Science.gov

Sample records for job control language

  1. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 31N, Tactical Circuit Controller, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 19 July 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-19

    tasks the soldier must do in studying/performing job tasks. The language skills (listening, reading, wrtnspeaking) required to learn each Army job...Observation Form used in the recording of types of listening and speaking skills required, as seen by observers, in the learning and performing of a task...development specialists at the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLlELC) analyzed the current learning and working situations, and

  2. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  3. JCL (job control language) procedures to run the HULL code on the Cyber 205 computer installed on CSIRONET. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The HULL code is a suite of programs for solving problems of hydrodynamic flow. HULL is a self contained system, with internal maintenance and editing facilities, currently capable of running on a number of computer sited through the world. A utility for the HULL system called SAIL manages the internally coded system, and is used to generate Fortran programs appropriate to the problem being solved. The Materials Research Laboratories obtained a current version of the HULL system early in 1986 from Eglin AFB, through TTCP channels. This version (HULL 120) is capable of solving problems in two or three dimensions, using Eulerian or Lagrangian equations of motion, or a combination of both. Hull 120 has models for elastic/plastic material behaviour, and explosive burn routines, HULL 120 is currently being installed and tested on a Control Data Cyber 205 supercomputer on the CSIRONET network. Part of the installation involves embedding into the HUll system the necessary parameters and changes to make HULL-generated code run correctly on the 205. This process is not yet complete, and will be reported separately. A second part of the installation involves writing the job control language to run HULL. This report describes a complex set of JCL procedures developed at MRL to run HULL programs on the CSIRONET Cyber 205.

  4. Government Jobs and Careers in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou

    A discussion of foreign-language-related jobs available in federal government agencies describes the extent and types of opportunities and suggests methods to use in preparing and applying for them. There are many diverse opportunities for foreign language students in the federal government, but many are hard to locate from the outside, rarely…

  5. LABCON - Laboratory Job Control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reams, L. T.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program LABCON controls the budget system in a component test laboratory whose workload is made up from many individual budget allocations. A common denominator is applied to an incoming job, to which all effort is charged and accounted for.

  6. Preparing Foreign Language Students for Today's Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan; Schrank, Holly L.

    College language teachers should become more aware of the needs of the job market and the specific ways that language majors can use their unique characteristics to satisfy those needs. Then students must be made aware of this information. The principles of marketing can be used to examine job requirements. Steps in applying these principles…

  7. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  8. The Influence of Neutral Gender Words on Translating Job Titles from English Language into Arabic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubaideen, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…

  9. Railing for safety: job demands, job control, and safety citizenship role definition.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Chmiel, Nik; Walls, Melanie

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated job demands and job control as predictors of safety citizenship role definition, that is, employees' role orientation toward improving workplace safety. Data from a survey of 334 trackside workers were framed in the context of R. A. Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model. High job demands were negatively related to safety citizenship role definition, whereas high job control was positively related to this construct. Safety citizenship role definition of employees with high job control was buffered from the influence of high job demands, unlike that of employees with low job control, for whom high job demands were related to lower levels of the construct. Employees facing both high job demands and low job control were less likely than other employees to view improving safety as part of their role orientation. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Job demands × job control interaction effects: do occupation-specific job demands increase their occurrence?

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Biggs, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects and job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the inclusion of generic job demands. This research tested these two propositions via a self-report survey assessing key psychological job characteristics administered twice to a sample of correctional workers (N = 746). The research clearly identified that the assessment of correctional-specific job demands (CJD) was more strongly associated with job satisfaction, work engagement, turnover intentions and psychological strain, as compared with an assessment of generic job demands. However, the CJD did not produce a greater proportion of significant job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the generic job demands measure. The results thereby provide further support for the acknowledged 'elusiveness' of these theoretical interactions. Overall, however, the results did support the inclusion of occupation-specific measures of job demands for the accurate assessment of the health and job performance of high-risk workers. The implications for theoretical discussions that describe how high job demands are moderated by job resources are discussed.

  11. Influence of job demands and job control on work-life balance among Taiwanese nurses.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lee-Peng; Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Lin, Bo-Yen; Kuar, Lok-Sin

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. Job demands and job control significantly predicted all the dimensions of work-life balance. Job demands increased the level of work-life imbalance among nurses. While job control showed positive effects on work/personal life enhancement, it was found to increase both work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. Reducing the level of job demands (particularly for psychological demands) between family and career development and maintaining a proper level of job control are essential to the work-life balance of nurses. Flexible work practices and team-based management could be considered by nursing management to lessen job demand pressure and to facilitate job engagement and participation among nurses, thus promoting a better balance between work and personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Where Do We Stand? Language Program Direction as Reflected in the "MLA Job Information List."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Compares information gleaned from the Modern Language Association's "MLA Job Information List" seeking language program directors in 1996 and provides an overview of changes in the profession during that time. (Author/VWL)

  13. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  14. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  15. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  16. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  17. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  18. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  19. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  20. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored.

  1. Adjusting to Job Demands: The Role of Work Self-Determination and Job Control in Predicting Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernet, Claude; Guay, Frederic; Senecal, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamic interplay among job demands, job control, and work self-determination in order to predict burnout dimensions. A three-way interaction effect was found between job demands, job control and work self-determination in predicting each dimension of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  2. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  3. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  4. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-07-01

    The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among 1371 nurses, 360 were selected as sample. Data was collected using Job Content Questionnaire and Job Satisfaction Survey Questionnaire. After the data was collected, it was analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed using of descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics on the variables. The result revealed that control variables (gender, age, educational qualification, and work experience) accounted for a significant increment explaining 2.1 percent of the variance in job satisfaction. Job demand and social support together explained 24.5 percent of job satisfaction. Job demand(β=-0.152; p<0.01) had significant but negative relationship with job satisfaction and social support (β=0.458; p<0.01) had significant and positive relationship with job satisfaction. On the other hand, job control (β=0.042; p>0.05) did not have a significant relationship with job satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no straight three-way interaction effect among job demand, job control and social support (β=0.05, p>0.05). Job demand and social support are related to nurses' job satisfaction, but job control neither related to nor moderated the relationship between job demands and job satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no joint three-way interaction effect among job demand, job control and social support.

  5. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  6. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Job Control System: Integration of preventive maintenance systems into a job control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hayenga, J.L.; Longwell, T.C.

    1989-10-01

    The goal of a maintenance program is to assure equipment is available to function as required. To meet this goal corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM) programs are essential, and both should be considered when evaluating a maintenance program. Work control is the tool used to effectively control CM and PM. We will consider reasons that Corrective and Preventive Maintenance programs should be integrated. How the 200 Area Preventive Maintenance program is being integrated into the Job Control System (JCS), and problems posed by an operation like Hanford which is large scale in terms of geography, number of components and number of independently run plants.

  8. Effect of Distributive Leadership Behaviours of Foreign Language Schools' Principals on the Job Satisfaction of Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanriögen, A.; Iscan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of distributive leadership behavior of foreign language schools' principals on the job satisfaction of instructors. Sample size of 416 instructors working in foreign language school for the academic year 2013 to 2014 was used in the study. The data was gathered using questionnaires tag…

  9. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  10. Job Grading Standard for Electric Power Controller WG-5407.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisory jobs involved in controlling the generation or distribution of electric power. The jobs are located at power generating plants, power distribution centers, and substations. The work requires ability to anticipate load changes due to work schedules, weather, and other variables, in order to engage or cut…

  11. Controlling Job Stress: Some Tips for Urban Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    The day-to-day demands of teaching make eliminating job stress all but impossible. Urban teachers can do a better job of containing and controlling stress if they can recognize the stress potential in a situation and identify the causes of stress. Expanding one's individual psychophysiological capacity helps. Includes six references. (MLH)

  12. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    PubMed

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  13. Executive control in language processing.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2009-09-01

    During communication, speakers and listeners need the mechanisms of executive control to organize thoughts and actions along internal goals. Speakers may use executive functions to select the right word over competing alternatives to refer to the concept in mind. Listeners may use executive functions to coordinate the outputs of multiple linguistic processes to reach a coherent interpretation of what others say. Bilinguals may use executive functions to control which language is to use or to switch from one language to another. The control mechanisms recruited in language processing may be similar to those recruited in perception and attention, supported by a network of frontal, parietal and sub-cortical brain structures. Here we review existing evidences regarding the involvement of domain-general executive control in language processing. We will explain how executive functions are employed to control interference in comprehension and production, within and across languages.

  14. The role of acceptance and job control in mental health, job satisfaction, and work performance.

    PubMed

    Bond, Frank W; Bunce, David

    2003-12-01

    Acceptance, the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and physiological sensations without having to control them or let them determine one's actions, is a major individual determinant of mental health and behavioral effectiveness in a more recent theory of psychopathology. This 2-wave panel study examined the ability of acceptance also to explain mental health, job satisfaction, and performance in the work domain. The authors hypothesized that acceptance would predict these 3 outcomes 1 year later in a sample of customer service center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 412). Results indicated that acceptance predicted mental health and an objective measure of performance over and above job control, negative affectivity, and locus of control. These beneficial effects of having more job control were enhanced when people had higher levels of acceptance. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical relevance of this individual characteristic to occupational health and performance.

  15. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons' staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = -0.375, P = 0.001). The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff.

  16. Job demand-control and job stress at work: A cross-sectional study among prison staff

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Jafar; Akbari, Rouhollah; Shakerian, Mahnaz; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Job stress can impose significant costs to the workplaces and organizations due to some issues such as absenteeism, less productivity, and medical costs. Job overload and lack of decision latitude can lead to job stress. The current study aimed to investigate the job demands and control as predictor of job stress and its relationship, with some of the demographic characteristics of Iranian prison staff. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 171 male employees working in four prisons located in Ilam, Iran. The sampling method was census and all four prisons’ staff were selected to respond the Job Content Questionnaires. Finally, the data were analyzed using t-test or independent samples test as well as SPSS 20. Results: The highest amount of job demand (mean = 21.28) and the lowest amount of job control on average (9.76) were reported by those staff working in Darehshahr prison. There was also a significant relationship between job post and job control among the prison staff (β = −0.375, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The level of job stress reported by prison staff was high in this study mainly caused by high job demand and low job control, especially in Darehshahr prison staff. PMID:28546980

  17. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  18. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  19. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  20. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 15E PERSHING Missile Crewman.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-12

    DATA GATHERING TASK OBSERVATION STRUCTURAL PRIORITIZATION PORN INVENTORYq CHECKLIST FIGUJRE 2 In order to establish Job Language Performance Requirements...Profanity F. Shop talk/slang G. Non-standard English Media of Instruction I. Other Comments: A. 𔄁ilms B. Video cassettes C. Graphic Training Aids

  1. MAAG Job Position (Iberian Spanish). Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    The job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer for the Air Force as performed in Iberian Spanish is described in terms of terminal skill objectives (TSOs) and enabling objectives (EOs). This analysis is part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of…

  2. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  3. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  4. Teacher Pupil Control Ideology--Behavior Congruence and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willower, Donald J.; Heckert, J. Wayne

    The hypothesis that teacher pupil control ideology-behavior congruence would be positively related to teacher job satisfaction was tested. The rationale for the hypothesis was that teachers whose beliefs and behaviors concerning pupil control were consistent would be likely to be contented with their work. Pupil control was seen as a central…

  5. Speech-language pathologist job satisfaction in school versus medical settings.

    PubMed

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L; Collins, Dana R

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were computed from subscale category ratings and were compared between the 2 settings. Subscale category ratings for pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work, and communication were analyzed for differences between and within settings. Age, caseload size, and years-at-position were analyzed by linear regression to determine whether these factors might predict SLPs' job satisfaction. The survey had a response rate of 19.6% (N = 98 participants). Although SLPs in both settings were generally satisfied with their jobs, SLPs in medical settings had significantly higher total job satisfaction scores. Respondents from both settings had similar satisfaction ratings for subscale categories, with nature of work receiving the highest rating and operating conditions and promotion the lowest. Results of the linear regression analysis for age, caseload size, and years-at-position were not significant. Further research should evaluate important aspects of job satisfaction in both settings, especially nature of work operating conditions, and promotion.

  6. Controlled overflowing of data-intensive jobs from oversubscribed sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Wuerthwein, F.; Bockelman, B.; Bradley, D. C.; Tadel, M.; Bloom, K.; Letts, J.; Mrak Tadel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS analysis computing model was always relying on jobs running near the data, with data allocation between CMS compute centers organized at management level, based on expected needs of the CMS community. While this model provided high CPU utilization during job run times, there were times when a large fraction of CPUs at certain sites were sitting idle due to lack of demand, all while Terabytes of data were never accessed. To improve the utilization of both CPU and disks, CMS is moving toward controlled overflowing of jobs from sites that have data but are oversubscribed to others with spare CPU and network capacity, with those jobs accessing the data through real time Xrootd streaming over WAN. The major limiting factor for remote data access is the ability of the source storage system to serve such data, so the number of jobs accessing it must be carefully controlled. The CMS approach to this is to implement the overflowing by means of glideinWMS, a Condor based pilot system, and by providing the WMS with the known storage limits and let it schedule jobs within those limits. This paper presents the detailed architecture of the overflow-enabled glideinWMS system, together with operational experience of the past 6 months.

  7. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 75D. Personnel Records Specialist. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 1 June 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    English Language Skills Speaking Task Prioritization Checklist Readin AUTRACr ( .. e -- mve ee sit numem, amd Idetty by block numbw) The Job Language...written speaing, reading Rating of English *a response of 2 or 3 on a scale Language Skills of 1 to 3 was tallied listening speaking a response of 1, 2... skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking ) required to learn each Army job task were identified, conditions studied and standards determined. The data

  8. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 91B, Medical Specialist, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 August 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    tasks the soldier must do in studying/performing job tasks. The language skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking) required to learn each Army job...Observation Form used in the recording of - types of listening and speaking skills required, as seen by observers, in the * learning and performing of a task...curriculum development specialists at the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLIELC) analyzed the current learning and working situations

  9. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation.

  10. English on the Job, Language Arts: 5113.31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Bonnie

    An exploration of basic language and communication skills is the subject matter of this course. Performance objectives for the student include: (1) recognition of employment-related words, (2) satisfactory completion of various application forms, (3) correct oral response to questions, (4) identification of basic facts about social security, labor…

  11. Air traffic controller burnout: survey responses regarding job demands, job resources, and health.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Monica; Richardsen, Astrid M

    2006-04-01

    There are currently many changes taking place in the aviation system affecting the work of air traffic controllers (ATCOs), and thus it was considered important to assess work-related demands and stress responses among ATCOs. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of burnout among ATCOs compared with other professions; to examine the relationship between job demands, job resources, and burnout; and to examine if burnout could predict both work- and health-related outcomes. The participants were 209 Norwegian ATCOs and data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to 500 ATCOs. The study was part of a national survey of both health care and non-health care professions. ATCOs did not score high on burnout compared with the three comparisons groups (police, journalists, and building constructors); in fact, ATCOs scored significantly lower on exhaustion compared with journalists (Hedges g=65) and building constructors (Hedges g=63), and not significantly different from police officers. Both job demands and job resources were related to burnout; work conflict especially was an important predictor for all of the three burnout dimensions. Burnout predicted psychosomatic complaints (r2=0.48), satisfaction with life (r2=0.25), and other work outcomes. The overall level of burnout was not high among ATCOs compared with other professions, which may be related to selection procedures for the profession. Burnout was related to important outcome variables such as psychosomatic complaints and attitudes toward work.

  12. Bilingual Control: Sequential Memory in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2013-01-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments,…

  13. Expert ratings of job demand and job control as predictors of injury and musculoskeletal disorder risk in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Methods Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Results Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Conclusions Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. PMID:26163544

  14. Expert ratings of job demand and job control as predictors of injury and musculoskeletal disorder risk in a manufacturing cohort.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Techniques in Language Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, I. A.; Gibson, Christine

    This book attempts to introduce the reader to techniques of communication control, in listening and speaking as well as reading and writing. To this end, the use of a simplified vocabulary called Every Man's English is advocated. Section 2 presents some principles of Every Man's English. The contribution of Ogden's Basic English, a core vocabulary…

  16. Job Maintenance through Supported Employment PLUS: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Telle, Nils-Torge; Moock, Jörn; Heuchert, Sandra; Schulte, Vivian; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Sickness absence from work due to experienced distress and mental health issues has continuously increased over the past years in Germany. To investigate how this alarming development can be counteracted, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating a job coaching intervention to maintain the working capacity of members of staff and ultimately prevent sickness absence. Our sample included N = 99 employees who reported mental distress due to work-related problems. The intervention group (n = 58) received between 8 and 12 individual job coaching sessions in which they worked with a professional job coach to reduce their mental distress. The control group (n = 41) received a brochure about mental distress. Data were collected before the start of the study, at the end of the job coaching intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. These data included the number of sickness absence days as the primary outcome and questionnaire measures to assess burnout indicators, life satisfaction, and work-related experiences and behaviors. Compared with the control group, the results indicated no reduction in sickness absence in the intervention group but fewer depressive symptoms, a heightened ability of the participants to distance themselves from work, more experience of work-related success, less depletion of emotional resources, and a greater satisfaction with life when participants had received the job coaching. Thus, although we could not detect a reduction in sickness absence between the groups, job coaching was shown to be a viable intervention technique to benefit employees by contributing to re-establish their mental health. We discuss the implications of the study and outline future research.

  17. Job Maintenance through Supported Employment PLUS: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Telle, Nils-Torge; Moock, Jörn; Heuchert, Sandra; Schulte, Vivian; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Sickness absence from work due to experienced distress and mental health issues has continuously increased over the past years in Germany. To investigate how this alarming development can be counteracted, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating a job coaching intervention to maintain the working capacity of members of staff and ultimately prevent sickness absence. Our sample included N = 99 employees who reported mental distress due to work-related problems. The intervention group (n = 58) received between 8 and 12 individual job coaching sessions in which they worked with a professional job coach to reduce their mental distress. The control group (n = 41) received a brochure about mental distress. Data were collected before the start of the study, at the end of the job coaching intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. These data included the number of sickness absence days as the primary outcome and questionnaire measures to assess burnout indicators, life satisfaction, and work-related experiences and behaviors. Compared with the control group, the results indicated no reduction in sickness absence in the intervention group but fewer depressive symptoms, a heightened ability of the participants to distance themselves from work, more experience of work-related success, less depletion of emotional resources, and a greater satisfaction with life when participants had received the job coaching. Thus, although we could not detect a reduction in sickness absence between the groups, job coaching was shown to be a viable intervention technique to benefit employees by contributing to re-establish their mental health. We discuss the implications of the study and outline future research. PMID:27703964

  18. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  19. Green Retrofits to Bring Jobs, Stormwater Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community-based public-private partnership fostered by EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Water Protection Division is underway in Prince George’s County, Maryland, to generate “faster, cheaper, greener” controls for stormwater and benefit the local economy and community.

  20. MAAG Job Position: Rolebooks and Technical Vocabulary (Iberian Spanish). Methods for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    Rolebooks and technical Iberian Spanish vocabulary for the job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer of the Air Force are presented. The materials are part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language…

  1. Endocrinological and psychological responses to job stressors: an experimental test of the job demand--control model.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    The buffer hypothesis of the Job Demand-Control Model predicts that high levels of job control compensate for the negative effects of high job demands on well-being and health. Several studies have tested this hypothesis, but the results are far from consistent. The objective of this study was to test the buffer hypothesis with respect to psychological (subjective well-being) and physiological (salivary cortisol) indicators of job strain, using an experimental study design. Seventy-seven men and women worked at a simulated computer workplace for more than two hours. Job demands and job control were manipulated in a 2 (job demands: high vs. low)×2 (job control: high vs. low)×7 (time of measurement) study design. Demands were operationalized in terms of workload, and pacing control (self-paced vs. machine-paced) was used as a job control manipulation. As dependent variables, subjective well-being and salivary cortisol were measured at seven time points during the experiment (T1-T7). In line with the buffer hypothesis, high control eliminated the impact of high demands on salivary cortisol responses. The hypothesis was supported by a predicted significant three-way interaction of demands, control and time of measurement (p<.001), qualified by the absence of significant effects of the independent variables at T1 and T2 due to lagged cortisol reactions, and significant two-way interactions of demands and control, as predicted by the model, at the five remaining times of measurement (T3-T7): high demands led to increased cortisol reactions only in the low control condition. In contrast, no main or interaction effects of the independent variables were found for subjective well-being. This discrepancy between physiological and psychological stress reactions might be due to the lack of specificity inherent in measures of subjective well-being, due to lagged psychological reactions, or due to self-report biases in the subjective measures. In sum, this study provides the

  2. Job embeddedness factors as a predictor of turnover intention among infection control nurses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Kim, Kyung Mi

    2015-11-01

    Job embeddedness indicates the degree to which an employee of an organization intends to remain in his or her position at that organization. This study examined how job embeddedness affects infection control nurses' turnover intention along with general characteristics, job satisfaction, and perceived job alternatives. We collected data from a total of 133 infection control nurses using self-reporting questionnaire methods. All questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale. The average turnover intention was 3.01 ± 0.72 (100-point conversion, 60.2%), and average job satisfaction was 3.48 ± 0.79 (100-point conversion, 69.6%). The average perceived availability of job alternatives was 3.02 ± 0.78 (100-point conversion, 60.4%), and average job embeddedness was 3.33 ± 0.57 (100-point conversion, 66.6%). Predictors of turnover intention were monthly income, perceived availability of job alternatives, and job embeddedness. Job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Through this study we identified predictors of turnover intention and found that job embeddedness among predictors has high explanatory power as a predictor of infection control nurses' turnover intention. Strategies to enhance infection control nurses' job embeddedness are needed. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships of job demand, job control, and social support on intention to leave and depressive symptoms in Japanese nurses.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the relationships among the factors of the demand-control-support model (DCS) on the intention to leave a hospital job and depressive symptoms. Participants included 1,063 nurses. Job demand, job control, and support from supervisors were found to be significantly related to both the intention to leave and depressive symptoms. Based on the odds ratios per 1 SD change in the DCS factors, low support from supervisors was found to be most related to the intention to leave, and low job control was found to be most related to depressive symptoms. In models that did not include "job demand" as an independent variable, 60-h working weeks were found to have a significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. Support from supervisors is more important in preventing intention to leave and depressive symptoms among nurses than is support from co-workers. Improving job control and avoiding long working hours may be important to prevent depressive symptoms.

  4. Relationships of job demand, job control, and social support on intention to leave and depressive symptoms in Japanese nurses

    PubMed Central

    SAIJO, Yasuaki; YOSHIOKA, Eiji; KAWANISHI, Yasuyuki; NAKAGI, Yoshihiko; ITOH, Toshihiro; YOSHIDA, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the relationships among the factors of the demand-control-support model (DCS) on the intention to leave a hospital job and depressive symptoms. Participants included 1,063 nurses. Job demand, job control, and support from supervisors were found to be significantly related to both the intention to leave and depressive symptoms. Based on the odds ratios per 1 SD change in the DCS factors, low support from supervisors was found to be most related to the intention to leave, and low job control was found to be most related to depressive symptoms. In models that did not include “job demand” as an independent variable, 60-h working weeks were found to have a significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. Support from supervisors is more important in preventing intention to leave and depressive symptoms among nurses than is support from co-workers. Improving job control and avoiding long working hours may be important to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:26320733

  5. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 76Y. Unit Supply Specialist. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 27 May 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-27

    language skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking) required to learn each Army job task were identified, conditions studied and standards determined...as seen by observers, in the learning and performing of a task. The variety of environmental situations is also included on this form. Appendix five...DLIELC) analyzed the current learning and working situations, and individual tasks. The goal was to collect data which would help identify the Job

  6. Social support as a mediator between job control and psychological strain.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Angel

    2016-05-01

    Social support is a key influencing factor on health, and one of the main dimensions of the Demand - Control - Support (DCS) model within the occupational health field. The buffer hypothesis of the DCS determines that job control and social support relieve the effects of a high job demand on health. This hypothesis has been evaluated in several studies to predict worker's health, even though it has yielded ambiguous and inconclusive results. This study evaluated whether social support mediated the effect of job demand or job control on job strain. This mediation mechanism might represent a plausible and coherent alternative to the buffer hypothesis deserving to be analyzed within this field. Two models considering support as the mediator variable in the explanation of job strain were assessed with a group of administrative and technical workers (N = 281). While there was no evidence for support behaving as a mediator variable between demand and job strain, social support was a consistent mediator in the association of job control with job strain. The effect of job control on job strain was fully mediated by social support from supervisors and coworkers. The role of social support as a mediator implicates that the prevention of psychosocial stressors in the job place should place a stronger emphasis on improving social relationships at work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    PubMed

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-08-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  9. Synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Östergren, Per-Olof; Canivet, Catarina; Moghadassi, Mahnaz; Lindeberg, Sara; Karasek, Robert; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the interaction between job control and social support at work on common mental disorders. To examine whether there is a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress and whether it differs by the level of job demands. Methods About 1,940 male and female workers from the Malmö Shoulder and Neck Study were chosen for this cross-sectional study. Job control, social support at work, and job demands were measured by the Swedish version of the Job Content Questionnaire, and general psychological distress was assessed by the General Health Questionnaire. Results A significant excessive risk increase for general psychological distress was observed when workers had both low job control and low social support at work in both men and women. The synergistic effect was stronger in women, when job demands were low (Rothman’s synergy index was 2.16 vs. 1.51 when job demands were high). However, in male workers, while a strong synergistic effect between job control and social support at work was found when job demands were low (synergy index was 9.25), there was an antagonistic effect when job demands were high (synergy index was 0.52). Conclusions There was a synergistic interaction effect between job control and social support at work on general psychological distress, but the synergistic effect or its effect size differed by the level of job demands and gender. An atomic, additive approach to the risk assessment of the psychosocial work characteristics on common mental disorders could be misleading or lead to a risk underestimation. PMID:20582551

  10. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 91C, Clinical Specialist, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 August 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    of tile repoitj Training Developments Institute UNCLASSIFIED ATTN: ATTG-DOR UNCLASS ___F__ED 150. DECL ASSI FCATION/ DOWNIGRADIN GFort Monroe, VA...research data used to develop Job Language Performance Requirements (JLPR). Please look through these sections to get a general understanding of the...constitute the basis for development of any MOS-oriented English language materials. Section V contains the JLPR by cluster/topic, while Section VI contains

  11. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 63H. Automotive Repairman. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 22 May 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-22

    Checklist. It was taken to the field to collect the raw data. This form was approved for use by the Department of the Army. Appendix two contains the...tasks. The goal was to collect data which would help identify the Job Language Performance Requirements pertinent to this MOS.o.05 To conduct this...VOCABULARY LIST PERCENTAGE LANGUAGE SKILLS FORM FIGURE 3 The raw data collected as described in Section II above was used to determine the English

  12. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians’ turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. Methods The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25–63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. Results The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Conclusions Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work. PMID:24438449

  13. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians' job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Kouvonen, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Vänskä, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-01-17

    Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians' turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25-63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work.

  14. TEACH - A concurrent robot control language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the TEACH robot control language and its supporting operating system. It addresses concurrency, device independence, and other issues related to manipulator control, task specification, and system operation.

  15. Natural language interface for command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  16. Natural language interface for command and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A working prototype of a flexible 'natural language' interface for command and control situations is presented. This prototype is analyzed from two standpoints. First is the role of natural language for command and control, its realistic requirements, and how well the role can be filled with current practical technology. Second, technical concepts for implementation are discussed and illustrated by their application in the prototype system. It is also shown how adaptive or 'learning' features can greatly ease the task of encoding language knowledge in the language processor.

  17. Job Demands and Job Control as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: Moderating Effects of Negative Childhood Socioemotional Experiences.

    PubMed

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Joensuu, Matti; Lipsanen, Jari; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    There have been calls to know more about vulnerability factors that may predispose to adverse health outcomes at work. We examined if childhood adverse experiences would affect vulnerability to psychosocial stress factors at work. A nationally representative sample of 1546 Finnish men and women was followed up from childhood to adulthood. Childhood adverse experiences consisted of socioeconomic and emotional factors. Job demands and job control were measured 21 years later, and depressive symptoms were measured 21 and 27 years after the childhood measurements. Job demands predicted depressive symptoms over 6 years, and the association was modified by childhood emotional adversity. Participants with three or more emotional adversities in childhood had more depressive symptoms in response to high job demands compared with participants with zero or one emotional adversities in childhood (Betas = -1.40 and -2.01, ps < 0.05 and <0.01). No such moderating effect by childhood adverse experiences was found for the association between job control and depressive symptoms. Although modest in effect size, these findings provide a developmental viewpoint for understanding the role of childhood experiences in work-related stress factors. Such knowledge can enhance understanding of individual differences in vulnerability to the demands of working life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS-94B, Food Service Specialist. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 August 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    KD-R12i 84 JOB LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR MOS-94B FOOD 1/2 SERVICE SPECIALIST..(U) DEFENSE LANGUAGE INST LACKLRND AFB TX ENGLISH LANGUAGE...REQUIREMENTS FOR 94B 7 FOOD SERVICE SPECIALIST REFERENCE SOLDIER’ S MANUAL DATED 30 August 1977 o x COPY Vi~l o~1 PG’nr toU -7C does not -pr, Pe roduolif LA...CAMOUFLAGE 5. LAND NAVIGATION 6. M16AI RIFLE 7. LEADERSHIP 8. SANITATION AND SAFETY 9. FOOD PREPARATION , 10. RECEIPT AND STORAGE OF SUBSISTENCE 11

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Job Control and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Rebecca J; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2015-08-15

    Deteriorating job control has been previously shown to predict poor mental health. The impact of improvement in job control on mental health is less well understood, yet it is of policy significance. We used fixed-effects longitudinal regression models to analyze 10 annual waves of data from a large Australian panel survey (2001-2010) to test within-person associations between change in self-reported job control and corresponding change in mental health as measured by the Mental Component Summary score of Short Form 36. We found evidence of a graded relationship; with each quintile increase in job control experienced by an individual, the person's mental health increased. The biggest improvement was a 1.55-point increase in mental health (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.84) for people moving from the lowest (worst) quintile of job control to the highest. Separate analyses of each of the component subscales of job control-decision authority and skill discretion-showed results consistent with those of the main analysis; both were significantly associated with mental health in the same direction, with a stronger association for decision authority. We conclude that as people's level of job control increased, so did their mental health, supporting the value of targeting improvements in job control through policy and practice interventions.

  20. Within-Language Attention Control in Second Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube-Schiffnorman, Marlene; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated attention control in tasks involving the processing of relational terms (more highly grammaticized linguistic stimuli: spatial prepositions) and non-relational terms (less highly grammaticized lexical stimuli: nouns) in a first (L1) and second language (L2). Participants were adult bilinguals with greater proficiency in…

  1. Job rotation designed to prevent musculoskeletal disorders and control risk in manufacturing industries: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disorders, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. CRD42014013319. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Job Rotation Designed to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders and Control Risk in Manufacturing Industries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H.; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disease, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. PMID:27633235

  3. Control Mechanisms in Bilingual Language Production: Neural Evidence from Language Switching Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Green, David

    2008-01-01

    A key question in bilingual language production research is how bilingual individuals control the use of their two languages. The psycholinguistic literature concerning language control is unresolved. It is a matter of controversy whether (a) issues to do with control are central to understanding bilingual language processing; and (b) if they are,…

  4. Control Mechanisms in Bilingual Language Production: Neural Evidence from Language Switching Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Green, David

    2008-01-01

    A key question in bilingual language production research is how bilingual individuals control the use of their two languages. The psycholinguistic literature concerning language control is unresolved. It is a matter of controversy whether (a) issues to do with control are central to understanding bilingual language processing; and (b) if they are,…

  5. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-08-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual.

  7. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual. PMID:25077013

  8. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  9. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  10. Associations of occupation, job control and job demands with intima-media thickness: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Baron, Sherry; Barr, R Graham; Kaufman, Joel D; Polak, Joseph F; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Occupation has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, but few studies have investigated occupation in relation to early atherosclerotic disease. This study examined associations between various occupational characteristics and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in a multi-ethnic sample. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited 6814 adults aged 45e84 years and free of clinical CVD (response rate 60%, 51% female). Questionnaire data were used to determine occupational group (managerial/professional, sales/office, service, blue-collar), psychosocial job characteristics (ie, job demands, job control) and other sociodemographic information. Results Common carotid artery (CCA)-IMT was greater for blue-collar jobs than for management/professional jobs (mean difference=0.012 mm, p=0.049) after adjustment for age, sex, race, place of birth (US or foreign born) and CVD risk factors. Compared to management/professional jobs, internal carotid artery (ICA)-IMT was greater for sales/office, service and blue-collar jobs (mean difference=0.071 mm, p<0.001; 0.057 mm, p=0.009; and 0.110 mm, p<0.001, respectively) after adjustment for age, sex, race and place of birth. The difference between blue-collar jobs and management/professional jobs remained significant after additional adjustment for CVD risk factors, income and education (mean difference=0.048 mm, p=0.045). Higher levels of control at work were associated with thinner CCA-IMT (mean difference=‒0.009 mm, p=0.016, adjusted for age, sex, race and place of birth) but not with ICA-IMT. Job demands had no significant association with IMT. Conclusions Blue-collar jobs and low levels of job control were associated with the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:20935285

  11. The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model: an experimental examination.

    PubMed

    Häusser, Jan Alexander; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The active learning hypothesis of the job-demand-control model [Karasek, R. A. 1979. "Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign." Administration Science Quarterly 24: 285-307] proposes positive effects of high job demands and high job control on performance. We conducted a 2 (demands: high vs. low) × 2 (control: high vs. low) experimental office workplace simulation to examine this hypothesis. Since performance during a work simulation is confounded by the boundaries of the demands and control manipulations (e.g. time limits), we used a post-test, in which participants continued working at their task, but without any manipulation of demands and control. This post-test allowed for examining active learning (transfer) effects in an unconfounded fashion. Our results revealed that high demands had a positive effect on quantitative performance, without affecting task accuracy. In contrast, high control resulted in a speed-accuracy tradeoff, that is participants in the high control conditions worked slower but with greater accuracy than participants in the low control conditions.

  12. Synergistic interaction between job control and social support at work on depression, burnout, and insomnia among Japanese civil servants.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Chiba, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Eiji; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Ito, Toshihiro; Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, Kazuyo; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate whether low job control and low social support at work have synergistic interaction on mental health. The synergistic interaction was also analyzed after stratification by high and low job demands. Participants were 2,121 local government employees in Asahikawa city, Japan. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire was used to assess job demands, job control, and social support. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to assess burnout. Insomnia was assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. Possible confounder-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios for depression, burnout, and insomnia, and synergy indices between job control and social support at work were assessed. The synergy indices among men and women, respectively, were 2.08 (80 % confidence interval: 1.01, 4.27) and 1.98 (0.67, 5.89) for depression, 1.79 (1.28, 2.51) and 2.62 (1.07, 6.40) for burnout, and 1.92 (1.22, 3.02) and 2.77 (0.43, 18.01) for insomnia. Men with high job demands had higher synergistic interaction on depression and burnout, compared to men with low job demands, and women with low job demands had higher synergistic interaction between job control and social support at work on burnout and insomnia, compared to women with high job demands. There were more-than-additive interactions of job control and social support at work on depression, burnout, and insomnia. After stratification by job demands, the synergistic interaction may be different between men and women. To assess job stress, it is necessary to consider the interactive effect of not only job demands and job control but also job control and social support at work.

  13. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  14. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  15. [Voice disorders related to job stress in teaching: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Giannini, Susana Pimentel Pinto; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Ferreira, Leslie Piccolotto

    2012-11-01

    This case-control study aimed to test the association between voice disorders and job stress among public schoolteachers in São Paulo, Brazil. The groups consisted of teachers with (n = 165) and without (n = 105) voice-related complaints. Both groups answered the questionnaires Conditions of Vocal Production and Job Stress Scale. Analysis of cases and controls showed comparable samples, differing only by vocal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between cases and controls in relation to job stress involving high strain (OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.1-3.9), which places high demands combined with low job control. High strain in cases in this study represents the highest risk of physical and mental disorders for teachers. Loss of voice prevents teachers from continuing in their professional role, eliminates their professional identity, and jeopardizes their career.

  16. The Effects of Job Demands and Low Job Control on Work-Family Conflict: The Role of Fairness in Decision Making and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkarinen, Laura; Sinervo, Timo; Kouvonen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether perceptions of organizational fairness (the procedural and interactional components) were able to diminish the negative effects of high job demands and low job control on the balance between work and family. The study participants were 713 women working in long-term care for elderly people in Finland. The results…

  17. The Effects of Job Demands and Low Job Control on Work-Family Conflict: The Role of Fairness in Decision Making and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkarinen, Laura; Sinervo, Timo; Kouvonen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether perceptions of organizational fairness (the procedural and interactional components) were able to diminish the negative effects of high job demands and low job control on the balance between work and family. The study participants were 713 women working in long-term care for elderly people in Finland. The results…

  18. Family nursing hospital training and the outcome on job demands, control and support.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Anna Olafia; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Juliusdottir, Sigrun

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a family systems nursing hospital training educational program (ETI program) on nurses' and midwives' perception of job demands, control, and/or support. Of the nurses and midwives who were working in the Women's and Children's Services Division at The National University Hospital in Iceland, 479 participated in the study on three time periods from 2009 to 2011. Scores for the characteristics of job demands and job control were created to categorize participants into four job types (Karasek and Theorell, 1990). These four job types are high strain (high demand, low control), passive (low demand, low control), low strain (low demand, high control), and active (high demand, high control). However, when the data were evaluated based on the proportion of job characteristics as reported by the nurses and the midwives, no significant difference was found over time (2009 to 2011) (χ(2)=5.203, p=.518). However, based on the results from the independent t-tests at time 1, a significant difference was found amongst the high strain job group regarding perceived support from administrators and colleagues among the nurses and midwives who had taken the ETI program compared to those who had not taken the program (χ(2)=2.218, p=.034). This indicates that the health care professionals who characterized their job to be of high demand but with low control evaluated the support from their administrators and colleagues to be significantly higher if they had taken the ETI program than did the nurses and midwives who did not take the ETI program. These findings are promising because they might, in the long run, increase the nurses' and midwives' autonomy and control over their own work.

  19. Job Support, Coping, and Control: Assessment of Simultaneous Impacts Within the Occupational Stress Process.

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Drummond, Suzie; Biggs, Amanda

    2017-02-13

    The assessment of occupational stress is marred by an overwhelming adoption of simplistic research designs that generally fail to represent the complex reality of the occupational stress process. Informed by the theoretical tenants of both the transactional stress model and the job-demands-control-support model, this paper presents a rare simultaneous assessment of how two types of job demands (cognitive and emotional) are both moderated by job control and social support and mediated by coping for the prediction of work engagement and psychological strain over time. Self-report surveys were administered twice over 12 months to a sample of police-service workers and moderated mediation analyses were conducted on the matched sample of N = 2,481 respondents. The results offer support for the process of occupational stress by demonstrating how both accommodation and avoidance coping mediate the job-demands-outcome relationship over time. The results also demonstrate that this stressor-coping-strain process is simultaneously moderated by job support or job control. We found it interesting that this research also demonstrated that the estimation of work engagement was not unduly influenced by the type of job demands these police employees were exposed to. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. The role of job control as a moderator of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence-outcome relationships.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R

    2000-03-01

    Job control may be defined as the latitude to make decisions and the freedom to select the most appropriate skills to complete the task. Emotional dissonance may be defined as the conflict between expressed and experienced emotions. In this study, job control and self-efficacy were theorized to jointly affect emotional dissonance. Individuals with high self-efficacy were found to be more satisfied under conditions of little job control, whereas those with low self-efficacy favored high job control. The impact of job control on emotional intelligence was also studied. Emotional intelligence may be defined as the set of skills that contribute to accurate self-appraisal of emotion as well as the detection of emotional cues in others and the use of feelings to motivate and achieve in one's life. Emotional intelligence and job control explained significant amounts of the variance in both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Whole-Language and Item-Specific Control in Bilingual Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64…

  2. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  3. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  4. Empowering workplace and wellbeing among healthcare professionals: the buffering role of job control.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Fabbri, Daniele; Pilia, Ilaria; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-05-26

    Health care workers are exposed to several job stressors that can adversely affect their wellbeing. Workplace incivility is a growing organizational concern with the potential to create workplaces harmful to individuals' wellbeing and increase occupational health risks. Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of two resources (organizational empowerment and job control) on individuals' well-being (emotional exhaustion) and attitude at work (unit affective commitment). A total of 210 hospital workers completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure organizational empowerment, workplace incivility, job control, exhaustion, and affective commitment. Data were collected in 2014. Data were examined via linear regression analyses. The results showed that workplace incivility was positively related to emotional exhaustion and negatively related to affective commitment. Workplace empowerment was positively related to affective commitment and negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, the positive relationship between workplace empowerment and affective commitment was significantly moderated by job control. Our results found support for the JD-R model. Specifically, results showed the buffering effect of job control in the relationship between empowerment and affective commitment. Our findings may concretely contribute to the stress literature and offer additional suggestions to promote healthy workplaces.

  5. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 31M, Multichannel Communications Equipment Operator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 3 March 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-03

    language skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking) required to learn each * Army job task were identified, conditions studied and standards...of listening and speaking skills required, as seen by observers, in the learning and performing of a task. The variety of environmental situations is...the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLIELC) analyzed the current learning and working situations, and individual tasks. The goal

  6. Effects of leadership and span of control on nurses' job satisfaction and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Amy Sanchez; Doran, Diane; Evans, Martin; Hall, Linda McGillis; Pringle, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Hospital restructuring has resulted in nurse managers' having direct responsibility for a greatly expanded number of units and staff. However, very little research has examined the impact of these larger spans of control on nurse and patient outcomes. This study examined the relationships between leadership style, span of control, nurses' job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, as well as the moderating effect of span of control on the relationship between leadership style and the two outcomes. The study was conducted at seven teaching and community hospitals with a sample of 51 units, 41 nurse managers, 717 nurses and 680 patients. Data analyses included multiple regression and hierarchical linear modelling. The study findings provided support for the theoretical relationships among leadership style, span of control, nurse job satisfaction and patient satisfaction. In addition, the results showed that higher spans of control decreased the positive effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles on job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, and increased the negative effects of management by exception and laissez-faire leadership styles on job satisfaction. Leadership matters, and certain leadership styles, particularly transformational, are better than others. Span of control also matters: the wider the span, the lower the nurses' job satisfaction and patient satisfaction. However, as spans of control increase in size, no leadership style, even transformational, can overcome the negative effects.

  7. Grammatical Constraints on Language Switching: Language Control is not Just Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard mixing) language switches, and low or high switching rate. Mixed-language speech was slower and less accurate when switch-rate was high, but especially (for speed) or only (for intrusion errors) if switches were also ungrammatical. Executive function ability (measured with a variety of tasks in young bilinguals in Experiment 1, and aging bilinguals in Experiment 2), slowed production and increased intrusion rate in a generalized fashion, but with little or no interaction with grammaticality. Aging effects appeared to reflect reduced monitoring ability (evidenced by a lower rate of self-corrected intrusions). These results demonstrate robust effects of grammatical encoding on language selection, and imply that executive control influences bilingual language production only after sentence planning and lexical selection. PMID:27667899

  8. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  9. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  10. Minimizing strain and maximizing learning: the role of job demands, job control, and proactive personality.

    PubMed

    Parker, S K; Sprigg, C A

    1999-12-01

    Using a sample of 268 production employees, this study extended research on R. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model of stress in 2 ways. First, results show that R. Karasek's proposed interaction between demands and control when predicting strain occurred only for more proactive employees. This 3-way interaction helps reconcile previous inconsistent findings about the interaction between demands and control when predicting strain. Second, the study extends research by investigating the demands-control interaction and the moderating influence of proactive personality in relation to learning-oriented outcomes (perceived mastery, role breadth self-efficacy, and production ownership). There were no 3-way interactions among the variables when predicting these learning-oriented outcomes, but all were important predictors. These results show (a) that demands and control can influence learning as proposed in the dynamic version of the demands-control model and (b) that proactive personality plays an important moderating role.

  11. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    PubMed

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Control of inferencing in natural language understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, A.; Klappholz, D.

    1983-01-01

    The understanding of a natural language text requires that a reader (human or computer program) be able to resolve ambiguities at the syntactic and lexical levels; it also requires that a reader be able to recover that part of the meaning of a text which is over and above the collection of meanings of its individual sentences taken in isolation. The satisfaction of this requirement involves complex inferencing from a large database of world knowledge. While human readers seem able to perform this task easily, the designer of computer programs for natural language understanding faces the serious difficulty of algorithmically defining precisely the items of world knowledge required at any point in the processing, i.e. the problem of controlling inferencing. This paper discusses the problems involved in such control of inferencing; an approach to their solution is presented, based on the notion of determining where each successive sentence fits into the text as a whole. 35 references.

  13. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  14. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  15. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  16. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  17. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  18. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  19. Burnout and Workload Among Health Care Workers: The Moderating Role of Job Control

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Finco, Gabriele; Campagna, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Background As health care workers face a wide range of psychosocial stressors, they are at a high risk of developing burnout syndrome, which in turn may affect hospital outcomes such as the quality and safety of provided care. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating effect of job control on the relationship between workload and burnout. Methods A total of 352 hospital workers from five Italian public hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure exhaustion, cynicism, job control, and workload. Data were collected in 2013. Results In contrast to previous studies, the results of this study supported the moderation effect of job control on the relationship between workload and exhaustion. Furthermore, the results found support for the sequential link from exhaustion to cynicism. Conclusion This study showed the importance for hospital managers to carry out management practices that promote job control and provide employees with job resources, in order to reduce the burnout risk. PMID:25379330

  20. Kuopio University Hospital Job Satisfaction Scale (KUHJSS): its validation in the Greek language.

    PubMed

    Sapountzi-Krepia, Despina; Zyga, Sofia; Prezerakos, Panagiotis; Malliarou, Maria; Efstathiou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Krystallo; Charalambous, George

    2017-01-01

    Τranslation and validation of the Kuopio University Hospital Job Satisfaction Scale. Nurses' job satisfaction is crucial for the smooth functioning of the health-care system. A Greek translation of the scale was made and administered to 126 psychiatric nurses; 60 filled it out again after 15 days. The structural validity and internal consistency of the scale were also studied. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were also conducted. A total of 69 (54.8%) of the participants were male and the majority (72.2%) were <40 years old. The exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor scale: Leadership, Working environment, Motivating factors and Team spirit (Cronbach alpha: 0.71-0.88). These factors were not identical to the factors of the Finnish version of the scale. The four-factor model created marginally fits the data and exhibits far better indices. Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were near to 1, indicating the scale's high reliability. The scale's properties were very satisfactory indicating that the scale is a reliable measure of job satisfaction. The Greek version of the Kuopio University Hospital Job Satisfaction Scale can be recommended to measure nurses' job satisfaction in Cyprus and Greece. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors (‘decision latitude’ and ‘job demands’) for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of ‘very often’ and ‘always’ for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach’s α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65–0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25–0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  2. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors ('decision latitude' and 'job demands') for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of 'very often' and 'always' for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach's α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65-0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25-0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use.

  3. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study.

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, H.; Marmot, M. G.; Hemingway, H.; Nicholson, A. C.; Brunner, E.; Stansfeld, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. SETTING: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. SUBJECTS: 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. RESULTS: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:9055714

  4. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 71L, Administrative Specialist, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 14 June 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-14

    English Language Center ATTN: DLIELC-LEACA Lackland Air Force Base. TX 78236 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPOR/D! A I . 13. NUMBER OF...PAGES 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If different from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of thle report) Training Developments Institute...VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening self -paced reading, writing 11

  5. Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia A; Prottas, David J

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 3,504) to investigate relationships among availability of formal organizational family support (family benefits and alternative schedules), job autonomy, informal organizational support (work-family culture, supervisor support, and coworker support), perceived control, and employee attitudes and well-being. Using hierarchical regression, the authors found that the availability of family benefits was associated with stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the availability of alternative schedules was not related to any of the outcomes. Job autonomy and informal organizational support were associated with almost all the outcomes, including positive spillover. Perceived control mediated most of the relationships.

  6. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  7. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  8. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 36C- Wire Systems Installer/Operator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The ratings given to the English language skills * The three variables were identified as to English...language skills involved. The following skills were determined: SVARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration T"stening, lecture...MoS 36C oontains� tasks. The necessity to keep the flow of teaching and flexibility of teaching one task before or after another warranted

  9. ALECS: assembly language extensions and control structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oothoudt, M.A.; Kozlowski, T.

    1982-01-01

    ALECS is an assembly language preprocessor allowing the use of structured programming techniques in MACRO-11 code. Programs are written using standard control structures with normal MACRO-11 code embedded as needed. The ALECS task is used to translate the source to pure MACRO-11 source file which is then submitted to the assembler. ALECS also produces a structured source listing showing the true logical flow of code. ALECS has been used for short subroutines as well as RSX-11M I/0 drivers and an ACP.

  10. Foreign Language Skills and Academic Library Job Announcements: A Survey and Trends Analysis, 1966-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li

    2008-01-01

    This study examines academic and research librarian positions that require foreign language skills. Technical and public services are most likely to require language knowledge, while administrator and system librarian positions are the least likely. Overall, the requirements show a continued rise until the mid-1980s and a declining trend after…

  11. Integrating Technology into Minority Language Preservation and Teaching Efforts: An Inside Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights a pilot study that attempts to implement technology in an appropriate manner and to surmount problems faced by out-group language researchers by training an in-group member, in this case a speaker of Navajo, in the methodology and technology necessary for recording and preserving her heritage language. Discusses the role of computer and…

  12. Triaging jobs in a community-based case-control study to increase efficiency of the expert occupational assessment method.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Benke, Geza P; Thomson, Allyson; Glass, Deborah C

    2012-05-01

    Expert assessment is useful to assess occupational exposures in cases where measured exposure data are not available. However, the process may be inefficient in a community-based study with low prevalence of exposure. This study aimed to determine if formally triaging the jobs as to likelihood of exposure before the experts review those jobs could improve study efficiency. One thousand nine hundred and sixty-one jobs from a case-control study were triaged by study staff (non-occupational health professionals) into four groups depending on the likelihood of exposure to solvents. For jobs in one group, we had additional information available in the form of job-specific modules and automatic exposure assignments for solvents based on rules pre-programmed into the job-specific module. After the automatic assignment, two experts reviewed the jobs to assign exposure to solvents in order to evaluate the process. The prevalence of exposure and the agreement between the two raters and between the raters' and the automatic assignments were compared for the four triage groups. The majority of jobs (76%) were triaged as unexposed by study staff and very few of these jobs were assigned as exposed by the raters (1%). For jobs with automatic assignment (18% of total), the raters tended to agree with the automatic assignment if that assignment was unexposed or probably exposed. There was less agreement for jobs in which the automatic assignment was possible exposure. For jobs triaged as ones with potential exposure based only on job title but with no further information available, the level of disagreement between the raters tended to be higher. Formal triaging of jobs can improve the efficiency of the expert assessment process. Of the 75% of jobs initially triaged as unexposed, virtually no exposures were found, and omitting manual review of this group would save considerable time.

  13. Effect of job maintenance training program for employees with chronic disease - a randomized controlled trial on self-efficacy, job satisfaction, and fatigue.

    PubMed

    Varekamp, Inge; Verbeek, Jos H; de Boer, Angela; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-07-01

    Employees with a chronic physical condition may be hampered in job performance due to physical or cognitive limitations, pain, fatigue, psychosocial barriers, or because medical treatment interferes with work. This study investigates the effect of a group-training program aimed at job maintenance. Essential elements of the program are exploration of work-related problems, communication at the workplace, and the development and implementation of solutions. Participants with chronic physical diseases were randomly assigned to the intervention (N=64) or the control group (N=58). Participants were eligible for the study if they had a chronic physical disease, paid employment, experienced work-related problems, and were not on long-term 100% sick leave. Primary outcome measures were self-efficacy in solving work- and disease-related problems (14-70), job dissatisfaction (0-100), fatigue (20-140) and job maintenance measured at 4-, 8-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. We used GLM repeated measures for the analysis. After 24 months, loss to follow-up was 5.7% (7/122). Self-efficacy increased and fatigue decreased significantly more in the experimental than the control group [10 versus 4 points (P=0.000) and 19 versus 8 points (P=0.032), respectively]. Job satisfaction increased more in the experimental group but not significantly [6 versus 0 points (P=0.698)]. Job maintenance was 87% in the experimental and 91% in the control group, which was not a significant difference. Many participants in the control group also undertook actions to solve work-related problems. Empowerment training increases self-efficacy and helps to reduce fatigue complaints, which in the long term could lead to more job maintenance. Better understanding of ways to deal with work-related problems is needed to develop more efficient support for employees with a chronic disease.

  14. Modulation of Language Switching by Cue Timing: Implications for Models of Bilingual Language Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khateb, Asaid; Shamshoum, Rana; Prior, Anat

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the interplay between global and local processes in bilingual language control. We investigated language-switching performance of unbalanced Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals in cued picture naming, using 5 different cuing parameters. The language cue could precede the picture, follow it, or appear simultaneously with it. Naming…

  15. Maternal control strategies, maternal language usage and children's language usage at two years.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-03-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n=60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were categorized into continuum-of-control groups (i.e., high guidance (HG), high control (HC) or high negative control (HNC)). Mothers in the high negative control group, who characteristically used high levels of prohibitions and commands, had children who performed relatively poorly overall on the language measures (i.e., MLU, number of bound morphemes, number of different words and use of language functions). In contrast, children of mothers in the HG and HC groups exhibited more advanced language usage overall. The relation between maternal and child language usage was mediated by parenting style for child pragmatics and partially for child grammar.

  16. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  17. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  18. 78 FR 42803 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No. 1205-0033, Extension With Minor Revisions) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor, as part of its continuing...

  19. The Collective Good: Unionization, Perceived Control, and Overall Job Satisfaction among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Joann E.; Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper follow up a recent study by the authors on perceived control by examining what role working in a union or nonunion college has in influencing faculty job satisfaction. Using data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this study explored the relative importance of variables,…

  20. Actual and Preferred Work Schedules and Scheduling Control as Determinants of Job-Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krausz, Moshe; Sagie, Abraham; Bidermann, Yehuda

    2000-01-01

    A study of 153 Israeli nurses (84 full time) tested the part-time/full-time dichotomy and a continuous scale of actual work schedules, finding neither significantly related to job satisfaction and commitment. Preferred work schedule and scheduling control were significant determinants of work attitudes. (SK)

  1. Comprehensive Erosion and Sediment Control Training Program for Job Superintendents and Inspectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Harry L., Jr.

    One of two training program texts built around the Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Law and Program, this guide presents a program designed to meet the needs of job superintendents and inspectors. (The other guide, containing a program for engineers, architects, and planners, was designed to train professional people who need engineering and…

  2. The Collective Good: Unionization, Perceived Control, and Overall Job Satisfaction among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Joann E.; Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper follow up a recent study by the authors on perceived control by examining what role working in a union or nonunion college has in influencing faculty job satisfaction. Using data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this study explored the relative importance of variables,…

  3. Job Stress and Locus of Control in Teachers: Comparisons between Samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived…

  4. Job control, psychological demand, and farmworker health: evidence from the national agricultural workers survey.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Shen, Rui; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Improve understanding of the potential occupational health impact of how agricultural jobs are organized. Exposure to low job control, high psychological demands, and high job strain were hypothesized to have greater risk for poor self-rated physical health and elevated depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional data (N = 3691) obtained using the Work Organization and Psychosocial Factors module of the US National Agricultural Workers Survey fielded in 2009-2010. More than one fifth (22.4%) of farmworkers reported fair/poor health, and 8.7% reported elevated depressive symptoms. High psychological demand was associated with increased risk of fair/poor health (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 2.2) and elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.8). The organization of work in field agriculture may pose risks for poor occupational health outcomes among a vulnerable worker population.

  5. Multiple Levels of Bilingual Language Control: Evidence from Language Intrusions in Reading Aloud

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Gomez, Joanne; Murillo, Mayra; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals rarely produce words in an unintended language. However, we induced such intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of he) in 32 Spanish-English bilinguals who read aloud language-selective and language-mixed paragraphs with English or Spanish word order. Bilinguals produced language intrusions almost exclusively in language-mixed paragraphs, and most often when attempting to produce dominant-language targets (accent-only errors also exhibited reversed language dominance effects). Most intrusion errors occurred for function word targets, especially when they did not match paragraph language word order. Eye movements showed that fixating a word in the non-target language increased intrusion errors only for function word targets. Together, these results imply multiple mechanisms of language control, including (a) inhibition of the dominant language at both lexical (Green, 1998) and sublexical processing levels, (b) special retrieval mechanisms for function words in mixed-language utterances (Myers-Scotton, 1993), and (c) attention’s role in monitoring target language for match with intended language. PMID:24367061

  6. Differential associations of job control components with both waist circumference and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Bean, Christopher G; Winefield, Helen R; Sargent, Charli; Hutchinson, Amanda D

    2015-10-01

    The Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model is commonly used to investigate associations between psychosocial work factors and employee health, yet research considering obesity using the JDCS model remains inconclusive. This study investigates which parts of the JDCS model are associated with measures of obesity and provides a comparison between waist circumference (higher values imply central obesity) and body mass index (BMI, higher values imply overall obesity). Contrary to common practice, in this study the JDCS components are not reduced into composite or global scores. In light of emerging evidence that the two components of job control (skill discretion and decision authority) could have differential associations with related health outcomes, components of the JDCS model were analysed at the subscale level. A cross-sectional design with a South Australian cohort (N = 450) combined computer-assisted telephone interview data and clinic-measured height, weight and waist circumference. After controlling for sex, age, household income, work hours and job nature (blue vs. white-collar), the two components of job control were the only parts of the JDCS model to hold significant associations with measures of obesity. Notably, the associations between skill discretion and waist circumference (b = -.502, p = .001), and skill discretion and BMI (b = -.163, p = .005) were negative. Conversely, the association between decision authority and waist circumference (b = .282, p = .022) was positive. These findings are significant since skill discretion and decision authority are typically combined into a composite measure of job control or decision latitude. Our findings suggest skill discretion and decision authority should be treated separately since combining these theoretically distinct components may conceal their differential associations with measures of obesity, masking their individual importance. Psychosocial work factors displayed stronger associations and

  7. Examining the relationships between span of control and manager job and unit performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carol A; Elliott-Miller, Pat; Laschinger, Heather; Cuddihy, Michael; Meyer, Raquel M; Keatings, Margaret; Burnett, Camille; Szudy, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the combination of frontline manager (FLM) personal characteristics and span of control (SOC) on their job and unit performance outcomes. Healthcare downsizing and reform have contributed to larger spans for FLMs in Canadian hospitals and increased concerns about manager workload. Despite a heightened awareness of SOC issues among decision makers, there is limited empirical evidence related to the effects of SOC on outcomes. A non-experimental predictive survey design was used to examine FLM SOC in 14 Canadian academic hospitals. Managers (n = 121) completed an online survey of work characteristics and The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) SOC tool. Unit turnover data were collected from organisational databases. The combination of SOC and core self-evaluation significantly predicted role overload, work control and job satisfaction, but only SOC predicted unit adverse outcomes and neither significantly predicted unit turnover. The findings contribute to an understanding of connections between the combination of SOC and core self-evaluation and manager job and unit performance outcomes. Organisational strategies to create manageable FLM SOC are essential to ensure exemplary job and unit outcomes. Core self-evaluation is a personality characteristic that may enhance manager performance in the face of high spans of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of the job stress education for supervisors on psychological distress and job performance among their immediate subordinates: a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Takao, Soshi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Mineyama, Sachiko; Kawakami, Norito

    2006-11-01

    As job stress is now one of the biggest health-related problems in the workplace, several education programs for supervisors have been conducted to reduce job stress. We conducted a supervisor-based randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of an education program on their subordinates' psychological distress and job performance. The subjects were 301 employees (46 supervisors and 255 subordinates) in a Japanese sake brewery. First, we randomly allocated supervisors to the education group (24 supervisors) and the waiting-list group (22 supervisors). Then, for the allocated supervisors we introduced a single-session, 60-min education program according to the guidelines for employee mental health promotion along with training that provided consulting skills combined with role-playing exercises. We conducted pre- and post-intervention (after 3 months) surveys for all subordinates to examine psychological distress and job performance. We defined the intervention group as those subordinates whose immediate supervisors received the education, and the control group was defined as those subordinates whose supervisors did not. To evaluate the effects, we employed a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall, the intervention effects (time x group) were not significant for psychological distress or job performance among both male (p=0.456 and 0.252) and female (p=0.714 and 0.106) subordinates. However, young male subordinates engaged in white-collar occupations showed significant intervention effects for psychological distress (p=0.012) and job performance (p=0.029). In conclusion, our study indicated a possible beneficial effect of supervisor education on the psychological distress and job performance of subordinates. This effect may vary according to specific groups.

  9. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  10. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 63G, Fuel and Electrical System Repairman, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 July 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-30

    CM eri4 of~a ss. C. sCe de bars𔃼 for development of any N8-orieuted English language materials . Sec:..’oa V contains the JiLP by cluster/topic, while...extracted from the Soldier’s Manual with a struc- tural inventory list extracted from ALC (American Language Center) materials through Volume 2400, at...MAINTENANCE ON AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 15. PERFORM MAINTENANCE ON AJTOOTIVE FUEL SYSTEMS C *1*v Irma" JOB LANGUAG9 INTRODUCTION This section

  11. Multifamily Quality Control Inspector Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Quality Control Inspector JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily quality control inspectors, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  12. Controls upgrade means new job for old units

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.; Lueckenotte, D.; Alexander, A.

    1995-05-01

    Some 1950s-vintage controls stood in the way of a switchover from base-load to peaking service. Modernization embraced combustion and motor controls, burner management, and a new distributed control system. With ever-increasing competition in the electric business, plant owners are looking for ways to extend the value of their aging generating units rather than investing heavily in new plants. One approach: turn units designed for base-load operation into ones that can reliably handle all required loads. Union Electric Co. opted to go this route. The utility switched two of the four units at its Meramec station, St. Louis, MO, from base-load to peaking-power production. The units each have four coal feeders and pulverizers to fuel the tangentially-fired reheat boilers, which also can burn natural gas. The turbine is a 3,600-rpm, three-cylinder, tandem-compound, triple-exhaust unit. Heart of the upgrade focused on a 1950s controls system. The original, mostly pneumatic, system was satisfactory for base-load operation of the 142-MW units, but operating them as peaking units called for a more efficient, automated system. Moreover, spare parts were no longer available for some the circa-1950s equipment, and plant stocks of renewable spare parts were rapidly diminishing for nearly all of the original equipment.

  13. Effectiveness of job rotation for preventing work-related musculoskeletal diseases: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Evangelista, Gabriela Dos Santos; Rodrigues da Silva, Patricia; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2017-08-01

    Job rotation is an organisational strategy widely used on assembly lines in manufacturing industries to mitigate workers' exposure so as to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of job rotation for reducing working hours lost due to sick leave resulting from musculoskeletal diseases. The design consisted of a 1-year cluster randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Production sectors of the textile industry were randomised to intervention and control groups. Both groups received ergonomic training. The intervention group performed a job rotation programme. The primary outcome measure was number of working hours lost due to sick leave as a result of musculoskeletal disease (ICD-10). The secondary outcome measures were musculoskeletal symptoms (Yes/No), risk factors for musculoskeletal diseases (0-10), psychosocial factors and fatigue (0-100), general health (0-100), and productivity (0-10). All secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and 12-month follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, both groups showed an increase in the number of working hours lost due to sick leave for musculoskeletal disease. There was no significant difference between the job rotation intervention group (mean deviation -5.6 hours, 95% CI -25.0 to 13.8) at the 12-month follow-up and the control group. There were no significant differences between groups for the secondary outcomes (p>0.05). The job rotation programme was not effective in reducing the number of working hours lost due to sick leave, decreasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms, or improving perception of musculoskeletal pain and workplace risk factors, psychosocial risk factors and productivity. NCT01979731. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Training Requirements and Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 11B, Infantryman.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Requirements (JLPR) Task Inventory Lexical Analysis Colmmon Tasks Structural Analysis Listening English Language Skills Speaking data thaotineatedn...str1tures and general English voaabulaxy neceE~sax-i fc . attainrznt of 60 ECL will be developed in the materials designied -or u~e ixr n the Basic Training...iL:T5 SECTIO, I Reduction 1 - t’Lorit.zation of Tas.s Acc,,rding to Criticality 1-1 Reduction 2 - Prioritization of English Language Skills

  15. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  16. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  17. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 72E, Telecommunications Center Operator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Process Outgoing *"asp to be raaomitt4d in Finished card Format 113-572-MW0 Process Outgoing NMessa to be Iranmi ttad to %"ptic Tap& Format 113-5724006...LANGUAGE naOvAiW (Satire Oe) The product of the entire data gathering and organization is the ILVR 0. These are relevant to all ,- coton and duty tasks

  18. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  19. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  20. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  1. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  2. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  3. Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Linck, Jared A.; Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed. PMID:19907674

  4. Cross-language lexical processes and inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Linck, Jared A; Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F

    2008-01-01

    Many recent studies demonstrate that both languages are active when bilinguals and second language (L2) learners are reading, listening, or speaking one language only. The parallel activity of the two languages has been hypothesized to create competition that must be resolved. Models of bilingual lexical access have proposed an inhibitory control mechanism to effectively limit attention to the intended language (e.g., Green, 1998). Critically, other recent research suggests that a lifetime of experience as a bilingual negotiating the competition across the two languages confers a set of benefits to cognitive control processes more generally (e.g., Bialystok, Craik, Klein, & Viswanathan, 2004). However, few studies have examined the consequences of individual differences in inhibitory control for performance on language processing tasks. The goal of the present work was to determine whether there is a relation between enhanced executive function and performance for L2 learners and bilinguals on lexical comprehension and production tasks. Data were analyzed from two studies involving a range of language processing tasks, a working memory measure, and also the Simon task, a nonlinguistic measure of inhibitory control. The results demonstrate that greater working memory resources and enhanced inhibitory control are related to a reduction in cross-language activation in a sentence context word naming task and a picture naming task, respectively. Other factors that may be related to inhibitory control are identified. The implications of these results for models of bilingual lexical comprehension and production are discussed.

  5. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection.

    PubMed

    Branzi, Francesca M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Canini, Matteo; Costa, Albert; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2016-06-01

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control.

  6. Losing control of your languages: a case study.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Marco; Marne, Paula; Romero-Pinel, Lucía; Juncadella, Montserrat; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are usually quite good at restricting their lexicalization output to the desired language while preventing all sorts of language intrusions from the language not in use. However, brain damage can affect these abilities of language control, leading to striking and flagrant linguistic behaviours, such as pathological language mixing (pLM) and pathological switching (pLS). In this paper we report the performance of a Catalan-Spanish bilingual individual (R.R.T.) who, due to a neuroinflammatory disease and subcortical lesions, shows pLS. We tested R.R.T. in several tasks of language production and control, such as picture naming (objects and actions), word translation, blocked naming, and language switching task. R.R.T. was also tested in executive control (EC) tasks, such as task switching and a flanker task. We found several interesting results. First, cross-language intrusions were present much more frequently when R.R.T. was asked to speak in her first (and dominant) language (Catalan) than when she was asked to do so in the nondominant language (Spanish). Second, the results provide evidence suggesting that damage to certain subcortical structures may lead to problems in controlling the language output during verbalization in bilingual speakers. Third, we observed that R.R.T. seemed to show more difficulties in language control with verbs. Fourth, R.R.T. showed impaired performance compared to controls in both task switching and a flanker task. The results are discussed in relation to other findings of pLM and pLS in published single-case reports and in relation to EC deficits.

  7. Job submission and control on a generic batch system: the BLAH experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzadri, Massimo; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David

    2011-12-01

    The status, functionality and design rationale of the 'Batch Local Ascii Helper' (BLAH) service for submitting and controlling jobs on a batch system are presented. BLAH is part of both the Condor and CREAM systems. At the end of the major cycle represented by the EU EGEE projects, reflexion on its evolution provides some insight on technological choices that can stand the proof of time.

  8. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  9. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  10. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  11. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  12. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  13. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea. PMID:27366000

  14. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea.

  15. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals’ mouse-movements were attracted to native-language competitors, while bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly-learned language. PMID:22462514

  17. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  18. A Comparison between Free Language and Controlled Language Indexing and Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes study conducted with British undergraduate library science students that compared natural language indexing and searching with controlled language searching on a computerized database. The use of the ERIC Thesaurus and Sears List of Subject Headings is explained, recall and precision measures are reported, and further research is…

  19. Functional Connectivity Reveals Which Language the “Control Regions” Control during Bilingual Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Emmorey, Karen; Feng, Xiaoxia; Lu, Chunming; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual studies have revealed critical roles for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (Lcaudate) in controlling language processing, but how these regions manage activation of a bilingual’s two languages remains an open question. We addressed this question by identifying the functional connectivity (FC) of these control regions during a picture-naming task by bimodal bilinguals who were fluent in both a spoken and a signed language. To quantify language control processes, we measured the FC of the dACC and Lcaudate with a region specific to each language modality: left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG) for speech and left pre/postcentral gyrus (LPCG) for sign. Picture-naming occurred in either a single- or dual-language context. The results showed that in a single-language context, the dACC exhibited increased FC with the target language region, but not with the non-target language region. During the dual-language context when both languages were alternately the target language, the dACC showed strong FC to the LPCG, the region specific to the less proficient (signed) language. By contrast, the Lcaudate revealed a strong connectivity to the LPCG in the single-language context and to the LSTG (the region specific to spoken language) in the dual-language context. Our findings suggest that the dACC monitors and supports the processing of the target language, and that the Lcaudate controls the selection of the less accessible language. The results support the hypothesis that language control processes adapt to task demands that vary due to different interactional contexts. PMID:27965563

  20. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  1. The EFL/ESL Job Search Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Adelaide, Ed.

    This handbook offers step-by-step advice to teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) for job searchers entering the job market and finding and accepting a job in the field. The goal is to find a job that matches the searcher's interests, skills, goals, and preparation with those of the employer. Topics…

  2. Tapir: the Evolution of an Agent Control Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Tapir : the Evolution of an Agent Control Language Gary W. King University of Massachusetts 140 Governor’s Lane Amherst, MA 01003 gwking@cs.umass.edu...Governor’s Lane Amherst, MA 01003 westy@cs.umass.edu ABSTRACT Tapir is a general purpose, semi-declarative agent control language that extends and...enhances the Hierarchical Agent Control (HAC) architecture [1]. Tapir incorporates the lessons learned from de- veloping HAC and makes it easier and

  3. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  4. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  5. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  6. The interaction of culture with general job stressors in air traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Shouksmith, G; Taylor, J E

    1997-01-01

    Elements of the job of Air Traffic Controllers perceived as being stressful were rated for degree of stressfulness by a group of Singaporean controllers. The results were compared with those from earlier studies in Canada and New Zealand. It was hypothesized that the international nature of the job would be reflected in findings from all three groups of controllers. It was further hypothesized, however, that environmental and cultural factors would produce differences among the groups and that these would be greater between the Asian and the two "Western" cultures than between the two earlier samples studied. Results showed that the two Western cultures share 56% common variance in their perceptions of stressfulness, but this changes to 35% between the New Zealand and Singapore groups and only 21% between Canada and Singapore. Although comparison of the factor structure of the stress ratings of the Singapore and New Zealand samples again confirmed a general pattern of underlying stressors related to air traffic control (which fits general occupational models of stress), it also revealed culturally specific components. The nature of these suggests that they are emhedded in the context of Asian environments and cultures. The conclusion is that stress in Air Traffic Controllers is related both to generic occupation stressors and to others that are both organizationally and culturally specific.

  7. Does Bilingual Language Control Decline in Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Iva; Murillo, Mayra; Montoya, Rosa I.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated age-related decline of bilingual language control. Thirteen older and 13 younger bilinguals performed a verbal fluency task (completing the same letter and semantic categories in each language and switching languages after every category), and a non-linguistic flanker task. In letter fluency, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses after switching languages, suggesting inhibition of the previously-used language. However, this testing-order effect did not differ between groups and older bilinguals produced few wrong-language intrusions, implying intact ability to apply inhibition in older age. In contrast, age-related deficits in the flanker task were robust, implying dissociations between language control and domain-general executive control. In semantic fluency, there were no testing-order effects but older bilinguals produced more intrusions than younger bilinguals, and more intrusions than in letter fluency. Thus, bilinguals may flexibly modulate the degree of inhibition when they can benefit from semantic priming between languages, but less efficiently so in older age. PMID:28090222

  8. Effects of externally rated job demand and control on depression diagnosis claims in an industrial cohort.

    PubMed

    DeSanto Iennaco, Joanne; Cullen, Mark R; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D; Fiellin, Martha; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2010-02-01

    This study examined whether externally rated job demand and control were associated with depression diagnosis claims in a heavy industrial cohort. The retrospective cohort sample consisted of 7,566 hourly workers aged 18-64 years who were actively employed at 11 US plants between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2003, and free of depression diagnosis claims during an initial 2-year run-in period. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of tertiles of demand and control exposure on depression diagnosis claims. Demand had a significant positive association with depression diagnosis claims in bivariate models and models adjusted for demographic (age, gender, race, education, job grade, tenure) and lifestyle (smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol level) variables (high demand odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.86). Control was associated with greater risk of depression diagnosis at moderate levels in unadjusted models only (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.93), while low control, contrary to expectation, was not associated with depression. The effects of the externally rated demand exposure were lost with adjustment for location. This may reflect differences in measurement or classification of exposure, differences in depression diagnosis by location, or other location-specific factors.

  9. Effects of Externally Rated Job Demand and Control on Depression Diagnosis Claims in an Industrial Cohort

    PubMed Central

    DeSanto Iennaco, Joanne; Cullen, Mark R.; Cantley, Linda; Slade, Martin D.; Fiellin, Martha; Kasl, Stanislav V.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether externally rated job demand and control were associated with depression diagnosis claims in a heavy industrial cohort. The retrospective cohort sample consisted of 7,566 hourly workers aged 18–64 years who were actively employed at 11 US plants between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2003, and free of depression diagnosis claims during an initial 2-year run-in period. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of tertiles of demand and control exposure on depression diagnosis claims. Demand had a significant positive association with depression diagnosis claims in bivariate models and models adjusted for demographic (age, gender, race, education, job grade, tenure) and lifestyle (smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol level) variables (high demand odds ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.86). Control was associated with greater risk of depression diagnosis at moderate levels in unadjusted models only (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.93), while low control, contrary to expectation, was not associated with depression. The effects of the externally rated demand exposure were lost with adjustment for location. This may reflect differences in measurement or classification of exposure, differences in depression diagnosis by location, or other location-specific factors. PMID:20035011

  10. The relationship of the job demands-control-support model with vigor across time: testing for reciprocality.

    PubMed

    Armon, Galit; Shmuel, Samuel; Shirom, Arie

    2012-11-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the hypotheses that the components of the Job Demands-Control-Support model and changes in their levels over time predict subsequent changes in levels of positive affect of vigor over time, and vice versa. Our study was conducted on a sample of adults working in a variety of occupations (N = 909, 68% men) at three points in time (T1, T2, and T3), over a period of about four years, controlling for neuroticism and other potential confounding variables. Job control at T1 and increase in its levels from T1 to T2 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in the levels of vigor, whereas for social support, only its level at T1 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of vigor. An increase from T1 to T2 in levels of job demands predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of vigor only for those rated low on neuroticism. Vigor at T1 predicted an increase from T2 to T3 in levels of job control and social support, but not changes from T2 to T3 in levels of job demands. The reciprocal causal relationship between job resources and vigor exists regardless of the demands of the work environment.

  11. Controlling healthcare professionals: how human resource management influences job attitudes and operational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cogin, Julie Ann; Ng, Ju Li; Lee, Ilro

    2016-09-20

    We assess how human resource management (HRM) is implemented in Australian hospitals. Drawing on role theory, we consider the influence HRM has on job attitudes of healthcare staff and hospital operational efficiency. We adopt a qualitative research design across professional groups (physicians, nurses, and allied health staff) at multiple levels (executive, healthcare managers, and employee). A total of 34 interviews were carried out and analyzed using NVivo. Findings revealed a predominance of a control-based approach to people management. Using Snell's control framework (AMJ 35:292-327, 1992), we found that behavioral control was the principal form of control used to manage nurses, allied health workers, and junior doctors. We found a mix between behavior, output, and input controls as well as elements of commitment-based HRM to manage senior physicians. We observed low levels of investment in people and a concentration on transactional human resource (HR) activities which led to negative job attitudes such as low morale and frustration among healthcare professionals. While hospitals used rules to promote conformity with established procedures, the overuse and at times inappropriate use of behavior controls restricted healthcare managers' ability to motivate and engage their staff. Excessive use of behavior control helped to realize short-term cost-cutting goals; however, this often led to operational inefficiencies. We suggest that hospitals reduce the profusion of behavior control and increase levels of input and output controls in the management of people. Poor perceptions of HR specialists and HR activities have resulted in HR being overlooked as a vehicle to address the strategic challenges required of health reform and to build an engaged workforce.

  12. Programs and resources for control of job stress in the Federal workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joice, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago, the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health held a conference in Washingtion, D.C. entitled 'Stress in the 90's'. At this conference the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) conducted a session on 'Programs and Resources for the Control of Job Stress in the Federal Workplace'. I am going to present an overview of that three-hour session and some related information from the conference. My discussion covers stress terminology and models, selected programs and resources, evaluation research, some concerns about our progress, and plans to expand our efforts at OPM.

  13. Functional description of a command and control language tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.

  14. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings.

  15. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  16. Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Giezen, Marcel R.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica; Emmorey, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Findings from recent studies suggest that spoken-language bilinguals engage nonlinguistic inhibitory control mechanisms to resolve cross-linguistic competition during auditory word recognition. Bilingual advantages in inhibitory control might stem from the need to resolve perceptual competition between similar-sounding words both within and between their two languages. If so, these advantages should be lessened or eliminated when there is no perceptual competition between two languages. The present study investigated the extent of inhibitory control recruitment during bilingual language comprehension by examining associations between language co-activation and nonlinguistic inhibitory control abilities in bimodal bilinguals, whose two languages do not perceptually compete. Cross-linguistic distractor activation was identified in the visual world paradigm, and correlated significantly with performance on a nonlinguistic spatial Stroop task within a group of 27 hearing ASL-English bilinguals. Smaller Stroop effects (indexing more efficient inhibition) were associated with reduced co-activation of ASL signs during the early stages of auditory word recognition. These results suggest that the role of inhibitory control in auditory word recognition is not limited to resolving perceptual linguistic competition in phonological input, but is also used to moderate competition that originates at the lexico-semantic level. PMID:25912892

  17. The right posterior paravermis and the control of language interference

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Roberto; Richardson, Fiona M.; Dick, Frederic; Leech, Robert; Green, David W.; Thomas, Michael S.C.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Auditory and written language in humans' comprehension necessitates attention to the message of interest and suppression of interference from distracting sources. Investigating the brain areas associated with the control of interference is challenging because it is inevitable that activation of the brain regions that control interference co-occurs with activation related to interference per se. To isolate the mechanisms that control verbal interference, we used a combination of structural and functional imaging techniques in Italian and German participants who spoke English as a second language. First, we searched structural MRI images of Italian participants for brain regions where brain structure correlated with the ability to suppress interference from the unattended dominant language (Italian) while processing heard sentences in their weaker language (English). This revealed an area in the posterior paravermis of the right cerebellum where grey matter density was higher in individuals who were better at controlling verbal interference. Second, we found functional activation in the same region when our German participants made semantic decisions on written English words in the presence of interference from unrelated words in their dominant language (German). This combination of structural and functional imaging therefore highlights the contribution of the right posterior paravermis to the control of verbal interference. We suggest that the importance of this region for language processing has previously been missed because most fMRI studies limit the field of view to increase sensitivity; with the lower part of the cerebellum being the most likely region to be excluded. PMID:21775616

  18. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  19. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  20. A Daily Diary Study of Coping in the Context of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kevin; Harris, Claire

    2005-01-01

    We examined one of the processes thought to underpin Karasek and Theorell's job demands-control-support model (1990). This is that control and support accentuate better well-being by fostering problem-focused coping with work demands. We also examined whether other forms of coping implemented through control and support are related to indicators…

  1. Real-time job monitoring and performance control of primary cementing operations as a way to total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerker, H.F.

    1995-12-01

    A high-accuracy wellsite mud-logging system was developed and implemented to compare standpipe pressures and annular flow rates during primary cementing operations with real-time predictions from a hydraulic simulation model. This paper investigates the development of possible cementing job execution problems, such as low (laminar) flow rates in the annulus at critical job stages, resulting in unsatisfactory mud displacement and ultimately inadequate zonal isolation. Ways to eliminate or at least control free-fall-induced problems through hydraulic simulation at the rigsite and comparison with real-time job parameters, such as pump rates, standpipe pressures, and annular return rates, are presented with detailed descriptions of tested flowmeter equipment and logging experience gained during field testing. Several case studies are presented that compare predictions from job simulation with recorded data (flow-in/-out and standpipe pressure) highlighting special trends, such as fracturing formations, caused by excessive equivalent circulating densities (ECD`s) during free-fall conditions.

  2. Mitigating on-call symptoms through organizational justice and job control: a cross-sectional study among Finnish anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, P M; Heponiemi, T; Meretoja, O A; Leino, T J; Elovainio, M J

    2009-10-01

    On-call duty has been shown to be associated with health problems among physicians. However, it cannot be abolished, as patient safety has to be assured. Thus, we need to find factors that could mitigate the negative health effects of on-call duty. The cross-sectional questionnaire of the buffering effects of organizational justice, job control, and social support on on-call stress symptoms was sent to all working Finnish anesthesiologists (n=550). The response rate was 60% (n=328, 53% men). High organizational justice, job control, and social support were associated with a low number of symptoms while on call or the day after in crude analysis and when adjusted for age, gender, and place of work. Only the association between justice and symptoms was robust to additional adjustments for on-call burden and self-rated health. In the interaction analysis among those being on call at the hospital, we found that the higher the levels of job control or organizational justice, the lower the number of symptoms. Job control and organizational justice successfully mitigated stress symptoms among those who had on-call hospital duties. It would be worth enhancing decision-making procedures, interpersonal treatment, and job control routines when aiming to prevent on-call stress and related symptoms.

  3. Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina: Examination of the Job Control-Demand-Support Model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Nguyen, Ha T; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Summers, Phillip; Walker, Francis O; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Sleep problems are associated with physical and mental health disorders and place individuals at an increased risk of workplace injuries. The demand-control-support model posits that job demands and the capacity to control work processes influence workers' level of distress, thereby affecting their physical and mental health; supervisor support can buffer the negative effect of high demands and low control. Data on the sleep quality and the organization of work of Latino men were collected in agricultural areas in North Carolina in 2012. 147 Mexican-born farmworkers ages 30 and older, most of whom had H-2A visas, provided information about sleep quality and organization of work. Most (83 %) farmworkers reported good sleep quality. The association between working more than 40 h per week and reporting poor sleep quality approached statistical significance. Additional research is needed to understand whether job demands, job control, and social support affect farmworkers' sleep quality.

  4. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  5. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  6. Pros and cons of a job buffer in a token-bank rate-control throttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Arthur W.; Whitt, Ward

    1994-02-01

    Rate-control throttles with token banks or leaky buckets have been used for overload control in telecommunication systems and have been recommended for traffic policing in Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks (B-ISDN's). Enhancing the token-bank throttle with a buffer to shape the admitted traffic has been suggested. Researchers have shown that the presence of the buffer can dramatically reduce the squared coefficient of variation of the interadmission time. However, we show that the impact of the buffer on longer-time-scale characteristics of the admitted traffic is much less dramatic. In particular, we show (primarily through simulations) that the job buffer has much less impact on higher values of the index of dispersion for intervals and on small tail probabilities for the steady-state number in system at a downstream queue (with only this one arrival stream).

  7. Coming to grips with challenging behaviour: a cluster randomised controlled trial on the effects of a new care programme for challenging behaviour on burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff on dementia special care units.

    PubMed

    Zwijsen, S A; Gerritsen, D L; Eefsting, J A; Smalbrugge, M; Hertogh, C M P M; Pot, A M

    2015-01-01

    Caring for people with dementia in dementia special care units is a demanding job. Challenging behaviour is one of the factors influencing the job satisfaction and burnout of care staff. A care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia might, next to diminishing the challenging behaviour of residents, improve job satisfaction and reduce the care staff's feelings of burnout. To determine the effects of a care programme for the challenging behaviour of nursing home residents with dementia on the burnout, job satisfaction and job demands of care staff. The care programme was implemented according to a stepped wedge design in which care units were randomly divided over five groups with different time points of starting with implementation. 17 Dutch dementia special care units. Care staff members of the 17 units. The care programme consists of an education package and of various structured assessment tools that guide professionals through the multidisciplinary detection, analysis, treatment and evaluation of treatment of challenging behaviour. Burnout, job satisfaction and job demands were measured before implementation, halfway through the implementation process and after all the care units had implemented the care programme. Burnout was measured with the Dutch version of the Maslach burnout inventory (UBOS-C, three subscales); job satisfaction and job demands were measured with subscales of the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire. Mixed model analyses were used to determine effects. Care staff could not be blinded for the intervention. Of the 1441 questionnaires, 645 were returned (response 45%, 318 control measurements, 327 intervention measurements) by 380 unique care staff members. Significant effects were found on job satisfaction (0.93, 95% CI 0.48-1.38). On the other outcomes, no significant changes in the scores were found. Positive effects of using the Grip on Challenging behaviour care programme were found on job

  8. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  9. Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English (L1)…

  10. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  11. Enhancing Subject Access to OPACs: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Natural Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Shirley Anne

    1992-01-01

    Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…

  12. Memory and Language Improvements Following Cognitive Control Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Erika K.; Harbison, J. Isaiah; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Mishler, Alan; Velnoskey, Kayla; Novick, Jared M.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to adjusting thoughts and actions when confronted with conflict during information processing. We tested whether this ability is causally linked to performance on certain language and memory tasks by using cognitive control training to systematically modulate people's ability to resolve information-conflict across domains.…

  13. Promoting work ability and well-being in hospital nursing: the interplay of age, job control, and successful ageing strategies.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias; Heiden, Barbara; Glaser, Jürgen; Angerer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that work ability of nurses decreases with age. In our study we therefore addressed the following questions: Do successful ageing strategies at work in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) support the work ability of nurses? Does SOC mediate the relationship between job control (i.e., decision opportunities at work) and work ability? Does the mediation differ between age-groups? 438 nurses (Age Range 21-63 years) completed a questionnaire in the course of an employee survey. Results show that SOC is positively related with work ability. The positive effect of job control on work ability is significantly mediated by SOC. There are stronger mediating effects for elder nurses than for younger nurses. Results indicate that the interplay of job control and SOC at work helps to maintain the work ability of nurses in nursing care.

  14. Write Me a Ream: A Course in Controlled Composition for Job Training and Adult Education (includes handbook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Linda Ann; Viscount, Robert R.

    This handbook for teachers and the accompanying student workbook are the basic materials in a course on controlled composition that can be used for on-the-job training, adult education, or as part of a writing course for students at various grade levels. Controlled composition is a program for improving expository writing skills; the program…

  15. Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, HeeJoo; Kim, Ji Hye; Jang, Yeon Jin; Bae, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    We used the job-demand-control model to answer our two research questions concerning the effects of working conditions on self-rated health and gender differences and the association between these working conditions and health among Korean manual workers. Since a disproportionate representation of women in nonstandard work positions is found in many countries, including Korea, it is important to examine how working conditions explain gender inequality in health. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and analyzed a total sample of 1,482 men and 1,350 women using logistic regression. We found that job control was positively related to self-rated health, while both physical and mental job demands were negatively related to self-rated health. We also found significant interaction effects of job demands, control, and gender on health. Particularly, female workers' health was more vulnerable to mentally demanding job conditions. We discussed theoretical and practice implications based on these findings.

  16. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  17. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  18. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 12B. Combat Engineer. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 29 November 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-29

    Language Performance Requirements (JLPR) Task Inventory * Lexical Analysis Common Tasks Structural Analysis Listening English Language Skills Speaking ... speaking written writing, reading Rating of English *a response of 2 or 3 on a scale Language Skills of 1 to 3 was tallied listening speaking a response of...STRUCTURAL PRIORITIZATION FORM I INVENTORY CHECKLIST DETERMINATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS COMPILED ENGLqISH STRUCTURAL DLIELC* DATALAGAEADI-OS FORM

  19. Language as a Means of Social Control: The United States Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arnold H.

    Language is defined here as a means of social control, a viewpoint by which language restrictions can be seen as a method of discriminating against speakers of minority languages. A government designates an official language to restrict access to economic and political power. This view of language is substantiated by an analysis of the United…

  20. Control Judgments by Deaf Adults and by Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.

    First language acquisition studies reveal that children overextend the minimal distance principle (MDP) during their acquisition of infinitive complement structures. The MDP dictates the interpretation of the logical subject of the infinitive in these structures and overrides marked lexical features such as subject control. Misinterpretations by…

  1. Control of Task Sequences: What Is the Role of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner-Canucci, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized,…

  2. Control of Task Sequences: What Is the Role of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner-Canucci, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized,…

  3. Job characteristics and safety climate: the role of effort-reward and demand-control-support models.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Denham L; Malley, Christine; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2012-07-01

    While safety climate is widely recognized as a key influence on organizational safety, there remain questions about the nature of its antecedents. One potential influence on safety climate is job characteristics (that is, psychosocial features of the work environment). This study investigated the relationship between two job characteristics models--demand-control-support (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) and effort-reward imbalance (Siegrist, 1996)--and safety climate. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 860 British retail pharmacists, using the job contents questionnaire (JCQ), effort-reward imbalance indicator (ERI) and a measure of safety climate in pharmacies. Multivariate data analyses found that: (a) both models contributed to the prediction of safety climate ratings, with the demand-control-support model making the largest contribution; (b) there were some interactions between demand, control and support from the JCQ in the prediction of safety climate scores. The latter finding suggests the presence of "active learning" with respect to safety improvement in high demand, high control settings. The findings provide further insight into the ways in which job characteristics relate to safety, both individually and at an aggregated level.

  4. Interactions between Superintendent Leader Behavior and Locus of Control on Job Satisfaction as Perceived by Vocational Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohan, Alan R.

    A study investigated the interactions between leadership style and the personality variable locus of control on vocational teacher job satisfaction. It used a 2x2x2 factorial design to explore three independent variables: (1) the consideration dimension of leader behavior; (2) the initiating structure dimension of leader behavior; and (3) locus of…

  5. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim

    2013-10-01

    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain.

  6. Control System Design Language Implementation of a Gas Turbine Starting Controller.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    THESIS _ CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN LANGUAGE IMPLEMENTATION OF A GAS TURBINE STARTING CONTROLLER by Richard Preston Riley June 1984 *1Thesis Advisor: A. A...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUM11101(s) Richard Preston Riley S. P01111SOMNM @R11ANS ATION NAME AND ADDRESS iG. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKAREA A WORKC UNIT...Design Language Implementation of a Gas Turbine Starting Controller by *J.4 Richard Preston Riley Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S

  7. Natural Language Control of Resources for Experimental Data Acquisition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.; Franklin, David; Spencer, James H.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation outlines the results of research into providing a “friendly interface” between a medical scientist and a medical data acquisition system for doing clinical research. The intended user of the system is presumed to have no knowledge of programming languages. The research has emphasized outlining the needs of such a user in terms of hardware configuration, developing specifications for meeting these needs dynamically, and creating a natural language control structure for setting up experiments without the help of a programmer or electronics technician.

  8. Modular fuzzy-neuro controller driven by spoken language commands.

    PubMed

    Pulasinghe, Koliya; Watanabe, Keigo; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    2004-02-01

    We present a methodology of controlling machines using spoken language commands. The two major problems relating to the speech interfaces for machines, namely, the interpretation of words with fuzzy implications and the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in natural conversation, are investigated. The system proposed in this paper is designed to overcome the above two problems in controlling machines using spoken language commands. The present system consists of a hidden Markov model (HMM) based automatic speech recognizer (ASR), with a keyword spotting system to capture the machine sensitive words from the running utterances and a fuzzy-neural network (FNN) based controller to represent the words with fuzzy implications in spoken language commands. Significance of the words, i.e., the contextual meaning of the words according to the machine's current state, is introduced to the system to obtain more realistic output equivalent to users' desire. Modularity of the system is also considered to provide a generalization of the methodology for systems having heterogeneous functions without diminishing the performance of the system. The proposed system is experimentally tested by navigating a mobile robot in real time using spoken language commands.

  9. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS-91S, Environmental Health Specialist, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 30 August 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    used to determine the language skills invoved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four...English language skills. From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Kethods of Teaching ...ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them to learn. Reading to learn involves reading names, attributes, information

  10. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 12C. Bridge Specialist. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 8 December 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-08

    the language skills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English language...skills. From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration...vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them to a learn. Reading to learn involves reading names

  11. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 64C, Motor Transport Operator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 11 July 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-11

    determine the language skills involved. They * were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English...language skills. From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching ...simple factual words or sentences to complex passages containing highly technical vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the

  12. CLOnE: Controlled Language for Ontology Editing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Adam; Tablan, Valentin; Bontcheva, Kalina; Cunningham, Hamish; Davis, Brian; Handschuh, Siegfried

    This paper presents a controlled language for ontology editing and a software implementation, based partly on standard NLP tools, for processing that language and manipulating an ontology. The input sentences are analysed deterministically and compositionally with respect to a given ontology, which the software consults in order to interpret the input's semantics; this allows the user to learn fewer syntactic structures since some of them can be used to refer to either classes or instances, for example. A repeated-measures, task-based evaluation has been carried out in comparison with a well-known ontology editor; our software received favourable results for basic tasks. The paper also discusses work in progress and future plans for developing this language and tool.

  13. A review of control processes and their locus in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-12-01

    Language switching has been one of the main tasks to investigate language control, a process that restricts bilingual language processing to the target language. In the current review, we discuss the How (i.e., mechanisms) and Where (i.e., locus of these mechanisms) of language control in language switching. As regards the mechanisms of language control, we describe several empirical markers of language switching and their relation to inhibition, as a potentially important mechanism of language control. From this overview it becomes apparent that some, but not all, markers indicate the occurrence of inhibition during language switching and, thus, language control. In a second part, we turn to the potential locus of language control and the role of different processing stages (concept level, lemma level, phonology, orthography, and outside language processing). Previous studies provide evidence for the employment of several of these processing stages during language control so that either a complex control mechanism involving different processing stages and/or multiple loci of language control have to be assumed. Based on the discussed results, several established and new theoretical avenues are considered.

  14. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2016-01-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, when thousands of studies have found that switching slows responses? Previous research has not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches – including those typically studied in laboratory experiments – might be costly. Using a repeated picture naming task, we show that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed. PMID:27016240

  15. Speaking Two Languages for the Price of One: Bypassing Language Control Mechanisms via Accessibility-Driven Switches.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Daniel; Gollan, Tamar H

    2016-05-01

    How do bilinguals switch easily between languages in everyday conversation, even though studies have consistently found that switching slows responses? In previous work, researchers have not considered that although switches may happen for different reasons, only some switches-including those typically studied in laboratory experiments-might be costly. Using a repeated picture-naming task, we found that bilinguals can maintain and use two languages as efficiently as a single language, switching between them frequently without any cost, if they switch only when a word is more accessible in the other language. These results suggest that language switch costs arise during lexical selection, that top-down language control mechanisms can be suspended, and that language-mixing efficiency can be strategically increased with instruction. Thus, bilinguals might switch languages spontaneously because doing so is not always costly, and there appears to be greater flexibility and efficiency in the cognitive mechanisms that enable switching than previously assumed.

  16. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  17. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs.

  18. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  19. The Minimum Requirements of Language Control: Evidence from Sequential Predictability Effects in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and…

  20. The Minimum Requirements of Language Control: Evidence from Sequential Predictability Effects in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and…

  1. Breath-taking jobs: a case-control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway.

    PubMed

    Fell, A K; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, P K; Svendsen, M V; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-09-01

    The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16-50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: 'Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?' Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The 'breath-taking jobs' were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Inhibitory control and the speech patterns of second language users.

    PubMed

    Korko, Malgorzata; Williams, Simon A

    2017-02-01

    Inhibitory control (IC), an ability to suppress irrelevant and/or conflicting information, has been found to underlie performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, including bilingual language processing. This study examines the relationship between IC and the speech patterns of second language (L2) users from the perspective of individual differences. While the majority of studies have supported the role of IC in bilingual language processing using single-word production paradigms, this work looks at inhibitory processes in the context of extended speech, with a particular emphasis on disfluencies. We hypothesized that the speech of individuals with poorer IC would be characterized by reduced fluency. A series of regression analyses, in which we controlled for age and L2 proficiency, revealed that IC (in terms of accuracy on the Stroop task) could reliably predict the occurrence of reformulations and the frequency and duration of silent pauses in L2 speech. No statistically significant relationship was found between IC and other L2 spoken output measures, such as repetitions, filled pauses, and performance errors. Conclusions focus on IC as one out of a number of cognitive functions in the service of spoken language production. A more qualitative approach towards the question of whether L2 speakers rely on IC is advocated.

  3. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a "Hub" of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the "control network" showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  4. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  5. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers. PMID:24868121

  6. Language learning without control: the role of the PFC.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Sehm, Bernhard; Ragert, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Learning takes place throughout lifetime but differs in infants and adults because of the development of the PFC, a brain region responsible for cognitive control. To test this hypothesis, adults were investigated in a language learning paradigm under inhibitory, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over PFC. The experiment included a learning session interspersed with test phases and a test-only session. The stimulus material required the learning of grammatical dependencies between two elements in a novel language. In a parallel design, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left PFC, right PFC, or sham stimulation was applied during the learning session but not during the test-only session. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during both sessions. Whereas no ERP learning effects were observed during the learning session, different ERP learning effects as a function of prior stimulation type were found during the test-only session, although behavioral learning success was equal across conditions. With sham stimulation, the ERP learning effect was reflected in a centro-parietal N400-like negativity indicating lexical processes. Inhibitory stimulation over the left PFC, but not over the right PFC, led to a late positivity similar to that previously observed in prelinguistic infants indicating associative learning. The present data demonstrate that adults can learn with and without cognitive control using different learning mechanisms. In the presence of cognitive control, adult language learning is lexically guided, whereas it appears to be associative in nature when PFC control is downregulated.

  7. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  8. Job stress and locus of control in teachers: comparisons between samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived degree of organisational support received. However, this relationship between the locus of control and stress indices could not be identified for the Zimbabwean sample. Significant differences between the two samples were noted in terms of educators' perceptions of the frequency of poor organisational support, with the Zimbabwean teachers reporting greater dissatisfaction. To explain these differences, a qualitative approach was utilised to illuminate the contextual stressors that educators face in Zimbabwe. The implications for teacher preparation measures are discussed.

  9. Co-Worker Implemented Job Training: The Use of Coincidental Training and Quality-Control Checking on the Food Preparation Skills of Trainees with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likins, Marilyn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Co-workers of three job trainees with mental retardation used coincidental training procedures while completing their own jobs. Coincidental training resulted in improved accuracy of salad-making skills, but skill acquisition was very slow; subsequently, a model and a quality-control check were added, resulting in higher performance levels. (JDD)

  10. An online resource to promote vocational interests among job-seekers with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dorstyn, Diana; Roberts, Rachel; Murphy, Gregory; Kneebone, Ian; Craig, Ashley; Migliorini, Christine

    2017-09-16

    To provide a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of an on-line resource for job-seekers with multiple sclerosis. Randomized controlled design. Community-dwelling cohort in Australia. Forty-seven adults with relapsing-remitting or progressive MS accessed an email-delivered, 7-module resource - 'Work and MS' - over a 4-week period. Fifty wait-list control participants were offered the opportunity to access 'Work and MS' 4 weeks post-enrolment. Primary outcomes focused on vocational interests (My Vocational Situation Scale; MVS) and self-efficacy in job-seeking activities (Job-Procurement Self Efficacy Scale; JSES). Secondary outcomes focused on perceived workplace difficulties (Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire; MSWDQ), optimism (Life Orientation Test - Revised; LOT-R), and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9). ITT analyses revealed pre-post gains: participants who accessed 'Work and MS' reported improved confidence in their career goals (MVS g = 0.55 [CI: 0.14, 0.96] P = 0.008) and positively re-appraised potential workplace difficulties (MSWDQ g range: 0.42 to 0.47; P range = 0.023 to 0.042). The effect on job self-efficacy was not significant, although changed in the expected direction (g = 0.17, [CI: -0.23, 0.57] P = 0.409). Completer data revealed larger, significant effect estimates (g range = 0.52 to 0.64, P range = 0.009 to 0.035). Findings provide preliminary support for the utility of a job-information resource, 'Work and MS', to augment existing employment services. The results also suggest the need to test employment-ready interventions in a larger study population. This might include the addition of on-line peer support to increase intervention compliance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 44B. Metal Worker. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 17 April 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-17

    skills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English language skills...From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration listening...simple factual words or sentences to complex passages containing highly technical vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the

  12. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS-71P, Flight Operations Coordinator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 14 September 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-14

    involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English language skills. From each...of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration listening, lecture...sentences to complex passages containing highly technical vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads

  13. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 73C. Finance Specialist. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 1 June 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English language skills. From each of the three variables the...following skills were determine. VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening...purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them to learn. Reading to learn involves reading names, attributes, information, procedures

  14. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 05C, Radio Teletype Operator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 14 July 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-14

    recorded directly on this form. Specifically three variables were used to determine the language skills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2...determined: t I VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching demonstration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening self-paced...often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them to learn. Reading to learn involves reading names, attributes

  15. The minimum requirements of language control: evidence from sequential predictability effects in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-03-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and stimuli. The other paradigm implements a fixed sequence of languages and/or concepts to measure predictable language switching. Four experiments that used these 2 paradigms showed that switch costs were smaller when both the language and concept were predictably known, whereas no overall switch cost reduction was found when just the language or concept was predictable. These results indicate that knowing both language and concept (i.e., response) can resolve language interference. However, interference resolution does not start solely based on the knowledge of which concept or language one has to produce. We discuss how existent models should be revised to accommodate these results.

  16. Stress among nurses working in emergency, anesthesiology and intensive care units depends on qualification: a Job Demand-Control survey.

    PubMed

    Trousselard, Marion; Dutheil, Frédéric; Naughton, Geraldine; Cosserant, Sylvie; Amadon, Sylvie; Dualé, Christian; Schoeffler, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The nurse stress literature reports an overwhelming culture of acceptance and expectation of work stressors, ironically linked to the control of the workplace to effectively and proactively manage stress. The stressors involved in delivering "stress management" have been well studied in nursing-related workplaces, especially in acute care settings in accordance with the Karasek Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model. However, little is known about the effects of specificity of an acute care unit and the level of qualifications on stress experienced by nurses. A survey using the JDCS model was conducted among 385 nurses working in three different acute care units (anesthesiology, emergency and intensive care unit) from a university hospital. Specific questions explored variables such as gender, acute care units, level of qualification and working experience. Two hundred questionnaires were returned. A high level of job strain was highlighted without a gender effect and in the absence of isostrain. Nurses from acute care units were located in the high stress quadrant of the JDCS model. Conversely, other nurses were commonly located in the "active" quadrant. Independent of acute care settings, the highest level of education was associated with the highest job strain and the lowest level of control. In an acute care setting, a high level of education was a key factor for high job stress and was associated with a perception of a low control in the workplace, both of which may be predictors of adverse mental health. In particular, the lack of control has been associated with moral distress, a frequently reported characteristic of acute care settings. To enhance the personal and professional outcomes of the advanced registered nurses, strategies for supporting nurses manage daily stressors in acute care are urgently required.

  17. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  18. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  19. The elusive link between language control and executive control: A case of limited transfer

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Anat; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between language control and executive control by testing three groups of bilinguals (104 participants) and 54 monolinguals in a training and transfer paradigm. Participants practiced either a language or a non-linguistic color/shape switching task and were tested one week later on both tasks. The color-shape task produced significant immediate improvement with training, which was maintained a week later, but exhibited no cross-task transfer effects. In the dominant-language, training effects did not persist after one week, and there were no transfer effects. In the non-dominant language there were significant training effects that lasted a week, and there was also transfer facilitation from prior practice with the color/shape task, which was limited to a reduction in mixing costs. Despite limited transfer, there were significant correlations between tasks in mixing costs for bilinguals, in switching costs for monolinguals, and in intrusion errors for all participants. Finally, the pattern of costs observed for the two tasks exhibited both similarities and differences across participants. These results imply a limited but significant role for executive control in bilingual language control, possibly playing a stronger role in facilitating non-dominant language production and in supporting the ability to monitor response outcomes to avoid errors. PMID:24688756

  20. Testing Karasek's Demands-Control Model in restructured healthcare settings: effects of job strain on staff nurses' quality of work life.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, H K; Finegan, J; Shamian, J; Almost, J

    2001-05-01

    Job strain among staff nurses has become an increasingly important concern in relationship to employee performance and commitment to the organization in current restructured healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to test Karasek's Demands-Control Model of job strain by examining the extent to which the degree of job strain in nursing work environments affects staff nurses' perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment, work satisfaction, and organizational commitment. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test these relationships in a random sample of 404 Canadian staff nurses. Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, Meyer and Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, and the Global Satisfaction Scale were used to measure the major study variables. Nurses with higher level of job strain were found to be significantly more empowered, more committed to the organization, and more satisfied with their work. Support for Karasek's Demands/Control theory was established in this study.

  1. Applying Standard Interfaces to a Process-Control Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    A method of applying open-operating-system standard interfaces to the NASA User Interface Language (UIL) has been devised. UIL is a computing language that can be used in monitoring and controlling automated processes: for example, the Timeliner computer program, written in UIL, is a general-purpose software system for monitoring and controlling sequences of automated tasks in a target system. In providing the major elements of connectivity between UIL and the target system, the present method offers advantages over the prior method. Most notably, unlike in the prior method, the software description of the target system can be made independent of the applicable compiler software and need not be linked to the applicable executable compiler image. Also unlike in the prior method, it is not necessary to recompile the source code and relink the source code to a new executable compiler image. Abstraction of the description of the target system to a data file can be defined easily, with intuitive syntax, and knowledge of the source-code language is not needed for the definition.

  2. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  3. Job demand and control in mid-life and physical and mental functioning in early old age: do childhood factors explain these associations in a British birth cohort?

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2014-10-15

    Adverse work-related exposures have been linked with decreased physical and mental functioning in later life, however, whether childhood factors explain the associations between work exposures and functioning is unknown. Our aim was to investigate if job demand and control in mid-life were related to self-reported physical and mental functioning in early old age and whether childhood factors explained these associations. Prospective cohort study. England, Scotland and Wales. Data come from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a cohort with follow-up since birth in 1946. 1485 occupationally active study members had data available on job demand and control in mid-life and on physical and mental functioning assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire at 60-64 years. Those with higher job control in mid-life had better physical functioning than those who reported lower job control (β 0.51, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.01, p=0.04 adjusted for adult confounders). Those with higher job demand in mid-life had poorer mental functioning (β -0.82, 95% CI -1.14 to -0.51, p<0.001). Associations between job control and mental functioning were similar but less pronounced. Adjustment for childhood factors (father's and mother's educational attainment, parents' interest in school at age 7 and cognitive ability at age 8) partially explained the association between job control and physical functioning, but did not explain the association between job demand and mental functioning. Job demand and control in mid-life are differentially associated with mental and physical functioning in early old age and some of these associations may be partially explained by childhood factors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Job demand and control in mid-life and physical and mental functioning in early old age: do childhood factors explain these associations in a British birth cohort?

    PubMed Central

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adverse work-related exposures have been linked with decreased physical and mental functioning in later life, however, whether childhood factors explain the associations between work exposures and functioning is unknown. Our aim was to investigate if job demand and control in mid-life were related to self-reported physical and mental functioning in early old age and whether childhood factors explained these associations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants and outcome measures Data come from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a cohort with follow-up since birth in 1946. 1485 occupationally active study members had data available on job demand and control in mid-life and on physical and mental functioning assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire at 60–64 years. Results Those with higher job control in mid-life had better physical functioning than those who reported lower job control (β 0.51, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.01, p=0.04 adjusted for adult confounders). Those with higher job demand in mid-life had poorer mental functioning (β −0.82, 95% CI −1.14 to −0.51, p<0.001). Associations between job control and mental functioning were similar but less pronounced. Adjustment for childhood factors (father's and mother's educational attainment, parents’ interest in school at age 7 and cognitive ability at age 8) partially explained the association between job control and physical functioning, but did not explain the association between job demand and mental functioning. Conclusions Job demand and control in mid-life are differentially associated with mental and physical functioning in early old age and some of these associations may be partially explained by childhood factors. PMID:25319998

  5. Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Sander, Kaija M; Klein, Denise

    2017-10-01

    This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. These findings demonstrate that the timing of language learning may have an impact on cognitive control, with the simultaneous learning of two languages being associated with more optimal brain connectivity for cognitive control compared to sequential language learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  8. Job strain in physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Campo, Marc A; Weiser, Sherri; Koenig, Karen L

    2009-09-01

    Job stress has been associated with poor outcomes. In focus groups and small-sample surveys, physical therapists have reported high levels of job stress. Studies of job stress in physical therapy with larger samples are needed. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the levels of psychological job demands and job control reported by physical therapists in a national sample, (2) to compare those levels with national norms, and (3) to determine whether high demands, low control, or a combination of both (job strain) increases the risk for turnover or work-related pain. This was a prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up period. Participants were randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association (n=882). Exposure assessments included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), a commonly used instrument for evaluation of the psychosocial work environment. Outcomes included job turnover and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Compared with national averages, the physical therapists reported moderate job demands and high levels of job control. About 16% of the therapists reported changing jobs during follow-up. Risk factors for turnover included high job demands, low job control, job strain, female sex, and younger age. More than one half of the therapists reported work-related pain. Risk factors for work-related pain included low job control and job strain. The JCQ measures only limited dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. All data were self-reported and subject to associated bias. Physical therapists' views of their work environments were positive, including moderate levels of demands and high levels of control. Those therapists with high levels of demands and low levels of control, however, were at increased risk for both turnover and work-related pain. Physical therapists should consider the psychosocial work environment, along with other factors, when choosing a job.

  9. QPA-CLIPS: A language and representation for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    QPA-CLIPS is an extension of CLIPS oriented towards process control applications. Its constructs define a dependency network of process actions driven by sensor information. The language consists of three basic constructs: TASK, SENSOR, and FILTER. TASK's define the dependency network describing alternative state transitions for a process. SENSOR's and FILTER's define sensor information sources used to activate state transitions within the network. Deftemplate's define these constructs and their run-time environment is an interpreter knowledge base, performing pattern matching on sensor information and so activating TASK's in the dependency network. The pattern matching technique is based on the repeatable occurrence of a sensor data pattern. QPA-CIPS has been successfully tested on a SPARCStation providing supervisory control to an Allen-Bradley PLC 5 controller driving molding equipment.

  10. Control of Task Sequences: What is the Role of Language?

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized, a pattern that is not consistent with the hypothesis that speaking aids proactive retrieval of upcoming sequential elements during serial-order control. We also found that when instructed to do so, participants were able to speak task labels prior to presentation of response-relevant stimuli and that this substantially reduced RT signatures of retrieval—however at the cost of more sequencing errors. Thus, while proactive retrieval is possible in principle, in natural situations it seems to be prevented through a strong, "gestalt-like" tendency to synchronize speech and action. We suggest that this tendency may support context updating rather than proactive control. PMID:24274386

  11. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 62B, Construction Equipment Repairer, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 13 March 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-13

    the backgroun underlying the JLPR. Sections V and VI are the major substantive portions of the analysis. They are the results of the analysis and...Writing 25% II. JOB LANGUAGEp:;O.’ ANCE REQ1R.t"EI;TS TASK: Listen to learn and perform CONDITIONS: Given oral instructions or verbal comm:nds in any...performianc’IIIIi6II 1 ~ I~~ hN 111 S hands-on I,~I I L IIII S demonstratio;III’ I’M ~~=ec~~u~to jI 1,1 ilili II I II 09 i*~ ance difficul? t 11 Ill 11

  12. Return to work in sick-listed cancer survivors with job loss: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, Martine P; Duijts, Saskia F A; Vermeulen, Sylvia J; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-02-18

    Despite long-term or permanent health problems, cancer survivors are often motivated to return to work. For cancer survivors who have lost their job, return to work can be more challenging compared to employed survivors, as they generally find themselves in a more vulnerable social and financial position. Cancer survivors with job loss may therefore be in need of tailored return to work support. However, there is a lack of return to work intervention programs specifically targeting these cancer survivors. The number of cancer survivors with job loss in developed countries is rising due to, amongst others, increases in the incidence and survivor rate of cancer, the retirement age and the proportion of flexible employment contracts. Hence, we consider it important to develop a tailored return to work intervention program for cancer survivors with job loss, and to evaluate its effectiveness compared to usual care. This study employs a two-armed randomised controlled trial with a follow-up period of 12 months. The study population (n = 164) will be recruited from a national sample of cancer survivors (18-60 years), who have been sick-listed for 12-36 months. Participants will be randomised by using computerized blocked randomisation (blocks of four). All participants will receive usual care as provided by the Dutch Social Security Agency. Additionally, participants in the intervention group will receive a tailored return to work intervention program, which includes vocational rehabilitation and supportive psychosocial components, as well as (therapeutic) placement at work. The primary outcome measure is duration until sustainable return to work; the secondary outcome measure is rate of return to work. Other parameters include, amongst others, fatigue, coping strategy and quality of life. We will perform Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for time to sustainable return to work. The hypothesis of this study is that a tailored approach for cancer

  13. Development of the Child Care Worker Job Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbow, Barbara; Spratt, Kai; Ungaretti, Antoinette; McDonnell, Karen; Breckler, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Examined psychometric characteristics of three 17-item measures of child care worker job demands, job control, and job resources. Found that job demands scale had lower reliability than job control or job resources. Demonstrated known groups validity through conceptually meaningful pattern of differences between family childcare providers and…

  14. The relationship between self-control, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Chinese employees: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dou, Kai; Nie, Yan-Gang; Wang, Yu-Jie; Liu, Yao-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that self-control is positively related to life satisfaction, but this association in Chinese employees and its underlying mechanism are less commonly investigated. In this preliminary study the relationships between self-control and life satisfaction and the mediating effect of job satisfaction were tested. Participants were 482 full-time employees (188 male, 294 female) from different cities in China. They answered self-report questionnaires online that assessed self-control, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Path analyses were conducted and bootstrap technique was used to judge the significance of the mediation. Self-control was positively related to both job and life satisfaction. More importantly, job satisfaction significantly mediated the association between self-control and life satisfaction. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the size of the mediating effect between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Results of this preliminary study provide further evidence of the positive association between self-control and life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is found to mediate this relationship.

  15. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurence, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, for the second year in a row, hiring in English and other modern languages contracted sharply, as measured by the number of ads and jobs in the MLA "Job Information List" ( "JIL"). This year the "JIL's" English edition announced 1,100 jobs and the foreign language edition 1,022 jobs. At 1,022, the number of jobs in the foreign language…

  16. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 63B. Wheel Vehicle Mechanic. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 14 January 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-14

    provide sighting identify less keaure your faue mpsubtract compass two verformance scale areameasures protractor wtotac tul orient pithort 1ocetion...writing hands on listening self -paced reading, writing 11-3 Methods of Testing performance listening oral speaking written writing, reading Rating of...English *a response of 2 or 3 on a scale Language Skills of 1 to 3 was tallied listening speaking a response of 1, 2, or 3 on a reading scale of 1 to 5

  17. Language control in bilinguals: Intention to speak vs. execution of speech.

    PubMed

    Reverberi, Carlo; Kuhlen, Anna; Abutalebi, Jubin; Greulich, R Stefan; Costa, Albert; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-05-01

    Bilinguals require a high degree of cognitive control to select the language intended for speaking and inhibit the unintended. Previous neuroimaging studies have not teased apart brain regions for generating the intention to use a given language, and those for speaking in that language. Separating these two phases can clarify at what stage competition between languages occurs. In this fMRI study German-English bilinguals were first cued to use German or English. After a delay, they named a picture in the cued language. During the intention phase, the precuneus, right superior lateral parietal lobule, and middle temporal gyrus were more activated when participants had to update the currently active language. During language execution activation was higher for English compared to German in brain areas associated with cognitive control, most notably the anterior cingulate and the caudate. Our results suggest two different systems enabling cognitive control during bilingual language production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Worktime control access, need and use in relation to work-home interference, fatigue, and job motivation.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E

    2015-07-01

    Worktime control (WTC) has been suggested as a tool to reduce employees' work-home interference and fatigue and improve job motivation. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the prevalence of employees' need for, access to, and use of WTC, as well as the incongruence between need for and access to WTC (ie, mismatch); and (ii) to examine the associations of this mismatch and the use of WTC with employees' work-home interference (WHI), fatigue and job motivation. Questionnaire data were collected among a large (N=2420) quasi-representative sample of Dutch employees. The prevalence of WTC need, access, use, and mismatch was assessed by means of descriptive statistics. Associations with employees' outcomes were assessed by analyses of covariance. The need for WTC was highly prevalent. For many employees, we observed a negative mismatch between access to and need for WTC (ie, accessjob motivation. The use of WTC was also highly prevalent, but no meaningful associations were found with the outcome variables. It is relevant to examine WTC comprehensively, that is, to include measurements of employees' need for and access to WTC and assess employees' (mis)match between components of WTC. For practice, we recommend to introduce WTC on an organizational level and assess employees' need for WTC on an individual basis.

  19. Scheme for translating control flow in the C programming language to Grafcet with examples

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, B.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show a translation scheme from control flow in the C programming language to the Grafcet language. Grafcet is a graphical language for expressing control flow. Grafcet is used to design parallel systems such as in a manufacturing environment. The control constructs covered in the paper are: conditional statement; while; do; for; switch; break; continue; goto; label; and null. The Grafcet used in the paper is the language, as augmented by Savoir. The C programming language is the one described by Kernighan and Ritchie. The translation is to be used as a reference for programmers to translate existing C source code into Grafcet.

  20. World Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Although jobs in international corporations operating in the United States are not substantially different from those of their domestic counterparts, international job opportunities will be greatest for those who have prepared themselves through education, experience, and travel. (Author/JOW)

  1. Job Satisfaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    well include an "overall, global or unidimensional component" (p 184) but that additional specific factors were also evident, ie. "job satisfaction is...between a person’s life style and organisational structure. They hypothesised that job satisfaction may be adversely affected if there is any significant...between job satisfaction and an independent life style, and; thirdly, that "job satisfac- tion is maximispd when the individual places a high value

  2. Language control and lexical competition in bilinguals: an event-related FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Zimine, Ivan; Pegna, Alan J; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lee-Jahnke, Hannelore; Lazeyras, François; Cappa, Stefano F; Khateb, Asaid

    2008-07-01

    Language selection (or control) refers to the cognitive mechanism that controls which language to use at a given moment and context. It allows bilinguals to selectively communicate in one target language while minimizing the interferences from the nontarget language. Previous studies have suggested the participation in language control of different brain areas. However, the question remains whether the selection of one language among others relies on a language-specific neural module or general executive regions that also allow switching between different competing behavioral responses including the switching between various linguistic registers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the neural correlates of language selection processes in German-French bilingual subjects during picture naming in different monolingual and bilingual selection contexts. We show that naming in the first language in the bilingual context (compared with monolingual contexts) increased activation in the left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, the activation of these areas is even more extended when the subjects are using a second weaker language. These findings show that language control processes engaged in contexts during which both languages must remain active recruit the left caudate and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in a manner that can be distinguished from areas engaged in intralanguage task switching.

  3. Job Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsell, Ruth; Thompson, Gretchen

    1979-01-01

    Counselors at the UCLA Placement Center organized the Job Club to develop successful job search techniques with group support, direction, and encouragement. Specific goals were: (a) to provide a forum for sharing; (b) to assist in identifying job-related skills; (c) to provide basic information; (d) to establish guidelines; and (e) assist decision…

  4. Improving outcomes of preschool language delay in the community: protocol for the Language for Learning randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early language delay is a high-prevalence condition of concern to parents and professionals. It may result in lifelong deficits not only in language function, but also in social, emotional/behavioural, academic and economic well-being. Such delays can lead to considerable costs to the individual, the family and to society more widely. The Language for Learning trial tests a population-based intervention in 4 year olds with measured language delay, to determine (1) if it improves language and associated outcomes at ages 5 and 6 years and (2) its cost-effectiveness for families and the health care system. Methods/Design A large-scale randomised trial of a year-long intervention targeting preschoolers with language delay, nested within a well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort of 1464 children in Melbourne, Australia. All children received a 1.25-1.5 hour formal language assessment at their 4th birthday. The 200 children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean were randomised into intervention or ‘usual care’ control arms. The 20-session intervention program comprises 18 one-hour home-based therapeutic sessions in three 6-week blocks, an outcome assessment, and a final feed-back/forward planning session. The therapy utilises a ‘step up-step down’ therapeutic approach depending on the child’s language profile, severity and progress, with standardised, manualised activities covering the four language development domains of: vocabulary and grammar; narrative skills; comprehension monitoring; and phonological awareness/pre-literacy skills. Blinded follow-up assessments at ages 5 and 6 years measure the primary outcome of receptive and expressive language, and secondary outcomes of vocabulary, narrative, and phonological skills. Discussion A key strength of this robust study is the implementation of a therapeutic framework that provides a standardised yet tailored approach for

  5. Tasking and sharing sensing assets using controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Pizzocaro, Diego; Braines, David; Mott, David

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an approach to representing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks at a relatively high level in controlled natural language. We demonstrate that this facilitates both human interpretation and machine processing of tasks. More specically, it allows the automatic assignment of sensing assets to tasks, and the informed sharing of tasks between collaborating users in a coalition environment. To enable automatic matching of sensor types to tasks, we created a machine-processable knowledge representation based on the Military Missions and Means Framework (MMF), and implemented a semantic reasoner to match task types to sensor types. We combined this mechanism with a sensor-task assignment procedure based on a well-known distributed protocol for resource allocation. In this paper, we re-formulate the MMF ontology in Controlled English (CE), a type of controlled natural language designed to be readable by a native English speaker whilst representing information in a structured, unambiguous form to facilitate machine processing. We show how CE can be used to describe both ISR tasks (for example, detection, localization, or identication of particular kinds of object) and sensing assets (for example, acoustic, visual, or seismic sensors, mounted on motes or unmanned vehicles). We show how these representations enable an automatic sensor-task assignment process. Where a group of users are cooperating in a coalition, we show how CE task summaries give users in the eld a high-level picture of ISR coverage of an area of interest. This allows them to make ecient use of sensing resources by sharing tasks.

  6. Partially Overlapping Mechanisms of Language and Task Control in Young and Older Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Weissberger, Gali H.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Bondi, Mark W.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals rely on domain-general mechanisms of executive control to achieve language control by asking if linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks exhibit similar patterns of aging-related decline. Thirty young and 30 aging bilinguals completed a cued language-switching task and a cued color-shape switching task. Both tasks demonstrated significant aging effects, but aging-related slowing and the aging-related increase in errors were significantly larger on the color-shape than on the language task. In the language task, aging increased language-switching costs in both response times and errors, and language-mixing costs only in response times. In contrast, the color-shape task exhibited an aging-related increase in costs only in mixing errors. Additionally, a subset of the older bilinguals could not do the color-shape task, but were able to do the language task, and exhibited significantly larger language-switching costs than matched controls. These differences, and some subtle similarities, in aging effects observed across tasks imply that mechanisms of nonlinguistic task and language control are only partly shared and demonstrate relatively preserved language control in aging. More broadly, these data suggest that age deficits in switching and mixing costs may depend on task expertise, with mixing deficits emerging for less-practiced tasks and switching deficits for highly practiced, possibly “expert” tasks (i.e., language). PMID:22582883

  7. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Richard R.; Kretschmer, Laura W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses language in use, focusing on English, including definitions of language as well as how it has been and how it should be taught inside and outside the classroom. Impact of this information on the process of evaluation of hearing-impaired students' language is also considered. (Author/PB)

  8. Bilingual Language Switching in the Laboratory versus in the Wild: The Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Adaptive Language Control.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-09-13

    For a bilingual human, every utterance requires a choice about which language to use. This choice is commonly regarded as part of general executive control, engaging prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices similarly to many types of effortful task switching. However, although language control within artificial switching paradigms has been heavily studied, the neurobiology of natural switching within socially cued situations has not been characterized. Additionally, although theoretical models address how language control mechanisms adapt to the distinct demands of different interactional contexts, these predictions have not been empirically tested. We used MEG (RRID: NIFINV:nlx_inv_090918) to investigate language switching in multiple contexts ranging from completely artificial to the comprehension of a fully natural bilingual conversation recorded "in the wild." Our results showed less anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex involvement for more natural switching. In production, voluntary switching did not engage the prefrontal cortex or elicit behavioral switch costs. In comprehension, while laboratory switches recruited executive control areas, fully natural switching within a conversation only engaged auditory cortices. Multivariate pattern analyses revealed that, in production, interlocutor identity was represented in a sustained fashion throughout the different stages of language planning until speech onset. In comprehension, however, a biphasic pattern was observed: interlocutor identity was first represented at the presentation of the interlocutor and then again at the presentation of the auditory word. In all, our findings underscore the importance of ecologically valid experimental paradigms and offer the first neurophysiological characterization of language control in a range of situations simulating real life to various degrees.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Bilingualism is an inherently social phenomenon, interactional context fully determining language

  9. Exposure assessment for a population-based case-control study combining a job-exposure matrix with interview data.

    PubMed

    Semple, Sean E; Dick, Finlay; Cherrie, John W

    2004-06-01

    A system that combines the ease of use of a job-exposure matrix while taking into account job-specific data is needed. This study aimed to produce a detailed method for combining interview data with expert assessments for a large population-based case-control study of Parkinson's disease. An interview-administered core questionnaire with a series of questions that triggers substance-specific questionnaires to gather information on key parameters is administered. Using a job-exposure matrix to generate base estimates, assessors can modify this estimate of exposure intensity using worker-specific data such as the use of control measures, reports of substance-specific acute symptoms, and the quantity of material being processed. Detailed guidance for making adjustments to exposure estimates for these modifiers is presented. The method has been partially validated through the use of a comparison of estimates for a separate cohort with previously validated exposure reconstructions. Agreement was high, with a Spearman's rho of 0.89 (P < 0.01). The results from a quality assurance system employed as part of the methodology show a high degree of repeatability in generated exposure values both over time (Spearman's rho 0.98, P < 0.01) and between different assessors (Spearman's rho 0.88, P < 0.01). The method provides detailed quantitative exposure indices for occupational epidemiology. It has particular strengths both in terms of ease and speed of use. It is hoped that it will provide a useful structure for future epidemiologic work.

  10. Job descriptions and job matching.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Susan

    2004-10-01

    As the date for national roll-out and the implementation for Agenda for Change draws near, many of you will be involved in the job matching process. This is designed to measure your job against a national job profile, thus establishing which pay band you will be placed in and so determining your salary.

  11. Job Stress, Stress Related to Performance-Based Accreditation, Locus of Control, Age, and Gender As Related to Job Satisfaction and Burnout in Teachers and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Elizabeth Smith; Halpin, Glennelle

    The purpose of the study described here was to: (1) determine the amount of variance in burnout and job satisfaction in public school teachers and principals which could be accounted for by stress related to the state's performance-based accreditation standards; (2) examine the relationship between stress related to state standards and the age and…

  12. Medication reconciliation using natural language processing and controlled terminologies.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Bright, Tiffani J; Li, Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    Medication reconciliation (MR) is a process that seeks to assure that the medications a patient is supposed to take are the same as what they are actually taking. We have developed a method in which medication information (consisting of both coded data and narrative text) is extracted from twelve sources from two clinical information systems and assembled into a chronological sequence of medication history, plans, and orders that correspond to periods before, during and after a hospital admission. We use natural language processing, a controlled terminology, and a medication classification system to create matrices that can be used to determine the initiation, changes and discontinuation of medications over time. We applied the process to a set of 17 patient records and successfully abstracted and summarized the medication data. This approach has implications for efforts to improve medication history-taking, order entry, and automated auditing of patient records for quality assurance.

  13. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  14. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  15. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions: a European Comparison.

    PubMed

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    2011-11-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over work, job strain and work-family conflict influence fertility intentions. National-level measures of childcare enrolment under the age of three and the occurrence of part-time work are also included to examine their relation to fertility intentions and their interplay with perceptions of work. Using data from 23 countries from the 2004/5 European Social Survey (ESS), multilevel logistic regression models of fertility intentions are estimated separately for women without children and women with one child. Women with higher levels of work control are significantly more likely to intend to have a second child. Higher levels of job strain (time pressure) significantly lower fertility intentions for mothers in contexts where childcare availability is low. The prevalence of part-time work amongst the female work force significantly predicts the intention to become a mother but has different effects for women who work part-time themselves compared with full-time employees.

  16. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage.

  17. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control.

    PubMed

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-10-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy.

  18. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control

    PubMed Central

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy. PMID:26491475

  19. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M; Costa, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called "symmetrical switch cost" effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  20. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called “symmetrical switch cost” effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system. PMID:22275905

  1. Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A; Coble, Joseph B; Katki, Hormuzd A; Wheeler, David C; Colt, Joanne S; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T; Friesen, Melissa C

    2012-10-01

    Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the population-based case-control New England Bladder Cancer Study. 2631 participants reported 14 983 jobs; 2749 jobs were administered questionnaires ('modules') with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based either on the occupational history (OH) responses (OH estimates) or on the module responses (module estimates); we then combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed individually to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. The proportion of exposed jobs was 20-25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54-60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review estimates had moderately high agreement for all jobs (κ(w)=0.68-0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (κ(w)=0.62-0.78) for the probability, intensity and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies.

  2. Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: Programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Wheeler, David C.; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to the questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Methods 2,631 participants reported 14,983 jobs; 2,749 jobs were administered questionnaires (‘modules’) with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based solely on the occupational history responses (OH estimates) and based on the module responses (module estimates); we combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed one at a time to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module, and one-by-one review estimates. Results The proportion of exposed jobs was 20–25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54–60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review had moderately high agreement for all jobs (κw=0.68–0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (κw=0.62–0.78) for the probability, intensity, and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. Conclusions The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies. PMID:22843440

  3. Electrophysiological evidence for endogenous control of attention in switching between languages in overt picture naming.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Kim M W; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2010-08-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues preceded picture stimuli by 750 msec. Cue-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while Dutch-English bilingual speakers overtly named pictures. The response language on consecutive trials could be the same (repeat trials) or different (switch trials). Naming latencies were longer on switch than on repeat trials, independent of the response language. Cue-locked ERPs showed an early posterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for L2 but not for L1, and a late anterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for both languages. The early switch-repeat effect might reflect disengaging from the nontarget native language, whereas the late switch-repeat effect reflects engaging in the target language. Implications for models of bilingual word production are discussed.

  4. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  5. WHAT ABOUT FOREIGN LANGUAGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARTNER, JUDITH; AND OTHERS

    THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IS STRESSED IN A BRIEF BROCHURE DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS OF ALL LEVELS, PARENTS, TEACHERS, COUNSELORS, AND ADMINISTRATORS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON WHEN TO BEGIN A LANGUAGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEAK A LANGUAGE, USES FOR A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT HOME, LANGUAGE JOB OPPORTUNITIES, AND LANGUAGE…

  6. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  7. Let's Get On with the Job. A Job Search Manual for the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinton, Rae; Strong, Irene

    This manual is designed for use by both teachers and students in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) job-search skills program, and is intended for use by students at the upper beginner or lower intermediate language proficiency level. The content can be used as a complete job search skills program, a resource for program development, a…

  8. Short-term language switching training tunes the neural correlates of cognitive control in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chunyan; Fu, Yongben; Wu, Junjie; Ma, Fengyang; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei

    2017-09-03

    The present study investigated how language switching experience would modulate the neural correlates of cognitive control involved in bilingual language production. A group of unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals undertook an 8-day cued picture naming training during which they named pictures in either of their languages based on visually presented cues. Participants' brain activation was scanned before and after the training in the same task. Behavioral results revealed a significant training effect such that switch costs were reduced after training. fMRI results showed that after training, activation of brain areas associated with cognitive control including the anterior cingulated cortex and the caudate was reduced. Besides, the activation reduction in the left dorsal anterior cingulated cortex positively correlated with the reduction in switch costs in response time and this training effect could be transferred to untrained stimuli. These findings suggest that neural correlates of cognitive control, especially that of the conflict monitoring process, in bilingual language production could be modulated by short-term language switching training. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Job control, work-family balance and nurses' intention to leave their profession and organization: A comparative cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Inoue, Takahiro; Harada, Hiroko; Oike, Miyako

    2016-12-01

    The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. In Japan, the distribution of nurses across different care settings is uneven: the shortage of nurses in home healthcare and nursing homes is more serious than in hospitals. Earlier research has identified numerous factors affecting nurses' intention to leave work (e.g., job control, family-related variables, work-family conflict); however, these factors' levels and effect size may vary between nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes. This study measured job control, family-related variables, and work-family conflict among nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, and compared these variables' levels and effect size on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession between these care settings. The research design was cross-sectional. Participating nurses from hospitals, home healthcare facilities, and nursing homes self-administered an anonymous questionnaire survey; nurses were recruited from the Kyushu district of Japan. Nurses from nine hospitals, 86 home healthcare offices, and 107 nursing homes participated. We measured nurses' intention to leave nursing or their organization, perceived job control, family variables and work-family conflict. We analyzed 1461 participants (response rate: 81.7%). The level of job control, family variables, and work-family conflict affecting nurses varied between hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes; additionally, these variables' effect on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession varied between these care settings. Work-family conflict, family variables, and job control most strongly predicted nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, respectively. Interventions aiming to increase nurse retention should distinguish between care settings. Regarding hospitals, reducing nurses' work-family conflict will increase nurse retention. Regarding

  10. In-context language control with production tasks in bilinguals: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huang, Peiyu; Song, Zhe; Fang, Liang; Shen, Tong; Li, Yan; Gong, Qiyong; Xie, Peng

    2014-10-17

    Bilinguals exhibit a feat to control their two languages in conversation. The neural substrates of bilingual language control have been well investigated with language switching paradigm. Yet, most of those studies have taken single lexical items (i.e., words outside a context) as the investigative tool. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of in-context language control in unbalanced bilinguals with a sentence-end switching paradigm. Our results showed that in-context language control in bilinguals recruited the neural mechanisms that were similar in kind to those responsible for cognitive control in general. When the direction of switching was considered, we found that backward switching called for more cognitive/language control relative to forward switching. Behaviorally, symmetric switching costs were found regardless of the switching factor (switching vs. non-switching) and the language factor (L1 vs. L2). We interpreted our imaging and behavioral results as the effects of context when unbalanced bilinguals controlled their two languages in a context.

  11. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  12. ERP Correlates of Executive Control during Repeated Language Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Georgina M.; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    Used event-related dense-sensor EEG recording techniques to examine the time course of language switching during a visually-cued naming task in which bilingual participants named digits in either their first or second language. Switch-related modulation of ERP components was evident over parietal and frontal cortices, and in the latter case showed…

  13. ERP Correlates of Executive Control during Repeated Language Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Georgina M.; Swainson, Rachel; Cunnington, Ross; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2001-01-01

    Used event-related dense-sensor EEG recording techniques to examine the time course of language switching during a visually-cued naming task in which bilingual participants named digits in either their first or second language. Switch-related modulation of ERP components was evident over parietal and frontal cortices, and in the latter case showed…

  14. LANGUAGE CONTROL IN A GROUP OF HEAD START CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSSER, HARRY

    TWENTY HEAD START PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WERE GIVEN THREE LANGUAGE TASKS DESIGNED TO MEASURE THEIR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT--(1) A PRODUCTION TASK REQUIRED THE CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN FREE SPEECH. THE CHILDREN WERE ASKED TO ANSWER A QUESTION, TO DESCRIBE A SERIES OF PICTURES, AND TO RETELL A STORY. THE FREE SPEECH OF THE CHILDREN IN RESPONSE TO THESE…

  15. Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washio, Yukiko; Houmanfar, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals' language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and…

  16. Neural signatures of second language learning and control.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Bradley, Kailyn; Hernandez, Arturo E; Marian, Viorica

    2017-04-01

    Experience with multiple languages has unique effects on cortical structure and information processing. Differences in gray matter density and patterns of cortical activation are observed in lifelong bilinguals compared to monolinguals as a result of their experience managing interference across languages. Monolinguals who acquire a second language later in life begin to encounter the same type of linguistic interference as bilinguals, but with a different pre-existing language architecture. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the beginning stages of second language acquisition and cross-linguistic interference in monolingual adults. We found that after English monolinguals learned novel Spanish vocabulary, English and Spanish auditory words led to distinct patterns of cortical activation, with greater recruitment of posterior parietal regions in response to English words and of left hippocampus in response to Spanish words. In addition, cross-linguistic interference from English influenced processing of newly-learned Spanish words, decreasing hippocampus activity. Results suggest that monolinguals may rely on different memory systems to process a newly-learned second language, and that the second language system is sensitive to native language interference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Job enrichment in job design.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  18. Multiple Language Use Influences Oculomotor Task Performance: Neurophysiological Evidence of a Shared Substrate between Language and Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Aparicio, Xavier; Isel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    In the present electroencephalographical study, we asked to which extent executive control processes are shared by both the language and motor domain. The rationale was to examine whether executive control processes whose efficiency is reinforced by the frequent use of a second language can lead to a benefit in the control of eye movements, i.e. a non-linguistic activity. For this purpose, we administrated to 19 highly proficient late French-German bilingual participants and to a control group of 20 French monolingual participants an antisaccade task, i.e. a specific motor task involving control. In this task, an automatic saccade has to be suppressed while a voluntary eye movement in the opposite direction has to be carried out. Here, our main hypothesis is that an advantage in the antisaccade task should be observed in the bilinguals if some properties of the control processes are shared between linguistic and motor domains. ERP data revealed clear differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Critically, we showed an increased N2 effect size in bilinguals, thought to reflect better efficiency to monitor conflict, combined with reduced effect sizes on markers reflecting inhibitory control, i.e. cue-locked positivity, the target-locked P3 and the saccade-locked presaccadic positivity (PSP). Moreover, effective connectivity analyses (dynamic causal modelling; DCM) on the neuronal source level indicated that bilinguals rely more strongly on ACC-driven control while monolinguals rely on PFC-driven control. Taken together, our combined ERP and effective connectivity findings may reflect a dynamic interplay between strengthened conflict monitoring, associated with subsequently more efficient inhibition in bilinguals. Finally, L2 proficiency and immersion experience constitute relevant factors of the language background that predict efficiency of inhibition. To conclude, the present study provided ERP and effective connectivity evidence for domain-general executive

  19. Multiple Language Use Influences Oculomotor Task Performance: Neurophysiological Evidence of a Shared Substrate between Language and Motor Control

    PubMed Central

    Heidlmayr, Karin; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Aparicio, Xavier; Isel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    In the present electroencephalographical study, we asked to which extent executive control processes are shared by both the language and motor domain. The rationale was to examine whether executive control processes whose efficiency is reinforced by the frequent use of a second language can lead to a benefit in the control of eye movements, i.e. a non-linguistic activity. For this purpose, we administrated to 19 highly proficient late French-German bilingual participants and to a control group of 20 French monolingual participants an antisaccade task, i.e. a specific motor task involving control. In this task, an automatic saccade has to be suppressed while a voluntary eye movement in the opposite direction has to be carried out. Here, our main hypothesis is that an advantage in the antisaccade task should be observed in the bilinguals if some properties of the control processes are shared between linguistic and motor domains. ERP data revealed clear differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Critically, we showed an increased N2 effect size in bilinguals, thought to reflect better efficiency to monitor conflict, combined with reduced effect sizes on markers reflecting inhibitory control, i.e. cue-locked positivity, the target-locked P3 and the saccade-locked presaccadic positivity (PSP). Moreover, effective connectivity analyses (dynamic causal modelling; DCM) on the neuronal source level indicated that bilinguals rely more strongly on ACC-driven control while monolinguals rely on PFC-driven control. Taken together, our combined ERP and effective connectivity findings may reflect a dynamic interplay between strengthened conflict monitoring, associated with subsequently more efficient inhibition in bilinguals. Finally, L2 proficiency and immersion experience constitute relevant factors of the language background that predict efficiency of inhibition. To conclude, the present study provided ERP and effective connectivity evidence for domain-general executive

  20. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic review on the association between employee worktime control and work-non-work balance, health and well-being, and job-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; Geurts, Sabine A E; Tucker, Philip; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this review was to assess systematically the empirical evidence for associations between employee worktime control (WTC) and work-non-work balance, health/well-being, and job-related outcomes (eg, job satisfaction, job performance). A systematic search of empirical studies published between 1995-2011 resulted in 63 relevant papers from 53 studies. Five different categories of WTC measurements were distinguished (global WTC, multidimensional WTC, flextime, leave control, and "other subdimensions of WTC"). For each WTC category, we examined the strength of evidence for an association with (i) work-non-work balance, (ii) health/well-being, and (iii) job-related outcomes. We distinguished between cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. Evidence strength was assessed based on the number of studies and their convergence in terms of study findings. (Moderately) strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between global WTC and both work-non-work balance and job-related outcomes, whereas no consistent evidence was found regarding health/well-being. Intervention studies on global WTC found moderately strong evidence for a positive causal association with work-non-work balance and no or insufficient evidence for health/well-being and job-related outcomes. Limited to moderately strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between multidimensional WTC and our outcome categories. Moderately strong cross-sectional evidence was found for positive associations between flextime and all outcome categories. The lack of intervention or longitudinal studies restricts clear causal inferences. This review has shown that there are theoretical and empirical reasons to view WTC as a promising tool for the maintenance of employees' work-non-work balance, health and well-being, and job-related outcomes. At the same time, however, the current state of evidence allows only very limited causal inferences to be made

  2. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  3. JOB ANALYSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, HAROLD E.

    THE JOB ANALYSES WERE COMPOSED FROM ACTIVITY RECORDS KEPT BY EACH PROFESSIONAL EXTENSION WORKER IN KANSAS. JOB ANALYSES ARE GIVEN FOR THE ADMINISTRATION (DIRECTOR, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, SATE LEADERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS), EXTENSION SPECIALISTS, DISTRICT AGENTS, AND COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS. DISCUSSION OF…

  4. Early Intervention for Toddlers With Language Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ann P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early interventions for toddlers with expressive and receptive language delays have not resulted in positive expressive language outcomes. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects on language outcomes of a caregiver-implemented communication intervention targeting toddlers at risk for persistent language delays. METHODS: Participants included 97 toddlers, who were between 24 and 42 months with language scores at least 1.33 SDs below the normative mean and no other developmental delays, and their caregivers. Toddlers were randomly assigned to the caregiver-implemented intervention or a usual-care control group. Caregivers and children participated in 28 sessions in which caregivers were taught to implement the intervention. The primary outcome was the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition, a broad-based measure of language. Outcome measurement was not blinded. RESULTS: Caregivers in the intervention improved their use of all language facilitation strategies, such as matched turns (adjusted mean difference, intervention-control, 40; 95% confidence interval 34 to 46; P < .01). Children in the intervention group had significantly better receptive language skills (5.3; 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 10.4), but not broad-based expressive language skills (0.37, 95% confidence interval −4.5 to 5.3; P = .88). CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides preliminary evidence of the short-term effects of systematic caregiver instruction on caregiver use of language facilitation strategies and subsequent changes in children’s language skills. Future research should investigate the ideal dosage levels for optimizing child outcomes and determine which language facilitation strategies are associated with specific child outcomes. Research on adaptations for families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is needed. PMID:25733749

  5. The Functional Overlap of Executive Control and Language Processing in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Emily L.; Smith, Jason F.; van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Horwitz, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. A conjunction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a flanker task with linguistic and nonlinguistic distractors and a semantic categorization task showed functional overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in bilinguals, whereas no overlap occurred in monolinguals. This research therefore identifies a neural locus of functional overlap of language and EC in the bilingual brain. PMID:27695385

  6. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2008-11-04

    Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF INTERVENTION: A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1) Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2) Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3) Communication in daily work situations, 4) Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5) How to stand up for oneself, 6) A plan to solve problems, 7) Follow-up. Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8, 12 and 24 months. Primary outcome

  7. Empowering employees with chronic diseases; development of an intervention aimed at job retention and design of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Varekamp, Inge; de Vries, Gabe; Heutink, Annelies; van Dijk, Frank JH

    2008-01-01

    Background Persons with a chronic disease are less often employed than healthy persons. If employed, many of them experience problems at work. Therefore, we developed a training programme aimed at job retention. The objective of this paper is to describe this intervention and to present the design of a study to evaluate its effectiveness. Development and description of intervention A systematic review, a needs assessment and discussions with Dutch experts led to a pilot group training, tested in a pilot study. The evaluation resulted in the development of a seven-session group training combined with three individual counselling sessions. The training is based on an empowerment perspective that aims to help individuals enhance knowledge, skills and self-awareness. These advances are deemed necessary for problem solving in three stages: exploration and clarification of work related problems, communication at the workplace, and development and implementation of solutions. Seven themes are discussed and practised in the group sessions: 1) Consequences of a chronic disease in the workplace, 2) Insight into feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease, 3) Communication in daily work situations, 4) Facilities for disabled employees and work disability legislation, 5) How to stand up for oneself, 6) A plan to solve problems, 7) Follow-up. Methods Participants are recruited via occupational health services, patient organisations, employers, and a yearly national conference on chronic diseases. They are eligible when they have a chronic physical medical condition, have a paid job, and experience problems at work. Workers on long-term, 100% sick leave that is expected to continue during the training are excluded. After filling in the baseline questionnaire, the participants are randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive no care or care as usual. Post-test mail questionnaires will be sent after 4, 8, 12 and 24 months

  8. The Efficacy of Fast ForWord Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Bohman, Thomas; Champlin, Craig A.; Thibodeau, Linda; Widen, Judith; Brandel, Jayne; Friel-Patti, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the language and auditory processing outcomes of children assigned to receive the Fast ForWord Language intervention (FFW-L) with the outcomes of children assigned to nonspecific or specific language intervention comparison treatments that did not contain modified speech. Method: Two…

  9. The Impact of Locus of Control and Controlling Language on Psychological Reactance and Ad Effectiveness in Health Communication.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Based on two theoretical models-psychological reactance theory (PRT) and locus of control-this study examines the individual and joint effects of locus of control and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-driving-after-drinking (anti-DAD) and antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) were conducted that were conceptual replications of each other. Both studies afforded evidence that those with external locus of control were more involved in risky behaviors. There was a consistent interaction between locus of control and controlling language, such that those with internal locus of control were more sensitive to this message feature compared to those with external locus of control. Controlling language was found to increase reactance. The theoretical and managerial implications for health communication are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  10. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  11. Does working with the Veder Contact Method influence the job satisfaction of caregivers? A non-randomized controlled trial in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Boersma, P; Dröes, R M; Lissenberg-Witte, B I; van Meijel, B; van Weert, J C M

    2017-08-22

    Person-centered care interventions can improve the quality of life and decrease behavioral problems of people with dementia. Although not convincingly proven, person-centered care interventions may benefit the caregivers as well. This study aims to gain insight into how working with the Veder Contact Method (VCM) - a new person-centered care method - influences the job satisfaction of caregivers. Within a quasi-experimental study, the job satisfaction of caregivers of six experimental wards (n = 75) was compared with caregivers of six control wards (n = 36) that applied Care-As-Usual. The Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire (LQWQ) was filled in by caregivers in both conditions. Additionally, on the experimental wards, qualitative research, i.e. focus groups with 42 caregivers and interviews with 11 managers, was conducted to obtain a deeper understanding of the influence of applying VCM on caregivers' job satisfaction. The transcripts were analyzed using deductive analysis. No quantitatively significant differences were found on the subscales of the LQWQ: work and time pressure, job satisfaction, autonomous decision making, social support from colleagues, and social support from supervisors. From the qualitative research, some caregivers and managers reported that implementing VCM contributed to their job satisfaction and that applying VCM supported handling difficult behavior and depressed mood of residents and contributed to team building. No significant effects on job satisfaction were demonstrated. Qualitative findings indicate that VCM positively influences the daily work performances of nursing home caregivers. The relation between the experience of offering quality care and job satisfaction of caregivers needs further investigation.

  12. Language control in different contexts: the behavioral ecology of bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Green, David William

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes that different experimental contexts (single or dual language contexts) permit different neural loci at which words in the target language can be selected. However, in order to develop a fuller understanding of the neural circuit mediating language control we need to consider the community context in which bilingual speakers typically use their two languages (the behavioral ecology of bilingual speakers). The contrast between speakers from code-switching and non-code-switching communities offers a way to increase our understanding of the cortical, subcortical and, in particular, cerebellar structures involved in language control. It will also help us identify the non-verbal behavioral correlates associated with these control processes.

  13. Bilingual Language Control in Perception versus Action: MEG Reveals Comprehension Control Mechanisms in Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Domain-General Control of Production in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2016-01-13

    For multilingual individuals, adaptive goal-directed behavior as enabled by cognitive control includes the management of two or more languages. This work used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the degree of neural overlap between language control and domain-general cognitive control both in action and perception. Highly proficient Arabic-English bilingual individuals participated in maximally parallel language-switching tasks in production and comprehension as well as in analogous tasks in which, instead of the used language, the semantic category of the comprehended/produced word changed. Our results indicated a clear dissociation of language control mechanisms in production versus comprehension. Language-switching in production recruited dorsolateral prefrontal regions bilaterally and, importantly, these regions were similarly recruited by category-switching. Conversely, effects of language-switching in comprehension were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and were not shared by category-switching. These results suggest that bilingual individuals rely on adaptive language control strategies and that the neural involvement during language-switching could be extensively influenced by whether the switch is active (e.g., in production) or passive (e.g., in comprehension). In addition, these results support that humans require high-level cognitive control to switch languages in production, but the comprehension of language switches recruits a distinct neural circuitry. The use of MEG enabled us to obtain the first characterization of the spatiotemporal profile of these effects, establishing that switching processes begin ∼ 400 ms after stimulus presentation. This research addresses the neural mechanisms underlying multilingual individuals' ability to successfully manage two or more languages, critically targeting whether language control is uniform across linguistic domains (production and comprehension) and whether it is a subdomain of general

  14. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. 14 adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. PMID:20031197

  15. Language laterality in autism spectrum disorder and typical controls: a functional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Silver, Andrew M; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A; Dominick, Kelli C; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-02-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Computer Collaboration at the Edge: Enhancing Collective Situation Understanding with Controlled Natural Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    of humans and machines , we propose a conversational interface using Controlled Natural Language (CNL), which is both human readable and machine ...processable, for shared information representation. We hypothesize that this approach facilitates rapid CSU when as- sembled dynamically with machine ...experiment wherein small groups of users attempted to build CSU via social sensing, interacting with the machine via Natural Language (NL) and CNL. To

  17. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  18. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  19. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  20. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  1. Digital-flight-control-system software written in automated-engineering-design language: A user's guide of verification and validation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The user guide of verification and validation (V&V) tools for the Automated Engineering Design (AED) language is specifically written to update the information found in several documents pertaining to the automated verification of flight software tools. The intent is to provide, in one document, all the information necessary to adequately prepare a run to use the AED V&V tools. No attempt is made to discuss the FORTRAN V&V tools since they were not updated and are not currently active. Additionally, the current descriptions of the AED V&V tools are contained and provides information to augment the NASA TM 84276. The AED V&V tools are accessed from the digital flight control systems verification laboratory (DFCSVL) via a PDP-11/60 digital computer. The AED V&V tool interface handlers on the PDP-11/60 generate a Univac run stream which is transmitted to the Univac via a Remote Job Entry (RJE) link. Job execution takes place on the Univac 1100 and the job output is transmitted back to the DFCSVL and stored as a PDP-11/60 printfile.

  2. How Do Principals and Teachers in Special Schools in Turkey Rate Themselves on Levels of Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    This study explores issues of burnout, job satisfaction, and locus of control among special school principals and teachers in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are differences between principals and teachers in terms of work status, sex, and work experiences. A quantitative approach was used: 295 participants (33…

  3. The Relationship of Locus of Control, Stress Related to Performance-Based Accreditation, and Job Stress to Burnout in Public School Teachers and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Elizabeth Smith; Malpin, Glennelle

    Results of a study to determine the amount of burnout experienced by Alabama public school teachers and principals that could be accounted for by stress related to the Alabama Performance-Based Accreditation Standards, job stress, locus of control, age, and gender are reported in this paper. Objectives of the study were to develop a measure of…

  4. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  5. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  6. Effects of a worker participatory program for improving work environments on job stressors and mental health among workers: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kaneyoshi, Akiko; Yokota, Atsuko; Kawakami, Norito

    2008-01-01

    The Mental Health Action Checklist for a Better Workplace Environment (MHACL) is a tool for a worker participatory approach to improve work environments for worker mental health. The present study investigated the effects of an organizational intervention using the MHACL on reducing job stressors and the psychological distress of workers of a manufacturing enterprise in Japan with a controlled study design. Nine of 45 departments participated in a work environment improvement program, including planning workshops, implementation and monitoring, between July and December 2005 (intervention group, n=321). The remaining 36 departments served as the control group (n=750). Outcomes (job stressors, worksite support, psychological distress, etc.), measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, as well as sick leave days taken from the company record, were recorded before and six months after the program for both groups. Among women, skill underutilization, supervisor and coworker support, psychological distress, and job satisfaction changed more favorably in the intervention group than in the control group (p<0.05). No significant favorable effect of the program was observed among men. Improvements in the outcomes were more prominent among departments with a 50% or higher rate of worker participation in the planning workshops and among departments with a 50% or higher rate of implemented vs. planned actions. A worker participatory organizational intervention using the MHACL seems effective for promoting mental health among Japanese white-collar women.

  7. Infection control education: how to make an impact--tools for the job.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Infection control education is difficult and time consuming, but there is persuasive evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. When Infection Control practitioners are educating and influencing healthcare workers, compliance with the well-established guidance on implementation of health service research is advisable, and thus educative efforts must be repeated and administered as part of a concerted and multifaceted approach. Infection Control education must be specifically designed for and targeted at the groups of staff concerned, and medical staff pose especial problems. Recruitment of clinical champions from peer groups, and direct approaches from medical members of the Infection Control team are usually needed. Familiarity with only a limited range of published evidence is needed to answer the majority of clinicians who challenge Infection Control practices, and referral to higher medical and managerial authority is required very infrequently and as a last resort. Some recent initiatives in the NHS in England may make Infection Control education more difficult, and these are reviewed. New sanctions have been made available to hospitals and Infection control teams in the UK with the passing of the Health Act in 2006, and the effects of these allied to educative interventions on benchmarks such as hospitals' MRSA bacteraemia rates will be observed with interest.

  8. Breaking Magic: Foreign Language Suppresses Superstition.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Geipel, Janet; Surian, Luca

    2017-08-24

    In three studies we found that reading information in a foreign language can suppress common superstitious beliefs. Participants read scenarios either in their native or a foreign language. In each scenario, participants were asked to imagine performing an action (e.g., submitting a job application) under a superstitious circumstance (e.g., broken mirror; four-leaf clover) and to rate how they would feel. Overall, foreign language prompted less negative feelings towards bad-luck scenarios, less positive feelings towards good-luck scenarios, while it exerted no influence on non-superstitious, control scenarios. We attribute these findings to language-dependent memory. Superstitious beliefs are typically acquired and used in contexts involving the native language. As a result, the native language evokes them more forcefully than a foreign language.

  9. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

    PubMed

    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.

  10. Nested case-control study of occupational physical activity and prostate cancer among workers using a job exposure matrix.

    PubMed

    Krishnadasan, Anusha; Kennedy, Nola; Zhao, Yingxu; Morgenstern, Hal; Ritz, Beate

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study of 362 cases diagnosed between 1 January 1988 and 31 December 1999, and 1,805 matched controls to examine the association between occupational physical activity and prostate-cancer incidence among workers at a nuclear and rocket engine-testing facility in Southern California. We obtained cancer incidence data from the California Cancer Registry and seven other state cancer registries. Data from company records were used to construct a job exposure matrix (JEM) for occupational physical activity during employment. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations. With adjustment for occupational confounders, including socioeconomic status and trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure, high activity levels at work were inversely associated with prostate-cancer incidence among aerospace workers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.95), but not among radiation workers (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.43-2.1). Our results suggest that adult men who are more continually active at work may have a decreased risk of prostate cancer.

  11. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W.; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557–582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  12. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    PubMed

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  13. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  14. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the “control network” showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation. PMID:27746729

  15. Impact of aggregating exposure information from cases and controls when building a population-based job-exposure matrix from past expert evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Tracy L; Siemiatycki, Jack; Labrèche, France; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether the inclusion of data from cases would bias a job-exposure matrix (JEM), we evaluated whether exposures were systematically different between cases and controls from a large historical case-control study. Data included 10 381 jobs assessed for occupational exposure to 294 agents within a lung cancer case-control study. For each sex, 1 JEM was developed from case jobs, and 1 from control jobs: with occupation (four-digit occupational codes), time period (1945-1959, 1960-1984, 1985-1995) and agent axes. We estimated concordance in exposure status (defined as probability of exposure threshold ≥5%) and exposure metrics of probability and intensity of exposure, between the 2 JEMs. Of all hypothetical occupation-period-agent combinations, most had no or few observations. Among males there were 8136 common cells (24-occupational codes, 3-periods, 226-agents), containing sufficient observations for comparison with 92% concordance in exposure status; discordance was equally likely to be towards cases or controls. Females had 1710 common cells (9-occupational codes, 3-periods, 114-agents) with 93% concordance in exposure status; discordant cells were more likely to reflect greater exposure among cases. Among concordantly exposed cells, probability and intensity of exposures were highly correlated between the case JEM and control JEM (Kendall τ>0.50), and absolute differences were small (median difference in probability <1.5%, median ratio in intensity=1.00) for both sexes. Agreement between the case JEM and control JEM was high, suggesting that aggregating the case and control information in our study into a single JEM is justifiable given the benefits of increased sample size. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control.

  17. Inhibitory Control of Spanish-Speaking Language-Minority Preschool Children: Measurement and Association With Language, Literacy, and Math Skills.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Darcey M; Goodrich, J Marc; Farrington, Amber L; Phillips, Beth M

    2015-12-02

    Children's self-regulation, including components of executive function such as inhibitory control, is related concurrently and longitudinally with elementary school children's reading and math abilities. Although several recent studies have examined links between preschool children's self-regulation or executive function and their academic skill development, few included large numbers of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Among the fastest growing segments of the U.S. school-age population, many of these children are at significant risk of academic difficulties. We examined the relations between inhibitory control and academic skills in a sample containing a large number of Spanish-speaking preschoolers. Overall, the children demonstrated substantial academic risk based on preschool-entry vocabulary scores in the below-average range. Children completed assessments of language, literacy, and math skills in English and Spanish, when appropriate, at the start and end of their preschool year, along with a measure of inhibitory control, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task, which was administered at the start of the preschool year in the child's dominant conversational language. Scores on this last measure were lower for children for whom it was administered in Spanish. For both English and Spanish outcomes, those scores were significantly and uniquely associated with higher scores on measures of phonological awareness and math skills but not vocabulary or print knowledge skills.

  18. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  19. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  20. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  1. Jobs in Business and Office. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes business and office occupations related to management (including personnel), records planning and control, clerical and secretarial jobs, owning your own business, and the teaching of business subjects. For each occupation, duties are outlined and working conditions discussed. Techniques used to complete the job descriptions…

  2. Jobs in Business and Office. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes business and office occupations related to management (including personnel), records planning and control, clerical and secretarial jobs, owning your own business, and the teaching of business subjects. For each occupation, duties are outlined and working conditions discussed. Techniques used to complete the job descriptions…

  3. Second language lexical development and cognitive control: A longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Family history interview of a broad phenotype in specific language impairment and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Kalnak, N; Peyrard-Janvid, M; Sahlén, B; Forssberg, H

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to study a broader phenotype of language-related diagnoses and problems in three generations of relatives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Our study is based on a family history interview of the parents of 59 children with SLI and of 100 matched control children, exploring the prevalence of problems related to language, reading, attention, school achievement and social communication as well as diagnoses such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, Asperger syndrome, dyslexia, mental retardation, cleft palate and stuttering. The results show a spectrum of language-related problems in families of SLI children. In all three generations of SLI relatives, we found significantly higher prevalence rates of language, literacy and social communication problems. The risk of one or both parents having language-related diagnoses or problems was approximately six times higher for the children with SLI (85%) than for the control children (13%) (odds ratio = 37.2). We did not find a significantly higher prevalence of the diagnoses ADHD, autism or Asperger syndrome in the relatives of the children with SLI. However, significantly more parents of the children with SLI had problems with attention/hyperactivity when compared with the parents of controls. Our findings suggest common underlying mechanisms for problems with language, literacy and social communication, and possibly also for attention/hyperactivity symptoms. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  6. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  7. Job-Seeking and Job-Acquisition in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Doherty, Fiona; O'Callaghan, Frances

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 225 Year 9 and 10 students at T1 regarding their attitude, social norms, control, experience, plans and intentions to find a part-time job while at school. Of these, 149 did not have a job and were surveyed again four months later about their job-seeking and job outcomes (104 responded at T2). Job-seeking intentions at T1 were…

  8. ACCE (Advanced Command and Control Environment) Natural Language Interface Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    readily understandable by the user in the context. At present, the functions of the ACCE workstation are stated rather gen- erally. The operating...Some of the currently foreseen functions of the workstation include database query, expert analysis and planning systems, battlefield simulations and...granted that functional programming languages such as Lisp will continue to play an important role in NLP. Not only is there a substantial body of

  9. Monolingual or bilingual intervention for primary language impairment? A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Thordardottir, Elin; Cloutier, Geneviève; Ménard, Suzanne; Pelland-Blais, Elaine; Rvachew, Susan

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of monolingual versus bilingual language intervention, the latter involving speech-language pathologist-parent collaboration. The study focuses on methods that are currently being recommended and that are feasible within current clinical contexts. Bilingual children with primary language impairment who speak a minority language as their home language and French as their second (n=29, mean age=5 years) were randomly assigned to monolingual treatment, bilingual treatment, and no-treatment (delayed-treatment) conditions. Sixteen sessions of individual language intervention were offered, targeting vocabulary and syntactic skills in French only or bilingually, through parent collaboration during the clinical sessions. Language evaluations were conducted before and after treatment by blinded examiners; these evaluations targeted French as well as the home languages. An additional evaluation was conducted 2 months after completion of treatment to assess maintenance of gains. Both monolingual and bilingual treatment followed a focused stimulation approach. Results in French showed a significant treatment effect for vocabulary but no difference between treatment conditions. Gains were made in syntax, but these gains could not be attributed to treatment given that treatment groups did not improve more than the control group. Home language probes did not suggest that the therapy had resulted in gains in the home language. The intervention used in this study is in line with current recommendations of major speech-language pathology organizations. However, the findings indicate that the bilingual treatment created through collaboration with parents was not effective in creating a sufficiently intense bilingual context to make it significantly different from the monolingual treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the gains associated with clinical modifications made for bilingual children and to search for effective ways

  10. Job Market Looks Brighter for Some Ph.D.'s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on the academic job market that is showing signs of turning around after a multiyear slump. Job-outlook data released by professional associations in recent months show an uptick in the number of jobs available in several fields, including history, the humanities and foreign languages, sociology, geography, and political…

  11. Job Market Looks Brighter for Some Ph.D.'s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on the academic job market that is showing signs of turning around after a multiyear slump. Job-outlook data released by professional associations in recent months show an uptick in the number of jobs available in several fields, including history, the humanities and foreign languages, sociology, geography, and political…

  12. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  13. Assessing language dominance with functional MRI: the role of control tasks and statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Rosengarth, Katharina; Doenitz, Christian; Greenlee, Mark W

    2012-09-01

    There is a discrepancy between the brain regions revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques and those brain regions where a loss of function, either by lesion or by electrocortical stimulation, induces language disorders. To differentiate between essential and non-essential language-related processes, we investigated the effects of linguistic control tasks and different analysis methods for functional MRI data. Twelve subjects solved two linguistic generation tasks: (1) a verb generation task and (2) an antonym generation task (each with a linguistic control task on the phonological level) as well as two decision tasks of semantic congruency (each with a cognitive high-level control task). Differential contrasts and conjunction analyses were carried out on the single-subject level and an individual lateralization index (LI) was computed. On the group level we determined the percent signal change in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG: BA 44 and BA 45). The conjunction analysis of multiple language tasks led to significantly greater absolute LIs than the LIs based on the single task versus fixation contrasts. A further significant increase of the magnitude of the LIs could be achieved by using the phonological control conditions. Although the decision tasks appear to be more robust to changes in the statistical threshold, the combined generation tasks had an advantage over the decision tasks both for assessing language dominance and locating Broca's area. These results underline the need for conjunction analysis based on several language tasks to suppress highly task-specific processes. They also point to the need for high-level cognitive control tasks to partial out general, language supporting but not language critical processes. Higher absolute LIs, which reflect unambiguously hemispheric language dominance, can be thus obtained.

  14. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning

    PubMed Central

    King, Kelly E.; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only two hours of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning. PMID:23194816

  15. Language control in bilingual adults with and without history of mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ratiu, Ileana; Azuma, Tamiko

    2017-03-01

    Adults with a history of traumatic brain injury often show deficits in executive functioning (EF), including the ability to inhibit, switch, and attend to tasks. These abilities are critical for language processing in bilinguals. This study examined the effect of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on EF and language processing in bilinguals using behavioral and eye-tracking measures. Twenty-two bilinguals with a history of mTBI and twenty healthy control bilinguals were administered executive function and language processing tasks. Bilinguals with a history of mTBI showed deficits in specific EFs and had higher rates of language processing errors than healthy control bilinguals. Additionally, individuals with a history of mTBI have different patterns of eye movements during reading than healthy control bilinguals. These data suggest that language processing deficits are related to underlying EF abilities. The findings provide important information regarding specific EF and language control deficits in bilinguals with a history mTBI.

  16. Do psychological job demands, decision control and social support predictreturn to work three months after a return-to-work (RTW) programme? The rapid-RTW cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haveraaen, Lise A; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Berg, John E; Aas, Randi W

    2015-01-01

    Long-term sickness absence is a considerable health and economic problem in the industrialised world. Factors that might predict return to work (RTW) are therefore of interest. To examine the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on RTW three months after the end of a RTW programme. A cohort study of 251 sick-listed employees from 40 different treatment and rehabilitation services in Norway recruited from February to December 2012. The Job Content Questionnaire was used to gather information on the psychosocial work conditions. Full or partial RTW was measured three months after the end of the RTW programme, using data from the national sickness absence register. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between the psychosocial work characteristics and RTW. Having low psychological job demands (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9), high co-worker- (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.5-5.8), and supervisor support (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6-7.3), and being in a low-strain job (low job demands and high control) (OR = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.1-18.6) were predictive of being in work three months after the end of the RTW programme, after adjusting for several potential prognostic factors. Interventions aimed at returning people to work might benefit from putting more emphasise on psychosocial work characteristics in the future.

  17. The Grid[Way] Job Template Manager, a tool for parameter sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.

    2011-04-01

    Parameter sweeping is a widely used algorithmic technique in computational science. It is specially suited for high-throughput computing since the jobs evaluating the parameter space are loosely coupled or independent. A tool that integrates the modeling of a parameter study with the control of jobs in a distributed architecture is presented. The main task is to facilitate the creation and deletion of job templates, which are the elements describing the jobs to be run. Extra functionality relies upon the GridWay Metascheduler, acting as the middleware layer for job submission and control. It supports interesting features like multi-dimensional sweeping space, wildcarding of parameters, functional evaluation of ranges, value-skipping and job template automatic indexation. The use of this tool increases the reliability of the parameter sweep study thanks to the systematic bookkeeping of job templates and respective job statuses. Furthermore, it simplifies the porting of the target application to the grid reducing the required amount of time and effort. Program summaryProgram title: Grid[Way] Job Template Manager (version 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AEIE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Apache license 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3545 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126 879 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl 5.8.5 and above Computer: Any (tested on PC x86 and x86_64) Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux (tested on Ubuntu 9.04, Scientific Linux 4.7, centOS 5.4), Mac OS X (tested on Snow Leopard 10.6) RAM: 10 MB Classification: 6.5 External routines: The GridWay Metascheduler [1]. Nature of problem: To parameterize and manage an application running on a grid or cluster. Solution method: Generation of job templates as a cross product of

  18. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 16B, Nike Hercules Missile Crewman, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 17 December 1976.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-17

    determine the language sdills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English...language skills. From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching I...sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them tolearn. Reading to learn involves reading names, attributes, information

  19. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 16R. Short Range Air Defense Artillery Crewman. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 1 July 1978.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    determine the language skills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the four English...language skills. From each of the three variables the following skills were determined: VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching ...often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads them to learn. Reading to learn involves reading names, attributes

  20. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  1. Towards a Secure Programming Language. An Access Control System for CommonLisp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-25

    at the 2009 International Lisp Conference, Cambridge MA March 22-25, 2009. 14. ABSTRACT Computer security is becoming an increasingly important...flow and access that would limit the damage due to a penetration. In this paper, we present an access control system for Lisp -like languages that...language as dynamic as Common- lisp is a serious challenge; we present techniques based on use of the Meta- Object Protocol (MOP) that achieve this

  2. Developing VESL Materials for the Job-Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrowicki, Linda

    A workshop is described that trains teachers of vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) how to identify the language needs of and develop lessons for a particular job or job site. The workshop, one of a series of four designed to improve the skills of refugee service provider staff, was offered twice in 1982 and 1983. Activities included…

  3. Improving Techniques in Teaching English for the Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Ross; And Others

    Using a non-technical presentation, this guide shows how computer analysis of job-relevant text materials can be used in developing language instruction for limited-English-proficient students. The chapters deal with the following issues: (1) how English language skills that are needed for success on the job can be taught more efficiently and…

  4. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-05-01

    The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units of three university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. We analyzed the job stress levels by using the Korean occupational stress scale, contributing factors, and job satisfaction. Fifty-nine workers completed the self-administered questionnaires. The job stress scores for the endoscopy unit workers (46.39±7.81) were relatively lower compared to those of the national sample of Korean workers (51.23±8.83). Job stress differed across job positions, with nurses showing significantly higher levels of stress (48.92±7.97) compared to doctors (42.59±6.37). Job stress and job satisfaction were negatively correlated with each other (R (2) =0.340, p<0.001). An endoscopy unit is composed of a heterogeneous group of health-care professionals (i.e., nurses, fellows, and professors), and job stress and job satisfaction significantly differ according to job positions. Job demand, insufficient job control, and job insecurity are the most important stressors in the endoscopy unit.

  5. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  6. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  7. Job Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angerer, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of job burnout, discusses the pioneering research and current theories of the burnout construct, along with the history of the main burnout assessment--the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concludes that an understanding of the interaction between employee and his or her environment is critical for grasping the origin of burnout.…

  8. Space Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Herman J.; And Others

    This booklet, intended for children in grades K-3 as "vocational guidance in a space age," should be read to the child in early school years at an appropriate time. The booklet is divided into five chapters and a summary. Topics discussed concern space workers, space travelers, jobs in space, spaceships, and preparing for a career in space…

  9. Job Ready.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults of Washington, Seattle.

    Intended for use by employers for assessing how "job-ready" their particular business environment may be, the booklet provides information illustrating what physical changes could be made to allow persons with mobility limitations to enter and conduct business independently in a particular building. Illustrations along with brief explanations are…

  10. Job Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerweck, Debra R.; Chauza, Phyllis J.

    This document consists of materials on Hiawatha (Kansas) High School's 1993 Job Olympics, a competition for high school students with disabilities. The materials are those included in a packet for student participants. A cover/information sheet details eligibility, entry deadline, date and place of competition, opening ceremonies, events, and a…

  11. Language barriers, physician-patient language concordance, and glycemic control among insured Latinos with diabetes: the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alicia; Schillinger, Dean; Warton, E Margaret; Adler, Nancy; Moffet, Howard H; Schenker, Yael; Salgado, M Victoria; Ahmed, Ameena; Karter, Andrew J

    2011-02-01

    A significant proportion of US Latinos with diabetes have limited English proficiency (LEP). Whether language barriers in health care contribute to poor glycemic control is unknown. To assess the association between limited English proficiency (LEP) and glycemic control and whether this association is modified by having a language-concordant physician. Cross-sectional, observational study using data from the 2005-2006 Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Patients received care in a managed care setting with interpreter services and self-reported their English language ability and the Spanish language ability of their physician. Outcome was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A1c > 9%). The unadjusted percentage of patients with poor glycemic control was similar among Latino patients with LEP (n = 510) and Latino English-speakers (n = 2,683), and higher in both groups than in whites (n = 3,545) (21% vs 18% vs. 10%, p < 0.005). This relationship differed significantly by patient-provider language concordance (p < 0.01 for interaction). LEP patients with language-discordant physicians (n = 115) were more likely than LEP patients with language-concordant physicians (n = 137) to have poor glycemic control (27.8% vs 16.1% p = 0.02). After controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders, LEP Latinos with language-concordant physicians had similar odds of poor glycemic control as Latino English speakers (OR 0.89; CI 0.53-1.49), whereas LEP Latinos with language-discordant physicians had greater odds of poor control than Latino English speakers (OR 1.76; CI 1.04-2.97). Among LEP Latinos, having a language discordant physician was associated with significantly poorer glycemic control (OR 1.98; CI 1.03-3.80). Language barriers contribute to health disparities among Latinos with diabetes. Limited English proficiency is an independent predictor for poor glycemic control among insured US Latinos with diabetes, an association not observed

  12. Language Barriers, Physician-Patient Language Concordance, and Glycemic Control Among Insured Latinos with Diabetes: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE)

    PubMed Central

    Schillinger, Dean; Warton, E. Margaret; Adler, Nancy; Moffet, Howard H.; Schenker, Yael; Salgado, M. Victoria; Ahmed, Ameena; Karter, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND A significant proportion of US Latinos with diabetes have limited English proficiency (LEP). Whether language barriers in health care contribute to poor glycemic control is unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between limited English proficiency (LEP) and glycemic control and whether this association is modified by having a language-concordant physician. DESIGN Cross-sectional, observational study using data from the 2005–2006 Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Patients received care in a managed care setting with interpreter services and self-reported their English language ability and the Spanish language ability of their physician. Outcome was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A1c > 9%). KEY RESULTS The unadjusted percentage of patients with poor glycemic control was similar among Latino patients with LEP (n = 510) and Latino English-speakers (n = 2,683), and higher in both groups than in whites (n = 3,545) (21% vs 18% vs. 10%, p < 0.005). This relationship differed significantly by patient-provider language concordance (p < 0.01 for interaction). LEP patients with language-discordant physicians (n = 115) were more likely than LEP patients with language-concordant physicians (n = 137) to have poor glycemic control (27.8% vs 16.1% p = 0.02). After controlling for potential demographic and clinical confounders, LEP Latinos with language-concordant physicians had similar odds of poor glycemic control as Latino English speakers (OR 0.89; CI 0.53–1.49), whereas LEP Latinos with language-discordant physicians had greater odds of poor control than Latino English speakers (OR 1.76; CI 1.04–2.97). Among LEP Latinos, having a language discordant physician was associated with significantly poorer glycemic control (OR 1.98; CI 1.03–3.80). CONCLUSIONS Language barriers contribute to health disparities among Latinos with diabetes. Limited English proficiency is an independent

  13. Job insecurity and health.

    PubMed

    McDonough, P

    2000-01-01

    As employers respond to new competitive pressures of global capitalism through layoffs and the casualization of labor, job insecurity affects a growing number of workers. It appears to harm mental health, but less is known about its effects on physical health and health behaviors and the mechanisms through which it may act. The prevailing individual-centered conceptualization of job insecurity as the perception of a threat to job continuity precludes systematic investigation of the social patterning of its health effects. Analysis of data from a 1994 Canadian national probability sample of adults determined that high levels of job insecurity lowered self-rated health and increased distress and the use of medications, but had no impact on heavy drinking. The findings support one possible mechanism of action whereby job insecurity reduces feelings of control over one's environment and opportunities for positive self-evaluation; these psychological experiences, in turn, have deleterious health consequences. There is little evidence of social patterning of this relationship by gender, education, household income, age, marital status, and social support at work.

  14. Input and control management scheme for the DSNP simulation language

    SciTech Connect

    Mesman, L.M.; Meneley, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The simulation language identified as the dynamic simulator for nuclear plants (DSNP) provides a flexible powerful framework from which to construct transient simulation models. This capability is very important to a university department involved in the teaching of nuclear engineering at the undergraduate and graduate levels. However, the educational environment also includes restraints; few of the potential users are experienced in computer usage. Even for experienced users, preparation of input for a typical transient simulation is an onerous task that is susceptible to error. Reference to printed documentation becomes a lengthy process. The flexibility of a package such as DSNP also carried a penalty - the user must properly define relationships among all components of the problem as well as the computational procedures for its solution in the form of a simulation driver routine in a special language with its own syntax. For these reasons, a development project was undertaken at the University of New Brunswick with the goal of simplifying the DSNP input structure and providing features to reduce input error rates.

  15. At Work in the U.S.: Readings and Language for Job Success. Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Audio Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacco, Ellen; Jablon, Paula

    This document consists of a teacher's resource guide, student book, and an accompanying audio component intended to help beginning-level adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners gain the general language skills and cultural understanding they need to function successfully in the U.S. workplace. The lessons address the following commonly…

  16. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  17. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  19. Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Language Therapy for Children with Primary Language Impairment: Principal Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, James M.; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many school-age children with language impairments are enrolled in mainstream schools and receive indirect language therapy, but there have been, to the authors' knowledge, no previous controlled studies comparing the outcomes and costs of direct and indirect intervention delivered by qualified therapists and therapy assistants, and…

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  1. Job Readiness Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesolowski, Dennis G.

    Designed for professionals in rehabilitation settings, this curriculum guide presents fifteen lessons that focus on preparing to seek a job, job seeking, and job maintenance. Among the lesson titles included in the guide are (1) How to Find the Right Job and Categories of Jobs, (2) Self-Expressed Interests and Attitudes for Specific Jobs, (3)…

  2. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function.

  4. Overlapping networks engaged during spoken language production and its cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Wise, Richard J S; Mehta, Amrish; Leech, Robert

    2014-06-25

    Spoken language production is a complex brain function that relies on large-scale networks. These include domain-specific networks that mediate language-specific processes, as well as domain-general networks mediating top-down and bottom-up attentional control. Language control is thought to involve a left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal (FTP) system. However, these regions do not always activate for language tasks and similar regions have been implicated in nonlinguistic cognitive processes. These inconsistent findings suggest that either the left FTP is involved in multidomain cognitive control or that there are multiple spatially overlapping FTP systems. We present evidence from an fMRI study using multivariate analysis to identify spatiotemporal networks involved in spoken language production in humans. We compared spoken language production (Speech) with multiple baselines, counting (Count), nonverbal decision (Decision), and "rest," to pull apart the multiple partially overlapping networks that are involved in speech production. A left-lateralized FTP network was activated during Speech and deactivated during Count and nonverbal Decision trials, implicating it in cognitive control specific to sentential spoken language production. A mirror right-lateralized FTP network was activated in the Count and Decision trials, but not Speech. Importantly, a second overlapping left FTP network showed relative deactivation in Speech. These three networks, with distinct time courses, overlapped in the left parietal lobe. Contrary to the standard model of the left FTP as being dominant for speech, we revealed a more complex pattern within the left FTP, including at least two left FTP networks with competing functional roles, only one of which was activated in speech production.

  5. The Efficacy of Fast ForWord-Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Bohman, Thomas; Champlin, Craig A.; Thibodeau, Linda; Widen, Judith; Brandel, Jayne; Friel-Patti, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the language and auditory processing outcomes of children assigned to Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) to the outcomes of children assigned to nonspecific or specific language intervention comparison treatments that did not contain modified speech. Method Two hundred and sixteen children between the ages of 6 and 9 years with language impairments were randomly assigned to one of four arms: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L), academic enrichment (AE), computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), or individualized language intervention (ILI) provided by a speech-language pathologist. All children received 1 hour and 40 minutes of treatment, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. Language and auditory processing measures were administered to the children by blinded examiners before treatment, immediately after treatment, 3 months after treatment, and 6 months after treatment. Results The children in all four arms improved significantly on a global language test and a test of backward masking. Children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the FFW-L arm did not present greater improvement on the language measures than children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the other three arms. Effect sizes, analyses of standard error of measurement, and normalization percentages supported the clinical significance of the improvements on the CASL. There was a treatment effect for the Blending Words subtest on the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Participants in the FFW-L and CALI arms earned higher phonological awareness scores than children in the ILI and AE arms at the six-month follow-up testing. Conclusion Fast ForWord-Language, the language intervention that provided modified speech to address a hypothesized underlying auditory processing deficit, was not more effective at improving general language skills or temporal processing

  6. Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction? A randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R; Andersen, L L; Zebis, M K; Sjøgaard, G

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief, with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. There was no statistically significant change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). This study does not provide evidence for an effect of a work-site strength-training program on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction.

  7. Attention control and ability level in a complex cognitive skill: attention shifting and second-language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Segalowitz, Norman; Frenkiel-Fishman, Sarah

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between attention control and proficiency in a complex cognitive skill. The participants were English-French bilinguals with varying degrees of second-language (French) proficiency. Proficiency was operationalized as efficiency of lexical access in an animacy judgment task, as reflected in the coefficient of variability of response time adjusted for first-language performance on the same task. Attention control was operationalized as the shift cost obtained in a linguistic version of the alternating runs task-switching paradigm. Hierarchical regression revealed that, overall, attention control accounted for 59% of the variance of proficiency and that second-language attention control alone accounted for 32% of the unique variance of proficiency, indicating a high degree of skill domain (second language) specificity in the relationship between attention control and proficiency. The results speak to issues regarding the development of expertise, second-language acquisition, and a cognitive linguistic approach to language and attention.

  8. The role of domain-general cognitive control in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    What role does domain-general cognitive control play in understanding linguistic input? Although much evidence has suggested that domain-general cognitive control and working memory resources are sometimes recruited during language comprehension, many aspects of this relationship remain elusive. For example, how frequently do cognitive control mechanisms get engaged when we understand language? And is this engagement necessary for successful comprehension? I here (a) review recent brain imaging evidence for the neural separability of the brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing vs. those that support domain-general cognitive control abilities; (b) define the space of possibilities for the relationship between these sets of brain regions; and (c) review the available evidence that constrains these possibilities to some extent. I argue that we should stop asking whether domain-general cognitive control mechanisms play a role in language comprehension, and instead focus on characterizing the division of labor between the cognitive control brain regions and the more functionally specialized language regions. PMID:24803909

  9. Video-Aid ESL [English as a Second Language].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofut-Roth, Sheila

    These three video-based learning modules, covering job search skills, career planning, and interpersonal communication skills on the job, were designed for use in basic English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. The Job Search Skills module covers topics such as warm and cold behaviors, identifying job skills, job interviews, and application…

  10. 75 FR 51484 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... will now capture e-mail, fax number, and Web site addresses. 3. Change Student's Vocational Training to...) Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes 41-2022.00 and 43-5081.01 to add greater clarification. 4... nationwide network of 123 Job Corps centers. The centers are located at facilities either owned or leased...

  11. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Silke; Burgoyne, Kelly; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Kyriacou, Maria; Zosimidou, Alexandra; Maxwell, Liam; Lervåg, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 394 children in England, comparing a 30-week oral language intervention programme starting in nursery (N = 132) with a 20-week version of the same programme starting in Reception (N = 133). The intervention groups were compared to an untreated waiting control group (N = 129). The programmes were delivered by trained teaching assistants (TAs) working in the children's schools/nurseries. All testers were blind to group allocation. Both the 20- and 30-week programmes produced improvements on primary outcome measures of oral language skill compared to the untreated control group. Effect sizes were small to moderate (20-week programme: d = .21; 30-week programme: d = .30) immediately following the intervention and were maintained at follow-up 6 months later. The difference in improvement between the 20-week and 30-week programmes was not statistically significant. Neither programme produced statistically significant improvements in children's early word reading or reading comprehension skills (secondary outcome measures). This study provides further evidence that oral language interventions can be delivered successfully by trained TAs to children with oral language difficulties in nursery and Reception classes. The methods evaluated have potentially important policy implications for early education. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for domain-general inhibitory control during bilingual language switching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Rossi, Sonja; Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that explored the role of domain-general inhibitory control on language switching. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded when low-proficient bilinguals with high and low inhibitory control (IC) switched between overt picture naming in both their L1 and L2. Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high-IC were symmetrical, while that of bilinguals with low-IC were not. The N2 component failed to show a significant interaction between group, language and task, indicating that inhibition may not comes into play during the language task schema competition phase. The late positive component (LPC), however, showed larger amplitudes for L2 repeat and switch trials than for L1 trials in the high-IC group, indicating that inhibition may play a key role during the lexical response selection phase. These findings suggest that domain-general inhibitory control plays an important role in modulating language switch costs and its influence can be specified in lexical selection phase.

  14. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 62F, Lifting and Loading Equipment Operator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 11 April 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-11

    form. Specifically " three variables were used to determine the language skills involved. They , were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing...VARIABLE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SKILLS Methods of Teaching dmomtration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening self-paced reading, writing 11-3...sentences to complex passages containing highly technical vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student, so the student reads

  15. Using the Feature Exchange Language in the Next Generation Controller

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    The following example illustrates how FEL can be used to send commands to a low-lev- el motion controller (in this case the GALIL 3-axis DMC-230).’ The...controlled the GALIL board would have to be designed with a higher level in- terface. 5.1.4. Image Processing In this section, we will describe how...user program for a set of Datacube boards is much more complex than the interface to the GALIL motion control described in the previous section

  16. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  17. Bilingual Cognitive Control in Language Switching: An fMRI Study of English-Chinese Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hengfen; Hu, Jiehui; Xi, Jie; Shen, Wen; Ge, Jianqiao; Geng, Feng; Wu, Yuntao; Guo, Jinjin; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the bilingual cognitive control mechanism by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals’ language switching in a blocked picture naming paradigm against three baseline conditions, namely the control condition (a fixation cross, low-level baseline), single L1 production (Chinese naming, high-level baseline), and single L2 production (English naming, high-level baseline). Different activation patterns were observed for language switching against different baseline conditions. These results indicate that different script bilingual language control involves a fronto-parietal-subcortical network that extends to the precentral gyrus, the Supplementary Motor Area, the Supra Marginal Gyrus, and the fusiform. The different neural correlates identified across different comparisons supported that bilingual language switching involves high-level cognitive processes that are not specific to language processing. Future studies adopting a network approach are crucial in identifying the functional connectivity among regions subserving language control. PMID:25180974

  18. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme and parental language: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gridley, N; Hutchings, J; Baker-Henningham, H

    2015-01-01

    Parental language is associated with children's later language development. Parenting programmes, based on social learning theory, enhance a range of parenting behaviours, yet there is limited evidence for their effect on parental language. To assess the benefits of a behavioural-based parenting programme, which features components of language and communication, to enhance parental language. Parents of toddlers, aged 12 to 36 months, were recruited from eight Flying Start early intervention centres across Wales. Participants were randomised 2:1 either to a parenting programme (n = 60) or to a wait-list control group (n = 29). Researchers were blind to participant allocation throughout the trial. Fifteen-minute video-recorded observations of parents and children interacting during free-play, both at a pre-intervention and at 6-month follow-up, provided the data for the study. Five observed measures of parental language were assessed; quantity and variety, encouraging, critical, child-led and parent led interactions. The Incredible Years Parent-Toddler Programme (IYPTP) is a 12-week group-based behavioural intervention that teaches effective relationship and behavioural management skills including social, emotional and persistence coaching to enable parents to better support their children's development. Of 89 dyads that completed pre-intervention assessments 81 (54 intervention and 27 control) met the criteria for the current study. Intention to treat analysis indicated that child-led language interactions significantly benefited from the intervention [regression coefficient (B) = -1.44, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = -2.59 to -0.29, P = 0.015, effect size (ES) = 0.47] and a positive trend for encouraging language in favour of the intervention sample was evident. Per-protocol sample analysis replicated these findings with encouraging language reaching statistical significance (B = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.11 to 2.03, P = 0.03, ES = 0.52). No further benefits were evident

  19. Reading and Language Intervention for Children at Risk of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…

  20. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  1. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  2. Reading and Language Intervention for Children at Risk of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…

  3. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  4. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  5. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  6. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  7. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  8. Job strain and supervisor support in primary care health centres and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Kivimäki, Mika; Suominen, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates associations between healthcare personnel's perceived job strain, supervisor support and the outcome of care in terms of glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Design A cross-sectional study from 2006. Setting 18 primary care health centres (HCs) from five municipalities in Finland. Participants Aggregated survey data on perceived job strain and supervisor support from healthcare personnel (doctors, n=122, mean age 45.5 years, nurses, n=300, mean age 47.1 years) were combined with registered data (Electronic Medical Records) from 8975 patients (51% men, mean age 67 years) with type 2 diabetes. Outcome measure Poor glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results The mean HbA1c level among patients with type 2 diabetes was 7.1 (SD 1.2, range 4.5–19.1), and 43% had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥7%). Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for patient's age and sex, and HC and HC service area-level characteristics, showed that patients’ HbA1c-levels were less optimal in high-strain HCs than in low-strain HCs (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.86). Supervisor support in HCs was not associated with the outcome of care. Conclusions The level of job strain among healthcare personnel may play a role in achieving good glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23645912

  9. It's My Job: Job Descriptions for Over 30 Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edie

    This book was created to assist youth-camp directors define their camp jobs to improve employee performance assessment, training, and hiring. The book, aimed at clarifying issues in fair-hiring practices required by the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), includes the descriptions of 31 jobs. Each description includes the job's minimum…

  10. It's My Job: Job Descriptions for Over 30 Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edie

    This book was created to assist youth-camp directors define their camp jobs to improve employee performance assessment, training, and hiring. The book, aimed at clarifying issues in fair-hiring practices required by the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), includes the descriptions of 31 jobs. Each description includes the job's minimum…

  11. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  12. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  13. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  14. Does Job Corps Work? Summary of the National Job Corps Study. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, John; Schochet, Peter Z.; McConnell, Sheena; Johnson, Terry; Gritz, R. Mark; Glazerman, Steven; Homrighausen, John; Jackson, Russell

    The National Job Corps Study is based on a national random sample of all eligible applicants to Job Corps in late 1994 and 1995. The sampled youth were assigned randomly to either a program group whose members could enroll in Job Corps or a control group whose members could enroll in all other programs available to them in their communities.…

  15. The role of executive control in bilingual language production: A study with Parkinson's disease individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Gabriele; Calabria, Marco; Marne, Paula; Gironell, Alexandre; Abutalebi, Jubin; Costa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia are critically involved in language control (LC) processes, allowing a bilingual to utter correctly in one language without interference from the non-requested language. It has been hypothesized that the neural mechanism of LC closely resembles domain-general executive control (EC). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the integrity of bilingual LC and its overlap with domain-general EC in a clinical population such as individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), notoriously associated with structural damage in the basal ganglia. We approach these issues in two ways. First, we employed a language switching task to investigate the integrity of LC in a group of Catalan-Spanish bilingual individuals with PD, as compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Second, to test the relationship between domain-general EC and LC we compared the performances of individuals with PD and healthy controls also in a non-linguistic switching task. We highlight that, compared to controls, individuals with PD report decreased processing speed, less accuracy and larger switching costs in terms of RT and errors in the language switching task, whereas in the non-linguistic switching task PD patients showed only increased switching cost in terms of errors. However, we report a positive correlation between the magnitudes of linguistic and non-linguistic mixing costs in individuals with PD. Taken together, these results support the notion of a critical role of the basal ganglia and connected structures in LC, and suggest a possible link between LC and domain-general EC.

  16. Identity management and privacy languages technologies: Improving user control of data privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, José Enrique López; García, Carlos Alberto Gil; Pacheco, Álvaro Armenteros; Organero, Pedro Luis Muñoz

    The identity management solutions have the capability to bring confidence to internet services, but this confidence could be improved if user has more control over the privacy policy of its attributes. Privacy languages could help to this task due to its capability to define privacy policies for data in a very flexible way. So, an integration problem arises: making work together both identity management and privacy languages. Despite several proposals for accomplishing this have already been defined, this paper suggests some topics and improvements that could be considered.

  17. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  18. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  19. Language of Work: The Critical Link between Economic Change and Language Shift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Scott

    During the 20th century there has been a widespread pattern of language shift among the indigenous communities of the United States and Canada. The language-of-work hypothesis posits that if the national language is used as the language of work for virtually all jobs in a minority-language community, the national language will, within a few…

  20. Ontology-Based Controlled Natural Language Editor Using CFG with Lexical Dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgoong, Hyun; Kim, Hong-Gee

    In recent years, CNL (Controlled Natural Language) has received much attention with regard to ontology-based knowledge acquisition systems. CNLs, as subsets of natural languages, can be useful for both humans and computers by eliminating ambiguity of natural languages. Our previous work, OntoPath [10], proposed to edit natural language-like narratives that are structured in RDF (Resource Description Framework) triples, using a domain-specific ontology as their language constituents. However, our previous work and other systems employing CFG for grammar definition have difficulties in enlarging the expression capacity. A newly developed editor, which we propose in this paper, permits grammar definitions through CFG-LD (Context-Free Grammar with Lexical Dependency) that includes sequential and semantic structures of the grammars. With CFG describing the sequential structure of grammar, lexical dependencies between sentence elements can be designated in the definition system. Through the defined grammars, the implemented editor guides users' narratives in more familiar expressions with a domain-specific ontology and translates the content into RDF triples.

  1. Adolescents with and without gestational cocaine exposure: Longitudinal analysis of inhibitory control, memory and receptive language.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Laura M; Yang, Wei; Brodsky, Nancy L; Gallagher, Paul R; Malmud, Elsa K; Giannetta, Joan M; Farah, Martha J; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes. Important changes in brain structure and function occur through adolescence, therefore it is possible that prenatal cocaine exposure has latent effects on neurocognitive (NC) outcome that do not manifest until adolescence or young adulthood. We examined NC function using a set of 5 tasks designed to tap 4 different systems: inhibitory control, working memory, receptive language, and incidental memory. For each NC task, data were collected longitudinally at ages 12, 14.5 and 17 years and examined using generalized estimating equations. One hundred and nine children completed at least two of the three evaluations. Covariates included in the final model were assessment number, gender, participant age at first assessment, caregiver depression, and two composites from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance. We found no cocaine effects on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language (p=0.18). GCE effects were observed on incidental face memory task (p=0.055), and GCE by assessment number interaction effects were seen on the incidental word memory task (p=0.031). Participant performance on inhibitory control, working memory, and receptive language tasks improved over time. HOME Environmental Stimulation composite was associated with better receptive language functioning. With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by

  2. Do Immigrants Work In Riskier Jobs?

    PubMed Central

    ORRENIUS, PIA M.; ZAVODNY, MADELINE

    2009-01-01

    Recent media and government reports suggest that immigrants are more likely to hold jobs with poor working conditions than U.S.-born workers, perhaps because immigrants work in jobs that “natives don’t want.” Despite this widespread view, earlier studies have not found immigrants to be in riskier jobs than natives. This study combines individual-level data from the 2003–2005 American Community Survey with Bureau of Labor Statistics data on work-related injuries and fatalities to take a fresh look at whether foreign-born workers are employed in more dangerous jobs. The results indicate that immigrants are in fact more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants’ lower English-language ability and educational attainment. PMID:19771943

  3. Do immigrants work in riskier jobs?

    PubMed

    Orrenius, Pia M; Zavodny, Madeline

    2009-08-01

    Recent media and government reports suggest that immigrants are more likely to hold jobs with poor working conditions than U.S.-born workers, perhaps because immigrants work in jobs that "natives don't want." Despite this widespread view, earlier studies have not found immigrants to be in riskier jobs than natives. This study combines individual-level data from the 2003-2005 American Community Survey with Bureau of Labor Statistics data on work-related injuries and fatalities to take afresh look at whether foreign-born workers are employed in more dangerous jobs. The results indicate that immigrants are in fact more likely to work in risky jobs than U.S.-born workers, partly due to differences in average characteristics, such as immigrants' lower English-language ability and educational attainment.

  4. Job burnout.

    PubMed

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  5. Formal-Language-Theoretic Control & Coordination of Mobile Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-29

    Control Specification q1 q2 q3 qA (−1) qB (+1) +1 +1 +1 −1 −1 −1 qA3 qA1 qA2 qB2 qB3 qB1 1/0.4 1/0.2 0/0.6 0/0.8 1/0.3 0/0.70/0.6 1/0.2 0/0.8 1/0.4 1...qB2 qB3 qB1 1/0.4 1/0.2 0/0.6 0/0.8 1/0.3 0/0.70/0.6 1/0.2 0/0.8 1/0.4 1/0.3 0/0.7 qA3 qA1 qA2 qB2 qB3 qB1 1/0.9 1/0.9 0/0.3 0/0.3 1/0.7 0/0.10/0.1 1

  6. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  7. Unit Testing for the Application Control Language (ACL) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinich, Christina Marie

    2014-01-01

    In the software development process, code needs to be tested before it can be packaged for release in order to make sure the program actually does what it says is supposed to happen as well as to check how the program deals with errors and edge cases (such as negative or very large numbers). One of the major parts of the testing process is unit testing, where you test specific units of the code to make sure each individual part of the code works. This project is about unit testing many different components of the ACL software and fixing any errors encountered. To do this, mocks of other objects need to be created and every line of code needs to be exercised to make sure every case is accounted for. Mocks are important to make because it gives direct control of the environment the unit lives in instead of attempting to work with the entire program. This makes it easier to achieve the second goal of exercising every line of code.

  8. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS-62J, General Construction Equipment Operator, Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 28 September 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-28

    used to determine the language skills involved. They were, 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the... Teaching demonstration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening eel f-paced reading, writing 11-3 ,.S Methods of Testing performance...Group (group of instructors of whom one teaches one portion of the whole) - Small (12 or less) - Large (more than 12) orments: -- 4 APPENDIX 5

  9. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 11H. Heavy Antiarmor Weapons Crewman. Reference Soldier’s Manual Dated 16 November 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-16

    used to determine the language skills involved. They were: 1. Methods of teaching . 2. Methods of testing. 3. The actual respondents’ ratings of the... Teaching demonstration listening, lecture listening, writing hands on listening self-paced reading, writing 11-3 Methods of Testing performance listening...simple factual words or sentences to complex passages containing highly technical vocabulary, often with ellip- sis. The purpose is to teach the student

  10. Vocational English-as-a-Second Language Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Sara C.

    This collection of competency statements deals with the English-as-a-second-language (ESL) skills that vocational students should master before entering the world of work. Addressed in the individual sections of the volume are the following topics: specific occupational terminology, safety language, on-the-job language, job-seeking language,…

  11. Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Clarke, Paula J; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the intervention immediately, whereas the remaining children received the treatment after a 20-week delay. Fifty-seven children with Down syndrome in mainstream primary schools in two UK locations (Yorkshire and Hampshire) were randomly allocated to intervention (40 weeks of intervention) and waiting control (20 weeks of intervention) groups. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, after 20 weeks of intervention, and after 40 weeks of intervention. Results After 20 weeks of intervention, the intervention group showed significantly greater progress than the waiting control group on measures of single word reading, letter-sound knowledge, phoneme blending and taught expressive vocabulary. Effects did not transfer to other skills (nonword reading, spelling, standardised expressive and receptive vocabulary, expressive information and grammar). After 40 weeks of intervention, the intervention group remained numerically ahead of the control group on most key outcome measures; but these differences were not significant. Children who were younger, attended more intervention sessions, and had better initial receptive language skills made greater progress during the course of the intervention. Conclusions A TA-delivered intervention produced improvements in the reading and language skills of children with Down syndrome. Gains were largest in skills directly taught with little evidence of generalization to skills not directly taught in the intervention. PMID:22533801

  12. Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Clarke, Paula J; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the intervention immediately, whereas the remaining children received the treatment after a 20-week delay. Fifty-seven children with Down syndrome in mainstream primary schools in two U.K. locations (Yorkshire and Hampshire) were randomly allocated to intervention (40 weeks of intervention) and waiting control (20 weeks of intervention) groups. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, after 20 weeks of intervention, and after 40 weeks of intervention. After 20 weeks of intervention, the intervention group showed significantly greater progress than the waiting control group on measures of single word reading, letter-sound knowledge, phoneme blending and taught expressive vocabulary. Effects did not transfer to other skills (nonword reading, spelling, standardised expressive and receptive vocabulary, expressive information and grammar). After 40 weeks of intervention, the intervention group remained numerically ahead of the control group on most key outcome measures; but these differences were not significant. Children who were younger, attended more intervention sessions, and had better initial receptive language skills made greater progress during the course of the intervention. A TA-delivered intervention produced improvements in the reading and language skills of children with Down syndrome. Gains were largest in skills directly taught with little evidence of generalization to skills not directly taught in the intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. A Parent-Directed Language Intervention for Children of Low Socioeconomic Status: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana L.; Leffel, Kristin R.; Graf, Eileen; Hernandez, Marc W.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Leininger, Lindsey; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed a parent-directed home-visiting intervention targeting socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in children's early language environments. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether the intervention improved parents' knowledge of child language development and increased the amount and diversity of parent talk.…

  14. A Parent-Directed Language Intervention for Children of Low Socioeconomic Status: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana L.; Leffel, Kristin R.; Graf, Eileen; Hernandez, Marc W.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Leininger, Lindsey; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed a parent-directed home-visiting intervention targeting socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in children's early language environments. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether the intervention improved parents' knowledge of child language development and increased the amount and diversity of parent talk.…

  15. Training Secondary School Teachers in Instructional Language Modification Techniques to Support Adolescents with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of a collaborative intervention where a speech-language pathologist (SLP) trained mainstream secondary school teachers to make modifications to their oral and written instructional language. The trained teachers' uptake of techniques in their whole-class teaching practices and the impact this had on the…

  16. Get a job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    At AGU's 1996 Fall Meeting, a record number of jobs were advertised through the AGU Job Center. Approximately 150 employers advertised 164 jobs at the meeting in San Francisco, while 302 applicants used the center's services and about 50 sat for on-site interviews. At the 1995 Fall Meeting, the Job Center attracted 87 employers and 230 applicants.

  17. Application of Ada higher-order language to guidance and control. Lecture series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Department of Defense stated that Ada shall become the single, common computer-programming language for Defense mission-critical applications beginning in 1984. The proposal to make Ada a NATO standard High Order Language (HOL) as well, prompted the GCP to provide a Lecture Series embracing the basic structure, theories, and principles embodied in this HOL. The need to reduce escalating software life-cycle costs is the raison d'etre for Ada. Early experience with the language suggests that the promise of increased software productivity can be fulfilled. However, many problems remain; the need for validated and efficient compilers targeted for computers suitable to the guidance and control application, and software development environments built around Ada, are two among the foremost. This Lecture Series addresses both the promise and the problems. Following an introduction to Ada, the structure and features of the language are described. Two special features of Ada, parallel processing and software reusability, are discussed in detail. Compiler development and validation, and the use of Ada in programming environments are described. Finally, the use of Ada in a real-world pilot project is described.

  18. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  19. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI), and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD) risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions. PMID:23259757

  20. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  1. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  2. Applying Strategies of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation to Maintain Work Ability-A Psychosocial Resource Complementing the Job Demand-Control Model? Results From the Representative lidA Cohort Study on Work, Age, and Health in Germany.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Natalie; Müller, Andreas; Ebener, Melanie

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether aging employees' selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies were associated with work ability over and above job demand and control variables, as well as across professions. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted using a representative sample of German employees born in 1959 and 1965 (N = 6057). SOC was assessed to have an independent effect on work ability. Associations of job demands and control variables with work ability were more prominent. The SOC tended to enhance the positive association between decision authority and work ability. Individual strategies of selection, optimization, and compensation could be considered as psychosocial resources adding up to a better work ability and complement prevention programs. Workplace interventions should deal with job demands and control to maintain older employees' work ability in times of working population shrinkage.

  3. Bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia: evidence based on negative priming and flanker tasks.

    PubMed

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. objectives: The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia.

  4. Bilingual Language Control and General Purpose Cognitive Control among Individuals with Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence Based on Negative Priming and Flanker Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Tanya; Kar, Bhoomika R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bilingualism results in an added advantage with respect to cognitive control. The interaction between bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control systems can also be understood by studying executive control among individuals with bilingual aphasia. Objectives. The current study examined the subcomponents of cognitive control in bilingual aphasia. A case study approach was used to investigate whether cognitive control and language control are two separate systems and how factors related to bilingualism interact with control processes. Methods. Four individuals with bilingual aphasia performed a language background questionnaire, picture description task, and two experimental tasks (nonlinguistic negative priming task and linguistic and nonlinguistic versions of flanker task). Results. A descriptive approach was used to analyse the data using reaction time and accuracy measures. The cumulative distribution function plots were used to visualize the variations in performance across conditions. The results highlight the distinction between general purpose cognitive control and bilingual language control mechanisms. Conclusion. All participants showed predominant use of the reactive control mechanism to compensate for the limited resources system. Independent yet interactive systems for bilingual language control and general purpose cognitive control were postulated based on the experimental data derived from individuals with bilingual aphasia. PMID:24982591

  5. World of Work: Job Club for E.S.L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This curriculum guide for an employment preparation course for adults who speak English as a second language consists of 10 units on information and general living skills related to employment. The guide is split evenly between basic information needed to obtain a job and information needed once a job is obtained. A unit may consist of one or four…

  6. World of Work: Job Club for E.S.L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This curriculum guide for an employment preparation course for adults who speak English as a second language consists of 10 units on information and general living skills related to employment. The guide is split evenly between basic information needed to obtain a job and information needed once a job is obtained. A unit may consist of one or four…

  7. American Language Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The six issues of this journal cover a variety of topics of interest to the second language professional. Among the topics covered are the following: "virtual" classrooms, staff development, traveling with students, learner self-testing, advice on how to find a job on the Web, online pronunciation aids, language teaching strategies for deaf…

  8. Reading and language intervention for children at risk of dyslexia: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Duff, Fiona J; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Snowling, Margaret J

    2014-11-01

    Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children identified by research criteria as being at risk of dyslexia (n = 56), and their school-identified peers (n = 89). An Experimental group received two 9-week blocks of daily intervention delivered by trained teaching assistants; the Control group received 9 weeks of typical classroom instruction, followed by 9 weeks of intervention. Following mixed effects regression models and path analyses, small-to-moderate effects were shown on letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and taught vocabulary. However, these were fragile and short lived, and there was no reliable effect on the primary outcome of word-level reading. This new intervention was theoretically motivated and based on previous successful interventions, yet failed to show reliable effects on language and literacy measures following a rigorous evaluation. We suggest that the intervention may have been too short to yield improvements in oral language; and that literacy instruction in and beyond the classroom may have weakened training effects. We argue that reporting of null results makes an important contribution in terms of raising standards both of trial reporting and educational practice. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Indigenous Language Education Policy: Supporting Community-Controlled Immersion in Canada and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Korne, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The vitality of most Indigenous languages in North America, like minority languages in many parts of the world, is at risk due to the pressures of majority languages and cultures. The transmission of Indigenous languages through school-based programs is a wide-spread approach to maintaining and revitalizing threatened languages in Canada and the…

  10. Indigenous Language Education Policy: Supporting Community-Controlled Immersion in Canada and the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Korne, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The vitality of most Indigenous languages in North America, like minority languages in many parts of the world, is at risk due to the pressures of majority languages and cultures. The transmission of Indigenous languages through school-based programs is a wide-spread approach to maintaining and revitalizing threatened languages in Canada and the…

  11. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  12. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  13. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  16. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals. PMID:18834625

  17. Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqi; Huang, Jason L; Wang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The current meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of job search interventions in facilitating job search success (i.e., obtaining employment). Major theoretical perspectives on job search interventions, including behavioral learning theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and coping theory, were reviewed and integrated to derive a taxonomy of critical job search intervention components. Summarizing the data from 47 experimentally or quasi-experimentally evaluated job search interventions, we found that the odds of obtaining employment were 2.67 times higher for job seekers participating in job search interventions compared to job seekers in the control group, who did not participate in such intervention programs. Our moderator analysis also suggested that job search interventions that contained certain components, including teaching job search skills, improving self-presentation, boosting self-efficacy, encouraging proactivity, promoting goal setting, and enlisting social support, were more effective than interventions that did not include such components. More important, job search interventions effectively promoted employment only when both skill development and motivation enhancement were included. In addition, we found that job search interventions were more effective in helping younger and older (vs. middle-aged) job seekers, short-term (vs. long-term) unemployed job seekers, and job seekers with special needs and conditions (vs. job seekers in general) to find employment. Furthermore, meta-analytic path analysis revealed that increased job search skills, job search self-efficacy, and job search behaviors partially mediated the positive effect of job search interventions on obtaining employment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  19. Disclosure Control of Natural Language Information to Enable Secure and Enjoyable Communication over the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.

  20. Real Jobs for Real People. Student Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingkwan, Brigitte

    The guide was designed to help immigrants and refugees, learners of English as a Second Language, prepare for employment in the United States. While the focus is on development of job search, application, and work environment skills, development of appropriate vocabulary, some grammar, and communication skills are also emphasized. The materials…

  1. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  2. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  3. Male bladder cancer risk and occupational exposure according to a job-exposure matrix-a case-control study in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathryn; Band, Pierre R; Astrakianakis, George; Le, Nhu D

    2007-12-01

    The authors investigated the risk of bladder cancer in association with exposure to over 12 000 occupational chemical agents, complex mixtures, and other substances (hereafter referred to as chemical agents). Adult males diagnosed with cancer between 1983 and 1990 in British Columbia, Canada, were surveyed. Detailed occupational histories and confounding information was provided by a self-administered questionnaire. Cancer controls were matched to bladder cancer cases, resulting in 1062 cases and 8057 controls for the analysis. An extensive United-States-based job-exposure matrix was applied to estimate cumulative exposure to occupational chemical agents. Odds ratios for bladder cancer due to exposure to chemical agents were estimated via conditional logistic regression analyses, adjusted for important confounders. A significantly (P<0.05) increased risk was detected for ever exposure to 635 chemical agents, and 341 chemical agents exhibited a significantly increasing dose-response relationship. Adjustment for multiple comparisons resulted in a subset of 29 chemical agents that continued to show significant results. A principal components analysis classified these 29 chemical agents into five independent groups, distinguished mainly by job. Exposures to these chemical agents were largely due to employment in the logging and construction industries and occupations involving motor vehicles. Consistent results were observed for bladder carcinogens reported in the literature. This study suggests that several specific chemical agents were significantly associated with the risk of bladder cancer. The chemical agents were mainly derivatives or combustion products of fossil fuels. The results corroborate important findings from the literature and document a risk for specific chemical agents not previously reported.

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on job titles.

    PubMed Central

    Amadori, D; Nanni, O; Falcini, F; Saragoni, A; Tison, V; Callea, A; Scarpi, E; Ricci, M; Riva, N; Buiatti, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--A population based case-control study was conducted in a highly agricultural area in the north east of Italy to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). METHODS--Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and on 977 controls. This paper only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios (ORs) for occupational variables were calculated, after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity, and previous Herpes zoster infection. RESULTS--From the analysis of the most frequent occupational categories, no occupation showed a significantly high risk. When the two job titles farmers only and farmer-breeders who are also involved in animal breeding are classified within the extremely varied occupation of agriculture or animal-breeding or fishing, a high risk for NHLs and CLLs is seen in the farmer-breeders (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22 - 2.63). Analyses according to histological type show that the risks are concentrated in CLLs and in low grade NHLs. No effect or trend by period at work or duration of employment in farming and animal breeding was found. CONCLUSION--Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs, particularly CLLs and low grade NHLs. This finding could be related to the use of chemicals in agriculture or to exposure to animal transmitted diseases or specific chemicals used in animal breeding. PMID:7627313

  5. Unions and Job Satisfaction: An Alternative View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison

    1990-01-01

    The dominant theoretical perspective suggests that unions reduce job satisfaction by making workers more critical of the workplace and more willing to complain. However, unions reduce wage inequality and increase worker control and commitment. A survey of 978 workers shows that unionization has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (JOW)

  6. Job strain and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Hannah; Yang, Ling; Theorell, Tores; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2007-11-01

    Cohort studies investigating the association between stress and breast cancer have shown highly inconsistent results. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study included 36,332 Swedish women age 30-50 years who were employed at baseline (1991-1992). Participants were followed through December 2004 using linkages to national registries. A total of 767 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up. Among women working full-time, low job control and high job demands were weakly associated with breast cancer risk (hazard ratios of 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.5). Women with both low job control and high job demands ("job strain") had higher risk of breast cancer than women with high job control and low demands ("low strain") (1.2; 0.9-1.6). Multivariate adjustment slightly strengthened the association between breast cancer and job strain (1.4; 1.1-1.9), whereas the associations with control and demands were unchanged. Work characteristics were unrelated to breast cancer risk among women working part-time. There was a small increased risk of breast cancer among women in full-time employment who experienced job strain, but not among part-time workers.

  7. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input.

  8. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with Multi-level Job Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yang-Ja; Kim, Ki-Dong; Jang, Seong-Yong; Park, Jinwoo

    This paper deals with a scheduling problem in a flexible job shop with multi-level job structures where end products are assembled from sub-assemblies or manufactured components. For such shops MRP (Material Requirement Planning) logic is frequently used to synchronize and pace the production activities for the required parts. However, in MRP, the planning of operational-level activities is left to short term scheduling. So, we need a good scheduling algorithm to generate feasible schedules taking into account shop floor characteristics and multi-level job structures used in MRP. In this paper, we present a GA (Genetic Algorithm) solution for this complex scheduling problem based on a new gene to reflect the machine assignment, operation sequences and the levels of the operations relative to final assembly operation. The relative operation level is the control parameter that paces the completion timing of the components belonging to the same branch in the multi-level job hierarchy. We compare the genetic algorithm with several dispatching rules in terms of total tardiness and the genetic algorithm shows outstanding performance for about forty modified standard job-shop problem instances.

  9. Invariant principles of speech motor control that are not language-specific.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2012-12-01

    Bilingual speakers must learn to modify their speech motor control mechanism based on the linguistic parameters and rules specified by the target language. This study examines if there are aspects of speech motor control which remain invariant regardless of the first (L1) and second (L2) language targets. Based on the age of academic exposure and proficiency in L2, 21 Bengali-English bilingual participants were classified into high (n = 11) and low (n = 10) L2 (English) proficiency groups. Using the Optotrak 3020 motion sensitive camera system, the lips and jaw movements were recorded while participants produced Bengali (L1) and English (L2) sentences. Based on kinematic analyses of the lip and jaw movements, two different variability measures (i.e., lip aperture and lower lip/jaw complex) were computed for English and Bengali sentences. Analyses demonstrated that the two groups of bilingual speakers produced lip aperture complexes (a higher order synergy) that were more consistent in co-ordination than were the lower lip/jaw complexes (a lower order synergy). Similar findings were reported earlier in monolingual English speakers by Smith and Zelaznik. Thus, this hierarchical organization may be viewed as a fundamental principle of speech motor control, since it is maintained even in bilingual speakers.

  10. Jobs in Construction. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in the construction industry under the classifications of public and private building. Separate chapters discuss the process of building a city hospital, a model home, and a State highway. Chapters outline miscellaneous jobs in the industry such as elevator constructors, lathers, plasterers, roofers, and sheet metal…

  11. Measuring Job Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in measuring job security and presents a comparison of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey on job tenure and contingent employment. (SK)

  12. Measuring Job Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses issues in measuring job security and presents a comparison of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Current Population Survey on job tenure and contingent employment. (SK)

  13. Job and Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Morris, Johnnye M.

    1972-01-01

    Job and task analyses for bus boy, short order cook, and child care aide; also contains a career ladder for a child care center and proposed course of study and job analysis form for child care aide. (SB)

  14. GMAG Jobs Mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This event is open to the members of the magnetism community, especially postdocs and students, who are interested in jobs in industry, national labs, and academia, or have a job opportunity to offer. Refreshments will be served

  15. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let's Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wake, Melissa; Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-08-18

    To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified "You Make the Difference" programme over six weekly sessions) or control ("usual care") arms. The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention-control) were -2.4 (95% confidence interval -6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; -0.3 (-4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (-2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; -0.5 (-4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; -0.1 (-1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and -0.1 (-1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. This community based programme targeting slow to talk toddlers was feasible and acceptable, but little evidence was found

  16. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let’s Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Design Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Setting Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Intervention Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified “You Make the Difference” programme over six weekly sessions) or control (“usual care”) arms. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. Results 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention−control) were −2.4 (95% confidence interval −6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (−2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; −0.5 (−4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; −0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and −0.1 (−1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. Conclusion

  17. Job Search Activity Patterns of Successful and Unsuccessful Job Seekers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjos, Diane L.

    1988-01-01

    Unemployed job seekers indicated resources they were using in their job search. Ninety days later, job seekers (N=178) who had found employment did not report using significantly more resources in their job search activities than did unsuccessful job seekers (N=636). Primary difference between successful and unsuccessful job seekers seemed to be…

  18. Sex Inequalities in Physical and Mental Functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese Civil Servants: Role of Job Demand, Control and Work Hours

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR=2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR=1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR=1.91), followed by for British women (OR=1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work characteristics between

  19. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  20. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…