular remodeling in the mouse femoral arterial ligation (FAL) model. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, whole mount imaging of vascular casted gracilis muscles, and immunostaining for CD31 in gastrocnemius muscles cross-sections, we found that there were no statistical differences in perfusion recovery, arteriogenesis, or angiogenesis 28 days after FAL. We therefore sought to determine FAK expression in different myeloid cell populations. We found that FAK is expressed at equally low levels in Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo blood monocytes, however expression is increased over 2-fold in bone marrow derived macrophages. Ultimately, these results suggest that FAK is not required for monocyte migration to the perivascular space and that vascular remodeling following arterial occlusion occurs independently of myeloid specific FAK.

  13. Complex modulation of the expression of PKC isoforms in the rat brain during chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vetri, Francesco; Chavez, Rafael; Xu, Hao-Liang; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2013-01-15

    We previously demonstrated that chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental influence on neurovascular coupling in the brain-an effect linked to an alteration in the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation pattern. Moreover, the activity of PKC was increased, in diabetic rat brain, in a tissue fraction composed primarily of the superficial glia limitans and pial vessels, but trended toward a decrease in cerebral cortical gray matter. However, that study did not examine the expression patterns of PKC isoforms in the rat brain. Thus, in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and in non-diabetic (ND) controls, two hypotheses were addressed. First, chronic T1DM is accompanied by changes in the expression of PKC-α, βII, γ, δ, and ε Second, those changes differ when comparing cerebral cortex and glio-pial tissue. In addition, we analyzed the expression of a form of PKC-γ, phosphorylated on threonine 514 (pT514-PKC-γ), as well as the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). The expression pattern of different PKC isoforms was altered in a complex and tissue-specific manner during chronic hyperglycemia. Notably, in the gray matter, PKC-α expression significantly decreased, while pT514-PKC-γ expression increased. However, PKC-βII, -γ, -δ, -ε, and RACK1 expressions did not change. Conversely, in glio-pial tissue, PKC-α and RACK1 were upregulated, whereas PKC-γ, pT514-PKC-γ, and PKC-ε were downregulated. PKC-βII, and PKC-δ, were unchanged. These findings suggest that the PKC activity increase previously seen in the glio-pial tissue of diabetic rats may be due to the selective upregulation of PKC-α, and ultimately lead to the impairment of neurovascular coupling.

  14. CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in gastric cancer via FAK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mingde; Zhang, Yunqiang; Zhang, Baogui; Hu, Lei; Li, Jianfang; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hexiao; Su, Liping; Zhu, Zhenggang; Li, Chen; Yan, Chao; Gu, Qinlong; Liu, Bingya; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    CEACAM6 is a member of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked immunoglobulin superfamily that is implicated in a variety of human cancers. In our previous study, we reported that CEACAM6 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and promoted cancer metastasis. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of CEACAM6 in tumor angiogenesis and mimicry formation. We found that overexpressed CEACAM6 promoted tubule formation dependent on HUVEC cells and vasculogenic mimicry formation of gastric cancer cells; opposing results were achieved in CEACAM6-silenced groups. Moreover, we found that mosaic vessels formed by HUVEC cells and gastric cancer cells were observed in vitro by 3D-culture assay. Overexpressed CEACAM6 in gastric cancer cells promoted tumor growth, VEGF expression and vasculogenic mimicry structures formation in vivo. In accordance with these observations, we found that phosphorylation of FAK and phosphorylation of paxillin were up-regulated in CEACAM6-overexpressing gastric cancer cells, and FAK inhibitor Y15 could reduce tubule and vasculogenic mimicry formation. These findings suggest that CEACAM6 promotes tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation via FAK signaling in gastric cancer and CEACAM6 may be a new target for cancer anti-vascular treatment.

  15. FAK and Src kinases are required for netrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of UNC5.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Aurandt, Jennifer; Jürgensen, Claudia; Jürgense, Claudia; Rao, Yi; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2006-01-01

    During neuronal development, netrin and its receptors UNC5 and DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) guide axonal growth cones in navigating to their targets. Netrin also plays important roles in the regulation of cell migration, tissue morphogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we show that netrin induces UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this effect of netrin is dependent on its co-receptor DCC. UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation is known to be important for netrin to induce cell migration and axonal repulsion. Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for netrin to stimulate UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation in neurons and transfected cells. The SH2 domain of Src kinase directly interacts with the cytosolic domain of UNC5 in a tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is also involved in netrin-induced UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Src and FAK can phosphorylate UNC5. Our data suggest a model in which netrin stimulates UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling in a manner dependent on the co-receptor DCC, through the recruitment of Src and FAK kinases.

  16. PCTK3/CDK18 regulates cell migration and adhesion by negatively modulating FAK activity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Shinya; Kawamoto, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kenji; Tsuji, Akihiko; Yuasa, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinase 3 (PCTK3) is a member of the cyclin dependent kinase family, but its physiological function remains unknown. We previously reported that PCTK3-knockdown HEK293T cells showed actin accumulation at the leading edge, suggesting that PCTK3 is involved in the regulation of actin reorganization. In this study, we investigated the physiological function and downstream signal transduction molecules of PCTK3. PCTK3 knockdown in HEK293T cells increased cell motility and RhoA/Rho-associated kinase activity as compared with control cells. We also found that phosphorylation at residue Tyr-397 in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was increased in PCTK3-knockdown cells. FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-397 was increased in response to fibronectin stimulation, whereas its phosphorylation was suppressed by PCTK3. In addition, excessive expression of PCTK3 led to the formation of filopodia during the early stages of cell adhesion in HeLa cells. These results indicate that PCTK3 controls actin cytoskeleton dynamics by negatively regulating the FAK/Rho signaling pathway. PMID:28361970

  17. Inhibition of JNK promotes differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gazel, Alix; Banno, Tomohiro; Walsh, Rebecca; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2006-07-21

    In inflamed tissue, normal signal transduction pathways are altered by extracellular signals. For example, the JNK pathway is activated in psoriatic skin, which makes it an attractive target for treatment. To define comprehensively the JNK-regulated genes in human epidermal keratinocytes, we compared the transcriptional profiles of control and JNK inhibitor-treated keratinocytes, using DNA microarrays. We identified the differentially expressed genes 1, 4, 24, and 48 h after the treatment with SP600125. Surprisingly, the inhibition of JNK in keratinocyte cultures in vitro induces virtually all aspects of epidermal differentiation in vivo: transcription of cornification markers, inhibition of motility, withdrawal from the cell cycle, stratification, and even production of cornified envelopes. The inhibition of JNK also induces the production of enzymes of lipid and steroid metabolism, proteins of the diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate pathways, mitochondrial proteins, histones, and DNA repair enzymes, which have not been associated with differentiation previously. Simultaneously, basal cell markers, including integrins, hemidesmosome and extracellular matrix components, are suppressed. Promoter analysis of regulated genes finds that the binding sites for the forkhead family of transcription factors are over-represented in the SP600125-induced genes and c-Fos sites in the suppressed genes. The JNK-induced proliferation appears to be secondary to inhibition of differentiation. The results indicate that the inhibition of JNK in epidermal keratinocytes is sufficient to initiate their differentiation program and suggest that augmenting JNK activity could be used to delay cornification and enhance wound healing, whereas attenuating it could be a differentiation therapy-based approach for treating psoriasis.

  18. CB₁ cannabinoid receptors promote maximal FAK catalytic activity by stimulating cooperative signaling between receptor tyrosine kinases and integrins in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Dalton, George D; Peterson, Lynda J; Howlett, Allyn C

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates FAK activation. Phosphorylated FAK Tyr 397 binds Src family kinases (Src), which in turn directly phosphorylate FAK Tyr 576/577 to produce maximal FAK enzymatic activity. CB₁ cannabinoid receptors (CB₁) are abundantly expressed in the nervous system and influence FAK activation by presently unknown mechanisms. The current investigation determined that CB₁-stimulated maximal FAK catalytic activity is mediated by Gi/o proteins in N18TG2 neuronal cells, and that G12/13 regulation of Rac1 and RhoA occurs concomitantly. Immunoblotting analyses using antibodies against FAK phospho-Tyr 397 and phospho-Tyr 576/577 demonstrated that the time-course of CB₁-stimulated FAK 576/577 Tyr-P occurred in three phases: Phase I (0-2 min) maximal Tyr-P, Phase II (5-20 min) rapid decline in Tyr-P, and Phase III (>20 min) plateau in Tyr-P at submaximal levels. In contrast, FAK 397 Tyr-P was monophasic and significantly lower in magnitude. FAK 397 Tyr-P and Phase I FAK 576/577 Tyr-P involved protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B and Shp1/Shp2)-mediated Src activation, Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and integrin activation. Phase I maximal FAK 576/577 Tyr-P also required cooperative signaling between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins. The integrin antagonist RGDS peptide, Flk-1 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) antagonist SU5416, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist AG 1478 blocked Phase I FAK 576/577 Tyr-P. CB₁ agonists failed to stimulate FAK Tyr-P in the absence of integrin activation upon suspension in serum-free culture media. In contrast, cells grown on the integrin ligands fibronectin and laminin displayed increased FAK 576/577 Tyr-P that was augmented by CB₁ agonists and blocked by the Src inhibitor PP2 and Flk-1 VEGFR antagonist SU5416. Taken together, these studies have identified a complex integrative pathway utilized by CB₁ to stimulate

  19. JNK signaling is needed to tolerate chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Heidi W-S; Shaukat, Zeeshan; Wang, Jianbin; Saint, Robert; Gregory, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN), as a common feature of tumors, represents a potential therapeutic target if ways can be found to specifically cause apoptosis in unstably dividing cells. We have previously shown that if signaling through the JNK pathway is reduced, apoptosis is triggered in models of chromosomal instability induced by loss of the spindle checkpoint. Here we identify components upstream and downstream of JNK that are able to mediate this effect, and test the involvement of p53 and DNA damage in causing apoptosis when JNK signaling is reduced in CIN cells. We show that cell cycle progression timing has a strong effect on the apoptosis seen when JNK signaling is reduced in genetically unstable cells: a shortened G2 phase enhances the apoptosis, while lengthening G2 rescues the JNK-deficient CIN cell death phenotype. Our findings suggest that chromosomal instability represents a significant stress to dividing cells, and that without JNK signaling, cells undergo apoptosis because they lack a timely and effective response to DNA damage. PMID:24335260

  20. Inhibition of PKC activity blocks the increase of ETB receptor expression in cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Marie; Vikman, Petter; Stenman, Emelie; Beg, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that there is a time-dependent upregulation of contractile endothelin B (ETB) receptors in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) after organ culture. This upregulation is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases and possibly protein kinase C (PKC). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PKC inhibitors with different profiles on the upregulation of contractile ETB receptors in rat MCA. Artery segments were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. To investigate involvement of PKC, inhibitors were added to the medium before incubation. The contractile endothelin-mediated responses were measured and real-time PCR was used to detect endothelin receptor mRNA levels. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry was used to demonstrate the ETB receptor protein distribution in the MCA and Western blot to measure which of the PKC subtypes that were affected by the inhibitors. Results The PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I, Ro-32-0432 and PKC inhibitor 20–28 attenuated the ETB receptor mediated contractions. Furthermore, Ro-32-0432 and bisindolylmaleimide I decreased ETB receptor mRNA levels while PKC inhibitor 20–28 reduced the amount of receptor protein on smooth muscle cells. PKC inhibitor 20–28 also decreased the protein levels of the five PKC subtypes studied (α, βI, γ, δ and ε). Conclusion The results show that PKC inhibitors are able to decrease the ETB receptor contraction and expression in MCA smooth muscle cells following organ culture. The PKC inhibitor 20–28 affects the protein levels, while Ro-32-0432 and bisindolylmaleimide I affect the mRNA levels, suggesting differences in activity profile. Since ETB receptor upregulation is seen in cerebral ischemia, the results of the present study provide a way to interfere with the vascular involvement in cerebral ischemia. PMID:17129394

  1. Hedgehog-regulated atypical PKC promotes phosphorylation and activation of Smoothened and Cubitus interruptus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kai; Liu, Yajuan; Fan, Junkai; Epperly, Garretson; Gao, Tianyan; Jiang, Jin; Jia, Jianhang

    2014-01-01

    Smoothened (Smo) is essential for transduction of the Hedgehog (Hh) signal in both insects and vertebrates. Cell surface/cilium accumulation of Smo is thought to play an important role in Hh signaling, but how the localization of Smo is controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that atypical PKC (aPKC) regulates Smo phosphorylation and basolateral accumulation in Drosophila wings. Inactivation of aPKC by either RNAi or a mutation inhibits Smo basolateral accumulation and attenuates Hh target gene expression. In contrast, expression of constitutively active aPKC elevates basolateral accumulation of Smo and promotes Hh signaling. The aPKC-mediated phosphorylation of Smo at Ser680 promotes Ser683 phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 (CK1), and these phosphorylation events elevate Smo activity in vivo. Moreover, aPKC has an additional positive role in Hh signaling by regulating the activity of Cubitus interruptus (Ci) through phosphorylation of the Zn finger DNA-binding domain. Finally, the expression of aPKC is up-regulated by Hh signaling in a Ci-dependent manner. Our findings indicate a direct involvement of aPKC in Hh signaling beyond its role in cell polarity. PMID:25349414

  2. Novel protein kinase C inhibitors: synthesis and PKC inhibition of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, W C; Zhou, Q; Ashendel, C L; Chang, C T; Chang, C J

    1999-08-02

    A series of beta-substituted polythiophene derivatives was synthesized through palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction. Their structure-protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitory activity relationship was studied. The carboxaldehyde and hydroxymethyl derivatives of alpha-terthiophene were potent PKC inhibitors (IC50 = 10(-7) M).

  3. Regulation of the viability of Nf1 deficient cells by PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Ling; Parris, Toshima; Huang, Junchi; Yi, Bo; Helou, Khalil; Chen, Changyan

    2014-11-15

    Suppression of protein kinase C (PKC) is known to be synthetically lethal with ras mutations in various types of cancer cells. The studies also showed that blockade of PKC affected the viability of Nf1 deficient cells. Since PKC family consists of more than 10 isoforms, our study aimed at identifying which isoform(s) played the crucial role in sensitizing Nf1 deficient cells to apoptosis. Using genetic and chemical PKC inhibitors, we demonstrated that the concurrent inhibition of PKC α and β induced Nf1 deficient ST or 96.2 cells, but not SNF02.2 cells with a normal Nf1 or ST cells ectopically expressing Nf1 effective domain gene, to apoptosis. In this process, PKC δ in Nf1 deficient cells, but not in ST/Nf1 cells, was upregulated and translocated to the nucleus. Furthermore, caspase 3 was cleaved and cytochrome c was released to the cytosol. Thus, it appeared that PKC δ and α/β are the crucial components for sustaining the aberrant Ras signaling and further viability of Nf1 deficient cells. The abrogation of these two isoforms activated their opponent PKC δ for switching on the caspase 3-governed apoptotic machinery.

  4. Effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shaoyang; Wang, Xu; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins are a subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. They play a complex role in cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Here, we report a novel role of JNK signalling in hair cell regeneration. We eliminated hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae using neomycin followed by JNK inhibition with SP600125. JNK inhibition strongly decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. These changes were associated with reduced proliferation. JNK inhibition also increased cleaved caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis in regenerating neuromasts. Finally, JNK inhibition with SP600125 decreased the expression of genes related to Wnt. Over-activation of the Wnt signalling pathway partly rescued the hair cell regeneration defects induced by JNK inhibition. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the function of JNK and show that JNK inhibition blocks hair cell regeneration by controlling the Wnt signalling pathway. PMID:27438150

  5. Tamoxifen inhibits tumor cell invasion and metastasis in mouse melanoma through suppression of PKC/MEK/ERK and PKC/PI3K/Akt pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Yamazoe, Yuzuru; Ogaki, Mitsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Itoh, Tatsuki; Kusunoki, Takashi; Nishida, Shozo

    2009-07-15

    In melanoma, several signaling pathways are constitutively activated. Among these, the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways are activated through multiple signal transduction molecules and appear to play major roles in melanoma progression. Recently, it has been reported that tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen reagent, inhibits PKC signaling in estrogen-negative and estrogen-independent cancer cell lines. Thus, we investigated whether tamoxifen inhibited tumor cell invasion and metastasis in mouse melanoma cell line B16BL6. Tamoxifen significantly inhibited lung metastasis, cell migration, and invasion at concentrations that did not show anti-proliferative effects on B16BL6 cells. Tamoxifen also inhibited the mRNA expressions and protein activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, tamoxifen suppressed phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt through the inhibition of PKC{alpha} and PKC{delta} phosphorylation. However, other signal transduction factor, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) was unaffected. The results indicate that tamoxifen suppresses the PKC/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK and PKC/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting B16BL6 cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, tamoxifen markedly inhibited not only developing but also clinically evident metastasis. These findings suggest that tamoxifen has potential clinical applications for the treatment of tumor cell metastasis.

  6. PKC delta-isoform translocation and enhancement of tonic contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel P; Furness, John B

    2007-03-01

    PKC is involved in mediating the tonic component of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction in response to stimulation by agonists for G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we present pharmacological and immunohistochemical evidence indicating that a member of the novel PKC isoforms, PKC-delta, is involved in maintaining muscarinic receptor-coupled tonic contractions of the guinea pig ileum. The tonic component of carbachol-evoked contractions was enhanced by an activator of conventional and novel PKCs, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 200 nM or 1 microM), and by an activator of novel PKCs, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate (IDB; 100 or 500 nM). Enhancement was unaffected by concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM-I; 22 nM) that block conventional PKCs or by a PKC-epsilon-specific inhibitor peptide but was attenuated by higher doses of BIM-I (2.2 microM). Relevant proteins were localized at a cellular and subcellular level using confocal analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of the ileum showed that PKC-delta was exclusively expressed in smooth muscles distributed throughout the layers of the gut wall. PKC-epsilon immunoreactivity was prominent in enteric neurons but was largely absent from smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. Treatment with PDBu, IDB, or carbachol resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent translocation of PKC-delta from the cytoplasm to filamentous structures within smooth muscle cells. These were parallel to, but distinct from, actin filaments. The translocation of PKC-delta in response to carbachol was significantly reduced by scopolamine or calphostin C. The present study indicates that the tonic carbachol-induced contraction of the guinea pig ileum is mediated through a novel PKC, probably PKC-delta.

  7. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  8. A Novel Mode for Integrin-mediated Signaling: Tethering Is Required for Phosphorylation of FAK Y397

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qi; Boettiger, David

    2003-01-01

    The common model for integrin mediated signaling is based on integrin clustering and the potential for that clustering to recruit signaling molecules including FAK and src. The clustering model for transmembrane signaling originated with the analysis of the EGF receptor signaling and remains the predominant model. The roles for substrate-bound ligand and ligand occupancy in integrin-mediated signaling are less clear. A kinetic model was established using HT1080 cells in which there was a linear relationship between the strength of adhesion, the proportion of α5β1 integrin that could be chemically cross-linked, and the number of receptor-ligand bonds. This graded signal produced a similarly graded response measured by the level of specific phosphorylation of FAK Y397. FAK Y397 phosphorylation could also be induced by antibody bound to the substrate. In contrast, clustering of α5β1 on suspended cells with either antibody to β1 or by clustering of soluble ligand bound to α5β1 induced the phosphorylation of FAK Y861 but not Y397. There were no differences in signaling when activating antibodies were compared with blocking antibodies, presence or absence of ligand. Only tethering of α5β1 to the substrate was required for induction of FAK Y397 phosphorylation. PMID:12960434

  9. Thyroid Hormone Controls Breast Cancer Cell Movement via Integrin αV/β3/SRC/FAK/PI3-Kinases.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Marina Inés; Uzair, Ivonne Denise; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Neira, Flavia Judith; Mondaca, Joselina Magali; Cuello-Carrión, Fernando Dario; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Simoncini, Tommaso; Sanchez, Angel Matías

    2017-02-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a fundamental role in diverse processes, including cellular movement. Cell migration requires the integration of events that induce changes in cell structure towards the direction of migration. These actions are driven by actin remodeling and stabilized by the development of adhesion sites to extracellular matrix via transmembrane receptors linked to the actin cytoskeleton. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that promotes cell migration and invasion through the control of focal adhesion turnover. In this work, we demonstrate that the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) regulates actin remodeling and cell movement in breast cancer T-47D cells through the recruitment of FAK. T3 controls FAK phosphorylation and translocation at sites where focal adhesion complexes are assembled. This process is triggered via rapid signaling to integrin αV/β3, Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K), and FAK. In addition, we established a cellular model with different concentration of T3 levels: normal, absence, and excess in T-47D breast cancer cells. We found that the expression of Src, FAK, and PI3K remained at normal levels in the excess of T3 model, while it was significantly reduced in the absence model. In conclusion, these results suggest a novel role for T3 as an important modulator of cell migration, providing a starting point for the development of new therapeutic strategies for breast cancer treatment.

  10. Cross-Phosphorylation and Interaction between Src/FAK and MAPKAP5/PRAK in Early Focal Adhesions Controls Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Sheila Figel; Gelman, Irwin H

    2015-01-01

    P38-regulated and activated kinase (PRAK/MAPKAPK5) is a serine/threonine kinase which lies downstream of the p38 and ERK3/4 MAP kinase pathways. PRAK plays diverse roles in the processes of cell growth, nutrient starvation response, programmed cell death, senescence and motility. PRAK has been shown to both promote and inhibit cell motility in different contexts. The pro-motility functions of PRAK are attributed mainly to cytoskeletal rearrangement occurring downstream of its phosphorylated substrate HSP27; however, it was recently shown that PRAK is required for motility in endothelial cells upstream of Focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Along with Src, FAK functions as a mediator of motility signaling through the phosphorylation of substrates in focal adhesions. Here, we show that PRAK, initially identified as a FAK substrate in an in situ/ kinase overlay assay, is a Src substrate, the phosphorylation of which directs PRAK to focal adhesions. Focal adhesion localization of PRAK was not found to affect cell motility, however transient over expression of PRAK inhibited motility in HeLa cells. This effect requires PRAK kinase activity and proceeds through an impairment of FAK activation via phosphorylation on Y861. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that PRAK is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation, localizes to focal adhesions, and interacts physically with and can phosphorylate FAK/Src. Further we provide a novel mechanism for the inhibition of motility downstream of PRAK. PMID:26042227

  11. RANTES induces tyrosine kinase activity of stably complexed p125FAK and ZAP-70 in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The chemokine RANTES is a chemoattractant and activating factor for T lymphocytes. Investigation of the signal transduction mechanisms induced by RANTES in T cells revealed tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple protein species with prominent bands at 70-85 and 120-130 kD. Immunoprecipitation and Western analyses revealed that a protein of 125 kD was identical to the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pp125FAK. RANTES stimulated phosphorylation of FAK as early as 30 seconds and immunoblots using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies revealed that there was consistent phosphorylation of a 68-70 kD species in the pp125FAK immunoprecipitates. Immunoblotting and kinase assays showed this to be two separate proteins, the tyrosine kinase zeta-associated protein (ZAP) 70, and the focal adhesion protein paxillin. These results indicate a potentially important role for RANTES in the generation of T cell focal adhesions and subsequent cell activation via a molecular complex containing FAK, ZAP-70, and paxillin. PMID:9064347

  12. JNK-dependent gene regulatory circuitry governs mesenchymal fate

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Neha; Thakurela, Sudhir; Toedling, Joern; Gebhard, Susanne; Ortega, Felipe; Schmarowski, Nikolai; Berninger, Benedikt; Nitsch, Robert; Schmidt, Marcus; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process in which cells lose cell–cell contacts and become motile. EMT is used during development, for example, in triggering neural crest migration, and in cancer metastasis. Despite progress, the dynamics of JNK signaling, its role in genomewide transcriptional reprogramming, and involved downstream effectors during EMT remain largely unknown. Here, we show that JNK is not required for initiation, but progression of phenotypic changes associated with EMT. Such dependency resulted from JNK-driven transcriptional reprogramming of critical EMT genes and involved changes in their chromatin state. Furthermore, we identified eight novel JNK-induced transcription factors that were required for proper EMT. Three of these factors were also highly expressed in invasive cancer cells where they function in gene regulation to maintain mesenchymal identity. These factors were also induced during neuronal development and function in neuronal migration in vivo. These comprehensive findings uncovered a kinetically distinct role for the JNK pathway in defining the transcriptome that underlies mesenchymal identity and revealed novel transcription factors that mediate these responses during development and disease. PMID:26157010

  13. Wallenda regulates JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X; Xu, W; Zhang, D; Yang, Y; Li, W; Xue, L

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway plays essential roles in regulating a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, migration and survival. Previous genetic studies in Drosophila have identified numerous cell death regulating genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms for related diseases. Despite the known role of the small GTPase Rac1 in regulating cell death, the downstream components and underlying mechanism remain largely elusive. Here, we show that Rac1 promotes JNK-dependent cell death through Wallenda (Wnd). In addition, we find that Wnd triggers JNK activation and cell death via its kinase domain. Moreover, we show that both MKK4 and Hep are critical for Wnd-induced cell death. Furthermore, Wnd is essential for ectopic Egr- or Rho1-induced JNK activation and cell death. Finally, Wnd is physiologically required for loss of scribble-induced JNK-dependent cell death. Thus, our data suggest that wnd encodes a novel essential cell death regulator in Drosophila. PMID:25950467

  14. FAK contributes to proteinuria in hypercholesterolaemic rats and modulates podocyte F-actin re-organization via activating p38 in response to ox-LDL.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengsi; Fan, Minghua; Zhen, Junhui; Lin, Jiangong; Wang, Qun; Lv, Zhimei; Wang, Rong

    2017-03-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that regulates cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, a rat model of high fat diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia was established to investigate the involvement of FAK in lipid disorder-related kidney diseases. We showed focal fusion of podocyte foot process that occurred at as early as 4 weeks in rats consuming high fat diet, preceding the onset of proteinuria when aberrant phosphorylation of FAK was found. These abnormalities were ameliorated by dietary intervention of TAE226, a reported inhibitor of FAK. FAK is also an adaptor protein initiating cascades of intracellular signals including c-Src, Rho GTPase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). P38 MAPK belongs to the latter and is centrally involved in kidney diseases. Our cell culture data revealed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) triggered hyper-phosphorylation of FAK and p38, ectopic expression of cellular markers (manifested as decreased WT1, podocin and NEPH1, and increased vimentin and mmp9), and re-arrangement of F-actin filaments with enhanced cell motility; these mutations were significantly rectified by FAK shRNA. Notably, pre-treatment of p38 inhibitor did not alter FAK activation, albeit its deletion of p38 hyper-activity and attenuation of cellular abnormalities, demonstrating that p38 acted as a downstream effector of FAK signalling and ox-LDL damaged podocytes in a FAK/p38-dependent manner. This was further identified by animal data that p38 activation was also abrogated by TAE226 treatment in hypercholesterolaemic rats, suggesting that FAK/p38 axis might also be involved in in vivo events. These findings provided a potential early mechanism of hypercholesterolaemia-related podocyte damage and proteinuria.

  15. MAP-kinase activity necessary for TGFbeta1-stimulated mesangial cell type I collagen expression requires adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Tomoko; Wu, Ming-Hua; Pierce, Amy; Poncelet, Anne-Christine; Varga, John; Schnaper, H William

    2007-12-01

    The signals mediating transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated kidney fibrogenesis are poorly understood. We previously reported TGFbeta-stimulated, Smad-mediated collagen production by human kidney mesangial cells, and that ERK MAP kinase activity optimizes collagen expression and enhances phosphorylation of the Smad3 linker region. Furthermore, we showed that disrupting cytoskeletal integrity decreases type I collagen production. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, PTK2) activity could integrate these findings. Adhesion-dependent FAK Y397 phosphorylation was detected basally, whereas FAK Y925 phosphorylation was TGFbeta1-dependent. By immunocytochemistry, TGFbeta1 stimulated the merging of phosphorylated FAK with the ends of thickening stress fibers. Cells cultured on poly-L-lysine (pLL) to promote integrin-independent attachment spread less than those on control substrate and failed to demonstrate focal adhesion (FA) engagement with F-actin. FAK Y397 phosphorylation and ERK activity were also decreased under these conditions. In cells with decreased FAK Y397 phosphorylation from either plating on pLL or overexpressing a FAK Y397F point mutant, serine phosphorylation of the Smad linker region, but not of the C-terminus, was reduced. Y397F and Y925F FAK point mutants inhibited TGFbeta-induced Elk-Gal activity, but only the Y397F mutant inhibited TGFbeta-stimulated collagen-promoter activity. The inhibition by the Y397F mutant or by culture on pLL was prevented by co-transfection of constitutively active ERK MAP kinase kinase (MEK), suggesting that FAK Y397 phosphorylation promotes collagen expression via ERK MAP kinase activity. Finally, Y397 FAK phosphorylation, and both C-terminal and linker-region Smad3 phosphorylation were detected in murine TGFbeta-dependent kidney fibrosis. Together, these data demonstrate adhesion-dependent FAK phosphorylation promoting TGFbeta-induced responses to regulate collagen production.

  16. Heparin regulates B6FS cell motility through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis

    PubMed Central

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Nikitovic, Dragana; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Tsiaoussis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, heterogeneous tumors of mesenchymal origin with an aggressive behavior. Heparin is a mixture of heavily sulfated, linear glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which participate in the regulation of various cell biological functions. Heparin is considered to have significant anticancer capabilities, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully defined. In the present study, the effects of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) on B6FS fibrosarcoma cell motility were examined. Both preparations of heparin were shown to both enhance B6FS cell adhesion (p<0.01 and p<0.05), and migration (p<0.05), the maximal effect being evident at the concentration of 10 µg/ml. The utilization of FAK-deficient cells demonstrated that the participation of FAK was obligatory for heparin-dependent fibrosarcoma cell adhesion (p<0.05). The results of confocal microscopy indicated that heparin was taken up by the B6FS cells, and that UFH and LMWH induced F-actin polymerization. Heparitinase digestion demonstrated that the endogenous heparan sulfate (HS) chains did not affect the motility of the B6FS cells (p>0.05, not significant). In conclusion, both UFH and LMWH, through a FAK/actin cytoskeleton axis, promoted the adhesion and migration of B6FS fibrosarcoma cells. Thus, our findings indicate that the responsiveness of fibrosarcoma cells to the exogenous heparin/HS content of the cancer microenvironment may play a role in their ability to become mobile and metastasize. PMID:27572115

  17. Blocking FAK Signaling in the Tumor or Stroma and Effects on Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    cell growth (data not shown) or cell cycle progression (Fig. 1C). In contrast, Pyk2 shRNA knockdown triggered elevated p53 and p21 levels (Fig...agar, 0.1 µM pND-1186 blocked FaK and p130Cas tyrosine phosphorylation, promoted caspase-3 activation, and triggered cell apoptosis. pND-1186...cient to trigger 4T1 breast carcinoma and ID8 ovarian carcinoma cell apoptosis when grown under suspended, spheroid or soft-agar conditions. This

  18. PKC/MEK inhibitors suppress oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and potentiate the antitumor effects.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Tani, Tadahumi; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Suzuyama, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Fujita, Arisa; Ogawa, Naoki; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Funakami, Yoshinori; Ichida, Seiji; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-07-01

    Oxaliplatin is a key drug commonly used in colorectal cancer treatment. Despite high clinical efficacy, its therapeutic application is limited by common, dose-limiting occurrence of neuropathy. As usual symptomatic neuropathy treatments fail to improve the patients' condition, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuropathy to propose effective therapy and ensure adequate pain management. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy was recently reported to be associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is unclear, however, whether PKC inhibition can prevent neuropathy. In our current studies, we found that a PKC inhibitor, tamoxifen, inhibited oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy via the PKC/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cords (lumbar segments 4-6). Additionally, tamoxifen was shown to act in synergy with oxaliplatin to inhibit growth in tumor cells-implanted mice. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, suppressed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and enhanced oxaliplatin efficacy. Our results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is associated with PKC/ERK/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cord. Additionally, we demonstrate that disruption of this pathway by PKC and MEK inhibitors suppresses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, thereby suggesting that PKC and MEK inhibitors may be therapeutically useful in preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could aid in combination antitumor pharmacotherapy.

  19. PKC{alpha} expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-H.; Wu, T.-T.; Tsai, J.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Liu, J.-Y. . E-mail: jyl@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-01-06

    Our previous study found that PKC{alpha} was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKC{alpha} expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKC{alpha} promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKC{alpha} mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKC{alpha} promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKC{alpha} expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKC{alpha} expression regulation in human HCC cells.

  20. Activation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} is essential for LDL-induced cell proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via Gi-mediated Erk1/2 activation and Egr-1 upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Lila; Nam, Miyoung; Baek, Seung-Tae; Park, Song-Kyu; Park, Youngwoo; Myung, Chang-Seon; Hwang, Sung-Ook Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2008-03-28

    Native LDL may be a mitogenic stimulus of VSMC proliferation in lesions where endothelial disruption occurs. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mitogenic effects of LDL are accompanied by Erk1/2 activation via an unknown G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this article, we report that LDL translocated PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} from cytosol to plasma membrane, and inhibition of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta} decreased LDL effects via the deactivation of Erk1/2. Moreover, pertussis toxin, but not cholera toxin or heparin, inhibited LDL-induced translocation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta}, suggesting that Gi protein plays a role in LDL effects. Of LPA, S1P, and LDL, whose signaling is conveyed via Gi/o proteins, only LDL induced translocation of PKC{beta}{sub II} and PKC{theta}. Inhibition of PKC{beta}{sub II} or PKC{theta}, as well as of Erk1/2 and GPCR, decreases LDL-induced upregulation of Egr-1, which is critical for cell proliferation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that the participation of PKC{theta} in VSMC proliferation is unique.

  1. Lacrimal gland PKC isoforms are differentially involved in agonist-induced protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Zoukhri, D; Hodges, R R; Sergheraert, C; Toker, A; Dartt, D A

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized and N-myristoylated peptides derived from the pseudosubstrate sequences of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon [Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28), Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153), and Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164)], three isoforms present in rat lacrimal gland, and a peptide derived from the sequence of the endogenous inhibitor of protein kinase A [Myr-PKI-(17-25)]. Lacrimal gland acini were preincubated for 60 min with the myristoylated peptides (10(-10) to 3 x 10(-7) M), then protein secretion was stimulated with a phorbol ester, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (10(-6) M); vasoactive intestinal peptide (10(-8) M); a cholinergic agonist, carbachol (10(-5) M); or an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10(-4) M), for 20 min. In intact lacrimal gland acini, Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) inhibited phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate-induced protein secretion. This effect was not reproduced by the acetylated peptide or by the myristoylated PKI, which inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced protein secretion, a response mediated by protein kinase A. Carbachol-induced protein secretion was inhibited by all three peptides. In contrast, phenylephrine-induced protein secretion was inhibited only by Myr-PKC-epsilon-(149-164), whereas Myr-PKC-alpha-(15-28) and Myr-PKC-delta-(142-153) had a stimulatory effect. None of these myristoylated peptides affected the calcium increase evoked by cholinergic or alpha 1-adrenergic agonists. We concluded that phorbol ester- and receptor-induced protein secretion involve different PKC isoforms in lacrimal gland.

  2. Inhibition of the integrin/FAK signaling axis and c-Myc synergistically disrupts ovarian cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, B; Lefringhouse, J; Liu, Z; West, D; Baldwin, L A; Ou, C; Chen, L; Napier, D; Chaiswing, L; Brewer, L D; St. Clair, D; Thibault, O; van Nagell, J R; Zhou, B P; Drapkin, R; Huang, J-A; Lu, M L; Ueland, F R; Yang, X H

    2017-01-01

    Integrins, a family of heterodimeric receptors for extracellular matrix, are promising therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer, particularly high-grade serous-type (HGSOC), as they drive tumor cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival by activating focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent signaling. Owing to the potential off-target effects of FAK inhibitors, disruption of the integrin signaling axis remains to be a challenge. Here, we tackled this barrier by screening for inhibitors being functionally cooperative with small-molecule VS-6063, a phase II FAK inhibitor. From this screening, JQ1, a potent inhibitor of Myc oncogenic network, emerged as the most robust collaborator. Treatment with a combination of VS-6063 and JQ1 synergistically caused an arrest of tumor cells at the G2/M phase and a decrease in the XIAP-linked cell survival. Our subsequent mechanistic analyses indicate that this functional cooperation was strongly associated with the concomitant disruption of activation or expression of FAK and c-Myc as well as their downstream signaling through the PI3K/Akt pathway. In line with these observations, we detected a strong co-amplification or upregulation at genomic or protein level for FAK and c-Myc in a large portion of primary tumors in the TCGA or a local HGSOC patient cohort. Taken together, our results suggest that the integrin–FAK signaling axis and c-Myc synergistically drive cell proliferation, survival and oncogenic potential in HGSOC. As such, our study provides key genetic, functional and signaling bases for the small-molecule-based co-targeting of these two distinct oncogenic drivers as a new line of targeted therapy against human ovarian cancer. PMID:28134933

  3. Immunoreactivity of PKC gammalambda and RACK1 in baker's yeast, lobster and wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Kuo, W N; Jones, D L; Ku, T W; Weeks, K D; Jordon, P M; Dopson, N C

    1995-08-01

    Varied patterns of immunoreactive bands of protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma) and receptor for activated C-kinase-1 (RACK1) were detected by analysis of Western blots in crude extracts of wheat germ, lobster tail meat, and three strains of baker's yeast. Anti-PKC lambda also reacted with wheat germ and yeast extracts, but failed to react with the lobster extract. The findings may implicate a regulatory role and an evolutionary conservation of these PKC isoenzymes and their receptor proteins in eukaryotes.

  4. Live-imaging of PKC translocation in Sf9 cells and in aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Farah, Carole A; Sossin, Wayne S

    2011-04-06

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are serine threonine kinases that play a central role in regulating a wide variety of cellular processes such as cell growth and learning and memory. There are four known families of PKC isoforms in vertebrates: classical PKCs (α, βI, βII and γ), novel type I PKCs (ε and η), novel type II PKCs (δ and θ), and atypical PKCs (ζ and ι). The classical PKCs are activated by Ca(2+) and diacylclycerol (DAG), while the novel PKCs are activated by DAG, but are Ca(2+)-independent. The atypical PKCs are activated by neither Ca(2+) nor DAG. In Aplysia californica, our model system to study memory formation, there are three nervous system specific PKC isoforms one from each major class, namely the conventional PKC Apl I, the novel type I PKC Apl II and the atypical PKC Apl III. PKCs are lipid-activated kinases and thus activation of classical and novel PKCs in response to extracellular signals has been frequently correlated with PKC translocation from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. Therefore, visualizing PKC translocation in real time in live cells has become an invaluable tool for elucidating the signal transduction pathways that lead to PKC activation. For instance, this technique has allowed for us to establish that different isoforms of PKC translocate under different conditions to mediate distinct types of synaptic plasticity and that serotonin (5HT) activation of PKC Apl II requires production of both DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA) for translocation (1-2). Importantly, the ability to visualize the same neuron repeatedly has allowed us, for example, to measure desensitization of the PKC response in exquisite detail (3). In this video, we demonstrate each step of preparing Sf9 cell cultures, cultures of Aplysia sensory neurons have been described in another video article (4), expressing fluorescently tagged PKCs in Sf9 cells and in Aplysia sensory neurons and live-imaging of PKC translocation in response to different activators using

  5. Long-term pioglitazone treatment augments insulin sensitivity and PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta activation in skeletal muscles in sucrose fed rats.

    PubMed

    Marková, I; Zídek, V; Musilová, A; Simáková, M; Mlejnek, P; Kazdová, L; Pravenec, M

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) ameliorate insulin resistance in muscle tissue by suppressing muscle lipid storage and the activity of novel protein kinase C (nPKC) isoforms. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed long-term metabolic effects of pioglitazone and the activation of nPKC-epsilon and -theta isoforms in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (a congenic SHR strain with wild type Cd36 gene) fed a diet with 60 % sucrose from the age of 4 to 8 months. Compared to untreated controls, pioglitazone treatment was associated with significantly increased basal (809+/-36 vs 527+/-47 nmol glucose/g/2h, P<0.005) and insulin-stimulated glycogenesis (1321+/-62 vs 749+/-60 nmol glucose/g/2h, P<0.0001) in isolated gastrocnemius muscles despite increased concentrations of muscle triglycerides (3.83+/-0.33 vs 2.25+/-0.12 micromol/g, P<0.005). Pioglitazone-treated rats exhibited significantly increased membrane/total (cytosolic plus membrane) ratio of both PKC-epsilon and PKC-theta isoforms compared to untreated controls. These results suggest that amelioration of insulin resistance after long-term pioglitazone treatment is associated with increased activation of PKC-epsilon and -theta isoforms in spite of increased lipid concentration in skeletal muscles.

  6. Crosstalk between Wnt signaling and Phorbol ester-mediated PKC signaling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Chun, So-Young; Kwon, Yun-Suk; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Although many studies have implicated the crosstalk between the Wnt and PKC signaling pathways in tumor initiation and progression, the molecular roles of PKC isoforms in the Wnt signaling pathway remain poorly understood. In this study, we explored the contribution of PKC isoforms to canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway in mediating cell migration and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). When MCF-7 cells were treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 3 weeks, the effect of TPA on Wnt signaling pathway was dramatically different depending on the exposure time. The short term exposure (3 days) of MCF-7 cells to TPA exhibited significant induction of Wnt5a expression, along with the enhanced expression of PKC-α, to promote cell migration, which suggested that activation of noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway is associated with PKC-α. However, the chronic exposure (3 weeks) of cells to TPA completely suppressed Wnt5a expression and the expression of PKC-η and PKC-δ, whereas the expression of Wnt3a and PKC-θ were up-regulated to activate the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Moreover, the loss of epithelial markers, including E-cadherin and GATA-3, suggested that chronic exposure of TPA stimulates EMT. Taken together, our data suggest that PKC-θ positively regulates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and that PKC-η and PKC-δ negatively modulate this signaling pathway.

  7. Tetrandrine inhibits migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes through down-regulating the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA GTPases and activation of the PI3K/Akt and JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qi; Zhu, Xian-Yang; Xia, Yu-Feng; Dai, Yue; Wei, Zhi-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Tetrandrine (Tet), the main active constituent of Stephania tetrandra root, has been demonstrated to alleviate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Tet on the migration and invasion of rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and explore the underlying mechanisms. By using cultures of primary FLS isolated from synoviums of RA patients and cell line MH7A, Tet (0.3, 1 μmol·L(-1)) was proven to significantly impede migration and invasion of RA-FLS, but not cell proliferation. Tet also greatly reduced the activation and expressions of matrix degrading enzymes MMP-2/9, the expression of F-actin and the activation of FAK, which controlled the morphologic changes in migration process of FLS. To identify the key signaling pathways by which Tet exerts anti-migration effect, the specific inhibitors of multiple signaling pathways LY294002, Triciribine, SP600125, U0126, SB203580, and PDTC (against PI3K, Akt, JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB-p65, respectively) were used. Among them, LY294002, Triciribine, and SP600125 were shown to obviously inhibit the migration of MH7A cells. Consistently, Tet was able to down-regulate the activation of Akt and JNK as demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Moreover, Tet could reduce the expressions of migration-related proteins Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA in MH7A cells. In conclusion, Tet can impede the migration and invasion of RA-FLS, which provides a plausible explanation for its protective effect on RA. The underlying mechanisms involve the reduction of the expressions of Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, inhibition of the activation of Akt and JNK, and subsequent down-regulation of activation and/or expressions of MMP-2/9, F-actin, and FAK.

  8. Inhibition of FAK and VEGFR-3 Binding Decreases Tumorigenicity in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jerry E.; Ma, Xiaojie; Megison, Michael; Nabers, Hugh; Cance, William G.; Kurenova, Elena V.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is important in many facets of tumor development and progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), another tyrosine kinase, has also been found to be important in the development of many human tumors including neuroblastoma. Recent reports have found that FAK and VEGFR-3 interact, and we have previously shown that both of these kinases interact in neuroblastoma. We have hypothesized that interruption of the FAK–VEGFR-3 interaction would lead to decreased neuroblastoma cell survival. In the current study, we examined the effects of a small molecule, chloropyramine hydrochloride (C4), designed to disrupt the FAK–VEGFR-3 interaction, upon cellular attachment, migration, and survival in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. We also utilized a murine xenograft model to study the impact of C4 upon tumor growth. In these studies, we showed that disruption of the FAK–VEGFR-3 interaction led to decreased cellular attachment, migration, and survival in vitro. In addition, treatment of murine xenografts with chloropyramine hydrochloride decreased neuroblastoma xenograft growth. Further, this molecule acted synergistically with standard chemotherapy to further decrease neuroblastoma xenograft growth. The findings from this current study help to further our understanding of the regulation of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, and may provide novel therapeutic strategies and targets for neuroblastoma and other solid tumors of childhood. PMID:23868727

  9. MICA Expression Is Regulated by Cell Adhesion and Contact in a FAK/Src-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Gerald; Lin, Da; McCarthy, Michael T.; Watson, Aleksandra A.; O’Callaghan, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    MICA is a major ligand for the NKG2D immune receptor, which plays a key role in activating natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells. We analyzed NKG2D ligand expression on a range of cell types and could demonstrate that MICA expression levels were closely linked to cellular growth mode. While the expression of other NKG2D ligands was largely independent of cell growth mode, MICA expression was mainly found on cells cultured as adherent cells. In addition, MICA surface expression was reduced through increase in cell–cell contact or loss of cell–matrix adherence. Furthermore, we found that the reduction in MICA expression was modulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src signaling and associated with increased susceptibility to NK cell-mediated killing. While the mechanisms of tumor immune evasion are not fully understood, the reduction of MICA expression following loss of attachment poises a potential way by which metastasizing tumor cells avoid immune detection. The role of FAK/Src in this process indicates a potential therapeutic approach to modulate MICA expression and immune recognition of tumor cells during metastasis. PMID:28154561

  10. MicroRNA-7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting FAK through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu-Jia; Chen, Yi; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Qian; Song, Lei; Peng, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of microRNA-7 (miR-7) on the proliferation, migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC) cells by targeting FAK through ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Methods NSCLC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 160 NSCLC patients after operation. NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299 and H1355) and a normal human fetal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were obtained. NSCLC cells were assigned into miR-7 inhibitors, miR-7 mimics, blank, miR-7 mimics control, miR-7 inhibitors control, FAK siRNA and miR-7 inhibitors + FAK siRNA groups. The expressions of miR-7 and FAK mRNA in tissues and cell lines were detected by qRT-PCR and Western-Blotting. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected by MTT assay, wound scratch assay and Transwell assay. Results Compared with adjacent normal tissues, miR-7 expression was down-regulated, but the mRNA and protein expressions of FAK, ERK and MAPK were up-regulated. Compared with the blank and mimics control groups, miR-7 significantly increased but FAK, ERK and MAPK expressions decreased in miR-7 mimics and FAK siRNA groups. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were inhibited in the miR-7 mimics and FAK siRNA groups, while opposite regarding miR-7 inhibitors group. Conclusion The miR-7 can inhibit the activation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathway by down-regulating FAK expression, thereby suppressing the proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. The miR-7 and its target gene FAK may be novel targets for the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27764812

  11. Sialic acid rescues repurified lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure via inhibiting TLR4/PKC/gp91-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling.

  12. Novel PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction is necessary for transformation from blebbishields

    PubMed Central

    Jinesh, Goodwin G.; Taoka, Rikiya; Zhang, Qiang; Gorantla, Siddharth; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are capable of transformation after apoptosis through the blebbishield emergency program. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in transformation. Understanding how ROS are linked to blebbishield-mediated transformation is necessary to develop efficient therapeutics that target the resurrection of cancer stem cells. Here we demonstrate that a novel PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction is required for ROS production in cancer cells. The combined use of the S6K inhibitor BI-D1870 with TNF-α inhibited the PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction, inhibited ROS production, degraded PKC-ζ, and activated caspases-3 and -8 to block transformation from blebbishields. BI-D1870 also inhibited transformation from cycloheximide-generated blebbishields. Thus ROS and the PKC-ζ to p47phox interaction are valid therapeutic targets to block transformation from blebbishields. PMID:27040869

  13. Isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC by α1-adrenoceptor stimulation in live cells

    PubMed Central

    O-Uchi, Jin; Sorenson, Jaime; Jhun, Bong Sook; Mishra, Jyotsna; Hurst, Stephen; Williams, Kaleef; Sheu, Shey-Shing; Lopes, Coeli M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) plays key roles in the regulation of signal transduction and cellular function in various cell types. At least ten PKC isoforms have been identified and intracellular localization and trafficking of these individual isoforms are important for regulation of enzyme activity and substrate specificity. PKC can be activated at downstream of Gq-protein coupled receptor (GqPCR) signaling and translocated to the various cellular compartments including plasma membrane (PM). Recent reports suggested that a different type of GqPCRs would activate different PKC isoforms (classic, novel and atypical PKCs) with different trafficking patterns. However, the knowledge of isoform-specific activation of PKC by each GqPCR is limited. α1-Adrenoceptor (α1-AR) is the one of the GqPCR highly expressed in the cardiovascular system. In this study, we examined the isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC in living HEK293T cells by α1-AR stimulation (α1-ARS). Rat PKCα, βI, βII, δ, ε and ζ fused with GFP at C-term were co-transfected with human α1A-AR into HEK293T cells. The isoform-specific dynamic translocation of PKC in living HEK293T cells by α1-ARS using phenylephrine was measured by confocal microscopy. Before stimulation, GFP-PKCs were localized at cytosolic region. α1-ARS strongly and rapidly translocated a classical PKC (cPKC), PKCα, (< 30s) to PM, with PKCα returning diffusively into the cytosol within 5 min. α1-ARS rapidly translocated other cPKCs, PKCβI and PKCβII, to the PM (<30s), with sustained membrane localization. One of novel PKCs (nPKCs), PKCε, but not another nPKC, PKCδ, was translocated by α1-AR stimulation to the PM (<30s) and its membrane localization was also sustained. Finally, α1-AR stimulation did not cause a diacylglycerol-insensitive atypical PKC, PKCζ translocation. Our data suggest that PKCα, β and ε activation may underlie physiological and pathophysiological responses of α1-AR signaling for the

  14. Cortical Interneurons Require Jnk1 to Enter and Navigate the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Abigail K.; Meechan, Daniel W.; Adney, Danielle R.

    2014-01-01

    Proper assembly of cortical circuitry relies on the correct migration of cortical interneurons from their place of birth in the ganglionic eminences to their place of terminal differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Although molecular mechanisms mediating cortical interneuron migration have been well studied, intracellular signals directing their migration are largely unknown. Here we illustrate a novel and essential role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in guiding the pioneering population of cortical interneurons into the mouse cerebral cortex. Migrating cortical interneurons express Jnk proteins at the entrance to the cortical rudiment and have enriched expression of Jnk1 relative to noninterneuronal cortical cells. Pharmacological blockade of JNK signaling in ex vivo slice cultures resulted in dose-dependent and highly specific disruption of interneuron migration into the nascent cortex. Time-lapse imaging revealed that JNK-inhibited cortical interneurons advanced slowly and assumed aberrant migratory trajectories while traversing the cortical entry zone. In vivo analyses of JNK-deficient embryos supported our ex vivo pharmacological data. Deficits in interneuron migration were observed in Jnk1 but not Jnk2 single nulls, and those migratory deficits were further exacerbated when homozygous loss of Jnk1 was combined with heterozygous reduction of Jnk2. Finally, genetic ablation of Jnk1 and Jnk2 from cortical interneurons significantly perturbed migration in vivo, but not in vitro, suggesting JNK activity functions to direct their guidance rather than enhance their motility. These data suggest JNK signaling, predominantly mediated by interneuron expressed Jnk1, is required for guiding migration of cortical interneurons into and within the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:24899703

  15. Ellagic acid inhibits PKC signaling by improving antioxidant defense system in murine T cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-07-01

    Antioxidants protect the cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which participates in multistage carcinogenesis by causing oxidative DNA damage, mutations in the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Antioxidant defense system is required to overcome the process of carcinogenesis generated by ROS. Antioxidant enzymes are major contributors to endogenous antioxidant defense system. Protein kinase C (PKC) is generally involved in cell proliferation and its over expression leads to abnormal tumor growth. Out of three classes of PKC, classical PKC is mainly involved in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Classical PKC initiates signaling pathway and leads to activation of a number of downstream protein via activation of NF-κB. Therefore any agent which can promotes the endogenous antioxidant defense system should be able to down regulate PKC and NF-κB activation and thus may be useful in reducing cancer progression. To investigate this hypothesis we have tested the effect of antioxidant ellagic acid on antioxidant enzymes and PKC signaling in Dalton's lymphoma bearing (DL) mice. DL mice were treated with three different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment significantly increases the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes and down regulates the expression of classical isozymes of PKC as well as the activation of NF-κB, indicating that ellagic acid improves antioxidant defense system and PKC signaling via NF-κB which may contribute to its cancer preventive role.

  16. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  17. DNA damage targets PKC{eta} to the nuclear membrane via its C1b domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tamarkin, Ana; Zurgil, Udi; Braiman, Alex; Hai, Naama; Krasnitsky, Ella; Maissel, Adva; Ben-Ari, Assaf; Yankelovich, Liat; Livneh, Etta

    2011-06-10

    Translocation to cellular membranes is one of the hallmarks of PKC activation, occurring as a result of the generation of lipid secondary messengers in target membrane compartments. The activation-induced translocation of PKCs and binding to membranes is largely directed by their regulatory domains. We have previously reported that PKC{eta}, a member of the novel subfamily and an epithelial specific isoform, is localized at the cytoplasm and ER/Golgi and is translocated to the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope upon short-term activation by PMA. Here we show that PKC{eta} is shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and that upon etoposide induced DNA damage is tethered at the nuclear envelope. Although PKC{eta} expression and its phosphorylation on the hydrophobic motif (Ser675) are increased by etoposide, this phosphorylation is not required for its accumulation at the nuclear envelope. Moreover, we demonstrate that the C1b domain is sufficient for translocation to the nuclear envelope. We further show that, similar to full-length PKC{eta}, the C1b domain could also confer protection against etoposide-induced cell death. Our studies demonstrate translocation of PKC{eta} to the nuclear envelope, and suggest that its spatial regulation could be important for its cellular functions including effects on cell death.

  18. Synapse formation changes the rules for desensitization of PKC translocation in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Farah, Carole A; Naqib, Faisal; Weatherill, Daniel B; Pack, Christopher C; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-02-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are activated by translocating from the cytoplasm to the membrane. We have previously shown that serotonin-mediated translocation of PKC to the plasma membrane in Aplysia sensory neurons was subject to desensitization, a decrease in the ability of serotonin to induce translocation after previous application of serotonin. In Aplysia, changes in the strength of the sensory-motor neuron synapse are important for behavioral sensitization and PKC regulates a number of important aspects of this form of synaptic plasticity. We have previously suggested that the desensitization of PKC translocation in Aplysia sensory neurons may partially explain the differences between spaced and massed training, as spaced applications of serotonin, a cellular analog of spaced training, cause greater desensitization of PKC translocation than one massed application of serotonin, a cellular analog of massed training. Our previous studies were performed in isolated sensory neurons. In the present study, we monitored translocation of fluorescently-tagged PKC to the plasma membrane in living sensory neurons that were co-cultured with motor neurons to allow for synapse formation. We show that desensitization now becomes similar during spaced and massed applications of serotonin. We had previously modeled the signaling pathways that govern desensitization in isolated sensory neurons. We now modify this mathematical model to account for the changes observed in desensitization dynamics following synapse formation. Our study shows that synapse formation leads to significant changes in the molecular signaling networks that underlie desensitization of PKC translocation.

  19. The roles of maternal Vangl2 and aPKC in Xenopus oocyte and embryo patterning

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sang-Wook; Tadjuidje, Emmanuel; Wylie, Christopher; Heasman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The Xenopus oocyte contains components of both the planar cell polarity and apical-basal polarity pathways, but their roles are not known. Here, we examine the distribution, interactions and functions of the maternal planar cell polarity core protein Vangl2 and the apical-basal complex component aPKC. We show that Vangl2 is distributed in animally enriched islands in the subcortical cytoplasm in full-grown oocytes, where it interacts with a post-Golgi v-SNARE protein, VAMP1, and acetylated microtubules. We find that Vangl2 is required for the stability of VAMP1 as well as for the maintenance of the stable microtubule architecture of the oocyte. We show that Vangl2 interacts with atypical PKC, and that both the acetylated microtubule cytoskeleton and the Vangl2-VAMP1 distribution are dependent on the presence of aPKC. We also demonstrate that aPKC and Vangl2 are required for the cell membrane asymmetry that is established during oocyte maturation, and for the asymmetrical distribution of maternal transcripts for the germ layer and dorsal/ventral determinants VegT and Wnt11. This study demonstrates the interaction and interdependence of Vangl2, VAMP1, aPKC and the stable microtubule cytoskeleton in the oocyte, shows that maternal Vangl2 and aPKC are required for specific oocyte asymmetries and vertebrate embryonic patterning, and points to the usefulness of the oocyte as a model to study the polarity problem. PMID:21813572

  20. Induction of mitotic catastrophe by PKC inhibition in Nf1-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shen, Ling; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Chen, Changyan

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of tumor suppressor Nf1 gene deregulate Ras-mediated signaling, which confers the predisposition for developing benign or malignant tumors. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) was shown to be in synergy with aberrant Ras for the induction of apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, it has not been investigated whether loss of PKC is lethal for Nf1-deficient cells. In this study, using HMG (3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl, a PKC inhibitor), we demonstrate that the inhibition of PKC by HMG treatment triggered a persistently mitotic arrest, resulting in the occurrence of mitotic catastrophe in Nf1-deficient ST8814 cells. However, the introduction of the Nf1 effective domain gene into ST8814 cells abolished this mitotic crisis. In addition, HMG injection significantly attenuated the growth of the xenografted ST8814 tumors. Moreover, Chk1 was phosphorylated, accompanied with the persistent increase of cyclin B1 expression in HMG-treated ST8814 cells. The knockdown of Chk1 by the siRNA prevented the Nf1-deficient cells from undergoing HMG-mediated mitotic arrest as well as mitotic catastrophe. Thus, our data suggested that the suppression of PKC activates the Chk1-mediated mitotic exit checkpoint in Nf1-deficient cells, leading to the induction of apoptosis via mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, the study indicates that targeting PKC may be a potential option for developing new strategies to treat Nf1-deficiency-related diseases.

  1. bFGF Promotes the Migration of Human Dermal Fibroblasts under Diabetic Conditions through Reactive Oxygen Species Production via the PI3K/Akt-Rac1- JNK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hongxue; Cheng, Yi; Ye, Jingjing; Cai, Pingtao; Zhang, Jinjing; Li, Rui; Yang, Ying; Wang, Zhouguang; Zhang, Hongyu; Lin, Cai; Lu, Xianghong; Jiang, Liping; Hu, Aiping; Zhu, Xinbo; Zeng, Qiqiang; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaokun; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts play a pivotal role in the process of cutaneous wound repair, whereas their migratory ability under diabetic conditions is markedly reduced. In this study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human dermal fibroblast migration in a high-glucose environment. bFGF significantly increased dermal fibroblast migration by increasing the percentage of fibroblasts with a high polarity index and reorganizing F-actin. A significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in dermal fibroblasts under diabetic conditions following bFGF treatment. The blockage of bFGF-induced ROS production by either the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) almost completely neutralized the increased migration rate of dermal fibroblasts promoted by bFGF. Akt, Rac1 and JNK were rapidly activated by bFGF in dermal fibroblasts, and bFGF-induced ROS production and promoted dermal fibroblast migration were significantly attenuated when suppressed respectively. In addition, bFGF-induced increase in ROS production was indispensable for the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin. Therefore, our data suggested that bFGF promotes the migration of human dermal fibroblasts under diabetic conditions through increased ROS production via the PI3K/Akt-Rac1-JNK pathways. PMID:26078726

  2. Induction of TRIM22 by IFN-γ Involves JAK and PC-PLC/PKC, but Not MAPKs and pI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Xu, Wei; Wang, Yaxin; Zhong, Linmao; Xiong, Sidong

    2013-10-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) 22 plays an important role in interferons (IFNs)-mediated antiviral activity. We previously demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) played a central role in IFN-γ-induced TRIM22 expression via binding to a special cis-element named 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element (5'eISRE). In this study, we sought to identify the signaling pathways involved in TRIM22 induction by IFN-γ. By using various pharmacological inhibitors, it was found that the activity of tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C (PC-PLC), but not phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD), was required for IFN-γ-induced TRIM22 expression in HepG2 cells. Tyrosine kinase Janus kinase (JAK), not SRC and PYK2, played an indispensable role in TRIM22 induction. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) activity also significantly attenuated IFN-γ induction of TRIM22. Although treatment with IFN-γ resulted in the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38, ERK, and JNK) and pI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in HepG2 cells, the inhibition of their activity did not affect IFN-γ-stimulated TRIM22 expression. Further studies showed that overexpression of JAK1 and PKCα activated TRIM22 promoter activity in a 5'eISRE-dependent manner, and inhibition of not only JAK but also PC-PLC/PKC pathways significantly attenuated IFN-γ-induced IRF-1 expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these data indicated that IFN-γ induced TRIM22 expression via activation of JAK and PC-PLC/PKC signaling pathways, which involved the cis-element 5'eISRE and the transactivator IRF-1.

  3. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Focal Adhesion Kinase 2 (FAK2) as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Tamoxifen Resistance in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyan; Zahari, Muhammad Saddiq; Renuse, Santosh; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Kim, Min-Sik; Manda, Srikanth S; Stearns, Vered; Gabrielson, Edward; Sukumar, Saraswati; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-11-01

    Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor-α (ER) antagonist, is an important agent for the treatment of breast cancer. However, this therapy is complicated by the fact that a substantial number of patients exhibit either de novo or acquired resistance. To characterize the signaling mechanisms underlying this resistance, we treated the MCF7 breast cancer cell line with tamoxifen for over six months and showed that this cell line acquired resistance to tamoxifen in vitro and in vivo. We performed SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling on the tamoxifen resistant and vehicle-treated sensitive cell lines to quantify the phosphorylation alterations associated with tamoxifen resistance. From >5600 unique phosphopeptides identified, 1529 peptides exhibited hyperphosphorylation and 409 peptides showed hypophosphorylation in the tamoxifen resistant cells. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that focal adhesion pathway was one of the most enriched signaling pathways activated in tamoxifen resistant cells. Significantly, we showed that the focal adhesion kinase FAK2 was not only hyperphosphorylated but also transcriptionally up-regulated in tamoxifen resistant cells. FAK2 suppression by specific siRNA knockdown or a small molecule inhibitor repressed cellular proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. More importantly, our survival analysis revealed that high expression of FAK2 is significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free survival in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Our studies suggest that FAK2 is a potential therapeutic target for the management of hormone-refractory breast cancers.

  4. Genetic and epigenetic silencing of SCARA5 may contribute to human hepatocellular carcinoma by activating FAK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zheng, Da-Li; Qin, Feng-Song; Cheng, Na; Chen, Hui; Wan, Bing-Bing; Wang, Yu-Ping; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Han, Ze-Guang

    2009-01-01

    The epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is a crucial event during carcinogenesis and metastasis. Here, in a human genome-wide survey, we identified scavenger receptor class A, member 5 (SCARA5) as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 8p. We found that SCARA5 expression was frequently downregulated as a result of promoter hypermethylation and allelic imbalance and was associated with vascular invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, SCARA5 knockdown via RNAi markedly enhanced HCC cell growth in vitro, colony formation in soft agar, and invasiveness, tumorigenicity, and lung metastasis in vivo. By contrast, SCARA5 overexpression suppressed these malignant behaviors. Interestingly, SCARA5 was found to physically associate with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and inhibit the tyrosine phosphorylation cascade of the FAK-Src-Cas signaling pathway. Conversely, silencing SCARA5 stimulated the signaling pathway via increased phosphorylation of certain tyrosine residues of FAK, Src, and p130Cas; it was also associated with activation of MMP9, a tumor metastasis–associated enzyme. Taken together, these data suggest that the plasma membrane protein SCARA5 can contribute to HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis via activation of the FAK signaling pathway. PMID:20038795

  5. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  6. ECE-1 influences prostate cancer cell invasion via ET-1-mediated FAK phosphorylation and ET-1-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Whyteside, A R; Hinsley, E E; Lambert, L A; McDermott, P J; Turner, A J

    2010-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of the mitogenic peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are significantly elevated in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PC). ET-1 also contributes to the transition of hormonally regulated androgen-dependent PC to androgen-independent disease. ET-1 is generated from big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE-1). ECE-1 is present in PC cell lines and primary tissue and is elevated in primary malignant stromal cells compared with benign. siRNA or shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ECE-1 in either the epithelial or stromal compartment significantly reduced PC cell (PC-3) invasion and migration. The re-addition of ET-1 only partially recovered the effect, suggesting ET-1-dependent and -independent functions for ECE-1 in pPC. The ET-1-independent effect of ECE-1 on PC invasion may be due to modulation of downstream signalling events. Addition of an ECE-1 specific inhibitor to PC-3 cells reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a signalling molecule known to play a role in PC. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ECE-1 resulted in a significant reduction in FAK phosphorylation. Accordingly, transient ECE-1 overexpression in PNT1-a cells increased FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, ECE-1 influences PC cell invasion via both ET-1-mediated FAK phosphorylation and ET-1 independent mechanisms.

  7. The cysteine-cluster motif of c-Yes, Lyn and FAK as a suppressive module for the kinases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Senga, Takeshi; Oo, Myat Lin; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Biswas, Md Helal Uddin; Mon, Naing Naing; Huang, Pengyu; Ito, Satoko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2008-04-01

    The Src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in the progression of human cancers so that the development of its specific inhibitors is important as a therapeutic tool. We previously reported that cysteine residues in the cysteine-cluster (CC) motif of v-Src were critical for the kinase inactivation by the SH-alkylating agents such as N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide (NAM), whereas other cysteine residues were dispensable. We found similar CC-motifs in other Src-family kinases and a non-Src-family kinase, FAK. In this study, we explored the function of the CC-motif in Yes, Lyn and FAK. While Src has four cysteines in the CC-motif, c-Yes and Lyn have three and two of the four cysteines, respectively. Two conserved cysteines of the Src family kinases, corresponding to Cys487 and Cys498 of Src, were essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM, whereas the first cysteine of c-Yes, which is absent in Lyn, was less important. FAK has similar CC-motifs with two cysteines and both cysteines were again essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM. Taken together, modification of cysteine residues of the CC-motif causes a repressor effect on the catalytic activity of the Src family kinases and FAK.

  8. Absence of catalytic domain in a putative protein kinase C (PkcA) suppresses tip dominance in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Wasima; Ray, Sibnath; Brazill, Derrick; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-09-01

    A number of organisms possess several isoforms of protein kinase C but little is known about the significance of any specific isoform during embryogenesis and development. To address this we characterized a PKC ortholog (PkcA; DDB_G0288147) in Dictyostelium discoideum. pkcA expression switches from prestalk in mound to prespore in slug, indicating a dynamic expression pattern. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of PkcA (pkcA(-)) did not exhibit tip dominance. A striking phenotype of pkcA- was the formation of an aggregate with a central hollow, and aggregates later fragmented to form small mounds, each becoming a fruiting body. Optical density wave patterns of cAMP in the late aggregates showed several cAMP wave generation centers. We attribute these defects in pkcA(-) to impaired cAMP signaling, altered cell motility and decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecules - CadA and CsaA. pkcA(-) slugs showed ectopic expression of ecmA in the prespore region. Further, the use of a PKC-specific inhibitor, GF109203X that inhibits the activity of catalytic domain phenocopied pkcA(-).

  9. Absence of catalytic domain in a putative protein kinase C (PkcA) suppresses tip dominance in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Wasima; Ray, Sibnath; Brazill, Derrick; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2017-01-01

    A number of organisms possess several isoforms of protein kinase C but little is known about the significance of any specific isoform during embryogenesis and development. To address this we characterized a PKC ortholog (PkcA; DDB_G0288147) in Dictyostelium discoideum. pkcA expression switches from prestalk in mound to prespore in slug, indicating a dynamic expression pattern. Mutants lacking the catalytic domain of PkcA (pkcA−) did not exhibit tip dominance. A striking phenotype of pkcA− was the formation of an aggregate with a central hollow, and aggregates later fragmented to form small mounds, each becoming a fruiting body. Optical density wave patterns of cAMP in the late aggregates showed several cAMP wave generation centers. We attribute these defects in pkcA− to impaired cAMP signaling, altered cell motility and decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecules – CadA and CsaA. pkcA− slugs showed ectopic expression of ecmA in the prespore region. Further, the use of a PKC-specific inhibitor, GF109203X that inhibits the activity of catalytic domain phenocopied pkcA−. PMID:26183108

  10. Role of Jnk1 in development of neural precursors revealed by iPSC modeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Fu, Haifeng; Xia, Siyuan; Yin, Zhinan; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Jnk1-deficient mice manifest disrupted anterior commissure formation and loss of axonal and dendritic microtubule integrity. However, the mechanisms and the specific stages underlying the developmental defects remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the generation of Jnk1-deficient (Jnk1 KO) iPSCs from Jnk1 KO mouse tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) for modeling the neural disease development. The efficiency in the early induction of iPSCs was higher from Jnk1 KO fibroblasts than that of wild-type (WT) fibroblasts. These Jnk1 KO iPSCs exhibited pluripotent stem cell properties and had the ability of differentiation into general three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. However, Jnk1 KO iPSCs showed reduced capacity in neural differentiation in the spontaneous differentiation by embryoid body (EB) formation. Notably, by directed lineage differentiation, Jnk1 KO iPSCs specifically exhibited an impaired ability to differentiate into early stage neural precursors. Furthermore, the neuroepitheliums generated from Jnk1 KO iPSCs appeared smaller, indicative of neural stem cell developmental defects, as demonstrated by teratoma tests in vivo. These data suggest that Jnk1 deficiency inhibits the development of neural stem cells/precursors and provide insights to further understanding the complex pathogenic mechanisms of JNK1-related neural diseases. PMID:27556303

  11. Role of Jnk1 in development of neural precursors revealed by iPSC modeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Fu, Haifeng; Xia, Siyuan; Yin, Zhinan; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-20

    Jnk1-deficient mice manifest disrupted anterior commissure formation and loss of axonal and dendritic microtubule integrity. However, the mechanisms and the specific stages underlying the developmental defects remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the generation of Jnk1-deficient (Jnk1 KO) iPSCs from Jnk1 KO mouse tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) for modeling the neural disease development. The efficiency in the early induction of iPSCs was higher from Jnk1 KO fibroblasts than that of wild-type (WT) fibroblasts. These Jnk1 KO iPSCs exhibited pluripotent stem cell properties and had the ability of differentiation into general three embryonic germ layers in vitro and in vivo. However, Jnk1 KO iPSCs showed reduced capacity in neural differentiation in the spontaneous differentiation by embryoid body (EB) formation. Notably, by directed lineage differentiation, Jnk1 KO iPSCs specifically exhibited an impaired ability to differentiate into early stage neural precursors. Furthermore, the neuroepitheliums generated from Jnk1 KO iPSCs appeared smaller, indicative of neural stem cell developmental defects, as demonstrated by teratoma tests in vivo. These data suggest that Jnk1 deficiency inhibits the development of neural stem cells/precursors and provide insights to further understanding the complex pathogenic mechanisms of JNK1-related neural diseases.

  12. The adaptor protein Cindr regulates JNK activity to maintain epithelial sheet integrity.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Hannah W R; van Rensburg, Samuel H; Feiler, Christina E; Johnson, Ruth I

    2016-02-15

    Epithelia are essential barrier tissues that must be appropriately maintained for their correct function. To achieve this a plethora of protein interactions regulate epithelial cell number, structure and adhesion, and differentiation. Here we show that Cindr (the Drosophila Cin85 and Cd2ap ortholog) is required to maintain epithelial integrity. Reducing Cindr triggered cell delamination and movement. Most delaminating cells died. These behaviors were consistent with JNK activation previously associated with loss of epithelial integrity in response to ectopic oncogene activity. We confirmed a novel interaction between Cindr and Drosophila JNK (dJNK), which when perturbed caused inappropriate JNK signaling. Genetically reducing JNK signaling activity suppressed the effects of reducing Cindr. Furthermore, ectopic JNK signaling phenocopied loss of Cindr and was partially rescued by concomitant cindr over-expression. Thus, correct Cindr-dJNK stoichiometry is essential to maintain epithelial integrity and disturbing this balance may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including cancer.

  13. 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth through regulating VEGF-Src-FAK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengfu, He; Hu, Zhang; Huiwen, Miao; Zhijun, Li; Jiaojie, Zhou; Xiaoyi, Yan; Xiujun, Cai

    2015-08-21

    The search for safe, effective and affordable therapeutics against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other lung cancers is important. Here we explored the potential effect of 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a novel extract from Inula britannica-F, on angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth. We demonstrated that ABL dose-dependently inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, and capillary structure formation of cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In vivo, ABL administration suppressed VEGF-induced new vasculature formation in Matrigel plugs. For the mechanism investigations, we found that ABL largely inhibited VEGF-mediated activation of Src kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs. Furthermore, treatment of A549 NSCLC cells with ABL resulted in cell growth inhibition and Src-FAK in-activation. Significantly, administration of a single dose of ABL (12 mg/kg/day) remarkably suppressed growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vivo microvessels formation and Src activation were also significantly inhibited in ABL-treated xenograft tumors. Taken together, our findings suggest that ABL suppresses angiogenesis and lung cancer cell growth possibly via regulating the VEGFR-Src-FAK signaling. - Highlights: • 1-o-acetylbritannilactone (ABL) inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. • ABL inhibits VEGF-induced HUVEC migration, proliferation, capillary tube formation. • ABL inhibits VEGF-mediated activation of Src and FAK in HUVECs. • ABL inhibits growth and Src-FAK activation in A549 cells. • ABL administration inhibits A549 tumor angiogenesis and growth in nude mice.

  14. Are CXCL13/CXCR5/FAK critical regulators of MSCs migration and differentiation?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Chunhui; Yu, Yinxian; Liu, Man; Yi, Chengqing

    2015-03-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a common and challenging disease worldwide. The traditional treatments, such as core decompression procedure and joint replacement, are not satisfactory due to the limited outcome, repetitive surgery and cost. In recent years, autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) implantation into the femoral head has emerged as a promising method. The homing and differentiation of MSCs is determined by chemokines and their receptors, specific signals present in the micro-environment of the damaged tissue. CXCL13/CXCR5, highly expressed in the osteoblast and MSCs, are tissue specific and selectively migrate MSCs, thereafter triggering phosphorylation of focal adhesionkinase through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Considering these characteristics, we hypothesize that CXCL13/CXCR5/FAK are critical signals in the trafficking and differentiation of MSCs.

  15. High-molecular weight hyaluronan reduced renal PKC activation in genetically diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Micali, Antonio; Nastasi, Giancarlo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Rinaldi, Maria Grazia; Calatroni, Alberto; D'Ascola, Angela; Campo, Salvatore

    2010-11-01

    The cluster determinant (CD44) seems to play a key role in tissues injured by diabetes type 2. CD44 stimulation activates the protein kinase C (PKC) family which in turn activates the transcriptional nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) responsible for the expression of the inflammation mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Regulation of CD44 interaction with its ligands depends greatly upon PKC. We investigated the effect of the treatment with high-molecular weight hyaluronan (HA) on diabetic nephropathy in genetically diabetic mice. BKS.Cg-m+/+Lepr(db) mice had elevated plasma insulin from 15 days of age and high blood sugar levels at 4 weeks. The severe nephropathy that developed was characterized by a marked increased in CD44 receptors, protein kinase C betaI, betaII, and epsilon (PKC(βI), PKC(βII), and PKCε) mRNA expression and the related protein products in kidney tissue. High levels of mRNA and related protein levels were also detected in the damaged kidney for NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, MMP-7, and iNOS. Chronic daily administration of high-molecular mass HA for 2 weeks significantly reduced CD44, PKC(βI), PKC(βII), and PKCα gene expression and the related protein production in kidney tissue and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-18, MMP-7, and iNOS expression and levels also decreased. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical data. However, blood parameters of diabetes were unchanged. These results suggest that the CD44 and PKC play an important role in diabetes and interaction of high-molecular weight HA with these proteins may reduce inflammation and secondary pathologies due to this disease.

  16. PKC-ι promotes glioblastoma cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting BAD through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Pillai, P; Win-Piazza, H; Acevedo-Duncan, M

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate the role of protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) in regulation of Bad, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only molecule of the Bcl-2 family in glioblastoma. Robust expression of PKC-ι is a hallmark of human glioma and benign and malignant meningiomas. The results were obtained from the two human glial tumor derived cell lines, T98G and U87MG. In these cells, PKC-ι co-localized and directly associated with Bad, as shown by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. Furthermore, in-vitro kinase activity assay showed that PKC-ι directly phosphorylated Bad at phospho specific residues, Ser-112, Ser-136 and Ser-155 which in turn induced inactivation of Bad and disruption of Bad/Bcl-XL dimer. Knockdown of PKC-ι by siRNA exhibited a corresponding reduction in Bad phosphorylation suggesting that PKC-ι may be a Bad kinase. PKC-ι knockdown also induced apoptosis in both the cell lines. Since, PKC-ι is an essential downstream mediator of the PI (3)-kinase, we hypothesize that glioma cell survival is mediated via a PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/Bad pathway. Treatment with PI (3)-kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY294002, as well as PDK1 siRNA, inhibited PKC-ι activity and subsequent phosphorylation of Bad suggesting that PKC-ι regulates the activity of Bad in a PI (3)-kinase dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that glioma cell survival occurs through a novel PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/BAD mediated pathway.

  17. Identification of an Adamantyl Azaquinolone JNK Selective Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    3-[4-((1S,2S,3R,5S,7S)-5-Hydroxyadamantan-2-ylcarbamoyl)benzyl]-4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,4-dihydro-[1,8]naphthyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (4) was identified as a novel, druglike and selective quinolone pan JNK inhibitor. In this communication, some of the structure–activity relationship of the azaquinolone analogues leading to 4 is discussed. The focus is on how changes at the amide functionality affected the biochemical potency, cellular potency, metabolic properties, and solubility of this class of JNK inhibitors. Optimization of these properties led to the identification of the adamantyl analogue, 4. 4 achieved proof of mechanism in both rat and mouse TNF-α challenge models. PMID:24900545

  18. JNK1 and JNK2 regulate α-SMA in hepatic stellate cells during CCl4 -induced fibrosis in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hong, Il-Hwa; Park, Sang-Joon; Goo, Moon-Jung; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Jin-Kyu; Ki, Mi-Ran; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2013-10-01

    Following liver injuries, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) express α-SMA. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways mediate α-SMA expression in distinct cell types. However, the regulation of α-SMA expression by MAPKs in HSCs has been rarely studied. We aimed to study the role of MAPKs in the activation of HSCs during liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis of rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride. HSC-T6 cells, murine embryonic fibroblasts, JNK1(-/-) and JNK2(-/-) cells were used for in vitro studies. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used. We have found that the expression of JNK and α-SMA co-localized in HSCs during liver fibrosis, but ERK and p38 expressed in macrophages. The expression of α-SMA was up-regulated by JNK1 and JNK2 in non-stress condition. Under TGF-β stimulation, however, the level α-SMA expression was increased by only JNK1, but not significantly changed by JNK2. We suggest that JNKs are responsible for α-SMA regulation, and especially JNK1 has a major role in up-regulation of α-SMA expression in HSCs under stress condition induced by TGF-β during liver fibrosis.

  19. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity.

  20. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity. PMID:26202785

  1. Investigating the Potential Signaling Pathways That Regulate Activation of the Novel PKC Downstream of Serotonin in Aplysia

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Carole A.; Rourke, Bryan; Shin, Unkyung; Ferguson, Larissa; Luna, María José

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the novel PKC Apl II in sensory neurons by serotonin (5HT) underlies the ability of 5HT to reverse synaptic depression, but the pathway from 5HT to PKC Apl II activation remains unclear. Here we find no evidence for the Aplysia-specific B receptors, or for adenylate cyclase activation, to translocate fluorescently-tagged PKC Apl II. Using an anti-PKC Apl II antibody, we monitor translocation of endogenous PKC Apl II and determine the dose response for PKC Apl II translocation, both in isolated sensory neurons and sensory neurons coupled with motor neurons. Using this assay, we confirm an important role for tyrosine kinase activation in 5HT mediated PKC Apl II translocation, but rule out roles for intracellular tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and Trk kinases in this response. A partial inhibition of translocation by a fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-receptor inhibitor led us to clone the Aplysia FGF receptor. Since a number of related receptors have been recently characterized, we use bioinformatics to define the relationship between these receptors and find a single FGF receptor orthologue in Aplysia. However, expression of the FGF receptor did not affect translocation or allow it in motor neurons where 5HT does not normally cause PKC Apl II translocation. These results suggest that additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or other molecules must also be involved in translocation of PKC Apl II. PMID:28002451

  2. Coordinated activation of mitochondrial respiration and exocytosis mediated by PKC signaling in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Chareyron, Isabelle; Dayon, Loïc; Núñez Galindo, Antonio; Cominetti, Ornella; Pilar Giner Giménez, María; De Marchi, Umberto; Canto, Carles; Kussmann, Martin; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing by coupling their metabolism to plasma membrane excitability and insulin granule exocytosis. Whether non-nutrient secretagogues stimulate mitochondria as part of the molecular mechanism to promote insulin secretion is not known. Here, we show that PKC signaling, which is employed by many non-nutrient secretagogues, augments mitochondrial respiration in INS-1E (rat insulinoma cell line clone 1E) and human pancreatic β cells. The phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, accelerates mitochondrial respiration at both resting and stimulatory glucose concentrations. A range of inhibitors of novel PKC isoforms prevent phorbol ester-induced respiration. Respiratory response was blocked by oligomycin that demonstrated PKC-dependent acceleration of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Enhanced respiration was observed even when glycolysis was bypassed or fatty acid transport was blocked, which suggested that PKC regulates mitochondrial processes rather than upstream catabolic fluxes. A phosphoproteome study of phorbol ester-stimulated INS-1E cells maintained under resting (2.5 mM) glucose revealed a large number of phosphorylation sites that were altered during short-term activation of PKC signaling. The data set was enriched for proteins that are involved in gene expression, cytoskeleton remodeling, secretory vesicle transport, and exocytosis. Interactome analysis identified PKC, C-Raf, and ERK1/2 as the central phosphointeraction cluster. Prevention of ERK1/2 signaling by using a MEK1 inhibitor caused a marked decreased in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced mitochondrial respiration. ERK1/2 signaling module therefore links PKC activation to downstream mitochondrial activation. We conclude that non-nutrient secretagogues act, in part, via PKC and downstream ERK1/2 signaling to stimulate mitochondrial energy production to compensate for energy expenditure that is linked to β-cell activation

  3. PKC-dependent activation of human K2P18.1 K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Gierten, Jakob; Kisselbach, Jana; Staudacher, Ingo; Staudacher, Kathrin; Schweizer, Patrick A; Becker, Rüdiger; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Two-pore-domain K+ channels (K2P) mediate K+ background currents that modulate the membrane potential of excitable cells. K2P18.1 (TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel) provides hyperpolarizing background currents in neurons. Recently, a dominant-negative loss-of-function mutation in K2P18.1 has been implicated in migraine, and activation of K2P18.1 channels was proposed as a therapeutic strategy. Here we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying PKC-dependent activation of K2P18.1 currents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human K2P18.1 channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and currents were recorded with the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. KEY RESULTS Stimulation of PKC using phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) activated the hK2P18.1 current by 3.1-fold in a concentration-dependent fashion. The inactive analogue 4α-PMA had no effect on channel activity. The specific PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I, Ro-32-0432 and chelerythrine reduced PMA-induced channel activation indicating that PKC is involved in this effect of PMA. Selective activation of conventional PKC isoforms with thymeleatoxin (100 nM) did not reproduce K2P18.1 channel activation. Current activation by PMA was not affected by pretreatment with CsA (calcineurin inhibitor) or KT 5720 (PKA inhibitor), ruling out a significant contribution of calcineurin or cross-talk with PKA to the PKC-dependent hK2P18.1 activation. Finally, mutation of putative PKC phosphorylation sites did not prevent PMA-induced K2P18.1 channel activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that activation of hK2P18.1 (TRESK) by PMA is mediated by PKC stimulation. Hence, PKC-mediated activation of K2P18.1 background currents may serve as a novel molecular target for migraine treatment. PMID:22168364

  4. Anti-metastatic action of FAK inhibitor OXA-11 in combination with VEGFR-2 signaling blockade in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Ingrid; Gebre, Matthew; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Chen, Debbie; Epstein, David

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the anti-tumor effects of OXA-11, a potent, novel small-molecule amino pyrimidine inhibitor (1.2 pM biochemical IC50) of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In studies of cancer cell lines, OXA-11 inhibited FAK phosphorylation at phospho-tyrosine 397 with a mechanistic IC50 of 1 nM in TOV21G tumor cells, which translated into functional suppression of proliferation in 3-dimensional culture with an EC50 of 9 nM. Studies of OXA-11 activity in TOV21G tumor-cell xenografts in mice revealed a pharmacodynamic EC50 of 1.8 nM, indicative of mechanistic inhibition of pFAK [Y397] in these tumors. OXA-11 inhibited TOV21G tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner and also potentiated effects of cisplatin on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and on tumor growth in mice. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice revealed OXA-11 suppression of pFAK [Y397] and pFAK [Y861] in tumors and liver. OXA-11 given daily from age 14 to 17 weeks reduced tumor vascularity, invasion, and when given together with the anti-VEGFR-2 antibody DC101 reduced the incidence, abundance, and size of liver metastases. Liver micrometastases were found in 100 % of mice treated with vehicle, 84 % of mice treated with OXA-11, and 79 % of mice treated with DC101 (19–24 mice per group). In contrast, liver micrometastases were found in only 52 % of 21 mice treated with OXA-11 plus DC101, and those present were significantly smaller and less numerous. Together, these findings indicate that OXA-11 is a potent and selective inhibitor of FAK phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. OXA-11 slows tumor growth, potentiates the anti-tumor actions of cisplatin and—when combined with VEGFR-2 blockade—reduces metastasis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in RIP-Tag2 mice. PMID:26445848

  5. PKC-Theta in Regulatory and Effector T-cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Brezar, Vedran; Tu, Wen Juan; Seddiki, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    One of the major goals in immunology research is to understand the regulatory mechanisms that underpin the rapid switch on/off of robust and efficient effector (Teffs) or regulatory (Tregs) T-cell responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of such responses is critical for the development of effective therapies. T-cell activation involves the engagement of T-cell receptor and co-stimulatory signals, but the subsequent recruitment of serine/threonine-specific protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) to the immunological synapse (IS) is instrumental for the formation of signaling complexes, which ultimately lead to a transcriptional network in T cells. Recent studies demonstrated that major differences between Teffs and Tregs occurred at the IS where its formation induces altered signaling pathways in Tregs. These pathways are characterized by reduced recruitment of PKC-θ, suggesting that PKC-θ inhibits Tregs suppressive function in a negative feedback loop. As the balance of Teffs and Tregs has been shown to be central in several diseases, it was not surprising that some studies revealed that PKC-θ plays a major role in the regulation of this balance. This review will examine recent knowledge on the role of PKC-θ in T-cell transcriptional responses and how this protein can impact on the function of both Tregs and Teffs. PMID:26528291

  6. Role of PKC isozymes in low-power light-stimulated proliferation of cultured skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Nili; Kleitman, Vered; Meller, Julia; Kaufmann, Roland; Akgun, Nermin; Ruck, Angelika; Livneh, Etta; Lubart, Rachel

    2000-11-01

    Exposure of cultured skin cells to low power visible light leads to a transiently stimulated proliferation. Facilitation of this response requires the presence of active PKC, elevation of intracellular calcium, and involves reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the role of PKC(alpha) and PCK(eta) was examined using paired murine fibroblasts, differing in the level of these isozymes expression. The ability of the cells to respond to low power UVA light or HeNe laser by stimulated proliferation was correlated with an active state or overexpression of PKC(alpha) , but not PKC(eta) . A parallel response was obtained in cells that were loaded with A1PcS4 before photosensitization. Whenever this latter treatment caused a light-stimulated inhibition, it was accompanied by the intracellular calcium and photosensitizer dynamics typical of the effect of PDT on rate epithelial cells. Accordingly, added antioxidants that suppressed light-stimulated proliferation also suppressed this light-stimulated inhibition. The model systems employed in this study are the first to demonstrate the specific effect of PKC isozymes on light-stimulated proliferation, in relation to oxidative stress, and indicate their dual role in light-tissue interaction.

  7. ETV6-NTRK3 as a therapeutic target of small molecule inhibitor PKC412

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Hoang Thanh; Ly, Bui Thi Kim; Kano, Yasuhiko; Tojo, Arinobu; Sato, Yuko

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETV6-NTRK3 is an oncogene with transformation activity in multiple cell lineages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC412 could block ETV6-NTRK3 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of ETV6-NTRK3 phosphorylation leads to inactivation of its downstream signaling pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 activation by PKC412 could be a novel strategy for the treatment. -- Abstract: The ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene which encodes a chimeric tyrosine kinase was first identified by cloning of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation in congenital fibrosarcoma (CFS). Since then, EN has been also found in congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN), secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Using IMS-M2 and M0-91 cell lines harboring the EN fusion gene, and Ba/F3 cells stably transfected with EN, we demonstrated that PKC412, also known as midostaurin, is an inhibitor of EN. Inhibition of EN activity by PKC412 suppressed the activity of it downstream molecules leading to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Our data for the first time suggested that PKC412 could serve as therapeutic drug for treatment of patients with this fusion.

  8. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in response to leucine deprivation is mediated by CK2 and PKC.

    PubMed

    Malkani, Niyati; Biggar, Kyle; Shehab, Majida Abu; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2016-04-15

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), secreted by fetal liver, is a key regulator of IGF-I bioavailability and fetal growth. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation decreases IGF-I bioavailability and diminishes its growth-promoting effects. Growth-restricted fetuses have decreased levels of circulating essential amino acids. We recently showed that IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation (pSer101/119/169) in response to leucine deprivation is regulated via activation of the amino acid response (AAR) in HepG2 cells. Here we investigated nutrient-sensitive protein kinases CK2/PKC/PKA in mediating IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in leucine deprivation. We demonstrated that leucine deprivation stimulated CK2 activity (enzymatic assay) and induced IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (immunoblotting/MRM-MS). Inhibition (pharmacological/siRNA) of CK2/PKC, but not PKA, prevented IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in leucine deprivation. PKC inhibition also prevented leucine deprivation-stimulated CK2 activity. Functionally, leucine deprivation decreased IGF-I-induced-IGF-1R autophosphorylation when CK2/PKC were not inhibited. Our data strongly support that PKC promotes leucine deprivation-induced IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation via CK2 activation, mechanistically linking decreased amino acid availability and reduced fetal growth.

  9. Slmb antagonises the aPKC/Par-6 complex to control oocyte and epithelial polarity.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Mukherjee, Avik; Lowe, Nick; St Johnston, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The Drosophila anterior-posterior axis is specified when the posterior follicle cells signal to polarise the oocyte, leading to the anterior/lateral localisation of the Par-6/aPKC complex and the posterior recruitment of Par-1, which induces a microtubule reorganisation that localises bicoid and oskar mRNAs. Here we show that oocyte polarity requires Slmb, the substrate specificity subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation. The Par-6/aPKC complex is ectopically localised to the posterior of slmb mutant oocytes, and Par-1 and oskar mRNA are mislocalised. Slmb appears to play a related role in epithelial follicle cells, as large slmb mutant clones disrupt epithelial organisation, whereas small clones show an expansion of the apical domain, with increased accumulation of apical polarity factors at the apical cortex. The levels of aPKC and Par-6 are significantly increased in slmb mutants, whereas Baz is slightly reduced. Thus, Slmb may induce the polarisation of the anterior-posterior axis of the oocyte by targeting the Par-6/aPKC complex for degradation at the oocyte posterior. Consistent with this, overexpression of the aPKC antagonist Lgl strongly rescues the polarity defects of slmb mutant germline clones. The role of Slmb in oocyte polarity raises an intriguing parallel with C. elegans axis formation, in which PAR-2 excludes the anterior PAR complex from the posterior cortex to induce polarity, but its function can be substituted by overexpressing Lgl.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide regulation of intestinal tight junction permeability is mediated by TLR-4 signal transduction pathway activation of FAK and MyD88

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuhong; Nighot, Meghali; Al-Sadi, Rana; Alhmoud, Tarik; Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas Y.

    2015-01-01

    Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an essential role in inducing intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses and have been implicated as a pathogenic factor of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The defective intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier has been shown to be an important factor contributing to the development of intestinal inflammation. LPS, at physiological concentrations, cause an increase in intestinal tight junction permeability (TJP) via a TLR-4 dependent process; however the intracellular mechanisms that mediate LPS regulation of intestinal TJP remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptor proteins and the signaling interactions that mediate LPS modulation of intestinal TJ barrier using an in-vitro and in-vivo model system. LPS caused a TLR-4 dependent activation of membrane-associated adaptor protein FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. LPS caused an activation of both MyD88-dependent and –independent pathways. SiRNA silencing of MyD88 prevented LPS-induced increase in TJP. LPS caused a MyD88-dependent activation of IRAK4. TLR-4, FAK and MyD88 were co-localized. SiRNA silencing of TLR-4 inhibited TLR-4 associated FAK activation; and FAK knockdown prevented MyD88 activation. In-vivo studies also confirmed that LPS-induced increase in mouse intestinal permeability was associated with FAK and MyD88 activation; knockdown of intestinal epithelial FAK prevented LPS-induced increase in intestinal permeability. Additionally, high dose LPS-induced intestinal inflammation was also dependent on TLR-4/FAK/MyD88 signal-transduction axis. Our data show for the first time that LPS-induced increase in intestinal TJP and intestinal inflammation was regulated by TLR-4 dependent activation of FAK-MyD88-IRAK4 signaling pathway. PMID:26466961

  11. Stimulation of human monocytes with macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces a Grb2-mediated association of the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK and dynamin.

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, S; Saleem, A; Yuan, Z; Emoto, Y; Prasad, K V; Kufe, D

    1995-01-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is required for the growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. In the present studies using human monocytes, we show that M-CSF induces interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with the focal adhesion kinase pp125FAK. The results demonstrate that tyrosine-phosphorylated pp125FAK directly interacts with the SH2 domain of Grb2. The findings indicate that a pYENV site at Tyr-925 in pp125FAK is responsible for this interaction. We also demonstrate that the Grb2-FAK complex associates with the GTPase dynamin. Dynamin interacts with the SH3 domains of Grb2 and exhibits M-CSF-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation in association with pp125FAK. These findings suggest that M-CSF-induced signaling involves independent Grb2-mediated pathways, one leading to Ras activation and another involving pp125FAK and a GTPase implicated in receptor internalization. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7597091

  12. BKCa promotes growth and metastasis of prostate cancer through facilitating the coupling between αvβ3 integrin and FAK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Yi, Xiaomin; Yang, Yang; Guo, Fang; Liu, Wenchao; Xie, Xiaodong; Xie, Manjiang

    2016-01-01

    BKCa is a large conductance calcium activated potassium channel promoting prostate cancer cell proliferation, although the mechanism is not fully elucidated. In addition, whether BKCa is involved in metastasis of prostate cancer remains to be explored. Here, we report that BKCa is overexpressed in prostate cancer. BKCa expression positively correlates with Ki67 index and gleason score of prostate cancer. Upregulation of BKCa promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. On the contrary, downregulation of BKCa inhibited growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the ion-conducting function of BKCa contributed moderately to prostate cancer proliferation and migration, although, this was not the primary mechanism. BKCa action was mainly mediated through forming a functional complex with αvβ3 integrin. The BKCa/αvβ3 integrin complex promoted FAK phosphorylation independent of the channel activity. Overexpression of BKCa enhanced its association with αvβ3 integrin and FAK which increased FAK phosphorylation. Conversely, disrupting the complex by downregulation of BKCa reduced FAK phosphorylation. Finally, blocking of αvβ3 integrin or p-FAK activity using LM609 or Y15 markedly abrogated BKCa-enhanced cell proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting BKCa/αvβ3/FAK may inaugurate innovative approaches to inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:27233075

  13. Inhibition of STAT3, FAK and Src mediated signaling reduces cancer stem cell load, tumorigenic potential and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Ravi; Trivedi, Rachana; Rastogi, Namrata; Singh, Manisha; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for aggressive tumor growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Shikonin (Shk) on breast cancer and found its anti-CSC potential. Shk treatment decreased the expression of various epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSC associated markers. Kinase profiling array and western blot analysis indicated that Shk inhibits STAT3, FAK and Src activation. Inhibition of these signaling proteins using standard inhibitors revealed that STAT3 inhibition affected CSCs properties more significantly than FAK or Src inhibition. We observed a significant decrease in cell migration upon FAK and Src inhibition and decrease in invasion upon inhibition of STAT3, FAK and Src. Combined inhibition of STAT3 with Src or FAK reduced the mammosphere formation, migration and invasion more significantly than the individual inhibitions. These observations indicated that the anti-breast cancer properties of Shk are due to its potential to inhibit multiple signaling proteins. Shk also reduced the activation and expression of STAT3, FAK and Src in vivo and reduced tumorigenicity, growth and metastasis of 4T1 cells. Collectively, this study underscores the translational relevance of using a single inhibitor (Shk) for compromising multiple tumor-associated signaling pathways to check cancer metastasis and stem cell load. PMID:25973915

  14. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0431 TITLE: “c-jun-N- Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis” PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE “c-jun-N- Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Scelerosis” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...ABSTRACT Abstract: 250 aminopyrazoles, a new class of c-jun-N- terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors, have been synthesized and the biochemical IC50 has

  15. HER2-induced metastasis is mediated by AKT/JNK/EMT signaling pathway in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yiseul; Ko, Young San; Park, Jinju; Choi, Youngsun; Kim, Younghoon; Pyo, Jung-Soo; Jang, Bo Gun; Hwang, Douk Ho; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Byung Lan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationships between HER2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase B (AKT) with respect to metastatic potential of HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC) cells. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 423 human GC specimens. Using HER2-positve GC cell lines SNU-216 and NCI-N87, HER2 expression was silenced by RNA interference, and the activations of JNK and AKT were suppressed by SP600125 and LY294002, respectively. Transwell assay, Western blot, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were used in cell culture experiments. RESULTS In GC specimens, HER2, JNK, and AKT activations were positively correlated with each other. In vitro analysis revealed a positive regulatory feedback loop between HER2 and JNK in GC cell lines and the role of JNK as a downstream effector of AKT in the HER2/AKT signaling pathway. JNK inhibition suppressed migratory capacity through reversing EMT and dual inhibition of JNK and AKT induced a more profound effect on cancer cell motility. CONCLUSION HER2, JNK and AKT in human GC specimens are positively associated with each other. JNK and AKT, downstream effectors of HER2, co-operatively contribute to the metastatic potential of HER2-positive GC cells. Thus, targeting of these two molecules in combination with HER2 downregulation may be a good approach to combat HER2-positive GC. PMID:27895401

  16. Role of JNK isoforms in the kainic acid experimental model of epilepsy and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Auladell, Carme; de Lemos, Luisa; Verdaguer, Ester; Ettcheto, Miren; Busquets, Oriol; Lazarowski, Alberto; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Olloquequi, Jordi; Folch, Jaume; Camins, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Chemoconvulsants that induce status epilepticus in rodents have been widely used over the past decades due to their capacity to reproduce with high similarity neuropathological and electroencephalographic features observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Kainic acid  is one of the most used chemoconvulsants in experimental models. KA administration mainly induces neuronal loss in the hippocampus. We focused the present review inthe c-Jun N-terminal kinase-signaling pathway (JNK), since it has been shown to play a key role in the process of neuronal death following KA activation. Among the three isoforms of JNK (JNK1, JNK2, JNK3), JNK3 is widely localized in the majority of areas of the hippocampus, whereas JNK1 levels are located exclusively in the CA3 and CA4 areas and in dentate gyrus. Disruption of the gene encoding JNK3 in mice renders neuroprotection to KA, since these animals showed a reduction in seizure activity and a diminution in hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. In light of this, JNK3 could be a promising subcellular target for future therapeutic interventions in epilepsy.

  17. JNK2 downregulation promotes tumorigenesis and chemoresistance by decreasing p53 stability in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Qian, Chenchen; Wang, Liguo; Qi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary system, and the 5-year survival rate remains low. A comprehensive understanding of the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer is urgently needed to advance treatment. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2 (JNK2) exhibits both tumor promoter and tumor suppressor actions, depending on tumor type. Here, we analyzed the JNK2 function in bladder cancer. Using gene expression microarrays, we demonstrated that JNK2 mRNA is downregulated in an orthotopic rat model of bladder cancer. JNK2 protein levels were lower in rat and human bladder cancer tissues than in normal tissues, and the levels correlated with those of p53. Moreover, JNK2 phosphorylated p53 at Thr-81, thus protecting p53 from MDM2-induced proteasome degradation. Decreased expression of JNK2 in T24 cells conferred resistance to cell death induced by mitomycin C. Furthermore, lower JNK2 expression was associated with poorer overall survival among patients who underwent radical cystectomy. These results indicate that JNK2 acts as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer, and that decreased JNK2 expression promotes bladder cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:27147566

  18. RhoA and Membrane Fluidity Mediates the Spatially Polarized Src/FAK Activation in Response to Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Lu, Shaoying; Hu, Ying-li; Liao, Xiaoling; Ouyang, Mingxing; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-01-01

    While Src plays crucial roles in shear stress-induced cellular processes, little is known on the spatiotemporal pattern of high shear stress (HSS)-induced Src activation. HSS (65 dyn/cm2) was applied on bovine aortic endothelial cells to visualize the dynamic Src activation at subcellular levels utilizing a membrane-targeted Src biosensor (Kras-Src) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A polarized Src activation was observed with higher activity at the side facing the flow, which was enhanced by a cytochalasin D-mediated disruption of actin filaments but inhibited by a benzyl alcohol-mediated enhancement of membrane fluidity. Further experiments revealed that HSS decreased RhoA activity, with a constitutively active RhoA mutant inhibiting while a negative RhoA mutant enhancing the HSS-induced Src polarity. Cytochalasin D can restore the polarity in cells expressing the active RhoA mutant. Further results indicate that HSS stimulates FAK activation with a spatial polarity similar to Src. The inhibition of Src by PP1, as well as the perturbation of RhoA activity and membrane fluidity, can block this HSS-induced FAK polarity. These results indicate that the HSS-induced Src and subsequently FAK polarity depends on the coordination between intracellular tension distribution regulated by RhoA, its related actin structures and the plasma membrane fluidity. PMID:25387906

  19. Adhesion to fibronectin promotes the activation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Bearz, A; Tell, G; Formisano, S; Merluzzi, S; Colombatti, A; Pucillo, C

    1999-01-01

    The β1 integrins are a family of heterodimeric adhesion receptors involved in cell‐to‐cell contacts and cell‐to‐extracellular matrix interactions. Through their adhesive role, integrins participate in transduction of outside/inside signals and contribute to trigger a multitude of cellular events such as differentiation, cell activation, and motility. The fibronectin integrin receptors, α4β1 and α5β1, can function as costimulatory molecules in T‐cell receptor (TCR)‐dependent T‐cell activation. In the current study the Jurkat T‐cell line was used as a model system to investigate the TCR‐independent role of cell adhesion to fibronectin in the activation of Zap‐70, a central molecule in the signalling events in T cells. Upon adhesion to plastic immobilized fibronectin but not to bovine serum albumin (BSA) the phosphorylation of p125FAK, a protein kinase that localizes to focal adhesion sites, was induced. Moreover, clustering of fibronectin receptors led to the detection of a p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex. Finally, while the complex between fak‐B, another protein kinase localized to focal adhesion sites, and Zap‐70 was detected in cells plated either on BSA or on fibronectin, the formation of the p125FAK/Zap‐70 complex appeared specifically induced following fibronectin‐mediated integrin clustering. These data suggest the existence of a high degree of specificity when the members of the β1 integrin family mediate signalling pathways in T cells. PMID:10594689

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Recruits Macrophage Migration by Integrin β1-Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac Pathway in Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lei; Xin, Xiaoming; Xin, Hong; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an inflammatory reaction, in which macrophages are of key importance for tissue repairing. Infiltration and/or migration of macrophages into the infarct area early after MI is critical for infarct healing, vascularization, and cardiac function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been demonstrated to possess cardioprotective effects post MI and during the progress of cardiac remodeling. However, the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment by H2S remain to be identified. In this study, the NaHS (exogenous sources of H2S) treatment exerted an increased infiltration of macrophages into the infarcted myocardium at early stage of MI cardiac tissues in both wild type (WT) and cystathionine-γ-lyase-knockout (CSE-KO) mice. And NaHS accelerated the migration of macrophage cells in vitro. While, the inhibitors not only significantly diminished the migratory ability in response to NaHS, but also blocked the activation of phospho-Src, -Pyk2, -FAK397, and -FAK925. Furthermore, NaHS induced the internalization of integrin β1 on macrophage surface, but, integrin β1 silencing inhibited macrophage migration and Src signaling activation. These results indicate that H2S may have the potential as an anti-infarct of MI by governing macrophage migration, which was achieved by accelerating internalization of integrin β1 and activating downstream Src-FAK/Pyk2-Rac pathway.

  1. The interrelation between aPKC and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle during contraction and insulin stimulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, J M; Benite-Ribeiro, S A; Queiroz, G; Duarte, J A

    2014-12-01

    Contraction and insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. While the insulin pathway, better characterized, requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and atypical protein kinase (aPKC), muscle contraction seems to share insulin-activated components to increase glucose uptake. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation between the pathway involved in glucose uptake evoked by insulin and muscle contraction. Isolated muscle of rats was treated with solvent (control), insulin, wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and the combination of insulin plus wortmannin. After treatment, muscles were electrically stimulated (contracted) or remained at rest. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) localization, glucose uptake and phospho-aPKC (aPKC activated form) were assessed. Muscle contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake in all conditions when compared with controls not stimulating an effect that was accompanied by an increase in GLUT4 and of phospho-aPKC at the muscle membrane. Contracted muscles treated with insulin did not show additive effects on glucose uptake or aPKC activity compared with the response when these stimuli were applied alone. Inhibition of PI3K blocked insulin effect on glucose uptake and aPKC but not in the contractile response. Thus, muscle contraction seems to stimulate aPKC and glucose uptake independently of PI3K. Therefore, aPKC may be a convergence point and a rate limit step in the pathway by which, insulin and contraction, increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

  2. Local extracellular matrix alignment directs cellular protrusion dynamics and migration through Rac1 and FAK.

    PubMed

    Carey, Shawn P; Goldblatt, Zachary E; Martin, Karen E; Romero, Bethsabe; Williams, Rebecca M; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-08-08

    Cell migration within 3D interstitial microenvironments is sensitive to extracellular matrix (ECM) properties, but the mechanisms that regulate migration guidance by 3D matrix features remain unclear. To examine the mechanisms underlying the cell migration response to aligned ECM, which is prevalent at the tumor-stroma interface, we utilized time-lapse microscopy to compare the behavior of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells within randomly organized and well-aligned 3D collagen ECM. We developed a novel experimental system in which cellular morphodynamics during initial 3D cell spreading served as a reductionist model for the complex process of matrix-directed 3D cell migration. Using this approach, we found that ECM alignment induced spatial anisotropy of cells' matrix probing by promoting protrusion frequency, persistence, and lengthening along the alignment axis and suppressing protrusion dynamics orthogonal to alignment. Preference for on-axis behaviors was dependent upon FAK and Rac1 signaling and translated across length and time scales such that cells within aligned ECM exhibited accelerated elongation, front-rear polarization, and migration relative to cells in random ECM. Together, these findings indicate that adhesive and protrusive signaling allow cells to respond to coordinated physical cues in the ECM, promoting migration efficiency and cell migration guidance by 3D matrix structure.

  3. Quantification of Myocyte Chemotaxis: A Role for FAK in Regulating Directional Motility

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Britni; Hakim, Zeenat S.; Cameron, Morgan V.; Smithies, Oliver; Taylor, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of a fully functional four-chambered heart involves an intricate and complex series of events that includes precise spatial–temporal regulation of cell specification, proliferation, and migration. The formation of the ventricular septum during mid-gestation ensures the unidirectional flow of blood, and is necessary for postnatal viability. Notably, a majority of all congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system in humans involve septal abnormalities which afflict 1 out of 100 newborn children in the United States. Thus, a clear understanding of the precise mechanisms involved in this morphogenetic event will undoubtedly reveal important therapeutic targets. The final step in valvuloseptal morphogenesis occurs, in part, by directed movement of flanking myocytes into the cushion mesenchyme. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms that regulate this critical myocyte function, we have developed two in vitro methodologies; a transwell assay to assess population changes in motility and a single-cell tracking assay to identify signals that drive the coordinated movement of these cells. These methods have proven effective to identify focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as an intracellular component that is critical for myocyte chemotaxis. PMID:22222526

  4. Cytochrome P4502E1, oxidative stress, JNK, and autophagy in acute alcohol-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Wu, Defeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2012-09-01

    Binge alcohol drinking induces hepatic steatosis. Recent studies showed that chronic ethanol-induced fatty liver was, at least in part, CYP2E1 dependent. The mechanism of acute alcohol-induced steatosis and whether CYP2E1 plays any role are still unclear. Increasing oxidative stress by alcohol can activate the JNK MAP kinase signaling pathway, suggesting that JNK might be a target for prevention of alcohol-induced steatosis. We used CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice, a JNK inhibitor, and JNK1 or JNK2 knockout mice to test the role of CYP2E1, JNK, and the individual role of JNK1 and JNK2 in acute alcohol-induced steatosis. In wild-type (WT) mice, acute alcohol activates CYP2E1 and increases oxidative stress, which reciprocally increases activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Acute alcohol-induced fatty liver and oxidative stress were blunted in CYP2E1 KO mice and by the JNK inhibitor in WT mice. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine decreased the acute alcohol-induced oxidative stress, the activation of JNK, and the steatosis but not the activation of CYP2E1. Acute alcohol decreased autophagy and increased expression of SREBP, effects blocked by the JNK inhibitor. Acute alcohol-induced fatty liver was the same in JNK1 and JNK2 KO mice as in WT mice; thus either JNK1 or JNK2 per se is sufficient for induction of steatosis by acute alcohol. The results show that acute alcohol elevation of CYP2E1, oxidative stress, and activation of JNK interact to lower autophagy and increase lipogenic SREBP resulting in fatty liver.

  5. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  6. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Michael W. . E-mail: michael.greene@bassett.org; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-10-27

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKC{delta} on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKC{delta}-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKC{delta} catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1.

  7. Tyrosinase kinetics in epidermal melanocytes: analysis of DAG-PKC-dependent signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2001-05-01

    Tyrosinase is the key enzyme of melanogenesis with unusual enzyme kinetics. Protein kinase C plays an important role in regulating of tyrosinase activity. In the paper the mathematical model of PKC-DAG-dependent signal transduction pathway for UV-radiation is presented.

  8. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hoc1, a Suppressor of Pkc1, Encodes a Putative Glycosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, A. M.; Mhaiskar, V.; Manus, V.; Galibert, F.; Dean, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PKC1 encodes a protein kinase C isozyme that regulates cell wall synthesis. Here we describe the characterization of HOC1, a gene identified by its ability to suppress the cell lysis phenotype of pkc1-371 cells. The HOC1 gene (Homologous to OCH1) is predicted to encode a type II integral membrane protein that strongly resembles Och1p, an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase. Immunofluorescence studies localized Hoc1p to the Golgi apparatus. While overexpression of HOC1 rescued the pkc1-371 temperature-sensitive cell lysis phenotype, disruption of HOC1 lowered the restrictive temperature of the pkc1-371 allele. Disruption of HOC1 also resulted in hypersensitivity to Calcofluor White and hygromycin B, phenotypes characteristic of defects in cell wall integrity and protein glycosylation, respectively. The function of HOC1 appears to be distinct from that of OCH1. Taken together, these results suggest that HOC1 encodes a Golgi-localized putative mannosyltransferase required for the proper construction of the cell wall. PMID:9055074

  9. Bidirectional control of BK channel open probability by CAMKII and PKC in medial vestibular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    van Welie, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Large conductance K+ (BK) channels are a key determinant of neuronal excitability. Medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons regulate eye movements to ensure image stabilization during head movement, and changes in their intrinsic excitability may play a critical role in plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Plasticity of intrinsic excitability in MVN neurons is mediated by kinases, and BK channels influence excitability, but whether endogenous BK channels are directly modulated by kinases is unknown. Double somatic patch-clamp recordings from MVN neurons revealed large conductance potassium channel openings during spontaneous action potential firing. These channels displayed Ca2+ and voltage dependence in excised patches, identifying them as BK channels. Recording isolated single channel currents at physiological temperature revealed a novel kinase-mediated bidirectional control in the range of voltages over which BK channels are activated. Application of activated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII) increased BK channel open probability by shifting the voltage activation range towards more hyperpolarized potentials. An opposite shift in BK channel open probability was revealed by inhibition of phosphatases and was occluded by blockade of protein kinase C (PKC), suggesting that active PKC associated with BK channel complexes in patches was responsible for this effect. Accordingly, direct activation of endogenous PKC by PMA induced a decrease in BK open probability. BK channel activity affects excitability in MVN neurons and bidirectional control of BK channels by CAMKII, and PKC suggests that cellular signaling cascades engaged during plasticity may dynamically control excitability by regulating BK channel open probability. PMID:21307321

  10. JNK1 Deficient Insulin-Producing Cells Are Protected against Interleukin-1β-Induced Apoptosis Associated with Abrogated Myc Expression.

    PubMed

    Prause, Michala; Mayer, Christopher Michael; Brorsson, Caroline; Frederiksen, Klaus Stensgaard; Billestrup, Nils; Størling, Joachim; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The relative contributions of the JNK subtypes in inflammatory β-cell failure and apoptosis are unclear. The JNK protein family consists of JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3 subtypes, encompassing many different isoforms. INS-1 cells express JNK1α1, JNK1α2, JNK1β1, JNK1β2, JNK2α1, JNK2α2, JNK3α1, and JNK3α2 mRNA isoform transcripts translating into 46 and 54 kDa isoform JNK proteins. Utilizing Lentiviral mediated expression of shRNAs against JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3 in insulin-producing INS-1 cells, we investigated the role of individual JNK subtypes in IL-1β-induced β-cell apoptosis. JNK1 knockdown prevented IL-1β-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis associated with decreased 46 kDa isoform JNK protein phosphorylation and attenuated Myc expression. Transient knockdown of Myc also prevented IL-1β-induced apoptosis as well as caspase 3 cleavage. JNK2 shRNA potentiated IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 cleavage, whereas JNK3 shRNA did not affect IL-1β-induced β-cell death compared to nonsense shRNA expressing INS-1 cells. In conclusion, JNK1 mediates INS-1 cell death associated with increased Myc expression. These findings underline the importance of differentiated targeting of JNK subtypes in the development of inflammatory β-cell failure and destruction.

  11. Oxidative Stress Induces Mouse Follicular Granulosa Cells Apoptosis via JNK/FoxO1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qiannan; Liu, Zequn; Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular metabolism, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, the JNK/FoxO1 pathway involved in the process of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the JNK activity significantly increased in response to oxidative stress in mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs). SP600125, a selective JNK inhibitor, attenuated the oxidative stress-induced MGCs apoptosis. Oxidative stress enhanced the FoxO1 nuclear translocation by activating the JNK activity. Moreover, JNK mediated the dissociation of FoxO1 from 14-3-3 proteins in MGCs after the treatment with H2O2. Finally, oxidative stress up-regulated the expression of FoxO1 via JNK mediation of FoxO1 self-regulation in MGCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK/FoxO1 is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis in MGCs. PMID:27936150

  12. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} regulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of PKC{zeta}

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Glynis Fricke, Alex; Fender, Anne; McClelland, Lindy; Jacobs, Stacey

    2007-11-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid signaling intermediates released by keratinocytes in response to ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in the skin. The main prostaglandin released following UVR is PGE{sub 2}, a ligand for 4 related G-protein-coupled receptors (EP{sub 1}, EP{sub 2}, EP{sub 3} and EP{sub 4}). Our previous work established that PGE{sub 2} stimulates melanocyte dendrite formation through activation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors. The purpose of the present report is to define the signaling intermediates involved in EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in human melanocytes. We recently showed that activation of the atypical PKC{zeta} isoform stimulates melanocyte dendricity in response to treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine. We therefore examined the potential contribution of PKC{zeta} activation on EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-dependent dendrite formation in melanocytes. Stimulation of the EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptors by selective agonists activated PKC{zeta}, and inhibition of PKC{zeta} activation abrogated EP{sub 1}- and EP{sub 3}-receptor-mediated melanocyte dendricity. Because of the importance of Rho-GTP binding proteins in the regulation of melanocyte dendricity, we also examined the effect of EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} receptor activation on Rac and Rho activity. Neither Rac nor Rho was activated upon treatment with EP{sub 1,3}-receptor agonists. We show that melanocytes express only the EP{sub 3A1} isoform, but not the EP{sub 3B} receptor isoform, previously associated with Rho activation, consistent with a lack of Rho stimulation by EP{sub 3} agonists. Our data suggest that PKC{zeta} activation plays a predominant role in regulation of PGE{sub 2}-dependent melanocyte dendricity.

  13. Phosphorylation of synaptotagmin-1 controls a post-priming step in PKC-dependent presynaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arthur P. H.; Meijer, Marieke; Saarloos, Ingrid; Cornelisse, Lennart Niels; Toonen, Ruud F. G.; Sørensen, Jakob B.; Verhage, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is a central event in short-term synaptic plasticity. Two substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1, are essential for DAG-induced potentiation of vesicle priming, but the role of most presynaptic PKC substrates is not understood. Here, we show that a mutation in synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1T112A), which prevents its PKC-dependent phosphorylation, abolishes DAG-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. This mutant also reduces potentiation of spontaneous release, but only if alternative Ca2+ sensors, Doc2A/B proteins, are absent. However, unlike mutations in Munc13-1 or Munc18-1 that prevent DAG-induced potentiation, the synaptotagmin-1 mutation does not affect paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, experiments to probe vesicle priming (recovery after train stimulation and dual application of hypertonic solutions) also reveal no abnormalities. Expression of synaptotagmin-2, which lacks a seven amino acid sequence that contains the phosphorylation site in synaptotagmin-1, or a synaptotagmin-1 variant with these seven residues removed (Syt1Δ109–116), supports normal DAG-induced potentiation. These data suggest that this seven residue sequence in synaptotagmin-1 situated in the linker between the transmembrane and C2A domains is inhibitory in the unphosphorylated state and becomes permissive of potentiation upon phosphorylation. We conclude that synaptotagmin-1 phosphorylation is an essential step in PKC-dependent potentiation of synaptic transmission, acting downstream of the two other essential DAG/PKC substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1. PMID:27091977

  14. Phosphorylation of synaptotagmin-1 controls a post-priming step in PKC-dependent presynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Arthur P H; Meijer, Marieke; Saarloos, Ingrid; Cornelisse, Lennart Niels; Toonen, Ruud F G; Sørensen, Jakob B; Verhage, Matthijs

    2016-05-03

    Presynaptic activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is a central event in short-term synaptic plasticity. Two substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1, are essential for DAG-induced potentiation of vesicle priming, but the role of most presynaptic PKC substrates is not understood. Here, we show that a mutation in synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1(T112A)), which prevents its PKC-dependent phosphorylation, abolishes DAG-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. This mutant also reduces potentiation of spontaneous release, but only if alternative Ca(2+) sensors, Doc2A/B proteins, are absent. However, unlike mutations in Munc13-1 or Munc18-1 that prevent DAG-induced potentiation, the synaptotagmin-1 mutation does not affect paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, experiments to probe vesicle priming (recovery after train stimulation and dual application of hypertonic solutions) also reveal no abnormalities. Expression of synaptotagmin-2, which lacks a seven amino acid sequence that contains the phosphorylation site in synaptotagmin-1, or a synaptotagmin-1 variant with these seven residues removed (Syt1(Δ109-116)), supports normal DAG-induced potentiation. These data suggest that this seven residue sequence in synaptotagmin-1 situated in the linker between the transmembrane and C2A domains is inhibitory in the unphosphorylated state and becomes permissive of potentiation upon phosphorylation. We conclude that synaptotagmin-1 phosphorylation is an essential step in PKC-dependent potentiation of synaptic transmission, acting downstream of the two other essential DAG/PKC substrates, Munc13-1 and Munc18-1.

  15. Ellagic acid checks lymphoma promotion via regulation of PKC signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2013-02-01

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) isozymes are key components involved in cell proliferation and their over activation leads to abnormal tumor growth. PKC follows signalling pathway by activation of downstream gene NF-kB and early transcription factor c-Myc. Over activation of NF-kB and c-Myc gene are also linked with unregulated proliferation of cancer cells. Therefore any agent which can inhibit the activation of Protein kinase C, NF-kB and c-Myc may be useful in reducing cancer progression. To investigate this hypothesis we have tested the effect of ellagic acid on these genes in Dalton's lymphoma bearing (DL). The role of ellagic acid was also tested in regulation of tumor suppressor gene Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). DL mice were treated with three different doses (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of ellagic acid. Ascites cells of mice were used for the experiments. Ellagic acid administration to DL mice decreased oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation. Ellagic acid also down regulates the expression of classical isozymes of PKC i.e. PKCα, PKCβ, and PKCγ as well as activity of total PKC and NF-kB, indicating its antitumor action. The anticarcinogenic action of ellagic acid was also confirmed by up regulation of TGF-β1 and down regulation of c-Myc. Lymphoma prevention by ellagic acid is further supported by decrease in cell proliferation, cell viability, ascites fluid accumulation and increase in life span of DL mice. All these findings suggest that ellagic acid prevents the cancer progression by down regulation of PKC signaling pathway leading to cell proliferation.

  16. PKC δ mediates pro-inflammatory responses in a mouse model of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ramnath, Raina Devi; Sun, Jia; Bhatia, Madhav

    2010-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. Protein kinase C (PKC) δ plays an important role in mediating chemokine production in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. This study aims to investigate the role of PKC δ in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and to explore the mechanisms through which PKC δ mediates pro-inflammatory signaling. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by ten hourly intraperitoneal injections of caerulein. PKC δ translocation inhibitor peptide (δV1-1) at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg or Tat (carrier peptide) at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg was administered to mice either 1 h before or 1 h after the first caerulein injection. One hour after the last caerulein injection, the mice were killed and pancreas, lungs, and blood were collected. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with δV1-1 attenuated caerulein-induced plasma amylase levels and pancreatic edema. Treatment with δV1-1 decreased myeloperoxidase activity and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels in both pancreas and plasma. PKC δ mediated acute pancreatitis by activating pancreatic nuclear factor κB, activator protein-1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Moreover, blockade of PKC δ attenuated lung myeloperoxidase activity and edema. Histological examination of pancreatic and lung sections confirmed protection against acute pancreatitis. Treatment with Tat had no protective effect on acute pancreatitis. Blockade of PKC δ represents a promising prophylactic and/or therapeutic tool for the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  17. A cell-death-defying factor, anamorsin mediates cell growth through inactivation of PKC and p38MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Yuri; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Tanimura, Akira; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Anamorsin (AM) (also called CIAPIN-1) is a cell-death-defying factor. {yields} Biological mechanisms of AM functions have not been elucidated yet. {yields} PKC{theta} , PKC{delta} and p38MAPK were more phosphorylated in AM deficient MEF cells. {yields} AM may negatively regulates PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells. -- Abstract: Anamorsin (AM) plays crucial roles in hematopoiesis and embryogenesis. AM deficient (AM KO) mice die during late gestation; AM KO embryos are anemic and very small compared to wild type (WT) embryos. To determine which signaling pathways AM utilizes for these functions, we used murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells generated from E-14.5 AM KO or WT embryos. Proliferation of AM KO MEF cells was markedly retarded, and PKC{theta}, PKC{delta}, and p38MAPK were more highly phosphorylated in AM KO MEF cells. Expression of cyclinD1, the target molecule of p38MAPK, was down-regulated in AM KO MEF cells. p38MAPK inhibitor as well as PKC inhibitor restored expression of cyclinD1 and cell growth in AM KO MEF cells. These data suggest that PKC{theta}, PKC{delta}, and p38MAPK activation lead to cell cycle retardation in AM KO MEF cells, and that AM may negatively regulate novel PKCs and p38MAPK in MEF cells.

  18. Contribution of PKC to the maintenance of 5-HT-induced short-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2014-10-15

    Aplysia sensorimotor synapses provide a useful model system for analyzing molecular processes that contribute to heterosynaptic plasticity. For example, previous studies demonstrated that multiple kinase cascades contribute to serotonin (5-HT)-induced short-term synaptic facilitation (STF), including protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Moreover, the contribution of each kinase is believed to depend on the state of the synapse (e.g., depressed or nondepressed) and the time after application of 5-HT. Here, a previously unappreciated role for PKC-dependent processes was revealed to underlie the maintenance of STF at relatively nondepressed synapses. This PKC dependence was revealed when the synapse was stimulated repeatedly after application of 5-HT. The contributions of the PKA and PKC pathways were examined by blocking adenylyl cyclase-coupled 5-HT receptors with methiothepin and by blocking PKC with chelerythrine. STF was assessed 20 s after 5-HT application. The effects of PKC were consistent with enhanced mobilization of transmitter, as assessed by application of hypertonic sucrose solutions to measure the readily releasable pool of vesicles and recovery of the readily releasable pool after depletion. A computational model of transmitter release demonstrated that a PKC-dependent mobilization process was sufficient to explain the maintenance of STF at nondepressed synapses and the facilitation of depressed synapses.

  19. JNK in spinal cord facilitates bone cancer pain in rats through modulation of CXCL1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Du, Ting-ting; Zhang, Rui-guang

    2016-02-01

    In patients with advanced cancer, cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe and common problem that is difficult to manage and explain. As c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) have been shown to participate in several chronic pain processes, we investigated the role of JNK and CXCL1 in CIBP and the relationship between them. A rat bone cancer pain model was established by intramedullary injection of Walker 256 rat gland mammary carcinoma cells into the left tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats. As a result, intramedullary injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells induced significant bone destruction and persistent pain. Both phosphorylated JNK1 (pJNK1) and pJNK2 showed time-dependent increases in the ipsilateral spinal cord from day 7 to day 18 after tumor injection. Inhibition of JNK activation by intrathecal administration of SP600125, a selective pJNK inhibitor, attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia caused by tumor inoculation. Tumor cell inoculation also induced robust CXCL1 upregulation in the ipsilateral spinal cord on day 18 after tumor injection. Inhibition of CXCL1 by intrathecal administration of CXCL1 neutralizing antibody showed a stable analgesic effect. Intrathecal administration of SP600125 reduced CXCL1 increase in the spinal cord, whereas inhibition of CXCL1 in the spinal cord showed no influence on JNK activation. Taken together, these results suggested that JNK activation in spinal cord contributed to the maintenance of CIBP, which may act through modulation of CXCL1. Inhibition of the pJNK/CXCL1 pathway may provide a new choice for treatment of CIBP.

  20. A conserved motif in JNK/p38-specific MAPK phosphatases as a determinant for JNK1 recognition and inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chen-Song; Lu, Chang; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), important in a large array of signalling pathways, are tightly controlled by a cascade of protein kinases and by MAPK phosphatases (MKPs). MAPK signalling efficiency and specificity is modulated by protein–protein interactions between individual MAPKs and the docking motifs in cognate binding partners. Two types of docking interactions have been identified: D-motif-mediated interaction and FXF-docking interaction. Here we report the crystal structure of JNK1 bound to the catalytic domain of MKP7 at 2.4-Å resolution, providing high-resolution structural insight into the FXF-docking interaction. The 285FNFL288 segment in MKP7 directly binds to a hydrophobic site on JNK1 that is near the MAPK insertion and helix αG. Biochemical studies further reveal that this highly conserved structural motif is present in all members of the MKP family, and the interaction mode is universal and critical for the MKP-MAPK recognition and biological function. PMID:26988444

  1. Expression and regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in endometrial cells in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Gulnur; Cakmak, Hakan; Yen, Chih-Feng; Atabekoglu, Cem; Arici, Aydin; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2008-10-01

    JNK(c-Jun N-terminal kinase) is one of the main types of mitogen-activated protein kinases. JNK modulates inflammation and apoptosis in response to stress. Our hypothesis is that temporal and spatial changes in JNK activity regulate inflammation in human endometrium and that fluctuation in estrogen and progesterone levels may play a role in JNK activation. Therefore, we aimed to determine total-(t-) and active-(phosphorylated, p-) JNK expression in endometrial tissues in vivo by immunohistochemistry, and in vitro by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed moderate cytoplasmic and nuclear t-JNK immunoreactivity, and mostly nuclear p-JNK immunoreactivity throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. The highest p- and t-JNK immunoreactivity was detected in late secretory phase (P < 0.05). We observed that endometrial stromal cell (ESC)s showed a significant increase in p-JNK expression following 48 h of estrogen combined with progesterone (E(2) + P(4)) withdrawal from the culture conditions, compared to control and non-withdrawal groups (P < 0.05). Upon treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125, we observed a significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-8 level (P < 0.05) in the presence and absence of E(2). These results demonstrate that JNK expression increases during the late secretory phase when the inflammatory response is highest. Inhibition of IL-8 expression by SP600125 suggests that JNK is involved in regulation of proinflammatory mediators of endometrium.

  2. Shockwaves increase T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression through ATP release, P2X7 receptors, and FAK activation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tiecheng; Junger, Wolfgang G; Yuan, Changji; Jin, An; Zhao, Yi; Zheng, Xueqing; Zeng, Yanjun; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-03-01

    Shockwaves elicited by transient pressure disturbances are used to treat musculoskeletal disorders. Previous research has shown that shockwave treatment affects T-cell function, enhancing T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Here we investigated the signaling pathway by which shockwaves mediate p38 MAPK phosphorylation. We found that shockwaves at an intensity of 0.18 mJ/mm(2) induce the release of extracellular ATP from human Jurkat T-cells at least in part by affecting cell viability. ATP released into the extracellular space stimulates P2X7-type purinergic receptors that induce the activation of p38 MAPK and of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by phosphorylation on residues Tyr397 and Tyr576/577. Elimination of released ATP with apyrase or inhibition of P2X7 receptors with the antagonists KN-62 or suramin significantly weakens FAK phosphorylation, p38 MAPK activation, IL-2 expression, and T-cell proliferation. Conversely, addition of exogenous ATP causes phosphorylation of FAK and p38 MAPK. Silencing of FAK expression also reduces these cell responses to shockwave treatment. We conclude that shockwaves enhance p38 MAPK activation, IL-2 expression, and T-cell proliferation via the release of cellular ATP and feedback mechanisms that involve P2X7 receptor activation and FAK phosphorylation.

  3. The CXCL10/CXCR3 axis promotes cardiac microvascular endothelial cell migration via the p38/FAK pathway in a proliferation-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing-Bo; Mao, Cheng-Zhou; Chen, Zhuo-Ying; Liu, Guang-Hui; Wu, Hai-Yan; Zhou, Deng-Cheng; Park, Kyu-Sang; Zhao, Hui; Kim, Soo-Ki; Cai, Dong-Qing; Qi, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    CXCL10 is a chemokine with potent chemotactic activity for immune and non-immune cells expressing its receptor CXCR3. Previous studies have demonstrated that CXCL10 is involved in myocardial infarction. However, the role of CXCL10 in cardiac microvascular endothelial cell (CMEC) regulation and related mechanisms remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CXCL10 on the CMEC migration and explored its potential molecular mechanism by wound healing, cell proliferation and viability analysis. Furthermore, migration-related signaling pathways, including FAK, Erk, p38 and Smad, were examined by Western blotting. We found that CXCL10 significantly promotes CMEC migration under normal conditions and during hypoxia/ischemia. However, no significant differences in CMEC proliferation and viability were observed with or without CXCL10 treatment. CXCL10-mediated CMEC migration was greatly blocked by treatment with an anti-CXCR3 antibody. Although CXCL10 treatment promoted phosphorylation and activation of the FAK, Erk, and p38 pathways during hypoxia/ischemia, CXCL10-mediated CMEC migration was significantly blocked by p38 and FAK inhibitors, but not by an Erk inhibitor. Furthermore, CXCL10-mediated FAK activation was suppressed by the p38 inhibitor. These findings indicated that the CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway promotes the migration of CMECs under normal conditions and during hypoxia/ischemia in a proliferation-independent manner, at least in part, through regulation of the p38/FAK pathways.

  4. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces human dental pulp stem cell migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingwei; Sun, Xuefei; Ma, Liang; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Wenfei; Xiao, Min; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) has been found to be widely expressed during dental pulp inflammation, while hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) contribute to the repair of dental pulp. We showed that the migration of hDPSCs was induced by SDF-1 in a concentration-dependent manner and could be inhibited with siCXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) and siCDC42 (cell division control protein 42), as well as drug inhibitors such as AMD3100 (antagonist of CXCR4), LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K) and PF573228 (inhibitor of FAK). It was also confirmed that SDF-1 regulated the phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinases) on cell membranes and the translocation of β-catenin into the cell nucleus. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the expression of CXCR4 and β-catenin and the phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) were altered significantly with SDF-1 stimulation. FAK and PI3K worked in coordination during this process. Our findings provide direct evidence that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces hDPSCs migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, implicating a novel mechanism of dental pulp repair and a possible application of SDF-1 for the treatment of pulpitis. PMID:28067275

  5. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces human dental pulp stem cell migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingwei; Sun, Xuefei; Ma, Liang; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Wenfei; Xiao, Min; Yu, Qing

    2017-01-09

    SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) has been found to be widely expressed during dental pulp inflammation, while hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells) contribute to the repair of dental pulp. We showed that the migration of hDPSCs was induced by SDF-1 in a concentration-dependent manner and could be inhibited with siCXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4) and siCDC42 (cell division control protein 42), as well as drug inhibitors such as AMD3100 (antagonist of CXCR4), LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K) and PF573228 (inhibitor of FAK). It was also confirmed that SDF-1 regulated the phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinases) on cell membranes and the translocation of β-catenin into the cell nucleus. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the expression of CXCR4 and β-catenin and the phosphorylation of FAK, PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), Akt and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β) were altered significantly with SDF-1 stimulation. FAK and PI3K worked in coordination during this process. Our findings provide direct evidence that SDF-1/CXCR4 axis induces hDPSCs migration through FAK/PI3K/Akt and GSK3β/β-catenin pathways, implicating a novel mechanism of dental pulp repair and a possible application of SDF-1 for the treatment of pulpitis.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces migration of endothelial cells through a TrkB-ERK-integrin αVβ3-FAK cascade.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinji; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Shiba, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2012-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Since angiogenesis is important for tissue regeneration, investigating effect of BDNF on endothelial cell function may help to reveal its mechanism, whereby, BDNF promotes periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we examined the influence of BDNF on migration in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), focusing on the effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), integrin α(V)β(3), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The migration of endothelial cells was assessed with a modified Boyden chamber and a wound healing assay. The expression of integrin α(V)β(3) and the phosphorylation of ERK and FAK were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. BDNF (25 ng/ml) induced cell migration. PD98059, an ERK inhibitor, K252a, a specific inhibitor for TrkB, a high affinity receptor of BDNF, and an anti-integrin α(V)β(3) antibody suppressed the BDNF-induced migration. BDNF increased the levels of integrin α(V)β(3) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and FAK. The ERK inhibitor and TrkB inhibitor also reduced levels of integrin α(V)β(3) and phosphorylated FAK. We propose that BDNF stimulates endothelial cell migration by a process involving TrkB/ERK/integrin α(V)β(3)/FAK, and this may help to enhance the regeneration of periodontal tissue.

  7. The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramón; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martínez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernández-Muáoz, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgfβ-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

  8. Altered expression of atypical PKC and Ryk in the spinal cord of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tury, Anna; Tolentino, Kristine; Zou, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive paralysis due to the selective death of motor neurons of unknown causes. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt signaling is altered in ALS. In this study, we focused on two non-canonical Wnt signaling components, atypical PKC (aPKC) and a Wnt receptor, Ryk, in a mouse model of ALS, SOD1 (G93A). aPKC mediates Wnt signaling to regulate growth cone guidance, axon differentiation and cell survival. Ryk is a Wnt repulsive receptor that regulates axon guidance and inhibits regeneration after spinal cord injury. aPKC expression was increased in motor neurons of the lumbar spinal cord in SOD1 (G93A) mice at different stages. Interestingly, aPKC was colocalized with SOD1 in motor neuron cell bodies and extracellular aggregates, and aPKC-containing extracellular aggregates increased with disease progression. Biochemical fractionation showed that aPKC protein level was increased in the detergent-insoluble protein fraction in SOD1 (G93A) mice at late stage but decreased in the detergent-soluble fraction at symptomatic stage. These results suggest that aPKC may be sequestered in SOD1 aggregates, impairing its ability to protect motor neurons from death. Ryk expression was also increased in the motor neurons and the white matter in the ventral lumbar spinal cord of mutant SOD1 mice with a peak at early stage. These observations indicate that Wnt/aPKC and Wnt/Ryk signaling are altered in SOD1 (G93A) mice, suggesting that changed Wnt signaling may contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:24123880

  9. The synthetic genetic network around PKC1 identifies novel modulators and components of protein kinase C signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sue A; Xu, Hong; Gray, Joseph V

    2008-11-01

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one protein kinase C (PKC) isozyme encoded by the essential gene PKC1. Pkc1 is activated by the small GTPase Rho1 and plays a central role in the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway acts primarily to remodel the cell surface throughout the normal life cycle and upon various environmental stresses. The pathway is heavily branched, with multiple nonessential branches feeding into and out of the central essential Rho1-Pkc1 module. In an attempt to identify novel components and modifiers of CWI signaling, we determined the synthetic lethal genetic network around PKC1 by using dominant-negative synthetic genetic array analysis. The resulting mutants are hypersensitive to lowered Pkc1 activity. The corresponding 21 nonessential genes are closely related to CWI function: 14 behave in a chemical-genetic epistasis test as acting in the pathway, and 6 of these genes encode known components. Twelve of the 21 null mutants display elevated CWI reporter activity, consistent with the idea that the pathway is activated by and compensates for loss of the gene products. Four of the 21 mutants display low CWI reporter activity, consistent with the idea that the pathway is compromised in these mutants. One of the latter group of mutants lacks Ack1(Ydl203c), an uncharacterized SEL-1 domain-containing protein that we find modulates pathway activity. Epistasis analysis places Ack1 upstream of Pkc1 in the CWI pathway and dependent on the upstream Rho1 GTP exchange factors Rom2 and Tus1. Overall, the synthetic genetic network around PKC1 directly and efficiently identifies known and novel components of PKC signaling in yeast.

  10. Activated niacin receptor HCA2 inhibits chemoattractant-mediated macrophage migration via Gβγ/PKC/ERK1/2 pathway and heterologous receptor desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Lai, Xiangru; Ye, Lingyan; Chen, Keqiang; Cao, Zheng; Gong, Wanghua; Jin, Lili; Wang, Chunyan; Liu, Mingyong; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Ji Ming; Zhou, Naiming

    2017-01-01

    The niacin receptor HCA2 is implicated in controlling inflammatory host responses with yet poorly understood mechanistic basis. We previously reported that HCA2 in A431 epithelial cells transduced Gβγ-protein kinase C- and Gβγ-metalloproteinase/EGFR-dependent MAPK/ERK signaling cascades. Here, we investigated the role of HCA2 in macrophage-mediated inflammation and the underlying mechanisms. We found that proinflammatory stimulants LPS, IL-6 and IL-1β up-regulated the expression of HCA2 on macrophages. Niacin significantly inhibited macrophage chemotaxis in response to chemoattractants fMLF and CCL2 by disrupting polarized distribution of F-actin and Gβ protein. Niacin showed a selected additive effect on chemoattractant-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK and PI3K pathways, but only the MEK inhibitor UO126 reduced niacin-mediated inhibition of macrophage chemotaxis, while activation of ERK1/2 by EGF alone did not inhibit fMLF-mediated migration of HEK293T cells co-expressing HCA2 and fMLF receptor FPR1. In addition, niacin induced heterologous desensitization and internalization of FPR1. Furthermore, niacin rescued mice from septic shock by diminishing inflammatory symptoms and the effect was abrogated in HCA2−/− mice. These results suggest that Gβγ/PKC-dependent ERK1/2 activation and heterologous desensitization of chemoattractant receptors are involved in the inhibition of chemoattractant-induced migration of macrophages by niacin. Thus, HCA2 plays a critical role in host protection against pro-inflammatory insults. PMID:28186140

  11. Joint inhibition of TOR and JNK pathways interacts to extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera)

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Terry W.; Johnston, Rachel K.; Rabeneck, Brett; Zipperer, Cody; Teat, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The TOR kinase pathway is central in modulating aging in a variety of animal models. The target of rapamycin (TOR) integrates a complex network of signals from growth conditions, nutrient availability, energy status, and physiological stresses and matches an organism’s growth rate to the resource environment. Important problems remaining are to identify the pathways that interact with TOR and characterize them as additive or synergistic. One of the most versatile stress sensors in metazoans is the Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signalling pathway. JNK is an evolutionarily conserved stress-activated protein kinase that is induced by a range of stressors, including UV irradiation, reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, heat, and bacterial antigens. JNK is thought to interact with the TOR pathway, but its effects on TOR are poorly understood. We used the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas as a model animal to probe the regulation of TOR and JNK pathways and explore their interaction. The effect of various chemical inhibitors was examined in life table and stressor challenge experiments. A survey of 12 inhibitors revealed two, rapamycin and JNK inhibitor, that significantly extended lifespan of B. manjavacas. At 1 μM concentration, exposure to rapamycin or JNK inhibitor extended mean rotifer lifespan by 35% and maximum lifespan by 37%. Exposure to both rapamycin and JNK inhibitor simultaneously extended mean rotifer lifespan 65% more than either alone. Exposure to a combination of rapamycin and JNK inhibitors conveyed greater protection to starvation, UV and osmotic stress than either inhibitor alone. RNAi knockdown of TOR and JNK gene expression was investigated for its ability to extend rotifer lifespan. RNAi knockdown of the TOR gene resulted in 29% extension of mean lifespan compared to control and knockdown of the JNK gene resulted in 51% mean lifespan extension. In addition to lifespan, we quantified mitochondria activity using the fluorescent marker Mitotracker and

  12. Joint inhibition of TOR and JNK pathways interacts to extend the lifespan of Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Snell, Terry W; Johnston, Rachel K; Rabeneck, Brett; Zipperer, Cody; Teat, Stephanie

    2014-04-01

    The TOR kinase pathway is central in modulating aging in a variety of animal models. The target of rapamycin (TOR) integrates a complex network of signals from growth conditions, nutrient availability, energy status, and physiological stresses and matches an organism's growth rate to the resource environment. Important remaining problems are the identification of the pathways that interact with TOR and their characterization as additive or synergistic. One of the most versatile stress sensors in metazoans is the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. JNK is an evolutionarily conserved stress-activated protein kinase that is induced by a range of stressors, including UV irradiation, reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, heat, and bacterial antigens. JNK is thought to interact with the TOR pathway, but its effects on TOR are poorly understood. We used the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas as a model animal to probe the regulation of TOR and JNK pathways and explore their interaction. The effect of various chemical inhibitors was examined in life table and stressor challenge experiments. A survey of 12 inhibitors revealed two, rapamycin and JNK inhibitor, that significantly extended lifespan of B. manjavacas. At 1 μM concentration, exposure to rapamycin or JNK inhibitor extended mean rotifer lifespan by 35% and maximum lifespan by 37%. Exposure to both rapamycin and JNK inhibitor simultaneously extended mean rotifer lifespan by 65% more than either alone. Exposure to a combination of rapamycin and JNK inhibitors conveyed greater protection to starvation, UV and osmotic stress than either inhibitor alone. RNAi knockdown of TOR and JNK gene expression was investigated for its ability to extend rotifer lifespan. RNAi knockdown of the TOR gene resulted in 29% extension of the mean lifespan compared to control and knockdown of the JNK gene resulted in 51% mean lifespan extension. In addition to the lifespan, we quantified mitochondria activity using the fluorescent

  13. αvβ5 Integrin/FAK/PGC-1α Pathway Confers Protective Effects on Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Roggia, Murilo F.; Ueta, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the mechanism of the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) by photoreceptor outer segments (POS) and its effects on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Methods PGC-1α upregulation by POS was confirmed in ARPE-19 cells and in RPE ex vivo. To elucidate the mechanism, siRNAs against β5 integrin, CD36, Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK), and Atg5, blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK, and a specific inhibitor for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were used. We examined the effect of POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial biogenesis, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) after H2O2 treatment, and lysosomal activity. Lysosomal activity was evaluated through transcriptional factor EB and its target genes, and the activity of cathepsin D. Lipid metabolism after POS treatment was assessed using Oil Red O and BODIPY C11. RPE phenotypes of PGC-1α-deficient mice were examined. Results POS-induced PGC-1α upregulation was suppressed by siRNA against β5 integrin and a FAK inhibitor. siRNAs and blocking antibodies against CD36 and MerTK enhanced the effect of POS on PGC-1α. The upregulation of PGC-1α increased the levels of mRNA for antioxidant enzymes and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased ROS levels, and reduced SA-β-gal staining in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells. PGC-1α was critical for lysosomal activity and lipid metabolism after POS treatment. PGC-1α-deficient mice demonstrated an accumulation of type 2 lysosomes in RPE, thickening of Bruch’s membrane, and poor choriocapillaris vasculature. Conclusions The binding, but not the internalization of POS confers protective effects on RPE cells through the αvβ5 integrin/FAK/PGC-1α pathway. PMID:26244551

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated modulation of brain mitochondria function: new target proteins for JNK signalling in mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Hagen; Boyd, Clinton S; Ahmed, Ruhi; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Duncan, Roger F; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Cadenas, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and control of the release of cytochrome c during mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis are thought to involve the phosphorylation of mitochondrial Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L). Although the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been proposed to mediate the phosphorylation of Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) the mechanisms linking the modification of these proteins and the release of cytochrome c remain to be elucidated. This study was aimed at establishing interdependency between JNK signalling and mitochondrial apoptosis. Using an experimental model consisting of isolated, bioenergetically competent rat brain mitochondria, these studies show that (i) JNK catalysed the phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) as well as other mitochondrial proteins, as shown by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/SDS/PAGE; (ii) JNK-induced cytochrome c release, in a process independent of the permeability transition of the inner mitochondrial membrane (imPT) and insensitive to cyclosporin A; (iii) JNK mediated a partial collapse of the mitochondrial inner-membrane potential (Deltapsim) in an imPT- and cyclosporin A-independent manner; and (iv) JNK was unable to induce imPT/swelling and did not act as a co-inducer, but as an inhibitor of Ca-induced imPT. The results are discussed with regard to the functional link between the Deltapsim and factors influencing the permeability transition of the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. Taken together, JNK-dependent phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins including, but not limited to, Bcl-2/Bcl-x(L) may represent a potential of the modulation of mitochondrial function during apoptosis. PMID:12614194

  15. Excitotoxicity through Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors requires Ca2+-dependent JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, M.; Fernandes, J.; Burgeiro, A.; Thomas, G.M.; Huganir, R.L.; Duarte, C.B.; Carvalho, A.L.; Santos, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    The GluA4-containing Ca2+-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (Ca-AMPARs) were previously shown to mediate excitotoxicity through mechanisms involving the activator protein-1 (AP-1), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) substrate. To further investigate JNK involvement in excitotoxic pathways coupled to Ca-AMPARs we used HEK293 cells expressing GluA4-containing Ca-AMPARs (HEK-GluA4). Cell death induced by overstimulation of Ca-AMPARs was mediated, at least in part, by JNK. Importantly, JNK activation downstream of these receptors was dependent on the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. In our quest for a molecular link between Ca-AMPARs and the JNK pathway we found that the JNK interacting protein-1 (JIP-1) interacts with the GluA4 subunit of AMPARs through the N-terminal domain. In vivo, the excitotoxin kainate promoted the association between GluA4 and JIP-1 in the rat hippocampus. Taken together, our results show that the JNK pathway is activated by Ca-AMPARs upon excitotoxic stimulation and suggest that JIP-1 may contribute to the propagation of the excitotoxic signal. PMID:20708684

  16. JNK1 negatively controls antifungal innate immunity by suppressing CD23 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueqiang; Guo, Yahui; Jiang, Changying; Chang, Qing; Zhang, Shilei; Luo, Tianming; Zhang, Bin; Jia, Xinming; Hung, Mien-Chie; Dong, Chen; Lin, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections are a leading cause of death among immune-compromised patients, and there is a pressing need to develop new antifungal therapeutic agents because of toxicity and resistance to the antifungal drugs currently in use. Although C-type lectin receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced signaling pathways are key activators of host antifungal immunity, little is known about the mechanisms that negatively regulate host immune responses to a fungal infection. Here we found that JNK1 activation suppresses antifungal immunity in mice. We showed that JNK1-deficient mice had a significantly higher survival rate than wild-type control mice in response to Candida albicans infection, and the expression of JNK1 in hematopoietic innate immune cells was critical for this effect. JNK1 deficiency leads to significantly higher induction of CD23, a novel C-type lectin receptor, through NFATc1-mediated regulation of the CD23 gene promoter. Blocking either CD23 upregulation or CD23-dependent nitric oxide production eliminated the enhanced antifungal response found in JNK1-deficient mice. Notably, JNK inhibitors exerted potent antifungal therapeutic effects in both mouse and human cells infected with C. albicans, indicating that JNK1 may be a therapeutic target for treating fungal infection.

  17. ATF3 acts as a rheostat to control JNK signalling during intestinal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Edgar, Bruce A.; Boutros, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial barrier function is maintained by coordination of cell proliferation and cell loss, whereas barrier dysfunction can lead to disease and organismal death. JNK signalling is a conserved stress signalling pathway activated by bacterial infection and tissue damage, often leading to apoptotic cell death and compensatory cell proliferation. Here we show that the stress inducible transcription factor ATF3 restricts JNK activity in the Drosophila midgut. ATF3 regulates JNK-dependent apoptosis and regeneration through the transcriptional regulation of the JNK antagonist, Raw. Enterocyte-specific ATF3 inactivation increases JNK activity and sensitivity to infection, a phenotype that can be rescued by Raw overexpression or JNK suppression. ATF3 depletion enhances intestinal regeneration triggered by infection, but does not compensate for the loss of enterocytes and ATF3-depleted flies succumb to infection due to intestinal barrier dysfunction. In sum, we provide a mechanism to explain how an ATF3-Raw module controls JNK signalling to maintain normal intestinal barrier function during acute infection. PMID:28272390

  18. Sab (SH3BP5), a novel mitochondria-localized JNK-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, C; Gillespie, D A F; May, G H W

    2004-12-01

    The JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway is activated by diverse stresses and can have an effect on a number of different cellular processes. Protein-protein interactions are critical for efficient signalling from JNK to multiple targets; through a screen for interacting proteins, we identified a novel JNK-interacting protein, Sab (SH3BP5). Sab has previously been found to interact with the Src homology 3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase; however, the interaction with JNK occurs through a mitogen-activated protein KIM (kinase interaction motif) in a region distinct from the Bruton's tyrosine kinase-binding domain. As with c-Jun, the presence of this KIM is essential for Sab to act as a JNK substrate. Interestingly, Sab is associated with the mitochondria and co-localizes with a portion of active JNK after stress treatment. The present study and previously reported work may suggest a possible role for Sab in targeting JNK to this subcellular compartment and/or mediating crosstalk between different signal-transduction pathways.

  19. JNK interaction with Sab mediates ER stress induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Win, S; Than, T A; Fernandez-Checa, J C; Kaplowitz, N

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to better understand the mechanism and importance of sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and effects of ER stress on mitochondria by determining the role of mitochondrial JNK binding protein, Sab. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A induced a rapid and marked decline in basal mitochondrial respiration and reserve-capacity followed by delayed mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of mitochondrial Sab prevented ER stress-induced sustained JNK activation, impaired respiration, and apoptosis, but did not alter the magnitude or time course of activation of ER stress pathways. P-JNK plus adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) added to isolated liver mitochondria promoted superoxide production, which was amplified by addition of calcium and inhibited by a blocking peptide corresponding to the JNK binding site on Sab (KIM1). This peptide also blocked tunicamycin-induced inhibition of cellular respiration. In conclusion, ER stress triggers an interaction of JNK with mitochondrial Sab, which leads to impaired respiration and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, sustaining JNK activation culminating in apoptosis. PMID:24407242

  20. JNK interaction with Sab mediates ER stress induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and cell death.

    PubMed

    Win, S; Than, T A; Fernandez-Checa, J C; Kaplowitz, N

    2014-01-09

    Our aim was to better understand the mechanism and importance of sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and effects of ER stress on mitochondria by determining the role of mitochondrial JNK binding protein, Sab. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A induced a rapid and marked decline in basal mitochondrial respiration and reserve-capacity followed by delayed mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of mitochondrial Sab prevented ER stress-induced sustained JNK activation, impaired respiration, and apoptosis, but did not alter the magnitude or time course of activation of ER stress pathways. P-JNK plus adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) added to isolated liver mitochondria promoted superoxide production, which was amplified by addition of calcium and inhibited by a blocking peptide corresponding to the JNK binding site on Sab (KIM1). This peptide also blocked tunicamycin-induced inhibition of cellular respiration. In conclusion, ER stress triggers an interaction of JNK with mitochondrial Sab, which leads to impaired respiration and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, sustaining JNK activation culminating in apoptosis.

  1. Interleukin-6 Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression via Src-FAK-STAT3 Signaling in Lymphatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Ou, George; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Hsu, Ming-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels correlates with tumor grade and poor prognosis in cancer patients. IL-6 has been shown to promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) induction in tumor cells. We recently showed that IL-6 also induced VEGF-C expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). However, the signaling mechanisms involved in IL-6-induces VEGF-C induction in LECs remain incompletely understood. In this study, we explored the causal role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in inducing VEGF-C expression in IL-6-stimulated murine LECs (SV-LECs). FAK signaling blockade by NSC 667249 (a FAK inhibitor) attenuated IL-6-induced VEGF-C expression and VEGF-C promoter-luciferase activities. IL-6’s enhancing effects of increasing FAK, ERK1/2, p38MAPK, C/EBPβ, p65 and STAT3 phosphorylation as well as C/EBPβ-, κB- and STAT3-luciferase activities were reduced in the presence of NSC 667249. STAT3 knockdown by STAT3 siRNA abrogated IL-6’s actions in elevating VEGF-C mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Src-FAK signaling blockade reduced IL-6’s enhancing effects of increasing STAT3 binding to the VEGF-C promoter region, cell migration and endothelial tube formation of SV-LECs. Together these results suggest that IL-6 increases VEGF-C induction and lymphangiogenesis may involve, at least in part, Src-FAK-STAT3 cascade in LECs. PMID:27383632

  2. Down-Regulation of Gli Transcription Factor Leads to the Inhibition of Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells via Integrin β4-Mediated FAK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Xu, Rong; Zeng, Chunyan; Lu, Quqin; Huang, Dengliang; Shi, Chao; Zhang, Weilong; Deng, Libin; Yan, Runwei; Rao, Hai; Gao, Guolan; Luo, Shiwen

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling by Gli transcription factors is characteristic of a variety of aggressive human carcinomas including ovarian cancer. Therefore, chemotherapeutic agents that inhibit activation of Gli transcription factors have emerged as promising novel therapeutic drugs for ovarian cancer. Results In this study, we show that activation of Hh signaling promoted cellular migration and invasion, whereas blockade of Hh signaling with GANT61 suppressed cellular migration and invasion in ovarian cancer cells. After treatment with GANT61, cDNA microarray analyses revealed changes in many genes such as Integrin β4 subunit (ITGB4), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), etc. Furthermore, ITGB4 expression was up-regulated by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand and down-regulated by Hh signaling inhibitor. The Shh-mediated ovarian cell migration and invasion was blocked by neutralizing antibodies to ITGB4. In addition, phosphorylations of FAK were increased by Shh and decreased by Hh signaling inhibitor. Inhibition of Gli1 expression using siRNA mimicked the effects of GANT61 treatment, supporting the specificity of GANT61. Further investigations showed that activation of FAK was required for Shh-mediated cell migration and invasion. Finally, we found that down-regulation of Gli reduced the expression of ITGB4 and the phosphorylated FAK, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Conclusions The Hh signaling pathway induces cell migration and invasion through ITGB4-mediated activation of FAK in ovarian cancer. Our findings suggest that the diminishment of crosstalk between phosphorylated FAK and ITGB4 due to the down-regulation of Gli family transcription factors might play a pivotal role for inhibiting ovarian cancer progression. PMID:24533083

  3. Integrin-Dependent Activation of the JNK Signaling Pathway by Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Martin-Blanco, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical force is known to modulate the activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade. However, the effect of mechanical stresses on JNK signaling activation has previously only been analyzed by in vitro detection methods. It still remains unknown how living cells activate the JNK signaling cascade in response to mechanical stress and what its functions are in stretched cells. We assessed in real-time the activity of the JNK pathway in Drosophila cells by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), using an intramolecular phosphorylation-dependent dJun-FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) biosensor. We found that quantitative FRET-FLIM analysis and confocal microscopy revealed sustained dJun-FRET biosensor activation and stable morphology changes in response to mechanical stretch for Drosophila S2R+ cells. Further, these cells plated on different substrates showed distinct levels of JNK activity that associate with differences in cell morphology, integrin expression and focal adhesion organization. These data imply that alterations in the cytoskeleton and matrix attachments may act as regulators of JNK signaling, and that JNK activity might feed back to modulate the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. We found that this dynamic system is highly plastic; at rest, integrins at focal adhesions and talin are key factors suppressing JNK activity, while multidirectional static stretch leads to integrin-dependent, and probably talin-independent, Jun sensor activation. Further, our data suggest that JNK activity has to coordinate with other signaling elements for the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell shape remodeling associated with stretch. PMID:22180774

  4. cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 is linked to JNK-signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, Hironori; Maeda, Masatomo

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of a JNK activator anisomycin on the proteolysis was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anisomycin stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK activated the CRM1 mediated nuclear export of GATA-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK further stimulated slowly the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. -- Abstract: A JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 by proteasomes around its IC50. We further examined the effects of SP600125 on the degradation of GATA-6 in detail, since an activator of JNK (anisomycin) is available. Interestingly, anisomycin immediately stimulated the export of nuclear GATA-6 into the cytoplasm, and then the cytoplasmic content of GATA-6 decreased slowly through degradation by proteasomes. Such an effect of anisomycin was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that the observed phenomenon might be linked to the JNK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect of SP600125 could not be ascribed to the inhibition of PKA, since phosphorylation of CREB occurred in the presence of dbcAMP and SP600125. The nuclear export of GATA-6 was inhibited by leptomycin B, suggesting that CRM1-mediated export could be activated by anisomycin. Furthermore, it seems likely that the JNK activated by anisomycin may stimulate not only the nuclear export of GATA-6 through CRM1 but also the degradation of GATA-6 by cytoplasmic proteasomes. In contrast, A-kinase might activate only the latter process through JNK.

  5. The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in Lymnaea memory extinction.

    PubMed

    Rosenegger, David; Lukowiak, Ken

    2013-02-01

    The aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea can be operantly conditioned to form a long-term memory (LTM) that will persist for >24h. LTM formation is dependent on altered gene activity and new protein synthesis, with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways playing a critical role. LTM can also undergo extinction, whereby the original memory is temporarily masked by a new memory. Here we investigate if the formation of an extinction memory uses similar molecular pathways to those required for LTM formation. We find that the formation of the extinction memory can be blocked by inhibitors of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK suggesting that extinction memory formation uses similar mechanisms to that of 'normal' memory formation.

  6. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi; Petersen, Frederic; MacAulay, Nanna; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K+ current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells. By confocal microscopy combined with electrophysiology we demonstrate that PKC activation reduces Kv1.5 current, through a decrease in membrane expressed channels. AMPK activation was found to decrease the membrane expression in MDCK cells, but not in HL-1 cells and was furthermore shown to be dependent on co-expression of Nedd4–2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems. PMID:26043299

  7. A novel and selective inhibitor of PKC ζ potently inhibits human breast cancer metastasis in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Shuye; Fan, Zhijuan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Yaqiong; Yang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Cell motility and chemotaxis play pivotal roles in the process of tumor development and metastasis. Protein kinase C ζ (PKC ζ) mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated chemotactic signaling pathway through regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. The purpose of this study was to develop anti-PKC ζ therapeutics for breast cancer metastasis. In this study, a novel and high-efficient PKC ζ inhibitor named PKCZI195.17 was screened out through a substrate-specific strategy. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells while under PKCZI195.17 treatment. Wound-healing, chemotaxis, and Matrigel invasion assays were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on breast cancer cells migration and invasion. Adhesion, actin polymerization, and Western blotting were performed to detect the effects of PKCZI195.17 on cells adhesion and actin polymerization, and explore the downsteam signaling mechanisms involved in PKC ζ inhibition. MDA-MB-231 xenograft was used to measure the in vivo anti-metastasis efficacy of PKCZI195.17. The compound PKCZI195.17 selectively inhibited PKC ζ kinase activity since it failed to inhibit PKC α, PKC β, PKC δ, PKC η, AKT2, as well as FGFR2 activity. PKCZI195.17 significantly impaired spontaneous migration, chemotaxis, and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and MCF-7 cells, while PKCZI195.17 did not obviously inhibited cells viability. PKCZI195.17 also inhibited cells adhesion and actin polymerization through attenuating the phosphorylations of integrin β1, LIMK, and cofilin, which might be the downstream effectors of PKC ζ-mediated chemotaxis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, PKCZI195.17 suppressed the breast cancer metastasis and increased the survival time of breast tumor-bearing mice. In summary, PKCZI195.17 was a PKC ζ-specific inhibitor which dampened cancer cell migration and metastasis and may serve as a novel

  8. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Institute 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd. La Jolla, CA 92037-1000 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...expressed JNK1 and JNK2, JNK3 is almost exclusively expressed in the central nervous system, with very low level expression in the heart and testes. As...Plasma Conc.(ng/mL) Conc.  (in  uM) Conc.(ng/mL) Conc.  (in  uM) 12   organs ( heart , spleen, intestines, kidney, and liver) will be collected

  9. Design and synthesis of disubstituted thiophene and thiazole based inhibitors of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Hom, Roy K.; Bowers, Simeon; Sealy, Jennifer M.; Truong, Anh P.; Probst, Gary D.; Neitzel, Martin L.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Fang, Larry; Brogley, Louis; Wu, Jing; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergely; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Quinn, Kevin; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene

    2012-02-28

    From high throughput screening, we discovered compound 1, the prototype for a series of disubstituted thiophene inhibitors of JNK which is selective towards closely related MAP kinases p38 and Erk2. Herein we describe the evolution of these compounds to a novel class of thiophene and thiazole JNK inhibitors that retain favorable solubility, permeability, and P-gp properties for development as CNS agents for treatment of neurodegeneration. Compound 61 demonstrated JNK3 IC{sub 50} = 77 nM and retained the excellent broad kinase selectivity observed for the series.

  10. C-Fos Regulation by the MAPK and PKC Pathways in Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Katsuya; Hiyama, Akihiko; Arai, Fumiyuki; Nukaga, Tadashi; Sakai, Daisuke; Mochida, Joji

    2013-01-01

    Background The gene encoding c-fos is an important factor in the pathogenesis of joint disease in patients with osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether the signal mechanism of c-fos acts in intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. We investigated whether c-fos is activated in relation to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Methodology/Results Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were used to measure the expression of c-fos in rat IVD cells. Transfections were performed to determine the effects of c-fos on target gene activity. The effect of c-fos protein expression was examined in transfection experiments and in a 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell viability assay. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the most commonly used phorbol ester, binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC), causing a wide range of effects in cells and tissues. PMA induced the expression of c-fos gene transcription and protein expression, and led to activation of the MAPK pathways in NP cells. The c-fos promoter was suppressed completely in the presence of the MAPK inhibitor PD98059, an inhibitor of the MEK/ERK kinase cascade, but not in the presence of SKF86002, SB202190, or SP600125. The effects of the PKC pathway on the transcriptional activity of the c-fos were evaluated. PKCγ and PKCδ suppressed the promoter activity of c-fos. Treatment with c-fos inhibited aggrecan and Col2 promoter activities and the expression of these genes in NP cells. Conclusions This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the MAPK and PKC pathways had opposing effects on the regulation of c-fos in NP cells. Thus, the expression of c-fos can be suppressed in the extracellular matrix of NP cells. PMID:24023832

  11. Effects of the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine and bisindolylmaleimide I (GF 109203X) on delayed rectifier K+ currents.

    PubMed

    Harmati, Gábor; Papp, Ferenc; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Bárándi, László; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Panyi, György; Krasznai, Zoltán; Nánási, Péter P

    2011-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors are useful tools for studying PKC-dependent regulation of ion channels. For this purpose, high PKC specificity is a basic requirement excluding any direct interaction between the PKC inhibitor and the ion channel. In the present study, the effects of two frequently applied PKC inhibitors, chelerythine and bisindolylmaleimide I, were studied on the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr) and I(Ks)) in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes and on the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. The whole cell version of the patch clamp technique was used in all experiments. Chelerythrine and bisindolylmaleimide I (both 1 μM) suppressed I(Kr) in canine ventricular cells. This inhibition developed rapidly, suggesting a direct drug-channel interaction. In HEK cells heterologously expressing hERG channels, chelerythrine and bisindolylmaleimide I blocked hERG current in a concentration-dependent manner, having EC(50) values of 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.76 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. Both chelerythrine and bisindolylmaleimide I strongly modified gating kinetics of hERG--voltage dependence of activation was shifted towards more negative voltages and activation was accelerated. Deactivation was slowed by bisindolylmaleimide I but not by chelerythrine. I(Ks) was not significantly altered by bisindolylmaleimide I and chelerythrine. No significant effect of 0.1 μM bisindolylmaleimide I or 0.1 μM PMA (PKC activator) was observed on I(Kr) arguing against significant contribution of PKC to regulation of I(Kr). It is concluded that neither chelerythrine nor bisindolylmaleimide I is suitable for selective PKC blockade due to their direct blocking actions on the hERG channel.

  12. PKC-mediated potentiation of morphine analgesia by St. John's Wort in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Farzad, Mersedeh; Bianchi, Enrica; Ghelardini, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to combine the use of morphine with clinically available inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), finally potentiating morphine analgesia in humans. Thermal tests were performed in rodents and humans previously administered with acute or chronic morphine combined or not with increasing doses of the PKC-blocker St. John's Wort (SJW) or its main component hypericin. Phosphorylation of the γ subunit of PKC enzyme was assayed by western blotting in the periaqueductal grey matter (PAG) from rodents co-administered with morphine and hypericin and was prevented in rodent PAG by SJW or hypericin co-administration with morphine, inducing a potentiation of morphine analgesia in thermal pain. The score of pain assessment in healthy volunteers were decreased by 40% when morphine was co-administered with SJW at a dose largely below those used to obtain an antidepressant or analgesic effect in both rodents and humans. The SJW/hypericin potentiating effect lasted in time and preserved morphine analgesia in tolerant mice. Our findings indicate that, in clinical practice, SJW could reduce the dose of morphine obtaining the same analgesic effect. Therefore, SJW and one of its main components, hypericin, appear ideal to potentiate morphine-induced analgesia.

  13. Spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells requires PKC.

    PubMed

    Luu, Percy; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synapses on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) cells is thought to play an important role in mediating some of the behavioral effects of drugs of abuse yet little is known about its underlying mechanisms. We find that spike timing-dependent LTP (STD LTP) in VTA DA cells is absent in slices prepared from mice previously administered cocaine, suggesting that cocaine-induced LTP and STD LTP share underlying mechanisms. This form of STD LTP is dependent on NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation and a rise in postsynaptic calcium but surprisingly was not affected by an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). It was blocked by antagonists of conventional isoforms of PKC, whereas activation of protein kinase C (PKC) using a phorbol ester enhanced synaptic strength. These results suggest that NMDAR-mediated activation of PKC, but not CaMKII, is a critical trigger for LTP in VTA DA cells.

  14. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Cijsouw, Tony; Weber, Jens P.; Broeke, Jurjen H.; Broek, Jantine A.C.; Schut, Desiree; Kroon, Tim; Saarloos, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Munc18-1 is a soluble protein essential for synaptic transmission. To investigate the dynamics of endogenous Munc18-1 in neurons, we created a mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged Munc18-1 from the endogenous munc18-1 locus. We show using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in hippocampal neurons that the majority of Munc18-1 trafficked through axons and targeted to synapses via lateral diffusion together with syntaxin-1. Munc18-1 was strongly expressed at presynaptic terminals, with individual synapses showing a large variation in expression. Axon–synapse exchange rates of Munc18-1 were high: during stimulation, Munc18-1 rapidly dispersed from synapses and reclustered within minutes. Munc18-1 reclustering was independent of syntaxin-1, but required calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Importantly, a PKC-insensitive Munc18-1 mutant did not recluster. We show that synaptic Munc18-1 levels correlate with synaptic strength, and that synapses that recruit more Munc18-1 after stimulation have a larger releasable vesicle pool. Hence, PKC-dependent dynamic control of Munc18-1 levels enables individual synapses to tune their output during periods of activity. PMID:24590174

  15. Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Cijsouw, Tony; Weber, Jens P; Broeke, Jurjen H; Broek, Jantine A C; Schut, Desiree; Kroon, Tim; Saarloos, Ingrid; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2014-03-03

    Munc18-1 is a soluble protein essential for synaptic transmission. To investigate the dynamics of endogenous Munc18-1 in neurons, we created a mouse model expressing fluorescently tagged Munc18-1 from the endogenous munc18-1 locus. We show using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in hippocampal neurons that the majority of Munc18-1 trafficked through axons and targeted to synapses via lateral diffusion together with syntaxin-1. Munc18-1 was strongly expressed at presynaptic terminals, with individual synapses showing a large variation in expression. Axon-synapse exchange rates of Munc18-1 were high: during stimulation, Munc18-1 rapidly dispersed from synapses and reclustered within minutes. Munc18-1 reclustering was independent of syntaxin-1, but required calcium influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Importantly, a PKC-insensitive Munc18-1 mutant did not recluster. We show that synaptic Munc18-1 levels correlate with synaptic strength, and that synapses that recruit more Munc18-1 after stimulation have a larger releasable vesicle pool. Hence, PKC-dependent dynamic control of Munc18-1 levels enables individual synapses to tune their output during periods of activity.

  16. CGX1037 is a novel PKC isoform delta selective inhibitor in platelets.

    PubMed

    Bhavanasi, Dheeraj; Kostyak, John C; Swindle, John; Kilpatrick, Laurie E; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2015-01-01

    Platelets upon activation change their shape, aggregate and secrete alpha and dense granule contents among which ADP acts as a feedback activator. Different Protein Kinase C (PKC) isoforms have specific non-redundant roles in mediating platelet responses including secretion and thrombus formation. Murine platelets lacking specific PKC isoforms have been used to evaluate the isoform specific functions. Novel PKC isoform δ has been shown to play an important role in some pathological processes. Lack of specific inhibitors for PKCδ has restricted analysis of its role in various cells. The current study was carried out to evaluate a novel small molecule PKCδ inhibitor, CGX1037 in platelets. Platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion and western blotting experiments were performed to evaluate CGX1037. In human platelets, CGX1037 inhibited PAR4-mediated phosphorylation on PKD2, a PKCδ-specific substrate. Pre-treatment of human or murine platelets with CGX1037 inhibited PAR4-mediated dense granule secretion whereas it potentiated GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion similar to the responses observed in murine platelets lacking PKCδ· Furthermore, pre-treatment of platelets from PKCδ(-/-) mice with CGX1037 had no significant additive effect on platelet responses suggesting the specificity of CGX1037. Hence, we show that CGX1037 is a selective small molecule inhibitor of PKCδ in platelets.

  17. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail: sen@unife.it

    2006-11-17

    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha} because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.

  18. PKC delta and tissue transglutaminase are novel inhibitors of autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ozpolat, Bulent; Akar, Ugur; Mehta, Kapil; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Apoptosis (type I) and autophagy (type II) are both highly regulated forms of programmed cell death and play crucial roles in physiological processes such as the development, homeostasis and selective, moderate to massive elimination of cells, if needed. Accumulating evidence suggests that cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, in general tend to have reduced autophagy relative to their normal counterparts and premalignant lesions, supporting the contention that defective autophagy provides resistance to metabolic stress such as hypoxia, acidity and chemotherapeutics, promotes tumor cell survival and plays a role in the process of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the reduced capability of undergoing autophagy in pancreatic cancer remain elusive. In a recent study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism for regulation of autophagy in pancreatic ductal carcinoma cells. We found that protein kinase C-delta (PKC delta) constitutively suppresses autophagy through induction of tissue transglutaminase (TG2). Inhibition of PKC delta/TG2 signaling resulted in significant autophagic cell death that was mediated by Beclin 1. Elevated expression of TG2 in pancreatic cancer cells has been implicated in the development of drug resistance, metastatic phenotype and poor patient prognosis. In conclusion, our data suggest a novel role of PKC delta/TG2 in regulation of autophagy, and that TG2 may serve as an excellent therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer cells.

  19. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion by PKC-dependent TRPM4 and TRPM5 activation

    PubMed Central

    Shigeto, Makoto; Ramracheya, Reshma; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Cha, Chae Young; Chibalina, Margarita V.; Hastoy, Benoit; Philippaert, Koenraad; Reinbothe, Thomas; Rorsman, Nils; Salehi, Albert; Sones, William R.; Vergari, Elisa; Weston, Cathryn; Gorelik, Julia; Katsura, Masashi; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Vennekens, Rudi; Zaccolo, Manuela; Galione, Antony; Johnson, Paul R.V.; Kaku, Kohei; Ladds, Graham; Rorsman, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at mimicking or enhancing the action of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) therapeutically improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS); however, it is not clear whether GLP-1 directly drives insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion in mouse and human islets. We found that GLP-1 enhances GSIS at a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.4 pM. Moreover, we determined that GLP-1 activates PLC, which increases submembrane diacylglycerol and thereby activates PKC, resulting in membrane depolarization and increased action potential firing and subsequent stimulation of insulin secretion. The depolarizing effect of GLP-1 on electrical activity was mimicked by the PKC activator PMA, occurred without activation of PKA, and persisted in the presence of PKA inhibitors, the KATP channel blocker tolbutamide, and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker isradipine; however, depolarization was abolished by lowering extracellular Na+. The PKC-dependent effect of GLP-1 on membrane potential and electrical activity was mediated by activation of Na+-permeable TRPM4 and TRPM5 channels by mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ stores. Concordantly, GLP-1 effects were negligible in Trpm4 or Trpm5 KO islets. These data provide important insight into the therapeutic action of GLP-1 and suggest that circulating levels of this hormone directly stimulate insulin secretion by β cells. PMID:26571400

  20. NG2 expression in microglial cells affects the expression of neurotrophic and proinflammatory factors by regulating FAK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lie; Su, Qing; Jie, Xiang; Liu, Antang; Wang, Hui; He, Beiping; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is significantly upregulated in a subset of glial cells in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) following CNS injury. NG2 is reported to promote the resulting inflammatory reaction, however, the mechanism by which NG2 mediates these effects is yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the changes in NG2 expressing microglial cells in the FMN in response to facial nerve axotomy (FNA) in mice. Our findings indicated that NG2 expression was progressively induced and upregulated specifically in the ipsilateral facial nucleus following FNA. To further investigate the effects of NG2 expression, in vivo studies in NG2-knockout mice and in vitro studies in rat microglial cells transfected with NG2 shRNAs were performed. Abolition of NG2 expression both in vitro and in vivo resulted in increased expression of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and glial derived neurotrophic factor), decreased expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and decreased apoptosis in the ipsilateral facial nucleus in response to FNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the role of FAK in these NG2-induced effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that NG2 expression mediates inflammatory reactions and neurodegeneration in microglial cells in response to CNS injury, potentially by regulating FAK phosphorylation. PMID:27306838

  1. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wei-Hong; Yang, Li-Yun; Cao, Zhong-Yi; Qian, Yong

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  2. Two amino acid sequences direct Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase C (PkcA) localization to hyphal apices and septation sites.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Hayes, Loretta; Hill, Terry W; Loprete, Darlene M; DelBove, Claire E; Shapiro, Justin A; Henley, Jordan L; Dawodu, Omolola O

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans ortholog of protein kinase C (pkcA) is involved in the organism's putative cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, and PkcA also is highly localized at growing tips and forming septa. In the present work we identify the regions within PkcA that are responsible for its localization to hyphal tips and septation sites. To this end, we used serially truncated pkcA constructs and expressed them as green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras and identified two regions that direct PkcA localization. The first region is a 10 amino-acid sequence near the carboxyl end of the C2 domain that is required for localization to hyphal tips. Proteins containing this sequence also localize to septation sites. A second region between C2 and C1B (encompassing C1A) is sufficient for localization to septation sites but not to hyphal tips. We also report that localization to hyphal tips and septation sites alone is not sufficient for truncated constructs to complement hypersensitivity to the cell wall compromising agent calcofluor white in a strain bearing a mutation in the pkcA gene. Taken together, these results suggest that localization and stress response might be independent.

  3. aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at Ser285 to promote cell contact maturation and tight junction formation.

    PubMed

    Iden, Sandra; Misselwitz, Steve; Peddibhotla, Swetha S D; Tuncay, Hüseyin; Rehder, Daniela; Gerke, Volker; Robenek, Horst; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ebnet, Klaus

    2012-03-05

    The PAR-3-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-PAR-6 complex has been implicated in the development of apicobasal polarity and the formation of tight junctions (TJs) in vertebrate epithelial cells. It is recruited by junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) to primordial junctions where aPKC is activated by Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases. In this paper, we show that aPKC can interact directly with JAM-A in a PAR-3-independent manner. Upon recruitment to primordial junctions, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at S285 to promote the maturation of immature cell-cell contacts. In fully polarized cells, S285-phosphorylated JAM-A is localized exclusively at the TJs, and S285 phosphorylation of JAM-A is required for the development of a functional epithelial barrier. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates JAM-A at S285, suggesting that it antagonizes the activity of aPKC. Expression of nonphosphorylatable JAM-A/S285A interferes with single lumen specification during cyst development in three-dimensional culture. Our data suggest that aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at S285 to regulate cell-cell contact maturation, TJ formation, and single lumen specification.

  4. Structure-based modelling, scoring, screening, and in vitro kinase assay of anesthetic pkc inhibitors against a natural medicine library.

    PubMed

    Shi, B X; Chen, F R; Sun, X

    2017-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is an intracellular effector of the inositol phosphate-mediated signal transduction pathway. Evidence is emerging that certain general anaesthetics can influence the activity of PKC by interacting with the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and targeting PKC kinase domain is considered as a strategy to modulate the anaesthetic effects. Here, an integrated method was used to perform virtual screening against a large library of natural compounds for the discovery of new and potent PKC modulators. A number of hits were identified and their inhibitory activity against PKC kinase domain was measured by using a standard kinase assay protocol. Three and five compounds were determined to have high and moderate activities with IC50 values at nanomolar and micromolar levels, respectively. These compounds can be considered as promising lead molecular entities to develop efficacious anaesthetic modulators. Structural examination revealed a variety of nonbonded interactions such as hydrogen bonds, cation-π contacts, and hydrophobic forces across the complex interface of PKC with the identified compounds. This study helps to establish an integrative approach to rational kinase inhibitor discovery by efficiently exploiting various existing natural products.

  5. Munc18-1 is a dynamically regulated PKC target during short-term enhancement of transmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Özgür; Kochubey, Olexiy; Toonen, Ruud F; Verhage, Matthijs; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of PKC phosphorylation during short-term enhancement has remained unknown. Here, we use a gene-replacement strategy at the calyx of Held, a large CNS model synapse that expresses robust PTP, to study the molecular mechanisms of PTP. We find that two PKC phosphorylation sites of Munc18-1 are critically important for PTP, which identifies the presynaptic target protein for the action of PKC during PTP. Pharmacological experiments show that a phosphatase normally limits the duration of PTP, and that PTP is initiated by the action of a ‘conventional’ PKC isoform. Thus, a dynamic PKC phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation cycle of Munc18-1 drives short-term enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01715.001 PMID:24520164

  6. Munc18-1 is a dynamically regulated PKC target during short-term enhancement of transmitter release.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ozgür; Kochubey, Olexiy; Toonen, Ruud F; Verhage, Matthijs; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2014-02-11

    Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of PKC phosphorylation during short-term enhancement has remained unknown. Here, we use a gene-replacement strategy at the calyx of Held, a large CNS model synapse that expresses robust PTP, to study the molecular mechanisms of PTP. We find that two PKC phosphorylation sites of Munc18-1 are critically important for PTP, which identifies the presynaptic target protein for the action of PKC during PTP. Pharmacological experiments show that a phosphatase normally limits the duration of PTP, and that PTP is initiated by the action of a 'conventional' PKC isoform. Thus, a dynamic PKC phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation cycle of Munc18-1 drives short-term enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01715.001.

  7. Autophosphorylation of the C2 domain inhibits translocation of the novel protein kinase C (nPKC) Apl II.

    PubMed

    Farah, Carole A; Lindeman, Amanda A; Siu, Vincent; Gupta, Micaela Das; Sossin, Wayne S

    2012-11-01

    Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are critical signaling molecules controlled by complex regulatory pathways. Herein, we describe an important regulatory role for C2 domain phosphorylation. Novel PKCs (nPKCs) contain an N-terminal C2 domain that cannot bind to calcium. Previously, we described an autophosphorylation site in the Aplysia novel PKC Apl II that increased the binding of the C2 domain to lipids. In this study, we show that the function of this phosphorylation is to inhibit PKC translocation. Indeed, a phosphomimetic serine-glutamic acid mutation reduced translocation of PKC Apl II while blocking phosphorylation with a serine-alanine mutation enhanced translocation and led to the persistence of the kinase at the membrane longer after the end of the stimulation. Consistent with a role for autophosphorylation in regulating kinase translocation, inhibiting PKC activity using bisindolymaleimide 1 increased physiological translocation of PKC Apl II, whereas inhibiting phosphatase activity using calyculin A inhibited physiological translocation of PKC Apl II in neurons. Our results suggest a major role for autophosphorylation-dependent regulation of translocation.

  8. Posttetanic potentiation critically depends on an enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion mediated by presynaptic PKC

    PubMed Central

    Korogod, Natalya; Lou, Xuelin; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Activity-dependent enhancement of transmitter release is a common form of presynaptic plasticity, but the underlying signaling mechanisms have remained largely unknown, perhaps because of the inaccessibility of most CNS nerve terminals. Here we investigated the signaling steps that underlie posttetanic potentiation (PTP), a form of presynaptic plasticity found at many CNS synapses. Direct whole-cell recordings from the large calyx of Held nerve terminals with the perforated patch-clamp technique showed that PTP was not mediated by changes in the presynaptic action potential waveform. Ca2+ imaging revealed a slight increase of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient during PTP (≈15%), which, however, was too small to explain a large part of PTP. The presynaptic PKC pathway was critically involved in PTP because (i) PTP was occluded by activation of PKC with phorbol esters, and (ii) PTP was largely (by approximately two-thirds) blocked by the PKC inhibitors, Ro31-8220 or bisindolylmaleimide. Activation of PKC during PTP most likely acts directly on the presynaptic release machinery, because in presynaptic Ca2+ uncaging experiments, activation of PKC by phorbol ester greatly increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion in a Ro31-8220-sensitive manner (≈300% with small Ca2+ uncaging stimuli), but only slightly increased presynaptic voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (≈15%). We conclude that a PKC-dependent increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of vesicle fusion is a key step in the enhancement of transmitter release during PTP. PMID:17884983

  9. BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells.

    PubMed

    Ishiai, M; Kurosaki, M; Pappu, R; Okawa, K; Ronko, I; Fu, C; Shibata, M; Iwamatsu, A; Chan, A C; Kurosaki, T

    1999-01-01

    Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.

  10. SKK4, a novel activator of stress-activated protein kinase-1 (SAPK1/JNK).

    PubMed

    Lawler, S; Cuenda, A; Goedert, M; Cohen, P

    1997-09-01

    A cDNA was cloned and expressed that encodes human stress-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (SKK4), a novel MAP kinase kinase family member whose mRNA is widely expressed in human tissues. SKK4 activated SAPK1/JNK in vitro, but not SAPK2a/p38, SAPK2b/p38beta, SAPK3/ERK6 or SAPK4. It appears to be the mammalian homologue of HEP, an activator of SAPK1/JNK in Drosophila. In human epithelial KB cells SKK4 and SKK1/MKK4 (another activator of SAPK1/JNK) were both activated by stressful stimuli, but only SKK4 was activated by proinflammatory cytokines. The identification of SKK4 explains why the major SAPK1/JNK activator detected in many mammalian cell extracts is chromatographically separable from SKK1/MKK4.

  11. The Lysosome Rupture-activated TAK1-JNK Pathway Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Lysosome rupture triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here we showed that the TAK1-JNK pathway, a MAPK signaling pathway, is activated through lysosome rupture and that this activation is necessary for the complete activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through the oligomerization of an adapter protein, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). We also revealed that the activation of the TAK1-JNK pathway is sustained through Ca2+ ions and that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II functions upstream of the TAK1-JNK pathway and specifically regulates lysosome rupture-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These data suggest a novel role for the TAK1-JNK pathway as a critical regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:25288801

  12. Suppression of ischemia in arterial occlusive disease by JNK-promoted native collateral artery development

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Kasmir; Sugamura, Koichi; Craige, Siobhan; Keaney, John F; Davis, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial occlusive diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Blood flow to the affected tissue must be restored quickly if viability and function are to be preserved. We report that disruption of the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) - cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in endothelial cells causes severe blockade of blood flow and failure to recover in the murine femoral artery ligation model of hindlimb ischemia. We show that the MLK-JNK pathway is required for the formation of native collateral arteries that can restore circulation following arterial occlusion. Disruption of the MLK-JNK pathway causes decreased Dll4/Notch signaling, excessive sprouting angiogenesis, and defects in developmental vascular morphogenesis. Our analysis demonstrates that the MLK-JNK signaling pathway is a key regulatory mechanism that protects against ischemia in arterial occlusive disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18414.001 PMID:27504807

  13. Hyperactivated JNK is a therapeutic target in pVHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    An, Jiabin; Liu, Huiren; Magyar, Clara E; Guo, Yanchuan; Veena, Mysore S; Srivatsan, Eri S; Huang, Jiaoti; Rettig, Matthew B

    2013-02-15

    Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), the major histologic subtype of RCC accounting for more than 80% of cases, are typified by biallelic inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. Although accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α) is the most well-studied effect of VHL inactivation, direct inhibition of HIFα or restoration of wild-type pVHL protein expression has not proved readily feasible, given the limitations associated with pharmacologic targeting of transcription factors (i.e., HIF-α) and gene replacement therapy of tumor suppressor genes (i.e., VHL). Here, we have established that phosphorylated c-Jun, a substrate of the c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase (JNK), is selectively activated in clear cell RCC patient specimens. Using multiple isogenic cell lines, we show that HIF-α-independent JNK hyperactivation is unique to the pVHL-deficient state. Importantly, pVHL-deficient RCCs are dependent upon JNK activity for in vitro and in vivo growth. A multistep signaling pathway that links pVHL loss to JNK activation involves the formation of a CARD9/BCL10/TRAF6 complex as a proximal signal to sequentially stimulate TAK1 (MAPKKK), MKK4 (MAPKK), and JNK (MAPK). JNK stimulates c-Jun phosphorylation, activation, and dimerization with c-Fos to form a transcriptionally competent AP1 complex that drives transcription of the Twist gene and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, JNK represents a novel molecular target that is selectively activated in and drives the growth of pVHL-deficient clear cell RCCs. These findings can serve as the preclinical foundation for directed efforts to characterize potent pharmacologic inhibitors of the JNK pathway for clinical translation.

  14. c-Jun localizes to the nucleus independent of its phosphorylation by and interaction with JNK and vice versa promotes nuclear accumulation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Ilona; Al-Rawi, Marco; Mingot, Jose-Manuel; Scholl, Christine; Diefenbacher, Markus Elmar; O'Donnell, Paul; Bohmann, Dirk; Weiss, Carsten

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} HSP70, Ku70 and 80 as well as importin 8 are novel interactors of c-Jun. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require its functions as a transcription factor. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require the interaction with its kinase JNK. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of JNK is regulated by interaction with c-Jun. -- Abstract: In order to activate gene expression, transcription factors such as c-Jun have to reside in the nucleus. The abundance of c-Jun in the nucleus correlates with the activity of its target genes. As a consequence of excessive c-Jun activation, cells undergo apoptosis or changes in differentiation whereas decreased c-Jun function can reduce proliferation. In the present study we addressed how nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor c-Jun is regulated. First, we analyzed which functions of c-Jun are required for efficient nuclear accumulation. Mutants of c-Jun deficient in dimerization or DNA-binding show no defect in nuclear transport. Furthermore, c-Jun import into the nucleus of living cells occurred when the c-Jun phosphorylation sites were mutated as well in cells that lack the major c-Jun kinase, JNK, suggesting that c-Jun transport into the nucleus does not require JNK signaling. Conversely, however, binding of c-Jun seemed to enhance nuclear accumulation of JNK. In order to identify proteins that might be relevant for the nuclear translocation of c-Jun we searched for novel binding partners by a proteomic approach. In addition to the heat shock protein HSP70 and the DNA damage repair factors Ku70 and 80, we isolated human importin 8 as a novel interactor of c-Jun. Interaction of Imp 8 with c-Jun in human cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Nuclear accumulation of c-Jun does not require its functions as a transcription factor or the interaction with its kinase JNK. Interestingly, nuclear accumulation of JNK is regulated by interaction with c-Jun. Unraveling the

  15. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is involved in immune defense against bacterial infection in Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fufa; Xiang, Zhiming; Xiao, Shu; Wang, Fuxuan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yuehuan; Qin, Yanping; Yu, Ziniu

    2017-02-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a universal and essential subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, which is highly conserved from yeast to mammals and functions in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report the first oyster JNK gene homolog (ChJNK) and its biological functions in the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. The ChJNK protein consists of 383 amino acids and contains a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase (S_TKc) domain with a typical TPY motif. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ChJNK shared a close evolutionary relationship with Crassostrea gigas JNK. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed broad expression patterns of ChJNK mRNA in various adult tissues and different embryonic and larval stages of C. hongkongensis. When exposed to Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus haemolyticus, ChJNK mRNA expression levels were significantly up-regulated in the hemocytes and gills in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, subcellular localization studies that ChJNK is a cytoplasm-localized protein, and that its overexpression could significantly enhance the transcriptional activities of AP-1-Luc in HEK293T cells. In summary, this study provided the first experimental demonstration that oysters possess a functional JNK that participates in host defense against bacterial infection in C. hongkongensis.

  16. Ultra Fine Particles from Diesel Engines Induce Vascular Oxidative Stress via JNK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultra fine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be pro-atherogenic in apoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induced vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intra-cellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O2·-) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry (FACS) showed that UFP increased MitoSOX Red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content is increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pre-treatment with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP stimulated O2·- production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation play an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression. PMID:19154785

  17. Ultrafine particles from diesel engines induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffery; Khalsa, Bhavraj; Ai, Lisong; Takabe, Wakako; Beebe, Tyler; Majumdar, Rohit; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2009-03-15

    Exposure to particulate air pollution is linked to increased incidences of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient ultrafine particles (UFP) from diesel vehicle engines have been shown to be proatherogenic in ApoE knockout mice and may constitute a major cardiovascular risk in humans. We posited that circulating nano-sized particles from traffic pollution sources induce vascular oxidative stress via JNK activation in endothelial cells. Diesel UFP were collected from a 1998 Kenworth truck. Intracellular superoxide assay revealed that these UFP dose-dependently induced superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Flow cytometry showed that UFP increased MitoSOX red intensity specific for mitochondrial superoxide. Protein carbonyl content was increased by UFP as an indication of vascular oxidative stress. UFP also up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tissue factor (TF) mRNA expression, and pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly decreased their expression. Furthermore, UFP transiently activated JNK in HAEC. Treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and silencing of both JNK1 and JNK2 with siRNA inhibited UFP-stimulated O(2)(-) production and mRNA expression of HO-1 and TF. Our findings suggest that JNK activation plays an important role in UFP-induced oxidative stress and stress response gene expression.

  18. JNK1 regulates histone acetylation in trigeminal neurons following chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Nauta, Haring J; Lin, Qing; Li, Junfa; Fang, Li

    2008-11-28

    Trigeminal nerve fibers in nasal and oral cavities are sensitive to various environmental hazardous stimuli, which trigger many neurotoxic problems such as chronic migraine headache and trigeminal irritated disorders. However, the role of JNK kinase cascade and its epigenetic modulation of histone remodeling in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons activated by environmental neurotoxins remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of JNK/c-Jun cascade in the regulation of acetylation of H3 histone in TG neurons following in vitro stimulation by a neuro-inflammatory agent, mustard oil (MO). We found that MO stimulation elicited JNK/c-Jun pathway significantly by enhancing phospho-JNK1, phospho-c-Jun expression, and c-Jun activity, which were correlated with an elevated acetylated H3 histone in TG neurons. However, increases in phospho-c-Jun and c-Jun activity were significantly blocked by a JNK inhibitor, SP600125. We also found that altered H3 histone remodeling, assessed by H3 acetylation in triggered TG neurons, was reduced by SP600125. The study suggests that the activated JNK signaling in regulation of histone remodeling may contribute to neuro-epigentic changes in peripheral sensory neurons following environmental neurotoxic exposure.

  19. Progressive age-associated activation of JNK associates with conduction disruption in the aged atrium.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra A; Lancaster, Matthew K

    2015-03-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) is critical for maintaining electrical conduction across atrial muscle. During progressive ageing atrial conduction slows associating with increasing susceptibility to arrhythmias. Changes in Cx43 protein expression, or its phosphorylation status, can instigate changes in the conduction of the cardiac action potential. This study investigated whether increased levels of activated c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is responsible for the decline of Cx43 during ageing. Right atria from guinea pigs aged between 1 day and 38 months of age were examined. The area of the intercalated disc increased with age concurrent with a 75% decline in C43 protein expression. An age-dependent increase in activated-JNK correlated with a rise in phosphorylated Cx43, but also slowing of action potential conduction velocity across the atria from 0.38±0.01 m/s at 1 month of age to 0.30±0.01 m/s at 38 months. The JNK activator anisomycin increased activated JNK in myocytes and reduced Cx43 protein expression simulating ageing. The JNK inhibitor SP600125, was found to eradicate almost all trace of Cx43 protein. We conclude that in vivo activation of JNK increases with age leading to the loss of Cx43 protein resulting in impaired conduction and contributing to the increasing risk of atrial arrhythmias with advancing age.

  20. Cordycepin promotes apoptosis by modulating the ERK-JNK signaling pathway via DUSP5 in renal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Hoo; Joo, Jong Cheon; Kim, Dae Joon; Jo, Eunbi; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Lee, Kyung-Bok; Park, Soo Jung; Jang, Ik-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling commonly occurs in tumors. The activation of ERK promotes cell proliferation, whereas that of JNK induces cell apoptosis. However, the apoptotic mechanism of ERK-JNK signaling in cancer is not well understood. Recently, we identified that apoptosis and activation of the JNK signaling pathway were induced after cordycepin treatment in human renal cancer, suggesting that JNK signaling might contribute to TK-10 cell apoptosis. We investigated the apoptotic effects of cordycepin by evaluating the activation of the ERK-JNK signaling pathway in renal cancer TK-10 cells. We found that cordycepin downregulated ERK and DUSP5, upregulated phosphorylated-JNK (p-JNK), and induced apoptosis. Moreover, we showed that siRNA-mediated inhibition of ERK downregulated DUSP5, whereas ERK overexpression upregulated DUSP5, and that DUSP5 knockdown by siRNA upregulated p-JNK. The JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 upregulated nuclear translocation of β-catenin, and downregulated Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling. Dkk1 knockdown by siRNA upregulated nuclear β-catenin, suggesting the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. DUSP5 overexpression in TK-10 cells decreased p-JNK and increased nuclear β-catenin. The decreased Bax activation markedly protected against cordycepin-induced apoptosis. Bax subfamily proteins induced apoptosis through caspase-3. Taken together, we show that JNK signaling activation by cordycepin mediated ERK inhibition, which might have induced Bax translocation and caspase-3 activation via regulation of DUSP5 in TK-10 cells, thereby promoting the apoptosis of TK-10 cells. Targeting ERK-JNK signaling via the apoptotic effects of cordycepin could be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat renal cancer. PMID:27648363

  1. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kurio, Naito; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Ikeda, Masahiko; Naomoto, Yoshio; Sasaki, Akira

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  2. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-dependent alteration of FAK/RhoA in the inhibition of HUVEC motility by 3-methylcholanthrene.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Shih-Ying; Lin, Heng; Li, Hsiao-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chou, Ying; Jen, Chih-Yu; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2009-10-01

    We previously demonstrated the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), an aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Herein, we unraveled its molecular mechanisms in inhibiting HUVEC motility. 3MC down-regulated FAK, but up-regulated RhoA, which was rescued by AhR knockdown. It led us to identify novel AhR binding sites in the FAK/RhoA promoters. Additionally, 3MC increased RhoA activity via suppression of a negative feedback pathway of FAK/p190RhoGAP. With an increase in membrane-bound RhoA, subsequent stress fiber and focal adhesion complex formation was observed in 3MC-treated cells, and this was reversed by a RhoA inhibitor and AhR antagonists. Notably, these compounds significantly reversed 3MC-mediated anti-migration in a transwell assay. The in vitro findings were further confirmed using an animal model of Matrigel formation in Balb/c mice. Collectively, AhR's genomic regulation of FAK/RhoA, together with RhoA activation, is ascribable to the anti-migration effect of 3MC in HUVECs.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking studies of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives possessing benzotriazole moiety as FAK inhibitors with anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Yin; He, Liang-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Ai-Qin; Yang, Yong-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-07-01

    1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives have drawn continuing interest over the years because of their varied biological activities. In order to search for novel anticancer agents, we designed and synthesized a series of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives containing benzotriazole moiety as potential focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds were firstly reported. Among the compounds, compound 4 shows the most potent inhibitory activity against MCF-7 and HT29 cell lines with IC50 values of 5.68 μg/ml and 10.21 μg/ml, respectively. Besides, all the compounds were assayed for FAK inhibitory activity using the TRAP-PCR-ELISA assay. The results showed compound 4 exhibited the most potent FAK inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 1.2±0.3 μM. Docking simulation by positioning compound 4 into the FAK structure active site was performed to explore the possible binding mode. Apoptosis which was analyzed by flow cytometry, demonstrated that compound 4 induced apoptosis against MCF-7 cells. Therefore, compound 4 may be a potential anticancer agent against MCF-7 cancer cell.

  4. Src and FAK kinases cooperate to phosphorylate paxillin kinase linker, stimulate its focal adhesion localization, and regulate cell spreading and protrusiveness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael C; Cary, Leslie A; Jamieson, Jennifer S; Cooper, Jonathan A; Turner, Christopher E

    2005-09-01

    The ArfGAP paxillin kinase linker (PKL)/G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein (GIT)2 has been implicated in regulating cell spreading and motility through its transient recruitment of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) to focal adhesions. The Nck-PAK-PIX-PKL protein complex is recruited to focal adhesions by paxillin upon integrin engagement and Rac activation. In this report, we identify tyrosine-phosphorylated PKL as a protein that associates with the SH3-SH2 adaptor Nck, in a Src-dependent manner, after cell adhesion to fibronectin. Both cell adhesion and Rac activation stimulated PKL tyrosine phosphorylation. PKL is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues 286/392/592 by Src and/or FAK and these sites are required for PKL localization to focal adhesions and for paxillin binding. The absence of either FAK or Src-family kinases prevents PKL phosphorylation and suppresses localization of PKL but not GIT1 to focal adhesions after Rac activation. Expression of an activated FAK mutant in the absence of Src-family kinases partially restores PKL localization, suggesting that Src activation of FAK is required for PKL phosphorylation and localization. Overexpression of the nonphosphorylated GFP-PKL Triple YF mutant stimulates cell spreading and protrusiveness, similar to overexpression of a paxillin mutant that does not bind PKL, suggesting that failure to recruit PKL to focal adhesions interferes with normal cell spreading and motility.

  5. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation.

  6. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  7. Inhibitory responses in Aplysia pleural sensory neurons act to block excitability, transmitter release, and PKC Apl II activation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Tyler W; Farah, Carole A; Sossin, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    Expression of the 5-HT(1Apl(a)) receptor in Aplysia pleural sensory neurons inhibited 5-HT-mediated translocation of the novel PKC Apl II in sensory neurons and prevented PKC-dependent synaptic facilitation at sensory to motoneuron synapses (Nagakura et al. 2010). We now demonstrate that the ability of inhibitory receptors to block PKC activation is a general feature of inhibitory receptors and is found after expression of the 5-HT(1Apl(b)) receptor and with activation of endogenous dopamine and FMRFamide receptors in sensory neurons. Pleural sensory neurons are heterogeneous for their inhibitory response to endogenous transmitters, with dopamine being the most prevalent, followed by FMRFamide, and only a small number of neurons with inhibitory responses to 5-HT. The inhibitory response is dominant, reduces membrane excitability and synaptic efficacy, and can reverse 5-HT facilitation at both naive and depressed synapses. Indeed, dopamine can reverse PKC translocation during the continued application of 5-HT. Reversal of translocation can also be seen after translocation mediated by an analog of diacylglycerol, suggesting inhibition is not through blockade of diacylglycerol production. The effects of inhibition on PKC translocation can be rescued by phosphatidic acid, consistent with the inhibitory response involving a reduction or block of production of this lipid. However, phosphatidic acid could not recover PKC-dependent synaptic facilitation due to an additional inhibitory effect on the non-L-type calcium flux linked to synaptic transmission. In summary, we find a novel mechanism downstream of inhibitory receptors linked to inhibition of PKC activation in Aplysia sensory neurons.

  8. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of three novel F-18 labeled and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) targeted 5-bromo pyrimidines as radiotracers for tumor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Xingyu; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Aiqin; Li, Xiang; Xue, Qianqian; Wang, Huan; Wang, Hang; Zhang, Huabei

    2017-02-15

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is considered as an attractive target for oncology. A series of F-18 labeled 5-bromo-N(2)-(4-(2-fluoro-pegylated (FPEG))-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N(4)-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine derivatives were prepared and evaluated as the FAK targeted radiotracers for the early diagnoses of tumor. For the study of the FAK targeted drug molecules, this was the first attempt to develop the tumor diagnostic imaging agents on the radiopharmaceutical level. They inhibited the activity of FAK with IC50 in the range of 91.4-425.7 nM, and among which the result of the [(19)F]2 was relatively good and had a modest IC50 of 91.4 nM. The [(19)F]2 was also profiled in vitro against some other kinds of cancer-related kinases (including two kinds of non-receptor tyrosine kinase: PYK2 and JAK2, and three kinds of receptor tyrosine kinase: IGF-1R, EGFR and PDGFRβ). It displayed 25.2 folds selectivity against PYK2, 35.1 folds selectivity against EGFR, and more than 100 folds selectivity against IGF-1R, JAK2 and PDGFRβ. For the biodistribution in S180 bearing mice, the corresponding [(18)F]2 were also relatively good, with modest tumor uptake of 5.47 ± 0.19 and 5.80 ± 0.06 %ID/g at 15 and 30 min post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, its tumor/muscle, tumor/bone and tumor/blood ratio at 15 min post-injection were 3.16, 2.53 and 4.52, respectively. And its tumor/muscle, tumor/bone and tumor/blood ratio at 30 min post-injection were 3.14, 2.76 and 4.43, respectively. In addition, coronal micro-PET/CT images of a mouse bearing S180 tumor clearly confirmed that [(18)F]2 could be accumulated in tumor, especially at 30 min post-injection. Besides, for the [(18)F]2, both the biodistribution data and the micro-PET/CT imaging study showed significantly reduced uptake of the radiotracer in the tumor tissue at 30 min post-injection in mice that received PF-562,271 (one of the reported best selective FAK inhibitor which was developed by Pfitzer Inc. and

  9. Serotonin receptor antagonists discriminate between PKA- and PKC-mediated plasticity in aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Dumitriu, Bogdan; Cohen, Jonathan E; Wan, Qin; Negroiu, Andreea M; Abrams, Thomas W

    2006-04-01

    Highly selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor antagonists developed for mammals are ineffective in Aplysia due to the evolutionary divergence of neurotransmitter receptors and because the higher ionic strength of physiological saline for marine invertebrates reduces antagonist affinity. It has therefore been difficult to identify antagonists that specifically block individual signaling cascades initiated by 5-HT. We studied two broad-spectrum 5-HT receptor antagonists that have been characterized biochemically in Aplysia CNS: methiothepin and spiperone. Methiothepin is highly effective in inhibiting adenylyl cyclase (AC)-coupled 5-HT receptors in Aplysia. Spiperone, which blocks phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled 5-HT receptors in mammals, does not block AC-coupled 5-HT receptors in Aplysia. In electrophysiological studies, we explored whether methiothepin and spiperone can be used in parallel to distinguish between the AC-cAMP and PLC-protein kinase C (PKC) modulatory cascades that are initiated by 5-HT. 5-HT-induced broadening of the sensory neuron action potential in the presence of tetraethylammonium/nifedipine, which is mediated by modulation of the S-K+ currents, was used an assay for the AC-cAMP cascade. Spike broadening initiated by 5 microM 5-HT was unaffected by 100 microM spiperone, whereas it was effectively blocked by 100 microM methiothepin. Facilitation of highly depressed sensory neuron-to-motor neuron synapses by 5-HT was used as an assay for the PLC-PKC cascade. Spiperone completely blocked facilitation of highly depressed synapses by 5 microM 5-HT. In contrast, methiothepin produced a modest, nonsignificant, reduction in the facilitation of depressed synapses. Interestingly, these experiments revealed that the PLC-PKC cascade undergoes desensitization during exposure to 5-HT.

  10. Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Min; Miao, Yanying; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2010-07-15

    In vertebrate retina, melatonin regulates various physiological functions. In this work we investigated the mechanisms underlying melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunofluorescence double labelling showed that rat RGCs were solely immunoreactive to melatonin MT(2) receptors. Melatonin potentiated glycine currents of RGCs, which was reversed by the MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. The melatonin effect was blocked by intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S. Either preincubation with pertussis toxin or application of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor D609, but not the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-PLC inhibitor U73122, blocked the melatonin effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA potentiated the glycine currents and in the presence of PMA melatonin failed to cause further potentiation of the currents, whereas application of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV abolished the melatonin-induced potentiation. The melatonin effect persisted when [Ca(2+)](i) was chelated by BAPTA, and melatonin induced no increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Neither cAMP-PKA nor cGMP-PKG signalling pathways seemed to be involved because 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP failed to cause potentiation of the glycine currents and both the PKA inhibitor H-89 and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not block the melatonin-induced potentiation. In consequence, a distinct PC-PLC/PKC signalling pathway, following the activation of G(i/o)-coupled MT(2) receptors, is most likely responsible for the melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of rat RGCs. Furthermore, in rat retinal slices melatonin potentiated light-evoked glycine receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RGCs. These results suggest that melatonin, being at higher levels at night, may help animals to detect positive or negative contrast in night vision by modulating inhibitory signals largely mediated by glycinergic amacrine cells in the inner

  11. Activation of p38 and JNK MAPK pathways abrogates requirement for new protein synthesis for phorbol ester mediated induction of select MMP and TIMP genes.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara L; Nuttall, Robert K; Young, David A; Goldspink, Deborah; Clark, Ian M; Edwards, Dylan R

    2008-03-01

    The human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family includes 24 genes whose regulated expression, together with that of four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is essential in tissue remodelling and cell signalling. Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) analysis was used to evaluate the shared and unique patterns of control of these two gene families in human MRC-5 and WI-38 fibroblasts in response to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The requirement for ongoing translation was analysed using three protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin, cycloheximide and emetine. PMA induced MMP1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and TIMP1 and TIMP3 RNAs after 4-8 h, and induction of all except MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by all protein synthesis inhibitors. However, even though all inhibitors effectively blocked translation, PMA-induction of MMP9 and TIMP3 was blocked by emetine but was insensitive to cycloheximide and anisomycin. Anisomycin alone induced MMP9 and TIMP3, along with MMP25 and MMP19. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)-1/2 were strongly activated by PMA, while anisomycin activated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways, and cycloheximide activated p38, but emetine had no effect on the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The involvement of the p38 and JNK pathways in the selective effects of anisomycin and cycloheximide on MMP/TIMP expression was supported by use of pharmacological inhibitors. These data confirm that most inducible MMPs and TIMP1 behave as "late" activated, protein synthesis-dependent genes in fibroblasts. However, the requirement of protein synthesis for PMA-induction of MMPs and TIMPs is not universal, since it is abrogated for MMP9 and TIMP3 by stimulation of the stress-activated MAPK pathways. The definition of clusters of co-regulated genes among the two gene families will aid in bioinformatic dissection of control mechanisms.

  12. Downregulation of transient K+ channels in dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by activation of PKA and PKC.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D A; Johnston, D

    1998-05-15

    We have reported recently a high density of transient A-type K+ channels located in the distal dendrites of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons and shown that these channels shape EPSPs, limit the back-propagation of action potentials, and prevent dendritic action potential initiation (). Because of the importance of these channels in dendritic signal propagation, their modulation by protein kinases would be of significant interest. We investigated the effects of activators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase (PKC) on K+ channels in cell-attached patches from the distal dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Inclusion of the membrane-permeant PKA activators 8-bromo-cAMP (8-br-cAMP) or forskolin in the dendritic patch pipette resulted in a depolarizing shift in the activation curve for the transient channels of approximately 15 mV. Activation of PKC by either of two phorbol esters also resulted in a 15 mV depolarizing shift of the activation curve. Neither PKA nor PKC activation affected the sustained or slowly inactivating component of the total outward current. This downregulation of transient K+ channels in the distal dendrites may be responsible for some of the frequently reported increases in cell excitability found after PKA and PKC activation. In support of this hypothesis, we found that activation of either PKA or PKC significantly increased the amplitude of back-propagating action potentials in distal dendrites.

  13. PKC-Dependent GlyT1 Ubiquitination Occurs Independent of Phosphorylation: Inespecificity in Lysine Selection for Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Susana P.; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Trinidad, Margarita; Robles-Escajeda, Elisa; Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Miranda, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporter ubiquitination is emerging as the main mechanism for endocytosis and sorting of cargo into lysosomes. In this study, we demonstrate PKC-dependent ubiquitination of three different isoforms of the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Incubation of cells expressing transporter with the PKC activator phorbol ester induced a dramatic, time-dependent increase in GlyT1 ubiquitination, followed by accumulation of GlyT1 in EEA1 positive early endosomes. This occurred via a mechanism that was abolished by inhibition of PKC. GlyT1 endocytosis was confirmed in both retinal sections and primary cultures of mouse amacrine neurons. Replacement of only all lysines in the N-and C-termini to arginines prevented ubiquitination and endocytosis, displaying redundancy in the mechanism of ubiquitination. Interestingly, a 40–50% reduction in glycine uptake was detected in phorbol-ester stimulated cells expressing the WT-GlyT1, whereas no significant change was for the mutant protein, demonstrating that endocytosis participates in the reduction of uptake. Consistent with previous findings for the dopamine transporter DAT, ubiquitination of GlyT1 tails functions as sorting signal to deliver transporter into the lysosome and removal of ubiquitination sites dramatically attenuated the rate of GlyT1 degradation. Finally, we showed for the first time that PKC-dependent GlyT1 phosphorylation was not affected by removal of ubiquitination sites, suggesting separate PKC-dependent signaling events for these posttranslational modifications. PMID:26418248

  14. Importance of PKC and PI3Ks in ethanol-induced contraction of cerebral arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z W; Wang, J; Zheng, T; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the relationships of two potential intracellular signaling pathways, protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks), to ethanol-induced contractions in cerebral arteries. Ethanol (20-200 mM) induces concentration-dependent constriction in isolated canine basilar arteries that is inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by pretreatment of these vessels with 10(-9)-10(-3) M Gö-6976 (an antagonist selective for PKC-alpha and PKC-betaI), 10(-10)-10(-4) M bisindolylmaleimide I (a specific antagonist of PKC), and 10(-10)-10(-4) M wortmannin or 10(-8)-10(-2) M LY-294002 (selective antagonists of PI3Ks). Ethanol-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (from approximately 100 to approximately 500 nM) in canine basilar smooth muscle cells are also suppressed markedly (approximately 20-70%) in the presence of a similar concentration range of Gö-6976, bisindolymaleimide I, wortmannin, or LY-294002. This study suggests that activation of PKC isoforms and PI3Ks appears to be an important signaling pathway in ethanol-induced vasoconstriction of cerebral blood vessels.

  15. Aloe-emodin modulates PKC isozymes, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in U-373MG glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Russell, Christopher; Patel, Sapna; Patel, Rekha

    2004-12-20

    Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroy-3-[hydroxymethyl]-anthraquione) purified from Aloe vera leaves has been reported to have antitumor activity. The objectives of our research were to determine how aloe-emodin regulates the cell cycle, cell proliferation and protein kinase C (PKC) during glioma growth and development. To establish the cell cycle effects of aloe-emodin on brain cells [transformed glia cell line (SVG) and human glioma U-373MG cell line (U-373MG)], cells were treated with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; control) or aloe-emodin (40 microM). Results from flow cytometry demonstrated that aloe-emodin delayed the number of cells entering and exiting DNA synthesis (S) phase in both SVG and U-373MG cells indicating that aloe-emodin may inhibit S phase progression. Assessment of cell viability demonstrated that SVG and U-373MG glioma cell were highly sensitive to aloe-emodin. The aloe-emodin-induced decreased proliferation was sustained at 48-96 h. A PKC activity assay was quantified to establish the role of PKC in aloe-emodin's mode of action. Exposure of SVG and U-373MG glioma cells to aloe-emodin suppressed PKC activity and reduced the protein content of most of the PKC isozymes. We determined that cancer growth inhibition by aloe-emodin was due to apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death). Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that aloe-emodin represents a novel antitumor chemotherapeutic drug.

  16. Clueless regulates aPKC activity and promotes self-renewal cell fate in Drosophila lgl mutant larval brains.

    PubMed

    Goh, Li Hui; Zhou, Xiu; Lee, Mei Chin; Lin, Shuping; Wang, Huashan; Luo, Yan; Yang, Xiaohang

    2013-09-15

    Asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neural stem cells or neuroblasts is an important process which gives rise to two different daughter cells, one of which is the stem cell itself and the other, a committed or differentiated daughter cell. During neuroblast asymmetric division, atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) activity is tightly regulated; aberrant levels of activity could result in tumorigenesis in third instar larval brain. We identified clueless (clu), a genetic interactor of parkin (park), as a novel regulator of aPKC activity. It preferentially binds to the aPKC/Bazooka/Partition Defective 6 complex and stabilizes aPKC levels. In clu mutants, Miranda (Mira) and Numb are mislocalized in small percentages of dividing neuroblasts. Adult mutants are short-lived with severe locomotion defects. Clu promotes tumorigenesis caused by loss of function of lethal(2) giant larvae (lgl) in the larval brain. Removal of clu in lgl mutants rescues Mira and Numb mislocalization and restores the enlarged brain size. Western blot analyses indicate that the rescue is due to the down-regulation of aPKC levels in the lgl clu double mutant. Interestingly, the phenotype of the park mutant, which causes Parkinson's Disease-like symptoms in adult flies, is reminiscent of that of clu in neuroblast asymmetric division. Our study provides the first clue for the potential missing pathological link between temporally separated neurogenesis and neurodegeneration events; the minor defects during early neurogenesis could be a susceptible factor contributing to neurodegenerative diseases at later stages of life.

  17. Amoebic PI3K and PKC is required for Jurkat T cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-08-01

    The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of human amebiasis. During infection, adherence of E. histolytica through Gal/GalNAc lectin on the surface of the amoeba can induce caspase-3-dependent or -independent host cell death. Phosphorylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) in E. histolytica play an important function in the adhesion, killing, or phagocytosis of target cells. In this study, we examined the role of amoebic PI3K and PKC in amoeba-induced apoptotic cell death in Jurkat T cells. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were markedly increased compared to those of cells incubated with medium alone. However, when amoebae were pretreated with a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin before being incubated with E. histolytica, E. histolytica-induced PS externalization and DNA fragmentation in Jurkat cells were significantly reduced compared to results for amoebae pretreated with DMSO. In addition, pretreatment of amoebae with a PKC inhibitor, staurosporine strongly inhibited Jurkat T cell death. However, E. histolytica-induced cleavage of caspase-3, -6, and -7 were not inhibited by pretreatment of amoebae with wortmannin or staurosporin. In addition, we found that amoebic PI3K and PKC have an important role on amoeba adhesion to host compartment. These results suggest that amebic PI3K and PKC activation may play an important role in caspase-independent cell death in Entamoeba-induced apoptosis.

  18. Translocation of PKC-betaII is mediated via RACK-1 in the neuronal cells following dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Kim, Sun-Young; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Ki-Yeon; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2007-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to induce neurotoxic effects. However, the mechanism of TCDD-mediated signaling pathways and its possible molecular targets in neurons remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed effects of TCDD on neurofilament subunits, receptor for activated C kinase-1 (RACK-1), and PKC-betaII activity in developing neuronal cells. TCDD induced a significant increase of RACK-1, an adaptor protein for protein kinase C (PKC), in cerebellar granule cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner, indicating that RACK-1 is a sensitive molecular target in neuronal cells for TCDD exposure. TCDD induced a dose-dependent translocation of PKC-betaII from cytosol to membrane fractions. However, when RACK-1 induction was blocked by antisense oligonucleotide or alpha-naphthoflavone, Ah receptor (AhR) inhibitor, the translocation of PKC-betaII was inhibited. Our data suggests that TCDD activates PKC-betaII via RACK-1 in an AhR-dependent manner. This is the first report identifying RACK-1 as a target molecule involved in TCDD-mediated signaling pathways. TCDD exposure also increased the level of neurofilament-H mRNA. These results suggest that identification of target molecules may contribute to improve our understanding of TCDD-mediated signaling pathway and the risk assessment of TCDD-induced neurotoxicities.

  19. Heat induces interleukin-6 in skeletal muscle cells via TRPV1/PKC/CREB pathways.

    PubMed

    Obi, Syotaro; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Oguri, Gaku; Takahashi, Masao; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Masashi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Tei, Chuwa; Inoue, Teruo

    2017-03-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is released from skeletal muscle cells and induced by exercise, heat, catecholamine, glucose, lipopolysaccharide, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation. However, the mechanism that induces release of IL-6 from skeletal muscle cells remains unknown. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins such as TRPV1-4 play vital roles in cellular functions. In this study we hypothesized that TRPV1 senses heat, transmits a signal into the nucleus, and produces IL-6. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the underlying mechanisms whereby skeletal muscle cells sense and respond to heat. When mouse myoblast cells were exposed to 37-42°C for 2 h, mRNA expression of IL-6 increased in a temperature-dependent manner. Heat also increased IL-6 secretion in myoblast cells. A fura 2 fluorescence dual-wavelength excitation method showed that heat increased intracellular calcium flux in a temperature-dependent manner. Intracellular calcium flux and IL-6 mRNA expression were increased by the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and N-arachidonoyldopamine and decreased by the TRPV1 antagonists AMG9810 and SB366791 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TRPV1. TRPV2, 3, and 4 agonists did not change intracellular calcium flux. Western blotting with inhibitors demonstrated that heat increased phosphorylation levels of TRPV1, followed by PKC and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). PKC inhibitors, Gö6983 and staurosporine, CREB inhibitors, curcumin and naphthol AS-E, and knockdown of CREB suppressed the heat-induced increases in IL-6. These results indicate that heat increases IL-6 in skeletal muscle cells through the TRPV1, PKC, and CREB signal transduction pathway.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Heat increases the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from skeletal muscle cells. IL-6 has been shown to serve immune responses and metabolic functions in muscle. It can be anti-inflammatory as well as proinflammatory. However, the mechanism that induces release of IL-6

  20. G protein-coupled receptor signaling through Gq and JNK negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Norikazu; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Sato, Maiko; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Yamauchi, Junji; Kurose, Hitoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In the early development of the central nervous system, neural progenitor cells divide in an asymmetric manner and migrate along the radial glia cells. The radial migration is an important process for the proper lamination of the cerebral cortex. Recently, a new mode of the radial migration was found at the intermediate zone where the neural progenitor cells become multipolar and reduce the migration rate. However, the regulatory signals for the radial migration are unknown. Using the migration assay in vitro, we examined how neural progenitor cell migration is regulated. Neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic mouse telencephalon migrated on laminin-coated dishes. Endothelin (ET)-1 inhibited the neural progenitor cell migration. This ET-1 effect was blocked by BQ788, a specific inhibitor of the ETB receptor, and by the expression of a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Gαq but not Gαi. The expression of constitutively active mutant of Gαq, GαqR183C, inhibited the migration of neural progenitor cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ET-1 was suppressed by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the expression of the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, a specific inhibitor of the JNK pathway. Using the slice culture system of embryonic brain, we demonstrated that ET-1 and the constitutively active mutant of Gαq caused the retention of the neural progenitor cells in the intermediate zone and JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1 abrogated the effect of ET-1. These results indicated that G protein-coupled receptor signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration through Gq and JNK. PMID:16116085

  1. JNK pathway may be involved in isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the hippocampi of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujuan; Wang, Fei; Liu, Chuiliang; Zeng, Minting; Han, Xue; Luo, Tao; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Jie; Wang, Huaqiao

    2013-06-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that isoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, can induce widespread apoptosis in the neonatal animal brains and result in persistent cognitive impairment. Isoflurane-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis may be involved in this neurodegeneration. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling can regulate the expression of the Bcl-2 family members that modulates mitochondrial membrane integrity. Therefore, we hypothesize that JNK signaling pathway activation contributes to isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the brain. In this study, Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats at postnatal day 7 were exposed to 1.1% isoflurane or air for 4h. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 at 5 μg, 10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg or the vehicle was intraventricularly administered before the exposure. Neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampi of neonatal rats was detected by TUNEL 6h after isoflurane or air exposure. The protein expression of phospho-JNK, phospho-c-Jun, and caspase-3 as well as the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β pathway was detected by Western blotting. Isoflurane significantly increased apoptotic cells in the hippocampal CA1, CA3, and DG regions. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced neuronal apoptosis and increase of caspase-3 and phospho-JNK. SP600125 also attenuated isoflurane-induced down-regulation of Bcl-xL and maintained the activated Akt level to increase the phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9. Our results indicate that JNK activation contributes to isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Maintaining Bcl-xL and Akt activation may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of SP600125.

  2. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo He, Qiaojun

    2014-01-15

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  3. Sab (Sh3bp5) dependence of JNK mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in palmitic acid induced hepatocyte lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Le, Bao Han Allison; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Sustained JNK activation by saturated fatty acids plays a role in lipotoxicity and the pathogenesis of NASH. We have reported that the interaction of JNK with mitochondrial Sab leads to inhibition of respiration, increased ROS, cell death and hepatotoxicity. We tested whether this pathway underlies palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Methods Primary mouse hepatocytes from adeno-shlacZ or adeno-shSab treated mice and Huh7 cells were used. Results In PMH, PA dose dependently up to 1mM stimulated oxygen consumption rate (OCR) due to mitochondrial β-oxidation. At ≥ 1.5mM, PA gradually reduced OCR, followed by cell death. Inhibition of JNK, caspases or treatment with antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) protected PMH against cell death. Sab knockdown or a membrane permeable Sab blocking peptide prevented PA-induced mitochondrial impairment, but inhibited only the late phase of both JNK activation (beyond 4 hours) and cell death. PA increased P-PERK and downstream target CHOP in PMH but failed to activate the IRE-1α arm of the UPR. However, Sab silencing did not affect PA-induced PERK activation. Conversely, specific inhibition of PERK prevented JNK activation and cell death, indicating a major role upstream of JNK activation. Conclusions The effect of P-JNK on mitochondria plays a key role in PA-mediated lipotoxicity. The interplay of P-JNK with mitochondrial Sab leads to impaired respiration, ROS production, sustained JNK activation, and apoptosis. PMID:25666017

  4. JNK contributes to temozolomide resistance of stem-like glioblastoma cells via regulation of MGMT expression.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masashi; Sato, Atsushi; Shibuya, Keita; Watanabe, Eriko; Seino, Shizuka; Suzuki, Shuhei; Seino, Manabu; Narita, Yoshitaka; Shibui, Soichiro; Kayama, Takamasa; Kitanaka, Chifumi

    2014-02-01

    While elimination of the cancer stem cell population is increasingly recognized as a key to successful treatment of cancer, the high resistance of cancer stem cells to conventional chemoradiotherapy remains a therapeutic challenge. O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which is frequently expressed in cancer stem cells of glioblastoma, has been implicated in their resistance to temozolomide, the first-line chemotherapeutic agent against newly diagnosed glioblastoma. However, much remains unknown about the molecular regulation that underlies MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Here, we identified JNK as a novel player in the control of MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cancer stem cells. We showed that inhibition of JNK, either pharmacologically or by RNA interference, in stem-like glioblastoma cells derived directly from glioblastoma tissues reduces their MGMT expression and temozolomide resistance. Importantly, sensitization of stem-like glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by JNK inhibition was dependent on MGMT expression, implying that JNK controls temozolomide resistance of stem-like glioblastoma cells through MGMT expression. Our findings suggest that concurrent use of JNK inhibitors with temozolomide may be a rational therapeutic approach to effectively target the cancer stem cell population in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  5. Novel mechanism of JNK pathway activation by adenoviral E1A.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Vasily S; Brichkina, Anna I; Morrison, Helen; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A; Herrlich, Peter

    2014-04-30

    The adenoviral oncoprotein E1A influences cellular regulation by interacting with a number of cellular proteins. In collaboration with complementary oncogenes, E1A fully transforms primary cells. As part of this action, E1A inhibits transcription of c-Jun:Fos target genes while promoting that of c-Jun:ATF2-dependent genes including jun. Both c-Jun and ATF2 are hyperphosphorylated in response to E1A. In the current study, E1A was fused with the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor (E1A-ER) to monitor the immediate effect of E1A activation. With this approach we now show that E1A activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the upstream kinases MKK4 and MKK7, as well as the small GTPase Rac1. Activation of the JNK pathway requires the N-terminal domain of E1A, and, importantly, is independent of transcription. In addition, it requires the presence of ERM proteins. Downregulation of signaling components upstream of JNK inhibits E1A-dependent JNK/c-Jun activation. Taking these findings together, we show that E1A activates the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway upstream of Rac1 in a transcription-independent manner, demonstrating a novel mechanism of E1A action.

  6. Co-Targeting of JNK and HUNK in Resistant HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Phelps-Polirer, Kendall; Abt, Melissa A; Smith, Danzell; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for successful primary treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer include use of the HER2 inhibitors trastuzumab or lapatinib in combination with standard chemotherapy. While successful, many patients develop resistance to these HER2 inhibitors indicating an unmet need. Consequently, current research efforts are geared toward understanding mechanisms of resistance and the signaling modalities that regulate these mechanisms. We have undertaken a study to examine whether signaling molecules downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor, which often act as compensatory signaling outlets to circumvent HER2 inhibition, can be co-targeted to overcome resistance. We identified JNK signaling as a potential area of intervention and now show that inhibiting JNK using the pan-JNK inhibitor, SP600125, is effective in the HER2-positive, resistant JIMT-1 xenograft mammary tumor model. We also investigate potential combination strategies to bolster the effects of JNK inhibition and find that co-targeting of JNK and the protein kinase HUNK can prohibit tumor growth of resistant HER2-positive mammary tumors in vivo.

  7. Co-Targeting of JNK and HUNK in Resistant HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phelps-Polirer, Kendall; Abt, Melissa A.; Smith, Danzell; Yeh, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for successful primary treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer include use of the HER2 inhibitors trastuzumab or lapatinib in combination with standard chemotherapy. While successful, many patients develop resistance to these HER2 inhibitors indicating an unmet need. Consequently, current research efforts are geared toward understanding mechanisms of resistance and the signaling modalities that regulate these mechanisms. We have undertaken a study to examine whether signaling molecules downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor, which often act as compensatory signaling outlets to circumvent HER2 inhibition, can be co-targeted to overcome resistance. We identified JNK signaling as a potential area of intervention and now show that inhibiting JNK using the pan-JNK inhibitor, SP600125, is effective in the HER2-positive, resistant JIMT-1 xenograft mammary tumor model. We also investigate potential combination strategies to bolster the effects of JNK inhibition and find that co-targeting of JNK and the protein kinase HUNK can prohibit tumor growth of resistant HER2-positive mammary tumors in vivo. PMID:27045589

  8. Activation of amygdaloid PKC pathway is necessary for conditioned cues-provoked cocaine memory performance.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Ting; Fan, Hsin-Yi; Cherng, Chianfang G; Chiang, Chih-Yuan; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Yu, Lung

    2008-07-01

    Drug-associated cues are critical in reinstating the drug taking behavior even during prolonged abstinence and thus are thought to be a key factor to induce drug craving and to cause relapse. Amygdaloid complex has been known for its physiological function in mediating emotional experience storage and emotional cues-regulated memory retrieval. This study was undertaken to examine the role of basolateral nuclei of amygdala and the intracellular signaling molecule in drug cues-elicited cocaine memory retrieval. Systemic anisomycin treatment prior to the retrieval test abolished the cues-provoked cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) memory. Likewise, a similar blockade of cues-provoked cocaine CPP performance was achieved by infusion of anisomycin and cycloheximide into the basolateral nuclei of amygdala before the test. Intra-amygdaloid infusion of H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, or U0126, a MEK inhibitor, did not affect retrieval of the cues-elicited cocaine CPP memory. In contrast, intra-amygdaloid infusion of NPC 15437, a PKC inhibitor, abolished the cues-elicited cocaine CPP expression, while left the memory per se intact. Intra-amygdaloid infusion of NPC 15437 did not seem to affect locomotor activity or exert observable aversive effect. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of PKC signaling pathway and probably downstream de novo protein synthesis in the basolateral nuclei of amygdala is required for the cues-elicited cocaine memory performance. However, temporary inhibition of this signaling pathway does not seem to affect cocaine CPP memory per se.

  9. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Colomb, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment), one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning), may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity. PMID:27168980

  10. Effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} inhibitor, on TLR-4-dependent activation of murine microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jeong, Min-Woo; Baek, Nam-in; Kim, Kyong-Tai . E-mail: ktk@postech.ac.kr

    2005-11-11

    In microglia, Toll-like receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiate innate immune responses upon interaction with infectious agents. The effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} specific inhibitor, on TLR-4-mediated signaling was investigated in murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and taxol. Pretreatment of microglia cells with rottlerin decreased LPS- and taxol-induced nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 99.1 {+-} 1.5 nM). Through MTT and FACS analysis, we found that the inhibition effect of rottlerin was not due to microglial cell death. Rottlerin pretreatment also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and expression of type II nitric oxide synthase. In addition, microglial phagocytosis in response to TLR-4 activation was diminished in which rottlerin was pretreated. Together, these data raise the possibility that certain PKC-{delta} specific inhibitors can modulate TLR-4-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and can alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases in central nervous system.

  11. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by lipoxygenase metabolites depends on PKC phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Hazan, Adina; Geron, Matan; Steinberg, Rebbeca; Livni, Lital; Matzner, Henry; Priel, Avi

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral neuronal activation by inflammatory mediators is a multifaceted physiological response that involves a multitude of regulated cellular functions. One key pathway that has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain is Gq/GPCR, whose activation by inflammatory mediators is followed by the regulated response of the cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). However, the mechanism that underlies TRPV1 activation downstream of the Gq/GPCR pathway has yet to be fully defined. In this study, we employ pharmacological and molecular biology tools to dissect this activation mechanism via perforated-patch recordings and calcium imaging of both neurons and a heterologous system. We showed that TRPV1 activity downstream of Gq/GPCR activation only produced a subdued current, which was noticeably different from the robust current that is typical of TRPV1 activation by exogenous stimuli. Moreover, we specifically demonstrated that 2 pathways downstream of Gq/GPCR signaling, namely endovanilloid production by lipoxygenases and channel phosphorylation by PKC, converge on TRPV1 to evoke a tightly regulated response. Of importance, we show that only when both pathways are acting on TRPV1 is the inflammatory-mediated response achieved. We propose that the requirement of multiple signaling events allows subdued TRPV1 activation to evoke regulated neuronal response during inflammation.-Kumar R., Hazan, A., Geron, M., Steinberg, R., Livni, L., Matzner, H., Priel, A. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by lipoxygenase metabolites depends on PKC phosphorylation.

  12. Protein synthesis required for long-term memory is induced by PKC activation on days before associative learning.

    PubMed

    Alkon, Daniel L; Epstein, Herman; Kuzirian, Alan; Bennett, M Catherine; Nelson, Thomas J

    2005-11-08

    Protein synthesis has long been known to be required for associative learning to consolidate into long-term memory. Here we demonstrate that PKC isozyme activation on days before training can induce the synthesis of proteins necessary and sufficient for subsequent long-term memory consolidation. Bryostatin (Bryo), a macrolide lactone with efficacy in subnanomolar concentrations and a potential therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease, is a potent activator of PKC, some of whose isozymes undergo prolonged activation after associative learning. Under normal conditions, two training events with paired visual and vestibular stimuli cause short-term memory of the mollusc Hermissenda that lasts approximately 7 min. However, after 4-h exposures to Bryo (0.25 ng/ml) on two preceding days, the same two training events produced long-term conditioning that lasted >1 week and that was not blocked by anisomycin (1 mug/ml). Anisomycin, however, eliminated long-term memory lasting at least 1 week after nine training events. Both the nine training events alone and two Bryo exposures plus two training event regimens caused comparably increased levels of the PKC alpha-isozyme substrate calexcitin in identified type B neurons and enhanced PKC activity in the membrane fractions. Furthermore, Bryo increased overall protein synthesis in cultured mammalian neurons by up to 60% for >3 days. The specific PKC antagonist Ro-32-0432 blocked much of this Bryo-induced protein synthesis as well as the Bryo-induced enhancement of the behavioral conditioning. Thus, Bryo-induced PKC activation produces those proteins necessary and sufficient for long-term memory on days in advance of the training events themselves.

  13. Effects of PKC412, nilotinib and imatinib against GIST-associated PDGFRA mutants with differential imatinib sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Wright, Renee D.; Jiang, Jingrui; Ray, Arghya; Moreno, Daisy; Manley, Paul W.; Fabbro, Doriano; Hall-Meyers, Elizabeth; Catley, Laurie; Podar, Klaus; Kung, Andrew L.; Griffin, James D.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims Activating mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) have been reported in a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients who do not express mutant stem cell factor receptor, c-KIT. The responsiveness of mutant PDGFRA-positive GIST to imatinib depends on the location of the PDGFRA mutation; for example, the V561D juxtamembrane domain mutation is more sensitive to imatinib than the D842V kinase domain mutation. In this study, we compare the effects of three tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PKC412 and nilotinib, and imatinib, on two GIST-related PDGFRA mutants, V561D and D842V, which possess differential sensitivity to imatinib. Methods The effects of PKC412, nilotinib, and imatinib, alone and in combination, were evaluated via in vitro proliferation studies performed with V561D- or D842V-PDGFRA mutants. The effects of nilotinib and PKC412, alone and combined, were investigated in vivo. Results PKC412 potently inhibited the V561D-PDGFRA mutant in vitro and the D842V-PDGFRA mutant in vitro and in vivo. Both imatinib and nilotinib displayed potent activity in vitro against the V561D-PDGFRA mutant, but were significantly less efficacious against D842V-PDGFRA. However, when combined with either imatinib or PKC412, nilotinib showed no evidence for antagonism and acted in a cooperative fashion against D842V-PDGFRA. Conclusions Our findings support the clinical testing of PKC412 for treatment of mutant PDGFRA-GIST. The data also support the use of nilotinib as a treatment option for V561D-PDGFRA-associated GIST, although the reduced sensitivity of D842V-PDGFRA probably limits the potential of nilotinib monotherapy for D842V-PDGFRA-associated GIST. PMID:17087936

  14. PKC-DEPENDENT REGULATION OF Kv7.5 CHANNELS BY THE BRONCHOCONSTRICTOR HISTAMINE IN HUMAN AIRWAY SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.

    PubMed

    Haick, Jennifer M; Brueggemann, Lioubov I; Cribbs, Leanne L; Denning, Mitchell F; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Byron, Kenneth L

    2017-03-10

    Kv7 potassium channels have recently been found to be expressed and functionally important for relaxation of airway smooth muscle. Previous research suggests that native Kv7 currents are inhibited following treatment of freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells with bronchoconstrictor agonists, and in intact airways inhibition of Kv7 channels is sufficient to induce bronchiolar constriction. However, the mechanism by which Kv7 currents are inhibited by bronchoconstrictor agonists has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, native Kv7 currents in cultured human trachealis smooth muscle cells (HTSMCs) were observed to be inhibited upon treatment with histamine; inhibition of Kv7 currents was associated with membrane depolarization and an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt). The latter response was inhibited by verapamil, a blocker of L-type voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs). Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated as a mediator of bronchoconstrictor actions, though the targets of PKC are not clearly established. We found that histamine treatment significantly and dose-dependently suppressed currents through overexpressed wild-type human Kv7.5 (hKv7.5) channels in cultured HTSMCs, and this effect was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 (3 µM). The PKC-dependent suppression of hKv7.5 currents corresponded with a PKC-dependent increase in hKv7.5 channel phosphorylation. Knocking down or inhibiting PKCα, or mutating hKv7.5 serine 441 to alanine, abolished the inhibitory effects of histamine on hKv7.5 currents. These findings provide the first evidence linking PKC activation to suppression of Kv7 currents, membrane depolarization, and Ca2+ influx via L-type VSCCs as a mechanism for histamine-induced bronchoconstriction.

  15. A screen for Fli-1 transcriptional modulators identifies PKC agonists that induce erythroid to megakaryocytic differentiation and suppress leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tangjingjun; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ye; Deng, Bin; Song, Jialei; Li, Xiaogang; Han, Fei; Xiao, Xiao; Yang, Jue; Xia, Lei; Li, You-Jun; Plachynta, Maksym; Zhang, Mu; Yan, Chen; Mu, Shuzhen; Luo, Heng; Zacksenhaus, Eldad; Hao, Xiaojiang; Ben-David, Yaacov

    2016-12-30

    The ETS-related transcription factor Fli-1 affects many developmental programs including erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation, and is frequently de-regulated in cancer. Fli-1 was initially isolated following retrovirus insertional mutagenesis screens for leukemic initiator genes, and accordingly, inhibition of this transcription factor can suppress leukemia through induction of erythroid differentiation. To search for modulators of Fli-1, we hereby performed repurposing drug screens with compounds isolated from Chinese medicinal plants. We identified agents that can transcriptionally activate or inhibit a Fli-1 reporter. Remarkably, agents that increased Fli-1 transcriptional activity conferred a strong anti-cancer activity upon Fli-1-expressing leukemic cells in culture. As opposed to drugs that suppress Fli1 activity and lead to erythroid differentiation, growth suppression by these new Fli-1 transactivating compounds involved erythroid to megakaryocytic conversion (EMC). The identified compounds are structurally related to diterpene family of small molecules, which are known agonists of protein kinase C (PKC). In accordance, these PKC agonists (PKCAs) induced PKC phosphorylation leading to activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, increased cell attachment and EMC, whereas pharmacological inhibition of PKC or MAPK diminished the effect of our PKCAs. Moreover, in a mouse model of leukemia initiated by Fli-1 activation, the PKCA compounds exhibited strong anti-cancer activity, which was accompanied by increased presence of CD41/CD61 positive megakaryocytic cells in leukemic spleens. Thus, PKC agonists offer a novel approach to combat Fli-1-induced leukemia, and possibly other cancers,by inducing EMC in part through over-activation of the PKC-MAPK-Fli-1 pathway.

  16. Two different specific JNK activators are required to trigger apoptosis or compensatory proliferation in response to Rbf1 in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Baillet, Adrienne; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Jun Kinase (JNK) signaling pathway responds to diverse stimuli by appropriate and specific cellular responses such as apoptosis, differentiation or proliferation. The mechanisms that mediate this specificity remain largely unknown. The core of this signaling pathway, composed of a JNK protein and a JNK kinase (JNKK), can be activated by various putative JNKK kinases (JNKKK) which are themselves downstream of different adaptor proteins. A proposed hypothesis is that the JNK pathway specific response lies in the combination of a JNKKK and an adaptor protein upstream of the JNKK. We previously showed that the Drosophila homolog of pRb (Rbf1) and a mutant form of Rbf1 (Rbf1D253A) have JNK-dependent pro-apoptotic properties. Rbf1D253A is also able to induce a JNK-dependent abnormal proliferation. Here, we show that Rbf1-induced apoptosis triggers proliferation which depends on the JNK pathway activation. Taking advantage of these phenotypes, we investigated the JNK signaling involved in either Rbf1-induced apoptosis or in proliferation in response to Rbf1-induced apoptosis. We demonstrated that 2 different JNK pathways involving different adaptor proteins and kinases are involved in Rbf1-apoptosis (i.e. Rac1-dTak1-dMekk1-JNK pathway) and in proliferation in response to Rbf1-induced apoptosis (i.e., dTRAF1-Slipper-JNK pathway). Using a transient induction of rbf1, we show that Rbf1-induced apoptosis activates a compensatory proliferation mechanism which also depends on Slipper and dTRAF1. Thus, these 2 proteins seem to be key players of compensatory proliferation in Drosophila. PMID:26825229

  17. Effect of trehalose on the properties of mutant {gamma}PKC, which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14, in neuronal cell lines and cultured Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Seki, Takahiro; Abe-Seki, Nana; Kikawada, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Adachi, Naoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Saito, Naoaki; Sakai, Norio

    2010-10-22

    Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that the mutant γPKC found in SCA14 is susceptible to aggregation, which induces apoptotic cell death. The disaccharide trehalose has been reported to inhibit aggregate formation and to alleviate symptoms in cellular and animal models of Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, and prion disease. Here, we show that trehalose can be incorporated into SH-SY5Y cells and reduces the aggregation of mutant γPKC-GFP, thereby inhibiting apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells and primary cultured Purkinje cells (PCs). Trehalose acts by directly stabilizing the conformation of mutant γPKC without affecting protein turnover. Trehalose was also found to alleviate the improper development of dendrites in PCs expressing mutant γPKC-GFP without aggregates but not in PCs with aggregates. In PCs without aggregates, trehalose improves the mobility and translocation of mutant γPKC-GFP, probably by inhibiting oligomerization and thereby alleviating the improper development of dendrites. These results suggest that trehalose counteracts various cellular dysfunctions that are triggered by mutant γPKC in both neuronal cell lines and primary cultured PCs by inhibiting oligomerization and aggregation of mutant γPKC.

  18. PKC and PTPα participate in Src activation by 1α,25OH2 vitamin D3 in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia; Costabel, Marcelo; Boland, Ricardo

    2011-06-06

    We previously demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] induces Src activation, which mediates the hormone-dependent ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle cells. In the present study, we have investigated upstream steps whereby 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) may act to transmit its signal to Src. Preincubation with the PKC inhibitor Ro318220 demonstrated the participation of PKC in 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent Src activation. Of interest, the hormone promoted the activation of δ the isoform of PKC. We also explored the role of PTPα in PKC-mediated Src stimulation. Silencing of PTPα with a specific siRNA suppressed Src activation induced by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). Hormone treatment increased PTPα (Tyr789) phosphorylation and PKC-dependent phosphatase activity. Accordingly, 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) promoted serine phosphorylation of PTPα in a PKC-dependent manner. Confocal immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the hormone induces the co-localization of Src and PTPα with PKC participation. Computational analysis revealed that the electrostatic interaction between Src and PTPα is favored when PTPα is phosphorylated in Tyr789. These data suggest that 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) acts in skeletal muscle upstream on MAPK cascades sequentially activating PKC, PTPα and Src.

  19. Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Moriichi, Kentaro; Sasajima, Junpei; Ikuta, Katsuya; Akutsu, Hiroaki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. PMID:27507542

  20. Saturated fatty acids induce c-Src clustering within membrane subdomains leading to JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Ryan G.; Park, Eek-Joong; Li, Ning; Tran, Helen; Chen, Monica; Choi, Crystal; Solinas, Giovanni; Karin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Saturated fatty acids (FA) exert adverse health effects and are more likely to cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes than unsaturated FA, some of which exert protective and beneficial effects. Saturated FA, but not unsaturated FA, activate Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), which has been linked to obesity and insulin resistance in mice and men. However, it is unknown how saturated and unsaturated FA are discriminated. We now demonstrate that saturated FA activate JNK and induce insulin resistance by altering the membrane distribution of c-Src, causing it to partition into intracellular membrane subdomains where it may become activated. Conversely, unsaturated FA with known beneficial effects on glucose metabolism prevent c-Src membrane partitioning and activation, which are dependent on its myristoylation, and block JNK activation. Consumption of a diabetogenic high fat diet causes the partitioning and activation of c-Src within detergent insoluble membrane subdomains of adipocytes. PMID:21962514

  1. Initial testing of VS-4718, a novel inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), against pediatric tumor models by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Kurmasheva, Raushan T; Gorlick, Richard; Kolb, E Anders; Keir, Stephen T; Maris, John M; Lock, Richard B; Carol, Hernan; Kang, Min; Reynolds, C Patrick; Wu, Jianrong; Houghton, Peter J; Smith, Malcolm A

    2017-04-01

    VS-4718, a novel inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), was tested against the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program's (PPTP's) in vitro cell line panel and showed a median relative IC50 of 1.22 μM. VS-4718 was tested in vivo against the PPTP xenograft models using a dose of 50 mg/kg administered by the oral route twice daily for 21 days. VS-4718 induced significant differences in an event-free survival distribution compared with control in 18 of 36 of the evaluable solid tumor xenografts and in 0 of 8 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) xenografts, but no xenograft lines showed tumor regression. Future plans include further evaluation of the role of FAK inhibition in combination with ABL kinase inhibitors for Ph(+) ALL.

  2. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  3. The impact of neuronal Notch-1/JNK pathway on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal injury of rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Maohua; Sun, Jun; Lu, Chuan; Chen, Xiandong; Ba, Huajun; Lin, Qun; Cai, Jianyong; Dai, Junxia

    2016-11-08

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway that regulates cell fate decisions during embryonic development. Notch activation endangers neurons by modulating NF-κB and HIF-1α pathways, however, the role of Notch signaling in activating JNK/c-Jun following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. In this study, we used rat ICH models and thrombin-induced cell models to investigate the potential role of Notch-1/JNK signals. Our findings revealed that Notch-1 and JNK increased in hematoma-surrounding neurons tissues following ICH during ischemic conditions (all p<0.05). Besides, the expression of active caspase-3 protein was also up-regulated after ICH. According to in-vitro assays, the expression of Notch-1, p-JNK, and active caspase-3 were all up-regulated in cell viability-decreasing ICH cell models (all p<0.05). However, blocking of either Notch-1 or JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and the expression of active caspase-3, and cell viability was obviously ameliorated. In conclusion, this work suggested Notch-1 activates JNK pathway to induce the active caspase-3, leading to neuronal injury when intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia occurred. Thus the Notch-1/JNK signal pathway has an important role in ICH process, and may be a therapeutic target to prevent brain injury.

  4. The impact of neuronal Notch-1/JNK pathway on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced neuronal injury of rat model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Maohua; Sun, Jun; Lu, Chuan; Chen, Xiandong; Ba, Huajun; Lin, Qun; Cai, Jianyong; Dai, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway that regulates cell fate decisions during embryonic development. Notch activation endangers neurons by modulating NF-κB and HIF-1α pathways, however, the role of Notch signaling in activating JNK/c-Jun following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been investigated. In this study, we used rat ICH models and thrombin-induced cell models to investigate the potential role of Notch-1/JNK signals. Our findings revealed that Notch-1 and JNK increased in hematoma-surrounding neurons tissues following ICH during ischemic conditions (all p<0.05). Besides, the expression of active caspase-3 protein was also up-regulated after ICH. According to in-vitro assays, the expression of Notch-1, p-JNK, and active caspase-3 were all up-regulated in cell viability-decreasing ICH cell models (all p<0.05). However, blocking of either Notch-1 or JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and the expression of active caspase-3, and cell viability was obviously ameliorated. In conclusion, this work suggested Notch-1 activates JNK pathway to induce the active caspase-3, leading to neuronal injury when intracerebral hemorrhage or ischemia occurred. Thus the Notch-1/JNK signal pathway has an important role in ICH process, and may be a therapeutic target to prevent brain injury. PMID:27655677

  5. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-04

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  6. Dual p38/JNK mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors prevent ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Verhein, Kirsten C; Salituro, Francesco G; Ledeboer, Mark W; Fryer, Allison D; Jacoby, David B

    2013-01-01

    Ozone exposure causes airway hyperreactivity and increases hospitalizations resulting from pulmonary complications. Ozone reacts with the epithelial lining fluid and airway epithelium to produce reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products, which then activate cell signaling pathways, including the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Both p38 and c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) are MAPK family members that are activated by cellular stress and inflammation. To test the contribution of both p38 and JNK MAPK to ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity, guinea pigs were pretreated with dual p38 and JNK MAPK inhibitors (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 minutes before exposure to 2 ppm ozone or filtered air for 4 hours. One day later airway reactivity was measured in anesthetized animals. Ozone caused airway hyperreactivity one day post-exposure, and blocking p38 and JNK MAPK completely prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity. Blocking p38 and JNK MAPK also suppressed parasympathetic nerve activity in air exposed animals, suggesting p38 and JNK MAPK contribute to acetylcholine release by airway parasympathetic nerves. Ozone inhibited neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors and blocking both p38 and JNK prevented M2 receptor dysfunction. Neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage was not affected by MAPK inhibitors. Thus p38 and JNK MAPK mediate ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity through multiple mechanisms including prevention of neuronal M2 receptor dysfunction.

  7. Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in palm kernel cake (PKC) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Yibadatihan, S; Jinap, S; Mahyudin, N A

    2014-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a useful source of protein and energy for livestock. Recently, it has been used as an ingredient in poultry feed. Mycotoxin contamination of PKC due to inappropriate handling during production and storage has increased public concern about economic losses and health risks for poultry and humans. This concern has accentuated the need for the evaluation of mycotoxins in PKC. Furthermore, a method for quantifying mycotoxins in PKC has so far not been established. The aims of this study were therefore (1) to develop a method for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in PKC and (2) to validate and verify the method. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) in both positive- and negative-ion modes was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFB₁, AFB₂, AFG₁ and AFG₂), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB₁ and FB₂), T-2 and HT-2 toxin in PKC. An optimum method using a 0.2 ml min⁻¹ flow rate, 0.2% formic acid in aqueous phase, 10% organic phase at the beginning and 90% organic phase at the end of the gradient was achieved. The extraction of mycotoxins was performed using a solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (79:20:1, v/v) without further clean-up. The mean recoveries of mycotoxins in spiked PKC samples ranged from 81% to 112%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for mycotoxin standards and PKC samples ranged from 0.02 to 17.5 μg kg⁻¹ and from 0.06 to 58.0 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Finally, the newly developed method was successfully applied to PKC samples. The results illustrated the fact that the method is efficient and accurate for the simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in PKC, which can be ideal for routine analysis.

  8. AT₂receptors recruit c-Src, SHP-1 and FAK upon activation by Ang II in PND15 rat hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Leonardo R; Villarreal, Rodrigo S; Ciuffo, Gladys M

    2012-01-01

    The functional role of AT(2) receptors is unclear and it activates unconventional signaling pathways, which in general do not involve a classical activation of a G-protein. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the transduction mechanism of AT(2) Ang II receptors in PND15 rat hindbrain membrane preparations, which represents a physiological developmental condition. To determine whether Ang II AT(2) receptors induced association to SHP-1 in rat hindbrain, co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed. Stimulation of Ang II AT(2) receptors induced both a transient tyr-phosphorylation and activation of SHP-1. The possible participation of c-Src in Ang II-mediated SHP-1 activation, we demonstrated by recruitment of c-Src in immunocomplexes obtained with anti AT(2) or anti-SHP-1 antibodies. The association of SHP-1 to c-Src was inhibited by PD123319 and the c-Src inhibitor PP2. Similarly, SHP-1 activity determined in AT(2)-immunocomplexes was inhibited by PD123319 and the c-Src inhibitor PP2. Following stimulation with Ang II, AT(2) receptors recruit c-Src, which was responsible for SHP-1 tyr-phosphorylation and activation. Since AT(2) receptors are involved in neuron migration, we tested the presence of FAK in immunocomplexes. Surprisingly, AT(2)-immunocomplexes contained mainly the 85kDa fragment of FAK. Besides, p125FAK associated to SHP-1. In summary, we demonstrated the presence of an active signal transduction mechanism in PND15 rat hindbrain, a developmental stage critical for cerebellar development. In this model, we showed a complex containing AT(2)/SHP-1/c-Src/p85FAK, suggesting a potential role of Ang II AT(2) receptors in cerebellar development and neuronal differentiation.

  9. Hydrostatic Compress Force Enhances the Viability and Decreases the Apoptosis of Condylar Chondrocytes through Integrin-FAK-ERK/PI3K Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dandan; Kou, Xiaoxing; Jin, Jing; Xu, Taotao; Wu, Mengjie; Deng, Liquan; Fu, Lusi; Liu, Yi; Wu, Gang; Lu, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Reduced mechanical stimuli in many pathological cases, such as hemimastication and limited masticatory movements, can significantly affect the metabolic activity of mandibular condylar chondrocytes and the growth of mandibles. However, the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-ERK (extracellular signal–regulated kinase)/PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase) signaling pathway mediated the cellular response of condylar chondrocytes to mechanical loading. Primary condylar chondrocytes were exposed to hydrostatic compressive forces (HCFs) of different magnitudes (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kPa) for 2 h. We measured the viability, morphology, and apoptosis of the chondrocytes with different treatments as well as the gene, protein expression, and phosphorylation of mechanosensitivity-related molecules, such as integrin α2, integrin α5, integrin β1, FAK, ERK, and PI3K. HCFs could significantly increase the viability and surface area of condylar chondrocytes and decrease their apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. HCF of 250 kPa resulted in a 1.51 ± 0.02-fold increase of cell viability and reduced the ratio of apoptotic cells from 18.10% ± 0.56% to 7.30% ± 1.43%. HCFs could significantly enhance the mRNA and protein expression of integrin α2, integrin α5, and integrin β1 in a dose-dependent manner, but not ERK1, ERK2, or PI3K. Instead, HCF could significantly increase phosphorylation levels of FAK, ERK1/2, and PI3K in a dose-dependent manner. Cilengitide, the potent integrin inhibitor, could dose-dependently block such effects of HCFs. HCFs enhances the viability and decreases the apoptosis of condylar chondrocytes through the integrin-FAK-ERK/PI3K pathway. PMID:27827993

  10. CTRP3 Stimulates Proliferation and Anti-Apoptosis of Prostate Cells through PKC Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qi; Lin, Jinyan; Huang, Wentao; Li, Maoyin; Feng, Jianhua; Mao, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is a novel adipokine with roles in multiple cellular processes. However, little is known about its function in prostate cells. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of CTRP3 in prostate cells. We first generated and purified CTRP3 protein in HEK 293T cells. Proliferation of RWPE-1 prostate cells was evaluated by MTT analyses under treatment with different concentrations of CTRP3 for various exposure times. The results revealed maximum enhancement of proliferation with 10 μg/mL CTRP3 for 72 h. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry analysis. TUNEL assay showed decreased TUNEL-positive cells in RWPE-1 prostate cells treated with CTRP3, and flow cytometry showed significantly decreased apoptotic cells upon CTRP3 treatment (treated cells, 8.34±1.175 vs. controls, 20.163±0.35) (P < 0.01). Moreover, flow cytometry analysis also showed a significant decrease of cells in the G1 phase and an increase of cells in the S and G2 phase upon CTRP3 treatment (treated cells, 42.85±1.40 vs. control, 52.77±0.90; 28.41±0.57 vs. 23.49±1.13; 27.08±1.97 vs. 22.20±1.32, respectively) (all P < 0.05). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified differentially expressed proteins, including cytokeratin-19, GLRX3 and DDAH1, which were upregulated in CTRP3 treated cells, and cytokeratin-17 and 14-3-3 sigma, which were downregulated. GLRX3, DDAH1 and 14-3-3 sigma were confirmed using western blot analysis. A PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, was used to inhibit PKC activity in CTRP3 treated RWPE-1 cells. Staurosporine completely abolished the CTRP3-induced increased phosphorylation of intracellular PKC substrates and CTRP3-stimulated effect by RWPE-1 cells. Our results provide the first evidence for a physiological role of the novel adipokine, CTRP3, in prostate cells. Our findings suggest that CTRP3 could improve proliferation and anti-apoptosis of prostate cells through

  11. Signal transduction activated by the cancer chemopreventive isothiocyanates: cleavage of BID protein, tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Xu, K; Thornalley, P J

    2001-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate and allyl isothiocyanate induce apoptosis of human leukaemia HL60 cells in vitro. Apoptosis was associated with cleavage of p22 BID protein to p15, p13 and p11 fragments and activation of JNK and tyrosine phosphorylation (18 kDa and 45 kDa proteins). All these effects and apoptosis were prevented by exogenous glutathione (15 mM). Protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was unchanged. The general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk prevented apoptosis but not JNK activation – excluding a role for caspases in JNK activation, whereas curcumin prevented JNK activation but only delayed apoptosis. This suggests that in isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis, the caspase pathway has an essential role, the JNK pathway a supporting role, and inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases is not involved. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11237388

  12. A non-mitotic role for Aurora kinase A as a direct activator of cell migration upon interaction with PLD, FAK and Src.

    PubMed

    Mahankali, Madhu; Henkels, Karen M; Speranza, Francis; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2015-02-01

    Timely activation of Aurora kinase A (AURA, also known as AURKA) is vital for centrosome formation and the progression of mitosis. Nonetheless, it is still unclear if and when other cellular functions are activated by AURA. We report here that Src phosphorylates and activates AURA at T288, and AURA also activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2), leading to initiation of cell movement. An additional and new way by which AURA is regulated, is by phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which causes AURA activation. In addition, AURA phosphorylates PLD, so both proteins engage in a positive reinforcement loop. AURA and PLD2 form a protein–protein complex and colocalize to cytoplasmic regions in cells. The reason why PLD activates AURA is because of the production of phosphatidic acid by the lipase, which binds directly to AURA, with the region E171–E211 projected to be a phosphatidic-acid-binding pocket. Furthermore, this direct interaction with phosphatidic acid enhances tubulin polymerization and cooperates synergistically with AURA, FAK and Src in yielding a fully effectual cellular migration. Thus, Src and FAK, and PLD and phosphatidic acid are new upstream regulators of AURA that mediate its role in the non-mitotic cellular function of cell migration.

  13. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2017-02-24

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  14. Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products promote the migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells by activating the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pak, Jhang Ho; Bashir, Qudsia; Kim, In Ki; Hong, Sung-Jong; Maeng, Sejung; Bahk, Young Yil; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2017-03-08

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a slow-growing but highly metastatic cancer. Its metastatic potential largely explains its high mortality rate. A recognized risk factor for CCA development is infection with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis. We previously reported that the excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of C. sinensis promoted the three-dimensional aggregation and invasion of CCA cells. In the present study, a quantitative real-time PCR array of extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules was used to examine the regulatory mechanism of ESP-mediated CCA cell migration and invasion. In particular, the expression levels of integrin α isoforms and β4 were upregulated in response to ESPs. Increased expression of integrin β4 was probably correlated with activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the steroid receptor coactivator (Src) family kinase and the subsequent activation of two downstream focal adhesion molecules, paxillin and vinculin. Moreover, inhibition of FAK/Src activation reduced paxillin and vinculin phosphorylation and attenuated ESP-induced CCA cell migration and invasion. These findings suggest that the integrin β4-FAK/Src signaling axis may play a crucial role in clonorchiasis-associated CCA metastasis during tumor progression.

  15. MiR-7a is an important mediator in Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD)-regulated expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingting; Cui, Hongen; Huang, Xianjie; Zhu, Bo; Guan, Shengwen; Cheng, Wei; Lai, Yueyang; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), a classical adaptor protein mediating apoptotic stimuli-induced cell death, has been reported to engage in several non-apoptotic processes such as T cell and cardiac development and tumorigenesis. Recently, there are several reports about the FADD's involvement in cell migration, however the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we present a new finding that FADD could regulate the expression of FAK, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase overexpressed in many cancers, and played an important role in cell migration in murine MEF and melanoma cells with different metastatic potential, B16F10 and B16F1. Moreover, miR-7a, a tumor suppressor which prohibits cell migration and invasion, was up-regulated in FADD-deficient cells. And FAK was verified to be the direct target gene of miR-7a in B16F10 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-7a was a necessary mediator in FADD-regulated FAK expression. In contrast to its classical apoptotic role, FADD interference could reduce the rate of cell migration, which could be rescued by inhibiting miR-7a expression. Taken together, our data provide a novel explanation regarding how FADD regulates cell migration in murine melanoma cells. PMID:27286445

  16. Semaphorin 3A Increases FAK Phosphorylation at Focal Adhesions to Modulate MDA-MB-231 Cell Migration and Spreading on Different Substratum Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Compere, Frances V.; Miller, Alex M.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between integrin-mediated adhesions and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important regulators of cell migration and spreading. However, mechanisms by which extracellular ligands regulate cell migration and spreading in response to changes in substratum concentration are not well understood. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) has been shown to inhibit cell motility and alter integrin signaling in various cell types. We propose that Sema3A alters focal adhesions to modulate breast carcinoma cell migration and spreading on substrata coated with different concentrations of ECM. We demonstrate that Sema3A inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell migration and spreading on substrata coated with high concentrations of collagen and fibronectin but enhances migration and spreading at lower concentrations of collagen and fibronectin. Sema3A increases focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at tyrosine 397 (pFAK397) at focal adhesions on all substratum concentrations of collagen and fibronectin but decreased pFAK397 levels on laminin. Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition blocks the Sema3A-mediated effects on cell migration, spreading, and pFAK397 at focal adhesions when cultured on all concentrations of collagen. These results suggest that Sema3A shifts the optimal level of cell-matrix adhesions to a nonoptimal ECM coating concentration, in particular collagen, to yield maximal cell migration and spreading that may be mediated through a ROCK-dependent mechanism. PMID:28182100

  17. Regulation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 in skeletal muscle cells: the role of protein kinase C (PKC).

    PubMed

    Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Otake, Sho; Furugen, Ayako; Takahashi, Natsuko; Ogura, Jiro; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Iseki, Ken

    2012-05-30

    In the present study, to clarify the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) expression, we examined the regulation mechanism of MCT4 expression in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells, an in vitro skeletal muscle model. Exposure of RD cells to PMA, a PKC activator, for 24 h resulted in a two-fold increase in the amount of lactic acid in the growth medium. In parallel to an increase in lactic acid release from RD cells, the level of MCT4 mRNA and protein were also significantly increased in RD cells. A PKC inhibitory study indicated that PMA-induced stimulation of MCT4 expression can be mediated through a novel PKC isoform, especially PKCδ. Moreover, rottlerin, a selective PKCδ inhibitor, decreased PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Deletion and mutational analysis suggested that the potential hypoxia-response elements (HREs) played a major role in the observed modulation of MCT4 expression by PMA. Furthermore, we found that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) significantly inhibited PMA-induced MCT4 promoter activity. Our results show that the effects of PMA on MCT4 expression are mediated through an indirect pathway partially involving PKCδ and HIF-1α transcription factor.

  18. Rho1- and Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation of the F-BAR protein Syp1 contributes to septin ring assembly

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Laura; Bolognesi, Alessio; Juanes, Maria Angeles; Vandermoere, Franck; Courtellemont, Thibault; Pascolutti, Roberta; Séveno, Martial; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    In many cell types, septins assemble into filaments and rings at the neck of cellular appendages and/or at the cleavage furrow to help compartmentalize the plasma membrane and support cytokinesis. How septin ring assembly is coordinated with membrane remodeling and controlled by mechanical stress at these sites is unclear. Through a genetic screen, we uncovered an unanticipated link between the conserved Rho1 GTPase and its effector protein kinase C (Pkc1) with septin ring stability in yeast. Both Rho1 and Pkc1 stabilize the septin ring, at least partly through phosphorylation of the membrane-associated F-BAR protein Syp1, which colocalizes asymmetrically with the septin ring at the bud neck. Syp1 is displaced from the bud neck upon Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation at two serines, thereby affecting the rigidity of the new-forming septin ring. We propose that Rho1 and Pkc1 coordinate septin ring assembly with membrane and cell wall remodeling partly by controlling Syp1 residence at the bud neck. PMID:26179915

  19. Role of the Chemokine MCP-1 in Sensitization of PKC-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    proteolytic cleavage of PKCδ. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 7574-7582 (2000). 4. Garcia -Bermejo, M.L., Leskow, F.C., Fujii, T., Wang, Q., Blumberg, P.M., Ohba...M., Kuroki, T., Han, K.C., Lee, J., Marquez , V.E., and Kazanietz, M.G. Diacylglycerol (DAG)- lactones, a new class of protein kinase C (PKC) agonists

  20. Decline in the Recovery from Synaptic Depression in Heavier Aplysia Results from Decreased Serotonin-Induced Novel PKC Activation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Tyler William; Sossin, Wayne S

    2015-01-01

    The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia are important behaviors for protecting the animal from predation. Habituation and dishabituation allow for experience-dependent tuning of these reflexes and the mechanisms underlying these forms of behavioral plasticity involve changes in transmitter release from the sensory to motor neuron synapses through homosynaptic depression and the serotonin-mediated recovery from depression, respectively. Interestingly, dishabituation is reduced in older animals with no corresponding change in habituation. Here we show that the cultured sensory neurons of heavier animals (greater than 120 g) that form synaptic connections with motor neurons have both reduced recovery from depression and reduced novel PKC Apl II activation with 5HT. The decrease in the recovery from depression correlated better with the size of the animal than the age of the animal. Much of this change in PKC activation and synaptic facilitation following depression can be rescued by direct activation of PKC Apl II with phorbol dibutyrate, suggesting a change in the signal transduction pathway upstream of PKC Apl II activation in the sensory neurons of larger animals.

  1. Hair cell BK channels interact with RACK1, and PKC increases its expression on the cell surface by indirect phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Surguchev, Alexei; Bai, Jun-Ping; Joshi, Powrnima; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar

    2012-07-15

    Large conductance (BK) calcium activated potassium channels (Slo) are ubiquitous and implicated in a number of human diseases including hypertension and epilepsy. BK channels consist of a pore forming α-subunit (Slo) and a number of accessory subunits. In hair cells of nonmammalian vertebrates these channels play a critical role in electrical resonance, a mechanism of frequency selectivity. Hair cell BK channel clusters on the surface and currents increase along the tonotopic axis and contribute significantly to the responsiveness of these hair cells to sounds of high frequency. In contrast, messenger RNA levels encoding the Slo gene show an opposite decrease in high frequency hair cells. To understand the molecular events underlying this paradox, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to isolate binding partners of Slo. We identified Rack1 as a Slo binding partner and demonstrate that PKC activation increases Slo surface expression. We also establish that increased Slo recycling of endocytosed Slo is at least partially responsible for the increased surface expression of Slo. Moreover, analysis of several PKC phosphorylation site mutants confirms that the effects of PKC on Slo surface expression are likely indirect. Finally, we show that Slo clusters on the surface of hair cells are also increased by increased PKC activity and may contribute to the increasing amounts of channel clusters on the surface of high-frequency hair cells.

  2. The Par3/aPKC interaction is essential for end bud remodeling and progenitor differentiation during mammary gland morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Macara, Ian G.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian polarity proteins have been studied predominantly in cell culture systems, and little is known about their functions in vivo. To address this issue, we used a shRNA lentiviral system to manipulate gene expression in mouse mammary stem/progenitor cells. Transplantation of Par3-depleted stem/progenitor cells into the mammary fat pad severely disrupted mammary development, and glands were characterized by ductal hyperplasia, luminal filling, and highly disorganized end bud structures that were unable to remodel into normal ductal structures. Unexpectedly, Par3-depleted mammary glands also had an expanded progenitor population. We identified a novel function for the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-binding domain of Par3 in restricting Par3 and aPKC to the apical region in mammary epithelia in vivo, and found that mammary morphogenesis is dependent on the ability of Par3 to directly bind aPKC. These results reveal a new function for Par3 in the regulation of progenitor differentiation and epithelial morphogenesis in vivo and demonstrate for the first time an essential requirement for the Par3–aPKC interaction. PMID:19528321

  3. Signaling through Lrg1, Rho1 and Pkc1 Governs Candida albicans Morphogenesis in Response to Diverse Cues

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Michelle D.; Hogan, Deborah A.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to transition between distinct morphological forms is a key virulence trait for diverse fungal pathogens. A poignant example of a leading opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans for which an environmentally responsive developmental program underpins virulence is Candida albicans. C. albicans mutants that are defective in the transition between yeast and filamentous forms typically have reduced virulence. Although many positive regulators of C. albicans filamentation have been defined, there are fewer negative regulators that have been implicated in repression of filamentation in the absence of inducing cues. To discover novel negative regulators of filamentation, we screened a collection of 1,248 C. albicans homozygous transposon insertion mutants to identify those that were filamentous in the absence of inducing cues. We identified the Rho1 GAP Lrg1, which represses filamentous growth by stimulating Rho1 GTPase activity and converting Rho1 to its inactive, GDP-bound form. Deletion of LRG1 or introduction of a RHO1 mutation that locks Rho1 in constitutively active, GTP-bound state, leads to filamentation in the absence of inducing cues. Deletion of the Rho1 downstream effector PKC1 results in defective filamentation in response to diverse host-relevant inducing cues, including serum. We further established that Pkc1 is not required to sense filament-inducing cues, but its kinase activity is critical for the initiation of filamentous growth. Our genetic analyses revealed that Pkc1 regulates filamentation independent of the canonical MAP kinase cascade. Further, although Ras1 activation is not impaired in a pkc1Δ/pkc1Δ mutant, adenylyl cyclase activity is reduced, consistent with a model in which Pkc1 functions in parallel with Ras1 in regulating Cyr1 activation. Thus, our findings delineate a signaling pathway comprised of Lrg1, Rho1 and Pkc1 with a core role in C. albicans morphogenesis, and illuminate functional relationships that govern activation

  4. GBPI, a novel gastrointestinal- and brain-specific PP1-inhibitory protein, is activated by PKC and inactivated by PKA.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Rong; Zhang, Ping-Wu; Lin, Zhicheng; Li, Qi-Fu; Woods, Amina S; Troncoso, Juan; Uhl, George R

    2004-01-01

    The activities of PP1 (protein phosphatase 1), a principal cellular phosphatase that reverses serine/threonine protein phosphorylation, can be altered by inhibitors whose activities are themselves regulated by phosphorylation. We now describe a novel PKC (protein kinase C)-dependent PP1 inhibitor, namely GBPI (gut and brain phosphatase inhibitor). The shorter mRNA that encodes this protein, GBPI-1, is expressed in brain, stomach, small intestine, colon and kidney, whereas a longer GBPI-2 splice variant mRNA is found in testis. Human GBPI-1 mRNA encodes a 145-amino-acid, 16.5 kDa protein with pI 7.92. GBPI contains a consensus PP1-binding motif at residues 21-25 and consensus sites for phosphorylation by enzymes, including PKC, PKA (protein kinase A or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and casein kinase II. Recombinant GBPI-1-fusion protein inhibits PP1 activity with IC50=3 nM after phosphorylation by PKC. Phospho-GBPI can even enhance PP2A activity by >50% at submicromolar concentrations. Non-phosphorylated GBPI-1 is inactive in both assays. Each of the mutations in amino acids located in potential PP1-binding sequences, K21E+K22E and W25A, decrease the ability of GBPI-1 to inhibit PP1. Mutations in the potential PKC phosphoacceptor site T58E also dramatically decrease the ability of GBPI-1 to inhibit PP1. Interestingly, when PKC-phosphorylated GBPI-1 is further phosphorylated by PKA, it no longer inhibits PP1. Thus, GBPI-1 is well positioned to integrate PKC and PKA modulation of PP1 to regulate differentially protein phosphorylation patterns in brain and gut. GBPI, its closest family member CPI (PKC-potentiated PP1 inhibitor) and two other family members, kinase-enhanced phosphatase inhibitor and phosphatase holoenzyme inhibitor, probably modulate integrated control of protein phosphorylation states in these and other tissues. PMID:12974676

  5. Sevoflurane Stimulates MAP Kinase Signal transduction through the Activation of PKC α and βII in Fetal Rat Cerebral Cortex Cultured Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nagata, Hidetaka; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme that participates in various neuronal functions. PKC has also been identified as a target molecule for general anesthetic actions. Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) have been thought to be target effectors of PKC. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane on PKC/MAPK cascade signaling in cultured fetal rat cerebral ­cortex neurons, prepared from embryonic day 18 fetuses. The effects of sevoflurane on the translocation of 7 PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, γ, δ, ɛ and ζ) were observed by immunoblotting using isoform-selective antibodies to PKCs. The treatment of neurons with sevoflurane induced the translocation of PKC α and PKC βII species from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, which indicated the activation of these PKC isoforms. In contrast, there was no clear change in the distribution of other PKC isoforms. We next examined whether the specific activation of PKC α and βII by sevoflurane could stimulate the MAP kinase signaling pathway in cultured neurons. Raf phosphorylation was increased by the administration of 0.25 mM sevoflurane. The phosphorylation of Raf proteins reached a maximum at 5–10 min. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of MEK proteins was increased at 10–15 min after sevoflurane treatments. That of ERK proteins was induced at 15–60 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK induced by sevoflurane was significantly decreased by the treatment of PKC inhibitor (staurosporine) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059). On the other hand, the contents of total Raf, MEK and ERK proteins were relatively constant at all times examined. To examine the ­localization of phosphorylated-ERK protein, immunohistochemical staining of sevoflurane-treated cultured neurons was performed. The phosphorylated-ERK proteins were markedly accumulated in both the cytosol of the cell body and the neurites in the neuronal cells with time after 0

  6. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β.

    PubMed

    Basson, Marc D; Zeng, Bixi; Downey, Christina; Sirivelu, Madhu P; Tepe, Jetze J

    2015-02-01

    Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0-80 mmHg increased extracellular pressure for 24 h on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure-stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca(2+)]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β- IKK- IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors.

  7. Absence of PKC-alpha attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae H; Himmel, Nathaniel J; Redd, Sara K; Pulous, Fadi E; Rogers, Richard T; Black, Lauren N; Hong, Seongun M; von Bergen, Tobias N; Blount, Mitsi A

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, an effective antipsychotic, induces nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) in ∼40% of patients. The decreased capacity to concentrate urine is likely due to lithium acutely disrupting the cAMP pathway and chronically reducing urea transporter (UT-A1) and water channel (AQP2) expression in the inner medulla. Targeting an alternative signaling pathway, such as PKC-mediated signaling, may be an effective method of treating lithium-induced polyuria. PKC-alpha null mice (PKCα KO) and strain-matched wild type (WT) controls were treated with lithium for 0, 3 or 5 days. WT mice had increased urine output and lowered urine osmolality after 3 and 5 days of treatment whereas PKCα KO mice had no change in urine output or concentration. Western blot analysis revealed that AQP2 expression in medullary tissues was lowered after 3 and 5 days in WT mice; however, AQP2 was unchanged in PKCα KO. Similar results were observed with UT-A1 expression. Animals were also treated with lithium for 6 weeks. Lithium-treated WT mice had 19-fold increased urine output whereas treated PKCα KO animals had a 4-fold increase in output. AQP2 and UT-A1 expression was lowered in 6 week lithium-treated WT animals whereas in treated PKCα KO mice, AQP2 was only reduced by 2-fold and UT-A1 expression was unaffected. Urinary sodium, potassium and calcium were elevated in lithium-fed WT but not in lithium-fed PKCα KO mice. Our data show that ablation of PKCα preserves AQP2 and UT-A1 protein expression and localization in lithium-induced NDI, and prevents the development of the severe polyuria associated with lithium therapy.

  8. Dystrophin/α1-syntrophin scaffold regulated PLC/PKC-dependent store-operated calcium entry in myotubes.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Jessica; Harisseh, Rania; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    In skeletal muscles from patient suffering of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and from mdx mice, the absence of the cytoskeleton protein dystrophin has been shown to be essential for maintaining a normal calcium influx. We showed that a TRPC store-dependent cation influx is increased by loss of dystrophin or a scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, however the mechanisms of this calcium mishandling are incompletely understood. First of all, we confirmed that TRPC1 but also STIM1 and Orai1 are supporting the store-operated cation entry which is enhanced in dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Next, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLC or PKC in dystrophin-deficient myotubes restores elevated cation entry to normal levels similarly to enforced minidystrophin expression. In addition, silencing α1-syntrophin also increased cation influx in a PLC/PKC dependent pathway. We also showed that α1-syntrophin and PLCβ are part of a same protein complex reinforcing the idea of their inter-relation in calcium influx regulation. This elevated cation entry was decreased to normal levels by chelating intracellular free calcium with BAPTA-AM. Double treatments with BAPTA-AM and PLC or PKC inhibitors suggested that the elevation of cation influx by PLC/PKC pathway is dependent on cytosolic calcium. All these results demonstrate an involvement in dystrophin-deficient myotubes of a specific calcium/PKC/PLC pathway in elevation of store-operated cation influx supported by the STIM1/Orai1/TRPC1 proteins, which is normally regulated by the α1-syntrophin/dystrophin scaffold.

  9. Extracellular nucleotides inhibit oxalate transport by human intestinal Caco-2-BBe cells through PKC-δ activation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Sharma, Sapna; Ratakonda, Sireesha; Hassan, Hatim A

    2013-07-01

    Nephrolithiasis remains a major health problem in Western countries. Seventy to 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and small changes in urinary oxalate affect risk of kidney stone formation. Intestinal oxalate secretion mediated by the anion exchanger SLC26A6 plays an essential role in preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, indicating that understanding the mechanisms regulating intestinal oxalate transport is critical for management of hyperoxaluria. Purinergic signaling modulates several intestinal processes through pathways including PKC activation, which we previously found to inhibit Slc26a6 activity in mouse duodenal tissue. We therefore examined whether purinergic stimulation with ATP and UTP affects oxalate transport by human intestinal Caco-2-BBe (C2) cells. We measured [¹⁴C]oxalate uptake in the presence of an outward Cl⁻ gradient as an assay of Cl⁻/oxalate exchange activity, ≥50% of which is mediated by SLC26A6. We found that ATP and UTP significantly inhibited oxalate transport by C2 cells, an effect blocked by the PKC inhibitor Gö-6983. Utilizing pharmacological agonists and antagonists, as well as PKC-δ knockdown studies, we observed that ATP inhibits oxalate transport through the P2Y₂ receptor, PLC, and PKC-δ. Biotinylation studies showed that ATP inhibits oxalate transport by lowering SLC26A6 surface expression. These findings are of potential relevance to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease-associated hyperoxaluria, where supraphysiological levels of ATP/UTP are expected and overexpression of the P2Y₂ receptor has been reported. We conclude that ATP and UTP inhibit oxalate transport by lowering SLC26A6 surface expression in C2 cells through signaling pathways including the P2Y₂ purinergic receptor, PLC, and PKC-δ.

  10. Evidence of PKC Binding and Translocation to explain the anticancer mechanism of chlorogenic acid in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deka, S J; Gorai, S; Manna, D; Trivedi, V

    2017-02-09

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exhibits potentials towards liver, breast and skin cancer. Cancer cells stimulated with CGA exhibits differential expression of transcriptional factors and regulatory molecules but the molecular target of the molecule is not known. Superposition of biophoric elements of CGA with Curcumin gives maximum common substructure score of 0.90. Molecular modeling studies further suggest that CGA fits into the C1b domain of PKC with extensive interaction with residues lining binding site. It binds PKC in a concentration dependent manner with dissociation constant KD, 28.84±3.95 μM. PKC-CGA complex is stable with minimal distortion to the 3-D structure and maintains the hydrogen bonding between ligand and receptor during simulation period. Cells stimulated with CGA causes 12.1 ± 0.56% PKC translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. It disturbs the cell cycle and arrest the cancer cell at the G1 phase with a reduction in S-phase. Chlorogenic acid exhibits killing of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 75.88 ± 4.54µg/ml and 52.5 ± 4.72µg/ml towards MDAMB-231 and MCF-7 cells respectively. It induces apoptosis in cancer cells as evident by AO/EtBr staining and degradation of genomic DNA to give a laddering pattern. Apoptosis in cancer cells involves mitochondrial pathway as supported by a reduction in mitochondrial potentials and release of cyt-C into the cytosol. Hence, the current study has established PKC as an important signaling molecule to the observed anti-cancer effects of CGA and provides the impetus to design better CGA analogs for improved anti-cancer potential against the malignant tumor.

  11. Learning-induced reduction in post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) is mediated by activation of PKC.

    PubMed

    Seroussi, Yaron; Brosh, Inbar; Barkai, Edi

    2002-09-01

    We studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) in mediating learning-related long lasting reduction of the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) in cortical pyramidal neurons. We have shown previously that pyramidal neurons in the rat piriform (olfactory) cortex from trained (TR) rats have reduced post-burst AHP for 3 days after odour-discrimination learning, and that this reduction is due to decreased conductance of calcium-dependent potassium current. In the present study, we examined whether this long-lasting reduction in AHP is mediated by second messenger systems. The broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, H7, increased the AHP in neurons from TR rats, but not in neurons from pseudo-trained (pseudo-TR) and naive rats. Consequently, the difference in AHP amplitude between neurons from TR and control animals was diminished. This effect was also obtained by application of the specific PKC inhibitor, GF-109203x. The PKC activator, 1-Oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), significantly reduced the AHP in neurons from naive and pseudo-TR rats, but not in neurons from TR rats, so that the difference between the groups was abolished. The PKA-specific inhibitor, H-89, increased the AHP in neurons from all groups to a similar extent, and the difference in AHP amplitude between neurons from TR rats and neurons from controls was maintained. We suggest that while the post-burst AHP in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons is modulated by both PKC and PKA, a PKC-dependent process maintains the learning-related reduction of the AHP in these cells.

  12. Bufalin enhances antitumor effect of paclitaxel on cervical tumorigenesis via inhibiting the integrin α2/β5/FAK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingming; Li, Jiajia; Wang, Ziliang; Cheng, Xi

    2016-01-01

    While Bufalin restrains primary tumorigenesis, the role of Bufalin in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here, we show that Bufalin can inhibit cervical cancer cell proliferation, block cell cycle in G2/M phase, induce cellular apoptosis and reduce cell metastasis through stimulation of p21waf/cip1, p27cip/kip, Bax and E-cadherin, and suppression of cyclin A, cyclin B1, CDK2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, MMP9 and SNAIL1. Further study suggests that Bufalin has no apparent damage to human normal cervical cells at the low concentration (<20nM), but increases the chemotherapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel. Mechanistic study reveals that Bufalin suppresses the integrin α2/FAK/AKT1/ GSK3β signaling. Finally, in vivo studies show that Bufalin blocks the Siha-induced xenograft tumor growth without detectable toxicity in the animals at the therapeutic doses, and the combination treatment of Bufalin and paclitaxel more efficiently inhibits xenograft tumor growth. Thus, Bufalin may be developed as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cervical cancer. PMID:26758421

  13. Orai1 and Orai2 mediate store-operated calcium entry that regulates HL60 cell migration and FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Diez-Bello, R; Jardin, I; Salido, G M; Rosado, J A

    2016-11-16

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major mechanism for the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and cellular function. Emerging evidence has revealed that altered expression and function of the molecular determinants of SOCE play a critical role in the development or maintenance of several cancer hallmarks, including enhanced proliferation and migration. Here we show that, in the acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL60, Orai2 is highly expressed at the transcript level, followed by the expression of Orai1. Using fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging we found that Orai2 silencing significantly attenuated thapsigargin-induced SOCE, as well as knockdown of Orai1, while silencing the expression of both channels almost completely reduced SOCE, thus suggesting that SOCE in these cells is strongly dependent on Orai1 and Orai2. On the other hand, the expression of TRPC1, TRPC3 and TRPC6 is almost absent at the transcript and protein level. Bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation assay revealed that Orai1 and Orai2 expression silencing significantly reduced HL60 cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of Orai1 and Orai2 significantly attenuated the ability of HL60 to migrate in vitro as determined by transwell migration assay, probably due to the impairment of FAK tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings provide evidence for a role for Orai1 and Orai2, in SOCE and migration in the human HL60 promyeloblastic cell line. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech.

  14. Down-regulation of ARNT promotes cancer metastasis by activating the fibronectin/integrin β1/FAK axis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Ruei; Lee, Chung-Ta; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Chang, Wen-Chang; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Chen, Ben-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is broadly involved in regulating tumorigenesis by inducing genes that are involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Tumorigenesis usually involves normoxic conditions. However, the role of ARNT in tumor metastasis during normoxia remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ARNT protein levels were decreased in late-stage human colorectal cancer using immunohistochemical analysis. Down-regulation of ARNT protein promoted cancer cell migration and invasion, which was mediated by activation of the fibronectin/integrin β1/FAK signaling axis. In addition, the enhancement of migration and invasion in ANRT knockdown cells was blocked when ARNT was restored in the cells. In xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency mice, tumor growth was significantly inhibited in the ARNT-knockdown condition. However, the tail-vein injection animal model revealed that the depletion of ARNT-induced metastatic lung colonies was further enhanced when ARNT expression was recovered post-injection. Interestingly, chemotherapeutic drugs inhibited ARNT expression and promoted the invasion of residual tumor cells. These results suggest that ARNT may play a positive role during tumor growth (either in early-stage tumor growth or in organ metastases), but plays a negative role in tumor migration and invasion. Therefore, the efficiency of ARNT-targeted therapy during different cancer stages should be carefully evaluated. PMID:25839165

  15. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside from Afgekia mahidoliae promotes keratinocyte migration through FAK and Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Petpiroon, Nareerat; Suktap, Chalermlat; Pongsamart, Sunanta; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-07-01

    The restoration of the epidermal epithelium through re-epithelialization is a critical process in wound healing. Directed keratinocyte migration to the wound is required, and the retardation of this process may result in a chronic, non-healing wound. The present study contributes to research aiming to identify promising compounds that promote wound healing using a human keratinocyte model. The effects of three kaempferol glycosides from an Afgekia mahidoliae leaf extract, kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, on keratinocyte migration were determined. Interestingly, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside exhibited a pronounced effect on wound closure in comparison to the parental kaempferol and other glycosides. The mechanism by which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside enhances cell migration involves the induction of filopodia and lamellipodia formation, increased cellular levels of phosphorylated FAK (Tyr 397) and phosphorylated Akt (Ser 473), and up-regulation of active Rac1-GTP. The data obtained in this study may support the development of this compound for use in wound healing therapies.

  16. Guggulsterone decreases proliferation and metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells by modulating JAK/STAT and Src/FAK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Gupta, Suprit; Pai, Priya; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate efficacy, high toxicity and drug resistance associated with existing chemotherapeutic agents mandate a need for novel therapeutic strategies for highly aggressive pancreatic cancer (PC). Guggulsterone (GS) exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects against various cancer cells and has emerged as an attractive candidate for use in complementary or preventive cancer therapies. However, the knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of GS in PC is still limited and needs to be explored. We studied the effect of GS on PC cell growth, motility and invasion and elucidated the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. Treatment of Capan1 and CD18/HPAF PC cells with GS resulted in dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and decreased colony formation. Further, GS treatment induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as assessed by Annexin-V assay and FACS analysis. Increased apoptosis following GS treatment was accompanied with Bad dephosphorylation and its translocation to the mitochondria, increased Caspase-3 activation, decreased Cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and xIAP expression. Additionally, GS treatment decreased motility and invasion of PC cells by disrupting cytoskeletal organization, inhibiting activation of FAK and Src signaling and decreased MMP9 expression. More importantly, GS treatment decreased mucin MUC4 expression in Capan1 and CD18/HPAF cells through transcriptional regulation by inhibiting Jak/STAT pathway. In conclusion, our results support the utility of GS as a potential therapeutic agent for lethal PC. PMID:23920124

  17. Survival and growth of Salmonella and Vibrio in som-fak, a Thai low-salt garlic containing fermented fish product.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Paludan-Müller, Christine; Gram, Lone

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation of raw fish is a common process in Asia for improvement of shelf life and safety, however, little is known about the survival of pathogenic bacteria in these products. Raw fish may be contaminated with Salmonella and Vibrio species. The purpose of this study was to determine survival and potential growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden, S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as influenced by the preservation parameters (sodium chloride, garlic and lactic acid) present in the Thai fermented fish product som-fak. The inhibitory effects of sodium chloride (0-4%), garlic (0-10%) and lactic acid (pH levels as in som-fak) were measured in modified brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 30 degrees C. All bacteria were inhibited by 8-10% sodium chloride. Salmonella grew in all concentrations of garlic whereas Vibrio spp. were inhibited by 1.0-1.5%. Lactic acid was inhibitory at levels above 1.5%. The combinations of sodium chloride, lactic acid and garlic showed a distinct hurdle effect in the broth system. Neither S. Enteritidis, V. cholerae nor V. parahaemolyticus grew in garlic (0.5-1%), regardless of the level of sodium chloride (0.5-4% (w/v)), when lactic acid (0.5-2%) was present. S. Weltevreden was the least inhibited of the four bacteria and grew in the combination of 0.5% garlic and 0.5% lactic acid regardless of the NaCl level (0.5-4% (w/v)). Som-fak with 0 to 10% garlic or 2% glucose was inoculated with either (i) 10(3) CFU/g Salmonella Weltevreden, (ii) 10(6) CFU/g garlic fermenting Lactobacillus plantarum strain 509 or (iii) a combination of the two strains and stored at 30 degrees C. The Salmonella count increased to >10(8) CFU/g (>10(6) CFU/g for 10% garlic) in all types of som-fak inoculated with S. Weltevreden within the first day. Only a combination of at least 6% garlic and L. plantarum 509 was enough to prevent growth of the inoculated Salmonella whereas adding the Lactobacillus strain alone or in

  18. FAK inhibition with small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases viability, clonogenicity, and cell attachment in thyroid cancer cell lines and synergizes with targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Shalana; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Liu, Biao; Cance, William G

    2014-09-15

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is up-regulated in thyroid cancer and small molecule FAK scaffolding inhibitor, Y15, was shown to decrease cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. We sought to test the effectiveness of Y15 in thyroid cancer cell lines, profile gene expression with Y15 compared with clinical trial FAK inhibitor PF-04554878, and use Y15 in novel drug combinations. Cell viability was decreased in a dose dependent manner in four thyroid cancer cell lines with Y15 and with higher doses in PF-04554878. Y397 FAK and total FAK were decreased with Y15 and decreased less with PF-04554878. Detachment and necrosis were increased in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines with Y15. Clonogenicity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner for both Y15 and PF-04554878. We compared gene profiles between papillary thyroid cell lines, TPC1, BCPAP and K1, and 380, 109, and 74 genes were significantly >2-fold changed with Y15 treatment, respectively. Common up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, transcription and heat shock; down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cell-to-cell interactions, and cancer stem cell markers. We also compared gene profiles of TT cells treated with Y15 versus PF-04554878. Y15 caused 144 genes to change over 4 fold and PF-04554878 caused 208 gene changes >4-fold (p<0.05). Among genes changed 4 fold, 11 were shared between the treatments, including those involved in metabolism, cell cycle, migration and transcription. Y15 demonstrated synergy with PF-04554878 in TT cells and also synergy with Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and strong synergy with Sunitinib in resistant K1 cells. This report revealed the biological effect of Y15 inhibitor, detected the unique and common gene signature profiles in response to Y15 in 4 different thyroid cancer cell lines, demonstrated differential response changes with Y15 and PF-04554878 treatment, and showed the synergy of Y15 with PF-04554878, Cabozantinib, Sorafenib, Pazopanib, and

  19. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Mingxiang; Chen, Xianying; Lv, Chaoyang; Yi, Xilu; Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Hongfu

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  20. A Small Molecule Bidentate-Binding Dual Inhibitor Probe of the LRRK2 and JNK Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yangbo; Chambers, Jeremy W.; Iqbal, Sarah; Koenig, Marcel; Park, HaJeung; Cherry, Lisa; Hernandez, Pamela; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; LoGrasso, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    Both JNK and LRRK2 are associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we report a reasonably selective and potent kinase inhibitor (compound 6) that bound to both JNK and LRRK2 (a dual inhibitor). A bidentate-binding strategy that simultaneously utilized the ATP hinge binding and a unique protein surface site outside of the ATP pocket was applied to the design and identification of this kind of inhibitor. Compound 6 was a potent JNK3 and modest LRRK2 dual inhibitor with an enzyme IC50 value of 12 nM and 99 nM (LRRK2-G2019S), respectively. 6 also exhibited good cell potency, inhibited LRRK2:G2019S induced mitochondrial dysfunction in SHSY5Y cells, and was demonstrated to be reasonably selective against a panel of 116 kinases from representative kinase families. Design of such a probe molecule may help enable testing if dual JNK and LRRK2 inhibitions have added or synergistic efficacy in protecting against neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:23751758

  1. BRAF inhibitors suppress apoptosis through off-target inhibition of JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vin, Harina; Ojeda, Sandra S; Ching, Grace; Leung, Marco L; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Dwyer, David W; Adelmann, Charles H; Restrepo, Monica; Richards, Kristen N; Stewart, Larissa R; Du, Lili; Ferguson, Scarlett B; Chakravarti, Deepavali; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Curry, Jonathan L; Kim, Kevin B; Ciurea, Ana M; Duvic, Madeleine; Prieto, Victor G; Ullrich, Stephen E; Dalby, Kevin N; Flores, Elsa R; Tsai, Kenneth Y

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib and dabrafenib selectively inhibit the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) kinase, resulting in high response rates and increased survival in melanoma. Approximately 22% of individuals treated with vemurafenib develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) during therapy. The prevailing explanation for this is drug-induced paradoxical ERK activation, resulting in hyperproliferation. Here we show an unexpected and novel effect of vemurafenib/PLX4720 in suppressing apoptosis through the inhibition of multiple off-target kinases upstream of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), principally ZAK. JNK signaling is suppressed in multiple contexts, including in cSCC of vemurafenib-treated patients, as well as in mice. Expression of a mutant ZAK that cannot be inhibited reverses the suppression of JNK activation and apoptosis. Our results implicate suppression of JNK-dependent apoptosis as a significant, independent mechanism that cooperates with paradoxical ERK activation to induce cSCC, suggesting broad implications for understanding toxicities associated with BRAF inhibitors and for their use in combination therapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00969.001 PMID:24192036

  2. 3-MCPD 1-Palmitate Induced Tubular Cell Apoptosis In Vivo via JNK/p53 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Wang, Thomas T Y; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) are a group of processing induced food contaminants with nephrotoxicity but the molecular mechanism(s) remains unclear. This study investigated whether and how the JNK/p53 pathway may play a role in the nephrotoxic effect of 3-MCPD esters using 3-MCPD 1-palmitate (MPE) as a probe compound in Sprague Dawley rats. Microarray analysis of the kidney from the Sprague Dawley rats treated with MPE, using Gene Ontology categories and KEGG pathways, revealed that MPE altered mRNA expressions of the genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK and ERK), p53, and apoptotic signal transduction pathways. The changes in the mRNA expressions were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses and were consistent with the induction of tubular cell apoptosis as determined by histopathological, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry analyses in the kidneys of the Sprague Dawley rats. Additionally, p53 knockout attenuated the apoptosis, and the apoptosis-related protein bax expression and cleaved caspase-3 activation induced by MPE in the p53 knockout C57BL/6 mice, whereas JNK inhibitor SP600125 but not ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited MPE-induced apoptosis, supporting the conclusion that JNK/p53 might play a critical role in the tubular cell apoptosis induced by MPE and other 3-MCPD fatty acid esters.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ning; Budhraja, Amit; Cheng, Senping; Yao, Hua; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the functional role of JNK and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches. Experimental Design Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 h and 24 h, or with 50 μg/ml of GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were performed in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells. Results Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacological inhibitor (e.g. SP600125) or genetic (e.g. siRNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE mediated lethality in Jurkat cells. Conclusions The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation. PMID:19118041

  4. Blockage of JNK pathway enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.-S.; Liu, Z.-M.; Hong, D.-Y.

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is well known as a carcinogen predisposing humans to some severe diseases and also as an effective medicine for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, and psoriasis. Multiple active mechanisms, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, have been proposed in therapy; however, the opposing effects of arsenic remain controversial. Our previous study found that arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced activation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) led to A431 cell death through the antagonistic effects of the signaling of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of JNK1 on ATO-induced p21 expression were explored. Over-expression of JNK1 in A431 cells could inhibit p21 expression, which was associated with HDAC1 and TGIF. Using the GST pull-down assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-108) of TGIF, critical to its binding with c-Jun, was found. Using reporter assays, requirement of the C-terminal domain (amino acids 138-272) of TGIF to suppress ATO-induced p21 expression was observed. Thus, the domains of TGIF that carried out its inhibitory effects on p21 were identified. Finally, treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could enhance ATO-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by using flow cytometry.

  5. Anthrapyrazolone analogues intercept inflammatory JNK signals to moderate endotoxin induced septic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Karothu Durga; Trinath, Jamma; Biswas, Ansuman; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Balaji, Kithiganahalli N.; Guru Row, Tayur N.

    2014-11-01

    Severe sepsis or septic shock is one of the rising causes for mortality worldwide representing nearly 10% of intensive care unit admissions. Susceptibility to sepsis is identified to be mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors and responsive signaling pathways of the host. The c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-mediated signaling events play critical role in bacterial infection triggered multi-organ failure, cardiac dysfunction and mortality. In the context of kinase specificities, an extensive library of anthrapyrazolone analogues has been investigated for the selective inhibition of c-JNK and thereby to gain control over the inflammation associated risks. In our comprehensive biochemical characterization, it is observed that alkyl and halogen substitution on the periphery of anthrapyrazolone increases the binding potency of the inhibitors specifically towards JNK. Further, it is demonstrated that hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions generated by these small molecules effectively block endotoxin-induced inflammatory genes expression in in vitro and septic shock in vivo, in a mouse model, with remarkable efficacies. Altogether, the obtained results rationalize the significance of the diversity oriented synthesis of small molecules for selective inhibition of JNK and their potential in the treatment of severe sepsis.

  6. HCV upregulates Bim through the ROS/JNK signalling pathway, leading to Bax-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lin; Chen, Ming; Tanaka, Motofumi; Ku, Yonson; Itoh, Tomoo; Shoji, Ikuo; Hotta, Hak

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces Bax-triggered, mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis by using the HCV J6/JFH1 strain and Huh-7.5 cells. However, it was still unclear how HCV-induced Bax activation. In this study, we showed that the HCV-induced activation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bax were significantly attenuated by treatment with a general antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or a specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, with the result suggesting that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/JNK signalling pathway is upstream of Bax activation in HCV-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrated that HCV infection transcriptionally activated the gene for the pro-apoptotic protein Bim and the protein expression of three major splice variants of Bim (BimEL, BimL and BimS). The HCV-induced increase in the Bim mRNA and protein levels was significantly counteracted by treatment with NAC or SP600125, suggesting that the ROS/JNK signalling pathway is involved in Bim upregulation. Moreover, HCV infection led to a marked accumulation of Bim on the mitochondria to facilitate its interaction with Bax. On the other hand, downregulation of Bim by siRNA (small interfering RNA) significantly prevented HCV-mediated activation of Bax and caspase 3. Taken together, these observations suggest that HCV-induced ROS/JNK signalling transcriptionally activates Bim expression, which leads to Bax activation and apoptosis induction.

  7. Bz-423 superoxide signals apoptosis via selective activation of JNK, Bak, and Bax.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Neal B; Boitano, Anthony E; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Opipari, Anthony W; Glick, Gary D

    2008-11-01

    Bz-423 is a proapoptotic 1,4-benzodiazepine with potent therapeutic properties in murine models of lupus and psoriasis. Bz-423 modulates the F(1)F(0)-ATPase, inducing the formation of superoxide within the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which then functions as a second messenger initiating apoptosis. Herein, we report the signaling pathway activated by Bz-423 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts containing knockouts of key apoptotic proteins. Bz-423-induced superoxide activates cytosolic ASK1 and its release from thioredoxin. A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade follows, leading to the specific phosphorylation of JNK. JNK signals activation of Bax and Bak which then induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization to cause the release of cytochrome c and a commitment to apoptosis. The response of these cells to Bz-423 is critically dependent on both superoxide and JNK activation as antioxidants and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevents Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and cell death. These results demonstrate that superoxide generated from the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a consequence of a respiratory transition can signal a sequential and specific apoptotic response. Collectively, these data suggest that the selectivity of Bz-423 observed in vivo results from cell-type specific differences in redox balance and signaling by ASK1 and Bcl-2 proteins.

  8. Copper compound induces autophagy and apoptosis of glioma cells by reactive oxygen species and jnk activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive of the primary brain tumors, with a grim prognosis despite intensive treatment. In the past decades, progress in research has not significantly increased overall survival rate. Methods The in vitro antineoplastic effect and mechanism of action of Casiopeina III-ia (Cas III-ia), a copper compound, on rat malignant glioma C6 cells was investigated. Results Cas III-ia significantly inhibited cell proliferation, inducing autophagy and apoptosis, which correlated with the formation of autophagic vacuoles, overexpression of LC3, Beclin 1, Atg 7, Bax and Bid proteins. A decrease was detected in the mitochondrial membrane potential and in the activity of caspase 3 and 8, together with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activity of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). The presence of 3-methyladenine (as selective autophagy inhibitor) increased the antineoplastic effect of Cas III-ia, while Z-VAD-FMK only showed partial protection from the antineoplastic effect induced by Cas III-ia, and ROS antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine) decreased apoptosis, autophagy and JNK activity. Moreover, the JNK –specific inhibitor SP600125 prevented Cas III-ia-induced cell death. Conclusions Our data suggest that Cas III-ia induces cell death by autophagy and apoptosis, in part due to the activation of ROS –dependent JNK signaling. These findings support further studies of Cas III-ia as candidate for treatment of human malignant glioma. PMID:22540380

  9. Role of JNK in network formation of human lung microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Medhora, Meetha; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Pratt, Phillip F.; Cook, Craig R.; Dunn, Laurel K.; Gruenloh, Stephanie K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms in vasculogenesis and/or angiogenesis remain poorly understood, limiting the ability to regulate growth of new blood vessels in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells align into tubular networks in the three-dimensional matrix, Matrigel. Overexpression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), an enzyme that inactivates the ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways, inhibited network formation of these cells. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of recombinant MKP-3 (a dual specificity phosphatase that specifically inactivates the ERK pathway) and dominant negative or constitutively active MEK did not attenuate network formation in Matrigel compared with negative controls. This result suggested that the ERK pathway may not be essential for tube assembly, a conclusion which was supported by the action of specific MEK inhibitor PD 184352, which also did not alter network formation. Inhibition of the JNK pathway using SP-600125 or L-stereoisomer (L-JNKI-1) blocked network formation, whereas the p38 MAPK blocker SB-203580 slightly enhanced it. Inhibition of JNK also attenuated the number of small vessel branches in the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane. Our results demonstrate a specific role for the JNK pathway in network formation of human lung endothelial cells in vitro while confirming that it is essential for the formation of new vessels in vivo. PMID:18263671

  10. A pathway in the yeast cell division cycle linking protein kinase C (Pkc1) to activation of Cdc28 at START.

    PubMed Central

    Marini, N J; Meldrum, E; Buehrer, B; Hubberstey, A V; Stone, D E; Traynor-Kaplan, A; Reed, S I

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to study further the mechanism of Cdc28 function and cell cycle commitment, we describe here a genetic approach to identify components of pathways downstream of the Cdc28 kinase at START by screening for mutations that decrease the effectiveness of signaling by Cdc28. The first locus to be characterized in detail using this approach was PKC1 which encodes a homolog of the Ca(2+)-dependent isozymes of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily (Levin et al., 1990). By several genetic criteria, we show a functional interaction between CDC28 and PKC1 with PKC1 apparently functioning with respect to bud emergence downstream of START. Consistent with this, activity of the MAP kinase homolog Mpk1 (a putative Pkc1 effector) is stimulated by activation of Cdc28. Furthermore, we demonstrate a cell cycle-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol (a PKC activator) and choline phosphate at START. Diacylglycerol production is stimulated by Cdc28 in cycling cells and is closely associated with Cdc28 activation at START. These results imply that the activation of Pkc1, which is known to be necessary during bud morphogenesis, is mediated via the CDC28-dependent stimulation of PC-PLC activity in a novel cell cycle-regulated signaling pathway. Images PMID:8670805

  11. Cullin-4 regulates Wingless and JNK signaling-mediated cell death in the Drosophila eye

    PubMed Central

    Tare, Meghana; Sarkar, Ankita; Bedi, Shimpi; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Singh, Amit

    2016-01-01

    In all multicellular organisms, the fundamental processes of cell proliferation and cell death are crucial for growth regulation during organogenesis. Strict regulation of cell death is important to maintain tissue homeostasis by affecting processes like regulation of cell number, and elimination of unwanted/unfit cells. The developing Drosophila eye is a versatile model to study patterning and growth, where complex signaling pathways regulate growth and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of these processes is not fully understood. In a gain-of-function screen, we found that misexpression of cullin-4 (cul-4), an ubiquitin ligase, can rescue reduced eye mutant phenotypes. Previously, cul-4 has been shown to regulate chromatin remodeling, cell cycle and cell division. Genetic characterization of cul-4 in the developing eye revealed that loss-of-function of cul-4 exhibits a reduced eye phenotype. Analysis of twin-spots showed that in comparison with their wild-type counterparts, the cul-4 loss-of-function clones fail to survive. Here we show that cul-4 clones are eliminated by induction of cell death due to activation of caspases. Aberrant activation of signaling pathways is known to trigger cell death in the developing eye. We found that Wingless (Wg) and c-Jun-amino-terminal-(NH2)-Kinase (JNK) signaling are ectopically induced in cul-4 mutant clones, and these signals co-localize with the dying cells. Modulating levels of Wg and JNK signaling by using agonists and antagonists of these pathways demonstrated that activation of Wg and JNK signaling enhances cul-4 mutant phenotype, whereas downregulation of Wg and JNK signaling rescues the cul-4 mutant phenotypes of reduced eye. Here we present evidences to demonstrate that cul-4 is involved in restricting Wg signaling and downregulation of JNK signaling-mediated cell death during early eye development. Overall, our studies provide insights into a novel role of cul-4 in promoting cell

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-α mediates JNK activation response to intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Zheng, Feng-Ping; Zhan, Ya-Shi; Tao, Jin; Tan, Si-Wei; Liu, Hui-Ling; Wu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mediates ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal mucosal injury through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. METHODS: In this study, intestinal I/R was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery in rats followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were pretreated with a TNF-α inhibitor, pentoxifylline, or the TNF-α antibody infliximab. After surgery, part of the intestine was collected for histological analysis. The mucosal layer was harvested for RNA and protein extraction, which were used for further real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analyses. The TNF-α expression, intestinal mucosal injury, cell apoptosis, activation of apoptotic protein and JNK signaling pathway were analyzed. RESULTS: I/R significantly enhanced expression of mucosal TNF-α at both the mRNA and protein levels, induced severe mucosal injury and cell apoptosis, activated caspase-9/caspase-3, and activated the JNK signaling pathway. Pretreatment with pentoxifylline markedly downregulated TNF-α at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas infliximab pretreatment did not affect the expression of TNF-α induced by I/R. However, pretreatment with pentoxifylline or infliximab dramatically suppressed I/R-induced mucosal injury and cell apoptosis and significantly inhibited the activation of caspase-9/3 and JNK signaling. CONCLUSION: The results indicate there was a TNF-α-mediated JNK activation response to intestinal I/R injury. PMID:23946597

  13. Hypoxia induces unique proliferative response in adventitial fibroblasts by activating PDGFβ receptor-JNK1 signalling

    PubMed Central

    Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W. Michael; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Das, Mita

    2012-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition for which no disease-modifying therapies exist. PH is recognized as proliferative disease of the pulmonary artery (PA). In the experimental newborn calf model of hypoxia-induced PH, adventitial fibroblasts in the PA wall exhibit a heightened replication index. Because elevated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβ-R) signalling is associated with PH, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of PDGFβ-R contributes to fibroblast proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. Methods and results Newborn calves were exposed to either ambient air (PB = 640 mmHg) (Neo-C) or high altitude (PB = 445 mm Hg) (Neo-PH) for 2 weeks. PDGFβ-R phosphorylation was markedly elevated in PA adventitia of Neo-PH calves as well as in cultured PA fibroblasts isolated from Neo-PH animals. PDGFβ-R activation with PDGF-BB stimulated higher replication in Neo-PH cells compared with that of control fibroblasts. PDGF-BB-induced proliferation was dependent on reactive oxygen species generation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation in both cell populations; however, only Neo-PH cell division via PDGFβ-R activation displayed a unique dependence on c-Jun N-terminal kinase1 (JNK1) stimulation as the blockade of JNK1 with SP600125, a pharmacological antagonist of the JNK pathway, and JNK1-targeted siRNA selectively blunted Neo-PH cell proliferation. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that hypoxia-induced modified cells engage the PDGFβ-R-JNK1 axis to confer distinctively heightened proliferation and adventitial remodelling in PH. PMID:22735370

  14. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    PubMed

    LaFayette, Shantelle L; Collins, Cathy; Zaas, Aimee K; Schell, Wiley A; Betancourt-Quiroz, Marisol; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie; Perfect, John R; Cowen, Leah E

    2010-08-26

    Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which Hsp90 regulates drug

  15. Endothelin-1 protects human melanocytes from UV-induced DNA damage by activating JNK and p38 signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    von Koschembahr, Anne M; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny J; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A

    2015-04-01

    Endothelin-1 is a paracrine factor with mitogenic, melanogenic and survival effects on cultured human melanocytes. We report that endothelin-1 signalling reduced the generation and enhanced the repair of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA photoproducts, and inhibited apoptosis of human melanocytes, without increasing cAMP levels, melanin content or proliferation. Treatment with endothelin-1 activated the MAP kinases JNK and p38, as evidenced by phosphorylation of their target, activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). Endothelin-1 also enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ATF-2 by UV. The effects of endothelin-1 were dependent on increasing intracellular calcium mobilization by endothelin B receptor signalling. Activation of both JNK and p38 was required for reducing DNA photoproducts, but only JNK partially contributed to the survival effect of endothelin-1. ATF-2 activation depended mainly on JNK, yet was not sufficient for the effect of endothelin-1 on UV-induced DNA damage, suggesting the requirement for other JNK and p38 targets for this effect. Our results underscore the significance of endothelin-1 and endothelin B receptor signalling in reducing the genotoxic effects of UV via activating JNK and p38, hence restoring genomic stability of melanocytes.

  16. Selective inhibition of mitochondrial JNK signaling achieved using peptide mimicry of the Sab kinase interacting motif-1 (KIM1).

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jeremy W; Cherry, Lisa; Laughlin, John D; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Lograsso, Philip V

    2011-08-19

    The c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are responsive to stress stimuli leading to activation of proapoptotic proteins and transcription. Additionally, JNK mitochondrial localization has been reported. To selectively target mitochondrial JNK signaling, we exploited JNK interaction with its mitochondrial scaffold, Sab, using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and a cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the KIM1 domain of Sab. Gene silencing and peptide interference of this interaction disrupted JNK translocation to the mitochondria and reduced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 without significant impact on c-Jun phosphorylation or AP-1 transcription. In contrast, the JNK inhibitory peptide (TI-JIP1) prevented these three functions. Tat-Sab(KIM1) selectivity was also demonstrated in anisomycin-stressed HeLa cells where Tat-Sab(KIM1) prevented Bcl-2 phosphorylation, cell death, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and superoxide generation but not c-Jun phosphorylation. Conversely, TI-JIP1 prevented all aforementioned stress-induced events. This probe introduces a means to evaluate JNK-mediated events on the mitochondria without intervening in nuclear functions of JNK.

  17. Inhibition of JNK suppresses autophagy and attenuates insulin resistance in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Gao, Yanqiong; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver. A rat model of NAFLD was established using a high‑fat diet (HFD), and insulin resistance in the livers of HFD rats was determined by peritoneal glucose tolerance testing. The results indicated that a HFD induced impaired glucose tolerance, liver function injury, insulin resistance and increased autophagy in rats. Treatment with SP600125, an inhibitor of JNK, relieved NAFLD in rats. Furthermore, SP600125 decreased the expression levels of autophagy-associated genes, including Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3, autophagy related gene (Atg)3 and Atg5, and the phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) β-subunit, IR substrate-1 and protein kinase B in vivo. In conclusion, JNK inhibition may suppress autophagy and attenuate insulin resistance. Therefore, JNK inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.

  18. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-02-17

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC.

  19. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  20. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent acute liver injury from acetaminophen or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) requires mitochondrial Sab protein expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Han, Derick; Petrovic, Lydia M; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-10-07

    Sustained JNK activation plays a critical role in hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen or GalN/TNF-α. To address the importance of JNK translocation to mitochondria that accompanies sustained activation in these models, we assessed the importance of the expression of a potential initial target of JNK in the outer membrane of mitochondria, namely Sab (SH3 domain-binding protein that preferentially associates with Btk), also known as Sh3bp5 (SH3 domain-binding protein 5). Silencing the expression of Sab in the liver using adenoviral shRNA inhibited sustained JNK activation and mitochondrial targeting of JNK and the upstream MKK4 (MAPK kinase 4), accompanied by striking protection against liver injury in vivo and in cultured hepatocytes in both toxicity models. We conclude that mitochondrial Sab may serve as a platform for the MAPK pathway enzymes and that the interaction of stress-activated JNK with Sab is required for sustained JNK activation and toxicity.

  1. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)-dependent Acute Liver Injury from Acetaminophen or Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Requires Mitochondrial Sab Protein Expression in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Han, Derick; Petrovic, Lydia M.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Sustained JNK activation plays a critical role in hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen or GalN/TNF-α. To address the importance of JNK translocation to mitochondria that accompanies sustained activation in these models, we assessed the importance of the expression of a potential initial target of JNK in the outer membrane of mitochondria, namely Sab (SH3 domain-binding protein that preferentially associates with Btk), also known as Sh3bp5 (SH3 domain-binding protein 5). Silencing the expression of Sab in the liver using adenoviral shRNA inhibited sustained JNK activation and mitochondrial targeting of JNK and the upstream MKK4 (MAPK kinase 4), accompanied by striking protection against liver injury in vivo and in cultured hepatocytes in both toxicity models. We conclude that mitochondrial Sab may serve as a platform for the MAPK pathway enzymes and that the interaction of stress-activated JNK with Sab is required for sustained JNK activation and toxicity. PMID:21844199

  2. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The “positive cooperativity” molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26903999

  3. PKC and AKT Modulate cGMP/PKG Signaling Pathway on Platelet Aggregation in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Pires, M. Elisa; Naime, Ana C. Antunes; Almeida Cardelli, Nádia J.; Anjos, Débora J.; Antunes, Edson; Marcondes, Sisi

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis severity has been positively correlated with platelet dysfunction, which may be due to elevations in nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP levels. Protein kinase C, Src kinases, PI3K and AKT modulate platelet activity in physiological conditions, but no studies evaluated the role of these enzymes in platelet aggregation in sepsis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that in sepsis these enzymes positively modulate upstream the NO-cGMP pathway resulting in platelet inhibition. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and blood was collected after 6 h. Platelet aggregation was induced by ADP (10 μM). Western blotting assays were carried out to analyze c-Src and AKT activation in platelets. Intraplatelet cGMP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay kit. Phosphorylation of c-SRC at Tyr416 was the same magnitude in platelets of control and LPS group. Incubation of the non-selective Src inhibitor PP2 (10 μM) had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. LPS increased intraplatelet cGMP levels by 5-fold compared with control group, which was accompanied by 76% of reduction in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (25 μM) and the PKG inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (25 μM) fully reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on platelet aggregation. Likewise, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10 μM) reversed the inhibition by LPS of platelet aggregation and decreased cGMP levels in platelets. AKT phosphorylation at Thr308 was significantly higher in platelets of LPS compared with control group, which was not reduced by PI3K inhibition. The AKT inhibitor API-1 (20 μM) significantly increased aggregation and reduced cGMP levels in platelets of LPS group. However, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and LY29004 had no effect on platelet aggregation of LPS-treated rats. Therefore, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation after LPS injection is mediated by cGMP/PKG-dependent mechanisms, and PKC and AKT act

  4. Activating PKC-β1 at the blood-brain barrier reverses induction of P-glycoprotein activity by dioxin and restores drug delivery to the CNS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Hawkins, Brian T; Miller, David S

    2011-06-01

    Upregulation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) P-glycoprotein expression causes central nervous system (CNS) pharmacoresistance. However, activation of BBB protein kinase C-β1 (PKC-β1) rapidly reduces basal P-glycoprotein transport activity. We tested whether PKC-β1 activation would reverse CNS drug resistance caused by dioxin acting through aryl hydrocarbon receptor. A selective PKC-β1 agonist abolished the increase in P-glycoprotein activity induced by dioxin in isolated rat brain capillaries and reversed the effect of dioxin on brain uptake of verapamil in dioxin-dosed rats. Thus, targeting BBB PKC-β1 may be an effective strategy to improve drug delivery to the brain, even in drug-resistant individuals.

  5. aPKC regulates apical localization of Lgl to restrict elongation of microridges in developing zebrafish epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Renuka; Damle, Indraneel; Rote, Rahul; Banerjee, Shamik; Dingare, Chaitanya; Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells exhibit apical membrane protrusions, which confer specific functions to epithelial tissues. Microridges are short actin protrusions that are laterally long and form a maze-like pattern in the apical domain. They are widely found on vertebrate squamous epithelia including epidermis and have functions in mucous retention, membrane storage and abrasion resistance. It is largely unknown how the formation of these laterally long actin projections is regulated. Here, we show that antagonistic interactions between aPKC and Lgl–regulators of apical and basolateral domain identity, respectively,–control the length of microridges in the zebrafish periderm, the outermost layer of the epidermis. aPKC regulates the levels of Lgl and the active form of non-muscle myosinII at the apical cortex to prevent actin polymerization-dependent precocious fusion and elongation of microridges. Our data unravels the functional significance of exclusion of Lgl from the apical domain in epithelial cells. PMID:27249668

  6. F-actin links Epac-PKC signaling to purinergic P2X3 receptor sensitization in dorsal root ganglia following inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanping; Wang, Congying; Li, GuangWen

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) contributes to the production of exaggerated nociceptive responses following inflammatory injury. We showed previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) potentiates P2X3R-mediated ATP currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from both control and complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflamed rats. PGE2 potentiation of ATP currents depends only on PKA signaling in control neurons, but it depends on both PKA and PKC signaling in inflamed neurons. We further found that inflammation evokes an increase in exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) in dorsal root ganglions. This increase promotes the activation of PKC to produce a much enhanced PGE2 effect on ATP currents and to elicit Epac-dependent flinch nocifensive behavioral responses in complete Freund’s adjuvant rats. The link between Epac-PKC signaling and P2X3R sensitization remains unexplored. Here, we show that the activation of Epacs promotes the expression of phosphorylated PKC and leads to an increase in the cytoskeleton, F-actin, expression at the cell perimeter. Depolymerization of F-actin blocks PGE2-enhanced ATP currents and inhibits P2X3R-mediated nocifensive responses after inflammation. Thus, F-actin is dynamically involved in the Epac-PKC-dependent P2X3R sensitization. Furthermore, Epacs induce a PKC-dependent increase in the membrane expression of P2X3Rs. This increase is abolished by F-actin depolymerization, suggesting that F-actin mediates Epac-PKC signaling of P2X3R membrane expression. Thus, after inflammation, an Epac-PKC dependent increase in F-actin in dorsal root ganglion neurons enhances the membrane expression of P2X3Rs to bring about sensitization of P2X3Rs and abnormal pain behaviors. PMID:27385722

  7. EXPRESS: F-actin links Epac-PKC signaling to purinergic P2X3 receptors sensitization in dorsal root ganglia following inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanping; Wang, Congying; Li, Guangwen; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) contributes to the production of exaggerated nociceptive responses following inflammatory injury. We showed previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) potentiates P2X3R-mediated ATP currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons isolated from both control and complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced inflamed rats. PGE2 potentiation of ATP currents depends only on PKA signaling in control neurons, but it depends on both PKA and PKC signaling in inflamed neurons. We further found that inflammation evokes an increase in exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epacs) in dorsal root ganglions. This increase promotes the activation of PKC to produce a much enhanced PGE2 effect on ATP currents and to elicit Epac-dependent flinch nocifensive behavioral responses in complete Freund’s adjuvant rats. The link between Epac-PKC signaling and P2X3R sensitization remains unexplored. Here, we show that the activation of Epacs promotes the expression of phosphorylated PKC and leads to an increase in the cytoskeleton, F-actin, expression at the cell perimeter. Depolymerization of F-actin blocks PGE2-enhanced ATP currents and inhibits P2X3R-mediated nocifensive responses after inflammation. Thus, F-actin is dynamically involved in the Epac-PKC-dependent P2X3R sensitization. Furthermore, Epacs induce a PKC-dependent increase in the membrane expression of P2X3Rs. This increase is abolished by F-actin depolymerization, suggesting that F-actin mediates Epac-PKC signaling of P2X3R membrane expression. Thus, after inflammation, an Epac-PKC dependent increase in F-actin in dorsal root ganglion neurons enhances the membrane expression of P2X3Rs to bring about sensitization of P2X3Rs and abnormal pain behaviors.

  8. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuehua; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. PMID:26605346

  9. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKC{alpha} linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-03-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC {yields} ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKC{alpha} using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKC{alpha}, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKC{alpha} activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKC{alpha} activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKC{alpha} and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade.

  10. Dual specificity phosphotase 18, interacting with SAPK, dephosphorylates SAPK and inhibits SAPK/JNK signal pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihan; Huang, Shengdong; Sun, Yaqiong; Gu, Shaohua; Lu, Fanglin; Dai, Jianfeng; Yin, Gang; Sun, Liyun; Zheng, Dan; Dou, Chao; Feng, Congjing; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2006-09-01

    The SAPK/JNKs play important roles in numerous cellular processes, and for this reason they have become putative drug targets. Most dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs) play important roles in the regulation of mitogenic signal transduction and cell cycle control in response to extracellular stimuli. Dual-specificity phosphatase 18 (DUSP18), a newly recognized SAPK/JNK phosphatase, is widely expressed. This expression is modulated in response to extracellular stimuli. By phosphorylation assay, pull down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, it is shown here that DUSP18 interacts with SAPK/JNK and dephosphorylates it both in vitro and in vivo. DUSP18 does not dephosphorylate p38 or p44ERK1. Furthermore, DUSP18 inhibits SAPK/JNK pathway in vivo. Based on these findings, DUSP18 appears to serve an important role by regulation of SAPK/JNK pathway.

  11. Catecholamines are produced by ascidian immune cells: The involvement of PKA and PKC in the adrenergic signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    de Abreu Mello, Andressa; Fernandes de Souza, Jéssica; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Allodi, Silvana; Monteiro de Barros, Cintia

    2017-03-01

    The stress response is a complex mechanism, which includes changes in the immune system to enable organisms to maintain homeostasis. The neurohormones dopamine, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenalin are responsible for the physiological modulations that occur during acute stress. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of NA on the immune system specific to nitric-oxide (NO) production by subpopulations of immune cells (hemocytes) of the ascidian Phallusia nigra. We also investigated the capability of immune cells to produce catecholamine (CA). Finally, we tested the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA) and C (PKC) in the NA downstream signaling pathway. The results revealed that NA can reduce NO production by P. nigra hemocytes threefold, and that signet-ring cells, univacuolar refractile granulocytes and morula cells are the cell types most involved in this event. A challenge effected with Zymosan A induced CA production, and co-incubation with both inhibitors of the second messengers PKA and PKC revealed the involvement of these molecules in the adrenergic pathway of P. nigra hemocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that NO production can be down-regulated by NA through α- and β-adrenoceptors via the second messengers PKA and PKC.

  12. Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Tremmel, Daniel M; Resad, Sedat; Little, Christopher J; Wesley, Cedric S

    2013-01-01

    The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenotype could be linked to excess canonical Notch signaling. The other phenotypes were linked to high levels of Notch protein expression at the surface of cells in the lateral regions indicating that a non-canonical Notch signaling activity normally functions in these regions. Results of our studies reported here provide evidence. They show that Notch activities are inextricably linked to that of Pkc98E, the homolog of mammalian PKCδ. Notch and Pkc98E up-regulate the levels of the phosphorylated form of IκBCactus, a negative regulator of Toll signaling, and Mothers against dpp (MAD), an effector of Dpp signaling. Our data suggest that in the lateral regions of the Drosophila embryos Notch activity, in conjunction with Pkc98E activity, is used to form the slopes of the opposing gradients of Toll and Dpp signaling that specify cell fates along the dorso-ventral axis.

  13. The participation of NMDA receptors, PKC, and MAPK in the formation of memory following operant conditioning in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Memory is the ability to store, retain, and later retrieve information that has been learned. Intermediate term memory (ITM) that persists for up to 3 h requires new protein synthesis. Long term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 24 h requires: DNA transcription, RNA translation, and the trafficking of newly synthesized proteins. It has been shown in a number of different model systems that NMDA receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are all involved in the memory formation process. Results Here we show that snails trained in control conditions are capable of forming, depending on the training procedure used, either ITM or LTM. However, blockage of NMDA receptors (MK 801), inhibition of PKC (GF109203X hydrochloride) and MAPK activity (UO126) prevent the formation of both ITM and LTM. Conclusions The injection of either U0126 or GF109203X, which inhibit MAPK and PKC activity respectively, 1 hour prior to training results in the inhibition of both ITM and LTM formation. We further found that NMDA receptor activity was necessary in order for both ITM and LTM formation. PMID:20807415

  14. Huntingtin Is Required for Epithelial Polarity through RAB11A-Mediated Apical Trafficking of PAR3-aPKC

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Salah; McGuire, John Russel; Yu, Hua; Humbert, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of apical-basolateral polarity is important for both normal development and disease, for example, during tumorigenesis and metastasis. During this process, polarity complexes are targeted to the apical surface by a RAB11A-dependent mechanism. Huntingtin (HTT), the protein that is mutated in Huntington disease, acts as a scaffold for molecular motors and promotes microtubule-based dynamics. Here, we investigated the role of HTT in apical polarity during the morphogenesis of the mouse mammary epithelium. We found that the depletion of HTT from luminal cells in vivo alters mouse ductal morphogenesis and lumen formation. HTT is required for the apical localization of PAR3-aPKC during epithelial morphogenesis in virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. We show that HTT forms a complex with PAR3, aPKC, and RAB11A and ensures the microtubule-dependent apical vesicular translocation of PAR3-aPKC through RAB11A. We thus propose that HTT regulates polarized vesicular transport, lumen formation and mammary epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25942483

  15. Nociceptor beta II, delta, and epsilon isoforms of PKC differentially mediate paclitaxel-induced spontaneous and evoked pain.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2015-03-18

    As one of the most effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel produces peripheral neuropathy (paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy or PIPN) that negatively affects chemotherapy and persists after cancer therapy. The mechanisms underlying this dose-limiting side effect remain to be fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of nociceptor protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in PIPN. Employing multiple complementary approaches, we have identified a subset of PKC isoforms, namely βII, δ, and ϵ, were activated by paclitaxel in the isolated primary afferent sensory neurons. Persistent activation of PKCβII, PKCδ, and PKCϵ was also observed in the dorsal root ganglion neurons after chronic treatment with paclitaxel in a mouse model of PIPN. Isoform-selective inhibitors of PKCβII, PKCδ, and PKCϵ given intrathecally dose-dependently attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Surprisingly, spinal inhibition of PKCβII and PKCδ, but not PKCϵ, blocked the spontaneous pain induced by paclitaxel. These data suggest that a subset of nociceptor PKC isoforms differentially contribute to spontaneous and evoked pain in PIPN, although it is not clear whether PKCϵ in other regions regulates spontaneous pain in PIPN. The findings can potentially offer new selective targets for pharmacological intervention of PIPN.

  16. Ellagic acid induces novel and atypical PKC isoforms and promotes caspase-3 dependent apoptosis by blocking energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sudha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant ellagic acid is a herbal polyphenolic compound shown to possess growth-inhibiting and apoptotic activities in cancer. Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Apoptosis of tumor cells is induced by inactivation of glycolytic enzyme of anaerobic metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A, and by activating apoptotic protein caspase-3 via PKCδ. The present study aims to analyze the role of ellagic acid on regulation of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC to modulate apoptosis and anaerobic metabolism to prevent lymphoma growth as its role on classical PKCs is reported earlier. Expression of novel and atypical isozymes of PKC, activity of PKCδ, expression and activity of caspase-3, and LDH-A have been analyzed. Expression is measured by RT-PCR, activities of PKCδ as level of its catalytic fragment, caspase-3 as level of its p17 fragment, and LDH-A by specific staining. Lymphoma bearing mice were treated with 3 different doses of ellagic acid. The treatment enhanced expression of all novel and atypical PKCs, activity and expression of caspase-3, and activity of PKCδ but decreased activity and expression of LDH-A. Our results suggest that ellagic acid induces apoptosis via novel and atypical PKCs in association with caspase-3 and induces cancer cell death by blocking the energy metabolism.

  17. A role for amygdaloid PKA and PKC in the acquisition of long-term conditional fear memories in rats.

    PubMed

    Goosens, K A; Holt, W; Maren, S

    2000-09-01

    Although there is great interest in the cellular mechanisms underlying Pavlovian conditioning, few studies have directly examined the contribution of intracellular signaling pathways in the amygdala to the acquisition and expression of conditional fear memories. In the present study, we examined this issue by infusing 1-(5'-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), a potent inhibitor of both protein kinase C (PKC) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), directly into the amygdala prior to fear conditioning or retention testing. We found that infusion of H7 prior to training attenuated long-term conditional fear in a dose-dependent manner (Experiment 1), but short-term fear memories were spared. The contribution of protein kinases to conditional fear was region-specific within the amygdala: infusion of H7 into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) but not the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) resulted in attenuated freezing (Experiment 2). Moreover, the deficits in fear conditioning produced by PKA/PKC inhibition were not modality-specific, insofar as intra-BLA H7 reduced both contextual and auditory fear. The effects of H7 on conditional freezing were not attributable to either state-dependency or performance deficits (Experiment 3). Together, these experiments suggest that amygdaloid PKA and PKC play an important role in the acquisition of fear memories.

  18. Curcumin supplementation could improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction associated with decreased vascular superoxide production and PKC inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Curcumin, an Asian spice and food-coloring agent, is known for its anti-oxidant properties. We propose that curcumin can improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction through superoxide reduction. Methods Diabetes (DM) was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Daily curcumin oral feeding was started six weeks after the STZ injection. Twelve weeks after STZ injection, mesenteric arteriolar responses were recorded in real time using intravital fluorescence videomicroscopy. Superoxide and vascular protein kinase C (PKC-βII) were examined by hydroethidine and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results The dilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh) significantly decreased in DM arterioles as compared to control arterioles. There was no difference among groups when sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used. ACh responses were significantly improved by both low and high doses (30 and 300 mg/kg, respectively) of curcumin supplementation. An oxygen radical-sensitive fluorescent probe, hydroethidine, was used to detect intracellular superoxide anion (O2●-) production. O2●- production was markedly increased in DM arterioles, but it was significantly reduced by supplementation of either low or high doses of curcumin. In addition, with a high dose of curcumin, diabetes-induced vascular PKC-βII expression was diminished. Conclusion Therefore, it is suggested that curcumin supplementation could improve diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction significantly in relation to its potential to decrease superoxide production and PKC inhibition. PMID:20946622

  19. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  20. Ferroptosis, a newly characterized form of cell death in Parkinson's disease that is regulated by PKC.

    PubMed

    Do Van, Bruce; Gouel, Flore; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Timmerman, Kelly; Gelé, Patrick; Pétrault, Maud; Bastide, Michèle; Laloux, Charlotte; Moreau, Caroline; Bordet, Régis; Devos, David; Devedjian, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex illness characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss. Several mechanisms associated with the iron-induced death of dopaminergic cells have been described. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, regulated cell death process that was recently described in cancer. Our present work show that ferroptosis is an important cell death pathway for dopaminergic neurons. Ferroptosis was characterized in Lund human mesencephalic cells and then confirmed ex vivo (in organotypic slice cultures) and in vivo (in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model). Some of the observed characteristics of ferroptosis differed from those reported previously. For example, ferroptosis may be initiated by PKCα activation, which then activates MEK in a RAS-independent manner. The present study is the first to emphasize the importance of ferroptosis dysregulation in PD. In neurodegenerative diseases like PD, iron chelators, Fer-1 derivatives and PKC inhibitors may be strong drug candidates to pharmacologically modulate the ferroptotic signaling cascade.

  1. PKC-epsilon activation is required for recognition memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zisopoulou, Styliani; Asimaki, Olga; Leondaritis, George; Vasilaki, Anna; Sakellaridis, Nikos; Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Mangoura, Dimitra

    2013-09-15

    Activation of PKCɛ, an abundant and developmentally regulated PKC isoform in the brain, has been implicated in memory throughout life and across species. Yet, direct evidence for a mechanistic role for PKCɛ in memory is still lacking. Hence, we sought to evaluate this in rats, using short-term treatments with two PKCɛ-selective peptides, the inhibitory ɛV1-2 and the activating ψɛRACK, and the novel object recognition task (NORT). Our results show that the PKCɛ-selective activator ψɛRACK, did not have a significant effect on recognition memory. In the short time frames used, however, inhibition of PKCɛ activation with the peptide inhibitor ɛV1-2 significantly impaired recognition memory. Moreover, when we addressed at the molecular level the immediate proximal signalling events of PKCɛ activation in acutely dissected rat hippocampi, we found that ψɛRACK increased in a time-dependent manner phosphorylation of MARCKS and activation of Src, Raf, and finally ERK1/2, whereas ɛV1-2 inhibited all basal activity of this pathway. Taken together, these findings present the first direct evidence that PKCɛ activation is an essential molecular component of recognition memory and point toward the use of systemically administered PKCɛ-regulating peptides as memory study tools and putative therapeutic agents.

  2. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  3. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Maddalena; Boca, Manila; Chiaravalli, Marco; Ramalingam, Harini; Rowe, Isaline; Distefano, Gianfranco; Carroll, Thomas; Boletta, Alessandra

    2013-10-01

    Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from loss-of-function mutations in the PKD1 gene, encoding Polycystin-1, a large receptor of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that PC-1 has an essential role in the establishment of correct tubular diameter during nephron development. Polycystin-1 associates with Par3 favouring the assembly of a pro-polarizing Par3/aPKC complex and it regulates a programme of cell polarity important for oriented cell migration and for a convergent extension-like process during tubular morphogenesis. Par3 inactivation in the developing kidney results in defective convergent extension and tubular morphogenesis, and in renal cyst formation. Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  4. The 5-HT7 receptor triggers cerebellar long-term synaptic depression via PKC-MAPK.

    PubMed

    Lippiello, Pellegrino; Hoxha, Eriola; Speranza, Luisa; Volpicelli, Floriana; Ferraro, Angela; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Tempia, Filippo; Miniaci, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) mediates important physiological effects of serotonin, such as memory and emotion, and is emerging as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive disorders and depression. Although previous studies have revealed an expression of 5-HT7R in cerebellum, particularly at Purkinje cells, its functional role and signaling mechanisms have never been described. Using patch-clamp recordings in cerebellar slices of adult mice, we investigated the effects of a selective 5-HT7R agonist, LP-211, on the main plastic site of the cerebellar cortex, the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. Here we show that 5-HT7R activation induces long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse via a postsynaptic mechanism that involves the PKC-MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, a 5-HT7R antagonist abolished the expression of PF-LTD, produced by pairing parallel fiber stimulation with Purkinje cell depolarization; whereas, application of a 5-HT7R agonist impaired LTP induced by 1 Hz parallel fiber stimulation. Our results indicate for the first time that 5-HT7R exerts a fine regulation of cerebellar bidirectional synaptic plasticity that might be involved in cognitive processes and neuropsychiatric disorders involving the cerebellum.

  5. Sorafenib suppresses JNK-dependent apoptosis through inhibition of ZAK kinase

    PubMed Central

    Vin, Harina; Ching, Grace; Ojeda, Sandra S.; Adelmann, Charles H.; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Dwyer, David W.; Ma, Haiching; Ehrenreiter, Karin; Baccarini, Manuela; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Curry, Jonathan L.; Ciurea, Ana M.; Duvic, Madeleine; Busaidy, Naifa L.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is FDA-approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma and has been combined with numerous other targeted therapies and chemotherapies in the treatment of many cancers. Unfortunately, as with other RAF inhibitors, patients treated with sorafenib have a 5–10% rate of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma/keratoacanthomas. Paradoxical activation of ERK in BRAF-wild-type cells has been implicated in RAF-inhibitor-induced cSCC. Here we report that sorafenib suppresses UV-induced apoptosis specifically by inhibiting JNK activation through the off-target inhibition of ZAK kinase. Our results implicate suppression of JNK signaling, independent of the ERK pathway, as an additional mechanism of adverse effects of sorafenib. This has broad implications for combination therapies using sorafenib with other modalities that induce apoptosis. PMID:24170769

  6. Diminished MTORC1-Dependent JNK Activation Underlies the Neurodevelopmental Defects Associated with Lysosomal Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ching-On; Palmieri, Michela; Li, Jiaxing; Akhmedov, Dmitry; Chao, Yufang; Broadhead, Geoffrey T; Zhu, Michael X; Berdeaux, Rebecca; Collins, Catherine A; Sardiello, Marco; Venkatachalam, Kartik

    2015-09-29

    Here, we evaluate the mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits in Drosophila and mouse models of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). We find that lysosomes promote the growth of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) via Rag GTPases and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1). However, rather than employing S6K/4E-BP1, MTORC1 stimulates NMJ growth via JNK, a determinant of axonal growth in Drosophila and mammals. This role of lysosomal function in regulating JNK phosphorylation is conserved in mammals. Despite requiring the amino-acid-responsive kinase MTORC1, NMJ development is insensitive to dietary protein. We attribute this paradox to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), which restricts neuronal amino acid uptake, and the administration of an ALK inhibitor couples NMJ development to dietary protein. Our findings provide an explanation for the neurodevelopmental deficits in LSDs and suggest an actionable target for treatment.

  7. A sestrin-dependent Erk-Jnk-p38 MAPK activation complex inhibits immunity during aging.

    PubMed

    Lanna, Alessio; Gomes, Daniel C O; Muller-Durovic, Bojana; McDonnell, Thomas; Escors, David; Gilroy, Derek W; Lee, Jun Hee; Karin, Michael; Akbar, Arne N

    2017-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including Erk, Jnk and p38 regulate diverse cellular functions and are thought to be controlled by independent upstream activation cascades. Here we show that the sestrins bind to and coordinate simultaneous Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPK activation in T lymphocytes within a new immune-inhibitory complex (sestrin-MAPK activation complex (sMAC)). Whereas sestrin ablation resulted in broad reconstitution of immune function in stressed T cells, inhibition of individual MAPKs allowed only partial functional recovery. T cells from old humans (>65 years old) or mice (16-20 months old) were more likely to form the sMAC, and disruption of this complex restored antigen-specific functional responses in these cells. Correspondingly, sestrin deficiency or simultaneous inhibition of all three MAPKs enhanced vaccine responsiveness in old mice. Thus, disruption of sMAC provides a foundation for rejuvenating immunity during aging.

  8. T-cell receptor-induced JNK activation requires proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1.

    PubMed

    Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Bekaert, Tine; Demeyer, Annelies; Muyllaert, David; Van Damme, Petra; Gevaert, Kris; Beyaert, Rudi

    2011-05-04

    The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is central to lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. MALT1 mediates antigen receptor signalling to NF-κB by acting as a scaffold protein. Furthermore, MALT1 has proteolytic activity that contributes to optimal NF-κB activation by cleaving the NF-κB inhibitor A20. Whether MALT1 protease activity is involved in other signalling pathways, and the identity of the relevant substrates, is unknown. Here, we show that T-cell receptors (TCR) activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic API2-MALT1 fusion protein, results in proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1, which is specifically required for c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and the inducible expression of a subset of genes. These results indicate a novel role for MALT1 proteolytic activity in TCR-induced JNK activation and reveal CYLD cleavage as the underlying mechanism.

  9. Wound-Induced Polyploidization: Regulation by Hippo and JNK Signaling and Conservation in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Vicki P.; Jun, Albert S.; Spradling, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue integrity and homeostasis often rely on the proliferation of stem cells or differentiated cells to replace lost, aged, or damaged cells. Recently, we described an alternative source of cell replacement- the expansion of resident, non-dividing diploid cells by wound-induced polyploidization (WIP). Here we show that the magnitude of WIP is proportional to the extent of cell loss using a new semi-automated assay with single cell resolution. Hippo and JNK signaling regulate WIP; unexpectedly however, JNK signaling through AP-1 limits rather than stimulates the level of Yki activation and polyploidization in the Drosophila epidermis. We found that polyploidization also quantitatively compensates for cell loss in a mammalian tissue, mouse corneal endothelium, where increased cell death occurs with age in a mouse model of Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Our results suggest that WIP is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic mechanism that maintains the size and synthetic capacity of adult tissues. PMID:26958853

  10. Silencing of WNK2 is associated with upregulation of MMP2 and JNK in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Angela Margarida; Pinto, Filipe; Martinho, Olga; Oliveira, Maria José; Jordan, Peter; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), thus assisting invasion. Upregulation of MMPs, frequently reported in gliomas, is associated with aggressive behavior. WNK2 is a tumor suppressor gene expressed in normal brain, and silenced by promoter methylation in gliomas. Patients without WNK2 exhibited poor prognosis, and its downregulation was associated with increased glioma cell invasion. Here we showed that MMP2 expression and activity are increased in glioma cell lines that do not express WNK2. Also, WNK2 inhibited JNK, a process associated with decreasing levels of MMP2. Thus, WNK2 promoter methylation and silencing in gliomas is associated with increased JNK activation and MMP2 expression and activity, thus explaining in part tumor cell invasion potential. PMID:25596741

  11. Oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) participates in silkworm defense against bacterial infection through the JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-De; Zhang, Qiao-Ling; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial infection causes enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in insects. Oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) plays an antioxidant role in eukaryotic organisms, including insects. In this report, we demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infection and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) injection induced the expression of specific transcriptional isoforms of OXR1 in larval silkworms. We further showed that a Jun kinase (JNK) pathway inhibitor, SP600125, down-regulated expression of OXR1 during infection, leading to elevated H2 O2 levels in the hemolymph, resulting in lower viability of the injected bacteria inside the silkworm larvae. Our study suggests that OXR1 participates in protecting larval silkworms from oxidative stress and bacterial infection through the JNK pathway.

  12. Metformin and AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Ka, Sun-O; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-01

    NANOG, a marker of stemness, impacts tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in cancer cells. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), upregulation of NANOG is associated with metastasis and a low survival rate, while its downregulation results in a lower colony formation rate and enhanced chemosensitivity. Metformin, an agent widely used for diabetes treatment, and AICAR, another AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, have been reported to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Although inhibitory effects of metformin on NANOG in pancreatic cancer cells and of AICAR in mouse embryonic stem cells have been described, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain in HCC. In this study, we used the HepG2 cell line and found that metformin/AICAR downregulated NANOG expression with decreased cell viability and enhanced chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Moreover, metformin/AICAR inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, and blockade of either the JNK MAPK pathway or knockdown of JNK1 gene expression reduced NANOG levels. The upregulation of NANOG and phospho-JNK by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was abrogated by metformin/AICAR. Additionally, although transient upregulation of NANOG within 2 h of treatment with metformin/AICAR was concordant with both JNK and AMPK activation, increased NANOG expression with activation of JNK was also observed following AMPK inhibition with compound C. Taken together, our data suggest that metformin/AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK MAPK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK, and that this JNK/NANOG signaling pathway may offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC.

  13. Explore the variation of MMP3, JNK, p38 MAPKs, and autophagy at the early stage of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Zhang, Changjie; Yi, Zhongjie; Lan, Chunna

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by cartilage degeneration and chondrocyte apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating OA process. Autophagy has an important effect on the OA process, and it is believed to be regulated by MAPKs. To reveal the mechanism and the effect of JNK and p38 MAPKs on matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and autophagy in OA, the study established OA model in rabbits, used the measurement of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scoring system to evaluate OA model, and conducted general observation, histological observation, and Western blotting of JNK, phosphorylate-JNK (P-JNK), p38, phosphorylate-p38 (P-p38), MMP3, and light-chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I to explore the variation of JNK, p38 MAPKs, and autophagy at the early stage of OA. With OA progressing at the early stage, MMP3, P-p38, and P-JNK were gradually upregulated from the baseline to the peak in study groups when compared with the control group; JNK and p38 variated of turbulence without statistical difference; and LC3-II/LC3-I had a decreasing tendency from the 0- to 15-day group. This study identifies that compromised autophagy may be related to the OA progress and that JNK and p38 MAPKs have positive regulation on MMP3 and negative regulation on autophagy. It also implicates a new therapeutic strategy for OA and other degenerate diseases based on selective MAPK inhibitors, reduction of MMP3, and autophagy.

  14. Design and synthesis of a novel, orally active, brain penetrant, tri-substituted thiophene based JNK inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Simeon; Truong, Anh P.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Neitzel, Martin; Probst, Gary D.; Hom, Roy K.; Peterson, Brian; Galemmo, Jr., Robert A.; Konradi, Andrei W.; Sham, Hing L.; Tóth, Gergley; Pan, Hu; Yao, Nanhua; Artis, Dean R.; Brigham, Elizabeth F.; Quinn, Kevin P.; Sauer, John-Michael; Powell, Kyle; Ruslim, Lany; Ren, Zhao; Bard, Frédérique; Yednock, Ted A.; Griswold-Prenner, Irene

    2012-02-28

    The SAR of a series of tri-substituted thiophene JNK3 inhibitors is described. By optimizing both the N-aryl acetamide region of the inhibitor and the 4-position of the thiophene we obtained single digit nanomolar compounds, such as 47, which demonstrated an in vivo effect on JNK activity when dosed orally in our kainic acid mouse model as measured by phospho-c-jun reduction.

  15. miR-940 Upregulation Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis by Targeting PKC-δ in Ovarian Cancer OVCAR3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhihong; Gu, Xiaoli; Cui, Jinquan

    2017-01-02

    Ovarian cancer remains as one of the most threatening malignancies for females in the world. This study investigated the pivotal role of miR-940 in the progression of ovarian cancer and to reveal the possible molecular mechanism of its action. Ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells were transfected with the miR-940 vector, miR-940 inhibitor, and/or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting PKC-δ (si-PKC-δ), respectively. After transfection, cell viability and cell apoptosis were analyzed, as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis-related protein expression. Compared to the control, miR-940 upregulation suppressed cell viability but induced cell apoptosis. miR-940 upregulation increased the expression of p27, Hes1, survivin, and caspase 3, but decreased the expression of PKC-δ. In addition, elevated cell viability induced by the miR-940 inhibitor was significantly decreased by knockdown of PKC-δ, and reduced cell apoptosis induced by the miR-940 inhibitor was increased by knockdown of PKC-δ. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that upregulation of miR-940 may function as a suppressor in the progression of ovarian cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis by targeting PKC-δ. This study may provide a basis for the possible application of miR-940 in illustrating the molecular pathogenic mechanism of ovarian cancer.

  16. In vitro neutrophil migration requires protein kinase c-delta (δ-PKC) mediated MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate) phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Eui Jae; Adler, Kenneth B.; Jones, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated release of neutrophil reactive oxygen species and proteolytic enzymes contributes to both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, molecular regulators of these processes are potential targets for new anti-inflammatory therapies. We have shown previously that MARCKS (Myristoylated Alanine Rich C-Kinase Substrate), a well-known PKC substrate protein, is a key regulator of neutrophil functions. In the current study we investigate the role of PKC-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation in neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. We report that treatment of human neutrophils with the δ-PKC inhibitor rottlerin significantly attenuates fMLF induced MARCKS phosphorylation (IC50 = 5.709 μM), adhesion (IC50 = 8.4 uM) and migration (IC50 = 6.7 uM); while α-, β- and ζ-PKC inhibitors had no significant effect. We conclude that δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation is essential for human neutrophil migration and adhesion in vitro. These results implicate δ-PKC mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils. PMID:25515270

  17. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC.

  18. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC. PMID:27446399

  19. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Philip LoGrasso CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Scripps Research... Lateral Sclerosis ” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0431 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0431 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30September2012-29September2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic

  20. Plasmodium falciparum evades mosquito immunity by disrupting JNK-mediated apoptosis of invaded midgut cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, must survive and develop in the mosquito vector to be successfully transmitted to a new host. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene is critical for malaria transmission. Parasites that express Pfs47 (NF54 WT) evade mosquito immunity and survive, whereas Pfs47 knockouts (KO) are efficiently eliminated by the complement-like system. Two alternative approaches were used to investigate the mechanism of action of Pfs47 on immune evasion. First, we examined whether Pfs47 affected signal transduction pathways mediating mosquito immune responses, and show that the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is a key mediator of Anopheles gambiae antiplasmodial responses to P. falciparum infection and that Pfs47 disrupts JNK signaling. Second, we used microarrays to compare the global transcriptional responses of A. gambiae midguts to infection with WT and KO parasites. The presence of Pfs47 results in broad and profound changes in gene expression in response to infection that are already evident 12 h postfeeding, but become most prominent at 26 h postfeeding, the time when ookinetes invade the mosquito midgut. Silencing of 15 differentially expressed candidate genes identified caspase-S2 as a key effector of Plasmodium elimination in parasites lacking Pfs47. We provide experimental evidence that JNK pathway regulates activation of caspases in Plasmodium-invaded midgut cells, and that caspase activation is required to trigger midgut epithelial nitration. Pfs47 alters the cell death pathway of invaded midgut cells by disrupting JNK signaling and prevents the activation of several caspases, resulting in an ineffective nitration response that makes the parasite undetectable by the mosquito complement-like system. PMID:25552553

  1. Syd/JIP3 and JNK Signaling Are Required for Myonuclear Positioning and Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Victoria K.; Folker, Eric S.; Rosen, Jonathan N.; Baylies, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the importance of proper intracellular organization, many muscle diseases are characterized by mispositioned myonuclei. Proper positioning of myonuclei is dependent upon the microtubule motor proteins, Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic Dynein, and there are at least two distinct mechanisms by which Kinesin and Dynein move myonuclei. The motors exert forces both directly on the nuclear surface and from the cell cortex via microtubules. How these activities are spatially segregated yet coordinated to position myonuclei is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we identified that Sunday Driver (Syd), a homolog of mammalian JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP3), specifically regulates Kinesin- and Dynein-dependent cortical pulling of myonuclei without affecting motor activity near the nucleus. Specifically, Syd mediates Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein to the muscle ends, where cortically anchored Dynein then pulls microtubules and the attached myonuclei into place. Proper localization of Dynein also requires activation of the JNK signaling cascade. Furthermore, Syd functions downstream of JNK signaling because without Syd, JNK signaling is insufficient to promote Kinesin-dependent localization of Dynein to the muscle ends. The significance of Syd-dependent myonuclear positioning is illustrated by muscle-specific depletion of Syd, which impairs muscle function. Moreover, both myonuclear spacing and locomotive defects in syd mutants can be rescued by expression of mammalian JIP3 in Drosophila muscle tissue, indicating an evolutionarily conserved role for JIP3 in myonuclear movement and highlighting the utility of Drosophila as a model for studying mammalian development. Collectively, we implicate Syd/JIP3 as a novel regulator of myogenesis that is required for proper intracellular organization and tissue function. PMID:25522254

  2. Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate PC-3 cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana Maria; Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Olea, Nuria; Vara, Diana; Chiloeches, Antonio; Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2007-11-01

    Numerous studies have recently focused on the anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, or chemopreventive activities of the main pungent component of red pepper, capsaicin (N-vanillyl-8-methyl-1-nonenamide). We have previously shown that, in the androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells, capsaicin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation [Apoptosis 11 (2006) 89-99]. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the antiproliferative effect of capsaicin. Here, we report that capsaicin apoptotic effect was mediated by ceramide generation which occurred by sphingomyelin hydrolysis. Using siRNA, we demonstrated that N-SMase expression is required for the effect of capsaicin on prostate cell viability. We then investigated the role of MAP kinase cascades, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK, in the antiproliferative effect of capsaicin, and we confirmed that capsaicin could activate ERK and JNK but not p38 MAPK. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK kinase, as well as inhibition of ROS by the reducing agent N-acetylcysteine, prevented ceramide accumulation and capsaicin-induced cell death. However, inhibition of ceramide accumulation by the SMase inhibitor D609 did not modify JNK activation. These data reveal JNK as an upstream regulator of ceramide production. Capsaicin-promoted activation of ERK was prevented with all the inhibitors tested. We conclude that capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells via ROS generation, JNK activation, ceramide accumulation, and second, ERK activation.

  3. Selective Inhibition of Mitochondrial JNK Signaling Achieved Using Peptide Mimicry of the Sab Kinase Interacting Motif-1 (KIM1)

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jeremy W.; Cherry, Lisa; Laughlin, John D.; Figuera-Losada, Mariana; LoGrasso, Philip V.

    2011-01-01

    The c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are responsive to stress stimuli leading to activation of proapoptotic proteins and transcription. Additionally, JNK mitochondrial localization has been reported. To selectively target mitochondrial JNK signaling, we exploited JNKs interaction with its mitochondrial scaffold, Sab, using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and a cell permeable peptide corresponding to the KIM1 domain of Sab. Gene silencing and peptide interference of this interaction disrupted JNK translocation to the mitochondria and reduced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 without significant impact on c-Jun phosphorylation or AP-1 transcription. In contrast, the JNK inhibitory peptide (TI-JIP1) prevented these three functions. Tat-SabKIM1 selectivity was also demonstrated in anisomycin-stressed HeLa cells where Tat-SabKIM1 prevented Bcl-2 phosphorylation, cell death, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and superoxide generation, but not c-Jun phosphorylation. Conversely, TI-JIP1 prevented all aforementioned stress-induced events. This probe introduces a means to evaluate JNK-mediated events on the mitochondria without intervening in nuclear functions of JNK. PMID:21563797

  4. Apigenin promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells through JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Chenhui; Zha, Xuan; Xu, Zhoumei; Li, Li; Liu, Yuyu; Xu, Liangliang; Cui, Liao; Xu, Daohua; Zhu, Baohua

    2015-09-01

    Apigenin is a plant-derived flavonoid and has been reported to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice, but the role of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has not been reported. In the present study, the effect of apigenin on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was explored. Our results showed that apigenin treatment significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization in hMSCs. RT-PCR revealed that apigenin markedly up-regulated the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN) and the transcription factors runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). The expression of Runx2 and osterix (OSX) proteins were also increased in hMSCs differentiating into osteoblasts after treatment with apigenin. Furthermore, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for osteogenic differentiation of apigenin in hMSCs. We found that apigenin treatment significantly increased the levels of p-JNK, p-p38 in hMSCs and addition of the inhibitors of JNK (SP600125) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) eliminated the stimulating effects of apigenin. In addition, addition of SP600125 or SB203580 also blocked apigenin-induced ALP activity, OPN, Runx2, and OSX expression and meanwhile inhibited bone nodule formation. Taken together, these findings suggest apigenin promotes the osteogenesis of hMSCs through activation of JNK and p38 MAPK signal pathways which leads to Runx2 and OSX expressions to induce the formation of bone nodule.

  5. Phosphoproteomics reveals ALK promote cell progress via RAS/JNK pathway in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guofeng; Zhang, Min; Wu, Yeming; Wu, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests receptor tyrosine kinase ALK as a promising therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. However, clinical trials reveal that a limited proportion of ALK-positive neuroblastoma patients experience clinical benefits from Crizotinib, a clinically approved specific inhibitor of ALK. The precise molecular mechanisms of aberrant ALK activity in neuroblastoma remain elusive, limiting the clinical application of ALK as a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Here, we describe a deep quantitative phosphoproteomic approach in which Crizotinib-treated neuroblastoma cell lines bearing aberrant ALK are used to investigate downstream regulated phosphoproteins. We identified more than 19,500—and quantitatively analyzed approximately 10,000—phosphorylation sites from each cell line, ultimately detecting 450–790 significantly-regulated phosphorylation sites. Multiple layers of bioinformatic analysis of the significantly-regulated phosphoproteins identified RAS/JNK as a downstream signaling pathway of ALK, independent of the ALK variant present. Further experiments demonstrated that ALK/JNK signaling could be inactivated by either ALK- or JNK-specific inhibitors, resulting in cell growth inhibition by induction of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Our study broadly defines the phosphoproteome in response to ALK inhibition and provides a resource for further clinical investigation of ALK as therapeutic target for the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:27732954

  6. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco . E-mail: fperez@med.ucm.es; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  7. The p38 MAPK and JNK Pathways Protect Host Cells against Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K+ from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K+-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K+-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival. PMID:23876806

  8. Thiazolidinediones promote axonal growth through the activation of the JNK pathway.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Godoy, Juan A; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2013-01-01

    The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Psoralen Inhibited Apoptosis of Osteoporotic Osteoblasts by Modulating IRE1-ASK1-JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuqing; Wang, Yongqian; Yang, Yubin; Xiang, Ting; Liu, Jiahui

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease causing fracture in older populations. Abnormal apoptosis of osteoblasts contributes to the genesis of osteoporosis. Inhibiting apoptosis of osteoblasts provides a promising strategy to prevent osteoporosis. The proliferation of osteoblasts isolated from osteoporotic patients or healthy subjects was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/PI assay. Protein expression was measured by western blot. The proliferation of osteoblasts isolated from osteoporotic patients was inhibited and the apoptosis level of these cells was higher than the osteoblasts from healthy subjects. Incubation with psoralen or estradiol significantly enhanced the proliferation and decreased the apoptosis level of osteoporotic osteoblasts. Western blot demonstrated that psoralen or estradiol treatment downregulated the expression of IRE1, p-ASK, p-JNK, and Bax. Meanwhile, expression of Bcl-2 was upregulated. Pretreatment by IRE1 agonist tunicamycin or JNK agonist anisomycin attenuated the effect of psoralen on osteoporotic osteoblasts. Psoralen inhibited apoptosis of osteoporotic osteoblasts by regulating IRE1-ASK1-JNK pathway.

  10. IL-18 enhances thrombospondin-1 production in human gastric cancer via JNK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Cherlhyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Bang, Sa Ik; Yang, Young; Park, Hyunjeong; Cho, Daeho . E-mail: cdhkor@sookmyung.ac.kr

    2006-06-16

    IL-18 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is produced by many cancer cells. A recent report suggested that IL-18 plays a key role in regulating the immune escape of melanoma and gastric cancer cells. Thrombospondin (TSP-1) is known to inhibit angiogenesis in several cancers but some studies have reported that it stimulates angiogenesis in some cancers such as gastric cancer. IL-18 and TSP-1 are related to tumor proliferation and metastasis. This study investigated the relationship between IL-18 and TSP-1 in gastric cancer. RT-PCR and ELISA showed that after the cells had been treated with IL-18, the level of TSP-1 mRNA expression and TSP-1 protein production by IL-18 increased in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. The cells were next treated with specific inhibitors in order to determine the signal pathway involved in IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 production. IL-18-enhanced TSP-1 expression was blocked by SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) specific inhibitor. In addition, Western blot showed that IL-18 enhanced the expression of phosphorylated JNK. Overall, these results suggest that IL-18 plays a key role in TSP-1 expression involving JNK.

  11. Dihydroartemisinin induces endothelial cell anoikis through the activation of the JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Guo, Ling; Zhou, Xia; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Cheng, Zuowang; Xu, Yinghua; Liang, Jiyong; Xie, Qi; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The anti-malarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA) demonstrates potent anti-angiogenic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. During the process of angiogenesis, endothelial cells migrating from existing capillaries may undergo programmed cell death after detaching from the extracellular matrix, a process that is defined as anchorage-dependent apoptosis or anoikis. In the present study, DHA-induced cell death was compared in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in suspension and attached to culture plates. In suspended HUVECs, the cell viability was decreased and apoptosis was increased with the treatment of 50 µM DHA for 5 h, while the same treatment did not affect the attached HUVECs. In addition, 50 µM DHA increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in suspended HUVECs, but not in attached HUVECs, for up to 5 h of treatment. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reversed DHA-induced cell death in suspended HUVECs, suggesting that the JNK pathway may mediate DHA-induced endothelial cell anoikis. The data from the present study indicates a novel mechanism for understanding the anti-angiogenic effects of DHA, which may be used as a component for chemotherapy. PMID:27602117

  12. Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23741474

  13. Urm1: an essential regulator of JNK signaling and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Khoshnood, B; Dacklin, I; Grabbe, C

    2016-05-01

    Ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (Urm1) is a ubiquitin-like molecule (UBL) with the dual capacity to act both as a sulphur carrier and posttranslational protein modifier. Here we characterize the Drosophila melanogaster homologues of Urm1 (CG33276) and its E1 activating enzyme Uba4 (CG13090), and show that they function together to induce protein urmylation in vivo. Urm1 conjugation to target proteins in general, and to the evolutionary conserved substrate Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) specifically, is dependent on Uba4. A complete loss of Urm1 is lethal in flies, although a small number of adult zygotic Urm1 (n123) mutant escapers can be recovered. These escapers display a decreased general fitness and shortened lifespan, but in contrast to their S. cerevisiae counterparts, they are resistant to oxidative stress. Providing a molecular explanation, we demonstrate that cytoprotective JNK signaling is increased in Urm1 deficient animals. In agreement, molecular and genetic evidence suggest that elevated activity of the JNK downstream target genes Jafrac1 and gstD1 strongly contributes to the tolerance against oxidative stress displayed by Urm1 (n123) null mutants. In conclusion, Urm1 is a UBL that is involved in the regulation of JNK signaling and the response against oxidative stress in the fruit fly.

  14. Recurrent MLK4 Loss-of-Function Mutations Suppress JNK Signaling to Promote Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marusiak, Anna A.; Stephenson, Natalie L.; Baik, Hayeon; Trotter, Eleanor W.; Li, Yaoyong; Blyth, Karen; Mason, Susan; Chapman, Phil; Puto, Lorena A.; Read, Jon A.; Brassington, Claire; Pollard, Hannah K.; Phillips, Chris; Green, Isabelle; Overman, Ross; Collier, Matthew; Testoni, Ewelina; Miller, Crispin J.; Hunter, Tony; Sansom, Owen J.; Brognard, John

    2015-01-01

    MLK4 is a member of the mixed-lineage family of kinases that regulate the JNK, p38, and ERK kinase signaling pathways. MLK4 mutations have been identified in various human cancers including frequently in colorectal cancer, where their function and pathobiological importance has been uncertain. In this study, we assessed the functional consequences of MLK4 mutations in colon tumorigenesis. Biochemical data indicated that a majority of MLK4 mutations are loss-of-function (LOF) mutations that can exert dominant negative effects. In seeking to understand the abrogated activity of these mutants, we elucidated a new MLK4 catalytic domain structure. To determine whether MLK4 is required to maintain the tumorigenic phenotype, we reconstituted its signaling axis in colon cancer cells harboring MLK4 inactivating mutations. We found that restoring MLK4 activity reduced cell viability, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro and delayed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistic investigations established that restoring the function of MLK4 selectively induced the JNK pathway and its downstream targets, cJUN, ATF3 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN1A and CDKN2B. Our work indicates that MLK4 is a novel tumor suppressing kinase harboring frequent LOF mutations that lead to diminished signaling in the JNK pathway and enhanced proliferation in colon cancer. PMID:26637668

  15. Drosophila MOF regulates DIAP1 and induces apoptosis in a JNK dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Sreerangam N C V L; Sarkar, Arpita; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Koteswara Rao, G; Bag, Indira; Bhadra, Utpal; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2016-03-01

    Histone modulations have been implicated in various cellular and developmental processes where in Drosophila Mof is involved in acetylation of H4K16. Reduction in the size of larval imaginal discs is observed in the null mutants of mof with increased apoptosis. Deficiency involving Hid, Reaper and Grim [H99] alleviated mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis in the eye discs. mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis leads to activation of caspases which is suppressed by over expression of caspase inhibitors like P35 and Diap1 clearly depicting the role of caspases in programmed cell death. Also apoptosis induced by knockdown of mof is rescued by JNK mutants of bsk and tak1 indicating the role of JNK in mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis. The adult eye ablation phenotype produced by ectopic expression of Hid, Rpr and Grim, was restored by over expression of Mof. Accumulation of Mof at the Diap1 promoter 800 bp upstream of the transcription start site in wild type larvae is significantly higher (up to twofolds) compared to mof (1) mutants. This enrichment coincides with modification of histone H4K16Ac indicating an induction of direct transcriptional up regulation of Diap1 by Mof. Based on these results we propose that apoptosis triggered by mof (RNAi) proceeds through a caspase-dependent and JNK mediated pathway.

  16. Low Dose Cadmium Inhibits Proliferation of Human Renal Mesangial Cells via Activation of the JNK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaocui; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zuowang; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Xia; Li, Xiaorui; Xu, Dongmei; Kapron, Carolyn M.; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and environmental pollutant. The kidney is the principal target organ of Cd exposure. Previously, we found that low concentration of Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, little is known about the effects of Cd on renal mesangial cells, which provide structural support for the glomerular capillary loops and regulate intraglomerular blood flow. In this study, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) were cultured in the presence of serum and treated with 4 μM Cd. We found that Cd activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and increases the protein levels of c-Jun and c-Fos. Cd treatment also induces a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis of HRMCs, but only the decrease in HRMC proliferation was reversed by pretreatment with SP600125, an inhibitor of the JNK pathway. In addition, Cd does not change the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, the markers of mesangial cells, or the alignment of the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton of HRMCs. Our data indicate that the JNK pathway mediates the inhibitory effects of Cd on HRMC proliferation. PMID:27739415

  17. Activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways by mycotoxin citrinin in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-H.; Yu, F.-Y.; Wang, L.-T.; Lin, Y.-S.; Liu, B.-H.

    2009-06-15

    Mycotoxin citrinin (CTN) is commonly found in foods and feeds that are contaminated/inoculated with Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus species. The exposure of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and HeLa cells to CTN resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of two major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2 and JNK. In HEK293 cultures, the administering of CTN increased both the mRNA and protein levels of egr-1, c-fos and c-jun genes; additionally, the ERK1/2 pathway contributed to the upregulation of Egr-1 and c-Fos protein expression. CTN treatment also induced the transcription activity of Egr-1 and AP-1 proteins, as evidenced by luciferase reporter assays. Bioinformatic analyses indicated two genes Gadd45{beta} and MMP3 have Egr-1 and AP-1 response elements in their promoters, respectively. Furthermore, co-exposure of HEK293 cells to CTN and MAPK pathway inhibitors demonstrated that CTN increased the levels of Gadd45{beta} mRNA through ERK1/2 signaling pathway and up-regulated the MMP3 transcripts majorly via JNK pathway. Finally, CTN-triggered caspase 3 activity was significantly reduced in the presence of MAPK inhibitors. Our results suggest that CTN positively regulates ERK1/2 and JNK pathways as well as their downstream effectors in human cells; activated MAPK pathways are also involved in CTN-induced apoptosis.

  18. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

    PubMed Central

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  19. Drosophila DREF acting via the JNK pathway is required for thorax development.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nguyen, Trong Tue; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Risa; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Zurita, Mario; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2012-08-01

    The Drosophila Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) gene basket (bsk) promoter contains a DNA replication-related element (DRE)-like sequence, raising the possibility of regulation by the DNA replication-related element-binding factor (DREF). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with anti-DREF IgG showed the bsk gene promoter region to be effectively amplified. Luciferase transient expression assays revealed the DRE-like sequence to be important for bsk gene promoter activity, and knockdown of DREF decreased the bsk mRNA level and the bsk gene promoter activity. Furthermore, knockdown of DREF in the notum compartment of wing discs by pannier-GAL4 and UAS-DREFIR resulted in a split thorax phenotype. Monitoring of JNK activity in the wing disc by LacZ expression in a puckered (puc)-LacZ enhancer trap line revealed the reduction in DREF knockdown clones. These findings indicate that DREF is involved in regulation of Drosophila thorax development via actions on the JNK pathway.

  20. Nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma cells metastasis by blocking ERK and JNK-mediated MMPs expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsin-Lin; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Yang, Jia-Sin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Lue, Ko-Haung; Lu, Ko-Hsiu; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxyflavone, has a few pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects. However, its effect on human osteosarcoma progression remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of nobiletin against cellular metastasis of human osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanisms. Nobiletin, up to 100 μM without cytotoxicity, significantly decreased motility, migration and invasion as well as enzymatic activities, protein levels and mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in U2OS and HOS cells. In addition to inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the inhibitory effect of nobiletin on the DNA-binding activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and specificity protein 1 (SP-1) in U2OS and HOS cells. Co-treatment with ERK and JNK inhibitors and nobiletin further reduced U2OS cells migration and invasion. These results indicated that nobiletin inhibits human osteosarcoma U2OS and HOS cells motility, migration and invasion by down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions via ERK and JNK pathways and through the inactivation of downstream NF-κB, CREB, and SP-1. Nobiletin has the potential to serve as an anti-metastatic agent for treating osteosarcoma. PMID:27144433

  1. Activation of the JNK pathway is essential for transformation by the Met oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M; Schlessinger, J

    1997-01-01

    The Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase is oncogenically activated through a rearrangement that creates a hybrid gene Tpr-Met. The resultant chimeric p65(Tpr-Met) protein is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and associates with a number of SH2-containing signaling molecules including the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and the Grb2 adaptor protein, which couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of the binding site for Grb2 impairs the ability of Tpr-Met oncoprotein to transform fibroblasts, suggesting that the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway through Grb2 may be essential for cellular transformation. To test this hypothesis dominant-negative mutants of Grb2 with deletions of the SH3 domains were introduced into Tpr-Met transformed fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing the mutants were found to be morphologically reverted and exhibited reduced growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, the Grb2 mutants blocked activation of the JNK/SAPK but not MAP kinase activity induced by the Tpr-Met oncoprotein. Additionally, cells expressing dominant-negative Grb2 mutants had reduced PI-3-kinase activity and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 blocked both Tpr-Met-induced transformation and activation of JNK. These experiments reveal a novel link between Met and the JNK pathway, which is essential for transformation by this oncogene. PMID:9184210

  2. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  3. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for

  4. Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bandoski, Cheryl; Bartlett, John D

    2015-12-01

    Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These

  5. Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maiko; Bandoski, Cheryl; Bartlett, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These

  6. MicroRNA-151 and its hosting gene FAK (focal adhesion kinase) regulate tumor cell migration and spreading of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luedde, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Recurrent chromosomal aberrations are often observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about the functional non-coding sequences, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), at the chromosomal breakpoints in HCC. Here we show that 22 miRNAs are often amplified or deleted in HCC. MicroRNA-151 (miR-151), a frequently amplified miRNA on 8q24.3, is correlated with intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. We further show that miR-151, which is often expressed together with its host gene FAK, encoding focal adhesion kinase, significantly increases HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, mainly through miR-151-5p, but not through miR-151-3p. Moreover, miR-151 exerts this function by directly targeting RhoGDIA, a putative metastasis suppressor in HCC, thus leading to the activation of Rac1, Cdc42 and Rho GTPases. In addition, miR-151 can function synergistically with FAK to enhance HCC cell motility and spreading. Thus, our findings indicate that chromosome gain of miR-151 is a crucial stimulus for tumour invasion and metastasis of HCC.

  7. Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complex Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Suppressing FAK signaling with Enhancement of TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenqiang; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-03-01

    Ruthenium-based complexes have emerged as promising antitumor and antimetastatic agents during the past decades. However, the limited understanding of the antimetastatic mechanisms of these agents is a roadblock to their clinical application. Herein, we reported that, RuPOP, a ruthenium polypyridyl complex with potent antitumor activity, was able to effectively inhibit growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells and synergistically enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The selective intracellular uptake and cytotoxic effect of RuPOP was found associated with transferring receptor (TfR)-mediated endocytosis. Further investigation on intracellular mechanisms reveled that RuPOP notably suppressed FAK-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Pretreatment of cells with ERK inhibitor (U0126) and PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on cell growth, migration and invasion. Moreover, the alternation in the expression levels of metastatic regulatory proteins, including uPA, MMP-2/-9, and inhibition of VEGF secretion were also observed after RuPOP treatment. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effect of RuPOP on the growth and metastasis of cancer cells and the enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis though suppression of FAK-mediated signaling. Furthermore, RuPOP exhibits the potential to be developed as a metal-based antimetastatic agent and chemosensitizer of TRAIL for the treatment of human metastatic cancers.

  8. Marsdenia tenacissima extract suppresses A549 cell migration through regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and phosphorylated FAK.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sen-Sen; Li, Fang-Fang; Sun, Li; Fan, Wei; Gu, Ming; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Qin, Song; Yuan, Sheng-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Marsdenia tenacissima, a traditional Chinese medicine, is long been used to treat various diseases including asthma, cancer, trachitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, cystitis, and pneumonia. Although Marsdenia tenacissima has been demonstrated to have strong anti-tumor effects against primary tumors, its effect on cancer metastasis remains to be defined, and the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effect is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of XAP (an extract of Marsdenia tenacissima) on A549 lung cancer cell migration and explored the role of CCR5-CCL5 axis in the anti-metastatic effects of XAP. Our resutls showed that XAP inhibited A549 lung cancer cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The protein levels of CCR5, but not CCR9 and CXCR4, were decreased by XAP. The secretion of CCL5, the ligand of CCR5, was reduced by XAP. XAP down-regulated Rho C expression and FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, XAP inhibited A549 cell migration and invasion through down-regulation of CCR5-CCL5 axis, Rho C, and FAK.

  9. Homo-Dimers of Vanillin and Apocynin Decrease Metastatic Potential of Human Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the FAK/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jantaree, Phatcharida; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Kaewsri, Wilailak; Thongsornkleeb, Charnsak; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Atjanasuppat, Korakot; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2017-03-01

    The spread of cancer cells to distant organs, in a process called metastasis, is the main factor that contributes to most death in cancer patients. Vanillin, the vanilla flavoring agent, has been shown to suppress metastasis in a mouse model. Here, we evaluated the anti-metastatic potential of the food additive divanillin, the homo-dimer of vanillin, and their structurally related compounds, apocynin and diapocynin, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The Transwell invasion assay showed that the dimeric forms exhibited higher potency than vanillin and apocynin in inhibiting invasion, with IC50 values of 23.3±7.4 to 41.3±4.2 μM for the dimers, which are 26-34 fold lower than IC50 values of vanillin and apocynin (p<0.05). Both monomeric and dimeric forms target regulation of the invasion process, by inhibiting phosphorylation of FAK and Akt. Molecular docking studies suggested that the dimers should bind more tightly than vanillin and apocynin to the Y397 pocket of FAK FERM domain. Thus, the food additive divanillin has greater anti-metastatic potential than the flavoring agent vanillin.

  10. Saponins from Sanguisorba officinalis Improve Hematopoiesis by Promoting Survival through FAK and Erk1/2 Activation and Modulating Cytokine Production in Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Li, Bogang; Gao, Yue; Ji, Jianxin; Wu, Zhongliu; Chen, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Radix Sanguisorbae, the root of Sanguisorba officinalis L. is used as traditional Chinese medicine. In recent decades, it has been reported to be clinically effective against myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy and/ or radiotherapy. However, the underlining mechanism has not been well studied. In this work, we evaluated the hematopoietic effect of total saponins from S. officinalis L. on myelosuppressive mice induced by cyclophosphamide and by60Co-γ-irradiation and confirmed the therapeutic effect. Then, we found total saponins and their characteristic constituents Ziyuglycoside I and Ziyuglycoside II can inhibit apoptosis of TF-1 cells caused by cytokine deprivation, and promote survival of mouse bone marrow nuclear cells through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) activation in vitro. In addition, they can down-regulate macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and P-selectin secretion, which are reported to be suppressive to hematopoiesis, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that promotion of survival through FAK and Erk1/2 activation and inhibition of suppressive cytokines in the bone marrow is likely to be the pharmacological mechanism underlying the hematopoietic effect of saponins from S. officinalis L. PMID:28360858

  11. Downregulation of G3BPs inhibits the growth, migration and invasion of human lung carcinoma H1299 cells by suppressing the Src/FAK-associated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Zhang, S-h; He, H-w; Zhang, C-x; Yu, D-k; Shao, R-g

    2013-11-01

    G3BP is a RasGAP binding protein that is overexpressed in many human cancers. We previously reported that downregulation of G3BP suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Here we report that both transient and stable knockdown of G3BP suppressed the growth, migration and invasion capability of human lung carcinoma H1299 cells. Moreover, downregulation of G3BP significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Src, FAK and ERK, and the levels of NF-κB were also markedly decreased in H1299 cells. Knockdown of G3BP also decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and plasminogen activator (uPA), and in vivo data demonstrated that downregulation of G3BP markedly inhibited the growth of H1299 tumor xenografts. Together, these data revealed that knockdown of G3BP inhibited the migration and invasion of human lung carcinoma cells through the inhibition of Src, FAK, ERK and NF-κB and decreased levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA.

  12. The mechanism by which MEK/ERK regulates JNK and p38 activity in polyamine depleted IEC-6 cells during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bavaria, Mitul N; Jin, Shi; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

    2014-03-01

    Polyamine-depletion inhibited apoptosis by activating ERK1/2, while, preventing JNK1/2 activation. MKP-1 knockdown by SiRNA increased ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation and apoptosis. Therefore, we predicted that polyamines might regulate MKP1 via MEK/ERK and thereby apoptosis. We examined the role of MEK/ERK in the regulation of MKP1 and JNK, and p38 activities and apoptosis. Inhibition of MKP-1 activity with a pharmacological inhibitor, sanguinarine (SA), increased JNK1/2, p38, and ERK1/2 activities without causing apoptosis. However, pre-activation of these kinases by SA significantly increased camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis suggesting different roles for MAPKs during survival and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 activity prevented the expression of MKP-1 protein and augmented CPT-induced apoptosis, which correlated with increased activities of JNK1/2, caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Polyamine depleted cells had higher levels of MKP-1 protein and decreased JNK1/2 activity and apoptosis. Inhibition of MEK1 prevented MKP-1 expression and increased JNK1/2 and apoptosis. Phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-ERK2, MKP-1, and the catalytic subunit of PP2Ac formed a complex in response to TNF/CPT. Inactivation of PP2Ac had no effect on the association of MKP-1 and JNK1. However, inhibition of MKP-1 activity decreased the formation of the MKP-1, PP2Ac and JNK complex. Following inhibition by SA, MKP-1 localized in the cytoplasm, while basal and CPT-induced MKP-1 remained in the nuclear fraction. These results suggest that nuclear MKP-1 translocates to the cytoplasm, binds phosphorylated JNK and p38 resulting in dephosphorylation and decreased activity. Thus, MEK/ERK activity controls the levels of MKP-1 and, thereby, regulates JNK activity in polyamine-depleted cells.

  13. c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated and contributes to tumor cell proliferation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leventaki, Vasiliki; Drakos, Elias; Karanikou, Maria; Psatha, Konstantina; Lin, Pei; Schlette, Ellen; Eliopoulos, Aris; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Papadaki, Helen; Patsouris, Efstratios; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Rassidakis, George Z

    2014-03-01

    c-JUN N-terminal Kinase (JNK) is activated/phosphorylated by upstream MAPK kinases (MKK), and, in turn, phosphorylates and activates its major substrate c-JUN, a member of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors. c-JUN is overexpressed and activated in Hodgkin and Reed Sternberg cells (HRS) of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), however, the mechanism of its activation remains unknown. JNK activation was immunohistochemically assessed in 60 cases of HL and in a control group of 151 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The biologic effects of JNK activation in cultured HRS cells were investigated using colony formation, cell growth and viability assays and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to assess protein levels. p-JNK was expressed in 90% of HL, 83% of Burkitt lymphomas, 28% of mantle cell lymphomas, 23% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 19% of follicular lymphomas, and 18% of extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of MALT type. None of the 48 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and 18 cases of plasma cell myeloma showed JNK phosphorylation (P < 001, Kruskall-Wallis test). Pharmacological inhibition of JNK activity in cultured HRS cells resulted in a significant decrease of cell growth, which was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The cell cycle effects were linked to deactivation of c-JUN and upregulation of its known target, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. JNK is highly activated in HRS cells, and may contribute to uncontrolled cell cycle progression and proliferation of tumor cells in cHL.

  14. JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediates asperphenamate derivative BBP-induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanchun; Luo, Qiyu; Yuan, Lei; Miao, Caixia; Mu, Xiaoshuo; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jianchun; Sun, Tiemin; Ma, Enlong

    2012-08-15

    N-Benzoyl-O-(N′-(1-benzyloxycarbonyl-4-piperidiylcarbonyl) -D-phenylalanyl)-D-phenylalaninol (BBP), a novel synthesized asperphenamate derivative with the increased solubility, showed growth inhibitory effect on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy, which was demonstrated by the development of acidic vesicular organelles, cleavage of LC3 and upregulation of Atg4 in BBP-treated MCF-7 cells. Since the application of Atg4 siRNA totally blocked the cleavage of LC3, we demonstrated a central role of Atg4 in BBP-induced autophagy. The further studies showed that BBP increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and pretreatment with NAC effectively blocked the accumulation of ROS, autophagy and growth inhibition triggered by BBP. Moreover, BBP induced the activation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed autophagy, the increase of Atg4 levels, conversion of LC3 and growth inhibition induced by BBP. Knockdown of JNK by siRNA efficiently inhibited ROS production and autophagy, but antioxidant NAC failed to block JNK activation induced by BBP, indicating that JNK activation may be a upstream signaling of ROS and should be a core component in BBP-induced autophagic signaling pathway. These results suggest that BBP produces its growth inhibitory effect through induction of the autophagic cell death in MCF-7 cells, which is modulated by a JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation involving ROS production. -- Highlights: ► Asperphenamate derivative BBP with increased solubility was synthesized. ► BBP selectively inhibited the growth of human breast tumor cells. ► The growth inhibitory effect of BBP was associated with induction of autophagy. ► JNK-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated BBP-induced autophagy.

  15. Tetramethyl Pyrazine Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Anoxia/Reoxygenation Injury Through Inhibiting Apoptosis Mediated by JNK/MARK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming; Ma, Wuhua; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Yong; Gao, Xiaoqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetramethyl pyrazine (TMP) is a typical biologically active alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Ligusticum walliichi. It has been reported that TMP shows neuroprotective and stroke injury reductive properties in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal models. In the present study we sought to investigate the effect and potential intervention mechanism of TMP in anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) rat hippocampal neurons. Material/Methods After being cultured for 7 days, primary hippocampal neurons were randomly assigned into a normal control group (N), a TMP group (C: 0 ug/ml, L: 60 ug/ml, M: 200ug/ml and H: 800 ug/ml), and a JNK inhibitor group (S: SP600125, 10 μmol/L). A hypoxia/reoxygenation model were prepared 1 h after incubation. Hippocampal neurons were incubated in 90% N2 and 10% CO2 for 2 h, and then reoxygenated for 24 h in an incubator with 5%CO2 at the temperature of 37°C. The apoptosis rate, MKK4 and MKK7 mRNA and JNK kinase protein levels (C-fos, c-jun, and P-JNK) of hippocampal neurons were detected. Results The apoptosis rates of hippocampal neurons induced by A/R showed significant reduction after being pre-treated with JNK inhibitor, TMP 60 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml, and 800 μg/ml. The JNK kinase MKK4mRNA and MKK7mRNA levels, as well as the expressions of C-fos, C-jun, and P-JNK protein levels, were also be reduced. Conclusions TMP may produce a protective effect in anoxia/reoxygenation-induced primary hippocampal neuronal injury by inhibiting the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons; the possible mechanism may be inhibition of the JNK signal pathway. PMID:28009855

  16. Aberrant expression of JNK-associated leucine-zipper protein, JLP, promotes accelerated growth of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Jayaraman, Muralidharan; Husain, Sanam; Liu, Jinsong; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Song, Yong Sang; Dhanasekaran, Danny N.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecologic cancer with poor prognosis. Etiological factors underlying ovarian cancer genesis and progression are poorly understood. Previously, we have shown that JNK-associated Leucine zipper Protein (JLP), promotes oncogenic signaling. Investigating the role of JLP in ovarian cancer, our present study indicates that JLP is overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissue and ovarian cancer cells. Transient overexpression of JLP promotes proliferation and invasive migration of ovarian cancer cells. In addition, ectopic expression of JLP confers long-term survival and clonogenic potential to normal fallopian tube-derived epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses demonstrate the in vivo interaction of JLP and JNK, which is stimulated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an oncogenic lipid growth factor in ovarian cancer. We also show that LPA stimulates the translocation of JLP-JNK complex to the perinuclear region of SKOV3-ip cells. JLP-knockdown using shRNA abrogates LPA-stimulated activation of JNK as well as LPA-stimulated proliferation and invasive migration of SKOV3-ip cells. Studies using ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model indicate that the mice bearing JLP-silenced xenografts exhibits reduced tumor volume. Analysis of the xenograft tumor tissues indicate a reduction in the levels of JLP, JNK, phosphorylated-JNK, c-Jun and phosphorylated-c-Jun in JLP-silenced xenografts, thereby correlating the attenuated JLP-JNK signaling node with suppressed tumor growth. Thus, our results identify a critical role for JLP-signaling axis in ovarian cancer and provide evidence that targeting this signaling node could provide a new avenue for therapy. PMID:27655714

  17. A new c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein, Sab (SH3BP5), associates with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Carolyn; Matsushita, Masato; Tsukada, Satoshi; Gillespie, David A F; May, Gerhard H W

    2002-11-01

    We have identified a novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein, Sab, by yeast two-hybrid screening. Sab binds to and serves as a substrate for JNK in vitro, and was previously found to interact with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Inspection of the sequence of Sab reveals the presence of two putative mitogen-activated protein kinase interaction motifs (KIMs) similar to that found in the JNK docking domain of the c-Jun transcription factor, and four potential serine-proline JNK phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal half of the molecule. Using deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the most N-terminal KIM in Sab is essential for JNK binding, and that, as with c-Jun, physical interaction with JNK is necessary for Sab phosphorylation. Interestingly, confocal immunocytochemistry and cell fractionation studies indicate that Sab is associated with mitochondria, where it co-localizes with a fraction of active JNK. These and previously reported properties of Sab suggest a possible role in targeting JNK to this subcellular compartment and/or mediating cross-talk between the Btk and JNK signal transduction pathways.

  18. A new c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein, Sab (SH3BP5), associates with mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Carolyn; Matsushita, Masato; Tsukada, Satoshi; Gillespie, David A F; May, Gerhard H W

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a novel c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein, Sab, by yeast two-hybrid screening. Sab binds to and serves as a substrate for JNK in vitro, and was previously found to interact with the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Inspection of the sequence of Sab reveals the presence of two putative mitogen-activated protein kinase interaction motifs (KIMs) similar to that found in the JNK docking domain of the c-Jun transcription factor, and four potential serine-proline JNK phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal half of the molecule. Using deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that the most N-terminal KIM in Sab is essential for JNK binding, and that, as with c-Jun, physical interaction with JNK is necessary for Sab phosphorylation. Interestingly, confocal immunocytochemistry and cell fractionation studies indicate that Sab is associated with mitochondria, where it co-localizes with a fraction of active JNK. These and previously reported properties of Sab suggest a possible role in targeting JNK to this subcellular compartment and/or mediating cross-talk between the Btk and JNK signal transduction pathways. PMID:12167088

  19. 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cholangiocarcinoma via GSK-3β/snail signaling pathway