Science.gov

Sample records for job control language

  1. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  2. LABCON - Laboratory Job Control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reams, L. T.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program LABCON controls the budget system in a component test laboratory whose workload is made up from many individual budget allocations. A common denominator is applied to an incoming job, to which all effort is charged and accounted for.

  3. Preparing Foreign Language Students for Today's Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfinkel, Alan; Schrank, Holly L.

    College language teachers should become more aware of the needs of the job market and the specific ways that language majors can use their unique characteristics to satisfy those needs. Then students must be made aware of this information. The principles of marketing can be used to examine job requirements. Steps in applying these principles…

  4. The Influence of Neutral Gender Words on Translating Job Titles from English Language into Arabic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubaideen, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the influence of neutral gender words on translating job titles from English language into Arabic Language. This qualitative research includes 20 postgraduate students doing their M.A in Applied Linguistics at the Department of English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University for the academic year 2015/2016.…

  5. Job demands × job control interaction effects: do occupation-specific job demands increase their occurrence?

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Biggs, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects and job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the inclusion of generic job demands. This research tested these two propositions via a self-report survey assessing key psychological job characteristics administered twice to a sample of correctional workers (N = 746). The research clearly identified that the assessment of correctional-specific job demands (CJD) was more strongly associated with job satisfaction, work engagement, turnover intentions and psychological strain, as compared with an assessment of generic job demands. However, the CJD did not produce a greater proportion of significant job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the generic job demands measure. The results thereby provide further support for the acknowledged 'elusiveness' of these theoretical interactions. Overall, however, the results did support the inclusion of occupation-specific measures of job demands for the accurate assessment of the health and job performance of high-risk workers. The implications for theoretical discussions that describe how high job demands are moderated by job resources are discussed. PMID:24123665

  6. Job control and social support as coping resources in job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odahara, Tsutomu

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on job satisfaction in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 867 employees (811 men and 56 women, M age = 35.2 yr.) of a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis examined whether effects of active coping on job satisfaction might depend on the extent of coping resources, such as job control or social support (supervisor and coworker). Analysis showed that the effect of active coping on job satisfaction depended on the extent of coworkers' support, not on job control and supervisors' support.

  7. Speech-Language Pathologist Job Satisfaction in School versus Medical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkhoff, Nicole L.; Collins, Dana R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine if job satisfaction differs between speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in school settings and SLPs working in medical settings. Method: The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) by Spector (1997) was sent via electronic mail to 250 SLPs in each of the 2 settings. Job satisfaction scores were…

  8. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  9. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  10. Job Satisfaction and Locus of Control in an Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Bonni J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored any relationships that existed between faculty members' locus of control and job satisfaction at a small, private, faith-based university. Two demographic variables were also analyzed in the findings: number of years teaching in higher education and tenure status. The job satisfaction instrument used was the Job in General…

  11. Job Satisfaction among Librarians in English-Language Universities in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpe, Eino

    1999-01-01

    Spector's Job Satisfaction Survey was used to measure the job satisfaction of librarians in the three English-language universities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that though librarians working in these institutions are generally satisfied, they are dissatisfied with communication and operating procedures. The relationship…

  12. A Study of Job Satisfaction Correlates among Urban School Speech Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie-Brown, Gwendolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between the job satisfaction of speech language pathologists (SLPs) and self-efficacy, work relationships and two components of job performance: teacher judgments of student improvement and supervisor ratings of teacher efficiency. It was hypothesized that each of the variables would be…

  13. Factorial invariance, scale reliability, and construct validity of the job control and job demands scales for immigrant workers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Shrager, Sandi; Baron, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    Immigrants have a different social context from those who stay in their home country or those who were born to the country that immigrants now live. Cultural theory of risk perception suggests that social context influences one's interpretation of questionnaire items. We examined psychometric properties of job control and job demand scales with US- and foreign-born workers who preferred English, Spanish, or Chinese (n = 3,114, mean age = 58.1). Across all groups, the job control scale had acceptable Cronbach's alpha (0.78-0.83) and equivalent factor loadings (ΔCFI < 0.01). Immigrants had low alpha (0.42-0.65) for the job demands scale regardless of language, education, or age of migration. Two job-demand items had different factor loadings across groups. Among immigrants, both scales had inconsistent associations with perceived job stress and self-rated health. For a better understanding of immigrants' job stress, the concept of job demands should be expanded and immigrants' expectations for job control explored.

  14. The Ability of Psychological Flexibility and Job Control to Predict Learning, Job Performance, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank W.; Flaxman, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the degree to which an individual characteristic, psychological flexibility, and a work organization variable, job control, predicted ability to learn new skills at work, job performance, and mental health, amongst call center workers in the United Kingdom (N = 448). As hypothesized, results indicated that job…

  15. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  16. Job Grading Standard for Electric Power Controller WG-5407.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The standard is used to grade nonsupervisory jobs involved in controlling the generation or distribution of electric power. The jobs are located at power generating plants, power distribution centers, and substations. The work requires ability to anticipate load changes due to work schedules, weather, and other variables, in order to engage or cut…

  17. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    PubMed

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  18. Job Stress of School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2009-01-01

    Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…

  19. Economists' Group Adjusts Policy on Discriminatory Language in Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how an economists' group brought forth policy adjustments on advertising issues. Since 1986 the association has banned advertisements in its newsletter, Job Openings for Economists, that discriminate "on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, national origin, sexual preference, or physical handicap." Facing…

  20. Bilingual Control: Sequential Memory in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2013-01-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments,…

  1. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  2. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  3. Controlled overflowing of data-intensive jobs from oversubscribed sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Wuerthwein, F.; Bockelman, B.; Bradley, D. C.; Tadel, M.; Bloom, K.; Letts, J.; Mrak Tadel, A.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS analysis computing model was always relying on jobs running near the data, with data allocation between CMS compute centers organized at management level, based on expected needs of the CMS community. While this model provided high CPU utilization during job run times, there were times when a large fraction of CPUs at certain sites were sitting idle due to lack of demand, all while Terabytes of data were never accessed. To improve the utilization of both CPU and disks, CMS is moving toward controlled overflowing of jobs from sites that have data but are oversubscribed to others with spare CPU and network capacity, with those jobs accessing the data through real time Xrootd streaming over WAN. The major limiting factor for remote data access is the ability of the source storage system to serve such data, so the number of jobs accessing it must be carefully controlled. The CMS approach to this is to implement the overflowing by means of glideinWMS, a Condor based pilot system, and by providing the WMS with the known storage limits and let it schedule jobs within those limits. This paper presents the detailed architecture of the overflow-enabled glideinWMS system, together with operational experience of the past 6 months.

  4. Expert ratings of job demand and job control as predictors of injury and musculoskeletal disorder risk in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Linda F; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between workplace injury and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk and expert ratings of job-level psychosocial demand and job control, adjusting for job-level physical demand. Methods Among a cohort of 9260 aluminium manufacturing workers in jobs for which expert ratings of job-level physical and psychological demand and control were obtained during the 2 years following rating obtainment, multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of minor injury and minor MSD, serious injury and MSD, minor MSD only and serious MSD only by tertile of demand and control, adjusting for physical demand as well as other recognised risk factors. Results Compared with workers in jobs rated as having low psychological demand, workers in jobs with high psychological demand had 49% greater risk of serious injury and serious MSD requiring medical treatment, work restrictions or lost work time (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.01). Workers in jobs rated as having low control displayed increased risk for minor injury and minor MSD (RR=1.45; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.87) compared with those in jobs rated as having high control. Conclusions Using expert ratings of job-level exposures, this study provides evidence that psychological job demand and job control contribute independently to injury and MSD risk in a blue-collar manufacturing cohort, and emphasises the importance of monitoring psychosocial workplace exposures in addition to physical workplace exposures to promote worker health and safety. PMID:26163544

  5. Job Maintenance through Supported Employment PLUS: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Telle, Nils-Torge; Moock, Jörn; Heuchert, Sandra; Schulte, Vivian; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Sickness absence from work due to experienced distress and mental health issues has continuously increased over the past years in Germany. To investigate how this alarming development can be counteracted, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating a job coaching intervention to maintain the working capacity of members of staff and ultimately prevent sickness absence. Our sample included N = 99 employees who reported mental distress due to work-related problems. The intervention group (n = 58) received between 8 and 12 individual job coaching sessions in which they worked with a professional job coach to reduce their mental distress. The control group (n = 41) received a brochure about mental distress. Data were collected before the start of the study, at the end of the job coaching intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. These data included the number of sickness absence days as the primary outcome and questionnaire measures to assess burnout indicators, life satisfaction, and work-related experiences and behaviors. Compared with the control group, the results indicated no reduction in sickness absence in the intervention group but fewer depressive symptoms, a heightened ability of the participants to distance themselves from work, more experience of work-related success, less depletion of emotional resources, and a greater satisfaction with life when participants had received the job coaching. Thus, although we could not detect a reduction in sickness absence between the groups, job coaching was shown to be a viable intervention technique to benefit employees by contributing to re-establish their mental health. We discuss the implications of the study and outline future research. PMID:27703964

  6. TEACH - A concurrent robot control language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the TEACH robot control language and its supporting operating system. It addresses concurrency, device independence, and other issues related to manipulator control, task specification, and system operation.

  7. Language control in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Crinion, J; Turner, R; Grogan, A; Hanakawa, T; Noppeney, U; Devlin, J T; Aso, T; Urayama, S; Fukuyama, H; Stockton, K; Usui, K; Green, D W; Price, C J

    2006-06-01

    How does the bilingual brain distinguish and control which language is in use? Previous functional imaging experiments have not been able to answer this question because proficient bilinguals activate the same brain regions irrespective of the language being tested. Here, we reveal that neuronal responses within the left caudate are sensitive to changes in the language or the meaning of words. By demonstrating this effect in populations of German-English and Japanese-English bilinguals, we suggest that the left caudate plays a universal role in monitoring and controlling the language in use.

  8. Divergent effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model: the roles of job control and social support.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Akihito; Shimazu, Miyuki; Odara, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of active coping on psychological distress in the context of the job demands-control-support model. Participants were 726 male nonmanagers in a large electrical company in Japan. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine whether active coping and coping resources (job control, supervisor support, and coworker support) have interaction effects on psychological distress. Active coping had an interaction effect with coworker support, whereas it did not with job control and supervisor support. Results suggest that coworker support can facilitate the effectiveness of active coping, whereas job control or supervisor support cannot.

  9. Bilingual control: sequential memory in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M; Koch, Iring

    2013-11-01

    To investigate bilingual language control, prior language switching studies presented visual objects, which had to be named in different languages, typically indicated by a visual cue. The present study examined language switching of predictable responses by introducing a novel sequence-based language switching paradigm. In 4 experiments, sequential responses (i.e., weekdays, numbers or new sequences) and an alternating language sequence (e.g., L1-L1-L2-L2) were implemented, both of which were memory based. Our data revealed switch costs, showing that a language switch is associated with worse performance compared with a language repetition, and mixing costs, which constitutes the performance difference between pure and mixed language blocks, even while producing entirely predictable responses (i.e., language and concept). Additionally, we found these switch costs with overlearned and new sequences and found that switch costs were reduced with longer preparation time. The obtained data are consistent with a proactive interference account, such as the inhibitory control model.

  10. Neural aspects of second language representation and language control.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2008-07-01

    A basic issue in the neurosciences of language is whether an L2 can be processed through the same neural mechanism underlying L1 acquisition and processing. In the present paper I review data from functional neuroimaging studies focusing on grammatical and lexico-semantic processing in bilinguals. The available evidence indicates that the L2 seems to be acquired through the same neural structures responsible for L1 acquisition. This fact is also observed for grammar acquisition in late L2 learners contrary to what one may expect from critical period accounts. However, neural differences for an L2 may be observed, in terms of more extended activity of the neural system mediating L1 processing. These differences may disappear once a more 'native-like' proficiency is established, reflecting a change in language processing mechanisms: from controlled processing for a weak L2 system (i.e., a less proficient L2) to more automatic processing. The neuroimaging data reviewed in this paper also support the notion that language control is a crucial aspect specific to the bilingual language system. The activity of brain areas related to cognitive control during the processing of a 'weak' L2 may reflect competition and conflict between languages which may be resolved with the intervention of these areas.

  11. Neural aspects of second language representation and language control.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2008-07-01

    A basic issue in the neurosciences of language is whether an L2 can be processed through the same neural mechanism underlying L1 acquisition and processing. In the present paper I review data from functional neuroimaging studies focusing on grammatical and lexico-semantic processing in bilinguals. The available evidence indicates that the L2 seems to be acquired through the same neural structures responsible for L1 acquisition. This fact is also observed for grammar acquisition in late L2 learners contrary to what one may expect from critical period accounts. However, neural differences for an L2 may be observed, in terms of more extended activity of the neural system mediating L1 processing. These differences may disappear once a more 'native-like' proficiency is established, reflecting a change in language processing mechanisms: from controlled processing for a weak L2 system (i.e., a less proficient L2) to more automatic processing. The neuroimaging data reviewed in this paper also support the notion that language control is a crucial aspect specific to the bilingual language system. The activity of brain areas related to cognitive control during the processing of a 'weak' L2 may reflect competition and conflict between languages which may be resolved with the intervention of these areas. PMID:18479667

  12. Relationships of job demand, job control, and social support on intention to leave and depressive symptoms in Japanese nurses

    PubMed Central

    SAIJO, Yasuaki; YOSHIOKA, Eiji; KAWANISHI, Yasuyuki; NAKAGI, Yoshihiko; ITOH, Toshihiro; YOSHIDA, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the relationships among the factors of the demand-control-support model (DCS) on the intention to leave a hospital job and depressive symptoms. Participants included 1,063 nurses. Job demand, job control, and support from supervisors were found to be significantly related to both the intention to leave and depressive symptoms. Based on the odds ratios per 1 SD change in the DCS factors, low support from supervisors was found to be most related to the intention to leave, and low job control was found to be most related to depressive symptoms. In models that did not include “job demand” as an independent variable, 60-h working weeks were found to have a significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. Support from supervisors is more important in preventing intention to leave and depressive symptoms among nurses than is support from co-workers. Improving job control and avoiding long working hours may be important to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:26320733

  13. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    PubMed

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223817

  14. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    PubMed

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 78 FR 42803 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health... Administration is soliciting comments regarding gathering Job Corps application data collection forms (OMB Control No. 1205-0033, expires 1/31/2014): ETA Form 653, Job Corps Health Questionnaire. DATES:...

  16. The double meaning of control: three-way interactions between internal resources, job control, and stressors at work.

    PubMed

    Meier, Laurenz L; Semmer, Norbert K; Elfering, Achim; Jacobshagen, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    The Job Demand-Control model postulates that job control attenuates the effects of job demands on health and well-being. Support for this interactive effect is rather weak. Conceivably, it holds only when there is a match between job control and individual characteristics that relate to exercising control options, such as locus of control, or self-efficacy. This three-way interaction was tested in a sample of 96 service employees, with affective strain and musculoskeletal pain as dependent variables. As hypothesized, job control attenuated the effects of stressors only for people with an internal locus of control. For people with an external locus of control, job control actually predicted poorer well-being and health as stressors increased. For self-efficacy, the corresponding three-way interaction was significant with regard to affective strain. PMID:18572995

  17. The prospective effects of workplace violence on physicians’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions: the buffering effect of job control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care professionals, including physicians, are at high risk of encountering workplace violence. At the same time physician turnover is an increasing problem that threatens the functioning of the health care sector worldwide. The present study examined the prospective associations of work-related physical violence and bullying with physicians’ turnover intentions and job satisfaction. In addition, we tested whether job control would modify these associations. Methods The present study was a 4-year longitudinal survey study, with data gathered in 2006 and 2010.The present sample included 1515 (61% women) Finnish physicians aged 25–63 years at baseline. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted while adjusting for gender, age, baseline levels, specialisation status, and employment sector. Results The results of covariance analyses showed that physical violence led to increased physician turnover intentions and that both bullying and physical violence led to reduced physician job satisfaction even after adjustments. We also found that opportunities for job control were able to alleviate the increase in turnover intentions resulting from bullying. Conclusions Our results suggest that workplace violence is an extensive problem in the health care sector and may lead to increased turnover and job dissatisfaction. Thus, health care organisations should approach this problem through different means, for example, by giving health care employees more opportunities to control their own work. PMID:24438449

  18. Improving the General Language Skills of Second-Language Learners in Kindergarten: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogde, Kristin; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression, and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy…

  19. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual. PMID:25077013

  20. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  1. [Burn-out among personnel of prisons: Karasek's job demand-control model].

    PubMed

    Lourel, M; Gana, K; Prud'homme, V; Cercle, A

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to test a path model describing the effects of the dimensions of the Karasek's "job strain" model on burn-out among a sample of personnel of prisons (n=119). This model assumes that the combination of high job demands along with low decision latitude at work precipitates psychological strain and physical illness. Job demands refer to the perceived demands from job and others in the workplace. Decision latitude is an operationalization of the concept of control and has often been defined as the combination of job decision-making authority and the opportunity to use and develop skills on the job. The findings support this model. Indeed, high level of workload acts positively on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in contrast, high level of job decisions latitude acts negatively on emotional exhaustion and positively on personnel accomplishment. Limits of this study are discussed. PMID:15738858

  2. Whole-Language and Item-Specific Control in Bilingual Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64…

  3. Virtual Machine Language Controls Remote Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center worked with Blue Sun Enterprises, based in Boulder, Colorado, to enhance the company's virtual machine language (VML) to control the instruments on the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatiles Extraction mission. Now the NASA-improved VML is available for crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, and has potential applications on remote systems such as weather balloons, unmanned aerial vehicles, and submarines.

  4. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Psychiatric Health Symptoms for Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Michael J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Collected data from 416 experienced air traffic controllers to examine the hypothesized positive relationship between job satisfaction and psychiatric symptomatology. Job satisfaction was measured with self-report instruments while psychiatric symptomatology was assessed via a standardized diagnostic interview. Results provide strong support for…

  5. Dimensions of Job Control in Computerized and Traditional Office Work and Its Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Widerszal-Bazyl; Zolnierczyk

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates whether a consistent relationship exists between computerization and job control. It also examines the role of job control as a predictor of stress symptoms typical for data entry and word processing (VDU) work. Two groups of VDU users and two comparable non-VDU-user groups took part in this study. A special questionnaire made it possible to assess global job control and four indexes of control related to specific aspects of work (control over choice of tasks and methods, control over time frame, control related to one's skill, and control related to participation in the decision making process). Results did not show an unequivocal relation between computerization and the latitude of control. The latitude of control depends on the task performed and the aspect of control we are considering. Regression analyses showed that global control is a good predictor of job satisfaction, some mood disturbances, and visual complaints. The other aspects of control are related in a variety of ways to stress symptoms. The role of a Type A behavior pattern in the relationship between job control and stress symptoms varies depending on which aspect of control is being considered. It was concluded that because of the high functional differences between various aspects of control, it is better to avoid using the concept of global control and, when possible, apply specific indexes of control. PMID:10603536

  6. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  7. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  8. Mediating effects of emotional exhaustion on the relationship between job demand–control model and mental health.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hwa; Du, Pey-Ian; Chen, Chin-Hui; Yang, Chin-Ann; Huang, Ing-Chung

    2011-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the role of emotional exhaustion as a mediator on the relationship between job demands-control (JDC) model and mental health. Three-wave data from 297 employees were collected. The results showed that job demands were positively related to emotional exhaustion, and increasing job demands will increase the level of emotional exhaustion. Job control was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion; therefore, increasing job control will decrease the level of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion was negatively related to mental health. Emotional exhaustion fully mediated the relationship between job demands and mental health, and partially mediated the positive relationship between job control and mental health. In addition, job control was positively associated with mental health directly. The remarkable finding of the present study was that emotional exhaustion served as the key mediator between the JDC model and mental health. Theoretical and managerial implications and limitations were discussed. PMID:27486627

  9. Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (χ2) test and hypothesis test (η) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (χ2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were χ2 = 85.652 and χ2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing

  10. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monolingual Tasks and Simultaneous Interpreting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Annette M. B.; Christoffels, Ingrid K.

    2006-01-01

    The typical speech of (fluent) bilinguals in monolingual settings contains few switches into the non-target language. Apparently, bilinguals can control what language they output. This article discusses views on how bilinguals exert control over their two languages in monolingual tasks, where participants only have to implicate one of their…

  11. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  12. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations. PMID:15451859

  13. The Effects of Job Demands and Low Job Control on Work-Family Conflict: The Role of Fairness in Decision Making and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pekkarinen, Laura; Sinervo, Timo; Kouvonen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether perceptions of organizational fairness (the procedural and interactional components) were able to diminish the negative effects of high job demands and low job control on the balance between work and family. The study participants were 713 women working in long-term care for elderly people in Finland. The results…

  14. The role of job control as a moderator of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence-outcome relationships.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R

    2000-03-01

    Job control may be defined as the latitude to make decisions and the freedom to select the most appropriate skills to complete the task. Emotional dissonance may be defined as the conflict between expressed and experienced emotions. In this study, job control and self-efficacy were theorized to jointly affect emotional dissonance. Individuals with high self-efficacy were found to be more satisfied under conditions of little job control, whereas those with low self-efficacy favored high job control. The impact of job control on emotional intelligence was also studied. Emotional intelligence may be defined as the set of skills that contribute to accurate self-appraisal of emotion as well as the detection of emotional cues in others and the use of feelings to motivate and achieve in one's life. Emotional intelligence and job control explained significant amounts of the variance in both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Maternal control strategies, maternal language usage and children's language usage at two years.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-03-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n=60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were categorized into continuum-of-control groups (i.e., high guidance (HG), high control (HC) or high negative control (HNC)). Mothers in the high negative control group, who characteristically used high levels of prohibitions and commands, had children who performed relatively poorly overall on the language measures (i.e., MLU, number of bound morphemes, number of different words and use of language functions). In contrast, children of mothers in the HG and HC groups exhibited more advanced language usage overall. The relation between maternal and child language usage was mediated by parenting style for child pragmatics and partially for child grammar.

  16. Whole-language and item-specific control in bilingual language production.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-11-01

    The current study investigated the scope of bilingual language control differentiating between whole-language control involving control of an entire lexicon specific to 1 language and lexical-level control involving only a restricted set of recently activated lexical representations. To this end, we tested 60 Dutch-English (Experiment 1) and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) on a verbal fluency task in which speakers produced members of letter (or phoneme for Chinese) categories first in 1 language and then members of either (a) the same categories or (b) different categories in their other language. Chinese-English bilinguals also named pictures in both languages. Both bilingual groups showed reduced dominant language fluency after producing exemplars from the same categories in the nondominant language, whereas nondominant language production was not influenced by prior production of words from the same categories in the other language. Chinese-English, but not Dutch-English, bilinguals exhibited similar testing order effects for different letter/phoneme categories. In addition, Chinese-English bilinguals who exhibited significant testing order effects in the repeated categories condition of the fluency task exhibited no such effects when naming repeated pictures after a language switch. These results imply multiple levels of inhibitory control in bilingual language production. Testing order effects in the verbal fluency task pinpoint a lexical locus of bilingual control, and the finding of interference effects for some bilinguals even when different categories are tested across languages further implies a whole-language control process, although the ability to exert such global inhibition may only develop for some types of bilinguals.

  17. Passive versus active operator work in automated process control--a job design case study in a control centre.

    PubMed

    Persson, A; Wanek, B; Johansson, A

    2001-10-01

    Methods of avoiding common problems associated with operator work in automated process control, such as understimulation and difficulties in achieving and maintaining necessary skills and competence, are addressed in this paper. The source of these problems is deduced here to be that monitoring tasks are a predominant part of the job. This case study shows how work in a highly automated process can be designed not only to avoid the traditional problems, but also provide a stimulating job within a good work situation at the same time as fulfilling efficiency demands. A new definition of active/passive operator jobs is made which is based on a categorisation of the types of work tasks that make up the job. The definition gives an explanation of how different designs of operator jobs result in more or less active/passive work situations.

  18. Sustained and transient language control in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yapeng; Kuhl, Patricia K; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-08-01

    Bilingual speakers must have effective neural mechanisms to control and manage their two languages, but it is unknown whether bilingual language control includes different control components. Using mixed blocked and event-related designs, the present study explored the sustained and transient neural control of two languages during language processing. 15 Chinese-English bilingual speakers were scanned when they performed language switching tasks. The results showed that, compared to the single language condition, sustained bilingual control (mixed language condition) induced activation in the bilateral inferior frontal, middle prefrontal and frontal gyri (BA 45/46). In contrast, relative to the no switch condition, transient bilingual control (language switching condition) activated the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 2/40), superior parietal lobule (BA 7), and middle frontal gyrus (BA 11/46). Importantly, the right superior parietal activity correlated with the magnitude of the mixing cost, and the left inferior and superior parietal activity covaried with the magnitude of the asymmetric switching costs. These results suggest that sustained and transient language control induced differential lateral activation patterns, and that sustained and transient activities in the human brain modulate the behavioral costs during switching-related language control.

  19. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  20. 75 FR 51485 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health Questionnaire... collection of data about Job Corps Health Questionnaire, Form ETA 6-53 which expires on 10/31/2010. A copy of..., Office of Job Corps, Room N-4507, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210. Telephone...

  1. Language Control Abilities of Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festman, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Although all bilinguals encounter cross-language interference (CLI), some bilinguals are more susceptible to interference than others. Here, we report on language performance of late bilinguals (Russian/German) on two bilingual tasks (interview, verbal fluency), their language use and switching habits. The only between-group difference was CLI:…

  2. The development of oral motor control and language.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-08-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is affected in a variety of developmental disorders, including Down syndrome. However, its development is poorly understood. We investigated oral motor control in three groups: adults with acquired aphasia, individuals with developmental dysphasia, and typically developing children. In individuals with speech and language difficulties, oral motor control was impaired. More complex movements and sets of movements were even harder for individuals with language impairments. In typically developing children (21-24 months), oral motor control was found to be related to language skills. In both studies, a closer relationship was found between language and complex oral movements than simple oral movements. This relationship remained when the effect of overall cognitive ability was removed. Children who were poor at oral movements were not good at language, although children who were good at oral movements could fall anywhere on the distribution of language abilities. Oral motor skills may be a necessary precursor for language skills.

  3. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  4. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  5. Burnout and Workload Among Health Care Workers: The Moderating Role of Job Control

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Finco, Gabriele; Campagna, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Background As health care workers face a wide range of psychosocial stressors, they are at a high risk of developing burnout syndrome, which in turn may affect hospital outcomes such as the quality and safety of provided care. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating effect of job control on the relationship between workload and burnout. Methods A total of 352 hospital workers from five Italian public hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure exhaustion, cynicism, job control, and workload. Data were collected in 2013. Results In contrast to previous studies, the results of this study supported the moderation effect of job control on the relationship between workload and exhaustion. Furthermore, the results found support for the sequential link from exhaustion to cynicism. Conclusion This study showed the importance for hospital managers to carry out management practices that promote job control and provide employees with job resources, in order to reduce the burnout risk. PMID:25379330

  6. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J.; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors (‘decision latitude’ and ‘job demands’) for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of ‘very often’ and ‘always’ for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach’s α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65–0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25–0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  7. Evaluating Job Demands and Control Measures for Use in Farm Worker Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Toni; Gabbard, Susan; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Shen, Rui; Li, Jia; Nakamoto, Jorge; Carroll, Daniel J; Muntaner, Carles

    2015-10-01

    Workplace stress likely plays a role in health disparities; however, applying standard measures to studies of immigrants requires thoughtful consideration. The goal of this study was to determine the appropriateness of two measures of occupational stressors ('decision latitude' and 'job demands') for use with mostly immigrant Latino farm workers. Cross-sectional data from a pilot module containing a four-item measure of decision latitude and a two-item measure of job demands were obtained from a subsample (N = 409) of farm workers participating in the National Agricultural Workers Survey. Responses to items for both constructs were clustered toward the low end of the structured response-set. Percentages of responses of 'very often' and 'always' for each of the items were examined by educational attainment, birth country, dominant language spoken, task, and crop. Cronbach's α, when stratified by subgroups of workers, for the decision latitude items were (0.65-0.90), but were less robust for the job demands items (0.25-0.72). The four-item decision latitude scale can be applied to occupational stress research with immigrant farm workers, and potentially other immigrant Latino worker groups. The short job demands scale requires further investigation and evaluation before suggesting widespread use. PMID:25138138

  8. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection.

    PubMed

    Branzi, Francesca M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Canini, Matteo; Costa, Albert; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2016-06-01

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control.

  9. Relationships among organizational family support, job autonomy, perceived control, and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia A; Prottas, David J

    2006-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 3,504) to investigate relationships among availability of formal organizational family support (family benefits and alternative schedules), job autonomy, informal organizational support (work-family culture, supervisor support, and coworker support), perceived control, and employee attitudes and well-being. Using hierarchical regression, the authors found that the availability of family benefits was associated with stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intentions, and the availability of alternative schedules was not related to any of the outcomes. Job autonomy and informal organizational support were associated with almost all the outcomes, including positive spillover. Perceived control mediated most of the relationships.

  10. Losing control of your languages: a case study.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Marco; Marne, Paula; Romero-Pinel, Lucía; Juncadella, Montserrat; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are usually quite good at restricting their lexicalization output to the desired language while preventing all sorts of language intrusions from the language not in use. However, brain damage can affect these abilities of language control, leading to striking and flagrant linguistic behaviours, such as pathological language mixing (pLM) and pathological switching (pLS). In this paper we report the performance of a Catalan-Spanish bilingual individual (R.R.T.) who, due to a neuroinflammatory disease and subcortical lesions, shows pLS. We tested R.R.T. in several tasks of language production and control, such as picture naming (objects and actions), word translation, blocked naming, and language switching task. R.R.T. was also tested in executive control (EC) tasks, such as task switching and a flanker task. We found several interesting results. First, cross-language intrusions were present much more frequently when R.R.T. was asked to speak in her first (and dominant) language (Catalan) than when she was asked to do so in the nondominant language (Spanish). Second, the results provide evidence suggesting that damage to certain subcortical structures may lead to problems in controlling the language output during verbalization in bilingual speakers. Third, we observed that R.R.T. seemed to show more difficulties in language control with verbs. Fourth, R.R.T. showed impaired performance compared to controls in both task switching and a flanker task. The results are discussed in relation to other findings of pLM and pLS in published single-case reports and in relation to EC deficits. PMID:24499376

  11. Losing control of your languages: a case study.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Marco; Marne, Paula; Romero-Pinel, Lucía; Juncadella, Montserrat; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual speakers are usually quite good at restricting their lexicalization output to the desired language while preventing all sorts of language intrusions from the language not in use. However, brain damage can affect these abilities of language control, leading to striking and flagrant linguistic behaviours, such as pathological language mixing (pLM) and pathological switching (pLS). In this paper we report the performance of a Catalan-Spanish bilingual individual (R.R.T.) who, due to a neuroinflammatory disease and subcortical lesions, shows pLS. We tested R.R.T. in several tasks of language production and control, such as picture naming (objects and actions), word translation, blocked naming, and language switching task. R.R.T. was also tested in executive control (EC) tasks, such as task switching and a flanker task. We found several interesting results. First, cross-language intrusions were present much more frequently when R.R.T. was asked to speak in her first (and dominant) language (Catalan) than when she was asked to do so in the nondominant language (Spanish). Second, the results provide evidence suggesting that damage to certain subcortical structures may lead to problems in controlling the language output during verbalization in bilingual speakers. Third, we observed that R.R.T. seemed to show more difficulties in language control with verbs. Fourth, R.R.T. showed impaired performance compared to controls in both task switching and a flanker task. The results are discussed in relation to other findings of pLM and pLS in published single-case reports and in relation to EC deficits.

  12. Job-Related Language Training for Limited English Proficient Employees: A Handbook for Program Developers and A Guide for Decision Makers in Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert J.; And Others

    This two-part manual is designed to assist employers who desire to retain, promote, or retrain their limited-English-proficient (LEP) workforce to meet the challenge of training and adaptation to job restructuring. This document contains manuals for both English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program developers and business/industry decision makers.…

  13. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  14. Job Scheduling Under the Portable Batch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert L.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The typical batch queuing system schedules jobs for execution by a set of queue controls. The controls determine from which queues jobs may be selected. Within the queue, jobs are ordered first-in, first-run. This limits the set of scheduling policies available to a site. The Portable Batch System removes this limitation by providing an external scheduling module. This separate program has full knowledge of the available queued jobs, running jobs, and system resource usage. Sites are able to implement any policy expressible in one of several procedural language. Policies may range from "bet fit" to "fair share" to purely political. Scheduling decisions can be made over the full set of jobs regardless of queue or order. The scheduling policy can be changed to fit a wide variety of computing environments and scheduling goals. This is demonstrated by the use of PBS on an IBM SP-2 system at NASA Ames.

  15. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  16. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  17. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language.

  18. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals’ mouse-movements were attracted to native-language competitors, while bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly-learned language. PMID:22462514

  19. Bilingual language control: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Christoffels, Ingrid K; Firk, Christine; Schiller, Niels O

    2007-05-25

    This study addressed how bilingual speakers switch between their first and second language when speaking. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and naming latencies were measured while unbalanced German (L1)-Dutch (L2) speakers performed a picture-naming task. Participants named pictures either in their L1 or in their L2 (blocked language conditions), or participants switched between their first and second language unpredictably (mixed language condition). Furthermore, form similarity between translation equivalents (cognate status) was manipulated. A cognate facilitation effect was found for L1 and L2 indicating phonological activation of the non-response language in blocked and mixed language conditions. The ERP data also revealed small but reliable effects of cognate status. Language switching resulted in equal switching costs for both languages and was associated with a modulation in the ERP waveforms (time windows 275-375 ms and 375-475 ms). Mixed language context affected especially the L1, both in ERPs and in latencies, which became slower in L1 than L2. It is suggested that sustained and transient components of language control should be distinguished. Results are discussed in relation to current theories of bilingual language processing.

  20. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  1. Comprehensive Erosion and Sediment Control Training Program for Job Superintendents and Inspectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Harry L., Jr.

    One of two training program texts built around the Virginia Erosion and Sediment Control Law and Program, this guide presents a program designed to meet the needs of job superintendents and inspectors. (The other guide, containing a program for engineers, architects, and planners, was designed to train professional people who need engineering and…

  2. The Collective Good: Unionization, Perceived Control, and Overall Job Satisfaction among Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Joann E.; Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper follow up a recent study by the authors on perceived control by examining what role working in a union or nonunion college has in influencing faculty job satisfaction. Using data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this study explored the relative importance of variables,…

  3. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among…

  4. Communication for the Workplace: An Integrated Language Approach. Second Edition. Job Skills. Net Effect Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Blanche; Perfetto, Edda

    Using a developmental, hands-on approach, this text/workbook helps students master the basic English skills that are essential to write effective business correspondence, to recognize language errors, and to develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. Its step-by-step focus and industry-specific format encourages students to review,…

  5. The Right Tool for the Job: Techniques for Analysis of Natural Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Georgia M.

    A variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing information about the natural use of natural languages is surveyed, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the properties of a research task that make a given technique more or less suitable to it rather than comparing techniques globally and ranking them absolutely. An initial goal is to…

  6. 75 FR 51484 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and Assistance... comments concerning the collection of data about Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record [OMB Control No... Career Transition Service ID (the acronym CTS will appear on the actual form); change...

  7. Job Stress and Locus of Control in Teachers: Comparisons between Samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived…

  8. Multifamily Quality Control Inspector Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Quality Control Inspector JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily quality control inspectors, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  9. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  10. Countering the negative effects of job insecurity through participative decision making: lessons from the demand-control model.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M

    2005-10-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of increased organizational participative decision making in attenuating the negative consequences of job insecurity. Data were collected from 807 employees in 6 different companies. Analyses suggest that job insecurity is related to lower coworker, work, and supervisor satisfaction and higher turnover intentions and work withdrawal behaviors. However, employees with greater participative decision-making opportunities reported fewer negative consequences of job insecurity compared with employees with fewer participative decision-making opportunities. Results are interpreted using the demand-control model and suggest that organizations that allow greater employee participative decision making may experience fewer negative side effects from today's rising levels of employee job insecurity. PMID:16248683

  11. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top-down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top-down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1-L2 and L2-L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top-down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  12. Language control in bilingual language comprehension: evidence from the maze task

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Most empirical evidence on switch costs is based on bilingual production and interpreted as a result of inhibitory control. It is unclear whether such a top–down control process exists in language switching during comprehension. This study investigates whether a non-lexical switch cost is involved in reading code-switched sentences and its relation to language dominance with cross-script bilingual readers. A maze task is adopted in order to separate top–down inhibitory effects, from lexical effects driven by input. The key findings are: (1) switch costs were observed in both L1–L2 and L2–L1 directions; (2) these effects were driven by two mechanisms: lexical activation and inhibitory control; (3) language dominance modulated the lexical effects, but did not affect the inhibitory effects. These results suggest that a language control mechanism is involved in bilingual reading, even though the control process is not driven by selection as in production. At the theoretical level, these results lend support for the Inhibitory Control model during language switching in comprehension; while the BIA/BIA+ model needs to incorporate a top–down control mechanism to be able to explain the current findings. PMID:26347675

  13. OCCULT-ORSER complete conversational user-language translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Young, K.

    1981-01-01

    Translator program (OCCULT) assists non-computer-oriented users in setting up and submitting jobs for complex ORSER system. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data. OCCULT is designed for those who would like to use ORSER but cannot justify acquiring and maintaining necessary proficiency in Remote Job Entry Language, Job Control Language, and control-card formats. OCCULT is written in FORTRAN IV and OS Assembler for interactive execution.

  14. Functional description of a command and control language tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elke, David R.; Seamster, Thomas L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The status of an ongoing project to explore the application of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) technology to NASA command and control languages is described. The primary objective of the current phase of the project is to develop a user interface for an ITS to assist NASA control center personnel in learning Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL). Although this ITS will be developed for Gamma Ray Observatory operators, it will be designed with sufficient flexibility so that its modules may serve as an ITS for other control languages such as the User Interface Language (UIL). The focus of this phase is to develop at least one other form of STOL representation to complement the operational STOL interface. Such an alternative representation would be adaptively employed during the tutoring session to facilitate the learning process. This is a key feature of this ITS which distinguishes it from a simulator that is only capable of representing the operational environment.

  15. The right posterior paravermis and the control of language interference.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Roberto; Richardson, Fiona M; Dick, Frederic; Leech, Robert; Green, David W; Thomas, Michael S C; Price, Cathy J

    2011-07-20

    Auditory and written language in humans' comprehension necessitates attention to the message of interest and suppression of interference from distracting sources. Investigating the brain areas associated with the control of interference is challenging because it is inevitable that activation of the brain regions that control interference co-occurs with activation related to interference per se. To isolate the mechanisms that control verbal interference, we used a combination of structural and functional imaging techniques in Italian and German participants who spoke English as a second language. First, we searched structural MRI images of Italian participants for brain regions in which brain structure correlated with the ability to suppress interference from the unattended dominant language (Italian) while processing heard sentences in their weaker language (English). This revealed an area in the posterior paravermis of the right cerebellum in which gray matter density was higher in individuals who were better at controlling verbal interference. Second, we found functional activation in the same region when our German participants made semantic decisions on written English words in the presence of interference from unrelated words in their dominant language (German). This combination of structural and functional imaging therefore highlights the contribution of the right posterior paravermis to the control of verbal interference. We suggest that the importance of this region for language processing has previously been missed because most fMRI studies limit the field of view to increase sensitivity, with the lower part of the cerebellum being the region most likely to be excluded.

  16. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  17. Job submission and control on a generic batch system: the BLAH experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzadri, Massimo; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David

    2011-12-01

    The status, functionality and design rationale of the 'Batch Local Ascii Helper' (BLAH) service for submitting and controlling jobs on a batch system are presented. BLAH is part of both the Condor and CREAM systems. At the end of the major cycle represented by the EU EGEE projects, reflexion on its evolution provides some insight on technological choices that can stand the proof of time.

  18. NODAL — The second life of the accelerator control language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisinier, G.; Perriollat, F.; Ribeiro, P.; Kagarmanov, A.; Kovaltsov, V.

    1994-12-01

    NODAL has been a popular interpreter language for accelerator controls since the beginning of the 1970s. NODAL has been rewritten in the C language to be easily portable to the different computer platforms which are in use in accelerator controls. The paper describes the major features of this new version of NODAL, the major software packages which are available through this implementation, the platforms on which it is currently running, and some relevant performances. The experience gained during the rejuvenation project of the CERN accelerator control systems is presented. The benefit of this is discussed, in particular in a view of the prevailing strong constraints in personnel and money resources.

  19. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea. PMID:27366000

  20. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea. PMID:27366000

  1. Does High Emotional Demand with Low Job Control Relate to Suicidal Ideation among Service and Sales Workers in Korea?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Jeung, Dayee; Chang, Sei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    We examined the relationship of high emotional demands and low job control to suicidal ideation among service and sales workers in Korea. A total of 1,995 service and sales workers participated in this study. Suicidal ideation and level of emotional demand and job control were assessed by self-reported questionnaire in 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Gender-specific odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for suicidal ideation were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The results show that workers who suffered from high emotional demands (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.24-3.45 in men, OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in women) or low job control (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.75 in men, OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.91-1.93 in women) were more likely to experience suicidal ideation after controlling for age, household income, and employment characteristics. The interaction model of emotional demands and job control revealed that workers with high emotional demands and high job control (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.08-3.45 in men, OR, 1.60; 95% CI,1.06-2.42 in women) and high emotional demands and low job control (OR; 4.60, 95% CI;1.88-11.29 in men, OR; 2.78, 95% CI;1.64-4.44 in women) had a higher risk for suicidal ideation compared to those with low emotional demands and high job control after controlling for age, household income, employment characteristics, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity habit. These results suggest that high emotional demands in both genders and low job control in men might play a crucial role in developing suicidal ideation among sales and service workers in Korea.

  2. Inhibitory Control Predicts Language Switching Performance in Trilingual Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Schwieter, John W.; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of domain-general inhibitory control in trilingual speech production. Taking an individual differences approach, we examined the relationship between performance on a non-linguistic measure of inhibitory control (the Simon task) and a multilingual language switching task for a group of fifty-six native English (L1)…

  3. HyperTechnic--A Graphic Object-Orientated Control Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Peter

    The fundamental problem for control languages is that they must be able to deal with the simultaneous actions of multiple objects. Accordingly, it is the basic premise of the HyperTechnic system that it is easier for children to view control problems in terms of relationships between multiple agents, rather than as one agent responding to a…

  4. The Language of Numerical Control: A Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton Paul

    Numerical control, a technique for automatically controlling equipment, is a system in which machine actions are determined by symbolic data recorded on a suitable media. This glossary of standardized nomenclature for numerical control defines and describes some 286 technical words and terms. Numerous entries are defined and described as they…

  5. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  6. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  7. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  8. The EFL/ESL Job Search Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Adelaide, Ed.

    This handbook offers step-by-step advice to teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) for job searchers entering the job market and finding and accepting a job in the field. The goal is to find a job that matches the searcher's interests, skills, goals, and preparation with those of the employer. Topics…

  9. Language as a Means of Social Control: The United States Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibowitz, Arnold H.

    Language is defined here as a means of social control, a viewpoint by which language restrictions can be seen as a method of discriminating against speakers of minority languages. A government designates an official language to restrict access to economic and political power. This view of language is substantiated by an analysis of the United…

  10. Occupational safety: application of the job demand-control-support model.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lori Anderson; Krauss, Autumn D; Chen, Peter Y; Finlinson, Scott; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang

    2008-09-01

    The utility of the job demand-control-support (JDCS) model for explaining psychological and physical well-being has been documented in a variety of settings. The current study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the JDCS model for predicting occupational safety well-being criteria (i.e., workplace injuries) based on two studies that employed samples of union blue-collar workers from two different regions of the United States. The JDCS model's buffer hypotheses were evaluated using hierarchical linear modeling. Both studies showed significant interactions between situational constraints and safety control to predict workplace injuries such that safety control buffered the negative effects of situational constraints. No significant three-way interaction between situational constraints, safety control, and safety climate on workplace injuries was found for either study. The implications of the present findings for both the JDCS model and occupational safety research are discussed.

  11. Control of Task Sequences: What Is the Role of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kleffner-Canucci, Killian; Kikumoto, Atsushi; Redford, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    It is almost a truism that language aids serial-order control through self-cuing of upcoming sequential elements. We measured speech onset latencies as subjects performed hierarchically organized task sequences while "thinking aloud" each task label. Surprisingly, speech onset latencies and response times (RTs) were highly synchronized,…

  12. Programs and resources for control of job stress in the Federal workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joice, Wendell

    1993-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago, the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health held a conference in Washingtion, D.C. entitled 'Stress in the 90's'. At this conference the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) conducted a session on 'Programs and Resources for the Control of Job Stress in the Federal Workplace'. I am going to present an overview of that three-hour session and some related information from the conference. My discussion covers stress terminology and models, selected programs and resources, evaluation research, some concerns about our progress, and plans to expand our efforts at OPM.

  13. Natural Language Control of Resources for Experimental Data Acquisition Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harbort, Robert A.; Franklin, David; Spencer, James H.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation outlines the results of research into providing a “friendly interface” between a medical scientist and a medical data acquisition system for doing clinical research. The intended user of the system is presumed to have no knowledge of programming languages. The research has emphasized outlining the needs of such a user in terms of hardware configuration, developing specifications for meeting these needs dynamically, and creating a natural language control structure for setting up experiments without the help of a programmer or electronics technician.

  14. Independent Children's Social Work Practice Pilots: Evaluating Practitioners' Job Control and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Ridley, Julie; Austerberry, Helen; Farrelly, Nicola; Larkins, Cath; Bilson, Andy; Stanley, Nicky

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a new model that delegates some out-of-home care services from the public to the private and not-for-profit sectors in England enhances practitioners' job control and stress levels. Methods: A 3-year longitudinal matched-control evaluation examined changes in Karasek demand-control model and Maslach burnout…

  15. Improving proactive control with training on language switching in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyun; Kang, Chunyan; Wu, Yanjing; Ma, Fengyang; Guo, Taomei

    2015-04-15

    The present study examined how a short period of language switching training affects nonverbal cognitive control, as measured by the AX version of the Continuous Performance Test. A group of Chinese-English bilinguals were trained over 10 days on a picture naming task that required switching between languages. We recorded their behavioral performance and event-related potentials before and after the training to examine its effects on cognitive performance. The behavioral measurement of proactive control, that is, goal maintenance before the occurrence of the target, is significantly larger in the post-training phase as compared with the pretraining phase, indicating a proactive control shift. The event-related potential results show that the training led to an increase in the mean amplitude of the N2 component, elicited by both the cue and the probe stimuli. A group of control participants who did not undergo training showed an enlarged N2 only for the probe but not for the cue stimuli in the second as compared with the first phase of testing. No variations in behavioral performance were found in the control group between the two phases of testing. These findings suggest that language switching training enhances proactive control in bilinguals.

  16. A review of control processes and their locus in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-12-01

    Language switching has been one of the main tasks to investigate language control, a process that restricts bilingual language processing to the target language. In the current review, we discuss the How (i.e., mechanisms) and Where (i.e., locus of these mechanisms) of language control in language switching. As regards the mechanisms of language control, we describe several empirical markers of language switching and their relation to inhibition, as a potentially important mechanism of language control. From this overview it becomes apparent that some, but not all, markers indicate the occurrence of inhibition during language switching and, thus, language control. In a second part, we turn to the potential locus of language control and the role of different processing stages (concept level, lemma level, phonology, orthography, and outside language processing). Previous studies provide evidence for the employment of several of these processing stages during language control so that either a complex control mechanism involving different processing stages and/or multiple loci of language control have to be assumed. Based on the discussed results, several established and new theoretical avenues are considered.

  17. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  18. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence—A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs. PMID:27458410

  19. The Relation between Effortful Control and Language Competence-A Small But Mighty Difference between First and Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Loher, Sarah; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study evaluates the effect of effortful control (EC) as a core dimension of temperament on early language competence. We assume that first and second language competence is influenced by EC, and that immigrant children with low EC are thus at risk of an unfavorable language development. The sample consisted of n = 351 dual language learners (DLLs) with an immigrant background and n = 78 monolingual children. Language competence was measured with a standardized language test at age 4.9 years and at age 6.3 years. EC was captured with the Child Behavior Questionnaire, completed by teachers. Results of regression analyses revealed a significant effect of EC on second language development. DLLs with lower EC were found to have not only lower language competence at the beginning and the end of kindergarten but also a less favorable language development. Comparisons between the effect of EC on first and second language provide evidence that EC plays a bigger role in subsequent second language competence compared to first language competence. Overall, the results emphasize the small yet significant role of EC in the second language development of DLLs.

  20. The Minimum Requirements of Language Control: Evidence from Sequential Predictability Effects in Language Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and…

  1. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  2. Real-time job monitoring and performance control of primary cementing operations as a way to total quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerker, H.F.

    1995-12-01

    A high-accuracy wellsite mud-logging system was developed and implemented to compare standpipe pressures and annular flow rates during primary cementing operations with real-time predictions from a hydraulic simulation model. This paper investigates the development of possible cementing job execution problems, such as low (laminar) flow rates in the annulus at critical job stages, resulting in unsatisfactory mud displacement and ultimately inadequate zonal isolation. Ways to eliminate or at least control free-fall-induced problems through hydraulic simulation at the rigsite and comparison with real-time job parameters, such as pump rates, standpipe pressures, and annular return rates, are presented with detailed descriptions of tested flowmeter equipment and logging experience gained during field testing. Several case studies are presented that compare predictions from job simulation with recorded data (flow-in/-out and standpipe pressure) highlighting special trends, such as fracturing formations, caused by excessive equivalent circulating densities (ECD`s) during free-fall conditions.

  3. Sleep Quality Among Latino Farmworkers in North Carolina: Examination of the Job Control-Demand-Support Model.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Nguyen, Ha T; Quandt, Sara A; Chen, Haiying; Summers, Phillip; Walker, Francis O; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Sleep problems are associated with physical and mental health disorders and place individuals at an increased risk of workplace injuries. The demand-control-support model posits that job demands and the capacity to control work processes influence workers' level of distress, thereby affecting their physical and mental health; supervisor support can buffer the negative effect of high demands and low control. Data on the sleep quality and the organization of work of Latino men were collected in agricultural areas in North Carolina in 2012. 147 Mexican-born farmworkers ages 30 and older, most of whom had H-2A visas, provided information about sleep quality and organization of work. Most (83 %) farmworkers reported good sleep quality. The association between working more than 40 h per week and reporting poor sleep quality approached statistical significance. Additional research is needed to understand whether job demands, job control, and social support affect farmworkers' sleep quality.

  4. Executive and Language Control in the Multilingual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers. PMID:24868121

  5. Executive and language control in the multilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.

  6. Description directed control: its implications for natural language generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper proposes a very specifically constrained virtual machine design for goal-directed natural language generation based on a refinement of the technique of data-directed control that the author has termed description-directed control. Important psycholinguistic properties of generation follow inescapably from the use of this control technique, including: efficient runtimes, bounded lookahead, indelible decisions, incremental production of the text, and inescapable adherence to gramaticality. The technique also provides a possible explanation for some well-known universal constraints, though this cannot be confirmed without further empirical investigation. 29 references.

  7. Job Satisfaction of the Public School Teacher, A Function of Subculture Consensus with Respect to Pupil Control Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuskiewicz, Vincent D.; Donaldson, William S.

    This empirical study evaluated several factors believed to be related to job satisfaction: teachers' own attitudes toward pupil control, teachers' perceptions of their colleagues and, principals' attitudes toward pupil control. Coefficients of correlation,, t-tests of selected variables, and multivariate regression techniques were used in testing…

  8. The minimum requirements of language control: evidence from sequential predictability effects in language switching.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Mathieu; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-03-01

    The current study systematically examined the influence of sequential predictability of languages and concepts on language switching. To this end, 2 language switching paradigms were combined. To measure language switching with a random sequence of languages and/or concepts, we used a language switching paradigm that implements visual cues and stimuli. The other paradigm implements a fixed sequence of languages and/or concepts to measure predictable language switching. Four experiments that used these 2 paradigms showed that switch costs were smaller when both the language and concept were predictably known, whereas no overall switch cost reduction was found when just the language or concept was predictable. These results indicate that knowing both language and concept (i.e., response) can resolve language interference. However, interference resolution does not start solely based on the knowledge of which concept or language one has to produce. We discuss how existent models should be revised to accommodate these results.

  9. The Experience of Emotions during the Job Search and Choice Process among Novice Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Gauvin, Natalie; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigate the role of emotions in the job search and choice process of novice job seekers. Results of qualitative analyses of the first-person accounts of 41 job seekers indicate that participants whose recollections of their job search contained emotional language were more likely to display a haphazard job search strategy than…

  10. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  11. Applying Standard Interfaces to a Process-Control Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    A method of applying open-operating-system standard interfaces to the NASA User Interface Language (UIL) has been devised. UIL is a computing language that can be used in monitoring and controlling automated processes: for example, the Timeliner computer program, written in UIL, is a general-purpose software system for monitoring and controlling sequences of automated tasks in a target system. In providing the major elements of connectivity between UIL and the target system, the present method offers advantages over the prior method. Most notably, unlike in the prior method, the software description of the target system can be made independent of the applicable compiler software and need not be linked to the applicable executable compiler image. Also unlike in the prior method, it is not necessary to recompile the source code and relink the source code to a new executable compiler image. Abstraction of the description of the target system to a data file can be defined easily, with intuitive syntax, and knowledge of the source-code language is not needed for the definition.

  12. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Method Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9–12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. Results The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Conclusions Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types. PMID:26262428

  13. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim

    2013-10-01

    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain.

  14. Immigrant farmworkers' health-related quality of life: an application of the job demands-control model.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, J G; Quandt, S A; Arcury, T A

    2008-01-01

    This study tests basic predictions from the demands-control model of occupational stress in Latino immigrant farmworkers. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 151 farmworkers in eastern North Carolina via face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish during the summer of 2005. Results suggest that farmwork is characterized by low psychological demand and low control, or that it is a "passive job." Multivariate analyses provided little support for predictions. Isometric load, an indicator of physical job demands reflecting how frequently workers maintain awkward postures for long periods, was associated with poorer physical health, and high worker control was associated with better mental health. However, pace of work, an indicator of psychological job demand, was unassociated with physical and mental health, and physical exertion, another indicator of physical job demand, was not robustly associated with health outcomes. The results suggest that core predictions from the demands-control model do not hold for immigrant farmworkers, and they foreshadow possible ways of refining the model. PMID:18376537

  15. QPA-CLIPS: A language and representation for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    QPA-CLIPS is an extension of CLIPS oriented towards process control applications. Its constructs define a dependency network of process actions driven by sensor information. The language consists of three basic constructs: TASK, SENSOR, and FILTER. TASK's define the dependency network describing alternative state transitions for a process. SENSOR's and FILTER's define sensor information sources used to activate state transitions within the network. Deftemplate's define these constructs and their run-time environment is an interpreter knowledge base, performing pattern matching on sensor information and so activating TASK's in the dependency network. The pattern matching technique is based on the repeatable occurrence of a sensor data pattern. QPA-CIPS has been successfully tested on a SPARCStation providing supervisory control to an Allen-Bradley PLC 5 controller driving molding equipment.

  16. Language control in bilinguals: Intention to speak vs. execution of speech.

    PubMed

    Reverberi, Carlo; Kuhlen, Anna; Abutalebi, Jubin; Greulich, R Stefan; Costa, Albert; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-05-01

    Bilinguals require a high degree of cognitive control to select the language intended for speaking and inhibit the unintended. Previous neuroimaging studies have not teased apart brain regions for generating the intention to use a given language, and those for speaking in that language. Separating these two phases can clarify at what stage competition between languages occurs. In this fMRI study German-English bilinguals were first cued to use German or English. After a delay, they named a picture in the cued language. During the intention phase, the precuneus, right superior lateral parietal lobule, and middle temporal gyrus were more activated when participants had to update the currently active language. During language execution activation was higher for English compared to German in brain areas associated with cognitive control, most notably the anterior cingulate and the caudate. Our results suggest two different systems enabling cognitive control during bilingual language production.

  17. Language proficiency modulates the engagement of cognitive control areas in multilinguals.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Ding, Guosheng; Weekes, Brendan; Costa, Albert; Green, David W

    2013-03-01

    Language proficiency should modulate the regions involved in language control in predictable ways during language switching. However, prior studies reveal inconsistent effects on the regions involved in language monitoring [pre-Supplementary Motor Area/Anterior Cingulate Cortex (pre-SMA/ACC)] and language selection (left caudate) conceivably because variations in relative proficiency are confounded with other between-group differences. We circumvented this problem in an fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) study of overt picture naming in trilingual participants. In this case, the difference between a high-proficient and a low-proficient further language can be assessed within subjects with no between-group confound. We also used a monolingual group to assess the neural correlates of switching between two categories of response within the same language. We report a novel result: relative language proficiency dissociates response of the pre-SMA/ACC and left caudate during language switching. Switching between languages increased pre-SMA/ACC response regardless of proficiency differences. By contrast, left caudate response did vary with proficiency differences. Switching from the most to the least proficient language increased the response. Within-language switching, as contrasted with between-language switching, elicited a comparable increase in pre-SMA/ACC response but a decrease in left caudate response. Taken together, our data support a wider role of pre-SMA/ACC in task monitoring and establish the critical role of the left caudate in the selection of the less proficient language in language switching.

  18. On the overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general executive control.

    PubMed

    Branzi, Francesca M; Calabria, Marco; Boscarino, Maria Lucrezia; Costa, Albert

    2016-05-01

    We explored the overlap between bilingual language control (bLC) and domain-general executive control (EC) by focusing on inhibitory control processes. We tested 62 bilinguals in linguistic and non-linguistic switching tasks for two types of costs, such as the n-1 shift cost and the n-2 repetition cost. In order to explore the involvement of inhibitory control in bLC and EC, we assessed the pattern of switch costs in the two tasks and then we correlated them between tasks. Results showed reduced n-2 repetition costs as compared to n-1 shift costs in the linguistic task only, suggesting that small amount of inhibition were deployed when switching between languages. Importantly, neither the n-1 shift costs nor the n-2 repetition costs were correlated between tasks. These results, supported by additional evidence from the ex-Gaussian analysis, suggest that inhibitory control is differently involved in bLC and in EC. PMID:27043252

  19. Language control and lexical competition in bilinguals: an event-related FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Zimine, Ivan; Pegna, Alan J; Seghier, Mohamed L; Lee-Jahnke, Hannelore; Lazeyras, François; Cappa, Stefano F; Khateb, Asaid

    2008-07-01

    Language selection (or control) refers to the cognitive mechanism that controls which language to use at a given moment and context. It allows bilinguals to selectively communicate in one target language while minimizing the interferences from the nontarget language. Previous studies have suggested the participation in language control of different brain areas. However, the question remains whether the selection of one language among others relies on a language-specific neural module or general executive regions that also allow switching between different competing behavioral responses including the switching between various linguistic registers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the neural correlates of language selection processes in German-French bilingual subjects during picture naming in different monolingual and bilingual selection contexts. We show that naming in the first language in the bilingual context (compared with monolingual contexts) increased activation in the left caudate and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, the activation of these areas is even more extended when the subjects are using a second weaker language. These findings show that language control processes engaged in contexts during which both languages must remain active recruit the left caudate and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in a manner that can be distinguished from areas engaged in intralanguage task switching.

  20. Job constraints and arterial hypertension: different effects in men and women: the IHPAF II case control study

    PubMed Central

    Radi, S; Lang, T; Lauwers-Cances, V; Diene, E; Chatellier, G; Larabi, L; De Gaudemaris, R; t for

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine, in a working population of men and women, the relation between organisational job constraints (job strain, passive and active jobs) and incident hypertension and the buffering effect of social support at work on this relation. Methods: A nested case control study was designed within the IHPAF (Incidence of Hypertension in a French Working Population) cohort study. The 20 worksite physicians participating in the study enrolled 203 cases and matched each case for age (SD 10 years) and sex with two normotensive subjects attending the follow up screening immediately after him or her. As a result, 426 men and 183 women were included in the study. Results: Mean age was 41.8 (SD 7.8) years in men and 43.5 (SD 7.5) years in women. Relations between job constraints and hypertension were stronger in women than in men. Odds ratios (OR) were 3.20 (95% CI 0.92 to 11.12) in women and 2.60 (95% CI 1.15 to 5.85) in men for job strain, 4.73 (95% CI 1.36 to 16.42) in women and 2.30 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.26) in men for passive jobs, and 4.51 (95% CI 1.24 to 16.43) in women and 2.39 (95% CI 1.10 to 5.18) in men for active jobs. Low social support at work was not related to hypertension and did not decrease the association with organisational risk factors. In both hypertensive men and women, obesity was related to hypertension (OR = 13.20 (95% CI 3.34 to 52.14) in women and 6.54 (95% CI 2.99 to 14.29) in men) and the prevalence of recent stressful life events was significantly lower in hypertensive women (OR = 0.32 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.89)) and men (OR = 0.37 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67) compared with normotensives. Alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for hypertension in women (OR = 3.47 (95% CI 1.18 to 10.25)). Conclusion: A stronger relation between job constraints and hypertension was observed in women compared with men. These findings emphasise the need of addressing more sex-specific concepts of work related stress on the one hand, and of understanding the direct

  1. Bilingual aphasia and language control: a follow-up fMRI and intrinsic connectivity study.

    PubMed

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Rosa, Pasquale Anthony Della; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W; Cappa, Stefano F

    2009-01-01

    In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of the dynamics of recovery. In a novel longitudinal, single-case study, we combine fMRI and dynamic causal modeling to examine the effects of specific language treatment for picture naming on the representation and control of language areas during the course of recovery. Improved performance in the treated language was associated with increased activation in language areas. Consistent with theoretical expectations, causal modeling indicated increased connectedness of the control and language networks for the treated language. This functional approach holds great promise for investigating recovery patterns and the effects of specific language treatment in bilingual aphasic patients.

  2. Improving outcomes of preschool language delay in the community: protocol for the Language for Learning randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early language delay is a high-prevalence condition of concern to parents and professionals. It may result in lifelong deficits not only in language function, but also in social, emotional/behavioural, academic and economic well-being. Such delays can lead to considerable costs to the individual, the family and to society more widely. The Language for Learning trial tests a population-based intervention in 4 year olds with measured language delay, to determine (1) if it improves language and associated outcomes at ages 5 and 6 years and (2) its cost-effectiveness for families and the health care system. Methods/Design A large-scale randomised trial of a year-long intervention targeting preschoolers with language delay, nested within a well-documented, prospective, population-based cohort of 1464 children in Melbourne, Australia. All children received a 1.25-1.5 hour formal language assessment at their 4th birthday. The 200 children with expressive and/or receptive language scores more than 1.25 standard deviations below the mean were randomised into intervention or ‘usual care’ control arms. The 20-session intervention program comprises 18 one-hour home-based therapeutic sessions in three 6-week blocks, an outcome assessment, and a final feed-back/forward planning session. The therapy utilises a ‘step up-step down’ therapeutic approach depending on the child’s language profile, severity and progress, with standardised, manualised activities covering the four language development domains of: vocabulary and grammar; narrative skills; comprehension monitoring; and phonological awareness/pre-literacy skills. Blinded follow-up assessments at ages 5 and 6 years measure the primary outcome of receptive and expressive language, and secondary outcomes of vocabulary, narrative, and phonological skills. Discussion A key strength of this robust study is the implementation of a therapeutic framework that provides a standardised yet tailored approach for

  3. Co-Worker Implemented Job Training: The Use of Coincidental Training and Quality-Control Checking on the Food Preparation Skills of Trainees with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likins, Marilyn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Co-workers of three job trainees with mental retardation used coincidental training procedures while completing their own jobs. Coincidental training resulted in improved accuracy of salad-making skills, but skill acquisition was very slow; subsequently, a model and a quality-control check were added, resulting in higher performance levels. (JDD)

  4. The importance of genetic and shared environmental factors for the associations between job demands, control, support and burnout.

    PubMed

    Blom, Victoria; Bodin, Lennart; Bergström, Gunnar; Hallsten, Lennart; Svedberg, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14,516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  5. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  6. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  7. Breath-taking jobs: a case–control study of respiratory work disability by occupation in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fell, AKM; Abrahamsen, R; Henneberger, PK; Svendsen, MV; Andersson, E; Torén, K; Kongerud, J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current knowledge on respiratory work disability is based on studies that used crude categories of exposure. This may lead to a loss of power, and does not provide sufficient information to allow targeted workplace interventions and follow-up of patients with respiratory symptoms. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify occupations and specific exposures associated with respiratory work disability. Methods In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of the general population, aged 16–50, in Telemark County, Norway. We defined respiratory work disability as a positive response to the survey question: ‘Have you ever had to change or leave your job because it affected your breathing?’ Occupational exposures were assessed using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix, and comparison of risks was made for cases and a median of 50 controls per case. Results 247 workers had changed their work because of respiratory symptoms, accounting for 1.7% of the respondents ever employed. The ‘breath-taking jobs’ were cooks/chefs: adjusted OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.0); welders: 5.2 (2.0 to 14); gardeners: 4.5 (1.3 to 15); sheet metal workers: 5.4 (2.0 to 14); cleaners: 5.0 (2.2 to 11); hairdressers: 6.4 (2.5 to 17); and agricultural labourers: 7.4 (2.5 to 22). Job changes were also associated with a variety of occupational exposures, with some differences between men and women. Conclusions Self-report and job-exposure matrix data showed similar findings. For the occupations and exposures associated with job change, preventive measures should be implemented. PMID:27365181

  8. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  9. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control.

    PubMed

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-10-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy. PMID:26491475

  10. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control.

    PubMed

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-10-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy.

  11. Aspects of Oral Language, Speech, and Written Language in Subjects with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy of Difficult Control

    PubMed Central

    Berberian, Ana Paula; Hopker, Christiane; Mazzarotto, Ingrid; Cunha, Jenane; Guarinello, Ana Cristina; Massi, Giselle; Crippa, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 50 million people have epilepsy and 30% of them have epilepsy that does not respond to properly conducted drug treatment. Objective Verify the incidence of language disorders in oral language, speech, and written language of subjects with difficult to control temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and compare the occurrence of these disorders in subjects before and after surgery. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative analysis, exploratory type. A questionnaire for data collection was administered covering the following aspects: oral language, speech complaints, and writing production and comprehension. Criteria for inclusion of subjects were a diagnosis of TLE refractory to drug treatment and at least 4 years of schooling. Results The sample of 63 patients with TLE was divided into two groups: presurgical (n = 31) and postsurgical (n = 32). In the postsurgical group, there was a higher frequency of left lobectomy (75%) than right (25%). Conclusion Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test (significance level of 0.05). Complaints related to speech-language attention were more predominant in postsurgical subjects. Analysis of oral language, speech, and written language in subjects with epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy or not showed findings consistent with symptoms related to transient aphasia, with the presence of paraphasias, as well as changes in speech prosody and melody. These symptoms appeared more associated with recurrence after having a temporal lobectomy. PMID:26491475

  12. Qualitative Differences between Bilingual Language Control and Executive Control: Evidence from Task-Switching

    PubMed Central

    Calabria, Marco; Hernández, Mireia; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that highly proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2), the so-called “symmetrical switch cost” effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC) can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC). We tested highly proficient Catalan–Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1) or L3 (Experiment 2) depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag). In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (color and shape). Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system. PMID:22275905

  13. Electrophysiological evidence for endogenous control of attention in switching between languages in overt picture naming.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Kim M W; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2010-08-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues preceded picture stimuli by 750 msec. Cue-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured while Dutch-English bilingual speakers overtly named pictures. The response language on consecutive trials could be the same (repeat trials) or different (switch trials). Naming latencies were longer on switch than on repeat trials, independent of the response language. Cue-locked ERPs showed an early posterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for L2 but not for L1, and a late anterior negativity for switch compared to repeat trials for both languages. The early switch-repeat effect might reflect disengaging from the nontarget native language, whereas the late switch-repeat effect reflects engaging in the target language. Implications for models of bilingual word production are discussed.

  14. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection. PMID:25859674

  15. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  16. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Job Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Black, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for job change analogous to a thermostat, in which job satisfaction is the "thermometer," change in a job or between jobs is the "adjustment lever," and values, life status, readiness to change, and job opportunities are the "controls." (26 references) (SK)

  18. In-context language control with production tasks in bilinguals: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Huang, Peiyu; Song, Zhe; Fang, Liang; Shen, Tong; Li, Yan; Gong, Qiyong; Xie, Peng

    2014-10-17

    Bilinguals exhibit a feat to control their two languages in conversation. The neural substrates of bilingual language control have been well investigated with language switching paradigm. Yet, most of those studies have taken single lexical items (i.e., words outside a context) as the investigative tool. In the present study, we examined the neural substrates of in-context language control in unbalanced bilinguals with a sentence-end switching paradigm. Our results showed that in-context language control in bilinguals recruited the neural mechanisms that were similar in kind to those responsible for cognitive control in general. When the direction of switching was considered, we found that backward switching called for more cognitive/language control relative to forward switching. Behaviorally, symmetric switching costs were found regardless of the switching factor (switching vs. non-switching) and the language factor (L1 vs. L2). We interpreted our imaging and behavioral results as the effects of context when unbalanced bilinguals controlled their two languages in a context.

  19. Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washio, Yukiko; Houmanfar, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals' language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and…

  20. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. PMID:25858600

  1. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing.

  2. Early Intervention for Toddlers With Language Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ann P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early interventions for toddlers with expressive and receptive language delays have not resulted in positive expressive language outcomes. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects on language outcomes of a caregiver-implemented communication intervention targeting toddlers at risk for persistent language delays. METHODS: Participants included 97 toddlers, who were between 24 and 42 months with language scores at least 1.33 SDs below the normative mean and no other developmental delays, and their caregivers. Toddlers were randomly assigned to the caregiver-implemented intervention or a usual-care control group. Caregivers and children participated in 28 sessions in which caregivers were taught to implement the intervention. The primary outcome was the Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition, a broad-based measure of language. Outcome measurement was not blinded. RESULTS: Caregivers in the intervention improved their use of all language facilitation strategies, such as matched turns (adjusted mean difference, intervention-control, 40; 95% confidence interval 34 to 46; P < .01). Children in the intervention group had significantly better receptive language skills (5.3; 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 10.4), but not broad-based expressive language skills (0.37, 95% confidence interval −4.5 to 5.3; P = .88). CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides preliminary evidence of the short-term effects of systematic caregiver instruction on caregiver use of language facilitation strategies and subsequent changes in children’s language skills. Future research should investigate the ideal dosage levels for optimizing child outcomes and determine which language facilitation strategies are associated with specific child outcomes. Research on adaptations for families from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is needed. PMID:25733749

  3. The Functional Overlap of Executive Control and Language Processing in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Emily L.; Smith, Jason F.; van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Horwitz, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. A conjunction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a flanker task with linguistic and nonlinguistic distractors and a semantic categorization task showed functional overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in bilinguals, whereas no overlap occurred in monolinguals. This research therefore identifies a neural locus of functional overlap of language and EC in the bilingual brain. PMID:27695385

  4. The Functional Overlap of Executive Control and Language Processing in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Coderre, Emily L.; Smith, Jason F.; van Heuven, Walter J.B.; Horwitz, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. A conjunction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a flanker task with linguistic and nonlinguistic distractors and a semantic categorization task showed functional overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in bilinguals, whereas no overlap occurred in monolinguals. This research therefore identifies a neural locus of functional overlap of language and EC in the bilingual brain.

  5. Executive Control of Language in the Bilingual Brain: Integrating the Evidence from Neuroimaging to Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis Georges; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2011-01-01

    In this review we will focus on delineating the neural substrates of the executive control of language in the bilingual brain, based on the existing neuroimaging, intracranial, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and neuropsychological evidence. We will also offer insights from ongoing brain-imaging studies into the development of expertise in multilingual language control. We will concentrate specifically on evidence regarding how the brain selects and controls languages for comprehension and production. This question has been addressed in a number of ways and using various tasks, including language switching during production or perception, translation, and interpretation. We will attempt to synthesize existing evidence in order to bring to light the neural substrates that are crucial to executive control of language. PMID:21954391

  6. The Efficacy of Fast ForWord Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Bohman, Thomas; Champlin, Craig A.; Thibodeau, Linda; Widen, Judith; Brandel, Jayne; Friel-Patti, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the language and auditory processing outcomes of children assigned to receive the Fast ForWord Language intervention (FFW-L) with the outcomes of children assigned to nonspecific or specific language intervention comparison treatments that did not contain modified speech. Method: Two…

  7. Development of the Child Care Worker Job Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curbow, Barbara; Spratt, Kai; Ungaretti, Antoinette; McDonnell, Karen; Breckler, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Examined psychometric characteristics of three 17-item measures of child care worker job demands, job control, and job resources. Found that job demands scale had lower reliability than job control or job resources. Demonstrated known groups validity through conceptually meaningful pattern of differences between family childcare providers and…

  8. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost

    PubMed Central

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups. PMID:26539151

  9. Controlling diabetes, controlling diabetics: moral language in the management of diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Broom, Dorothy; Whittaker, Andrea

    2004-06-01

    Contemporary management of diabetes places heavy emphasis on control, particularly control of blood sugars and of food consumption. Interviews with people living with diabetes type 2 show how identity and social relationships are negotiated through what is often a contradictory language of control, surveillance, discipline and responsibility. People frequently discuss diabetes-related behaviour in terms that position themselves or others as disobedient children, or as wicked or foolish adults. These references occur alongside appraisals of the physical and social complexity of "compliance" with diabetic regimes and in some instances the difficulty of achieving effective control over blood sugar levels. Efforts to protect themselves from the stigmatising potential of diabetes may inadvertently undermine the agency of people who are already coping with a demanding discipline and a potentially disabling or life-threatening disease.

  10. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  11. Language laterality in autism spectrum disorder and typical controls: a functional, volumetric, and diffusion tensor MRI study.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Tracey A; Silver, Andrew M; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A; Dominick, Kelli C; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-02-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regions, and language abilities in individuals with typical left lateralized language compared to those with atypical (bilateral or right) asymmetry of language functions. Fourteen adolescent boys with ASD and 20 typically developing adolescent boys participated, including equal numbers of left- and right-handed individuals in each group. Participants with typical left lateralized language activation had smaller frontal language region volume and higher fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus compared to the group with atypical language laterality, across both ASD and control participants. The group with typical language asymmetry included the most right-handed controls and fewest left-handers with ASD. Atypical language laterality was more prevalent in the ASD than control group. These findings support an association between laterality of language function and language region anatomy. They also suggest anatomical differences may be more associated with variation in language laterality than specifically with ASD. Language laterality therefore may provide a novel way of subdividing samples, resulting in more homogenous groups for research into genetic and neurocognitive foundations of developmental disorders.

  12. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…

  13. Efficacy of a Reading and Language Intervention for Children with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J.; Clarke, Paula J.; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods: Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the…

  14. The Control of Animate and Inanimate Components in Pretend Play and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    The cognitive skills required in pretend play and language were examined in two studies in which children imitated pretend-play behaviors and sentences. As hypothesized, the control of animate and inanimate components in play and language were significantly related. (Author/MP)

  15. Executive Functions and Inhibitory Control in Multilingual Children: Evidence from Second-Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…

  16. Neural control of cross-language asymmetry in the bilingual brain.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimihiro; Kouider, Sid; Makuuchi, Michiru; Kuroki, Chihiro; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Seiji

    2010-09-01

    Most bilinguals understand their second language more slowly than their first. This behavioral asymmetry may arise from the perceptual, phonological, lexicosemantic, or strategic components of bilingual word processing. However, little is known about the neural source of such language dominance and how it is regulated in the bilingual brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that unconscious neural priming in bilingual word recognition is language nonselective in the left midfusiform gyrus but exhibits a preference for the dominant language in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG). These early-stage components of reading were located slightly upstream of the left midlateral MTG, which exhibited enhanced response during a conscious switch of language. Effective connectivity analysis revealed that this language switch is triggered by reentrant signals from inferior frontal cortex and not by bottom-up signals from occipitotemporal cortex. We further confirmed that magnetic stimulation of the same inferior frontal region interferes with conscious language control but does not disrupt unconscious priming by masked words. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the neural bottleneck in the bilingual brain is a cross-language asymmetry of form-meaning association in inferolateral temporal cortex, which is overcome by a top-down cognitive control for implementing a task schema in each language.

  17. The value of job analysis, job description and performance.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M N; Coggins, S

    1997-01-01

    All companies, regardless of size, are faced with the same employment concerns. Efficient personnel management requires the use of three human resource techniques--job analysis, job description and performance appraisal. These techniques and tools are not for large practices only. Small groups can obtain the same benefits by employing these performance control measures. Job analysis allows for the development of a compensation system. Job descriptions summarize the most important duties. Performance appraisals help reward outstanding work.

  18. Semantic definitions of space flight control center languages using the hierarchical graph technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaghloul, M. E.; Truszkowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a method is described by which the semantic definitions of the Goddard Space Flight Control Center Command Languages can be specified. The semantic modeling facility used is an extension of the hierarchical graph technique, which has a major benefit of supporting a variety of data structures and a variety of control structures. It is particularly suited for the semantic descriptions of such types of languages where the detailed separation between the underlying operating system and the command language system is system dependent. These definitions were used in the definition of the Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) of the Goddard Space Flight Center which is a command language that provides means for the user to communicate with payloads, application programs, and other ground system elements.

  19. Bridging language and attention: brain basis of the impact of bilingualism on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Garbin, G; Sanjuan, A; Forn, C; Bustamante, J C; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A; Belloch, V; Hernandez, M; Costa, A; Avila, C

    2010-12-01

    Using two languages on an everyday basis appears to have a positive effect on general-purpose executive control in bilinguals. However, the neural correlates of this effect remain poorly understood. To investigate the brain bases of the bilingual advantage in executive control, we tested 21 Spanish monolinguals and 19 Spanish-Catalan early bilinguals in a non-verbal task-switching paradigm. As expected based on previous experiments on non-verbal task switching, we found activation in the right inferior frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate of monolingual participants. While bilingual participants showed a reduced switching cost, they activated the left inferior frontal cortex and the left striatum, a pattern of activation consistent with networks thought to underlie language control. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that bilinguals' early training in switching back and forth between their languages leads to the recruitment of brain regions involved in language control when performing non-linguistic cognitive tasks.

  20. Brain Circuit for Cognitive Control is Shared by Task and Language Switching.

    PubMed

    De Baene, Wouter; Duyck, Wouter; Brass, Marcel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Controlling multiple languages during speech production is believed to rely on functional mechanisms that are (at least partly) shared with domain-general cognitive control in early, highly proficient bilinguals. Recent neuroimaging results have indeed suggested a certain degree of neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in bilinguals. However, this evidence is only indirect. Direct evidence for neural overlap between language control and nonverbal cognitive control can only be provided if two prerequisites are met: Language control and nonverbal cognitive control should be compared within the same participants, and the task requirements of both conditions should be closely matched. To provide such direct evidence for the first time, we used fMRI to examine the overlap in brain activation between switch-specific activity in a linguistic switching task and a closely matched nonlinguistic switching task, within participants, in early, highly proficient Spanish-Basque bilinguals. The current findings provide direct evidence that, in these bilinguals, highly similar brain circuits are involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.

  1. Job descriptions and job matching.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Susan

    2004-10-01

    As the date for national roll-out and the implementation for Agenda for Change draws near, many of you will be involved in the job matching process. This is designed to measure your job against a national job profile, thus establishing which pay band you will be placed in and so determining your salary.

  2. Spoken language and arm gestures are controlled by the same motor control system.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2008-06-01

    Arm movements can influence language comprehension much as semantics can influence arm movement planning. Arm movement itself can be used as a linguistic signal. We reviewed neurophysiological and behavioural evidence that manual gestures and vocal language share the same control system. Studies of primate premotor cortex and, in particular, of the so-called "mirror system", including humans, suggest the existence of a dual hand/mouth motor command system involved in ingestion activities. This may be the platform on which a combined manual and vocal communication system was constructed. In humans, speech is typically accompanied by manual gesture, speech production itself is influenced by executing or observing transitive hand actions, and manual actions play an important role in the development of speech, from the babbling stage onwards. Behavioural data also show reciprocal influence between word and symbolic gestures. Neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) data suggest that the system governing both speech and gesture is located in Broca's area. In general, the presented data support the hypothesis that the hand motor-control system is involved in higher order cognition.

  3. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2011-11-17

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557-582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control.

  4. Comparison of two expert-based assessments of diesel exhaust exposure in a case-control study: Programmable decision rules versus expert review of individual jobs

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Stewart, Patricia A.; Coble, Joseph B.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Wheeler, David C.; Colt, Joanne S.; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Waddell, Richard; Verrill, Castine; Cherala, Sai; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Professional judgment is necessary to assess occupational exposure in population-based case-control studies; however, the assessments lack transparency and are time-consuming to perform. To improve transparency and efficiency, we systematically applied decision rules to the questionnaire responses to assess diesel exhaust exposure in the New England Bladder Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Methods 2,631 participants reported 14,983 jobs; 2,749 jobs were administered questionnaires (‘modules’) with diesel-relevant questions. We applied decision rules to assign exposure metrics based solely on the occupational history responses (OH estimates) and based on the module responses (module estimates); we combined the separate OH and module estimates (OH/module estimates). Each job was also reviewed one at a time to assign exposure (one-by-one review estimates). We evaluated the agreement between the OH, OH/module, and one-by-one review estimates. Results The proportion of exposed jobs was 20–25% for all jobs, depending on approach, and 54–60% for jobs with diesel-relevant modules. The OH/module and one-by-one review had moderately high agreement for all jobs (κw=0.68–0.81) and for jobs with diesel-relevant modules (κw=0.62–0.78) for the probability, intensity, and frequency metrics. For exposed subjects, the Spearman correlation statistic was 0.72 between the cumulative OH/module and one-by-one review estimates. Conclusions The agreement seen here may represent an upper level of agreement because the algorithm and one-by-one review estimates were not fully independent. This study shows that applying decision-based rules can reproduce a one-by-one review, increase transparency and efficiency, and provide a mechanism to replicate exposure decisions in other studies. PMID:22843440

  5. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the “control network” showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation. PMID:27746729

  6. Role of Contextual Control in Second Language Performance

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Houmanfar, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    Transfer of training from an instructional environment to a natural environment may bring about ineffective language performance by bilingual individuals. In that regard, this study was designed to demonstrate the effect of such a transition on individuals' language performance. A series of Japanese and English words were used as sample and comparisons in a matching procedure. Differential conditioning was implemented in the presence two types of contextual stimuli. After three sets of relations were established, the physical configuration of the contextual stimuli was changed to more subtle appearances, and the number of variations in the contextual stimuli was increased. Measures of percent correct and response latency were used to show the negative influence on second language performance. Percent correct responses decreased with the subtle contextual stimuli for 11 out of 14 participants, and average response latency increased with the increased number of variations in the last phase. These findings indicate that the change in environmental stimuli will be a significant participatory factor in training of second languages. PMID:22477380

  7. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  8. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control. PMID:25037924

  9. fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Michel, Christoph M; Golestani, Narly

    2015-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of extreme multilingual language control in a group of 50 multilingual participants. Comparing brain responses arising during simultaneous interpretation (SI) with those arising during simultaneous repetition revealed activation of regions known to be involved in speech perception and production, alongside a network incorporating the caudate nucleus that is known to be implicated in domain-general cognitive control. The similarity between the networks underlying bilingual language control and general executive control supports the notion that the frequently reported bilingual advantage on executive tasks stems from the day-to-day demands of language control in the multilingual brain. We examined neural correlates of the management of simultaneity by correlating brain activity during interpretation with the duration of simultaneous speaking and hearing. This analysis showed significant modulation of the putamen by the duration of simultaneity. Our findings suggest that, during SI, the caudate nucleus is implicated in the overarching selection and control of the lexico-semantic system, while the putamen is implicated in ongoing control of language output. These findings provide the first clear dissociation of specific dorsal striatum structures in polyglot language control, roles that are consistent with previously described involvement of these regions in nonlinguistic executive control.

  10. Digital-flight-control-system software written in automated-engineering-design language: A user's guide of verification and validation tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Jim

    1987-01-01

    The user guide of verification and validation (V&V) tools for the Automated Engineering Design (AED) language is specifically written to update the information found in several documents pertaining to the automated verification of flight software tools. The intent is to provide, in one document, all the information necessary to adequately prepare a run to use the AED V&V tools. No attempt is made to discuss the FORTRAN V&V tools since they were not updated and are not currently active. Additionally, the current descriptions of the AED V&V tools are contained and provides information to augment the NASA TM 84276. The AED V&V tools are accessed from the digital flight control systems verification laboratory (DFCSVL) via a PDP-11/60 digital computer. The AED V&V tool interface handlers on the PDP-11/60 generate a Univac run stream which is transmitted to the Univac via a Remote Job Entry (RJE) link. Job execution takes place on the Univac 1100 and the job output is transmitted back to the DFCSVL and stored as a PDP-11/60 printfile.

  11. Second language lexical development and cognitive control: A longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing.

  12. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  13. Language experience differentiates prefrontal and subcortical activation of the cognitive control network in novel word learning.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; King, Kelly E; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive control mechanisms in adult English speaking monolinguals compared to early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals during the initial stages of novel word learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a lexico-semantic task after only 2h of exposure to novel German vocabulary flashcards showed that monolinguals activated a broader set of cortical control regions associated with higher-level cognitive processes, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), as well as the caudate, implicated in cognitive control of language. However, bilinguals recruited a more localized subcortical network that included the putamen, associated more with motor control of language. These results suggest that experience managing multiple languages may differentiate the learning strategy and subsequent neural mechanisms of cognitive control used by bilinguals compared to monolinguals in the early stages of novel word learning.

  14. Applications of formal simulation languages in the control and monitoring subsystems of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    The notions, benefits, and drawbacks of numeric simulation are introduced. Two formal simulation languages, Simpscript and Modsim are introduced. The capabilities of each are discussed briefly, and then the two programs are compared. The use of simulation in the process of design engineering for the Control and Monitoring System (CMS) for Space Station Freedom is discussed. The application of the formal simulation language to the CMS design is presented, and recommendations are made as to their use.

  15. Job enrichment in job design.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  17. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals.

  18. How Do Principals and Teachers in Special Schools in Turkey Rate Themselves on Levels of Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    This study explores issues of burnout, job satisfaction, and locus of control among special school principals and teachers in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are differences between principals and teachers in terms of work status, sex, and work experiences. A quantitative approach was used: 295 participants (33…

  19. The Efficacy of Fast ForWord-Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Bohman, Thomas; Champlin, Craig A.; Thibodeau, Linda; Widen, Judith; Brandel, Jayne; Friel-Patti, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the language and auditory processing outcomes of children assigned to Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L) to the outcomes of children assigned to nonspecific or specific language intervention comparison treatments that did not contain modified speech. Method Two hundred and sixteen children between the ages of 6 and 9 years with language impairments were randomly assigned to one of four arms: Fast ForWord-Language (FFW-L), academic enrichment (AE), computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), or individualized language intervention (ILI) provided by a speech-language pathologist. All children received 1 hour and 40 minutes of treatment, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks. Language and auditory processing measures were administered to the children by blinded examiners before treatment, immediately after treatment, 3 months after treatment, and 6 months after treatment. Results The children in all four arms improved significantly on a global language test and a test of backward masking. Children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the FFW-L arm did not present greater improvement on the language measures than children with poor backward masking scores who were randomized to the other three arms. Effect sizes, analyses of standard error of measurement, and normalization percentages supported the clinical significance of the improvements on the CASL. There was a treatment effect for the Blending Words subtest on the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Participants in the FFW-L and CALI arms earned higher phonological awareness scores than children in the ILI and AE arms at the six-month follow-up testing. Conclusion Fast ForWord-Language, the language intervention that provided modified speech to address a hypothesized underlying auditory processing deficit, was not more effective at improving general language skills or temporal processing

  20. The role of domain-general cognitive control in language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Evelina

    2014-01-01

    What role does domain-general cognitive control play in understanding linguistic input? Although much evidence has suggested that domain-general cognitive control and working memory resources are sometimes recruited during language comprehension, many aspects of this relationship remain elusive. For example, how frequently do cognitive control mechanisms get engaged when we understand language? And is this engagement necessary for successful comprehension? I here (a) review recent brain imaging evidence for the neural separability of the brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing vs. those that support domain-general cognitive control abilities; (b) define the space of possibilities for the relationship between these sets of brain regions; and (c) review the available evidence that constrains these possibilities to some extent. I argue that we should stop asking whether domain-general cognitive control mechanisms play a role in language comprehension, and instead focus on characterizing the division of labor between the cognitive control brain regions and the more functionally specialized language regions. PMID:24803909

  1. Job Attitudes of Workers with Two Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickar, Michael J.; Gibby, Robert E.; Jenny, Tim

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the job attitudes of people who hold more than one job. Satisfaction, stress, and organizational (continuance and affective) commitment were assessed for both primary and secondary jobs for 83 full-time workers who held two jobs concurrently. Consistency between job constructs across jobs was negligible, except for…

  2. Electrophysiological evidence for domain-general inhibitory control during bilingual language switching.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Rossi, Sonja; Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that explored the role of domain-general inhibitory control on language switching. Reaction times (RTs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded when low-proficient bilinguals with high and low inhibitory control (IC) switched between overt picture naming in both their L1 and L2. Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high-IC were symmetrical, while that of bilinguals with low-IC were not. The N2 component failed to show a significant interaction between group, language and task, indicating that inhibition may not comes into play during the language task schema competition phase. The late positive component (LPC), however, showed larger amplitudes for L2 repeat and switch trials than for L1 trials in the high-IC group, indicating that inhibition may play a key role during the lexical response selection phase. These findings suggest that domain-general inhibitory control plays an important role in modulating language switch costs and its influence can be specified in lexical selection phase.

  3. Electrophysiological Evidence for Domain-General Inhibitory Control during Bilingual Language Switching

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huanhuan; Rossi, Sonja; Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that explored the role of domain–general inhibitory control on language switching. Reaction times (RTs) and event–related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded when low–proficient bilinguals with high and low inhibitory control (IC) switched between overt picture naming in both their L1 and L2. Results showed that the language switch costs of bilinguals with high–IC were symmetrical, while that of bilinguals with low–IC were not. The N2 component failed to show a significant interaction between group, language and task, indicating that inhibition may not comes into play during the language task schema competition phase. The late positive component (LPC), however, showed larger amplitudes for L2 repeat and switch trials than for L1 trials in the high–IC group, indicating that inhibition may play a key role during the lexical response selection phase. These findings suggest that domain–general inhibitory control plays an important role in modulating language switch costs and its influence can be specified in lexical selection phase. PMID:25343253

  4. Biomedical engineer: an international job.

    PubMed

    Crolet, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical engineer is an international job for several reasons and it means that the knowledge of at least one foreign language is a necessity. A geographical and structural analysis of the biomedical sector concludes to the teaching of a second foreign language. But in spite of the presence of adequate means, it is not possible for us for the moment to set up such a teaching. This paper presents the solution we have chosen in the framework of Erasmus exchanges.

  5. Bilingual Cognitive Control in Language Switching: An fMRI Study of English-Chinese Late Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hengfen; Hu, Jiehui; Xi, Jie; Shen, Wen; Ge, Jianqiao; Geng, Feng; Wu, Yuntao; Guo, Jinjin; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the bilingual cognitive control mechanism by comparing Chinese-English bilinguals’ language switching in a blocked picture naming paradigm against three baseline conditions, namely the control condition (a fixation cross, low-level baseline), single L1 production (Chinese naming, high-level baseline), and single L2 production (English naming, high-level baseline). Different activation patterns were observed for language switching against different baseline conditions. These results indicate that different script bilingual language control involves a fronto-parietal-subcortical network that extends to the precentral gyrus, the Supplementary Motor Area, the Supra Marginal Gyrus, and the fusiform. The different neural correlates identified across different comparisons supported that bilingual language switching involves high-level cognitive processes that are not specific to language processing. Future studies adopting a network approach are crucial in identifying the functional connectivity among regions subserving language control. PMID:25180974

  6. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning. PMID:25463819

  7. Early stage second-language learning improves executive control: evidence from ERP.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margot D; Janus, Monika; Moreno, Sylvain; Astheimer, Lori; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research has reported a bilingual advantage in performance on executive control tasks, but it is not known at what point in emerging bilingualism these advantages first appear. The present study investigated the effect of early stage second-language training on executive control. Monolingual English-speaking students were tested on a go-nogo task, sentence judgment task, and verbal fluency, before and after 6 months of Spanish instruction. The training group (n = 25) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Spanish and the control group (n = 30) consisted of students enrolled in introductory Psychology. After training, the Spanish group showed larger P3 amplitude on the go-nogo task and smaller P600 amplitude on the judgment task, indicating enhanced performance, with no changes for the control group and no differences between groups on behavioral measures. Results are discussed in terms of neural changes underlying executive control after brief second-language learning.

  8. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation.

  9. Researching the Uses of the English Language in the Law Job Market in the Sultanate of Oman: Implications for Policy-Practice Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is a developing country that has accepted the English language as a significant tool for modernization. This was best interpreted in the opening of Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1986, which has delivered its different academic programmes totally or partially through the English language. One of the colleges of SQU has…

  10. At Work in the U.S.: Readings and Language for Job Success. Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Audio Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacco, Ellen; Jablon, Paula

    This document consists of a teacher's resource guide, student book, and an accompanying audio component intended to help beginning-level adult English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners gain the general language skills and cultural understanding they need to function successfully in the U.S. workplace. The lessons address the following commonly…

  11. A Bilingual Advantage in Controlling Language Interference during Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippi, Roberto; Leech, Robert; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Green, David W.; Dick, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the comprehension of syntactically simple with more complex sentences in Italian-English adult bilinguals and monolingual controls in the presence or absence of sentence-level interference. The task was to identify the agent of the sentence and we primarily examined the accuracy of response. The target sentence was signalled by…

  12. Body Language and the Social Order; Communication as Behavioral Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheflen, Albert E.

    Human communication, verbal and especially nonverbal, is based upon lower and earlier primate development as well as on extensive culturally learned behavior. Kinesthetic study can discover behaviors which maintain and disrupt social orders of all types--governmental, economic, familial, and personal. Communicational behavior exerts controls and…

  13. Reading and Language Intervention for Children at Risk of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles; Grainger, Katy; Hardwick, Samantha J.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children…

  14. The Effects of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies on Learners’ Motivation: A Controlled Investigation of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovsky, Christo; Alrabai, Fakieh; Paolini, Stefania; Ratcheva, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    While consensus exists about the critical role of learners’ motivation in second language acquisition, controlled investigations of the effects of teachers’ motivational strategies are limited. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the effects of motivational strategies used by Saudi English as a foreign language…

  15. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  16. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  17. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  18. Endogenous language control in Chinese-English switching: an event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Xiang; Li, Ling

    2014-06-01

    The neural basis of language switching, especially endogenous language control, remains largely unclear. We used a cue-stimulus paradigm and measured behavioral indices and scalp event-related potentials to investigate the endogenous control of switching between Chinese and English. In the experiment, unbalanced Chinese (L1) - English (L2) speakers named pictures in L1 or L2 according to an auditory cue presented 700 ms (cue-stimulus interval) before the picture onset. The reaction time (RT) was longer in the switch condition and the switch cost (difference of RTs between switch and repeat conditions) of L1 (L2→L1) was greater than L2 (L1→L2). P2 component elicited by the cue onset showed the neural switch cost of L1 at the frontocentral regions, with a leftward distribution, but not the switch cost of L2. The greater switch cost of L1 in behavioral responses and neural activity suggests that the frontocentral areas play an important role in endogenous language control, and switching back to the native language might require more endogenous control.

  19. Evaluating Reverse Speech as a Control Task with Language-Related Gamma Activity on Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erik C; Muzik, Otto; Rothermel, Robert; Matsuzaki, Naoyuki; Juhász, Csaba; Shah, Aashit K; Atkinson, Marie D; Fuerst, Darren; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Asano, Eishi

    2012-01-01

    Reverse speech has often been used as a control task in brain-mapping studies of language utilizing various non-invasive modalities. The rationale is that reverse speech is comparable to forward speech in terms of auditory characteristics, while omitting the linguistic components. Thus, it may control for non-language auditory functions. This finds some support in fMRI studies indicating that reverse speech resulted in less blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in perisylvian regions than forward speech. We attempted to externally validate a reverse speech control task using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) in eight patients with intractable focal epilepsy. We studied adolescent and adult patients who underwent extraoperative ECoG prior to resective epilepsy surgery. All patients received an auditory language task during ECoG recording. Patients were presented 115 audible question stimuli, including 30 reverse speech trials. Reverse speech trials more strongly engaged bilateral superior temporal sites than did the corresponding forward speech trials. Forward speech trials elicited larger gamma-augmentation at frontal lobe sites not attributable to sensorimotor function. Other temporal and frontal sites of significant augmentation showed no significant difference between reverse and forward speech. Thus, we failed to validate reported evidence of weaker activation of temporal neocortices during reverse compared to forward speech. Superior temporal lobe engagement may indicate increased attention to reverse speech. Reverse speech does not appear to be a suitable task for the control of non-language auditory functions on ECoG. PMID:22387167

  20. Deficits in volitional oculomotor control align with language status in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David J; Walker, Robin; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking paradigms are increasingly used to investigate higher-level social and cognitive processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the integrity of the oculomotor system within ASD is unclear, with contradictory reports of aberrant eye-movements on basic oculomotor tasks. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether reducing population heterogeneity and distinguishing neurocognitive phenotypes can clarify discrepancies in oculomotor behaviour evident in previous reports. Reflexive and volitional eye-movement control was assessed in 73 children aged 8-14 years from four distinct groups: Autism Language Normal (ALN), Autism Language Impaired (ALI), non-autistic Language Impaired (LI) and Typically Developing (TD). Eye-movement control was measured using pro- and antisaccade tasks and a novel 'search distracter' task to measure distractibility. Reflexive eye-movements were equivalent across groups, but deficits in volitional eye-movement control were found that aligned with language status, and were not specific to ASD. More than 80% of ALI and LI children presented error rates at least 1.5 SDs below the TD mean in an antisaccade task. In the search distracter task, 35.29% of ALI children and 43.75% of LI children had error rates greater than 1.5 SDs compared with 17.64% of ALN children. A significant proportion of children with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language function have pronounced difficulties suppressing reflexive saccades and maintaining fixations in the presence of competing stimuli. We extend the putative link between ALI and LI populations to non-language tasks, and highlight the need to account for co-morbidity in understanding the ontogenesis of ASD.

  1. Jobs masonry in LHCb with elastic Grid Jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagni, F.; Charpentier, Ph

    2015-12-01

    In any distributed computing infrastructure, a job is normally forbidden to run for an indefinite amount of time. This limitation is implemented using different technologies, the most common one being the CPU time limit implemented by batch queues. It is therefore important to have a good estimate of how much CPU work a job will require: otherwise, it might be killed by the batch system, or by whatever system is controlling the jobs’ execution. In many modern interwares, the jobs are actually executed by pilot jobs, that can use the whole available time in running multiple consecutive jobs. If at some point the available time in a pilot is too short for the execution of any job, it should be released, while it could have been used efficiently by a shorter job. Within LHCbDIRAC, the LHCb extension of the DIRAC interware, we developed a simple way to fully exploit computing capabilities available to a pilot, even for resources with limited time capabilities, by adding elasticity to production MonteCarlo (MC) simulation jobs. With our approach, independently of the time available, LHCbDIRAC will always have the possibility to execute a MC job, whose length will be adapted to the available amount of time: therefore the same job, running on different computing resources with different time limits, will produce different amounts of events. The decision on the number of events to be produced is made just in time at the start of the job, when the capabilities of the resource are known. In order to know how many events a MC job will be instructed to produce, LHCbDIRAC simply requires three values: the CPU-work per event for that type of job, the power of the machine it is running on, and the time left for the job before being killed. Knowing these values, we can estimate the number of events the job will be able to simulate with the available CPU time. This paper will demonstrate that, using this simple but effective solution, LHCb manages to make a more efficient use of

  2. The role of executive control in bilingual language production: A study with Parkinson's disease individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Gabriele; Calabria, Marco; Marne, Paula; Gironell, Alexandre; Abutalebi, Jubin; Costa, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia are critically involved in language control (LC) processes, allowing a bilingual to utter correctly in one language without interference from the non-requested language. It has been hypothesized that the neural mechanism of LC closely resembles domain-general executive control (EC). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the integrity of bilingual LC and its overlap with domain-general EC in a clinical population such as individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), notoriously associated with structural damage in the basal ganglia. We approach these issues in two ways. First, we employed a language switching task to investigate the integrity of LC in a group of Catalan-Spanish bilingual individuals with PD, as compared to a group of matched healthy controls. Second, to test the relationship between domain-general EC and LC we compared the performances of individuals with PD and healthy controls also in a non-linguistic switching task. We highlight that, compared to controls, individuals with PD report decreased processing speed, less accuracy and larger switching costs in terms of RT and errors in the language switching task, whereas in the non-linguistic switching task PD patients showed only increased switching cost in terms of errors. However, we report a positive correlation between the magnitudes of linguistic and non-linguistic mixing costs in individuals with PD. Taken together, these results support the notion of a critical role of the basal ganglia and connected structures in LC, and suggest a possible link between LC and domain-general EC.

  3. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  4. Laboratory process control using natural language commands from a personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Herbert A.; Mackin, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    PC software is described which provides flexible natural language process control capability with an IBM PC or compatible machine. Hardware requirements include the PC, and suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. Software required includes the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) operating system, a PC-based FORTRAN-77 compiler, and user-written device drivers. Instructions for use of the software are given as well as a description of an application of the system.

  5. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  6. Job Market Looks Brighter for Some Ph.D.'s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    The author reports on the academic job market that is showing signs of turning around after a multiyear slump. Job-outlook data released by professional associations in recent months show an uptick in the number of jobs available in several fields, including history, the humanities and foreign languages, sociology, geography, and political…

  7. Job-Seeking and Job-Acquisition in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Doherty, Fiona; O'Callaghan, Frances

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 225 Year 9 and 10 students at T1 regarding their attitude, social norms, control, experience, plans and intentions to find a part-time job while at school. Of these, 149 did not have a job and were surveyed again four months later about their job-seeking and job outcomes (104 responded at T2). Job-seeking intentions at T1 were…

  8. The Grid[Way] Job Template Manager, a tool for parameter sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorca, Alejandro; Huedo, Eduardo; Llorente, Ignacio M.

    2011-04-01

    Parameter sweeping is a widely used algorithmic technique in computational science. It is specially suited for high-throughput computing since the jobs evaluating the parameter space are loosely coupled or independent. A tool that integrates the modeling of a parameter study with the control of jobs in a distributed architecture is presented. The main task is to facilitate the creation and deletion of job templates, which are the elements describing the jobs to be run. Extra functionality relies upon the GridWay Metascheduler, acting as the middleware layer for job submission and control. It supports interesting features like multi-dimensional sweeping space, wildcarding of parameters, functional evaluation of ranges, value-skipping and job template automatic indexation. The use of this tool increases the reliability of the parameter sweep study thanks to the systematic bookkeeping of job templates and respective job statuses. Furthermore, it simplifies the porting of the target application to the grid reducing the required amount of time and effort. Program summaryProgram title: Grid[Way] Job Template Manager (version 1.0) Catalogue identifier: AEIE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Apache license 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3545 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126 879 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl 5.8.5 and above Computer: Any (tested on PC x86 and x86_64) Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux (tested on Ubuntu 9.04, Scientific Linux 4.7, centOS 5.4), Mac OS X (tested on Snow Leopard 10.6) RAM: 10 MB Classification: 6.5 External routines: The GridWay Metascheduler [1]. Nature of problem: To parameterize and manage an application running on a grid or cluster. Solution method: Generation of job templates as a cross product of

  9. Career Adventures from Learning Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Learning and using languages has been a central feature of most of Paul Kaye's working life. In his current job, he helps to promote multilingualism, language learning, and the language industry in the UK, as well as to raise awareness of careers in the EU civil service for those with language knowledge. He is on temporary secondment from the…

  10. Collaborative human-machine analysis using a controlled natural language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David H.; Shemanski, Donald R.; Giammanco, Cheryl; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    A key aspect of an analyst's task in providing relevant information from data is the reasoning about the implications of that data, in order to build a picture of the real world situation. This requires human cognition, based upon domain knowledge about individuals, events and environmental conditions. For a computer system to collaborate with an analyst, it must be capable of following a similar reasoning process to that of the analyst. We describe ITA Controlled English (CE), a subset of English to represent analyst's domain knowledge and reasoning, in a form that it is understandable by both analyst and machine. CE can be used to express domain rules, background data, assumptions and inferred conclusions, thus supporting human-machine interaction. A CE reasoning and modeling system can perform inferences from the data and provide the user with conclusions together with their rationale. We present a logical problem called the "Analysis Game", used for training analysts, which presents "analytic pitfalls" inherent in many problems. We explore an iterative approach to its representation in CE, where a person can develop an understanding of the problem solution by incremental construction of relevant concepts and rules. We discuss how such interactions might occur, and propose that such techniques could lead to better collaborative tools to assist the analyst and avoid the "pitfalls".

  11. Video-Aid ESL [English as a Second Language].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofut-Roth, Sheila

    These three video-based learning modules, covering job search skills, career planning, and interpersonal communication skills on the job, were designed for use in basic English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. The Job Search Skills module covers topics such as warm and cold behaviors, identifying job skills, job interviews, and application…

  12. Job Ready.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults of Washington, Seattle.

    Intended for use by employers for assessing how "job-ready" their particular business environment may be, the booklet provides information illustrating what physical changes could be made to allow persons with mobility limitations to enter and conduct business independently in a particular building. Illustrations along with brief explanations are…

  13. Job Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angerer, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of job burnout, discusses the pioneering research and current theories of the burnout construct, along with the history of the main burnout assessment--the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concludes that an understanding of the interaction between employee and his or her environment is critical for grasping the origin of burnout.…

  14. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  15. Training Secondary School Teachers in Instructional Language Modification Techniques to Support Adolescents with Language Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Julia; Munro, Natalie; Togher, Leanne; Arciuli, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of a collaborative intervention where a speech-language pathologist (SLP) trained mainstream secondary school teachers to make modifications to their oral and written instructional language. The trained teachers' uptake of techniques in their whole-class teaching practices and the impact this had on the…

  16. Efficacy of a reading and language intervention for children with Down syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Clarke, Paula J; Buckley, Sue; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of a language and literacy intervention for children with Down syndrome. Methods Teaching assistants (TAs) were trained to deliver a reading and language intervention to children in individual daily 40-min sessions. We used a waiting list control design, in which half the sample received the intervention immediately, whereas the remaining children received the treatment after a 20-week delay. Fifty-seven children with Down syndrome in mainstream primary schools in two UK locations (Yorkshire and Hampshire) were randomly allocated to intervention (40 weeks of intervention) and waiting control (20 weeks of intervention) groups. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, after 20 weeks of intervention, and after 40 weeks of intervention. Results After 20 weeks of intervention, the intervention group showed significantly greater progress than the waiting control group on measures of single word reading, letter-sound knowledge, phoneme blending and taught expressive vocabulary. Effects did not transfer to other skills (nonword reading, spelling, standardised expressive and receptive vocabulary, expressive information and grammar). After 40 weeks of intervention, the intervention group remained numerically ahead of the control group on most key outcome measures; but these differences were not significant. Children who were younger, attended more intervention sessions, and had better initial receptive language skills made greater progress during the course of the intervention. Conclusions A TA-delivered intervention produced improvements in the reading and language skills of children with Down syndrome. Gains were largest in skills directly taught with little evidence of generalization to skills not directly taught in the intervention. PMID:22533801

  17. A Parent-Directed Language Intervention for Children of Low Socioeconomic Status: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dana L.; Leffel, Kristin R.; Graf, Eileen; Hernandez, Marc W.; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Sapolich, Shannon G.; Suskind, Elizabeth; Leininger, Lindsey; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    We designed a parent-directed home-visiting intervention targeting socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in children's early language environments. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether the intervention improved parents' knowledge of child language development and increased the amount and diversity of parent talk.…

  18. Disentangling the Relationship between Working Memory and Language: The Roles of Short-Term Storage and Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale Marguerite Josiane; Gathercole, Susan Elizabeth; Martin, Romain

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between working memory and language in young children growing up in a multilingual environment. The aim is to explore whether mechanisms of short-term storage and cognitive control hold similar relations to emerging language skills and to investigate if potential links are mediated by related cognitive…

  19. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  20. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  1. Job/task analysis for I C (Instrumentation and Controls) instrument technicians at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    To comply with Department of Energy Order 5480.XX (Draft), a job/task analysis was initiated by the Maintenance Management Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The analysis was applicable to instrument technicians working at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). This document presents the procedures and results of that analysis. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  3. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  4. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks.

  5. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  6. Job strain and supervisor support in primary care health centres and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Kivimäki, Mika; Suominen, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates associations between healthcare personnel's perceived job strain, supervisor support and the outcome of care in terms of glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Design A cross-sectional study from 2006. Setting 18 primary care health centres (HCs) from five municipalities in Finland. Participants Aggregated survey data on perceived job strain and supervisor support from healthcare personnel (doctors, n=122, mean age 45.5 years, nurses, n=300, mean age 47.1 years) were combined with registered data (Electronic Medical Records) from 8975 patients (51% men, mean age 67 years) with type 2 diabetes. Outcome measure Poor glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results The mean HbA1c level among patients with type 2 diabetes was 7.1 (SD 1.2, range 4.5–19.1), and 43% had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥7%). Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for patient's age and sex, and HC and HC service area-level characteristics, showed that patients’ HbA1c-levels were less optimal in high-strain HCs than in low-strain HCs (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.86). Supervisor support in HCs was not associated with the outcome of care. Conclusions The level of job strain among healthcare personnel may play a role in achieving good glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23645912

  7. LABORATORY PROCESS CONTROLLER USING NATURAL LANGUAGE COMMANDS FROM A PERSONAL COMPUTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H.

    1994-01-01

    The complex environment of the typical research laboratory requires flexible process control. This program provides natural language process control from an IBM PC or compatible machine. Sometimes process control schedules require changes frequently, even several times per day. These changes may include adding, deleting, and rearranging steps in a process. This program sets up a process control system that can either run without an operator, or be run by workers with limited programming skills. The software system includes three programs. Two of the programs, written in FORTRAN77, record data and control research processes. The third program, written in Pascal, generates the FORTRAN subroutines used by the other two programs to identify the user commands with the user-written device drivers. The software system also includes an input data set which allows the user to define the user commands which are to be executed by the computer. To set the system up the operator writes device driver routines for all of the controlled devices. Once set up, this system requires only an input file containing natural language command lines which tell the system what to do and when to do it. The operator can make up custom commands for operating and taking data from external research equipment at any time of the day or night without the operator in attendance. This process control system requires a personal computer operating under MS-DOS with suitable hardware interfaces to all controlled devices. The program requires a FORTRAN77 compiler and user-written device drivers. This program was developed in 1989 and has a memory requirement of about 62 Kbytes.

  8. The structure of a factory closure: individual responses to job-loss and unemployment in a 10-year controlled follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Westin, S

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study has been conducted of 85 employees (72 women and 13 men) made redundant when a brisling sardine factory on the west coast of Norway was shut down in 1975. 87 employees (66 women and 21 men) in a 'sister factory' which was not shut down, were used as controls. Previous analyses have shown a substantial reduction in future employment of the study group, a two-fold increase in time consumed on sick leave during the first follow-up year, and a more than three-fold increase in the life-table based rates of disability pensions (invalidity) during the first four follow-up years compared to the controls. In this paper the follow-up data regarding six mutually exclusive and inclusive conditions related to employment and health have been analysed on a weeks per person per year basis, permitting the effects of job-loss over 10 years to be compared with what could have been expected had the factory not been closed. For those not subjected to old age pension or death, three kinds of long-term adaptation showed a marked differential effect among study subjects and controls: a substantial long-term reduction in mean time spent in job, an increase in consumption of time on disability pension, and an increase in time spent outside the labour force without social security coverage, the latter being mostly confined to women. These follow-up data provide a comprehensive picture of individual long-term adaptation to involuntary job-loss, emphasizing its effects on future employment, health, social readjustment and social security benefit consumption.

  9. Work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy and individual job support to increase work participation in common mental disorders: a randomised controlled multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Reme, Silje Endresen; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Løvvik, Camilla; Lie, Stein Atle; Øverland, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of rising disability benefit expenditures. We urgently need evidence on programmes that can increase work participation in CMDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of work-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and individual job support for people struggling with work participation due to CMDs. Methods A randomised controlled multicentre trial (RCT) including 1193 participants was conducted. Participants were on sick leave, at risk of going on sick leave or on long-term benefits. The intervention integrated work-focused CBT with individual job support. The control group received usual care. The main outcome was objectively ascertained work participation at 12 months follow-up, with changes in mental health and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Results A larger proportion of participants in the intervention group had increased or maintained their work participation at follow-up compared to the control group (44.2% vs 37.2%, p=0.015). The difference remained significant after 18 months (difference 7.8%, p=0.018), and was even stronger for those on long-term benefits (difference 12.2%, p=0.007). The intervention also reduced depression (t=3.23, p≤0.001) and anxiety symptoms (t=2.52, p=0.012) and increased health-related quality of life (t=2.24, p=0.026) more than usual care. Conclusions A work-focused CBT and individual job support was more effective than usual care in increasing or maintaining work participation for people with CMDs. The effects were profound for people on long-term benefits. This is the first large-scale RCT to demonstrate an effect of a behavioural intervention on work participation for the large group of workers with CMDs. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT01146730. PMID:26251065

  10. American Language Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The six issues of this journal cover a variety of topics of interest to the second language professional. Among the topics covered are the following: "virtual" classrooms, staff development, traveling with students, learner self-testing, advice on how to find a job on the Web, online pronunciation aids, language teaching strategies for deaf…

  11. Communication tips for the job search and on the job.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    2000-01-01

    Listening, speaking, and nonverbal skills are the most important success factors in getting a job or being effective in your current position. If you don't communicate well, your technical knowledge won't ever be put to good use. Recruiters, hiring organizations, and bosses are looking for people who can play well with others and can sell. Playing well with others involves listening and having self-control about what you say. To sell yourself and your ideas or products, you must speak well. You also must be well-groomed, look energetic, and sound reasonably happy to be at work. Good listeners: Stop talking; ask open-ended questions; para-phrase, restate, or summarize some of what the person had said; and talk about feelings. Effective speakers: Have voice mail etiquette; are courteous and tactful; don't react to a verbal attack; don't engage in verbal attacks; use the right amount of words; don't say too much; prepare ahead of time; and decide whether they should speak or write their message. And remember the power of body language or non-verbal skills--how you look and sound. Experts estimate that 65 to 90 percent of what you communicate is nonverbal.

  12. Communication tips for the job search and on the job.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    2000-01-01

    Listening, speaking, and nonverbal skills are the most important success factors in getting a job or being effective in your current position. If you don't communicate well, your technical knowledge won't ever be put to good use. Recruiters, hiring organizations, and bosses are looking for people who can play well with others and can sell. Playing well with others involves listening and having self-control about what you say. To sell yourself and your ideas or products, you must speak well. You also must be well-groomed, look energetic, and sound reasonably happy to be at work. Good listeners: Stop talking; ask open-ended questions; para-phrase, restate, or summarize some of what the person had said; and talk about feelings. Effective speakers: Have voice mail etiquette; are courteous and tactful; don't react to a verbal attack; don't engage in verbal attacks; use the right amount of words; don't say too much; prepare ahead of time; and decide whether they should speak or write their message. And remember the power of body language or non-verbal skills--how you look and sound. Experts estimate that 65 to 90 percent of what you communicate is nonverbal. PMID:10947468

  13. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input.

  14. It's My Job: Job Descriptions for Over 30 Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edie

    This book was created to assist youth-camp directors define their camp jobs to improve employee performance assessment, training, and hiring. The book, aimed at clarifying issues in fair-hiring practices required by the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), includes the descriptions of 31 jobs. Each description includes the job's minimum…

  15. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  16. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  17. Employee worktime control moderates the effects of job strain and effort-reward imbalance on sickness absence: the 10-town study

    PubMed Central

    Ala-Mursula, L.; Vahtera, J.; Linna, A.; Pentti, J.; Kivimaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine whether the effects of work stress on sickness absence vary by the level of control the employees have over their working times. Design: Prospective cohort study. A survey of job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and control over daily working hours and days off was carried out in 2000–01. The survey responses were linked with registered data on the number of medically certified (>3 days) sickness absences from one year before the survey until the end of 2003. The mean follow up period was 28.2 (SD 8.1) months. Adjustments were made for demographics and behavioural health risks. Aggregated measures of worktime control according to workplaces were used to control for differences in reactivity and response style. Setting: Ten towns in Finland. Participants: 16 139 public sector employees who had no medically certified sickness absences in the year preceding the survey. Main results: Among the women, individually measured control over daily working hours and days off moderated the association between work stress and sickness absence. The combination of high stress and good worktime control was associated with lower absence rates than a combination of high stress and poor worktime control. This finding was replicated in the analyses using workplace aggregates of worktime control. Among the men, the findings were less consistent and not replicable using aggregated measures of worktime control. Conclusions: Good control over working times reduces the adverse effect of work stress on sickness absence especially among female employees. PMID:16166358

  18. Job burnout.

    PubMed

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  19. Study of the language functions controlled by the right hemisphere in patients affected by dementia.

    PubMed

    Motta, M

    1993-01-01

    An insertion test (Shift vs. non-Shift) was performed by eight subjects (mean age 69 years, mean schooling 5.87 years) with clinical diagnosis of suspected Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to reveal right hemisphere cerebral distress in concomitance with damage of the left hemisphere which controls language in AD. Their Shift and non-Shift test scores were significantly lower than those of 28 controls, even if they achieved normal or slightly modified classical language test scores. Shift involves insertion of a syntagma or word in a stimulus-sentence that changes the syntactical relationship of some components of the newly formed sentence, whereas in non-Shift the insertion determines only a change in meaning. Statistical analysis revealed that the difference was not caused by age and schooling. Furthermore, the AD patients achieved significantly lower scores in Shift compared with non-Shift. This indicates greater right hemisphere damage in these patients and confirms its physiological decline in the elderly. The results revealed that the insertion test is more sensitive than classical neurolinguistic tests. They also showed that both superficial (non-Shift) and deep (Shift) types of syntaxes are already compromised in early stages of AD and that they mirror the bilateral thinning which is more pronounced in the right hemisphere. PMID:15374327

  20. Time for a new language for asthma control: results from REALISE Asia

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; David-Wang, Aileen; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ho, James Chung-Man; Jeong, Jae-Won; Liam, Chong-Kin; Lin, Jiangtao; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Tan, Tze-Lee; Yunus, Faisal; Neira, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is a global health problem, and asthma prevalence in Asia is increasing. The REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience Asia study assessed patients’ perception of asthma control and attitudes toward treatment in an accessible, real-life adult Asian population. Patients and methods An online survey of 2,467 patients with asthma from eight Asian countries/regions, aged 18–50 years, showed greater than or equal to two prescriptions in previous 2 years and access to social media. Patients were asked about their asthma symptoms, exacerbations and treatment type, views and perceptions of asthma control, attitudes toward asthma management, and sources of asthma information. Results Patients had a mean age of 34.2 (±7.4) years and were diagnosed with asthma for 12.5 (±9.7) years. Half had the Global Initiative for Asthma-defined uncontrolled asthma. During the previous year, 38% of patients visited the emergency department, 33% were hospitalized, and 73% had greater than or equal to one course of oral corticosteroids. About 90% of patients felt that their asthma was under control, 82% considered their condition as not serious, and 59% were concerned about their condition. In all, 66% of patients viewed asthma control as managing attacks and 24% saw it as an absence of or minimal symptoms. About 14% of patients who correctly identified their controller inhalers had controlled asthma compared to 6% who could not. Conclusion Patients consistently overestimated their level of asthma control contrary to what their symptoms suggest. They perceived control as management of exacerbations, reflective of a crisis-oriented mind-set. Interventions can leverage on patients’ trust in health care providers and desire for self-management via a new language to generate a paradigm shift toward symptom control and preventive care. PMID:26445555

  1. Cerebellar contributions to motor control and language comprehension: searching for common computational principles.

    PubMed

    Moberget, Torgeir; Ivry, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The past 25 years have seen the functional domain of the cerebellum extend beyond the realm of motor control, with considerable discussion of how this subcortical structure contributes to cognitive domains including attention, memory, and language. Drawing on evidence from neuroanatomy, physiology, neuropsychology, and computational work, sophisticated models have been developed to describe cerebellar function in sensorimotor control and learning. In contrast, mechanistic accounts of how the cerebellum contributes to cognition have remained elusive. Inspired by the homogeneous cerebellar microanatomy and a desire for parsimony, many researchers have sought to extend mechanistic ideas from motor control to cognition. One influential hypothesis centers on the idea that the cerebellum implements internal models, representations of the context-specific dynamics of an agent's interactions with the environment, enabling predictive control. We briefly review cerebellar anatomy and physiology, to review the internal model hypothesis as applied in the motor domain, before turning to extensions of these ideas in the linguistic domain, focusing on speech perception and semantic processing. While recent findings are consistent with this computational generalization, they also raise challenging questions regarding the nature of cerebellar learning, and may thus inspire revisions of our views on the role of the cerebellum in sensorimotor control. PMID:27206249

  2. Soft-testing of industrial control systems programmed in IEC 1131-3 languages.

    PubMed

    Hassapis, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a technique and the means for testing PLC-based control software outside the actual plant environment with the purpose of increasing the confidence level on the compliance of the software to functional and temporal requirements. The need to obtain a high confidence level on the correct software operation arises from the fact that in most of the cases it is quite dangerous and expensive to test unproved PLC operation by linking it with the actual facilities that it is going to control. The proposed technique relies on a combined simulation of the controlled plant and the PLC system and an analysis of the plant responses. The PLC system simulation imitates the way software is executed on a PLC that is programmed in the languages of the IEC1131-3 standard. It is based on the programming model of the IEC standard and analytical formulae for estimating the program runtime. The simulation of the plant is based on a discrete convolution model that is solved at the same rate with the rate determined by the control algorithms. A tool realizing these concepts has been developed and its use in testing the control software of three critical outputs of a distillation column is demonstrated.

  3. Cognitive Control and Language across the Life Span: Does Labeling Improve Reactive Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucenet, Joanna; Blaye, Agnès; Chevalier, Nicolas; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this…

  4. Individual differences in control of language interference in late bilinguals are mainly related to general executive abilities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent research based on comparisons between bilinguals and monolinguals postulates that bilingualism enhances cognitive control functions, because the parallel activation of languages necessitates control of interference. In a novel approach we investigated two groups of bilinguals, distinguished by their susceptibility to cross-language interference, asking whether bilinguals with strong language control abilities ("non-switchers") have an advantage in executive functions (inhibition of irrelevant information, problem solving, planning efficiency, generative fluency and self-monitoring) compared to those bilinguals showing weaker language control abilities ("switchers"). Methods 29 late bilinguals (21 women) were evaluated using various cognitive control neuropsychological tests [e.g., Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Task, Divided Attention, Go/noGo] tapping executive functions as well as four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. The analysis involved t-tests (two independent samples). Non-switchers (n = 16) were distinguished from switchers (n = 13) by their performance observed in a bilingual picture-naming task. Results The non-switcher group demonstrated a better performance on the Tower of Hanoi and Ruff Figural Fluency task, faster reaction time in a Go/noGo and Divided Attention task, and produced significantly fewer errors in the Tower of Hanoi, Go/noGo, and Divided Attention tasks when compared to the switchers. Non-switchers performed significantly better on two verbal subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Information and Similarity), but not on the Performance subtests (Picture Completion, Block Design). Conclusions The present results suggest that bilinguals with stronger language control have indeed a cognitive advantage in the administered tests involving executive functions, in particular inhibition, self-monitoring, problem solving, and generative fluency, and in two of the intelligence tests. What

  5. Action-based language: a theory of language acquisition, comprehension, and production.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-07-01

    Evolution and the brain have done a marvelous job solving many tricky problems in action control, including problems of learning, hierarchical control over serial behavior, continuous recalibration, and fluency in the face of slow feedback. Given that evolution tends to be conservative, it should not be surprising that these solutions are exploited to solve other tricky problems, such as the design of a communication system. We propose that a mechanism of motor control, paired controller/predictor models, has been exploited for language learning, comprehension, and production. Our account addresses the development of grammatical regularities and perspective, as well as how linguistic symbols become meaningful through grounding in perception, action, and emotional systems.

  6. Translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales for Users of American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Samady, Waheeda; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Nakaji, Melanie; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Trybus, Raymond; Athale, Ninad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the translation of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales into American Sign Language (ASL). Translation is an essential first step toward validating the instrument for use in the Deaf community, a commonly overlooked minority community. This translated MHLC/ASL can be utilized by public health nurses researching the Deaf community to create and evaluate targeted health interventions. It can be used in clinical settings to guide the context of the provider-patient dialogue. The MHLC was translated using focus groups, following recommended procedures. Five bilingual participants translated the MHLC into ASL; five others back-translated the ASL version into English. Both focus groups identified and addressed language and cultural problems before the final ASL version of the MHLC was permanently captured on by motion picture photography for consistent administration. Nine of the 24 items were directly translatable into ASL. The remaining items required further discussion to achieve cultural equivalence with ASL expressions. The MHLC/ASL is now ready for validation within the Deaf community. PMID:18816365

  7. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others.

  8. Influence of oxytocin on emotion recognition from body language: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Berra, Emmely; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2016-10-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. One mechanism by which OT is hypothesized to promote prosocial behavior is by enhancing the processing of socially relevant information from the environment. With the present study, we explored to what extent OT can alter the 'reading' of emotional body language as presented by impoverished biological motion point light displays (PLDs). To do so, a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted, assessing performance on a bodily emotion recognition task in healthy adult males before and after a single-dose of intranasal OT (24 IU). Overall, a single-dose of OT administration had a significant effect of medium size on emotion recognition from body language. OT-induced improvements in emotion recognition were not differentially modulated by the emotional valence of the presented stimuli (positive versus negative) and also, the overall tendency to label an observed emotional state as 'happy' (positive) or 'angry' (negative) was not modified by the administration of OT. Albeit moderate, the present findings of OT-induced improvements in bodily emotion recognition from whole-body PLD provide further support for a link between OT and the processing of socio-communicative cues originating from the body of others. PMID:27442997

  9. Get a job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    At AGU's 1996 Fall Meeting, a record number of jobs were advertised through the AGU Job Center. Approximately 150 employers advertised 164 jobs at the meeting in San Francisco, while 302 applicants used the center's services and about 50 sat for on-site interviews. At the 1995 Fall Meeting, the Job Center attracted 87 employers and 230 applicants.

  10. Job descriptions made easy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  11. Anxiety and Affective Control among Distance Language Learners in China and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Stella; Xiao, Junhong

    2010-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety (FLA) has been the focus of many studies into affect in classroom settings. However, the growing numbers of distance language learners worldwide in recent years calls for greater attention to be paid to this increasingly important constituency of language learners. Following on from Hurd's investigation into FLA with…

  12. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  13. Dynamic Engagement of Cognitive Control Modulates Recovery From Misinterpretation During Real-Time Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Novick, Jared M

    2016-04-01

    Speech unfolds swiftly, yet listeners keep pace by rapidly assigning meaning to what they hear. Sometimes, though, initial interpretations turn out to be wrong. How do listeners revise misinterpretations of language input moment by moment to avoid comprehension errors? Cognitive control may play a role by detecting when processing has gone awry and then initiating behavioral adjustments accordingly. However, no research to date has investigated a cause-and-effect interplay between cognitive-control engagement and the overriding of erroneous interpretations in real time. Using a novel cross-task paradigm, we showed that Stroop-conflict detection, which mobilizes cognitive-control procedures, subsequently facilitates listeners' incremental processing of temporarily ambiguous spoken instructions that induce brief misinterpretation. When instructions followed incongruent Stroop items, compared with congruent Stroop items, listeners' eye movements to objects in a scene reflected more transient consideration of the false interpretation and earlier recovery of the correct one. Comprehension errors also decreased. Cognitive-control engagement therefore accelerates sentence-reinterpretation processes, even as linguistic input is still unfolding. PMID:26957521

  14. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  15. Which tasks best discriminate between dyslexic university students and controls in a transparent language?

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2011-08-01

    The need for a battery for testing adult dyslexia, and especially university students, is being increasingly recognized in view of the increased number of adult requests for a dyslexia examination in relation to both assistance and protection from discrimination. The present study examines the discriminative validity of a battery we have developed-the Battery for the Assessment of Reading and Writing in Adulthood-through comparison of the performance of 24 university students with a history of severe developmental dyslexia and 99 controls. All the reading, writing, lexical decision and spelling tasks of the battery, except omissions in a lexical decision task and reading comprehension, showed a good discriminatory power. In addition, use of just two of these tasks (fluency in reading a text and spelling under articulatory suppression) gave 87% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Our results confirm that in transparent languages, measures of phonological automaticity are the best indexes of reading decoding competence, particularly in adults.

  16. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units of three university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. We analyzed the job stress levels by using the Korean occupational stress scale, contributing factors, and job satisfaction. Results: Fifty-nine workers completed the self-administered questionnaires. The job stress scores for the endoscopy unit workers (46.39±7.81) were relatively lower compared to those of the national sample of Korean workers (51.23±8.83). Job stress differed across job positions, with nurses showing significantly higher levels of stress (48.92±7.97) compared to doctors (42.59±6.37). Job stress and job satisfaction were negatively correlated with each other (R2=0.340, p<0.001). Conclusions: An endoscopy unit is composed of a heterogeneous group of health-care professionals (i.e., nurses, fellows, and professors), and job stress and job satisfaction significantly differ according to job positions. Job demand, insufficient job control, and job insecurity are the most important stressors in the endoscopy unit. PMID:26898513

  17. Vocational English: Preparing for a First Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Julia; Prince, David

    1982-01-01

    In a 1980 Vocational ESL (VESL) project for adult Indochinese refugees, the major issues explored were: (1) What are the language and performance skills necessary for entry-level jobs? (2) How can these skills be incorporated into a VESL curriculum for beginning level, semiliterate students? and (3) How can ESL curriculum materials reflect…

  18. Inhibitory Control and L2 Proficiency Modulate Bilingual Language Production: Evidence from Spontaneous Monologue and Dialogue Speech

    PubMed Central

    Pivneva, Irina; Palmer, Caroline; Titone, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual language production requires that speakers recruit inhibitory control (IC) to optimally balance the activation of more than one linguistic system when they produce speech. Moreover, the amount of IC necessary to maintain an optimal balance is likely to vary across individuals as a function of second language (L2) proficiency and inhibitory capacity, as well as the demands of a particular communicative situation. Here, we investigate how these factors relate to bilingual language production across monologue and dialogue spontaneous speech. In these tasks, 42 English–French and French–English bilinguals produced spontaneous speech in their first language (L1) and their L2, with and without a conversational partner. Participants also completed a separate battery that assessed L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. The results showed that L2 vs. L1 production was generally more effortful, as was dialogue vs. monologue speech production although the clarity of what was produced was higher for dialogues vs. monologues. As well, language production effort significantly varied as a function of individual differences in L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity. Taken together, the overall pattern of findings suggests that both increased L2 proficiency and inhibitory capacity relate to efficient language production during spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. PMID:22438846

  19. Ontology Language to Support Description of Experiment Control System Semantics, Collaborative Knowledge-Base Design and Ontology Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Gyurjyan, D Abbott, G Heyes, E Jastrzembski, B Moffit, C Timmer, E Wolin

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we discuss the control domain specific ontology that is built on top of the domain-neutral Resource Definition Framework (RDF). Specifically, we will discuss the relevant set of ontology concepts along with the relationships among them in order to describe experiment control components and generic event-based state machines. Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL) is a meta-data modeling language that provides generic means for representation of physics experiment control processes and components, and their relationships, rules and axioms. It provides a semantic reference frame that is useful for automating the communication of information for configuration, deployment and operation. COOL has been successfully used to develop a complete and dynamic knowledge-base for experiment control systems, developed using the AFECS framework.

  20. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light. PMID:27050040

  1. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  2. Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqi; Huang, Jason L; Wang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The current meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of job search interventions in facilitating job search success (i.e., obtaining employment). Major theoretical perspectives on job search interventions, including behavioral learning theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and coping theory, were reviewed and integrated to derive a taxonomy of critical job search intervention components. Summarizing the data from 47 experimentally or quasi-experimentally evaluated job search interventions, we found that the odds of obtaining employment were 2.67 times higher for job seekers participating in job search interventions compared to job seekers in the control group, who did not participate in such intervention programs. Our moderator analysis also suggested that job search interventions that contained certain components, including teaching job search skills, improving self-presentation, boosting self-efficacy, encouraging proactivity, promoting goal setting, and enlisting social support, were more effective than interventions that did not include such components. More important, job search interventions effectively promoted employment only when both skill development and motivation enhancement were included. In addition, we found that job search interventions were more effective in helping younger and older (vs. middle-aged) job seekers, short-term (vs. long-term) unemployed job seekers, and job seekers with special needs and conditions (vs. job seekers in general) to find employment. Furthermore, meta-analytic path analysis revealed that increased job search skills, job search self-efficacy, and job search behaviors partially mediated the positive effect of job search interventions on obtaining employment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqi; Huang, Jason L; Wang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The current meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of job search interventions in facilitating job search success (i.e., obtaining employment). Major theoretical perspectives on job search interventions, including behavioral learning theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and coping theory, were reviewed and integrated to derive a taxonomy of critical job search intervention components. Summarizing the data from 47 experimentally or quasi-experimentally evaluated job search interventions, we found that the odds of obtaining employment were 2.67 times higher for job seekers participating in job search interventions compared to job seekers in the control group, who did not participate in such intervention programs. Our moderator analysis also suggested that job search interventions that contained certain components, including teaching job search skills, improving self-presentation, boosting self-efficacy, encouraging proactivity, promoting goal setting, and enlisting social support, were more effective than interventions that did not include such components. More important, job search interventions effectively promoted employment only when both skill development and motivation enhancement were included. In addition, we found that job search interventions were more effective in helping younger and older (vs. middle-aged) job seekers, short-term (vs. long-term) unemployed job seekers, and job seekers with special needs and conditions (vs. job seekers in general) to find employment. Furthermore, meta-analytic path analysis revealed that increased job search skills, job search self-efficacy, and job search behaviors partially mediated the positive effect of job search interventions on obtaining employment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24588365

  4. The Use of Organizational Language of Turkish School Principals toward Teachers as a Means of Motivation and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Seyfettin

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain perceptions of teachers employed in state and private schools in Eskisehir, Turkey, about the language use of principals toward teachers as a means of motivation and control. The data for the study were collected from 170 teachers working in 13 schools. To analyze the data, frequency and percentage analysis techniques…

  5. Psychological Reactance and Promotional Health Messages: The Effects of Controlling Language, Lexical Concreteness, and the Restoration of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Claude H.; Lane, Lindsay T.; Deatrick, Leslie M.; Young, Alice M.; Potts, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent social influence research utilizing psychological reactance theory (J. W. Brehm, 1966) has focused on how reactance motivates message rejection due to threats to perceived freedoms posed by controlling language. Although reactance has been shown to increase message rejection and source derogation, persuasive appeals employing alternative…

  6. Action Control, Motivated Strategies, and Integrative Motivation as Predictors of Language Learning Affect and the Intention to Continue Learning French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Blackie, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relative ability of variables from three motivational frameworks to predict four non-linguistic outcomes of language learning. The study examines Action Control Theory with its measures of (1) hesitation, (2) volatility and (3) rumination. The study also examined Pintrich's expectancy-value model that uses measures…

  7. Phonological Memory, Attention Control, and Musical Ability: Effects of Individual Differences on Rater Judgments of Second Language Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how listener judgments of second language speech relate to individual differences in listeners' phonological memory, attention control, and musical ability. Sixty native English listeners (30 music majors, 30 nonmusic majors) rated 40 nonnative speech samples for accentedness, comprehensibility, and fluency. The listeners were…

  8. Sex inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control and work hours.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-08-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR = 2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR = 1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR = 1.91), followed by for British women (OR = 1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR = 1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work

  9. Relationships of job hazards, lack of knowledge, alcohol use, health status and risk taking behavior to work injury of coal miners: a case-control study in India.

    PubMed

    Kunar, Bijay Mihir; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2008-01-01

    Objective is to assess the relationships of job hazards, individual characteristics, and risk taking behavior to occupational injuries of coal miners. This case-control study compared 245 male underground coal miners with injury during the previous two-year period with 330 matched controls without injury during the previous five years. Data were collected via face-to-face interview and analyzed using the conditional logistic model. Handling material, poor environmental/working conditions, and geological/strata control- related hazards were the main risk factors: adjusted ORs 5.15 (95% CI 2.42-10.9), 2.40 (95% CI 1.29-4.47), and 2.25 (95% CI 1.24-4.07) respectively. Their roles were higher among the face-workers than among the non-face-workers. No formal education, alcohol consumption, disease, big-family, and risk-taking behavior were associated with injuries (2.36

  10. Can an Opportunity to Learn at Work Reduce Stress?: A Revisitation of the Job Demand-Control Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panari, Chiara; Guglielmi, Dina; Simbula, Silvia; Depolo, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to extend the stress-buffering hypothesis of the demand-control model. In addition to the control variable, it seeks to analyse the role of an opportunity for learning and development (L&D) in the workplace as a moderator variable between increased demands and need for recovery. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire…

  11. Flexible Job Shop Scheduling with Multi-level Job Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yang-Ja; Kim, Ki-Dong; Jang, Seong-Yong; Park, Jinwoo

    This paper deals with a scheduling problem in a flexible job shop with multi-level job structures where end products are assembled from sub-assemblies or manufactured components. For such shops MRP (Material Requirement Planning) logic is frequently used to synchronize and pace the production activities for the required parts. However, in MRP, the planning of operational-level activities is left to short term scheduling. So, we need a good scheduling algorithm to generate feasible schedules taking into account shop floor characteristics and multi-level job structures used in MRP. In this paper, we present a GA (Genetic Algorithm) solution for this complex scheduling problem based on a new gene to reflect the machine assignment, operation sequences and the levels of the operations relative to final assembly operation. The relative operation level is the control parameter that paces the completion timing of the components belonging to the same branch in the multi-level job hierarchy. We compare the genetic algorithm with several dispatching rules in terms of total tardiness and the genetic algorithm shows outstanding performance for about forty modified standard job-shop problem instances.

  12. Jobs in Transportation. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of transportation. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of transportation. Chapter 2 describes jobs in water transportation, and chapter 3 deals with rail transportation,…

  13. Jobs in Construction. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in the construction industry under the classifications of public and private building. Separate chapters discuss the process of building a city hospital, a model home, and a State highway. Chapters outline miscellaneous jobs in the industry such as elevator constructors, lathers, plasterers, roofers, and sheet metal…

  14. Luria's Model of the Verbal Control of Behavior. Study F: Motivational and Control in the Development of Language Functions, D. Birch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, Hugo

    A. R. Luria, in his conception of the verbal control of behavior, regards four fundamental and distinctive functional attributes of the human speech system as making up a signaling system that humans alone possess: (1) the nominative role of language, (2) the generalizing or semantic role, (3) the communicative role, and (4) the role of…

  15. Bilinguals Use Language-Control Brain Areas More Than Monolinguals to Perform Non-Linguistic Switching Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Román, Patricia; Martin, Clara; Barceló, Francisco; Costa, Albert; Ávila, César

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that the behavioural performance of the two groups was comparable, allowing then to have a safer comparison between the corresponding brain activity in the two groups. Despite the lack of behavioural differences between both groups, early bilinguals used language-control areas – such as left caudate, and left inferior and middle frontal gyri – more than monolinguals, when performing the switching task. Results offer direct support for the notion that, early bilingualism exerts an effect in the neural circuitry responsible for executive control. This effect partially involves the recruitment of brain areas involved in language control when performing domain-general executive control tasks, highlighting the cross-talk between these two domains. PMID:24058456

  16. Bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals to perform non-linguistic switching tasks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Román, Patricia; Martin, Clara; Barceló, Francisco; Costa, Albert; Avila, César

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that the behavioural performance of the two groups was comparable, allowing then to have a safer comparison between the corresponding brain activity in the two groups. Despite the lack of behavioural differences between both groups, early bilinguals used language-control areas--such as left caudate, and left inferior and middle frontal gyri--more than monolinguals, when performing the switching task. Results offer direct support for the notion that, early bilingualism exerts an effect in the neural circuitry responsible for executive control. This effect partially involves the recruitment of brain areas involved in language control when performing domain-general executive control tasks, highlighting the cross-talk between these two domains.

  17. Job Sharing in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  18. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    After several lean years, chemical engineering (a popular discipline among women) is witnessing a higher job demand for new graduates. Companies show a trend toward specialty chemicals with resultant needs for more engineering talent. Other opportunities in the field include agriculture and food processing, environmental control, biotechnology,…

  19. Financial management and job social skills training components in a summer business institute: a controlled evaluation in high achieving predominantly ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-07-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.

  20. 20 CFR 638.502 - Job Corps basic education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... education program. The Job Corps Director shall prescribe or provide for basic education curricula to be... operators shall provide the following educational programs at a minimum: (a) Reading and language skills; (b... as a second language (ESL) programs for selected center operators (regional offices shall arrange...

  1. Quantum Leap--A Teacher and a Consultant Exchange Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lier, Jacquie; Bufe, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    To gain appreciation for each others' perspectives, a Mississippi language arts consultant and a third-grade teacher from Iowa traded jobs for a year. As a consultant, the teacher found that classroom teachers were more interested in whole-language instruction practicalities than in theory. As a teacher, the consultant learned that classroom…

  2. Assessing Language Dominance with Functional MRI: The Role of Control Tasks and Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Rosengarth, Katharina; Doenitz, Christian; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between the brain regions revealed by functional neuroimaging techniques and those brain regions where a loss of function, either by lesion or by electrocortical stimulation, induces language disorders. To differentiate between essential and non-essential language-related processes, we investigated the effects of linguistic…

  3. Using Transfer of Stimulus Control Technology to Promote Generalization and Spontaneity of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Trina D.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism often use newly acquired language in restricted contexts and with limited variability. Instructional tactics that embed generalization technology have shown promise for increasing spontaneity, response variation, and the generalized use of language across settings, people, and materials. In this study, we explored the…

  4. Monolingual or Bilingual Intervention for Primary Language Impairment? A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin; Cloutier, Geneviève; Ménard, Suzanne; Pelland-Blais, Elaine; Rvachew, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of monolingual versus bilingual language intervention, the latter involving speech-language pathologist-parent collaboration. The study focuses on methods that are currently being recommended and that are feasible within current clinical contexts. Method: Bilingual children with primary…

  5. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

  6. Assessment of Second Language Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Tom

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of current second language testing trends and practices in Australia focuses on the use of performance assessment, providing examples of its application in four specific contexts: an occupational English test used for to assess job-related English language skills as part of the certification procedure for health professionals;…

  7. Job Sharing in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  8. job.search@internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia.

    1995-01-01

    Presents job-hunting options and career opportunities available by searching the Internet, as well as tips for consulting others in a field of interest through a listserv or usenet news group. A collection of Internet addresses providing access to information on job search strategies or job availability is provided. (JPS)

  9. Your Next Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Daniel; McCormick, John

    1999-01-01

    Looks at how the job market is changing and how workers are looking at their career paths. Includes information on where the jobs and dollars are, how the work force is changing, how and where people are working, new age jobs, women in the work force, and the need for keeping up to date with new technologies. (JOW)

  10. Jobs and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Patrick

    1975-01-01

    Environmental standards and programs, rather than eliminating jobs, are currently significant sources of employment and will become major generators of new jobs in the next few years. The number of jobs created to renew and protect the environment topped one million in 1975 and may double by 1976. (BT)

  11. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  12. Student Job Seekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Helen

    1978-01-01

    The problem of graduate unemployment in India is examined in a study of 650 job seekers in Madras City. The relatively long period of waiting before a graduate actually finds and takes a job is attributed often to high income expectation. Correlations between job and studies preference of students are among the factors discussed. (LBH)

  13. Job Placement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    Directed to school systems initiating a job placement program, the Atlanta Public Schools (Georgia) job placement manual discusses how a job placement program can provide a transition from school to work for all students leaving the public schools, as well as place students in paid and non-paid part-time work experiences as a part of their…

  14. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    PubMed

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  15. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    PubMed

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training.

  16. Evaluating Signal-Correlated Noise as a Control Task with Language-Related Gamma Activity on Electrocorticography

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Erik C.; Muzik, Otto; Rothermel, Robert; Juhász, Csaba; Shah, Aashit K.; Fuerst, Darren; Mittal, Sandeep; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our recent electrocorticography (ECoG) study suggested reverse speech, a widely used control task, to be a poor control for non-language-related auditory activity. We hypothesized that this may be due to retained perception as a human voice. We report a follow-up ECoG study in which we contrast forward and reverse speech with a signal-correlated noise (SCN) control task that cannot be perceived as a human voice. Methods Ten patients were presented 90 audible stimuli, including 30 each of corresponding forward speech, reverse speech, and SCN trials, during ECoG recording with evaluation of gamma activity between 50–150 Hz. Results Sites of the lateral temporal gyri activated throughout speech stimuli were generally less activated by SCN, while some temporal sites seemed to process both human and non-human sounds. Reverse speech trials were associated with activities across the temporal lobe similar to those associated with forward speech. Conclusions Findings herein externally validate functional neuroimaging studies utilizing SCN as a control for non-language-specific auditory function. Our findings are consistent with the notion that stimuli perceived as originating from a human voice are poor controls for non-language auditory function. Significance Our findings have implications in functional neuroimaging research as well as improved clinical mapping of auditory functions. PMID:24412331

  17. Positional influences on job satisfaction and job performance: a multivariate, predictive approach.

    PubMed

    Butler, M C; Ehrlich, S B

    1991-12-01

    This study examined relationships between job attitudes, work environment perceptions, and supervisors' ratings of job performance among health care employees occupying both medical care and administrative positions in ambulatory clinic settings. Between-group differences were noted on the perceived relationship with the supervisor, level of job/role conflict, and working conditions. Results are discussed in terms of functional and dysfunctional aspects of control systems and path-goal theory of leadership.

  18. Can contingency learning alone account for item-specific control? Evidence from within- and between-language ISPC effects.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Nart Bedin; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2012-11-01

    The item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation (Jacoby, Lindsay, & Hessels, 2003) produces larger Stroop interference for mostly congruent items than mostly incongruent items. This effect has been attributed to dynamic control over word-reading processes. However, proportion congruence of an item in the ISPC manipulation is completely confounded with response contingency, suggesting the alternative hypothesis, that the ISPC effect is a result of learning response contingencies (Schmidt & Besner, 2008). The current study asks whether the ISPC effect can be explained by a pure stimulus-response contingency-learning account, or whether other control processes play a role as well, by comparing within- and between-language conditions in a bilingual task. Experiment 1 showed that contingency learning for noncolor words was larger for the within-language than the between-language condition. Experiment 2 revealed significant ISPC effects for both within- and between-language conditions; importantly, the effect was larger in the former. The results of the contingency analyses for Experiment 2 were parallel to that of Experiment 1 and did not show an interaction between contingency and congruency. Put together, these sets of results support the view that contingency-learning processes dominate color-word ISPC effects.

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Job Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinian, Simin; Yazdi, Seyedeh-Monavar; Zahraie, Shaghayegh; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali

    This study aims to investigate the effect of training some aspects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on job satisfaction and productivity of employees. The results can help organizations to realize human capabilities and the way to improve them by paying more attention to psychological issues. We used a quasi-experimental method using a pre-test and a post-test designed with control group and a four-month follow-up. Study population consists of employees of Marine Installations and Construction Company. Considering variables like age, education and job rank, we selected 28 employees who earned the lowest score for EI. They were then randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Each employee got job satisfaction and productivity questionnaires and their managers were given employee evaluation questionnaire. Then some aspects of EI were taught to the experimental group once a week for 10 sessions. Four months later, both groups were evaluated by managers. The results show that education did not increase employees` job satisfaction nor did it improve managers` evaluation. However, employees` productivity score after training sessions and managers` evaluation improved in the long run. The results reveal that training EI by further controlling the above-mentioned variables is effective and essential to improve human resources.

  20. Language skill definition: a study of legalized aliens.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R

    1998-01-01

    "The robustness of the model for the acquisition of destination language skills is studied using the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) of aliens who received amnesty under the 1986 [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act. The English language proficiency variables include self-assessed overall speaking skills (the census question), speaking and reading skills in specific situations, perceptions as to whether language skills limit job opportunities, and measures of speaking and reading proficiency at work. The model is found to be robust across definitions of proficiency. Proficiency increases with exposure, efficiency and economic incentives for English language acquisition. The panel feature of the data is used to analyze changes in proficiency over time."

  1. Story Retelling by Bilingual Children with Language Impairments and Typically-Developing Controls

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Katie E.; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there is limited information documenting growth patterns in the narratives of bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Aims This study was designed to determine whether bilingual children with and without PLI present similar gains from kindergarten to first grade in the macro- and microstructure of stories told in Spanish and English. Methods and Procedures In this longitudinal study, 21 bilingual children identified with PLI were each matched to a bilingual typically-developing (TD) peer on age, sex, nonverbal IQ and language exposure. During their kindergarten and first grade years, children retold stories from wordless picture books in Spanish (L1) and English (L2). Outcomes and Results Overall, TD children outperformed those with PLI on measures of macrostructure and microstructure at both time points. For the macrostructure measure, the TD group made significantly larger improvements in both languages from kindergarten to first grade than the PLI group. For microstructure, the TD children made more gains on their Spanish retells than their English retells. However, the PLI children’s microstructure scores did not differ from kindergarten to first grade in either language. We found that macrostructure scores in Spanish at kindergarten predicted macrostructure scores in English at first grade when English experience was held constant. However, this same relationship across languages was not evident in microstructure. Conclusions and Implications TD and PLI children differed in the development of narrative macrostructure and microstructure between kindergarten and first grade. The TD bilinguals transferred conceptually-dependent narrative skills easily, but then had to independently learn the nuances of each language to be successful using literate language. Because most children with PLI need more exposure to establish strong connections between their L1 and L2, they had more difficulty transferring their

  2. Job Discrimination. A Curriculum Packet about Immigration-Related Job Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Andrea; Wright, Peggy

    A curriculum packet is presented that is designed to give English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers the information and tools they need to help students address the issue of job discrimination, especially discrimination based on citizenship status or national origin that may result from the employer verification requirement of the Immigration…

  3. Get That Job! A Project on the German Job Application Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magedera-Hofhansl, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    With decreasing numbers of students studying German at Higher Education Institutions in the United Kingdom, there is an increasing demand for graduate Germanists. This project, designed for C1/C2 level students according to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages, prepares finalist students for a job market in which UK and German…

  4. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  5. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.

  6. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  7. Job demands, job resources and individual innovation at work: going beyond Karasek's model?

    PubMed

    Martín, Pilar; Salanova, Marisa; Peiró, José María

    2007-11-01

    The job demands-control model is one of the most recognized models in occupational stress research. It has, however, provided contradictory results, and the active learning hypothesis derived from this model has been under-researched in comparison with research on the stress hypothesis. The main aim of this study is to test the Job Demands Resources Model in the prediction of individual innovation at work as an active coping strategy. Results with hierarchical multiple regression analyses provide empirical support for this model. We found a positive relationship between job demands and individual innovation in situations characterized by high job resources. Finally, we discuss the limitations and practical implications of this study.

  8. Estimating job runtime for CMS analysis jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.

    2014-06-01

    The basic premise of pilot systems is to create an overlay scheduling system on top of leased resources. And by definition, leases have a limited lifetime, so any job that is scheduled on such resources must finish before the lease is over, or it will be killed and all the computation is wasted. In order to effectively schedule jobs to resources, the pilot system thus requires the expected runtime of the users' jobs. Past studies have shown that relying on user provided estimates is not a valid strategy, so the system should try to make an estimate by itself. This paper provides a study of the historical data obtained from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment's Analysis Operations submission system. Clear patterns are observed, suggesting that making prediction of an expected job lifetime range is achievable with high confidence level in this environment.

  9. The Hospital Work Environment And Job Satisfaction of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In prior studies, newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) described their job as being stressful. Little is known about how the hospital work environment affects their job satisfaction. A random sample of NLRNs were surveyed to assess the influence of hospital work environment on job satisfaction. Perceptions of greater job difficulty, job demands, and patient load were significantly related to lower job satisfaction. In contrast, being White, working 12-hour shifts, working more hours, and having more job control, greater professional tenure, and a perception of a better initial orientation were significantly related to higher job satisfaction.

  10. The Education Requirement of the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: A Case Study of Ineffective Language Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, Susan

    An analysis of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which requires basic English language proficiency and knowledge of United States history and civics of illegal aliens seeking permanent residency status, suggests that the Act is an example of poor language planning. The analysis has three components. First, the legalization…

  11. Navigating the territory of job design.

    PubMed

    Holman, David; Clegg, Chris; Waterson, Patrick

    2002-05-01

    Assuming that work contexts are changing and becoming ever more diverse, questions have been raised about the current state and relevance of job design theory. In this paper we review the field of job design from three paradigmatic perspectives, namely, functionalism, interpretivism and critical theory. We point out that the core of job design theory, across all paradigms, has traditionally been concerned with the outcomes of job design, the role of key factors such as control, demand, and skill, and how jobs can be changed. By outlining two scenarios about how work is changing, we argue that, although job design still has a lot to offer (its traditional core concerns are still relevant), it must develop to have a wider appeal and to have more relevance. Finally, we propose how job design can develop as a field. These proposals are based on our belief that job design theory can progress most fully if it draws on a wide range of theories from across different paradigms and from grounded studies of the changing nature of work in diverse occupational contexts.

  12. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  13. The Coemergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in articulatory kinematics and development of skills in multiple domains thought to support early communication development. Twenty-four infants were investigated every three months between the ages of 9 and 21 months. Movements of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw were transduced using a three-dimensional motion capture system to obtain age-related changes in movement speed and range of movement. Standardized measures of cognition and language from the Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the MacArthur-Bates Child Development Inventory were also collected. Significant associations were identified between orofacial kinematic and the standardized measures of language and cognitive skills, even when age served as covariate. These findings provide preliminary evidence of interactions between cognition, language, and speech motor skills during early communication development. Further work is needed to identify and quantify causal relations among these co-emerging skills. PMID:21035125

  14. Job Hunter's Guide Featuring the Seek-a-Job Flock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Educational Development and Training Center.

    This job hunter's guide features the "Seek-a-Job Flock," a set of bird characters that humorously help to illustrate job hunting basics. The guide contains five sections: (1) how to find job openings; (2) how to make the interview appointment; (3) how to complete the job application form; (4) how to act during the interview; and (5) how to follow…

  15. A Grid job monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components : (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  16. A grid job monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Catalin; Nowack, Andreas; Padhi, Sanjay; Sarkar, Subir; /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based Job Monitoring framework for individual Grid sites that allows users to follow in detail their jobs in quasi-real time. The framework consists of several independent components: (a) a set of sensors that run on the site CE and worker nodes and update a database, (b) a simple yet extensible web services framework and (c) an Ajax powered web interface having a look-and-feel and control similar to a desktop application. The monitoring framework supports LSF, Condor and PBS-like batch systems. This is one of the first monitoring systems where an X.509 authenticated web interface can be seamlessly accessed by both end-users and site administrators. While a site administrator has access to all the possible information, a user can only view the jobs for the Virtual Organizations (VO) he/she is a part of. The monitoring framework design supports several possible deployment scenarios. For a site running a supported batch system, the system may be deployed as a whole, or existing site sensors can be adapted and reused with the web services components. A site may even prefer to build the web server independently and choose to use only the Ajax powered web interface. Finally, the system is being used to monitor a glideinWMS instance. This broadens the scope significantly, allowing it to monitor jobs over multiple sites.

  17. Language Teaching in the Post-Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Eugene F.

    In recent times there has been undue emphasis placed on the utilitarian byproducts of language study: the kinds of positions open for language majors, the practical purposes to which languages may be put, and job openings in the areas of translation, diplomacy, and commerce. These motives for the study of a language are commendable, but they do…

  18. Use of a crop and job specific exposure matrix for estimating cumulative exposure to triazine herbicides among females in a case-control study in the Central Valley of California

    PubMed Central

    Young, H; Mills, P; Riordan, D; Cress, R

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine if a job exposure matrix (JEM) could be developed using the California Department of Pesticide Regulation Pesticide Usage Database in conjunction with crop, time, and county specific self reported work history and to determine if this was a feasible method to obtain exposure estimates to triazine herbicides. Methods: Agricultural work histories were gathered from women enrolled in a population based case-control study of ovarian cancer cases and random controls. The work histories were used in conjunction with the database to construct job exposure matrices which took into account weightings for job type, work location, and crop. Results: Cumulative exposure estimates were determined for 98 study subjects. Mean exposure estimates were similar for cases and controls. The exposure estimates were robust and insensitive to varying job weight assumptions. The estimates from the original weights were highly correlated with those constructed using the conservative and maximum weights. Estimates from all three schemes produced similar multivariate age adjusted odds ratios comparing cases and controls. There was a high degree of agreement in categorised quartiles of exposure between the original and conservative, and original and maximum weights. Conclusions: The exposure estimate from the JEM provides a ranking of exposure within the study population that can be utilised as an "exposure score" with which to compare groups. Although it is not an absolute exposure measurement, it does offer a substantial advance over dichotomous categories based on self report of herbicide use, particularly when subjects are unlikely to recall specific names and dates of use of herbicides. PMID:15477289

  19. 75 FR 4107 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Application Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Application Data AGENCY: Office of Job Corps. ACTION... comments concerning the collection of Job Corps application data collection forms (OMB Control NO. 1205-0025, expires 05/31/2010): ETA 652, Job Corps Data Sheet, ETA 655, Statement from Court or Other...

  20. 78 FR 48197 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Placement and... about Job Corps Placement Record [OMB Control No. 1205-0035, expires January 2014]: ETA 678 form, Job... training and subsequent placement in a job, higher education or the military, as well as the name of...

  1. Job Interviewing Skills for ESL Students with a Cross-Cultural Emphasis. Instructor's Manual and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosak, Alice; Nguyen, Patricia

    These instructor and student manuals contain the content for a course on getting a job for students of English as a Second Language. The course emphasizes the cultural values and nuances of U.S. culture that students may expect to encounter during the job search and job interviews. Topics covered include exploring cultural assumptions, culture…

  2. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  3. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  4. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  5. Story Retelling by Bilingual Children with Language Impairments and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie E.; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Bohman, Thomas M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date there is limited information documenting growth patterns in the narratives of bilingual children with and without primary language impairment (PLI). Aims: This study was designed to determine whether bilingual children with and without PLI present similar gains from kindergarten to first grade in the macro- and microstructure…

  6. Maturation of Speech and Language Functional Neuroanatomy in Pediatric Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devous, Michael D., Sr.; Altuna, Dianne; Furl, Nicholas, Cooper, William; Gabbert, Gretchen; Ngai, Wei Tat; Chiu, Stephanie; Scott, Jack M., III; Harris, Thomas S.; Payne, J. Kelly; Tobey, Emily A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the relationship between age and resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in regions associated with higher order language skills using a population of normal children, adolescents, and young adults. Method: rCBF was measured in 33 normal participants between the ages of 7 and 19 years using single photon…

  7. Examining Interaction in the Teaching Practicum: Issues of Language, Power and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Fiona; Lo, Margaret M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the post-observation interactions between six English as a Second Language (ESL) student teachers and their university tutors during their teaching practicum in Hong Kong. Data consist of interviews with university tutors, transcriptions of recorded conferences and stimulated recall interviews with student teachers. Case…

  8. Actions and Names: Observing Responses and the Role of Multiple Stimulus Control in Incidental Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Claire S.

    2013-01-01

    The present research focuses on the possible relation between observing responses and language acquisition. In the first of three experiments, preschool aged participants with and without disabilities were presented with the opportunity to observe multiple aspects of a stimulus. A Naming experience was created in which the stimulus was presented…

  9. When and how is job embeddedness predictive of turnover? a meta-analytic investigation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Dong; McKay, Patrick F; Lee, Thomas W; Mitchell, Terence R

    2012-09-01

    The present meta-analytic study introduces an overall model of the relationships between job embeddedness and turnover outcomes. Drawing on 65 independent samples (N = 42,907), we found that on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness negatively related to turnover intentions and actual turnover, after controlling for job satisfaction, affective commitment, and job alternatives. In addition, the negative relationships between on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) and turnover criteria were stronger in female-dominated samples and public organizations (collectivistic countries). Finally, turnover intentions, job search behavior, and job performance fully (partially) mediated the effect of on-the-job embeddedness (off-the-job embeddedness) on actual turnover. The research and practical implications of our findings are noted, in light of study limitations and future research needs. PMID:22663557

  10. Can job redesign interventions influence a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics? A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Holman, David; Axtell, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Can job redesign interventions influence a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics? A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Holman, David; Axtell, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641482

  12. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: Home Care Workers in a Consumer-Directed Model of Care

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Linda; Wallace, Steven P; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate determinants of job satisfaction among home care workers in a consumer-directed model. Data Sources/Setting Analysis of data collected from telephone interviews with 1,614 Los Angeles home care workers on the state payroll in 2003. Data Collection and Analysis Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of job satisfaction using job stress model domains of demands, control, and support. Principal Findings Abuse from consumers, unpaid overtime hours, and caring for more than one consumer as well as work-health demands predict less satisfaction. Some physical and emotional demands of the dyadic care relationship are unexpectedly associated with greater job satisfaction. Social support and control, indicated by job security and union involvement, have a direct positive effect on job satisfaction. Conclusions Policies that enhance the relational component of care may improve workers' ability to transform the demands of their job into dignified and satisfying labor. Adequate benefits and sufficient authorized hours of care can minimize the stress of unpaid overtime work, caring for multiple consumers, job insecurity, and the financial constraints to seeking health care. Results have implications for the structure of consumer-directed models of care and efforts to retain long-term care workers. PMID:20403063

  13. Entering the Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzubow, Steven R.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed more than 600 college seniors, potential employers, and experienced professional employees to examine the effectiveness of various job search methods. Results indicated the advantages of personal contacts and networking and provided guidelines to increase the efficiency of the job search process. (JAC)

  14. Creative Job Search Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Vocational Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Creative Job Search Technique is based on the premise that most people have never learned how to systematically look for a job. A person who is unemployed can be helped to take a hard look at his acquired skills and relate those skills to an employer's needs. (Author)

  15. Learning on the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Alyse; Winningham, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Many students recognizes the value of participating in an internship program. The experience benefits not only students and potential future employers, but colleges, too--not the mention the workforce. Internships often equip students with a competitive advantage over other job seekers. On-the-job programs not only allow students to discover the…

  16. Relocate for Better Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem County Vocational Technical Schools. Woodstown, NJ.

    These six modules are designed to help individuals make the decision whether or not to relocate to find a job or a better job. The modules cover (1) the steps in making a decision and the importance of the information-gathering stage, (2) exploring personal values and needs that are important in making a decision about relocating, (3) the steps in…

  17. Jobs for Renewing America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    As America emerges from recession, certain industries are expected to grow particularly fast and will present many job opportunities for both young people and career changers. This article looks at these high-opportunity industries and the kinds of jobs they are expected to open up. In the global economy of the 21st century, many low-skill jobs…

  18. Writing job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, M

    1990-01-01

    The skill of writing job descriptions begins with an understanding of the advantages, as well as the basic elements, of a well written description. The end result should be approved and updated as needed. Having a better understanding of this process makes writing the job description a challenge rather than a chore.

  19. Job Placement Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    Designed to serve as a guide for job placement personnel, this handbook is written from the point of view of a school or job preparation facility, based on methodology applicable to the placement function in any setting. Factors identified as critical to a successful placement operation are utilization of a systems approach, establishment of…

  20. Job Instruction Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  1. Job Search Preparations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Adam

    Job search preparations are designed to teach and motivate people to systematically analyze potential or acquired skills and to relate and apply these skills realistically to present day and future labor market needs and openings. These preparations teach people how to systematically seek out job sources and prospects and to consistently and…

  2. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    PubMed

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  3. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    PubMed

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  4. Job-related resources and the pressures of working life.

    PubMed

    Schieman, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Data from a 2011 representative sample of Canadian workers are used to test the resource versus the stress of higher status hypotheses. Drawing on the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R), the resource hypothesis predicts that job-related resources reduce job pressure. The stress of higher status hypothesis predicts that job-related resources increase job pressure. Findings tend to favor the resource hypothesis for job autonomy and schedule control, while supporting the stress of higher status for job authority and challenging work. These findings help elaborate on the "resource" concept in the JD-R model and identify unique ways that such resources might contribute to the pressures of working life.

  5. Jobs in Manufacturing. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the occupational cluster of manufacturing. In the first chapter, the student is briefly introduced to the occupational cluster concept and to the general area of manufacturing. Chapter 2 describes jobs involved in the production of materials and processing of goods. Chapter 3 discusses…

  6. Jobs in Public Service. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The booklet describes jobs in public service. The introductory chapter provides a definition and overview of public service work. Following chapters describe various levels of public service including: (1) neighborhood workers--letter carriers and postal employees, fire fighters, police officers, service repair workers, and bus drivers; (2) city…

  7. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  8. Sequential analyses, multiple controlling stimuli, and temporal patterning in first-language transmission

    PubMed Central

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    1999-01-01

    Although inferences of causality from contingencies are problematic, as Hume argued, and are difficult to prove empirically, explanatory accounts of normal language acquisition and all remedial interventions rely on presumptions of environmental effectiveness. Careful sequential analyses of verbal behaviors can strongly corroborate dependencies by means of establishing either (a) contiguous contingencies or (b) topographical resemblances between antecedents and delayed consequences that could not be explained without assuming such dependencies. The promises, as well as the methodological and conceptual challenges, of such sequential analyses of verbal training and learning are exemplified on the basis of mother-child interactions. Concomitant variation over shorter and longer intervals, and immediate as well as lagged contingencies, are interpreted as indicators of dependency relationships. By focusing on behavioral evidence, extensive similarities or even homologies between first-language training and learning and basic behavioral principles established mostly through nonhuman research can be demonstrated. Nevertheless, expansions and innovations in the behavioral repertoire are suggested as conducive to mutual enrichment of the two fields of the experimental analysis of behavior and first-language acquisition. PMID:22477160

  9. How Do Highly Proficient Bilinguals Control Their Lexicalization Process? Inhibitory and Language-Specific Selection Mechanisms are Both Functional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Santesteban, Mikel; Ivanova, Iva

    2006-01-01

    The authors report 4 experiments exploring the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals in a picture-naming task. In Experiment 1, they tested the impact of language similarity and age of 2nd language acquisition on the language-switching performance of highly proficient bilinguals. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 assessed the…

  10. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  11. Job Scheduling in a Heterogeneous Grid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, Hong-Zhang; Smith, Warren; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    2004-01-01

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  12. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  13. Characteristics of job rotation in the Midwest US manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Michael; Davis, Kermit; Kotowski, Susan; Aedla, Pranathi; Dunning, Kari

    2005-12-15

    Job rotation has been advocated as a suitable intervention to control work-related musculoskeletal disorders. However, little is known regarding the prevalence of job rotation, methods used to identify jobs for rotation or the benefits or limitations of job rotation. A web-based questionnaire was developed to survey job rotation practices from Midwest US manufacturing companies. Results indicated that 42.7% of the companies contacted used job rotation, where the median time for which they had used job rotation was 5 years. Job rotation was used mainly to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related injuries and to reduce work related injuries, whereas supervisor decisions and ergonomic analyses were used to select jobs for the rotation scheme. Major limitations to successful implementation of job rotation included rotation of individuals with medical restrictions, decreased product quality and lack of jobs to rotate to. These findings suggest that further study is needed to determine if exposure to risk factors is reduced through current efforts.

  14. Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T

    2013-01-01

    Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status.

  15. The teenage job hunter.

    PubMed

    Dunning, R E

    1975-03-01

    Job hunting is a significant aspect of occupational behavior and a task that recurs at intervals during the lifespan. Adolescents constitute a vulnerable population-at-risk in their efforts to enter the labor market. Their self-esteem, mastery, and sense of competency are at stake. This paper describes an adaptation of a method currently being used by business management firms that counsel executive clients in the job-hunting process. The method described is tailored to the needs of teenagers and is presented so that occupational therapists can use or modify the method for clients who lack confidence or experience in job hunting. PMID:1115215

  16. The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…

  17. Cognitive control of language production in bilinguals involves a partly independent process within the domain-general cognitive control network: evidence from task-switching and electrical brain activity.

    PubMed

    Magezi, David A; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-07-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control. The current study measured both behavioural responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) from bilinguals who performed picture naming in single- or mixed-language contexts, as well as an alphanumeric categorisation task in single- or mixed-task context. Analysis of switch costs during the mixed-context conditions showed qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. A 2 × 2 ANOVA of the ERPs, with domain (linguistic, alphanumeric) and context (single, mixed) as within-participant factors, revealed a significant interaction, which also suggests a partly independent language-control mechanism. Source estimations revealed the neural basis of this mechanism to be in bilateral frontal-temporal areas.

  18. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic.

  19. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. PMID:27289044

  20. Secretory otitis media and language development: a six-year follow-up study with case-control.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M; Jeppesen, A L

    1988-05-01

    The 2nd Hjørring Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study, comprised 94% of the 463 three-year-old children residing in the municipality. Among this cohort we found 40 children (9%) who had constant signs of secretory otitis media (SOM), in one or both ears, at 4 examinations in the course of 6 months. Five years later, 12 of the children who had previously had long-lasting SOM had left the municipality. At the age of 8 years the entire cohort had a Silent Reading Word Test (OS-400). Six months later, the 26 children with long-lasting SOM who were still residing in the municipality and 26 control children were tested with the Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the verbal part of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) test. The controls were matched by sex, age, school, grade level, and controlled for classroom and social stratum. The children with long-lasting SOM did not score lower than the control children on the 3 tests. In a separate analysis children with long-lasting bilateral SOM did not score lower than their controls. On the WISC and PPVT-R tests the variability in the case group was greater than in the control group. More comprehensive and varied studies seem needed to elucidate the relationship between language development and SOM.

  1. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  3. Factors Affecting the Job Satisfaction of Latino/a Immigrants in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Corinne; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the job satisfaction of 253 Latino/a newcomers in three rural communities in the Midwest. Specifically, the authors explored the effects of ethnic identity, Anglo acculturation, Latino/a acculturation, perceptions of the community (social relations, discrimination/racism, and language pressures), job tenure, work hours, and…

  4. Operation Retrieval. Disadvantaged Youth: Problems of Job Placement, Job Creation, and Job Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferman, Louis A.

    Operation Retrieval is a research project designed by the Department of Labor to review and assess the experiences of 55 experimental and demonstration projects for disadvantaged youth conducted during the period 1963-65, and to assess the impact of strategies in job placement, job creation, and job development. Job placement and development units…

  5. Job characteristics and college performance and attitudes: a model of work-school conflict and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B

    2007-03-01

    The processes linking job characteristics to school performance and satisfaction in a sample of 253 full-time college students were examined from 2 role theory perspectives, 1 of which emphasized resource scarcity and the other resource expansion. Model tests using structural equation modeling showed that 2 resource-enriching job characteristics, job-school congruence and job control, were positively related to work-school facilitation (WSF). Two resource-depleting job characteristics, job demands and work hours, were positively related to work-school conflict (WSC), and job control was negatively related to WSC. In turn, WSF was positively related to school performance and satisfaction, and WSC was negatively related to school performance. Both WSF and WSC mediated the relationship between the job characteristics and school outcomes. There was no evidence of interactive effects between enriching and depleting job characteristics on interrole processes.

  6. Job characteristics and college performance and attitudes: a model of work-school conflict and facilitation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B

    2007-03-01

    The processes linking job characteristics to school performance and satisfaction in a sample of 253 full-time college students were examined from 2 role theory perspectives, 1 of which emphasized resource scarcity and the other resource expansion. Model tests using structural equation modeling showed that 2 resource-enriching job characteristics, job-school congruence and job control, were positively related to work-school facilitation (WSF). Two resource-depleting job characteristics, job demands and work hours, were positively related to work-school conflict (WSC), and job control was negatively related to WSC. In turn, WSF was positively related to school performance and satisfaction, and WSC was negatively related to school performance. Both WSF and WSC mediated the relationship between the job characteristics and school outcomes. There was no evidence of interactive effects between enriching and depleting job characteristics on interrole processes. PMID:17371094

  7. Try This: Role-Play Party: Talking about Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a stand-alone language-learning activity emphasizing speaking. Specifically, students will participate in role plays to describe occupations and job-related duties. The level of the activity is upper beginner or low intermediate and the time required is 45-60 minutes. The goals are: (1) to ask and answer small-talk questions…

  8. Job stress and coping strategies in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lind, R; Lillestøl, K; Valeur, Jørgen; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Berstad, A; Arslan Lied, G

    2010-04-01

    Psychological distress may be causally related to multiple, unexplained somatic symptoms. We have investigated job stress, coping strategies and subjective health complaints in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. Sixty-four patients were compared with 65 controls. All participants filled in questionnaires focusing on job stress, job demands and control, work environment, coping strategies and subjective health complaints. Compared with controls, patients scored significantly lower on job stress and job demands, and significantly higher on authority over job decisions. Coping strategies and satisfaction with work environment did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the patients reported significantly more subjective health complaints than the controls. Scores on job stress and job demands were generally low in patients with subjective food hypersensitivity. It is unlikely, therefore, that the patients' high scores on subjective health complaints are causally related to the work situation.

  9. Employability for Languages: A Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corradini, Erika, Ed.; Borthwick, Kate, Ed.; Gallagher-Brett, Angela, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Languages sit firmly in the skill-set of the 21st-century graduate. In an increasingly multicultural and multilingual job market, monolingual graduates are at a disadvantage: as the recent Born Global report (2016) notes, "multilingualism has now become the new normal". The contributions in this collection are imbued with this idea and…

  10. The Most Important Languages Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graduating Engineer, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Lists and describes seven languages (COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, C, ADA, and LISP), pointing out that familiarity with one or more will enhance employability. Also lists and describes four operating systems (MSDOS, UNIX, MVS, and VAXX/VMS), indicating that knowledge of these systems will further enhance employability or on-the-job performance.…

  11. Improving Comprehension in Adolescents with Severe Receptive Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial of Intervention for Coordinating Conjunctions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Maric, Nataša; Murphy, Aoife; Turner, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little evidence exists for the effectiveness of therapy for children with receptive language difficulties, particularly those whose difficulties are severe and persistent. Aims: To establish the effectiveness of explicit speech and language therapy with visual support for secondary school-aged children with language impairments…

  12. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically…

  13. Creating job descriptions and a job applicant wish list.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2003-01-01

    How can you recognize the best job applicant for an open position in your practice when he or she shows up at your door? The up-to-date, comprehensive job description will be your best guide. In this article, the author suggests what information should be included in job descriptions, who should write job descriptions for your practice, and when and how to determine appropriate salary and benefits for each job description. In addition, this article offers an important disclaimer for job descriptions that will protect you legally and that every employee in your practice should sign.

  14. Job Hunting, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  15. Classroom-Based Interventions and Teachers' Perceived Job Stressors and Confidence: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Head Start Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C. Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job…

  16. Executive Control Modulates Cross-Language Lexical Activation during L2 Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated…

  17. Language Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  18. Identifying Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Cases and Controls using Natural Language Processing of Radiology Reports.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Ye, Zi; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is increasing due to longer life expectancy and implementation of screening programs. Patient-specific longitudinal measurements of AAA are important to understand pathophysiology of disease development and modifiers of abdominal aortic size. In this paper, we applied natural language processing (NLP) techniques to process radiology reports and developed a rule-based algorithm to identify AAA patients and also extract the corresponding aneurysm size with the examination date. AAA patient cohorts were determined by a hierarchical approach that: 1) selected potential AAA reports using keywords; 2) classified reports into AAA-case vs. non-case using rules; and 3) determined the AAA patient cohort based on a report-level classification. Our system was built in an Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework that allows efficient use of existing NLP components. Our system produced an F-score of 0.961 for AAA-case report classification with an accuracy of 0.984 for aneurysm size extraction. PMID:24303276

  19. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  20. La demande linguistique dans les entreprises: Brabant. Les besoins langagiers des futurs cadres d'entreprise (Language Needs in Business: Brabant. The Language Needs of Future Business Managers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramlot, J. M.

    By studying the job offers in a Belgian newspaper, an attempt is made to determine what the language needs in business are. Offers which explicitly require language skills were collected from a French-language newspaper between November of 1971 and June of 1972, and codified according to the languages mentioned and the combinations thereof, the…

  1. 75 FR 80067 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Training Services. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0062... OMB Control Number: 1076-0062. Title: Application for Job Placement & Training Services....

  2. Job Sprawl, Spatial Mismatch, and Black Employment Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between job sprawl and the spatial mismatch between blacks and jobs. Using data from a variety of sources, including the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census and U.S. Department of Commerce's ZIP Code Business Patterns, I control extensively for metropolitan area characteristics and other factors. In addition, I use…

  3. Effect of Job Specialization on the Hospital Stay and Job Satisfaction of ED Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Vahid; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Babatabar Darzi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the increasing crowdedness of the emergency departments has posed various problems for patients and healthcare systems worldwide. These problems include prolonged hospital stay, patient dissatisfaction and nurse burnout or job dissatisfaction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emergency department (ED) nurses’ job specialization on their job satisfaction and the length of patient stay in the ED. Patients and Methods: This before-after quasi-experimental study was conducted from April to May 2014 at the Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Initially, 35 patients were recruited as controls and the length of their stay in the ED was measured in minutes via a chronometer; Moreover, nurses’ job satisfaction was evaluated using the Mohrman-Cooke-Mohrman job satisfaction scale. Then, a job specialization intervention was developed based on the stabilization model. After that, 35 new patients were recruited to the treatment group and received specialized care services. Accordingly, the length of their stay in the ED was measured. Moreover, the same nurses’ job satisfaction was re-evaluated after the study. The study intervention lasted one month. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20 and statistical tests such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov, the paired and the independent t, and chi-square tests. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups of patients concerning the length of their stay in the ED (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with the pretest readings, nurses had greater job satisfaction after the study (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The job specialization intervention can improve nurses’ satisfaction and relieve the crowdedness of the EDs. PMID:27218054

  4. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    PubMed

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. PMID:22390388

  5. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    PubMed

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed.

  6. Influence of stress resiliency on RN job satisfaction and intent to stay.

    PubMed

    Larrabee, June H; Wu, Ying; Persily, Cynthia A; Simoni, Patricia S; Johnston, Patricia A; Marcischak, Terri L; Mott, Christine L; Gladden, Stephanie D

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurse (RN) job satisfaction is a major predictor of intent to stay and job turnover, serious concerns to health care leaders. Predictors of job satisfaction include autonomy, control over daily practice, nurse-physician collaboration, transformational leadership, group cohesion, job stress, structural empowerment, and psychological empowerment. In the model of psychological empowerment, stress resiliency is the product of persons' interpretive styles and influences psychological empowerment. This study has evaluated the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay using causal modeling. Participants are 464 RNs employed in five acute care hospitals in West Virginia. The final model has provided a very good fit to the data. Stress resiliency is a predictor of psychological empowerment, situational stress, and job satisfaction. This study provides the first evidence of the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in a sample of RNs.

  7. Mind and Language Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Robert K

    2010-01-01

    A distinction is made between the brain and the mind. The architecture of the mind and language is then described within a neo-dualistic framework. A model for the origin of language based on emergence theory is presented. The complexity of hominid existence due to tool making, the control of fire and the social cooperation that fire required gave rise to a new level of order in mental activity and triggered the simultaneous emergence of language and conceptual thought. The mind is shown to have emerged as a bifurcation of the brain with the emergence of language. The role of language in the evolution of human culture is also described. PMID:20922045

  8. Effects of Hospital Workers’ Friendship Networks on Job Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung Yae; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background This study attempted to identify the sources of job stress according to job position and investigate how friendship networks affect job stress. Methods Questionnaires based on The Health Professions Stress Inventory (HPSI) developed by Wolfgang experienced by healthcare providers were collected from 420 nurses, doctors and radiological technologists in two general hospitals in Korea by a multistage cluster sampling method. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effects of friendship networks on job stress after controlling for other factors. Results The severity of job stress differed according to level of job demands (p = .006); radiologic technologists experienced the least stress (45.4), nurses experienced moderate stress (52.4), and doctors experienced the most stress (53.6). Those with long-term friendships characterized by strong connections reported lower levels of stress than did those with weak ties to friends among nurses (1.3, p < .05) and radiological technologists (11.4, p < .01). The degree of cohesion among friends had a positive impact on the level of job stress experienced by nurses (8.2, p < .001) and radiological technologists (14.6, p < .1). Doctors who participated in workplace alumni meetings scored higher than those who did not. However, those who participated in alumni meetings outside the workplace showed the opposite tendency, scoring 9.4 (p < .05) lower than those who did not. The resources from their friendship network include both information and instrumental support. As most radiological technologists were male, their instrumental support positively affected their job stress (9.2, p < .05). Life information support was the primary positive contributor to control of nurses’ (4.1, p < .05), radiological technologists’ (8.0, p < .05) job stress. Conclusion The strength and density of such friendship networks were related to job stress. Life information support from their friendship network was the primary

  9. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  10. Job Characteristics and Job Attitudes: A Multivariate Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lyman W.; Stone, Eugene F.

    Attitude data were obtained from 556 employees in a western telephone company. Respondents held one of sixteen "craft" jobs in the department selected for study. Multiple discriminant function analysis was performed using sixteen groups formed on the basis of subjects' job titles. Variables used in this primary analysis included job satisfaction,…

  11. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  12. Experience with a high order programming language on the development of the Nova distributed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, G.J.; Holloway, F.W.; Duffy, J.M.

    1983-05-10

    This paper explores the impact of an HOL on the development of the distributed computer control system for Nova laser fusion facility. As the world's most powerful glass laser, Nova will generate 150 trillion watt pulses of infrared light focused onto fusion targets a few millimeters in diameter. It will perform experiments designed to explore the feasibility of fusion as an energy source of the future. Nova will utilize fifty microcomputers and four VAX-11/780's in a distributed process control computer system architecture.

  13. Language Development and Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lois; Lahey, Margaret

    This book provides a synthesis of research findings in normal language development as well as a practical approach to the evaluation and treatment of children with language disorders. Its 21 chapters are divided into six topical sections: language description, normal language development, deviant language development, goals of language learning…

  14. Analysis of two language-related genes in autism: a case-control association study of FOXP2 and CNTNAP2.

    PubMed

    Toma, Claudio; Hervás, Amaia; Torrico, Bàrbara; Balmaña, Noemí; Salgado, Marta; Maristany, Marta; Vilella, Elisabet; Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Planelles, Ma Inmaculada; Cuscó, Ivon; del Campo, Miguel; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Caballero-Andaluz, Rafaela; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep A; Ribasés, Marta; Bayés, Mònica; Cormand, Bru

    2013-04-01

    Impairment of language abilities is a common feature in autistic individuals. Heterozygous mutations in the Forkhead Box P2 (FOXP2) gene lead to a severe spoken language disorder. Recently, several studies have pinpointed the involvement of common variants of the Contactin-Associated Protein-Like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene, whose transcription is regulated by the product of FOXP2, in several disorders characterized by language impairments such as autism, specific language impairment (SLI), and selective mutism (SM). In the present study, common variants of the FOXP2 and the CNTNAP2 genes were analyzed through a case-control association study in 322 Spanish autistic patients and 524 controls. The results of this study suggest that common variants of FOXP2 are unlikely to contribute to autism susceptibility, in agreement with previous findings. Furthermore, we failed to replicate in our sample a previous association finding of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2710102 and rs7794745) in the CNTNAP2 gene with autism. No evidence for the association of these genes with language traits was observed in our analysis.

  15. Rationale for Language Study. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Jane N.

    Enrollment trends and factors that influence foreign language study in colleges and universities are discussed. Most college foreign language programs have emphasized the study of literature and have not been committed to the training of teachers or the teaching of civilization or culture. It appears that students' concern about the job market and…

  16. Books for the Job Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Reviews new and classic titles on career choice, job search methods, executive/professional job search, resume writing, and interviewing. Advises avoiding books with simplistic formulas and exercises or overt sales pitches for software, videos, and other products. (SK)

  17. Certified Nurses' Aide Job-Related Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This document, which is designed for students preparing to become a certified nurses' aide, contains instructional text and learning activities organized in nine sections. The following topics are covered: the role of the certified nurse's aide (job duties, personal health, professionalism, code of ethics); infection control (the infection…

  18. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  19. Modifying the Metaphor in Order to Improve Understanding of Control Languages--The Little-Person becomes a Cast of Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The instructional metaphor is an important bridge to understanding, particularly when students are undertaking tasks that are conceptually difficult and outside their previous experience. It is suggested that the limitations of the implicit metaphor of the procedural control languages are the main cause of the problems experienced with delivering…

  20. On the role of emerging voluntary control of vocalization in language evolution. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé, Gino

    2016-03-01

    This comment will be focused on the role of monkey vocal control in the evolution of language. I will essentially reiterate the observations expressed in a commentary [1] about the book "How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis", written by Arbib [2]. I will hopefully clarify our suggestion that non-human primates vocal communication, in conjunction with gestures, could have had an active role in the emergence of the first voluntary forms of utterances that will later shape protospeech. This suggestion is mainly rooted in neurophysiological data about vocal control in monkey. I will very briefly summarize how neurophysiological data allowed us to suggest a possible role for monkey vocalization in language evolution. We conducted a study [3] in which we recorded from ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of macaques trained to emit vocalizations (i.e. coo-calls). The results showed that the rostro-lateral part of PMv contains neurons that fire during conditioned vocalization. The involvement of PMv in vocalization production was further supported by electrical microstimulation of the cortical sector where some of the vocalization neurons were found. Microstimulation elicited in some cases a combination of jaw, tongue and larynx movements. To us, the evolutionary implications of those results were obvious: a partial voluntary vocal control was already taking place in the primate PMv cortex some 25 million years ago.

  1. Advising. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Book (Advising) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are representative…

  2. A Jobs Mismatch. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marina, Brenda L. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the article "A Jobs Mismatch", Jaschik has compiled the findings of a new report that was released by the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. The Georgetown University report claims that there is a severe shortage of college graduates in America, and that this shortage has the United States on a "collision course with…

  3. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  4. Job Placement Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Elizabeth C.

    The publication presents guidelines to assist secondary schools in developing and implementing a job placement service within an existing guidance program. The need for and the goals of a school placement program are given. Areas to be considered in developing a program according to one of three organizational patterns (decentralized, centralized,…

  5. Jobs Plan Highlights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    President Barack Obama is putting new money to save educators' jobs and help states refurbish aging school facilities at the center of a nearly $450 billion plan to jump-start the sluggish economy. The author talks about the president's plan which is sure to face hurdles in a politically polarized Washington where one house of Congress is…

  6. What is Job Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke. Edwin A.

    Despite considerable interest in the study of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, our understanding of these phenomena has not increased substantially in the past 30 years. It is argued that a major reason for this lack of progress is the implicit conception of casuality accepted by most psychologists. It is called the policy of "correlation…

  7. Feedback and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangelsdorff, A. David

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of providing feedback (results of how frequently a variety of tasks had been performed) on the job satisfaction of Dental Therapy Assistants (DTA's) during the course of several levels of training, i.e., up to three months, four to nine months and 10 to 18 months. Trainees were predominantly…

  8. Where the Jobs Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2004-01-01

    Despite the discussion about the greying of the profession, librarians seem to agree on little but this: the jobs being vacated are generally upper-level and the departure of retiring library managers fails to translate into a glut of entry level spots. This article describes how NextGens should prepare to move into management and other upper…

  9. Job-Market Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1994-01-01

    Graduate students told a few years ago that the academic job market would open up significantly are disappointed in the shortage of tenure-track openings and glut of candidates. White males feel women and minorities are favored. Some observers find it unethical for departments to continue producing doctoral recipients. (MSE)

  10. Jobs for America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Development Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This document describes a wide variety of successful experiences in creating employment and better incomes through economic growth. These descriptions tell how local initiative, aided by programs of the Economic Development Administration (U.S. Department of Commerce), transformed ideas into job opportunities. Programs are described for the states…

  11. Arranging. CAP Job Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This Job Function Booklet (Arranging) is one of the 14 components (see note) of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program, a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  12. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Tims, Maria; Bakker, Arnold B; Derks, Daantje

    2013-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether employees can impact their own well-being by crafting their job demands and resources. Based on the job demands-resources model, we hypothesized that employee job crafting would have an impact on work engagement, job satisfaction, and burnout through changes in job demands and job resources. Data was collected in a chemical plant at three time points with one month in between the measurement waves (N = 288). The results of structural equation modeling showed that employees who crafted their job resources in the first month of the study showed an increase in their structural and social resources over the course of the study (2 months). This increase in job resources was positively related to employee well-being (increased engagement and job satisfaction, and decreased burnout). Crafting job demands did not result in a change in job demands, but results revealed direct effects of crafting challenging demands on increases in well-being. We conclude that employee job crafting has a positive impact on well-being and that employees therefore should be offered opportunities to craft their own jobs.

  13. Job Search Methods, Job Search Outcomes, and Job Satisfaction of College Graduates: A Comparison of Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng; Kopischke, Amie

    2001-01-01

    Surveys college graduates regarding their job-seeking behaviors and outcomes. Examined race and sex differences among the job search strategies used; number of job interviews; number of job offers; annual salary; and job satisfaction. Results indicated significant differences in underemployment and job satisfaction as a function of race, and in…

  14. Pink and Blue Collar Jobs: Children's Judgments of Job Status and Job Aspirations in Relation to Sex of Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liben, Lynn S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Krogh, Holleen R.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether 6- and 11-year-olds' beliefs about job status and job interests are affected by gendered nature of jobs. Found that children gave higher status ratings to masculine jobs and expressed greater interest in jobs culturally associated with their own sex. Older children rated novel jobs portrayed with males as having higher status than…

  15. Job Sharing in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of job sharing…

  16. EEO Implications of Job Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, D. Patrick, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses job analyses as they relate to the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Argues that job analyses can establish the job-relatedness of entrance requirements and aid in defenses against charges of discrimination. Journal availability: see EA 511 615.

  17. Job Satisfaction: An International Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    An international comparison of job satisfaction levels strongly suggests that the idea of job satisfaction as a gauge of well-being at the workplace should be rejected, but that workers' reactions to aspects of their jobs may be meaningful. The article presents data from national surveys of managers, workers, and trade unions to explain this…

  18. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  19. On-the-Job Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on on-the-job learning. "Effectiveness of On-the-Job Learning" (Marcel R. van der Klink) presents the results of an empirical investigation demonstrating that on-the-job learning caused only a modest improvement in trainee's sales behavior but this improvement was maintained over a considerable…

  20. Comics Make the Job Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training Bus Ind, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Making the Job Scene," a series of 11 short, full color comic books, for ghetto residents, tells about job opportunities, where to get training, and how to behave on the job. For single copies, write: Manpower Administration Information Office, Washington, D.C. 20210. (LY)

  1. Job Ideas for Today's Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembeck, Ruth

    A women entering the job market for the first time, getting back to it, or changing jobs can encounter many problems. This step-by-step guide is designed to make this task easier. Of the 1,000 jobs listed there are several special interest areas covered: foods, parties, retailing, direct or mail-order selling, real estate, insurance, animals,…

  2. Don’t Talk About Pink Elephants! : Speakers’ Control Over Leaking Private Information During Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Liane Wardlow; Groisman, Michelle; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2007-01-01

    Speakers’ descriptions sometimes inappropriately refer to information known only to them, thereby “leaking” knowledge of that private information. We evaluated whether speakers can explicitly control such leakage in light of its communicative consequences. Speakers described mutually known objects (e.g., a triangle) that had size-contrasting matches that were privileged to the speakers (e.g., a larger triangle visible to the speakers only), so that use of a contrasting adjective (e.g., small) involved referring to the privileged information. Half the time, speakers were instructed to conceal the identity of the privileged object. If speakers can control their leaked references to privileged information, this conceal instruction should make such references less likely. Surprisingly, the conceal instruction caused speakers to refer to privileged objects more than they did in the baseline condition. Thus, not only do speakers have difficulty not leaking privileged information, but attempts to avoid such leakage only make it more likely. PMID:16623681

  3. Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

    2016-01-01

    With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent.

  4. A Study of Remedial Reading Programs in the Omaha and Marquette Job Corps Centers for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bert; And Others

    This joint investigation involving the Omaha Job Corps Center for Women and the Marquette Job Corps Center for Women assessed the remedial reading programs of the two centers. A major objective was to provide Job Corps norms for the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, Survey E, forms 1M and 2M. Each center designated control and experimental groups.…

  5. The role of self-determined motivation in job search: A dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Gabriel, Allison S

    2016-03-01

    Job search is a dynamic self-regulated process during which job seekers need to stay motivated to secure a job. However, past research has taken a relatively static approach to examining motivation during the job search, in addition to ignoring how the quality of one's motivation--ranging from autonomous to controlled--can influence job search processes. Adopting a within-person perspective, the current study extends self-determination theory (SDT) to the job search context to investigate (a) when autonomous and controlled motivations are more or less prevalent and (b) whether they influence job search effort through metacognitive strategies in differing ways depending upon the amount of time elapsed in the search. In a weekly study of new labor market entrants (Level-2 n = 149; Level-1 n = 691), results indicated that autonomous motivation decreased until the midpoint of the job search and then plateaued, whereas controlled motivation remained stable. Results also showed that autonomous motivation had a consistent, positive relation with metacognitive strategies, whereas the relation between controlled motivation and such strategies was negative early in the job search, but became positive as the job search progressed. Finally, the effects of motivation on job search effort occurred via metacognitive strategies differentially depending upon the time elapsed in the search. Combined, we provide a first glimpse into the dynamics of self-determined motivation on job search processes.

  6. 76 FR 17963 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and Training Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Application for Job Placement and... Job Placement and Training Services. The information collection is currently authorized by OMB Control... information collection conducted under 25 CFR part 26 to administer the job placement and training...

  7. 78 FR 36597 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Application Data; Extension With Minor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Application... comments concerning the collection of Job Corps application data collection forms (OMB Control NO. 1205-0025, expires 11/30/2013): ETA Form 652, Job Corps Data Sheet; ETA Form 655, Statement from Court...

  8. 77 FR 7242 - Agency Information Collection (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Agreement To Train on the Job Disabled Veterans): Activity Under....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Agreement to Train on the Job Disabled Veterans, VA Form 28- 1904. OMB Control...-1904 is a written agreement between an on the job training (OJT) establishments and VA. The...

  9. The role of self-determined motivation in job search: A dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Gabriel, Allison S

    2016-03-01

    Job search is a dynamic self-regulated process during which job seekers need to stay motivated to secure a job. However, past research has taken a relatively static approach to examining motivation during the job search, in addition to ignoring how the quality of one's motivation--ranging from autonomous to controlled--can influence job search processes. Adopting a within-person perspective, the current study extends self-determination theory (SDT) to the job search context to investigate (a) when autonomous and controlled motivations are more or less prevalent and (b) whether they influence job search effort through metacognitive strategies in differing ways depending upon the amount of time elapsed in the search. In a weekly study of new labor market entrants (Level-2 n = 149; Level-1 n = 691), results indicated that autonomous motivation decreased until the midpoint of the job search and then plateaued, whereas controlled motivation remained stable. Results also showed that autonomous motivation had a consistent, positive relation with metacognitive strategies, whereas the relation between controlled motivation and such strategies was negative early in the job search, but became positive as the job search progressed. Finally, the effects of motivation on job search effort occurred via metacognitive strategies differentially depending upon the time elapsed in the search. Combined, we provide a first glimpse into the dynamics of self-determined motivation on job search processes. PMID:26595757

  10. Be Happy, Don't Wait: The Role of Trait Affect in Job Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turban, Daniel B.; Lee, Felissa K.; Veiga, Serge P. da Motta; Haggard, Dana L.; Wu, Sharon Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we developed and tested a self-regulatory model of trait affect in job search. Specifically, we theorized that trait positive and negative affect would influence both motivation control and procrastination, and these mediating variables would, in turn, influence job search outcomes through job search intensity. Using longitudinal…

  11. Assessing physician job satisfaction and mental workload.

    PubMed

    Boultinghouse, Oscar W; Hammack, Glenn G; Vo, Alexander H; Dittmar, Mary Lynne

    2007-12-01

    Physician job satisfaction and mental workload were evaluated in a pilot study of five physicians engaged in a telemedicine practice at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Electronic Health Network. Several previous studies have examined physician satisfaction with specific telemedicine applications; however, few have attempted to identify the underlying factors that contribute to physician satisfaction or lack thereof. One factor that has been found to affect well-being and functionality in the workplace-particularly with regard to human interaction with complex systems and tasks as seen in telemedicine-is mental workload. Workload is generally defined as the "cost" to a person for performing a complex task or tasks; however, prior to this study, it was unexplored as a variable that influences physician satisfaction. Two measures of job satisfaction were used: The Job Descriptive Index and the Job In General scales. Mental workload was evaluated by means of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The measures were administered by means of Web-based surveys and were given twice over a 6-month period. Nonparametric statistical analyses revealed that physician job satisfaction was generally high relative to that of the general population and other professionals. Mental workload scores associated with the practice of telemedicine in this environment are also high, and appeared stable over time. In addition, they are commensurate with scores found in individuals practicing tasks with elevated information-processing demands, such as quality control engineers and air traffic controllers. No relationship was found between the measures of job satisfaction and mental workload. PMID:18047420

  12. Getting a Job is Only Half the Battle: Maternal Job Loss and Child Classroom Behavior in Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.; Morris, Pamela A.; Castells, Nina; Walker, Jessica Thornton

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from an experimental employment program and instrumental variables (IV) estimation to examine the effects of maternal job loss on child classroom behavior. Random assignment to the treatment at one of three program sites is an exogenous predictor of employment patterns. Cross-site variation in treatment-control differences is used to identify the effects of employment levels and transitions. Under certain assumptions, this method controls for unobserved correlates of job loss and child well-being, as well as measurement error and simultaneity. IV estimates suggest that maternal job loss sharply increases problem behavior but has neutral effects on positive social behavior. Current employment programs concentrate primarily on job entry, but these findings point to the importance of promoting job stability for workers and their children. PMID:22162901

  13. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood. PMID:16882556

  14. Laterality and language experience.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rachel; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on studies that examined hemispheric functional asymmetry for language in brain-intact monolingual and bilingual adults. Data from 23 laterality studies that directly compared bilingual and monolingual speakers on the same language were analysed (n = 1234). Variables examined were language experience (monolingual, bilingual), experimental paradigm (dichotic listening, visual hemifield presentation, and dual task) and, among bilinguals, the influence of second language proficiency (proficient vs nonproficient) and onset of bilingualism (early, or before age 6; and late, or after age 6). Overall, monolinguals and late bilinguals showed reliable left hemisphere dominance, while early bilinguals showed reliable bilateral hemispheric involvement. Within bilinguals, there was no reliable effect of language proficiency when age of L2 acquisition was controlled. The findings indicate that early learning of one vs. two languages predicts divergent patterns of cerebral language lateralisation in adulthood.

  15. Job Sharing--Opportunities or Headaches?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the issue of job sharing as a new alternative available to workers. Topics covered include (1) a profile of job sharers, (2) response to job sharing, (3) establishing a job share, (4) job sharing in operation, and (5) legal analysis of job sharing. (CH)

  16. The Complete Guide to Job Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Marcia D.

    This booklet provides information on job sharing that resulted from the research and experience of the Merrimack Valley Job Sharing Project. An overview of the topic considers the need for job sharing, employer benefits, types of jobs shared, job division, benefits, employer costs and savings, financial considerations for job sharers, perspectives…

  17. Stimulus control analysis of language disorders: A study of substitution between voiced and unvoiced consonants

    PubMed Central

    Brasolotto, Alcione G.; de Rose, Julio C.; Stoddard, Lawrence T.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    1993-01-01

    This study attempted to analyze defective stimulus control relations underlying persistent substitution between voiced and unvoiced consonants in the speech and writing of two children. A series of 20 tests was administered repeatedly. Some tests consisted of matching-to-sample tasks, with dictated words, printed words, or pictures as samples. Comparison stimuli were arranged in pairs of printed words or pictures, such that the only difference in their corresponding spoken words was the voicing of one consonant phoneme. In other tests, a stimulus (dictated word, printed word, or picture) was presented, and the subject was required to emit an oral response (repeat the dictated word, read the printed word, or name the picture) or a written response (write to dictation, copy the word, or write a picture name). Other tests required the subjects to make a same/different distinction in pairs of dictated words that did or did not differ in the voicing of a single phoneme. Results showed distinct deficit profiles for each subject, consisting of patterns of defective stimulus control relations. The subjects were able, however, to distinguish between voiced and unvoiced sounds and to produce these sounds. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:22477078

  18. Table-top job analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to establish general training program guidelines for training personnel in developing training for operation, maintenance, and technical support personnel at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. TTJA is not the only method of job analysis; however, when conducted properly TTJA can be cost effective, efficient, and self-validating, and represents an effective method of defining job requirements. The table-top job analysis is suggested in the DOE Training Accreditation Program manuals as an acceptable alternative to traditional methods of analyzing job requirements. DOE 5480-20A strongly endorses and recommends it as the preferred method for analyzing jobs for positions addressed by the Order.

  19. Active job, healthy job? Occupational stress and depression among hospital physicians in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Chin-Sheng; Yeh, Wan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the levels and association of occupational stress and depression rate among physicians, and to compare physicians' occupational stress with that of Taiwanese employees in other occupations. The subjects were physicians employed at 14 participating regional hospitals in the Around Taiwan Health Care Alliance. Self-administered questionnaires capturing data on demographics, occupational characteristics, occupational stress measured using Job Content Questionnaire (C-JCQ), and health status measured using Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ) were sent to eligible physicians. Results revealed that the depression rate (13.3%) was higher than that found in the general population (3.7%) of Taiwan. The mean scores of the JCQ dimensions "work demands" and "job control" were both much higher than those in most occupations in Taiwan. Higher depression scores were found in subjects with higher work demands, 8-10 d of being on duty per month, and more frequent alcohol consumption, while lower depression scores were found in subjects working in the east Taiwan area, with higher job control and with greater workplace social support. On the other hand, gender, smoking, and working hour were not independently correlated with depression, but the interaction of gender and job control also had an independent effect on depression. This study suggests that job stress plays an important role in depression in physicians; it is necessary to pay attention to physicians at high risk of depression, as well as their work environments, for early detection and intervention.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of nonlinear frequency compression versus conventional processing in hearing aids: speech and language of children at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa YC; Day, Julia; Zhang, Vicky; Dillon, Harvey; Van Buynder, Patricia; Seeto, Mark; Hou, Sanna; Marnane, Vivienne; Thomson, Jessica; Street, Laura; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) on children’s development of speech and language at 3 years of age. Design A randomised controlled trial was conducted as part of the population-based Longitudinal study on Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI). Participants were randomly assigned to fitting with NLFC (Phonak Naida V SP or UP) or with conventional processing in hearing aids, prescribed by using either the NAL or the DSL formula. Standardized tests of speech production, receptive and expressive language were administered, and parent ratings were collected. All assessments were double-blinded. study sample Participants were 44 of the 450 children in the LOCHI cohort. Results Compared to children using conventional processing, receptive and expressive language was higher but receptive vocabulary and consonant articulation scores were lower for children who use NLFC. There was increased substitution of affricates by fricatives for children using NLFC, compared to children using conventional amplification. After allowing for the effect of multiple demographic variables, the difference in global language scores between groups was not significant (effect: 0.8 [confidence interval: −6.7, 8.3]). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to support a difference in language ability between children using NLFC and those using conventional amplification. PMID:24350695

  1. FMRI Brain Activation in a Finnish Family with Specific Language Impairment Compared with a Normal Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Gundersen, Hilde; Brekke, Cecilie; Thomsen, Tormod; Rimol, Lars Morten; Ersland, Lars; Niemi, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in brain activation in a family with SLI as compared to intact individuals with normally developed language during processing of language stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to monitor changes in neuronal activation in temporal and frontal lobe areas in 5…

  2. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities during Sleep in Children with Developmental Speech-Language Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Fielder, Bronwyn; Collins, Kevin; Fisher, John; Keir, Eddie; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Nolan, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research has suggested a link between epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and developmental speech-language disorder (DSLD). This study investigated the strength of this association by comparing the frequency of EEG abnormalities in 45 language-normal children (29 males, 16 females; mean age 6y 11mo, SD 1y 10mo, range…

  3. The Co-Emergence of Cognition, Language, and Speech Motor Control in Early Development: A Longitudinal Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development of spoken language is dependent on the emergence of cognitive, language, and speech motor skills, knowledge about how these domains interact during the early stages of communication development is currently limited. This exploratory investigation examines the strength of associations between longitudinal changes in…

  4. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…

  5. Using Natural Language to Enable Mission Managers to Control Multiple Heterogeneous UAVs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, S. Bilal; Mcquarry, A. Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for commercial activities. This research is developing methods beyond classical control-stick pilot inputs, to allow operators to manage complex missions without in-depth vehicle expertise. These missions may entail several heterogeneous UAVs flying coordinated patterns or flying multiple trajectories deconflicted in time or space to predefined locations. This paper describes the functionality and preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define a mission using speech inputs. With a defined and simple vocabulary, operators can input the vast majority of mission parameters using simple, intuitive voice commands. Although the operator interface is simple, it is based upon autonomous algorithms that allow the mission to proceed with minimal input from the operator. This paper also describes these underlying algorithms that allow an operator to manage several UAVs.

  6. Use of Spacecraft Command Language for Advanced Command and Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mims, Tikiela L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the use of SCL in building and monitoring command and control applications in order to determine its fitness for space operations. Approximately 24,325 lines of PCG2 code was converted to SCL yielding a 90% reduction in the number of lines of code as many of the functions and scripts utilized in SCL could be ported and reused. Automated standalone testing, simulating the actual production environment, was performed in order to generalize and gauge the relative time it takes for SCL to update and write a given display. The use of SCL rules, functions, and scripts allowed the creation of several test cases permitting the detection of the amount of time it takes update a given set of measurements given the change in a globally existing CUI or CUI. It took the SCL system an average 926.09 ticks to update the entire display of 323 measurements.

  7. Science jobs tight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the latest report of the College Placement Council it was noted that a recovery of sorts may be underway for recent graduates in science, engineering, or technology. Based on a survey of 185 placement offices at 160 colleges and universities, the College Placement Survey concluded in its April 1983 report that only one half as many job offers in science, engineering, and technology fields were reported this year, compared with the same time last year. However, although fewer offers were made, more jobs were filled.Petroleum engineering graduates have commanded the highest beginning salaries of all fields this spring. The average salary offered to petroleum engineers in the class of 1983 is $31,044 per year, almost a 2% increase over last year's starting salary for the same discipline. In second place are chemical engineering graduates who are being offered average starting salaries of $27,336 per year, about 1% higher than last year's figure.

  8. Real-time debugger with bitstream configurator and C language design control for FPGAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casselman, Steve; Schewel, John; Wartel, Frank

    2001-07-01

    At the boundary between hardware and software, where FPGAs with 2,000,000 gates is just the beginning, we've found that the tools you have in your toolbox make all the difference. With larger and more feature rich programmable devices such as the VirtexTM Platform FPGA, even minors changes in the design can require hours of compile time. The combination of design complexity and component size is taxing current design entry and implementation tools, making the design cycle loner. The simulation-verification cycle doesn't mean the design will work in the final product. The engineer needs more than ever, to debug designs within the target hardware in real-time. We have built a series of integrated tools aimed at enhancing productivity at the last stages of product design, the final ten percent of the design that takes ninety percent of the time. The tools shown are not meant to replace current tools. These are advanced tools for the FPGA power user. Our goal is creating a set of tools specifically designed to provide better design control, dramatically reduce iteration times and enable real-time In-Circuit debugged in hardware. We have organized this series of tools as The Technology StackTM.

  9. Aspects of job scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for job scheduling in a specified context is presented. The model uses both linear programming and combinatorial methods. While designed with a view toward optimization of scheduling of facility and plant operations at the Deep Space Communications Complex, the context is sufficiently general to be widely applicable. The general scheduling problem including options for scheduling objectives is discussed and fundamental parameters identified. Mathematical algorithms for partitioning problems germane to scheduling are presented.

  10. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    PubMed

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  11. Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Euwema, Martin C

    2005-04-01

    This study tested and refined the job demands-resources model, demonstrating that several job resources play a role in buffering the impact of several job demands on burnout. A total of 1,012 employees of a large institute for higher education participated in the study. Four demanding aspects of the job (e.g., work overload, emotional demands) and 4 job resources (e.g., autonomy, performance feedback) were used to test the central hypothesis that the interaction between (high) demands and (low) resources produces the highest levels of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, reduced professional efficacy). The hypothesis was rejected for (reduced) professional efficacy but confirmed for exhaustion and cynicism regarding 18 out of 32 possible 2-way interactions (i.e., combinations of specific job demands and resources).

  12. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Job Diagnostic Survey: An Instrument for the Diagnosis of Jobs and the Evaluation of Job Redesign Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, J. Richard; Oldham, Greg R.

    The report describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), an instrument designed to measure the following classes of variables: (1) objective job characteristics, particularly the degree to which jobs are designed so that they enhance work motivation and job satisfaction; (2) personnel affective reactions of individuals to their jobs and work setting;…

  14. Cerebellum, Language, and Cognition in Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Steven M.; Makris, Nikos; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Howard, James; McGrath, Lauren; Steele, Shelly; Frazier, Jean A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Harris, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed cerebellum segmentation and parcellation on magnetic resonance images from right-handed boys, aged 6-13 years, including 22 boys with autism [16 with language impairment (ALI)], 9 boys with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), and 11 normal controls. Language-impaired groups had reversed asymmetry relative to unimpaired groups in…

  15. Motivation in Language Planning and Language Policy. Multilingual Matters 119.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis

    The aim of this book is to investigate the motives for action on language behavior, whether this means corpus, status, or acquisition planning. It examines such questions as why individuals, groups, and governments try to influence their own or others' language behavior or language attitudes, and what drives authorities to try to control, favor,…

  16. Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Judy I.

    This paper discusses kinds and characteristics of language play, explores the relationship of such play to wider domains of language and play, and speculates on the possible contributions of language play for language mastery and cognitive development. Jump rope chants and ritual insults ("Off my case, potato face") and other expressive language…

  17. Language Transfer in Language Learning. Language Acquisition & Language Disorders 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Selinker, Larry, Ed.

    The study of native language influence in Second Language Acquisition has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. This book, which includes 12 chapters by distinguished researchers in the field of second language acquisition, traces the conceptual history of language transfer from its early role within a Contrastive Analysis…

  18. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946

  19. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  20. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  1. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  2. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  3. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  4. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing ASWs in alternative service jobs. (b) An ASW who has identified his own job in accordance with §...

  5. Job Corps. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Job Corps," a federally funded education and job training program for economically disadvantaged youth, offers remedial education, GED (General Educational Development) preparation, vocational training, job placement assistance, and other supports. "Job Corps" participants typically reside in a "Job Corps" center while enrolled in the program…

  6. ISL - A String Manipulating Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, K.C.; And Others.

    The Information Search Language (ISL), described in this report, is a problem-oriented language designed to facilitate the manipulation of real character strings with the Control Data 1604 computer. The report gives instructions for the language; these may be classified as Pseudo-ops, Word-Oriented instructions, Character-string instructions,…

  7. HAL/S language specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbold, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    A programming language for the flight software of the NASA space shuttle program was developed and identified as HAL/S. The language is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. The language incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks.

  8. Good Jobs, Bad Jobs: Workers' Evaluations in Five Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Joseph A.; Anker, Richard

    2002-01-01

    A study of workers from Argentina (n=2,920), Brazil (n=4,000), Chile (n=1,188), Hungary (1,000), and the Ukraine (n=8,099) examined relationships between job satisfaction and employee and employer characteristics. Satisfaction was related to job security, perceptions of workplace safety, higher education, and employer attitudes. (Contains 17…

  9. Selected Job Title Description for Nonfarm Agricultural Jobs in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondart, C. L., Jr.; And Others

    Job information, presented for use by high school counselors, was derived from a statewide study of nonfarm agricultural occupations which revealed that 20,025 Louisiana workers in 1,699 job titles were doing work demanding some specialized training in agriculture. Information includes a description, employee qualifications, employment…

  10. Job Analysis, Job Descriptions, and Performance Appraisal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Johnnie M.; Foxley, Cecelia H.

    1980-01-01

    Job analysis, job descriptions, and performance appraisal can benefit student services administration in many ways. Involving staff members in the development and implementation of these techniques can increase commitment to and understanding of the overall objectives of the office, as well as communication and cooperation among colleagues.…

  11. Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees.

    PubMed

    Mark, George; Smith, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Well-being at work has been shown to be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences in coping styles. This study investigated the relationships between job demands, control, social support, efforts, rewards, coping, and attributional style in predicting anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction in a sample of 307 university employees from the UK. Results were compared to those from a sample of 120 members of the general population. Workplace demands, intrinsic and extrinsic effort, and negative coping and attributional behaviors were associated with high levels of depression and anxiety and low job satisfaction in university employees. Rewards, social support, job control, and positive coping and attributional behaviors were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety and high job satisfaction. The study adds to the growing research on university samples by showing that a transactional approach should be adopted. This has implications for interventions and suggests that rather than just trying to change job characteristics one should identify at-risk individuals in this population and help them adopt appropriate positive coping styles. PMID:21271408

  12. Effects of occupational stress, job characteristics, coping, and attributional style on the mental health and job satisfaction of university employees.

    PubMed

    Mark, George; Smith, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Well-being at work has been shown to be influenced by job characteristics and individual differences in coping styles. This study investigated the relationships between job demands, control, social support, efforts, rewards, coping, and attributional style in predicting anxiety, depression, and job satisfaction in a sample of 307 university employees from the UK. Results were compared to those from a sample of 120 members of the general population. Workplace demands, intrinsic and extrinsic effort, and negative coping and attributional behaviors were associated with high levels of depression and anxiety and low job satisfaction in university employees. Rewards, social support, job control, and positive coping and attributional behaviors were associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety and high job satisfaction. The study adds to the growing research on university samples by showing that a transactional approach should be adopted. This has implications for interventions and suggests that rather than just trying to change job characteristics one should identify at-risk individuals in this population and help them adopt appropriate positive coping styles.

  13. Epidemiology of job stress and health in Japan: review of current evidence and future direction.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, N; Haratani, T

    1999-04-01

    With the increasing concern about job stress, there is a growing body of literature addressing psychosocial job stress and its adverse effects on health in Japan. This paper reviews research findings over the past 15 years concerning the assessment of job stress, the relationship of job stress to mental and physical health, and the effects of worksite stress reduction activities in Japan. Although studies were conducted in the past using ad-hoc job stress questionnaires, well-established job stressor scales have since been translated into Japanese, their psychometric properties tested and these scales extensively used in recent epidemiologic studies. While the impact of overtime and quantitative job overload on mental health seems moderate, job control, skill use and worksite support, as well as qualitative job demands, had greater effects on psychological distress and drinking problems in cross-sectional and prospective studies. These job stressors also indicated a strong association with psychiatric disorders, including major depression, even with a prospective study design. Long working hours were associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. There is evidence that the job demands-control model, as well as the use of new technology at work, is associated with higher levels of blood pressure and serum lipids among Japanese working populations. Fibrinolytic activity, blood glucose levels, immune functions and medical consultation rates were also affected by job stressors. It is further suggested that Japanese workers tend to suppress expression of positive feelings, which results in apparently higher psychological distress and lower job satisfaction among Japanese workers compared with workers in the U.S. Future epidemiologic studies in Japan should focus more on a prospective study design, theoretical models of job stress, job stress among women, and cultural difference and well-designed intervention studies of

  14. Academics Job Satisfaction and Job Stress across Countries in the Changing Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Jung, Jisun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined job satisfaction and job stress across 19 higher education systems. We classified the 19 countries according to their job satisfaction and job stress and applied regression analysis to test whether new public management has impacts on either or both job satisfaction and job stress. According to this study, strong market driven…

  15. Job Analysis and the Preparation of Job Descriptions. Mendip Papers MP 037.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Bob

    This document provides guidelines for conducting job analyses and writing job descriptions. It covers the following topics: the rationale for job descriptions, the terminology of job descriptions, who should write job descriptions, getting the information to write job descriptions, preparing for staff interviews, conducting interviews, writing the…

  16. Learning as a First Language: Creating Opportunities for Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges across the country that provide services tailored to immigrant learners. The majority of colleges offer basic English as a second language (ESL) classes, but many programs strive to do more than simply breach the language barrier. The most successful programs teach important job skills with a focus…

  17. Pragmatics and Language Learning. Monograph Series Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F., Ed.

    The series of articles in this volume were selected from among those presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning in April 1994. Articles include: "The Right Tool for the Job: Techniques for Analysis of Natural Language Use" (Georgia M. Green); "Sinclair & Coulthard Revisited: Global- and…

  18. Improvement of Job Placement Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Community Coll. District, Walnut, CA.

    The Improvement of Job Placement Services Project was undertaken to examine and strengthen job placement services and programs in the California community colleges. Specific objectives of the project were to: (1) select and convene a 12-member representative advisory committee to oversee project operations working with the California Placement…

  19. Job-Sharing the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shelley; Feltham, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    The coprincipals of a California elementary school share their ideas for building a successful job-sharing partnership. They suggest it is important to find the right partner, develop and present a job-sharing proposal, establish systems of communication with each other, evaluate one's progress, focus on the principalship, and provide leadership…

  20. Job Posting: An Industry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Dave R.; Pinto, Patrick R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports a survey to determine practices among metalworking firms in Minnesota covering such topics as whether or not the company had a formal or informal job posting system, the actual mechanics of the system, union influence on its design, feedback to unsuccessful job bidders, and current employee acceptance of the system. Recommendations are…