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Sample records for job strain mediate

  1. Social support as a mediator between job control and psychological strain.

    PubMed

    Blanch, Angel

    2016-05-01

    Social support is a key influencing factor on health, and one of the main dimensions of the Demand - Control - Support (DCS) model within the occupational health field. The buffer hypothesis of the DCS determines that job control and social support relieve the effects of a high job demand on health. This hypothesis has been evaluated in several studies to predict worker's health, even though it has yielded ambiguous and inconclusive results. This study evaluated whether social support mediated the effect of job demand or job control on job strain. This mediation mechanism might represent a plausible and coherent alternative to the buffer hypothesis deserving to be analyzed within this field. Two models considering support as the mediator variable in the explanation of job strain were assessed with a group of administrative and technical workers (N = 281). While there was no evidence for support behaving as a mediator variable between demand and job strain, social support was a consistent mediator in the association of job control with job strain. The effect of job control on job strain was fully mediated by social support from supervisors and coworkers. The role of social support as a mediator implicates that the prevention of psychosocial stressors in the job place should place a stronger emphasis on improving social relationships at work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Balducci, Cristian; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers' health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)), testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years) of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands). Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck) except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers' MSDs.

  3. Examining the mediating effect of supervisor conflict on procedural injustice-job strain relations: the function of power distance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Liu-Qin; Nauta, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among procedural injustice, conflict with a supervisor (supervisor conflict), and job strains for employees with different power distance orientations. Using data from 301 university employees, along with corroborative reports from a coworker of each employee, we tested a moderated mediation model in which the indirect effect of procedural injustice on job strains (e.g., anxiety and depression) through supervisor conflict was conditional upon employees' power distance orientation. We found perceived procedural injustice was positively related to supervisor conflict, and this relation was moderated by employees' power distance orientation (as supported by both self- and coworker-reported conflict data). The pattern of the moderating effect indicated the positive relation between procedural injustice and supervisor conflict was only significant among employees with low to moderate power distance orientations. As expected, supervisor conflict served as the underlying mechanism linking perceived procedural injustice and employees' anxiety/depression (as supported by self-reported conflict data). The mediating effect of supervisor conflict was significant for employees with low to moderate power distance orientations but not for employees with high power distance orientation. This study broadens the focus of research on supervisor conflict and presents a more complex model of how perceived injustice influences employees' job strains than is currently available in the literature.

  4. Workplace Bullying as a Risk Factor for Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Mediating Role of Job-Related Psychological Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Balducci, Cristian; Bonfiglioli, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is considered by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work one of the emerging psychosocial risk factors that could negatively affect workers' health. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the process that leads from bullying to negative health (such as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)), testing the mediating role of job-related strain. Data were collected on 512 workers (62.9% female; mean age = 43.6 years) of a retail chain who filled in a self-report questionnaire after a one-hour training session on work-related stress. Data analyses were performed controlling for potentially confounding variables (i.e., gender, age, organizational role, type of contract, and perceived physical job demands). Preacher and Hayes analytical approach was used to test the indirect relationship between bullying and MSDs. Results showed that work-related strain mediates the relationship between bullying and MSDs considered (low back, upper back, and neck) except for MSDs of the shoulders. Our study confirms the role played by bullying and job-related strain in determining workers' MSDs. PMID:26557693

  5. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Heidi; Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; Casini, Annalisa; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kittel, France; Clays, Els

    2016-08-22

    In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce

  6. Call centers as lean service environments: job-related strain and the mediating role of work design.

    PubMed

    Sprigg, Christine A; Jackson, Paul R

    2006-04-01

    Call centers can be considered as lean service systems, with leanness being described in terms of both dialog scripting and performance monitoring. Using data from a sample of 823 call handlers from 36 call centers, these lean characteristics are examined in relation to the prediction of call handler job-related strain. Moreover, the extent to which this relationship can be accounted for by work design characteristics are examined. Findings confirm that employees who experience greater dialog scripting and more intensive performance monitoring show higher levels of strain. These relationships are fully mediated by work design. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of lean working practices on employee health. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Job strain in physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Campo, Marc A; Weiser, Sherri; Koenig, Karen L

    2009-09-01

    Job stress has been associated with poor outcomes. In focus groups and small-sample surveys, physical therapists have reported high levels of job stress. Studies of job stress in physical therapy with larger samples are needed. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the levels of psychological job demands and job control reported by physical therapists in a national sample, (2) to compare those levels with national norms, and (3) to determine whether high demands, low control, or a combination of both (job strain) increases the risk for turnover or work-related pain. This was a prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up period. Participants were randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association (n=882). Exposure assessments included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), a commonly used instrument for evaluation of the psychosocial work environment. Outcomes included job turnover and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Compared with national averages, the physical therapists reported moderate job demands and high levels of job control. About 16% of the therapists reported changing jobs during follow-up. Risk factors for turnover included high job demands, low job control, job strain, female sex, and younger age. More than one half of the therapists reported work-related pain. Risk factors for work-related pain included low job control and job strain. The JCQ measures only limited dimensions of the psychosocial work environment. All data were self-reported and subject to associated bias. Physical therapists' views of their work environments were positive, including moderate levels of demands and high levels of control. Those therapists with high levels of demands and low levels of control, however, were at increased risk for both turnover and work-related pain. Physical therapists should consider the psychosocial work environment, along with other factors, when choosing a job.

  8. Job Strain in Shift and Daytime Workers.

    PubMed

    Knutsson; Nilsson

    1997-07-01

    Cross-sectional questionnaire data were used to compare the levels of job strain in shift and daytime workers. Job strain was measured according to Karasek's Demands/Discretion model. Four occupational groups were included: drivers, industrial workers, policemen/watchmen, and cooks. The study subjects were a random sample of 508 daytime workers and 418 shift workers. Job demand did not differentiate between shift and daytime workers, comparing groups broken down by gender and by occupation. The daytime workers reported higher levels of job strain than the shift workers, and women experienced a higher level of job strain than did men. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only occupational group and gender predicted job strain level. Shiftwork was not significantly associated with job strain in the regression model.

  9. Psychological Detachment in the Relationship between Job Stressors and Strain

    PubMed Central

    Safstrom, My; Hartig, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context. PMID:25379246

  10. Job strain and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Hannah; Yang, Ling; Theorell, Tores; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2007-11-01

    Cohort studies investigating the association between stress and breast cancer have shown highly inconsistent results. The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study included 36,332 Swedish women age 30-50 years who were employed at baseline (1991-1992). Participants were followed through December 2004 using linkages to national registries. A total of 767 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up. Among women working full-time, low job control and high job demands were weakly associated with breast cancer risk (hazard ratios of 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.5). Women with both low job control and high job demands ("job strain") had higher risk of breast cancer than women with high job control and low demands ("low strain") (1.2; 0.9-1.6). Multivariate adjustment slightly strengthened the association between breast cancer and job strain (1.4; 1.1-1.9), whereas the associations with control and demands were unchanged. Work characteristics were unrelated to breast cancer risk among women working part-time. There was a small increased risk of breast cancer among women in full-time employment who experienced job strain, but not among part-time workers.

  11. Job hindrances, job resources, and safety performance: The mediating role of job engagement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yongjuan; Tetrick, Lois E

    2015-11-01

    Job engagement has received widespread attention in organizational research but has rarely been empirically investigated in the context of safety. In the present study, we examined the mediating role of job engagement in the relationships between job characteristics and safety performance using self-reported data collected at a coal mining company in China. Most of our study hypotheses were supported. Job engagement partially mediated the relationships between job resources and safety performance dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Core Self-Evaluations and Job and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating and Moderated Mediating Role of Job Insecurity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hui-Hsien; Huang, Jie-Tsuen

    2017-04-03

    This study examined the mediating role of job insecurity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and job satisfaction, while also investigating the moderating role of job insecurity in the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Survey data were collected from a sample of 346 full-time employees in Taiwan. We found that job insecurity partially mediated the CSE-job satisfaction relationship. Moreover, we found that job insecurity moderated not only the relationship between CSE and job satisfaction but also the mediated relationship between CSE and life satisfaction via job satisfaction. Specifically, both the CSE-job satisfaction relationship and the CSE-job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship became stronger when job insecurity was low. Our results emphasize the importance of raising employees' CSE, which is beneficial not only for diminishing their perceptions of job insecurity, but also for boosting their job and life satisfaction. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Job Strain, Health and Sickness Absence: Results from the Hordaland Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min-Jung; Mykletun, Arnstein; Møyner, Ellen Ihlen; Øverland, Simon; Henderson, Max; Stansfeld, Stephen; Hotopf, Matthew; Harvey, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While it is generally accepted that high job strain is associated with adverse occupational outcomes, the nature of this relationship and the causal pathways involved are not well elucidated. We aimed to assess the association between job strain and long-term sickness absence (LTSA), and investigate whether any associations could be explained by validated health measures. Methods Data from participants (n = 7346) of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), aged 40–47 at baseline, were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression to evaluate the association between job strain and LTSA over one year. Further analyses examined whether mental and physical health mediated any association between job strain and sickness absence. Results A positive association was found between job strain and risk of a LTSA episode, even controlling for confounding factors (HR = 1.64 (1.36–1.98); high job strain exposure accounted for a small proportion of LTSA episodes (population attributable risk 0.068). Further adjustments for physical health and mental health individually attenuated, but could not fully explain the association. In the fully adjusted model, the association between high job strain and LTSA remained significant (HR = 1.30 (1.07–1.59)). Conclusion High job strain increases the risk of LTSA. While our results suggest that one in 15 cases of LTSA could be avoided if high job strain were eliminated, we also provide evidence against simplistic causal models. The impact of job strain on future LTSA could not be fully explained by impaired health at baseline, which suggests that factors besides ill health are important in explaining the link between job strain and sickness absence. PMID:24755878

  14. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N1 = 8657 and N2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources. PMID:27582717

  15. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N 1 = 8657 and N 2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources.

  16. Job strain among Malaysian office workers of a multinational company.

    PubMed

    Maizura, H; Retneswari, M; Moe, H; Hoe, V C W; Bulgiba, A

    2010-05-01

    Information on job strain exposure among Malaysian workers in multinational companies is limited. To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with high job strain among office workers of a multinational company in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2007 among 470 eligible workers. Respondents self-administered the Job Content Questionnaire downloaded from the company's intranet. A median-split procedure was applied to create four groups according to the Job Demand-Control Model: active, passive, high and low job strain. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between socio-demographic, occupational and psychosocial factors and high job strain. A total of 356 questionnaires were received (response rate 76%). Twenty-one per cent of respondents were in the high job strain group, 35% were in the passive group, whereas 26% and 17% of workers were in the low strain and active groups, respectively. After controlling for confounders, three factors were found to be associated with high job strain: male workers (adjusted OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.64), working >48 h per week (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.39) and job insecurity (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). One protective factor for high job strain was the scale 'created skill', which is part of skill discretion (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). About one in five workers in this study experience high job strain. Work improvement measures include reducing long working hours and job insecurity and giving workers the opportunity to learn, use creativity and develop abilities.

  17. Job strain and older workers: Can a reduction in job strain help to eliminate the social security drain?

    PubMed

    Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2009-01-01

    Job strain is the psychological and physiological response to a lack of control or support in the work environment. It appears to be an important risk factor for continued employment throughout the lifespan. Reducing job strain earlier in a workers life has the potential to have substantial beneficial health effects throughout a workers life. Early screening for job strain should be implemented in known high risk or high strain jobs. This is particularly important since there a fewer younger workers entering the labor force and there will be a growing need for older workers to remain in the workforce. Furthermore, healthier workers will require less medical care and are likely to work longer if they are willing and able. Healthier older workers who are willing and able to work longer will defer receipt of retirement benefits while continuing to pay into the Social Security System. Further investigation of older individuals (1) willingness and motivation to work past the normal retirement age, (2) career and employment security, skills development, and reconciliation of working and non-working life, and (3) job strain and effects of reducing job strain is needed. The current job strain literature has been expanded to the Social Security System arena and suggests that reducing job strain has the potential to help eliminate the Social Security drain by increasing older worker labor force retention.

  18. Exploring Supervisor-Related Job Resources as Mediators between Supervisor Conflict and Job Attitudes in Hospital Employees.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Gerhardt, Christin; Grebner, Simone; Müller, Urs

    2017-03-01

    Conservation of resources theory assumes loss of resources as a cause of job strain. In hospital work, conflicts with supervisors are tested to predict lower resources, that is, supervisory social support, participation possibilities, and appreciation. All three resources are expected to predict, in turn, experienced stress (job strain) and lower job satisfaction, lower affective commitment, and a higher resigned attitude towards the job (job attitudes). The sample included 1,073 employees from 14 Swiss hospitals (n = 604 nurses, n = 81 physicians, n = 135 medical therapists, and n = 253 technical and administrative staff). Of the total sample, 83.1% were female and 38.9% worked full-time. The median tenure was between 7 years and 10 years. Constructs were assessed by online questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. Structural equation modeling confirmed the negative association of conflict with supervisors and job resources. Tests of indirect paths to resources as a link between conflicts with supervisors and job attitudes were significant. For nurses, social support, participation and appreciation showed a significant indirect path, while among medical technicians the indirect paths included social support and appreciation, and among physicians only appreciation showed a significant indirect path. In medical therapists no indirect path was significant. Job resources did not mediate the link between conflict with supervisors and stress in any occupational group. Conflicts with supervisors are likely to reduce job resources and in turn to lower job attitudes. Work design in hospitals should, therefore, address interpersonal working conditions and conflict management in leadership development.

  19. Is job strain a major source of cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Belkic, Karen L; Landsbergis, Paul A; Schnall, Peter L; Baker, Dean

    2004-04-01

    Empirical studies on job strain and cardiovascular disease (CVD), their internal validity, and the likely direction of biases were examined. The 17 longitudinal studies had the highest validity ratings. In all but two, biases towards the null dominated. Eight, including several of the largest, showed significant positive results; three had positive, nonsignificant findings. Six of nine case-control studies had significant positive findings; recall bias leading to overestimation appears to be fairly minimal. Four of eight cross-sectional studies had significant positive results. Men showed strong, consistent evidence of an association between exposure to job strain and CVD. The data of the women were more sparse and less consistent, but, as for the men, most of the studies probably underestimated existing effects. Other elements of causal inference, particularly biological plausibility, corroborated that job strain is a major CVD risk factor. Additional intervention studies are needed to examine the impact of ameliorating job strain upon CVD-related outcomes.

  20. [Subjective job strain and job satisfaction among neurologists in German hospitals].

    PubMed

    Bauer, J; Bendels, M H K; Groneberg, D A

    2016-06-01

    The number of sick leaves due to job strain is increasing. This study's scope is to examine working conditions of neurologists in hospitals in regard to job strain and job satisfaction. This study is part of the iCEPT-Study. The iCEPT-Study was conducted as a web based survey among physicians (n = 7090) in German hospitals. The focus was on working conditions regarding job strain. Job strain was measured by a questionnaire consisting of items and scales from the short version of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire and the short questionnaire for working analysis (KFZA). By calculation ratios of distinct scales according to validated stress models a conclusion could be drawn as to whether or not job strain was present. The total number of n = 354 neurologists were analyzed. The response rate was at 18.2 %. Job strain was encountered by 52.0 % (95 %-KI: 46.7|57.2) of all neurologists and no significant gender difference was present. However, resident neurologists were significantly more often exposed to job strain than attending neurologists (OR = 2.9; 95 %-KI: 1.6-4.7; p < 0.001). Regarding job satisfaction, 59.6 % (95 %-KI: 54.5-64.7) of all respondents stated to be satisfied with their job. Significantly more men were satisfied than women (OR = 1.5; 95 %-KI: 1.0-2.4; p < 0.05). Putting the focus on different occupational positions revealed that significantly more attendings were satisfied with their job than residents (OR = 2.9; 95 %-KI: 1.7-4.8; p < 0.001). The results of this study showed high prevalence of job strain among neurologists in German hospitals. Keeping the negative implications of mental and physical health in mind, the working conditions of neurologists must be improved. As shown in this study, a possible way to do so is to increase job control in order to decrease a major stressor at work.

  1. The mediating role of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2009-08-01

    Past researchers have found that motivating job characteristics can increase employee display of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, the authors extended previous research by investigating the mediating process of job involvement in the relationship between job characteristics and OCB. The authors collected data from 323 employees and their supervisors from 7 companies in Taiwan. Results show that, through the mediating process of job involvement, the 3 job characteristics (i.e., task identity, task significance, and autonomy) positively influenced the display of an employee's OCB, whereas skill variety had a negative effect on OCB. The authors discuss implications of their findings, contributions, limitations, and future research directions.

  2. Perceived Control and Psychological Contract Breach as Explanations of the Relationships Between Job Insecurity, Job Strain and Coping Reactions: Towards a Theoretical Integration.

    PubMed

    Vander Elst, Tinne; De Cuyper, Nele; Baillien, Elfi; Niesen, Wendy; De Witte, Hans

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to further knowledge on the mechanisms through which job insecurity is related to negative outcomes. Based on appraisal theory, two explanations-perceived control and psychological contract breach-were theoretically integrated in a comprehensive model and simultaneously examined as mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Different categories of outcomes were considered, namely work-related (i.e. vigour and need for recovery) and general strain (i.e. mental and physical health complaints), as well as psychological (i.e. job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and behavioural coping reactions (i.e. self-rated performance and innovative work behaviour). The hypotheses were tested using data of a heterogeneous sample of 2413 Flemish employees by means of both single and multiple mediator structural equation modelling analyses (bootstrapping method). Particularly, psychological contract breach accounted for the relationship between job insecurity and strain. Both perceived control and psychological contract breach mediated the relationships between job insecurity and psychological coping reactions, although the indirect effects were larger for psychological contract breach. Finally, perceived control was more important than psychological contract breach in mediating the relationships between job insecurity and behavioural coping reactions. This study meets previous calls for a theoretical integration regarding mediators of the job insecurity-outcome relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Learning and strain among newcomers: a three-wave study on the effects of job demands and job control.

    PubMed

    Taris, Toon W; Feij, Jan A

    2004-11-01

    The present 3-wave longitudinal study was an examination of job-related learning and strain as a function of job demand and job control. The participants were 311 newcomers to their jobs. On the basis of R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control model, the authors predicted that high demand and high job control would lead to high levels of learning; low demand and low job control should lead to low levels of learning; high demand and low job control should lead to high levels of strain; and low demand and high job control should lead to low levels of strain. The relation between strain and learning was also examined. The authors tested the hypotheses using ANCOVA and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that high levels of strain have an adverse effect on learning; the reverse effect was not confirmed. It appears that Karasek and Theorell's model is very relevant when examining work socialization processes.

  4. Application of the Strain Index in multiple task jobs.

    PubMed

    Bao, Stephen; Spielholz, Peregrin; Howard, Ninica; Silverstein, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Six different methods to calculate the Strain Index (SI) scores for jobs with multiple forces/tasks were developed. Exposure data of 733 subjects from 12 different worksites were used to calculate these SI scores. Results show that using different SI computation methods could result in different SI scores, hence different risk level classifications. However, some simpler methods generated SI scores were comparable to the more complicated composite SI method. Despite differences in the scores between the six different SI computation methods, Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients of 0.61-0.97 were found between the methods. With some confidence, ergonomic practitioners may use simpler methods, depending on their specificity requirement in job evaluations and available resources. Some SI computation methods may tend to over-estimate job risk levels, while others may tend to under-estimate job risk levels, due to different ways used in obtaining the various SI parameters and computations.

  5. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator.

    PubMed

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-03-15

    Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction.

  6. Work Demands-Burnout and Job Engagement-Job Satisfaction Relationships: Teamwork as a Mediator and Moderator

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Minov, Jordan; Stoleski, Sasho; Angeleska, Nada; Atanasovska, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined teamwork as mediator and moderator of work demands-burnout and job engagement-job satisfaction relationships in healthcare workers (HCWs) in South-East Europe. AIM: To assess mediation and moderation effect of teamwork on the relationship between independent (work demands or job engagement) and dependent (burnout or job satisfaction) variables. METHODS: Work demands, burnout, job engagement, and job satisfaction were measured with Hospital Experience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey, respectively. Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used for assessment of teamwork. In order to examine role of teamwork as a mediating variable we fit series of regression models for burnout and job satisfaction. We also fit regression models predicting outcome (burnout or job satisfaction) from predictor (work demands or job engagement) and moderator (teamwork) variable. RESULTS: Teamwork was partial mediator of work demands-burnout relationship and full mediator of job engagement-job satisfaction relationship. We found that only job engagement-job satisfaction relationship was moderated by teamwork. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational health services should target detection of burnout in HCWs and implementation of organizational interventions in hospitals, taking into account findings that teamwork predicted reduced burnout and higher job satisfaction. PMID:27275218

  7. Mediated definite delegation - Certified Grid jobs in ALICE and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Steffen; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten; Betev, Latchezar; Buchmann, Johannes

    2012-12-01

    Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users’ activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation, where the delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission is a key concern. This work describes an improved handling of Multi-user Grid Jobs in the ALICE Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of jobs and data. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with Multi-user Grid Jobs. A new general model of mediated definite delegation is developed, allowing a broker to dynamically process and assign Grid jobs to agents while providing strong accountability and long-term traceability. A prototype implementation allowing for fully certified Grid jobs is presented as well as a potential interaction with gLExec. The achieved improvements regarding system security, malicious job exploitation, identity protection, and accountability are emphasized, including a discussion of non-repudiation in the face of malicious Grid jobs.

  8. Job strain, rank, and mental health in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Fear, Nicola Townsend; Rubin, G James; Hatch, Stephani; Hull, Lisa; Jones, Margaret; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon; Rona, Roberto J

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether job demand and job control have independent effects on psychological symptoms or whether job control modifies effect of job demand; we also assessed whether rank modified associations between job strain and psychological symptoms. We used the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL-C), General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), Chalder Fatigue Scale, a checklist of 53 physical symptoms, and the WHO's Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Job control, job demand, and rank were independently associated with PTSD, common mental disorders, multiple physical symptoms, and fatigue, but not with severe alcohol problems. Job control and demand had additive effects on psychological symptoms. Commissioned officers had lower risk of caseness for psychological symptoms than other ranks. Adjustment for rank had negligible effect on level of association between job strain and psychological symptoms. Reported job strain and rank contributed independently to psychological symptoms.

  9. Does Race/Ethnicity Moderate the Association Between Job Strain and Leisure Time Physical Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary G.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Avrunin, Jill S.; Stoddard, Anne M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Emmons, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic minorities report myriad barriers to regular leisure time physical activity (LTPA), including the stress and fatigue resulting from their occupational activities. Purpose We sought to investigate whether an association exists between job strain and LTPA, and whether it is modified by race or ethnicity. Methods Data were collected from 1,740 adults employed in 26 small manufacturing businesses in eastern Massachusetts. LTPA and job strain data were self-reported. Adjusted mean hours of LTPA per week are reported. Results In age and gender adjusted analyses, reports of job strain were associated with LTPA. There was a significant interaction between job strain and race or ethnicity (p = .04). Whites experiencing job strain reported 1 less hr of LTPA per week compared to Whites not reporting job strain. Collectively, racial/ethnic minorities reporting job strain exhibited comparatively higher levels of LTPA compared to their counterparts with no job strain, although patterns for individual groups did not significantly differ. Conclusions Job strain was associated with LTPA in a lower income, multiethnic population of healthy adult men and women. The association between job strain and LTPA was modified by race or ethnicity, highlighting the importance of investigating the differential effects of psychosocial occupational factors on LTPA levels by race or ethnicity. PMID:16827630

  10. Parental socioeconomic position and parental life satisfaction as predictors of job strain in adulthood: 18-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Hintsa, Taina; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Keskivaara, Pertti; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether parental socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental life satisfaction predict job strain in adulthood. The cohort comprised 755 participants from the ongoing Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The parents reported their SEP and life satisfaction when the participants were aged 6-21 years. Eighteen years later at ages 24-39 years, the participants responded to a survey on job strain and its components, job control and job demands. According to structural equation modeling, lower parental SEP and higher parental life dissatisfaction independently predicted increased adulthood job strain. Lower parental SEP also predicted lower educational attainment, which in turn was linked with higher job strain and lower job control. We found no gender differences in these predictive relationships. Parental SEP and parental life satisfaction are associated with job strain in adulthood, and the effect is partly mediated by education. These prospective data suggest that preemployment factors should be taken into account as potential confounders in future research on job strain-health associations.

  11. Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Marnie; Koutsouras, George; Schnall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed evidence of the relationship between job strain and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in 29 studies (1985–2012). We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis on 22 cross-sectional studies of a single exposure to job strain. We systematically reviewed 1 case–control study, 3 studies of cumulative exposure to job strain, and 3 longitudinal studies. Single exposure to job strain in cross-sectional studies was associated with higher work systolic and diastolic ABP. Associations were stronger in men than women and in studies of broad-based populations than those with limited occupational variance. Biases toward the null were common, suggesting that our summary results underestimated the true association. Job strain is a risk factor for blood pressure elevation. Workplace surveillance programs are needed to assess the prevalence of job strain and high ABP and to facilitate workplace cardiovascular risk reduction interventions. PMID:23327240

  12. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Job strain, job demands, decision latitude, and risk of coronary heart disease within the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, H; Marmot, M

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To investigate the association between job strain and components of the job strain model and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Design: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the first phase of the study (1985–1988), data on self reported psychosocial work characteristics were collected from all participants. Participants were followed up until the end of phase 5 (1997–2000), with mean length of follow up of 11 years. Setting: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. Participants: 6895 male and 3413 female civil servants aged 35–55. Outcome measures: Incident validated CHD. Main results: People with concurrent low decision latitude and high demands (job strain) were at the highest risk for CHD. High job demands, and, less consistently, low decision latitude, predicted CHD incidence. The effect of job strain on CHD incidence was strongest among younger workers, but there was no effect modification by social support at work, or employment grade. Conclusions: Job strain, high job demands, and, to some extent, low decision latitude, are associated with an increased risk of CHD among British civil servants. PMID:12540692

  14. Organisational change stressors and nursing job satisfaction: the mediating effect of coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Newton, Cameron J; Yeung, Melissa E; Chang, Esther

    2013-09-01

    To examine the mediating effect of coping strategies on the consequences of nursing and non-nursing (administrative) stressors on the job satisfaction of nurses during change management. Organisational change can result in an increase in nursing and non-nursing-related stressors, which can have a negative impact on the job satisfaction of nurses employed in health-care organisations. Matched data were collected in 2009 via an online survey at two time-points (six months apart). Partial least squares path analysis revealed a significant causal relationship between Time 1 administrative and role stressors and an increase in nursing-specific stressors in Time 2. A significant relationship was also identified between job-specific nursing stressors and the adoption of effective coping strategies to deal with increased levels of change-induced stress and strain and the likelihood of reporting higher levels of job satisfaction in Time 2. The effectiveness of coping strategies is critical in helping nurses to deal with the negative consequences of organisational change. This study shows that there is a causal relationship between change, non-nursing stressors and job satisfaction. Senior management should implement strategies aimed at reducing nursing and non-nursing stress during change in order to enhance the job satisfaction of nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Job strain - attributable depression in a sample of working Australians: assessing the contribution to health inequalities.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Keegel, Tessa; Vallance, Deborah; Ostry, Aleck; Wolfe, Rory

    2008-05-27

    The broad aim of this study was to assess the contribution of job strain to mental health inequalities by (a) estimating the proportion of depression attributable to job strain (low control and high demand jobs), (b) assessing variation in attributable risk by occupational skill level, and (c) comparing numbers of job strain-attributable depression cases to numbers of compensated 'mental stress' claims. Standard population attributable risk (PAR) methods were used to estimate the proportion of depression attributable to job strain. An adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.82 for job strain in relation to depression was obtained from a recently published meta-analysis and combined with exposure prevalence data from the Australian state of Victoria. Job strain exposure prevalence was determined from a 2003 population-based telephone survey of working Victorians (n = 1101, 66% response rate) using validated measures of job control (9 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.80) and psychological demands (3 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.66). Estimates of absolute numbers of prevalent cases of depression and successful stress-related workers' compensation claims were obtained from publicly available Australian government sources. Overall job strain-population attributable risk (PAR) for depression was 13.2% for males [95% CI 1.1, 28.1] and 17.2% [95% CI 1.5, 34.9] for females. There was a clear gradient of increasing PAR with decreasing occupational skill level. Estimation of job strain-attributable cases (21,437) versus "mental stress" compensation claims (696) suggest that claims statistics underestimate job strain-attributable depression by roughly 30-fold. Job strain and associated depression risks represent a substantial, preventable, and inequitably distributed public health problem. The social patterning of job strain-attributable depression parallels the social patterning of mental illness, suggesting that job strain is an important contributor to mental health inequalities. The

  16. Police job strain during routine activities and a major event.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, S; Magnavita, N; Elovainio, M; Heponiemi, T; Ciprani, F; Cuomo, G; Bergamaschi, A

    2011-09-01

    Special police forces are exposed to periods of intense work stress in ensuring public order. To explore the relationship between the work context (routine work or special event) of special force policemen and psychological measures of job strain (demand-control) and effort-reward imbalance. All policemen assigned to the G8 meeting in L'Aquila, Italy, in July 2009 were invited to complete a questionnaire while engaged in routine work in January 2009 (Time A) and in June 2009 (Time B), while preparing for the special event. Participation rate in the questionnaire study was 292/294 (99%) members of the special police force. Measures of job strain (-0.39, P < 0.001) and effort-reward imbalance (-0.37, P < 0.001) decreased significantly from Time A to Time B. On average, demand decreased from 14.2 ± 1.9 to 12.6 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001), control increased from 11.8 ± 2.5 to 14.4 ± 3.4 (P < 0.001) and social support increased from 17.8 ± 2.9 to 19.0 ± 3.1 (P < 0.001). At the same time, effort decreased from 17.4 ± 3.2 to 11.8 ± 3.8 (P < 0.001), reward grew from 37.6 ± 5.5 to 45.5 ± 7.4 (P < 0.001) and overcommitment dropped from 7.1 ± 2.1 to 6.6 ± 1.7 (P < 0.001). In special police forces, routine work may be significantly more stressful than a single critical event.

  17. Predicting Occupational Strain and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Stress, Coping, Personality, and Affectivity Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Machin, M. Anthony; Albion, Majella J.; Sutherland, Lynette F.; Lalor, Gabrielle I.; Revitt, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Two studies showed that positive and negative affectivity influenced occupational stress, role strain, and coping. Study 3 added job satisfaction to the model, strengthening its predictive validity. Study 4's addition of personality measures did not improve prediction of job satisfaction and strain. (SK)

  18. [Buffering effect of social support in the workplace on job strain and depressive symptoms].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yuki; Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Shiwa, Tadashi; Suyama, Yasuo; Sugimoto, Masako

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the buffering effect of social support in the workplace on job strain and depressive symptoms by conducting a cross-sectional survey using a self-report. The subjects were 712 employees (male, over 40 yr old) who worked at a precision machine factory. The questionnaire determined the subjects, ages, types of occupation, scores of depressive symptoms, job strain (job demand and job control), and social support (supervisor support and coworker support). Job strain and social support were evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score was measured and depressive symptoms were defined as a CES-D score > or = 16 point. Job strain and social support were calculated and divided into low-score groups (LG) and high-score groups (HG), respectively, by the median value. The mean values of CES-D in the LG and HG of job strain or social support were compared by the t-test. The hierarchical multiple regression was analyzed with the CES-D score as the dependent variable and by the characteristics of the participants, job strain and social support, and the cross-product interaction term of job strain and social support as independent variables. The effect of the degree of social support in the LG and HG of job strain on the CES-D score was evaluated by analysis of covariance adjusted for age. The results showed that 23.2% of the workers had depressive symptoms, and that, the CES-D scores in the job demand group were significantly higher in HG than in LG. The CES-D scores in the job control, supervisor support, and coworker support groups were significantly higher in LG than in HG. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that job demand, job control, supervisor support, and coworker support had significant main effects on the CES-D score. Furthermore, it was shown that there was a significant interaction in the CES-D score between job control and supervisor support, and

  19. Dynamics of the job search process: developing and testing a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuhua; Song, Zhaoli; Lim, Vivien K G

    2013-09-01

    Taking a self-regulatory perspective, we develop a mediated moderation model explaining how within-person changes in job search efficacy and chronic regulatory focus interactively affect the number of job interview offers and whether job search effort mediates the cross-level interactive effects. A sample of 184 graduating college students provided monthly reports of their job search activities over a period of 8 months. Findings supported the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, at the within-person level, job search efficacy was positively related with the number of interview offers for job seekers with strong prevention focus and negatively related with the number of interview offers for job seekers with strong promotion focus. Results show that job search effort mediated the moderated relationships. Findings enhance understandings of the complex self-regulatory processes underlying job search.

  20. Job strain and risk of musculoskeletal symptoms among a prospective cohort of occupational computer users.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Lindsay M; Monteilh, Carolyn P; Gerr, Fred; Kleinbaum, David G; Marcus, Michele

    2005-10-01

    Most previous studies of the association between psychosocial stress and musculoskeletal illness among computer users have been cross-sectional and have yielded inconsistent results. The association between a measure of psychosocial stress, "job strain", and incident neck-shoulder and arm-hand musculoskeletal symptoms was investigated among recently hired computer users. The participants worked for one of several large employers and were followed prospectively for 6 months. The "job demands" and "decision latitude" subscales of the Job Content Questionnaire were used to estimate the job-strain quadrants and a ratio measure of job strain which was subsequently categorized. Incident musculoskeletal symptoms were obtained with weekly diaries. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations between job strain and incident musculoskeletal symptoms. Those in the high-strain quadrant were at increased risk of neck-shoulder symptoms [hazard ratio (HR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.91-2.99] when compared with those in the low-strain quadrant. Those in the highest strain-ratio category were also at increased risk of neck-shoulder symptoms when compared with those in the lowest strain-ratio category (HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.88-2.62). Modification by previous years of computer use was observed, with an elevated risk observed for those in the highest job-strain ratio category who also had low previous computer use (HR 3.16, 95% CI 1.25-8.00). There did not appear to be an association between either measure of job strain and incident arm-hand symptoms. In this cohort, workers who reported high job strain were more likely to develop neck-shoulder symptoms.

  1. Job strain and risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in young female nurses.

    PubMed

    Riese, H; Van Doornen, L J; Houtman, I L; De Geus, E J

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the possible effects of job demands, decision latitude, and job-related social support on risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 165 female nurses. Job strain was measured with the Job Content Questionnaire; CVD risk was measured with insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen, tPA activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance and regression analyses revealed no effects of either job strain or social support on these risk indicators. All risk indicators deteriorated with age and body mass index. Oral contraceptive use improved fibrinolytic potential and increased HDL-C but had adverse effects on TG levels. Results suggest that in healthy young women job strain is not associated with an unfavorable metabolic or fibrinolytic risk profile.

  2. Job insecurity and job performance: The moderating role of organizational justice and the mediating role of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-jiang; Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling

    2015-07-01

    Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees' affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees' performance, and examined the mediating role of work engagement from the perspective of uncertainty management theory. We used 2-wave data (Study 1) from a sample of 140 Chinese employees and 3-wave data (Study 2) from a sample of 125 Chinese employees to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we found that when employees perceived low levels of organizational justice, job insecurity was significantly negatively related to job performance. In contrast, we found that job insecurity was not related to job performance when there were high levels of organizational justice. Study 2 again supported the interaction of job insecurity and organizational justice on job performance. Furthermore, it was found that work engagement mediated the interaction effect. The results of the mediated moderation analysis revealed that job insecurity was negatively associated with job performance through work engagement when organizational justice was low. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-08-03

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors-male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants-explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028-0.634; p < 0.05), job tenure of 10-20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359-0.989; p < 0.05), and low-job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052-0.698; p < 0.05) were all associated with

  4. Effect of Job Strain on Job Burnout, Mental Fatigue and Chronic Diseases among Civil Servants in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Suzhen; Xiaerfuding, Xiadiya; Ning, Li; Lian, Yulong; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2017-01-01

    Job strain is a major concern in view of its effects among civil servants associated with job burnout, mental fatigue and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain level among civil servants and examine the effect of job strain on job burnout, mental fatigue and the resulting chronic diseases. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample consisting of 5000 civil servants was conducted from March to August 2014. Using a structured questionnaire, the job strain level, job burnout and mental fatigue were measured by using the Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), respectively. Overall, 33.8% of the civil servants were found to be afflicted with high and moderate job strain. The characteristics of most of the civil servants with a higher-job strain level were as follows: female, Uygur, lower educational level and job title rank, shorter working experience, married marital status, and lower income level. Civil servants suffering from chronic disease mainly had hypertension and coronary heart disease, which accounted for 18.5% of the diseases. Civil servants with a high-job strain level exhibited higher rates of burnout, mental fatigue scores and incidence of chronic diseases. There was a multiple linear regression model composed of three predictor variables in job burnout, which accounted for 45.0% of its occurrence: female gender, lower-income level, higher-job strain in civil servants, the greater the rate of job burnout was. Four factors—male gender, lower-job title rank, higher-job strain, shorter-job tenure of civil servants—explained 25.0% of the mental fatigue model. Binary logistic regression showed that intermediate-rank employees (OR = 0.442, 95% CI: 0.028–0.634; p < 0.05), job tenure of 10–20 years (OR = 0.632, 95% CI: 0.359–0.989; p < 0.05), and low-job strain (OR = 0.657, 95% CI: 0.052–0.698; p < 0.05) were all associated with

  5. The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between Teachers' Perceptions of Supervisor Support and Job Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Tevfik; Ozdem, Güven

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' perceptions of supervisor support and job performances and the mediating role of job satisfaction in this relationship. The study group consists of 206 teachers working in the public high schools in the Giresun province centre during the 2016-2017 academic year. The…

  6. Job strain and risk of obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Nyberg, S; Jokela, M; Virtanen, M

    2015-11-01

    Job strain, the most widely used indicator of work stress, is a risk factor for obesity-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which job strain is related to the development of obesity itself has not been systematically evaluated. We carried out a systematic review (PubMed and Embase until May 2014) and meta-analysis of cohort studies to address this issue. Eight studies that fulfilled inclusion criteria showed no overall association between job strain and the risk of weight gain (pooled odds ratio for job strain compared with no job strain 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.09, NTotal=18 240) or becoming obese (1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, NTotal=42 222). In addition, a reduction in job strain over time was not associated with lower obesity risk (1.13, 95% CI 0.90-1.41, NTotal=6507). These longitudinal findings do not support the hypothesis that job strain is an important risk factor for obesity or a promising target for obesity prevention.

  7. Invited commentary: job strain and health behaviors--developing a bigger picture.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-12-15

    Investigation of the association between job stressors and health behaviors has a long history that has been marked by mixed findings. Fransson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(12):1078-1089) find robust prospective and cross-sectional associations between job strain and leisure-time physical inactivity in combined data from 14 cohort studies. Further research to better understand the observed heterogeneity in the contributing cohorts and other studies will be crucial for application to intervention design and tailoring. The population health significance of these findings requires consideration of other job strain-health behavior (particularly the parallel analyses conducted for body mass index and smoking in the same data set) and job strain-health outcome associations, as well as these same associations for other job stressors. Job strain can be seen as a "fundamental cause" of work-related disease, in that intervention to reduce exposure to job strain could have beneficial impacts on many outcomes, making a compelling case for intervention. The significantly strengthened evidence linking job stressors to health behaviors provided by Fransson et al. may help to further direct workplace health promotion research, policy, and practice towards an approach that better integrates intervention on working conditions and health behaviors. The benefits to population health could be substantial.

  8. Job Strain, Depressive Symptoms, and Drinking Behavior Among Older Adults: Results From the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Ratliff, Scott; Zivin, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationship between job strain and two indicators of mental health, depression and alcohol misuse, among currently employed older adults. Method. Data come from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 2,902). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between job strain, indicated by the imbalance of job stress and job satisfaction, with depression and alcohol misuse. Results. High job strain (indicated by high job stress combined with low job satisfaction) was associated with elevated depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–4.45) relative to low job strain after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, labor force status, and occupation. High job stress combined with high job satisfaction (OR = 1.93) and low job stress combined with low job satisfaction (OR = 1.94) were also associated with depressive symptoms to a lesser degree. Job strain was unrelated to either moderate or heavy drinking. These associations did not vary by gender or age. Discussion. Job strain is associated with elevated depressive symptoms among older workers. In contrast to results from investigations of younger workers, job strain was unrelated to alcohol misuse. These findings can inform the development and implementation of workplace health promotion programs that reflect the mental health needs of the aging workforce. PMID:21427175

  9. Job strain and vagal recovery during sleep in shift working health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Henelius, Andreas; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2014-12-01

    Within sample female nurses/nurse assistants in three shift work, we explored the association of job strain with heart rate variability before and during sleep. The participants (n = 95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged either to the top (high job strain [HJS], n = 42) or bottom quartiles on job strain (low job strain [LJS], n = 53) as rated by Job Content Questionnaire responses. A further inclusion criterion was that participants' own job strain was at least as high (HJS group) or low (LJS group) as their ward's average estimation. Three-week field measurements included sleep diary and actigraphy to study the participants' sleep patterns and sleep-wake rhythm. A subset of three pre-selected, circadian rhythm and recovery controlled measurement days, one morning shift, one night shift and a day off, included 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) measurements. The bootstrapped HRV parameters (HR, HF, LF, LF-to-HF-ratio and RMSSD) 30 min before and during 30 min of sleep with lowest average heart rate showed no statistically significant job strain group differences. No association of exposure to stressful work environment and HRV before and during sleep was found.

  10. Shift work, job strain and changes in the body mass index among women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen; Schernhammer, Eva; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-06-01

    The effects of job strain and shift work on weight gain have not been studied jointly. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on shift work and weight gain have reported different results. This study examines potential effect modification by job strain on the link between shift work and weight gain, and concurrent and delayed effects of shift work on weight gain. Data came from 52 622 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. Using linear regression, we modelled change in body mass index (BMI) over 4 years as a function of change in job strain, cumulative exposure to rotating night shift previously and during the 4 years (ie, previous and concurrent exposures) and the interaction between job strain and concurrent shift work exposure. Age, race/ethnicity, pregnancy history, baseline BMI, job types and health behaviours at baseline were controlled for. Job strain and rotating shift work, concurrent and previous, all had independent associations with BMI change during the 4-year period. There was no evidence for effect modification by job strain. Concurrent and previous exposures to rotating night shift had different associations with BMI change: an inverted U-shape for concurrent exposure (ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 kg/m(2) increase), a dose-response for previous exposure (-0.02 to 0.09 kg/m(2)). Job strain and rotating night shift work have independent contributions to weight gain. Reducing job strain and supporting night shift workers are both important intervention goals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; p<0.01) and longer naps (62 vs. 35 min; p=0.01) before the first night shift than high-strain group. Difficulties initiating sleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (p<0.01). High-strain group had more often at least one lapse in PVT during the night shift (p=0.02). Average sleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain.

  12. Incorporating home demands into models of job strain: Findings from the Work, Family & Health Network

    PubMed Central

    Koenen, KC; Berkman, LF

    2009-01-01

    Objective To integrate home demands with the Demand-Control-Support model to test if home demands interact with job strain to increase depressive symptoms. Methods Data were from 431 employees in four extended care facilities. Presence of a child under age 18 in the household signified home demands. The outcome was depressive symptoms based on a shortened version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results The association between job strain and depressive symptoms was moderated by social support (SS) and presence of a child in the household (child). There was no association among participants with high SS and no child, but a positive one among participants with low SS and a child. Conclusions Job strain may be a particularly important determinant of depressive symptoms among employees with family demands. Models of job strain should expand to incorporate family demands. PMID:19001950

  13. Psychosocial job strain and sleep quality interaction leading to insufficient recovery.

    PubMed

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J

    2013-11-05

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of job strain and sleep quality on the diurnal pattern of cortisol reactivity, measured by awakening and evening (10 PM) saliva cortisol. The sample consisted of 76 British white-collar workers (24 women, 52 men; mean age 45.8 years). Sleep quality and job strain were assessed in a survey distributed just before the cortisol sampling. Both input variables were dichotomized about the median and factorial ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Low sleep quality was significantly associated with lower morning cortisol secretion. While job strain had no main effects on the cortisol reactivity there was a significant interaction effect between the input variables on morning cortisol secretion. These findings tentatively support the hypothesis that lack of sleep for workers with high job strain may result in a flattened diurnal cortisol reactivity.

  14. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Babu, Giridhara R; Jotheeswaran, A T; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Kumar, Ananth; Detels, Roger; Pearce, Neil

    2014-07-01

    Job strain results from a combination of high workload and few decision-making opportunities in the workplace. There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between job strain and hypertension, and methodological shortcomings preclude firm conclusions. Thus, a meta-analysis of observational studies on hypertension among occupational groups was conducted to determine whether job strain was associated with hypertension. In January 2012, we carried out a comprehensive, topic-specific electronic literature search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychoINFO databases complemented by individual help from non-communicable disease experts. Experimental/interventional studies and studies on personality disorders were excluded. Nine of 894 identified studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of the nine studies was 1.3 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.48; p<0.001), of case-control studies 3.17 (95% CI 1.79 to 5.60; p<0.001) and of cohort studies 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41; p<0.001), all of which indicated statistically significant positive associations between job strain and hypertension. In a subgroup analysis, cohort studies of good methodological quality showed significant associations between job strain and hypertension, while those of poor methodological quality showed no association or subgroup differences. We conclude that despite methodological differences, case-control and cohort studies of good methodological quality showed positive associations between hypertension and job strain.

  15. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Babu, Giridhara R; Jotheeswaran, A T; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Kumar, Ananth; Detels, Roger; Pearce, Neil

    2014-03-01

    Job strain results from a combination of high workload and few decision-making opportunities in the workplace. There is inconsistent evidence regarding the association between job strain and hypertension, and methodological shortcomings preclude firm conclusions. Thus, a meta-analysis of observational studies on hypertension among occupational groups was conducted to determine whether job strain was associated with hypertension. In January 2012, we carried out a comprehensive, topic-specific electronic literature search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsychoINFO databases complemented by individual help from non-communicable disease experts. Experimental/interventional studies and studies on personality disorders were excluded. Nine of 894 identified studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of the nine studies was 1.29 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.47; p<0.001), of case–control studies 2.88 (95% CI 1.63 to 5.09; p<0.001) and of cohort studies 1.24 (95% CI1.09 to 1.41; p<0.001), all of which indicated statistically significant positive associations between job strain and hypertension [corrected]. In a subgroup analysis, cohort studies of good methodological quality showed significant associations between job strain and hypertension, while those of poor methodological quality showed no association or subgroup differences. We conclude that despite methodological differences, case-control and cohort studies of good methodological quality showed positive associations between hypertension and job strain.

  16. Job strain and stress of conscience among nurse assistants working in residential care.

    PubMed

    Orrung Wallin, Anneli; Jakobsson, Ulf; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to investigate job strain and stress of conscience among nurse assistants working in residential care and to explore associations with personal and work-related aspects and health complaints. It is important to investigate job strain and stress of conscience, both for the well-being of the nurse assistants themselves and for the impact on the quality of care they provide. Questionnaires measuring job strain, stress of conscience, personal and work-related aspects and health complaints were completed by NAs (n = 225). Comparisons of high and low levels of job strain and stress of conscience and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Organisational and environmental support and low education levels were associated with low levels of job strain and stress of conscience. Personalised care provision and leadership were related to stress of conscience and the caring climate was related to job strain. There is a need for support from the managers and a supportive organisation for reducing nurse assistants work-related stress, which in turn can create a positive caring climate where the nurse assistants are able to provide high quality care. The managers' role is essential when designing supportive measures and implementing a value-system that can facilitate personalised care provision. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Association between Job Strain and Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Swedish WOLF Study

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Malm, Dan; Knutsson, Anders; Alfredsson, Lars; Westerholm, Peter J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF. Methods. Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk. Results. In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10–3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67–1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account. Conclusion. This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF. PMID:26557661

  18. Associations between five-factor model traits and perceived job strain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Törnroos, Maria; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the association between Five-Factor Model personality traits and perceived job strain. The sample consisted of 758 women and 614 men (aged 30-45 years in 2007) participating in the Young Finns study. Personality was assessed with the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire and work stress according to Karasek's demand-control model of job strain. The associations between personality traits and job strain and its components were measured by linear regression analyses where the traits were first entered individually and then simultaneously. The results for the associations between individually entered personality traits showed that high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with high job strain. High neuroticism, high openness, and low agreeableness were related to high demands, whereas high neuroticism, low extraversion, low openness, low conscientiousness, and low agreeableness were associated with low control. In the analyses for the simultaneously entered traits, high neuroticism, low openness, and low conscientiousness were associated with high job strain. In addition, high neuroticism was related to high demands and low control, whereas low extraversion was related to low demands and low control. Low openness and low conscientiousness were also related to low control. This study suggests that personality is related to perceived job strain. Perceptions of work stressors and decision latitude are not only indicators of structural aspects of work but also indicate that there are individual differences in how individuals experience their work environment.

  19. The Effect of Job Strain on Nighttime Blood Pressure Dipping among Men and Women with High Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin-bo; Blumenthal, James A.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Sherwood, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure. Methods The sample consisted of 122 blue collar and white collar workers (men=72, women=50). Job psychological demands, job control and social support were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire. Job strain was assessed by the ratio of job demands/job control. Nighttime blood pressure dipping was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed on three workdays. Results Men with high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure from awake to sleep than those with low job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the salient component of job strain associated with blood pressure dipping (p=.03). Conclusions High job strain is associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22460541

  20. The effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin-Bo; Blumenthal, James A; Hinderliter, Alan L; Sherwood, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping is an established cardiovascular risk factor. This study examined the effect of job strain on nighttime blood pressure dipping among men and women with high blood pressure. The sample consisted of 122 blue- and white collar workers (men=72, women=50). The Job Content Questionnaire was used to measure job psychological demands, job control, and social support. The ratio of job demands to job control was used to assess job strain. Nighttime blood pressure dipping was evaluated from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring performed on three workdays. Men with high job strain had a 5.4 mm Hg higher sleep systolic blood pressure (P=0.03) and 3.5 mm Hg higher sleep pulse pressure (P=0.02) compared to men with low job strain. Men with high job strain had a smaller fall in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure from awake to sleep state than those with low job strain (P<0.05). Hierarchical analyses showed that job strain was an independent determinant of systolic blood pressure dipping (P=0.03) among men after adjusting for ethnicity, body mass index, anxiety and depression symptoms, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Further exploratory analyses indicated that job control was the salient component of job strain associated with blood pressure dipping (P=0.03). High job strain is associated with a blunting of the normal diurnal variation in blood pressure and pulse pressure, which may contribute to the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    PubMed

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  2. Job satisfaction and horizontal violence in hospital staff registered nurses: the mediating role of peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Purpora, Christina; Blegen, Mary A

    2015-08-01

    To describe the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction in hospital staff registered nurses and the degree to which peer relationships mediates the relationship. Additionally, the association between nurse and work characteristics and job satisfaction were determined. Horizontal violence is a major predictor of nurses' job satisfaction. Yet, not enough is known about the relationship between these variables. Job satisfaction is an important variable to study because it is a predictor of patient care quality and safety internationally. Peer relationships, a job satisfier for nurses, was identified as a potential mediator in the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional mediational model testing. An anonymous four-part survey of a random sample of 175 hospital staff registered nurses working in California provided the data. Data about horizontal violence, peer relationships, job satisfaction, and nurse and work characteristics were collected between March-August 2010. A statistically significant negative relationship was found between horizontal violence and peer relationships, job satisfaction and a statistically significant positive relationship was found between peer relationships and job satisfaction. Peer relationships mediated the association between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was reported as higher by nurses who worked in teaching hospitals. There were no statistically significant differences in job satisfaction based on gender, ethnicity, basic registered nurse education, highest degree held, size of hospital or clinical area. The results suggest that peer relationships can attenuate the negative relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. This adds to the extant literature on the relationship between horizontal violence and job satisfaction. The findings highlight peer relationships as an important factor when considering effective interventions that

  3. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  4. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  5. Influence of employees' attachment styles on their life satisfaction as mediated by job satisfaction and burnout.

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain better insight into the associations between attachment styles and employees' life satisfaction. This was achieved by examining the mediating roles of burnout and job satisfaction. Three hundred and thirty-nine employees, from a convenience community sample, participated in the current study. Results of the mediation model indicated that the associations between avoidance and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout and job satisfaction. However, the associations between attachment anxiety and life satisfaction were mediated by burnout but not by job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications for organizations and for attachment theory at work are discussed.

  6. Associations of Job Strain and Occupation with Subclinical Atherosclerosis: the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, Kurt J.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Giles, Wayne H.; Liu, Kiang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Although occupational factors have been associated with symptomatic ischemic heart disease, associations between job strain (low decision latitude and high psychological demands) and risk for subclinical atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been assessed. Methods CAC was measured in 3,695 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in 2000-01 and 2005-06. Job characteristics measured by the demand-control model (psychological demands and decision latitude) were assessed in 1987-88 and in 1995-96. Associations between non-zero CAC and prior job characteristics and occupation were assessed, adjusting for potential covariates. Results Low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job strain at either earlier exam were not associated with a positive CAC, nor were changes in the status of these job characteristics between 1987/1988 and 1995/1996. However, participants whose jobs were classified as managerial or professional in 1995/1996 were less likely to have a positive CAC than those in laborer occupations. Conclusions Job strain measured at two earlier time points was not related to the presence of CAC at follow-up 5 to 18 years later. The association between earlier occupation and CAC may reflect socioeconomic differences or other occupational, industrial, or labor market characteristics. PMID:20382332

  7. Job strain and prevalence of hypertension in a biracial population of urban bus drivers.

    PubMed Central

    Albright, C L; Winkleby, M A; Ragland, D R; Fisher, J; Syme, S L

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In this study we tested the association between occupational stress--as measured by job demands, decision latitude, and job strain--and hypertension in a population of 1396 Black and White bus drivers. METHODS. Height, weight, blood pressure, and medical history were assessed by physical exam. Drivers completed a questionnaire assessing their work schedules, personal habits, and self-perceptions about job demands and decision latitude. RESULTS. Univariate analyses revealed significant inverse associations; lower levels of job demands and job strain were associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension for Blacks and Whites. After 12 confounding variables were controlled for, the association between these two measures of occupational stress and hypertension became nonsignificant. Decision latitude was also not significantly associated with hypertension. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings are inconsistent with previous studies' findings of a positive association between job strain and chronic diseases. The difference in results may be explained by our incorporation of individuals' perceptions in the measurement of occupational stressors and our use of individuals from a single occupation with comparable job responsibilities and income, thus controlling for potential confounding by social class. PMID:1609917

  8. Senior management leadership, social support, job design and stressor-to-strain relationships in hospital practice.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; West, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the quality of senior management leadership on social support and job design, whose main effects on strains, and moderating effects on work stressors-to-strains relationships were assessed. A survey involving distribution of questionnaires was carried out on a random sample of health care employees in acute hospital practice in the UK. The sample comprised 65,142 respondents. The work stressors tested were quantitative overload and hostile environment, whereas strains were measured through job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were used in the analysis. Quality of senior management leadership explained 75 per cent and 94 per cent of the variance of social support and job design respectively, whereas work stressors explained 51 per cent of the variance of strains. Social support and job design predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as moderated significantly the relationships between quantitative workload/hostility and job satisfaction/turnover intentions. The findings are useful to management and to health employees working in acute/specialist hospitals. Further research could be done in other counties to take into account cultural differences and variations in health systems. The limitations included self-reported data and percept-percept bias due to same source data collection. The quality of senior management leaders in hospitals has an impact on the social environment, the support given to health employees, their job design, as well as work stressors and strains perceived. The study argues in favour of effective senior management leadership of hospitals, as well as ensuring adequate support structures and job design. The findings may be useful to health policy makers and human resources managers.

  9. Validity test of the IPD-Work consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between Job Content Questionnaire and Demand-Control Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bongkyoo; Ko, Sangbaek; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to test the validity of the IPD-Work Consortium approach for creating comparable job strain groups between the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Demand-Control Questionnaire (DCQ). A random population sample (N = 682) of all middle-aged Malmö males and females was given a questionnaire with the 14-item JCQ and 11-item DCQ for the job control and job demands. The JCQ job control and job demands scores were calculated in 3 different ways: using the 14-item JCQ standard scale formulas (method 1); dropping 3 job control items and using the 11-item JCQ standard scale formulas with additional scale weights (method 2); and the approach of the IPD Group (method 3), dropping 3 job control items, but using the simple 11-item summation-based scale formulas. The high job strain was defined as a combination of high demands and low control. Between the 2 questionnaires, false negatives for the high job strain were much greater than false positives (37-49% vs. 7-13%). When the method 3 was applied, the sensitivity of the JCQ for the high job strain against the DCQ was lowest (0.51 vs. 0.60-0.63 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied), although the specificity was highest (0.93 vs. 0.87-0.89 when the methods 1 and 2 were applied). The prevalence of the high job strain with the JCQ (the method 3 was applied) was considerably lower (4-7%) than with the JCQ (the methods 1 and 2 were applied) and the DCQ. The number of congruent cases for the high job strain between the 2 questionnaires was smallest when the method 3 was applied. The IPD-Work Consortium approach showed 2 major weaknesses to be used for epidemiological studies on the high job strain and health outcomes as compared to the standard JCQ methods: the greater misclassification of the high job strain and lower prevalence of the high job strain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. The role of job strain on return to work after carpal tunnel surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, D; Amick, B; Habeck, R; Ossmann, J; Katz, J

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine the impact of job strain (that is, high psychological job demands and low job control) on return to work and work role functioning at two months, six months, or both, following carpal tunnel release surgery. Methods: A community based cohort of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients from physician practices was recruited between April 1997 and October 1998 throughout Maine (USA). 128 patients at two months and 122 at six months completed all relevant questions. A three level outcome variable indicated whether patients had: (1) returned to work functioning successfully, (2) returned to work functioning with limitations, or (3) not returned to work for health reasons. Two job strain measures were created: one, by combining psychological job demands and job control; and two, by dividing demands by control. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the three level work outcome variable. Results: After adjustment, workers with high demands and high control (active work) were less likely to successfully return to work (OR = 0.22; p = 0.014) at two months. Having a job with higher demands than job control (high strain) predicted not returning to work or returning to work but not successfully meeting job demands (OR = 0.14; p = 0.001), at six months. Conclusions: The findings underscore the role of psychosocial work conditions, as defined by the Karasek demand-control model, in explaining a worker's return to work. Clinicians, researchers, and employers should consider a multidimensional and integrative model of successful work role functioning upon return to work. Moreover, since the evidence of the effects of work process changes on the reduction of CTS is very scarce, these findings point to the opportunity for collaborative workplace interventions to facilitate successful return to work. PMID:16234404

  11. Early risk factors, job strain, and atherosclerosis among men in their 30s: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Vahtera, Jussi; Viikari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2007-03-01

    We examined whether preemployment influences confounded the association between job strain and atherosclerosis. We assessed biological, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors of coronary heart disease at 12 to 18 years of age and job strain and carotid artery intima-media thickness at 33 to 39 years of age for a cohort of 358 men. Adolescent risk factors predicted adult intima-media thickness but had little effect on the dose-response relation between greater job strain and greater intima-media thickness. Pre-employment influences did not confound the association between job strain and atherosclerosis.

  12. Job security and work performance in Chinese employees: The mediating role of organisational identification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing; Liu, Shanshi; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Hongchun

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on investigating whether organisational identification mediates the effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour and how these mediation mechanisms differ according to gender. Through analysing 212 supervisor-subordinate dyads from a Chinese air transportation group, the research indicated that organisational identification partially mediated the effect of job security on in-role behaviour and fully mediated the effect of job security on extra-role behaviour. A multi-group analysis also showed that there were significant differences between male and female employees in these relationships. In addition, moderated mediation analyses showed that gender moderated the indirect effects of job security on in-role behaviour and extra-role behaviour through organisational identification. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Specific Relationships between Job Demands, Job Resources and Psychological Outcomes and the Mediating Role of Negative Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Peter P. M.; Peeters, Maria C. W.; de Jonge, Jan; Houkes, Inge; Tummers, Gladys E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative work-home interference (NWI) in this context was…

  14. Specific Relationships between Job Demands, Job Resources and Psychological Outcomes and the Mediating Role of Negative Work-Home Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Peter P. M.; Peeters, Maria C. W.; de Jonge, Jan; Houkes, Inge; Tummers, Gladys E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This study among 115 US and 260 Dutch nurses and nurse assistants tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work characteristics and two theoretically distinct outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction). Furthermore, the mediating role of negative work-home interference (NWI) in this context was…

  15. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Ming; Ye, Long; Liao, Ganli; Yang, Zhehan

    2016-10-01

    Despite the large body of work on the work-family interface, hardly any literature has addressed the work-family interface in safety-critical settings. This study draws from social exchange theory to examine the effect of employees' strain-based work-to-family conflict on their supervisors' rating of their safety participation through job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 494 drivers from a major railway company in China. The results of a structural equation model revealed that drivers' strain-based work-to-family conflict negatively influences safety participation, and the relationship was partially mediated by job satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations.

  16. Biological consequences of stress: conflicting findings on the association between job strain and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Fornari, C; Ferrario, M; Menni, C; Sega, R; Facchetti, R; Cesana, G C

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective is to verify the relation between job strain and clinic blood pressure in a working population from the Milan municipality (1,909 men, 3,786 women) enrolled from 1992 to 1996. Job strain was investigated through the Karasek model. Clinic blood pressure was evaluated using standard procedures from the MONICA project. The association between the two was calculated controlling for age, education, smoking, body mass index, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Significantly, associations were found for systolic blood pressure in men and for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women. However, these results do not reflect biological plausibility. The relationship between job strain and blood pressure is an unfinished business: sample characteristics and measurement methods should be carefully considered.

  17. Does job satisfaction mediate the relationship between healthy work environment and care quality?

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinbing

    2016-01-01

    A healthy work environment can increase nurse-reported job satisfaction and patient care outcomes. Yet the associations between healthy work environment, nurse job satisfaction and QC have not been comprehensively examined in Chinese ICUs. To investigate the mediating effect of nurse job satisfaction on the relationship between healthy work environment and nurse-reported quality of care (QC) in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 706 nurses were recruited from 28 ICUs of 14 tertiary hospitals. The nurses completed self-reported questionnaires to evaluate healthy work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. Mediation analysis was conducted to explore the mediating effect between nurse-reported healthy work environment and QC. Nurse work environment showed positive correlations with nurse-reported QC in the ICUs. Nurse-reported job satisfaction showed full mediating effects between healthy work environment and QC in the medical-surgical ICUs, surgical ICUs and neonatal/paediatric ICUs and indicated a partial mediating effect in the medical ICUs. Significant mediating effects of nurse job satisfaction provide more support for thinking about how to use this mediator to increase nurse and patient care outcomes. Nurse administrators can design interventions to increase nurse work environment and patient care outcomes with this mediating factor addressed. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  18. Transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of employee empowerment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Long; Goh, Chin Fei; Adam, Muhammad Badrull Hisyam; Tan, Owee Kowang

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have revealed that nursing staff turnover remains a major problem in emerging economies. In particular, nursing staff turnover in Malaysia remains high due to a lack of job satisfaction. Despite a shortage of healthcare staff, the Malaysian government plans to create 181 000 new healthcare jobs by 2020 through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). This study investigated the causal relationships among perceived transformational leadership, empowerment, and job satisfaction among nurses and medical assistants in two selected large private and public hospitals in Malaysia. This study also explored the mediating effect of empowerment between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This study used a survey to collect data from 200 nursing staff, i.e., nurses and medical assistants, employed by a large private hospital and a public hospital in Malaysia. Respondents were asked to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding transformational leadership, employee empowerment, and job satisfaction. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the measurement models and to estimate parameters in a path model. Statistical analysis was performed to examine whether empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. This analysis showed that empowerment mediated the effect of transformational leadership on the job satisfaction in nursing staff. Employee empowerment not only is indispensable for enhancing job satisfaction but also mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction among nursing staff. The results of this research contribute to the literature on job satisfaction in healthcare industries by enhancing the understanding of the influences of empowerment and transformational leadership on job satisfaction among nursing staff. This study offers important policy insight for healthcare managers who seek to increase job

  19. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: expanding Kanter's model.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, H K; Finegan, J; Shamian, J; Wilk, P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested an expanded model of Kanter's structural empowerment, which specified the relationships among structural and psychological empowerment, job strain, and work satisfaction. Strategies proposed in Kanter's empowerment theory have the potential to reduce job strain and improve employee work satisfaction and performance in current restructured healthcare settings. The addition to the model of psychological empowerment as an outcome of structural empowerment provides an understanding of the intervening mechanisms between structural work conditions and important organizational outcomes. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 404 Canadian staff nurses. The Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Global Satisfaction Scale were used to measure the major study variables. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data based on various fit indices (chi 2 = 1140, df = 545, chi 2/df ratio = 2.09, CFI = 0.986, RMSEA = 0.050). The amount of variance accounted for in the model was 58%. Staff nurses felt that structural empowerment in their workplace resulted in higher levels of psychological empowerment. These heightened feelings of psychological empowerment in turn strongly influenced job strain and work satisfaction. However, job strain did not have a direct effect on work satisfaction. These results provide initial support for an expanded model of organizational empowerment and offer a broader understanding of the empowerment process.

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation of Factors Mediating the Participative Decision Making Job Satisfaction Linkage.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, J; Jennings, K R

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify mediators of the relationship between participative decision making (PDM) and job satisfaction. The importance of role perceptions and the performance-reward expectancy (E2) as plausible mediators have been established, but theorists have identified additional variables that may have rival or complementary mediational effects. This study identified the plausible mediators and conducted a covariance structure analysis using longitudinal data. Role ambiguity, perceived obstacles, and E2 appeared to partially mediate the relationship between PDM and job satisfaction.

  1. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health

    PubMed Central

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work. PMID:21643471

  2. Exposure to Psychological Aggression at Work and Job Performance: The Mediating Role of Job Attitudes and Personal Health.

    PubMed

    Schat, Aaron; Frone, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing literature on workplace aggression and the importance of employee performance at work, few studies have examined the relation between workplace aggression and job performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between psychological aggression at work and two forms of job performance (task performance and contextual performance) and potential mediators of these relations. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and prior research, a model was developed and tested in which overall job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and overall personal health (i.e., physical and psychological health) fully mediate the relations between exposure to psychological aggression at work and both task performance and contextual performance. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of US workers (N = 2376) and the model was tested using structural equation modelling. The results supported the hypothesized model, demonstrating that exposure to psychological aggression at work negatively predicted both task performance and contextual performance, and that these relations were explained by decrements in job attitudes and health associated with exposure to psychological aggression at work.

  3. The annual costs of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders attributable to job strain in France

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Work stress has become a major occupational risk factor in industrialized countries and an important economic issue. The objective was to estimate the annual costs of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and mental disorders (MD) attributable to job strain exposure according to Karasek’s model in France for the year 2003 from a societal perspective. Methods We produced attributable fraction estimates which were applied to the number of cases (morbidity and mortality) and the costs of CHD and MD. Relative risk estimates came from a systematic literature review of prospective studies. We conducted meta-analyses based on this selection of studies. Prevalence of exposure to job strain came from the national SUMER survey conducted in France in 2003. Costs included direct medical costs and indirect costs: production losses due to sick leaves and premature deaths. Results Between 8.8 and 10.2% of CHD morbidity was attributable to job strain, and between 9.4 and 11.2% of CHD mortality was attributable to this exposure for men. Between 15.2 and 19.8% of MD was attributable to job strain for men, and between 14.3 and 27.1% for women. As a whole, between 450 000 and 590 000 cases of diseases and 910–1130 deaths were attributable to job strain for men. From 730 000 to 1 380 000 cases of diseases and from 150 to 280 deaths were attributable to job strain for women. The total number of sick leave days amounted from 5 to 6.6 million days for men, and from 8.5 to 16 million days for women. The total costs of CHD and MD attributable to job strain exposure ranged from 1.8 to 3 billion euros for the year 2003 (0.12-0.19% GDP). Medical costs accounted for 11% of the total costs, value of life costs accounted for 13-15% and sick leave costs for 74-77%. The cost of CHD was estimated at 113–133 million euros and the cost of MD was between 1.7 - 2.8 billion euros in 2003. Conclusion This study on the economic burden of diseases attributable to job strain in France provides

  4. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  5. A Moderated Mediation Model of the Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Muammer

    2011-01-01

    Addressing numerous calls for future research on understanding the theoretical mechanisms that explain the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and job performance, this study focused on how an employee's relationships with coworkers mediate the relationship between his or her OCBs and his or her job performance. It…

  6. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  7. A Moderated Mediation Model of the Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Muammer

    2011-01-01

    Addressing numerous calls for future research on understanding the theoretical mechanisms that explain the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and job performance, this study focused on how an employee's relationships with coworkers mediate the relationship between his or her OCBs and his or her job performance. It…

  8. Association of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship of job strain with working hours, shift-dependent perceived workload, sleepiness and recovery. Nurses/nursing assistants (n = 95) were recruited from wards that belonged to either the top (high-strain group, HJS) or the bottom (low-strain group, LJS) job strain quartiles of a Job Content Questionnaire survey of employees in five health care districts and four cities in Finland. Three-week field measurements during naturally occurring shift schedules and a subset of pre-selected shift arrangements consisted of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, perceived workload and recovery. The HJS group (n = 42) had more single days off and quick returns than the LJS group (n = 53, p < 0.01), and both mental workload and physical workload were rated as higher (p < 0.01). During naturally occurring shift arrangements, severe sleepiness was more common in the HJS group only in quick returns (p = 0.04) and the HJS group recovered on average more poorly from work after all shifts (p = 0.01) and morning shifts (p = 0.02). During pre-selected shift arrangements, the differences between the groups were only minor. In conclusion, job strain-related differences in sleepiness and recovery were mostly attributable to differences in shift arrangements.

  9. Emotional intelligence and job performance: The mediating role of work-family balance.

    PubMed

    Weinzimmer, Laurence G; Baumann, Heidi M; Gullifor, Daniel P; Koubova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examine the dynamics between emotional intelligence, work-family balance, and job performance. A review of the literature to date has shown distinct relationships between emotional intelligence to job performance and work-family balance to job performance. We utilize a sample of 233 respondents to empirically test our set of hypotheses that contend work-family balance mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance. Our results support these hypotheses. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study: does BMI matter?

    PubMed

    Pena Gralle, Ana Paula Bruno; Barbosa Moreno, Arlinda; Lopes Juvanhol, Leidjaira; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus; Prates Melo, Enirtes Caetano; Antunes Nunes, Maria Angélica; Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-05-25

    To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.

  11. Psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress / well-being: the mediating role of personal goal facilitation.

    PubMed

    Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.

  12. Job strain — Attributable depression in a sample of working Australians: Assessing the contribution to health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Keegel, Tessa; Vallance, Deborah; Ostry, Aleck; Wolfe, Rory

    2008-01-01

    Background The broad aim of this study was to assess the contribution of job strain to mental health inequalities by (a) estimating the proportion of depression attributable to job strain (low control and high demand jobs), (b) assessing variation in attributable risk by occupational skill level, and (c) comparing numbers of job strain–attributable depression cases to numbers of compensated 'mental stress' claims. Methods Standard population attributable risk (PAR) methods were used to estimate the proportion of depression attributable to job strain. An adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.82 for job strain in relation to depression was obtained from a recently published meta-analysis and combined with exposure prevalence data from the Australian state of Victoria. Job strain exposure prevalence was determined from a 2003 population-based telephone survey of working Victorians (n = 1101, 66% response rate) using validated measures of job control (9 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.80) and psychological demands (3 items, Cronbach's alpha = 0.66). Estimates of absolute numbers of prevalent cases of depression and successful stress-related workers' compensation claims were obtained from publicly available Australian government sources. Results Overall job strain-population attributable risk (PAR) for depression was 13.2% for males [95% CI 1.1, 28.1] and 17.2% [95% CI 1.5, 34.9] for females. There was a clear gradient of increasing PAR with decreasing occupational skill level. Estimation of job strain–attributable cases (21,437) versus "mental stress" compensation claims (696) suggest that claims statistics underestimate job strain–attributable depression by roughly 30-fold. Conclusion Job strain and associated depression risks represent a substantial, preventable, and inequitably distributed public health problem. The social patterning of job strain-attributable depression parallels the social patterning of mental illness, suggesting that job strain is an important

  13. Perceived organizational support and turnover intention: the mediating effects of personal sacrifice and job fit.

    PubMed

    Dawley, David; Houghton, Jeffery D; Bucklew, Neil S

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the mediating role of job fit on the relationship between perceived supervisor support (PSS) and perceived organizational support (POS), and the mediating role of personal sacrifice on the relationship between POS and turnover intention. We use structural equation modeling (SEM) with a data set consisting of a sample of 346 individuals in a manufacturing firm to test our proposed model of PSS, POS, and turnover intention. Consistent with prior literature, our hypothesized model confirms that PSS is a predictor of POS and that POS is a predictor of turnover intention. By testing two additional competing and theoretically derived nested models, our findings indicate that job fit partially mediates the relationship between PSS and POS, and that personal sacrifice partially mediates the relationship between POS and turnover intention. Our study is among the first to examine job fit and personal sacrifice as mediators within the POS-turnover intention model.

  14. The association between job strain and atrial fibrillation in Swedish men

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Schiöler, Linus; Söderberg, Mia; Giang, Kok Wai; Rosengren, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychosocial stress defined as high strain based on the job demand–control model increases risk for atrial fibrillation. Methods The present study comprised 6035 men born between 1915 and 1925 and free from previous coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and stroke at baseline (1974–1977). Work-related psychosocial stress was measured using a job-exposure matrix for the job demand–control model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination until death, hospital discharge or 75 years of age, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for any registration for atrial fibrillation, resulting in the identification of 436 cases. Data were analysed with Cox regression models with atrial fibrillation as the outcome using high strain as the explanatory variable adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Results There was an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in relation to high strain (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.75). When the four categories of the job-strain model were included and low strain was used as reference, the risk for high strain decreased (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82). Conclusions Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as high strain may be associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. The observed increase in risk is small and residual confounding may also be present. PMID:25523937

  15. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2017-08-01

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  16. Effects of an ergonomics-based job stress management program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol among employees of a national private bank in Denpasar Bali.

    PubMed

    Purnawati, Susy; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Sutjana, Dewa Putu; Adiputra, Nyoman

    2016-08-06

    The present work describes a newly developed ergonomics-based job stress management program - Ergo-JSI (Ergonomics-based Job Stress Intervention) - including a pilot study to ascertain the effects of the program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol levels among bank employees in Indonesia. A single-group, pre- and post-test experimental study was conducted in a sample of employees in a National Bank in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The outcomes of the study focused on reductions in job strain index and psychological distress, measured by the Indonesian version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), and improvement in blood cortisol levels following the study.A total of 25 male employees, with an average age of 39, received an eight-week intervention with the Ergo-JSI. Compared to baseline, the job strain index decreased by 46% (p<0.05), and psychological distress decreased by 28% (p<0.05). These changes were accompanied by a 24% reduction in blood cortisol levels (p<0.05). The newly developed Ergo-JSI program may hence be effective for decreasing job strain, psychosocial distress, and blood cortisol among employees in Indonesia.

  17. Job strain in different types of employment affects the immune response.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Paolo; Forcella, Laura; Reale, Marcella; Vianale, Giovina; Battisti, Uliano; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Cortini, Michela; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Di Donato, Angela; Salerno, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The immune system, in cooperation with neuroendocrine functions, defends from cancer and infections mainly by the activity of blood natural killer (NK) cells. Blood NK activity may be influenced by the type of employment since work is the central part of life; moreover, job stress is a situation affecting both neuroendocrine and immune systems. This study examines anxiety (by STAI 1 and 2), job strain (by the Karasek's JCQ) and blood NK activity (by an in vitro radio-isotopic method) of 134 male workers. These men, over 38 years old with stable employment, were working in factories, in construction yards, in offices, as hospital attendants or as self-employed craftsmen. Workers in factories and in construction yards, with high job strain, showed lower NK activity, while office employees, with low job demand, and craftsmen with low anxiety and elevated decision latitude, showed higher NK activity; the level of NK activity of the hospital attendants was between the other groups. In conclusion, this study confirms that the type of employment, related to job stress, affects blood NK activity. Moreover, blood NK activity may be used in the bio-monitoring of workers at high risk.

  18. Job strain and family well-being among public health nurses in Bangkok metropolitan administration, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Likitpornswan, Orawan; Triamchaisri, Somporn K; Chandanasotthi, Pimsupa

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine job strain and family well-being among public health nurses. A total of 239 public health nurses participated in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to assess the association of each factor with family well-being. It was found that there was a correlation between job strain and family well-being. Individual and family factors were also associated with family well-being. In all, 67% of nurses had a high rating for family well-being. A large portion of nurses belonged to the category of "active job" (51.5%). More than 50% of nurses were exposed to high "job demand" and 97.5% were in high "job control." The study suggests that nurses should be promoted with the ability to be in authority and display decision-making skills and should receive support and encouragement from supervisors and coworkers in order to improve family well-being.

  19. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers - Work-Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners' job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and using work-family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD-R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. Associated and Mediating Variables Related to Job Satisfaction among Professionals from Mental Health Teams.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiochio, François

    2017-10-03

    Using a structural analysis, this study examines the relationship between job satisfaction among 315 mental health professionals from the province of Quebec (Canada) and a wide range of variables related to provider characteristics, team characteristics, processes, and emergent states, and organizational culture. We used the Job Satisfaction Survey to assess job satisfaction. Our conceptual framework integrated numerous independent variables adapted from the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model and the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model (ITEM). The structural equation model predicted 47% of the variance of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was associated with eight variables: strong team support, participation in the decision-making process, closer collaboration, fewer conflicts among team members, modest knowledge production (team processes), firm affective commitment, multifocal identification (emergent states) and belonging to the nursing profession (provider characteristics). Team climate had an impact on six job satisfaction variables (team support, knowledge production, conflicts, affective commitment, collaboration, and multifocal identification). Results show that team processes and emergent states were mediators between job satisfaction and team climate. To increase job satisfaction among professionals, health managers need to pursue strategies that foster a positive climate within mental health teams.

  1. The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    Han, Guohong Helen; Jekel, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether job satisfaction mediates between leader-member exchange and nurse turnover intentions. Limited knowledge is available on the mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions in the nursing field. This is a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected in a US hospital. Higher leader-member exchange was associated with lower turnover intentions (β=-0.41, P<0.001). Leader-member exchange was positively related to one's job satisfaction (β=0.50, P<0.001). Job satisfaction was negatively related to turnover intentions (β=-0.64, P<0.001). When leader-member exchange and job satisfaction were both controlled for, the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions was no longer significant (β=-0.12, P>0.05). Job satisfaction mediates the link between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. The present study reinforces the significant role of managers. Nurse managers can try to cultivate a good relationship with the nurses. This can enhance nurses' job satisfaction and in turn lower their turnover intentions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Relational job characteristics and nurses' affective organizational commitment: the mediating role of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alda; Chambel, Maria José; Castanheira, Filipa

    2016-02-01

    To study work engagement as a mediator of the associations between relational job characteristics and nurses' affective commitment to the hospital. Earlier research has shown that work engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and affective organizational commitment. However, relational job characteristics, which may be job resources, have not been studied or examined in relation to work engagement and affective organizational commitment in the nursing profession. This study uses a correlational survey design and an online survey for data collection. Data for this correlational study were collected by survey over months (2013) from a sample of 335 hospital nurses. Measures included Portuguese translations of the Relational Job Characteristics' Psychological Effects Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale. Data analysis supports a full mediation model where relational job characteristics explained affective commitment to the hospital through nurses' work engagement. Relational job characteristics contribute to nurses' work engagement, which in turn contributes to affective organizational commitment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Workplace empowerment, collaborative work relationships, and job strain in nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan; Laschinger, Heather K Spence

    2002-09-01

    To test a theoretical model linking nurse practitioners' (NPs) perceptions of workplace empowerment, collaboration with physicians and managers, and job strain. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test a model in a sample of 63 acute care NPs and 54 primary care NPs working in Ontario, Canada. The Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, the Collaborative Behaviour Scale--Parts A (physicians) and B (managers), and the Job Content Questionnaire were used to measure the major study variables. The results of this study support the proposition that the extent to which NPs have access to information, support, resources, and opportunities in their work environment has an impact on the extent of collaboration with physicians and managers, and ultimately, the degree of job strain experienced in the work setting. Primary care NPs have significantly higher levels of workplace empowerment, collaboration with managers, and lower levels of job strain than acute care NPs. These findings will benefit NPs and nursing leaders in their efforts to create empowering work environments that enable NPs to provide excellent quality patient care and achieve organizational outcomes.

  4. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed Central

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses. PMID:26557699

  5. Job Strain and Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms among Nurses: What about the Influence of Emotional Demands and Social Support?

    PubMed

    Portela, Luciana Fernandes; Kröning Luna, Caroline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Toivanen, Susanna; Araújo, Tania; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-01-01

    Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses (N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.

  6. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  7. Associations of Work Hours, Job Strain, and Occupation with Endothelial Function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Fujishiro, Kaori; Foy, Capri G.; Andrew, Michael E.; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of work hours, job control, job demands, job strain, and occupational category with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 1,499 MESA participants. Methods FMD was obtained using high-resolution ultrasound. Mean values of FMD were examined across categories of occupation, work hours, and the other exposures using regression analyses. Results Occupational category was significantly associated with FMD overall, with blue-collar workers showing the lowest mean values: Management/professional=4.97±0.22%; sales/office=5.19±0.28%; services=4.73 ± 0.29%; and blue-collar workers=4.01±0.26% (adjusted P <0.001). There was evidence of effect modification by gender (interaction P=0.031): significant associations were observed among women (adjusted P =0.002) and nearly significant results among men (adjusted P=0.087). Other exposures were not significantly associated with FMD. Conclusions Differences in endothelial function may account for some of the variation in cardiovascular disease across occupational groups. PMID:25376409

  8. Minimizing strain and maximizing learning: the role of job demands, job control, and proactive personality.

    PubMed

    Parker, S K; Sprigg, C A

    1999-12-01

    Using a sample of 268 production employees, this study extended research on R. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model of stress in 2 ways. First, results show that R. Karasek's proposed interaction between demands and control when predicting strain occurred only for more proactive employees. This 3-way interaction helps reconcile previous inconsistent findings about the interaction between demands and control when predicting strain. Second, the study extends research by investigating the demands-control interaction and the moderating influence of proactive personality in relation to learning-oriented outcomes (perceived mastery, role breadth self-efficacy, and production ownership). There were no 3-way interactions among the variables when predicting these learning-oriented outcomes, but all were important predictors. These results show (a) that demands and control can influence learning as proposed in the dynamic version of the demands-control model and (b) that proactive personality plays an important moderating role.

  9. Joint effects of job strain and road-traffic and occupational noise on myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Nilsson, Mats; Hallqvist, Johan; Theorell, Töres; Willix, Pernilla; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the joint effect of job strain and both road-traffic and occupational noise on myocardial infarction (MI). We conducted a population based case-control study on first time MI in Stockholm County during 1992-1994. Participants answered a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Residential road-traffic noise exposure was based on residential history combined with information on traffic intensity and distance to nearby roads. Occupational noise exposure was assessed by occupational history combined with a job-exposure matrix derived from measurements. Job strain was based on questions regarding psychological demands and decision latitude. A total of 3050 study participants (1252 cases and 1798 controls) were included in the study. An increased risk of MI was indicated among participants exposed to road-traffic noise [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.51], occupational noise (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41) and job strain (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.17-1.65). Participants exposed to one, two, or three of these factors showed an increased risk (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.97-1.40, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.24-1.98, and OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.41-3.64, respectively). Exposure to two or three of these factors occurred among about 20% of the controls. Our results indicate that exposure to a combination of noise exposure and job strain increases the risk of MI substantially. Such exposures affect a considerable part of the population, which has relevance for prioritization of preventative measures.

  10. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Social adversity in adolescence increases the physiological vulnerability to job strain in adulthood: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Hugo; Gustafsson, Per E; Theorell, Töres; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse). Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status), particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.06). Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors.

  12. Does job strain increase the risk for coronary heart disease or death in men and women? The Framingham Offspring Study.

    PubMed

    Eaker, Elaine D; Sullivan, Lisa M; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2004-05-15

    Conflicting findings in the literature have made the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) controversial. The effect of high job strain on the 10-year incidence of CHD and total mortality was examined in men and women participating in the Framingham Offspring Study; 3,039 participants, 1,711 men and 1,328 women, aged 18-77 years, were examined between 1984 and 1987 and followed for 10 years. Measures of job strain, occupational characteristics, and risk factors for CHD were collected at the baseline examination. Before and after controlling for systolic blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and the total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in Cox proportional hazards models, the authors found that high job strain was not associated with mortality or incident CHD in either men or women over the follow-up period. Contrary to expectation, women with active job strain (high demands-high control) had a 2.8-fold increased risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 7.2) compared with women with high job strain (high demands-low control). For men, higher education, personal income, and occupational prestige were related to decreased risk of total mortality and CHD. These findings do not support high job strain as a significant risk factor for CHD or death in men or women.

  13. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  14. Job strain and heart rate variability in resident physicians within a general hospital.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gaytan, Sendy Isarel; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Landsbergis, Paul; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; De León-León, Guillermo; Collins, Sean M; Díaz-Vásquez, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of heart rate variability with job strain in first year resident physicians. We performed the study at the "Manuel Gea González" General Hospital in Mexico City. 54 resident doctors were studied over a period of 24 hr in their first year of specialization. Two questionnaires were administered: the first on general demographics, and the second, the Job Content Questionnaire. Heart rate variability was evaluated through the frequency domain (low-frequency power, high-frequency power, and low-frequency power/high-frequency power ratio) and time domain (SDNN). The doctors wore a Holter monitor over a 24-hr period, which included a workday plus their on-call time. They recorded their activities in a log. Compared to physicians in the "low strain" category, physicians working in the "passive" category had lower overall peak-to-peak cardiac variability (standard deviation of N-N intervals, SDNN), -9.08% (95% CI -17.97, 0.74), a -25% (95% CI -45.00, 0.22) lower high-frequency power, and -26.95% (95% CI -39.00, -12.53) lower low-frequency power. Physicians working in the "high strain" category had lower low-frequency power, -17.85% (95%CI -32.34, -0.25), and lower low-frequency/high-frequency ratio -24.29% (95% CI 38.08, 7.42) compared to those in the "low strain" category. High job strain and low job control among medical residents were associated with several indicators of lowered heart rate variability. Thus, analysis of heart rate variability may be an informative marker for evaluating the physiological impacts of workplace stressors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The influence of work personality on job satisfaction: incremental validity and mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Heller, Daniel; Ferris, D Lance; Brown, Douglas; Watson, David

    2009-08-01

    Drawing from recent developments regarding the contextual nature of personality (e.g., D. Wood & B. W. Roberts, 2006), we conducted 2 studies (1 cross-sectional and 1 longitudinal over 1 year) to examine the validity of work personality in predicting job satisfaction and its mediation of the effect of global personality on job satisfaction. Study 1 showed that (a) individuals vary systematically in their personality between roles- they were significantly more conscientious and open to experience and less extraverted at work compared to at home; (b) work personality was a better predictor of job satisfaction than both global personality and home personality; and (c) work personality demonstrated incremental validity above and beyond the other two personality measures. Study 2 further showed that each of the work personality dimensions fully mediated the association between its corresponding global personality trait and job satisfaction. Evidence for the discriminant validity of the findings is also presented.

  16. Job level risk assessment using task level strain index scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Bloswick, Donald S; Sesek, Richard; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 2 methods of modifying the Strain Index (SI) to assess the ergonomic risk of multi-task jobs. Twenty-eight automotive jobs (15 cases and 13 controls) were studied. The first method is based on the maximum task SI score, and the second method is modeled on the NIOSH Composite Lifting Index (CLI) algorithm, named cumulative assessment of risk to the distal upper extremity (CARD). Significant odds ratios of 11 (CI 1.7-69) and 24 (CI 2.4-240) were obtained using the modified maximum task and CARD, respectively. This indicates that modification of the SI may be useful in determining the risk of distal upper extremity injury associated with a multi-task job.

  17. A comparison of the stress-strain process for business owners and nonowners: differences in job demands, emotional exhaustion, satisfaction, and social support.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, L E; Slack, K J; Da Silva, N; Sinclair, R R

    2000-10-01

    One hundred sixty licensed morticians were surveyed to examine differences among business owners, managers, and employees on the relations proposed by G. F. Koeske and R. D. Koeske's (1993) stressor-strain-outcome model. Forty-eight percent of the morticians were owners, 16% were managers, and 36% were employees. Owners had less social support from work-related sources and perceived lower levels of role ambiguity and role conflict, less emotional exhaustion, and higher levels of job satisfaction and professional satisfaction than did nonowners. Social support from work-related sources and ownership each moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction but not between emotional exhaustion and professional satisfaction. Emotional exhaustion partially mediated the effect of stressors on job satisfaction and professional satisfaction.

  18. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain

    PubMed Central

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. Methods We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. Results We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain, associations were weaker and only present in men. In men all associations were attenuated when adjusting for reported discomfort in regions close to the site of pressure algometry. The distributions of PPT among stressed and non-stressed persons were strongly overlapping. Conclusions Despite significant associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress. PMID:28052089

  19. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain.

    PubMed

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain, associations were weaker and only present in men. In men all associations were attenuated when adjusting for reported discomfort in regions close to the site of pressure algometry. The distributions of PPT among stressed and non-stressed persons were strongly overlapping. Despite significant associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress.

  20. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie

    2015-11-30

    Police officers' job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September-October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap.

  1. The Associations of Job Stress and Organizational Identification with Job Satisfaction among Chinese Police Officers: The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Liu, Li; Sui, Guoyuan; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Police officers’ job satisfaction is an important issue for police force management, but insufficient research exists on the topic, especially in China. This study aimed to examine the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital (PsyCap). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning Province of China during the period of September–October 2014. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2514 police officers, and complete responses were obtained from 2226 participants. The associations among variables in relation to job satisfaction were validated by structural equation modeling. Job stress was negatively associated with job satisfaction, while organizational identification and PsyCap were positively associated with job satisfaction among Chinese police officers. PsyCap mediated the associations of job stress and organizational identification with job satisfaction. Interventions to improve Chinese police officers’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. PMID:26633436

  2. Cumulative exposure to high-strain and active jobs as predictors of cognitive function: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin J.; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimaki, Mika

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A high strain job (a combination of high job demands and low job control) is expected to increase the risk of health problems, whereas an active job (high demands and high control) can be hypothesized to be associated with a greater capacity to learn. We tested associations between high strain and active jobs and cognitive function in middle-aged men and women. Methods Data on 4146 British civil servants (2,989 men and 1,157 women) aged 35–55 years at baseline came from the Whitehall II study. Cumulative exposure to both high strain and active jobs was assessed at Phases 1 (1985–1988), 2 (1989–1990) and 3 (1991–1993). Cognitive performance was assessed at Phases 5 (1997–1999) and 7 (2003–2004) using the following tests: verbal memory, inductive reasoning (Alice Heim), verbal meaning (Mill Hill), phonemic and semantic fluency. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and employment grade. Results Longer exposure to high job strain and shorter exposure to active jobs were associated with lower scores in most of the cognitive performance tests. However, these associations disappeared on adjustment for employment grade. Phonemic fluency was an exception to this pattern. Associations between exposure to an active job and phonemic fluency at both follow-up phases were robust to adjustment for employment grade. However, there was no association between exposure to active jobs and change in phonemic fluency score between the follow-up phases after adjustment for employment grade. Conclusions In these data associations between cumulative exposure to high strain or active jobs and cognition are largely explained by socioeconomic position. PMID:18805883

  3. Job Strain and Health-Related Lifestyle: Findings From an Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 118 000 Working Adults

    PubMed Central

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Steptoe, Andrew; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Marmot, Michael G.; Lunau, Thorsten; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Goldberg, Marcel; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; DeBacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Alfredsson, Lars; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, with overall unhealthy and healthy lifestyles. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual-level data from 11 European studies (cross-sectional data: n = 118 701; longitudinal data: n = 43 971). We analyzed job strain as a set of binary (job strain vs no job strain) and categorical (high job strain, active job, passive job, and low job strain) variables. Factors used to define healthy and unhealthy lifestyles were body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and leisure-time physical activity. Results. Individuals with job strain were more likely than those with no job strain to have 4 unhealthy lifestyle factors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 1.39) and less likely to have 4 healthy lifestyle factors (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.80, 0.99). The odds of adopting a healthy lifestyle during study follow-up were lower among individuals with high job strain than among those with low job strain (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.96). Conclusions. Work-related stress is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and the absence of stress is associated with healthy lifestyles, but longitudinal analyses suggest no straightforward cause–effect relationship between work-related stress and lifestyle. PMID:23678931

  4. The influence of frontline manager job strain on burnout, commitment and turnover intention: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2015-12-01

    The frontline clinical manager role in healthcare is pivotal to the development of safe and healthy working conditions and optimal staff and patient care outcomes. However, in today's dynamic healthcare organizations managers face constant job demands from wider spans of control and complex role responsibilities but may not have adequate decisional authority to support effective work performance resulting in unnecessary job strain. Prolonged job strain can lead to burnout, health complaints, and increased turnover intention. Yet, there is limited research that examines frontline manager job strain and its impact on their well-being and work outcomes. The substantial cost associated with replacing experienced managers calls attention to the need to address job strain in order to retain this valuable organizational asset. Using Karasek's Job Demands-Control theory of job strain, a model was tested examining the effects of frontline manager job strain on their burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), organizational commitment and ultimately, turnover intentions. Secondary analysis of data collected in an online cross-sectional survey of frontline managers was conducted using structural equation modeling. All 500 eligible frontline managers from 14 teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, were invited to participate and 159 responded for a 32% response rate. Participants received an email invitation with a secure link for the online survey. Ethics approval was obtained from the university ethics board and the respective ethics review boards of the 14 organizations involved in the study. The model was tested using path analysis techniques within structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation. The final model fit the data acceptably (χ(2)=6.62, df=4, p=.16, IFI=99, CFI=.99, SRMR=.03, RMSEA=.06). Manager job strain was significantly positively associated with burnout which contributed to both lower organizational commitment and higher turnover

  5. Working conditions, job strain and work engagement among Belgian radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Bragard, I; Hansez, I; Coucke, P

    2014-12-01

    This national survey has measured the working conditions, work engagement, job strain, burn out, and the negative work-home interaction among Belgian radiation oncologists with validated questionnaires. In fact, previous studies had in general shown an interest to burn out and its association with working conditions among oncology workers, but not focused on radiation oncologists in particular. Moreover, few studies concerned work engagement and its association with working conditions although this could be important in preventing burn out. We used the WOrking Conditions and Control Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory, the Maslach Burn out Inventory, and the negative work-home interaction subscale of the Survey Work-home Interaction Nijmegen. One open question asked about problematic job situations. Sixty-six radiation oncologists participated (30% response rate). Median scores of most of working conditions corresponded to normal scores. Control over time management (45.8) was close to low score, while control over future (60.9) was high. Median score of job strain (48.9) was normal, whereas median score of work engagement (60) was high. Median score of burn out was low. The mean of negative work-home interactions (1.1) was higher than the mean of 0.84 in a reference sample (t=4.3; P<0.001). The most frequent problematic situations referred to work organization (e.g. time pressure) and specific resources (e.g. chief support). Radiation oncologists showed a very high level of work engagement and experienced several job resources. However, some resources (as supervisor support) were missing and needed to be developed. These results were discussed in the context of motivational process described in the Job Demands-Resources Model. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Job satisfaction mediates subjective social status and turnover intention among Chinese nurses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Danjun; Su, Shan; Yang, Yang; Xia, Jinghua; Su, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Nurse turnover is one of the reasons for the global nurse shortage. Although previous studies have examined the determinants of turnover intention in detail, there is limited knowledge on the effect of subjective social status on nurse turnover intention. Therefore, in this study, we examined this relationship, including job satisfaction as a mediator, among Chinese nurses. This cross-sectional study employed questionnaires to assess subjective social status, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in 581 nurses who were randomly recruited from 10 hospitals in Jinan, China. The results partially supported our model. Although subjective social status exerted no significant direct effect on turnover intention, it exerted a significant indirect effect through job satisfaction. These results provide a new insight into why nurses leave their jobs, and possible new solutions to the nurse turnover problem. Efforts should be made to improve nurses' subjective social status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Industry growth, work role characteristics, and job satisfaction: a cross-level mediation model.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D

    2012-10-01

    The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.

  8. Work Engagement: Antecedents, the Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…

  9. A Longitudinal Investigation of Factors Mediating the Participative Decision Making Job Satisfaction Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaubroeck, John; Jennings, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Longitudinal data from blue-collar maintenance personnel and utility engineers were used to identify the plausible mediators between participative decision making (PDM) and job satisfaction (JS). Covariance structure analysis was also performed on the data. Role ambiguity, perceived obstacles, and performance-reward expectancy were found to…

  10. The Mediating Influence of Role Stressors in the Relationship between Mentoring and Job Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankau, Melenie J.; Carlson, Dawn S.; Nielson, Troy R.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two role stressors--role ambiguity and role conflict--on previously established relationships between mentoring activities--vocational support, psychosocial support, and role modeling--and prominent job attitudes. Full and partial mediation models were tested with a sample of 355 proteges. Results showed…

  11. Counselors' Collective Self-Esteem Mediates Job Dissatisfaction and Client Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kumlan; Lee, Sang-Hee; Lee, Sang Min

    2007-01-01

    Given the central role of professional identity (i.e., collective self-esteem in this study), the authors examined whether collective self-esteem mediated or moderated relations between job dissatisfaction and client relationships in a sample of 132 professional counselors in the United States. Results indicated that collective self-esteem…

  12. Work Engagement: Antecedents, the Mediating Role of Learning Goal Orientation and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chughtai, Aamir Ali; Buckley, Finian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper aims to explore the effects of state (trust in supervisor) and trait (trust propensity) trust on employees' work engagement. Furthermore, it seeks to investigate the mediating role of learning goal orientation in the relationship between work engagement and two forms of performance: in-role job performance and innovative…

  13. Single mothers in low-wage jobs: financial strain, parenting, and preschoolers' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A P; Brooks-Gunn, J; Huang, C C; Glassman, M

    2000-01-01

    Using data from an ongoing study of 93 single Black mothers of preschoolers who had been welfare recipients, but were employed in low-wage jobs at baseline, this study tests a model of how maternal education, economic conditions (earnings and financial strain), and the availability of instrumental support influence maternal psychological functioning, parenting, and child development. Results indicate that maternal educational attainment was positively associated with earnings, which, together with instrumental support, were negatively associated with financial strain. Financial strain, in turn, was implicated in elevated levels of depressive symptoms, which were directly and negatively implicated in parenting quality. The quality of parenting was associated with children's behavior problems and preschool ability. Specifically, mothers with higher scores on the HOME scale, our measure of involved, supportive parenting, had children with fewer behavior problems and better preschool ability.

  14. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    PubMed

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  15. Does job burnout mediate negative effects of job demands on mental and physical health in a group of teachers? Testing the energetic process of Job Demands-Resources model.

    PubMed

    Baka, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated by job burnout - effects of job demands on mental and physical health problems. The Job Demands-Resources model was the theoretical framework of the study. Three job demands were taken into account - interpersonal conflicts at work, organizational constraints and workload. Indicators of mental and physical health problems included depression and physical symptoms, respectively. Three hundred and sixteen Polish teachers from 8 schools participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested with the use of tools measuring job demands (Interpersonal Conflicts at Work, Organizational Constraints, Quantitative Workload), job burnout (the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), depression (the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and physical symptoms (the Physical Symptoms Inventory). The regression analysis with bootstrapping, using the PROCESS macros of Hayes was applied. The results support the hypotheses partially. The indirect effect and to some extent the direct effect of job demands turned out to be statistically important. The negative impact of 3 job demands on mental (hypothesis 1 - H1) and physical (hypothesis 2 - H2) health were mediated by the increasing job burnout. Only organizational constraints were directly associated with mental (and not physical) health. The results partially support the notion of the Job Demands-Resources model and provide further insight into processes leading to the low well-being of teachers in the workplace. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Geuskens, Goedele A; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Joensuu, Matti; Jokela, Markus; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida E H; Marmot, Michael G; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2012-10-27

    Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985-2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. 30,214 (15%) of 197,473 participants reported job strain. In 1·49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7·5 years [SD 1·7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1·23 (95% CI 1·10-1·37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1·43, 1·15-1·77) than unpublished (1·16, 1·02-1·32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1·31, 1·15-1·48) and 5 years (1·30, 1·13-1·50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3·4%. Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller effect than would tackling of standard risk factors, such as smoking

  17. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Geuskens, Goedele A; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Joensuu, Matti; Jokela, Markus; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida EH; Marmot, Michael G; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari B; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter JM; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. Methods We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985–2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Findings 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1·49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7·5 years [SD 1·7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1·23 (95% CI 1·10–1·37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1·43, 1·15–1·77) than unpublished (1·16, 1·02–1·32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1·31, 1·15–1·48) and 5 years (1·30, 1·13–1·50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3·4%. Interpretation Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller

  18. Job strain and informal caregiving as predictors of long-term sickness absence: A longitudinal multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Head, Jenny; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner; Vahtera, Jussi; Zins, Marie; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the individual, joint and interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on long-term sickness absence with special attention to gender differences. Methods The study comprised a prospective cohort study of 6798 working adults from France, 14 727 from Finland, and 5275 from the UK. A total of 26 800 participants, age 52 (interquartile range 47-56) years participated in the study. Job strain was assessed using the demand-control model. Informal caregiving was defined as care for a sick, disabled, or elderly person. Long-term sickness absence spells defined as absence >14 consecutive days were registered during two years follow-up. We used recurrent-events Cox regression in random-effects meta-analyses. Results A total of 12% men and 21% women had ≥1 long-term sickness absence spell. Among women, both high job strain [hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-1.17] and informal caregiving (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23) were associated with a modestly higher risk of sickness absence. Women doubly exposed to high job strain and informal caregiving also showed a moderately higher risk of sickness absence (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41), but the excess risk was not more than expected from joint exposure to caregiving and job strain. Neither job strain nor informal caregiving predicted sickness absence for men. Conclusions High job strain and informal caregiving predicted long-term sickness absence among women. However there was no noticeable interaction in the presence of both exposures.

  19. Social Adversity in Adolescence Increases the Physiological Vulnerability to Job Strain in Adulthood: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Westerlund, Hugo; Gustafsson, Per E.; Theorell, Töres; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been argued that the association between job strain and health could be confounded by early life exposures, and studies have shown early adversity to increase individual vulnerability to later stress. We therefore investigated if early life exposure to adversity increases the individual's physiological vulnerability job strain in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings In a population-based cohort (343 women and 330 men, 83% of the eligible participants), we examined the association between on the one hand exposure to adversity in adolescence, measured at age 16, and job strain measured at age 43, and on the other hand allostatic load at age 43. Adversity was operationalised as an index comprising residential mobility and crowding, parental loss, parental unemployment, and parental physical and mental illness (including substance abuse). Allostatic load summarised body fat, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, glucose, blood lipids, and cortisol regulation. There was an interaction between adversity in adolescence and job strain (B = 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16 after adjustment for socioeconomic status), particularly psychological demands, indicating that job strain was associated with increased allostatic load only among participants with adversity in adolescence. Job strain was associated with lower allostatic load in men (β = −0.20, 95% CI −0.35 to −0.06). Conclusions/Significance Exposure to adversity in adolescence was associated with increased levels of biological stress among those reporting job strain in mid-life, indicating increased vulnerability to environmental stressors. PMID:22558285

  20. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  1. Islamic Personal Religiosity as a Moderator of Job Strain and Employee's Well-Being: The Case of Malaysian Academic and Administrative Staff.

    PubMed

    Achour, Meguellati; Mohd Nor, Mohd Roslan; MohdYusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    Presently, there is increased in research on job strain and the effects of religiosity on employee well-being. Despite increased recognition of religiosity as a moderator of well-being, limited research has focused on Islamic perspective of moderating job strain. This study examines the moderating effects of Islamic personal religiosity on the relationship between job strain and employee well-being in Malaysian universities. One hundred and seventeen (117) Muslim academic and administrative staff from four public universities were sampled. Data were collected via questionnaires, and our findings show that the effect of job strain on well-being is significant for employees and that personal religiosity of employees contributed to alleviating job strain and enhancing well-being. Thus, the study concludes that Islamic personal religiosity moderates the relationship between job strain and employee well-being.

  2. Job strain and depressive symptoms in men and women: a prospective study of the working population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Theorell, Töres; Hammarström, Anne; Gustafsson, Per E; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Janlert, Urban; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Several prospective studies have indicated increased risk of developing depressive symptoms in employees who report psychologically demanding and uncontrollable work (job strain). There are diverging findings regarding gender differences in this relationship. The aim was to analyse whether men and women differ with regard to the prospective relationship between adverse psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period. The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health cohort based on representative recruitment of working men and women in Sweden was used. 2731 men and 3446 women had answered questions regarding work environment and mental health in 2008 and 2010. Psychological demands, decision authority, age and income as well as depressive symptoms in 2008 were used as predictors of depressive symptoms in 2010. Women reported less decision authority at work and their demand level developed more unfavourably than did men's--resulting in increased job strain gap between men and women from 2008 to 2010. The relationship between demand and decision authority (and job strain) on one hand and depressive symptoms on the other hand was not statistically different in men and women. Overall, women reported higher levels of job strain than men. In Sweden, job strain was as strongly related to depressive symptoms among men as among women.

  3. Occupational commitment and job satisfaction mediate effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Miho; Watanabe, Ikue; Asakura, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    Occupational commitment and job satisfaction are major predictors of the intention to continue nursing. This study's purpose was to verify the mediating effects of job satisfaction and three components of occupational commitment on the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and the intention to continue nursing. A self-report questionnaire was distributed to 3977 nurses by the nursing department of 12 hospitals in the Tohoku and Kanto districts of Japan in 2013. Of these, 1531 (response rate: 38.5%) nurses returned the questionnaire by mail and the complete data that were provided by 1241 nurses (valid response rate: 31.2%) were analyzed. Structural equation modeling showed that the effort-reward ratio had negative effects on job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment. Job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment had positive effects on the intention to continue nursing, whereas the effort-reward ratio had no direct effect on the intention to continue nursing. Continuance occupational commitment was not a mediator, but it positively influenced the intention to continue nursing. The findings suggest that it is important to increase job satisfaction and affective and normative occupational commitment in order to enhance their buffering effects on the relationship between job stress and the intention to continue nursing. Measures to increase continuance occupational commitment also would be an effective method of strengthening the intention to continue nursing. Improvements in these areas should contribute to an increase in nurses' intention to continue nursing and prevent the loss of this precious human resource from the health sector. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. The Impact of Psychological Capital on Job Burnout of Chinese Nurses: The Mediator Role of Organizational Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. Objective The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. Methods A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi’an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Results Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. Conclusion The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout. PMID:24416095

  5. The impact of psychological capital on job burnout of Chinese nurses: the mediator role of organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiaxi; Jiang, Xihua; Zhang, Jiaxi; Xiao, Runxuan; Song, Yunyun; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Yan; Miao, Danmin

    2013-01-01

    Nursing has a high risk of job burnout, but only a few studies have explored its influencing factors from an organizational perspective. The present study explores the impact of psychological capital on job burnout by investigating the mediating effect of organizational commitment on this relationship. A total of 473 female nurses from four large general hospitals in Xi'an City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Psychological Capital Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both psychological capital and organizational commitment were significantly correlated to job burnout. Structural equation modelling indicated that organizational commitment partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. The final model revealed a significant path from psychological capital to job burnout through organizational commitment. These findings extended prior reports and shed some light on the influence of psychological capital on job burnout.

  6. Understanding nurse anesthetists' intention to leave their job: how burnout and job satisfaction mediate the impact of personality and workplace characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Vera C H; Van Dam, Karen; Brown-Mahoney, Chris; Van Zundert, Andre A J; Knape, Hans T A

    2011-01-01

    The retention of nurse anesthetists is of paramount importance, particularly in view of the fact that the health care workforce is shrinking. Although many health care providers find their work satisfying, they often consider leaving their jobs because of the stress. Are there ways to improve this situation? This study investigated how work environment characteristics and personality dimensions relate to burnout and job satisfaction and ultimately to turnover intention among Dutch nurse anesthetists. An online self-reporting questionnaire survey was performed among Dutch nurse anesthetists. The questionnaire included scales to assess personality dimensions, work climate, work context factors, burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The research model stated that personality dimensions, work climate, and work context factors, mediated by burnout and job satisfaction, predict turnover intention. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research model. Nine hundred twenty-three questionnaires were completed (46% response rate). Burnout mediated the relationship between personality dimensions and turnover intention; job satisfaction mediated the relationship of work climate and work context factors to turnover intention. To retain nursing staff and to maintain adequate staff strength, it is important to improve job satisfaction by creating a positive work climate and work context and to prevent burnout by selecting the most suitable employees through personality assessment.

  7. When does spiritual intelligence particularly predict job engagement? The mediating role of psychological empowerment.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Mohsen; Nadali, Iman Zohoorian

    2016-01-01

    Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2010. A sample of nurses (n = 179) completed standard survey questionnaire including spiritual intelligence, psychological empowerment, and job engagement which included 5 questions for each dimensions. For testing the hypotheses of the study, results were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) using LISREL 8.8. SEM revealed that psychological empowerment could fully mediate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. However, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and job engagement was significant but weak using Pearson coefficient method. This can imply that psychological empowerment plays a crucial role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. This paper indicates that spiritual intelligence might affect different organizational parameters, directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers evaluate probable relationships between spiritual intelligence and other variables.

  8. When does spiritual intelligence particularly predict job engagement? The mediating role of psychological empowerment

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Mohsen; Nadali, Iman Zohoorian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of health care providers such as nurses who are always in stressful environments, it is imperative to better understand how they become more engaged in their work. The purpose of this paper is to focus on health care providers (nurses), and examine how the interaction between spiritual intelligence and psychological empowerment affect job engagement. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted among nurses at the Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran in 2010. A sample of nurses (n = 179) completed standard survey questionnaire including spiritual intelligence, psychological empowerment, and job engagement which included 5 questions for each dimensions. For testing the hypotheses of the study, results were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM) using LISREL 8.8. Results: SEM revealed that psychological empowerment could fully mediate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. However, the correlation between spiritual intelligence and job engagement was significant but weak using Pearson coefficient method. This can imply that psychological empowerment plays a crucial role in the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job engagement. Conclusions: This paper indicates that spiritual intelligence might affect different organizational parameters, directly or indirectly. Therefore, it is recommended that the researchers evaluate probable relationships between spiritual intelligence and other variables. PMID:28194198

  9. Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction in Airport Security Officers – Work–Family Conflict as Mediator in the Job Demands–Resources Model

    PubMed Central

    Baeriswyl, Sophie; Krause, Andreas; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The growing threat of terrorism has increased the importance of aviation security and the work of airport security officers (screeners). Nonetheless, airport security research has yet to focus on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction as major determinants of screeners’ job performance. The present study bridges this research gap by applying the job demands–resources (JD–R) model and using work–family conflict (WFC) as an intervening variable to study relationships between work characteristics (workload and supervisor support), emotional exhaustion, and job satisfaction in 1,127 screeners at a European airport. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that (a) supervisor support as a major job resource predicted job satisfaction among screeners; (b) workload as a major job demand predicted their emotional exhaustion; and (c) WFC proved to be a promising extension to the JD–R model that partially mediated the impact of supervisor support and workload on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:27242581

  10. Family incivility and job performance: a moderated mediation model of psychological distress and core self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sandy; Tai, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    This study extends the stress literature by exploring the relationship between family incivility and job performance. We examine whether psychological distress mediates the link between family incivility and job performance. We also investigate how core self-evaluation might moderate this mediated relationship. Data from a 2-wave study indicate that psychological distress mediates the relationship between family incivility and job performance. In addition, core self-evaluation moderates the relationship between family incivility and psychological distress but not the relationship between psychological distress and job performance. The results hold while controlling for general job stress, family-to-work conflict, and work-to-family conflict. The findings suggest that family incivility is linked to poor performance at work, and psychological distress and core self-evaluation are key mechanisms in the relationship.

  11. Sleep and organizational citizenship behavior: the mediating role of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Ghumman, Sonia; Scott, Brent A

    2013-01-01

    We examine sleep as an important factor beyond the work domain that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior. In a field study of 87 employees from a variety of organizations, an objective measure of sleep quantity predicted organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations but not organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. Additionally, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. In a second field study of 85 working college students, we found that natural variation in daily sleep over the course of a work week predicted daily variance in organizational citizenship behavior directed toward both individuals and organizations, and that job satisfaction mediated these relationships. Based on these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of sleep-deprived employees.

  12. On the link between job insecurity and turnover intentions: moderated mediation by work involvement and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Selenko, Eva; Batinic, Bernad; Jodlbauer, Susanne

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates whether work involvement moderates the negative effect of job insecurity on general well-being, and whether reduced general well-being partially explains why job insecurity is associated with increased turnover intentions. The participants were 178 members (52% female) of an online panel who provided information about job insecurity, work involvement, two measures of general well-being (affective and cognitive), and turnover intentions on 2 occasions at an interval of 6 months. In line with expectations, work involvement buffered the negative effect of job insecurity on well-being; however, the buffering effect was significant only for the cross-sectional effect of job insecurity on cognitive well-being. Furthermore, multiple mediation analysis demonstrated that well-being partially mediated the effect of job insecurity on turnover intentions; interestingly, the cross-sectional effect of job insecurity on turnover intentions was partially mediated by cognitive well-being, whereas the longitudinal effect was partially mediated by affective well-being only. The results suggest that the stress process associated with job insecurity differs, depending on which aspect of general well-being and which time frame is investigated.

  13. Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization as a Mediator of the Relationship between Career Self-Management and Job Decision Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of career self-management and vocational self-concept crystallization on job decision effectiveness and how vocational self-concept crystallization mediates the relationship between career self-management and job decision effectiveness. Six hundred and eleven Chinese employees participated in the research. Using…

  14. The Effect of Emotional Labor on Job Involvement in Preschool Teachers: Verifying the Mediating Effect of Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Ching-Sheue

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the participants comprised 385 preschool teachers. The relationship among their emotional labor, Job Involvement, and psychological capital were examined using hierarchical regression analysis. In addition, whether psychological capital exerted a mediating effect on Job Involvement was investigated. The results show that "deep…

  15. Vocational Self-Concept Crystallization as a Mediator of the Relationship between Career Self-Management and Job Decision Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of career self-management and vocational self-concept crystallization on job decision effectiveness and how vocational self-concept crystallization mediates the relationship between career self-management and job decision effectiveness. Six hundred and eleven Chinese employees participated in the research. Using…

  16. Associations between psychological demands, decision latitude, and job strain with smoking in female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    PubMed

    Rugulies, Reiner; Scherzer, Teresa; Krause, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of the work environment on smoking among women holding low-paid jobs in the service sector. To study the associations between the components of the demand-control model with smoking in hotel room cleaners. We conducted a survey on work and health among 776 female hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and smoking were analyzed with multivariate regression analyses. Psychosocial work characteristics were associated with smoking after adjustment for covariates. Effect estimates were substantially reduced by additional adjustment for ethnicity, but remained significant for high psychological demands and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.97, p = 0.02), high job strain and smoking prevalence (OR = 1.87, p = 0.04), and high job strain and smoking intensity (coefficient = 3.52, p = 0.03). When analyses were restricted to Hispanic workers and further adjusted for place of birth, low decision latitude (coefficient = 3.94, p = 0.04) and high job strain (coefficient = 4.57, p = 003) were associated with smoking intensity but not with smoking status. Workplace smoking cessation programs may benefit from a primary prevention component reducing job strain among service workers. More research is needed on perceived and objective differences in psychosocial work characteristics across ethnic, immigrant, and other social groups within the same occupation.

  17. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis of 124,808 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Batty, G. David; Brunner, Eric J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as “job strain,” is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS There were 3,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06–1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06–1.34] and 1.13 [1.00–1.28], respectively). In stratified analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of diabetes among those with healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle habits, the HR was 1.11 (1.00–1.23). CONCLUSIONS Findings from a large pan-European dataset suggest that job strain is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in men and women independent of lifestyle factors. PMID:25061139

  18. Association between insomnia symptoms, job strain and burnout syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of 1300 financial workers

    PubMed Central

    Metlaine, Arnaud; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Elbaz, Maxime; Delafosse, Jean Yves; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Professional burnout is closely related to work stress but less frequently associated with disturbed sleep. This study determines whether job strain and sleep disturbances are associated risk factors of burnout among financial workers. Design Observational study. Participants 1300 employees (725 female) of a financial company. Primary measures Self-reported questionnaires (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Content Questionnaire, Sleep questionnaire based on ICSD-3 classification), the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Result The prevalence of burnout was 10.2% (9.0% moderate and 1.2% severe). 23.3% of workers were considered with high job strain, and 93.1% had a high level of job satisfaction. 16.8% of individuals had insomnia and 97% reported non-restorative sleep. The bivariate analyses demonstrate a higher risk of burnout in participants with insomnia (OR=14.7, 95% CI 9.8 to 21.9), non-restorative sleep (OR=9.9, 95% CI 5.1 to 19.5) and anxiety (OR=10.2, 95% CI 6.8 to 15.3). High job strain was associated with burnout (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6). This association was not maintained after adjustment for sleep parameters. Job satisfaction was another independent risk factor for burnout (OR=124, 95% CI 65 to 237). Conclusions In our sample of financial workers, job strain represents a burnout risk factor only if associated with insomnia. Insomnia can be considered as a relevant clinical marker that should be targeted in mental health prevention programmes at the workplace. PMID:28087546

  19. Association between insomnia symptoms, job strain and burnout syndrome: a cross-sectional survey of 1300 financial workers.

    PubMed

    Metlaine, Arnaud; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Elbaz, Maxime; Delafosse, Jean Yves; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-01-13

    Professional burnout is closely related to work stress but less frequently associated with disturbed sleep. This study determines whether job strain and sleep disturbances are associated risk factors of burnout among financial workers. Observational study. 1300 employees (725 female) of a financial company. Self-reported questionnaires (Maslach Burnout Inventory, Job Content Questionnaire, Sleep questionnaire based on ICSD-3 classification), the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of burnout was 10.2% (9.0% moderate and 1.2% severe). 23.3% of workers were considered with high job strain, and 93.1% had a high level of job satisfaction. 16.8% of individuals had insomnia and 97% reported non-restorative sleep. The bivariate analyses demonstrate a higher risk of burnout in participants with insomnia (OR=14.7, 95% CI 9.8 to 21.9), non-restorative sleep (OR=9.9, 95% CI 5.1 to 19.5) and anxiety (OR=10.2, 95% CI 6.8 to 15.3). High job strain was associated with burnout (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6). This association was not maintained after adjustment for sleep parameters. Job satisfaction was another independent risk factor for burnout (OR=124, 95% CI 65 to 237). In our sample of financial workers, job strain represents a burnout risk factor only if associated with insomnia. Insomnia can be considered as a relevant clinical marker that should be targeted in mental health prevention programmes at the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Vacancy-mediated diffusion in biaxially strained Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliste, Damien; Rushchanskii, Konstantin Z.; Pochet, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of stress-enhanced vacancy-mediated diffusion in biaxially deformed Si (100) films as measured by the strain derivative (Q') of the activation energy. The strain dependence of Q' is demonstrated by means of a reanalysis of previously published experimental data, which both take into account the temperature dependence of and highlight the differences between tensile and compressive stress. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that Q' in pure silicon is higher under compressive conditions due to a broken degeneracy of the split-vacancy configuration.

  1. Prevalence of cardiovascular health and its relationship with job strain: a cross-sectional study in Taiwanese medical employees

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Ping; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence and associated factors of cardiovascular health as defined by the AHA among different job categories in health settings. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based survey. A total of 1329 medical professionals with a mean age of 38 years in a regional hospital in Taiwan were recruited. Information for seven combined indicators including blood pressure, fasting sugar, blood cholesterol, body mass index, time of physical activity, dietary pattern and smoking status was obtained from the employees' health profiles and questionnaires. Degree of job strain was evaluated by the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire, which was derived from Karasek's demand-control model. Three types of cardiovascular health were identified as poor, intermediate and ideal. Results Prevalence of cardiovascular health in this study's population was ideal in 0.2% of the sample, intermediate in 20.6% and poor in 79.2%. There was a significantly higher percentage of poor health in workers with high strain (85.1%), and in the professions of nurse (85.3%) and physician assistant (83.1%). In the multivariate analysis, the only significant factor correlated with job strain was physical inactivity. After being adjusted, workers with high strain exhibit a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared to those with low strain (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.38 to −2.81). Conclusions Physical inactivity is the only significant factor correlated with job strain and is associated with a work situation characterised by high strain and the professions of nurse and physician assistant. Strategies for workplace health promotion should focus on employee health literacy and motivation to exercise regularly. PMID:27044581

  2. Change in Job Strain as a Predictor of Change in Insomnia Symptoms: Analyzing Observational Data as a Non-randomized Pseudo-Trial.

    PubMed

    Halonen, Jaana I; Lallukka, Tea; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Rod, Naja H; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether change in job strain leads to change in insomnia symptoms. Among 24873 adults (82% women, mean age 44 years) who participated in a minimum of three consecutive study waves (2000-2012), job strain was assessed at the first and second wave and insomnia symptoms at all three waves. We analyzed observational data as a "pseudo-trial" including participants with no job strain in the first wave and no insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n = 7354) to examine whether the onset of job strain between the first and second waves predicted the onset of insomnia symptoms in the third wave. We used a corresponding approach, including those with job strain in the first wave and insomnia symptoms in the first and second wave (n = 2332), to examine whether the disappearance of job strain between the first two waves predicted remission of insomnia symptoms in the third wave. The onset of job strain predicted the onset of subsequent insomnia symptoms after adjustment for sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and comorbidities (odds ratio compared to no onset of job strain 1.32, 95% CI 1.16-1.51). The disappearance of job strain was associated with lower odds of repeated insomnia symptoms (odds ratio compared to no disappearance of job strain 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.94). Further adjustment for shift work or sleep apnea did not change these associations. These results suggest that job strain is a modifiable risk factor for insomnia symptoms.

  3. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianan; Guo, Yina; Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-08-29

    Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05). Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = -0.27; p < 0.001). Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001) but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = -0.40; p < 0.001) but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001). This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  4. Effects of Core Self-Evaluations on the Job Burnout of Nurses: The Mediator of Organizational Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangen; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xianmin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Chen, Wuying

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of Core self-evaluations on job burnout of nurses, and especially to test and verify the mediator role of organizational commitment between the two variables. Method Random cluster sampling was used to pick up participants sample, which consisted of 445 nurses of a hospital in Shanghai. Core self-evaluations questionnaire, job burnout scale and organizational commitment scale were administrated to the study participants. Results There are significant relationships between Core self-evaluations and dimensions of job burnout and organizational commitment. There is a significant mediation effect of organizational commitment between Core self-evaluations and job burnout. Conclusions To enhance nurses’ Core self-evaluations can reduce the incidence of job burnout. PMID:24755670

  5. Effects of core self-evaluations on the job burnout of nurses: the mediator of organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yangen; Lu, Jiamei; Liu, Xianmin; Zhang, Pengcheng; Chen, Wuying

    2014-01-01

    To explore the impact of Core self-evaluations on job burnout of nurses, and especially to test and verify the mediator role of organizational commitment between the two variables. Random cluster sampling was used to pick up participants sample, which consisted of 445 nurses of a hospital in Shanghai. Core self-evaluations questionnaire, job burnout scale and organizational commitment scale were administrated to the study participants. There are significant relationships between Core self-evaluations and dimensions of job burnout and organizational commitment. There is a significant mediation effect of organizational commitment between Core self-evaluations and job burnout. To enhance nurses' Core self-evaluations can reduce the incidence of job burnout.

  6. Incoherent magnetization dynamics in strain mediated switching of magnetostrictive nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; D'Souza, Noel; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-01-01

    Micromagnetic studies of the magnetization change in magnetostrictive nanomagnets subjected to stress are performed for nanomagnets of different sizes. The interplay between demagnetization, exchange and stress anisotropy energies is used to explain the rich physics of size-dependent magnetization dynamics induced by modulating stress anisotropy in planar nanomagnets. These studies have important implications for strain mediated ultralow energy magnetization control in nanomagnets and its application in energy-efficient nanomagnetic computing devices.

  7. The mediating effect of emotional intelligence between emotional labour, job stress, burnout and nurses' turnover intention.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eunyoung; Lee, Young Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to construct and test the structural equation modelling on nurses' turnover intention including emotional labour, job stress, emotional intelligence and burnout in order to identify the mediating effect of emotional intelligence between those variables. Emotional labour, job stress and burnout increase turnover intention of nurses. However, emotional intelligence is negatively correlated with emotional labour and reduces job stress, burnout and turnover intention. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the goodness of fit of the hypothetical model of nurses' turnover intention. Research data were collected via questionnaires from 4 to 22 August 2014 and analysed using SPSS version 18.0 and AMOS version 20.0. The model fit indices for the hypothetical model were suitable for recommended. Emotional intelligence has decreasing effect on turnover intention through burnout, although its direct effect on turnover intention is not significant. Emotional intelligence has mediation effect between emotional labour and burnout. This study's results suggest that increasing emotional intelligence might critically decrease nurses' turnover intention by reducing the effect of emotional labour on burnout. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment of nurses: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Güleryüz, Güldal; Güney, Semra; Aydin, Eren Miski; Aşan, Oznur

    2008-11-01

    The effect of emotional intelligence and its dimensions on job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses has been investigated in this study. This paper examines the relations among emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment of nurses and the mediating effect of job satisfaction between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment. A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore the relations between emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Teaching hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Questionnaires were distributed by Nursing Services Administration to 550 nurses working at different departments of the hospital and 267 questionnaires were analyzed. A 45-item questionnaire which consists of emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and organisational commitment parts was carried out to investigate the relations among these variables. Some basic socio-demographic questions were included. Emotional intelligence was significantly and positively related to job satisfaction (r=0.236,p< or =0.01) and organisational commitment (r=0.229,p< or =0.01). The positive relation between job satisfaction and organisational commitment was also significant (r=0.667,p< or =0.01). Job satisfaction was found to be related with "regulation of emotion (ROE)"(r=0.228,p< or =0.01) and "use of emotion (UOE)"(r=0.155,p< or =0.01) but not with other dimensions of emotional intelligence. "Others's emotional appraisal" did not have any relations with job satisfaction or organisational commitment and "self-emotional appraisal (SEA)" was found to be a suppressor. It was found that job satisfaction is a mediator between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment. The other finding of the study was that "SEA" and "UOE" have direct effects on organisational commitment whereas job satisfaction is a mediator between "regulation of emotion" and organisational commitment.

  10. Mechanisms of strain-mediated mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kearney, E M; Prendergast, P J; Campbell, V A

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical conditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been adopted widely as a biophysical signal to aid tissue engineering applications. The replication of in vivo mechanical signaling has been used in in vitro environments to regulate cell differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, so that both the chemical and mechanical properties of the tissue-engineered construct are compatible with the implant site. While research in these areas contributes to tissue engineering, the effects of mechanical strain on MSC apoptosis remain poorly defined. To evaluate the effects of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on MSC apoptosis and to investigate mechanotransduction associated with strain-mediated cell death, MSCs seeded on a 2D silicone membrane were stimulated by a range of strain magnitudes for 3 days. Mechanotransduction was investigated using the stretch-activated cation channel blocker gadolinium chloride, the L-type voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nicardipine, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) blocker D-JNK inhibitor 1, and the calpain inhibitor MDL 28170. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-UTP-end nick labeling method. Results demonstrated that tensile strains of 7.5% or greater induce apoptosis in MSCs. L-type voltage-activated calcium channels coupled mechanical stress to activation of calpain and JNK, which lead to apoptosis through DNA fragmentation. The definition of the in vitro boundary conditions for tensile strain and MSCs along with a proposed mechanism for apoptosis induced by mechanical events positively contributes to the development of MSC biology, bioreactor design for tissue engineering, and development of computational methods for mechanobiology.

  11. Japanese dietary pattern consistently relates to low depressive symptoms and it is modified by job strain and worksite supports.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Yasuharu; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-09-05

    This study examined the association between traditional Japanese dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in Japanese workers, employing large-scale samples, considering socioeconomic status (SES) and job stress factors. A cross-sectional study of 2266 Japanese employees aged 21-65 years from all areas of Japan was conducted as part of the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation and Psychosocial factors related Equity (J-HOPE). Habitual diet was assessed by FFQ (BDHQ). The depression degree and job stress factors (job demand, job control, and worksite support) were measured by K6 and Job Content Questionnaire. Participants with high scores for the balanced Japanese dietary pattern were significantly less likely to show probable mood/anxiety disorders (K6≥9) with multivariate adjustment including SES and job stress factors (odds ratio=0.66 [0.51-0.86], trend P=0.002). Other dietary patterns were not associated with depressive symptoms. Even after stratification by job stress factors, the Japanese dietary pattern was consistently protective against depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a highly significant difference between the first and third tertiles of the dietary pattern was observed in participants with active strain (high demand and high control) with low worksite supports (8.5 vs. 5.2, P=0.011). Female participant sample was relatively small. Japanese dietary pattern consistently related to low depressive symptoms in this large-scale cohort of Japanese workers, even after adjusting for SES and job stress factors. The protective impact is especially strong for workers with active strain and low support. Making better use of traditional dietary patterns may facilitate reducing social disparities in mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The mediating effects of job satisfaction on turnover intention for long-term care nurses in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Huai-Ting; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Li, I-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the mediating effects of job satisfaction on work stress and turnover intention among long-term care nurses in Taiwan. Healthcare institutions face a nursing shortage, and it is important to examine the factors that influence turnover intention among nurses. Excessive levels of work stress may lead to employee dissatisfaction and a significant inverse relationship between work stress and job satisfaction, including subsequent effects on turnover among nurses. However, little is known about the mediating role of job satisfaction on work stress and turnover intention among long-term care nurses. A cross-sectional survey and a correlation design were used. Multistage linear regression was used to test the mediation model. This study showed that job satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between work stress and turnover intention. Thirty-eight percent of the variance in turnover intention explained by work stress was accounted for by the mediation pathway. The results of this study showed that higher job satisfaction significantly decreased work stress and turnover intention among long-term care nurses. This study provides nursing administrators with a resource to build a supportive environment to increase nurses' job satisfaction and to decrease their stress and turnover. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Job Strain and the Cortisol Diurnal Cycle in MESA: Accounting for Between- and Within-Day Variability

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Kara E.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Greenberg, Benjamin; Fujishiro, Kaori; Wand, Gary S.; Shrager, Sandi; Seeman, Teresa; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Golden, Sherita H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of the link between job strain and cortisol levels has been inconsistent. This could be due to failure to account for cortisol variability leading to underestimated standard errors. Our objective was to model the relationship between job strain and the whole cortisol curve, accounting for sources of cortisol variability. Our functional mixed-model approach incorporated all available data—18 samples over 3 days—and uncertainty in estimated relationships. We used employed participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress I Study and data collected between 2002 and 2006. We used propensity score matching on an extensive set of variables to control for sources of confounding. We found that job strain was associated with lower salivary cortisol levels and lower total area under the curve. We found no relationship between job strain and the cortisol awakening response. Our findings differed from those of several previous studies. It is plausible that our results were unique to middle- to older-aged racially, ethnically, and occupationally diverse adults and were therefore not inconsistent with previous research among younger, mostly white samples. However, it is also plausible that previous findings were influenced by residual confounding and failure to propagate uncertainty (i.e., account for the multiple sources of variability) in estimating cortisol features. PMID:26905339

  14. Job Strain and the Cortisol Diurnal Cycle in MESA: Accounting for Between- and Within-Day Variability.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Kara E; Sánchez, Brisa N; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Greenberg, Benjamin; Fujishiro, Kaori; Wand, Gary S; Shrager, Sandi; Seeman, Teresa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Golden, Sherita H

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the link between job strain and cortisol levels has been inconsistent. This could be due to failure to account for cortisol variability leading to underestimated standard errors. Our objective was to model the relationship between job strain and the whole cortisol curve, accounting for sources of cortisol variability. Our functional mixed-model approach incorporated all available data-18 samples over 3 days-and uncertainty in estimated relationships. We used employed participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress I Study and data collected between 2002 and 2006. We used propensity score matching on an extensive set of variables to control for sources of confounding. We found that job strain was associated with lower salivary cortisol levels and lower total area under the curve. We found no relationship between job strain and the cortisol awakening response. Our findings differed from those of several previous studies. It is plausible that our results were unique to middle- to older-aged racially, ethnically, and occupationally diverse adults and were therefore not inconsistent with previous research among younger, mostly white samples. However, it is also plausible that previous findings were influenced by residual confounding and failure to propagate uncertainty (i.e., account for the multiple sources of variability) in estimating cortisol features.

  15. Associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Karasek, Robert; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David

    2013-06-11

    It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985-2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2-4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). There were 1086 incident events in 743,948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy lifestyle may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain.

  16. Associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Karasek, Robert; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari B.; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J.M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985–2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2–4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). Results: There were 1086 incident events in 743 948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18–2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06–1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). Interpretation: The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy lifestyle may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain. PMID:23670152

  17. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    PubMed

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060

  19. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-10

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.

  20. Shift work and metabolic syndrome: respective impacts of job strain, physical activity, and dietary rhythms.

    PubMed

    Esquirol, Yolande; Bongard, Vanina; Mabile, Laurence; Jonnier, Bernard; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Perret, Bertrand

    2009-04-01

    The impact of shift work on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and metabolic syndrome are not yet completely understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of shift work on metabolic syndrome according to two different definitions in a population of strictly rotating shift workers (3x8 h) compared to paired counterparts working only day hours, and to study whether shift work itself is a determinant of metabolic syndrome after taking into account a large panel of confusing factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing 98 strictly rotating shift workers to 100 regular day-workers (all subjects had a long experience of their working rhythms) within the same petrochemical plant. Clinical, behavioral, occupational, and biological data were collected, and a detailed nutritional investigation was done. Shift and day workers were comparable in terms of major CVD factors, and both had a 10 yr Framingham risk scoring of 11%. Shift workers reported an increased job strain and higher total and at-work physical activity. Alterations in metabolic parameters were evident with a rise in triglycerides, free fatty acids, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lower HDL-cholesterol. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that shift work was associated with occurrence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII criteria, OR: 2.38 (1.13-4.98), but not using the more recent score from the International Diabetes Federation, which gives a major emphasis on abdominal obesity. Total energy intake and contributions of the major nutrients did not differ between the two groups, with the notable exception of saturated lipids (+10% in shift workers). Meal distribution was clearly different: energy intake was more fractionated within the day, with a lesser contribution of breakfast and lunch but with increased intakes during intermediate light meals, particularly in the afternoon and night. Multivariate

  1. Testing Karasek's Demands-Control Model in restructured healthcare settings: effects of job strain on staff nurses' quality of work life.

    PubMed

    Laschinger, H K; Finegan, J; Shamian, J; Almost, J

    2001-05-01

    Job strain among staff nurses has become an increasingly important concern in relationship to employee performance and commitment to the organization in current restructured healthcare settings. The purpose of this study was to test Karasek's Demands-Control Model of job strain by examining the extent to which the degree of job strain in nursing work environments affects staff nurses' perceptions of structural and psychological empowerment, work satisfaction, and organizational commitment. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test these relationships in a random sample of 404 Canadian staff nurses. Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire, the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Spreitzer's Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, Meyer and Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, and the Global Satisfaction Scale were used to measure the major study variables. Nurses with higher level of job strain were found to be significantly more empowered, more committed to the organization, and more satisfied with their work. Support for Karasek's Demands/Control theory was established in this study.

  2. Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, Quantitative Workload Inventory, and Physical Symptoms Inventory.

    PubMed

    Spector, P E; Jex, S M

    1998-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical Symptoms Inventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results of 18 studies to provide estimates of relations between our scales and other variables. Data showed moderate convergent validity for the 3 job stressor scales, suggesting some objectively to these self-reports. Norms for each scale are provided.

  3. Relationship between work-family balance and job satisfaction among employees in China: A moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Yuchen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have revealed the association between work-family balance and job satisfaction. The present research further explored the underlying mechanism of this association and aimed to provide a moderated mediation model to explain if personality traits moderate the relationship between work-family balance and job satisfaction through work engagement. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 263 employees from a petrochemical enterprise in China completed self-report questionnaires including the Work-Family Balance Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Big Five Inventory-10, and the Job Satisfaction Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis and structural equation modeling showed that work engagement partially mediated the relationship between work-family balance and job satisfaction, and the indirect effect was further moderated only by extraversion. Therefore, an integrative moderated mediation model was proposed wherein work-family balance boosts job satisfaction by first enhancing employees' work engagement, while the indirect effect was in turn moderated by extraversion. The results suggest that interventions for improving job satisfaction may be enhanced by targeting work engagement, especially for employees with higher extraversion. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Positive energy balance is the major cause of obesity, and chronic stress may be a contributory factor. The authors examined cumulative work stress, using the Job Strain Questionnaire on four occasions, as a predictor of obesity in a prospective 19-year study of 6,895 men and 3,413 women (aged 35-55 years) in the Whitehall II cohort in London, United Kingdom (baseline: 1985-1988). A dose-response relation was found between work stress and risk of general obesity (body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2)) and central obesity (waist circumference >102 cm in men, >88 cm in women) that was largely independent of covariates. The imputed odds ratios of body mass index obesity for one, two, and three or more reports of work stress adjusted for age, sex, and social position were 1.17, 1.24, and 1.73 (trend p < 0.01), respectively. For waist obesity, the corresponding findings were 1.17, 1.41, and 1.61 (trend p < 0.01). Work stress effect was modestly attenuated after exclusion of obese individuals at baseline and further adjustments for smoking; intakes of dietary fiber, fruits and vegetables, and alcohol; and levels of physical activity during follow-up. This study provides prospective, population-based evidence that chronic work stress predicts general and central obesity.

  5. [Influence of Nurse Managers' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Focused on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment].

    PubMed

    Choi, Han Gyo; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship of nurse managers' authentic leadership, with nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The participants in this study were 273 registered nurses working in five University hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The measurements included the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Korea-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regression techniques with the SPSS 18.0 program. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test. There were significant correlations among authentic leadership, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Empowerment showed perfect mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. It had partial mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. In this study, nurse managers' authentic leadership had significant influences on nurses organizational commitment and job satisfaction via empowerment. Therefore, to enhance nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, it is necessary to build effective strategies to enhance nurse manager's authentic leadership and to develop empowering education programs for nurses.

  6. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  7. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  8. Financial strain and regional unemployment as barriers to job search self-efficacy: a test of social cognitive career theory.

    PubMed

    Dahling, Jason J; Melloy, Robert; Thompson, Mindi N

    2013-04-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) emphasizes the potential impact of contextual barriers on vocational self-efficacy, interests, and goals. However, most tests of SCCT to date have focused exclusively on person-level, perceptual barriers rather than objective, macroeconomic barriers that may influence large groups of people. In this study, we examine how the effects of personal experiences with financial strain among a sample of adults who are unemployed are qualified by regional unemployment rates. Results indicated that financial strain has a direct, negative relation with job search self-efficacy, and indirect, negative relations with job search outcome expectations and search goals. These direct and indirect relations are moderated by unemployment rates and are only significant for participants residing in U.S. counties with high unemployment. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account broader contextual influences when studying vocational outcomes and demonstrate the applicability of incorporating macroeconomic barriers and supports into SCCT in future research.

  9. Pediatric novice nurses: examining compassion fatigue as a mediator between stress exposure and compassion satisfaction, burnout, and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rika M L; Li, Angela; Klaristenfeld, Jessica; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether compassion fatigue mediated associations between nurse stress exposure and job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and burnout, controlling for pre-existing stress. The Life Events Checklist was administered to 251 novice pediatric nurses at the start of the nurse residency program (baseline) and 3 months after to assess pre-existing and current stress exposure. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout were assessed 3 months after baseline and job satisfaction 6 months after. Stress exposure significantly predicted lower compassion satisfaction and more burnout. Compassion fatigue partially mediated these associations. Results demonstrate a need for hospitals to prevent compassion fatigue in healthcare providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Mental job strain in a university children's hospital--a study on stress experience and the resulting employee health].

    PubMed

    Hiemisch, A; Kiess, W; Brähler, E

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the following survey was to evaluate the mental job strain at an university hospital and its effect on the health of the employees. Furthermore the trigger factors should have been identified and optimized after the survey. The data were collected by an employee survey during November/December of 2006. All employees of the Hospital for Children and Adolescents of the University Leipzig were included. Overall 174 questionnaires were evaluated (response rate 51.5%). As standardized methods the Irritations-Scale of Mohr et al. and the shortform of the Gießener Beschwerdebogen GBB-24 of Brähler et al. were used. In addition a self designed scale for the measurement of strain-experience was applied. More than half of the physicians/psychologists, a quarter of the nursing staff and every tenth of the remaining employees suffered from work related mental stress disorder. Especially physicians and psychologists were additionally affected by psychosomatic symptoms. The main strain was caused by an excessive amount of documentation, the manpower shortage and the lack of appreciation. The occupational groups differ as well in their ways of coping with the daily job strain as in its effects on the mental health. The health effect of the daily strain on physicians and psychologists seems to be age dependent. An urge for intervention can be derived from our results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Workplace Violence and Job Performance among Community Healthcare Workers in China: The Mediator Role of Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Results: Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = −0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = −0.113) and an indirect effect (β = −0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Conclusions: Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs’ workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence. PMID:26610538

  12. Budgetary participation and performance: The mediating effects of medical managers' job engagement and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Macinati, Manuela S; Bozzi, Stefano; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Professional hybrids in healthcare have attracted a great deal of policy, managerial, and research interest. However, the current literature offers little guidance on (i) how hybrid roles can be supported by the hospital organization they work for as well as (ii) the cognitive and behavioral driving forces underpinning medical managers' managerial work that determine how they inhabit their roles and consequently meet the standards of performance that contribute to organizational effectiveness. Building on engagement theory and social cognitive theory and using data collected from clinical managers working in a large Italian public hospital, the current study focuses on the mediating role of psychological variables associated with the managerial role of medical managers, namely managerial job engagement and managerial self-efficacy, in the budgetary participation-job performance link. The results suggest that the information gained by participating in budgeting impact medical managers' thoughts and feelings about their managerial role and these, in turn, motivate different aspects of their performance. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and their managerial and policy implications.

  13. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-01-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees’ positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees’ ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees’ ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed. PMID:27247666

  14. How Positivity Links With Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Findings on the Mediating Role of Work-Life Balance.

    PubMed

    Orkibi, Hod; Brandt, Yaron Ilan

    2015-08-01

    The positive characteristics that can help people juggle their work and personal roles and experience greater job satisfaction are attracting increased research attention. This study presents a conceptual model to account for the association between employees' positive orientation (i.e., the tendency to evaluate self, life, and the future in a positive way) and their job satisfaction (N = 108). As theorized, the results indicate that employees' ability to manage their work-life balance fully mediates the relation between their positive orientation and job satisfaction. This suggests that a positive orientation serves as an adaptive personal resource that can facilitate employees' ability to balance work and non-work demands and hence can foster job satisfaction. The practical implications for positive psychological interventions in organizational settings are discussed.

  15. Moderating effects of psychological job strain on the relationship between working hours and health: an examination of white-collar workers employed by a Japanese manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Kimio; Hagihara, Akihito; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2004-09-01

    The effects of working hours on health were examined taking psychological job strain into account. White-collar workers employed at the main office of a Japanese manufacturing company provided data for analysis done in 1997. The eligible subjects were 286 workers aged 20-39. Causal relationships between working hours, health, and psychological job strain were examined by covariance structure analyses. The main findings were as follows: Not only working hours but also sleeping hours and vacations affected the workers' effort to deal with work as a work-related hour factor. Decision authority and skill discretion of Karasek's psychological job strain items significantly constituted a discretion in the work factor, and this factor moderated the effects of the work-related hour factor on health. The effects of psychological job strain, especially discretion, must always be taken into account in examinations of working hours and health.

  16. Leadership and change commitment in the life insurance service context in Taiwan: the mediating-moderating role of job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2011-06-01

    The effects of transformational leadership and satisfaction were studied along with their interconnected effects (mediation and moderation) on commitment to change in the life insurance industry in two samples, sales managers and salespersons. A multiple mediated-moderated regression approach showed mediation and moderation to have statistically significant main effects on change commitment. Transformational leadership and satisfaction made a more important contribution to change commitment while job satisfaction had a mediating and moderating role that could enhance the relationships between leadership and change commitment. This information is of importance in building successful change commitment associations with customers.

  17. Work-to-family conflict as a mediator of the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Hui; Brown, Roger; Bowers, Barbara J; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among licensed nurses in long-term care settings. The considerable research on turnover in long-term care has primarily focused on the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention. Given the well-documented high turnover rate in nursing home staffing, dissatisfaction is expected to continue. Alternatives (e.g. reduction in work-to-family conflict) for reducing turnover under the circumstance of job dissatisfaction have not been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional mailed survey. A convenience sample comprising 200 nurses from 25 private nursing homes in Central Taiwan was created. Data were collected from nurses about their level of turnover intention, job satisfaction and work-to-family conflict in 2012. A composite indicator structural equation model was used to examine the mediation model of this study. Overall, 186 nurses (93%) returned the completed questionnaires. Consistent with published research from other countries, turnover intention in our study was significantly and negatively associated with job satisfaction and significantly and positively associated with work-to-family conflict. In addition, job dissatisfaction indirectly influenced turnover intention through high work-to-family conflict. Findings from this study indicate the importance of work-to-family conflict to nurse turnover. While work setting has a strong, well-documented influence on job satisfaction, limiting job satisfaction efforts to work setting improvements may not yield the hoped-for results unless work-to-family conflict is also considered and addressed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Job strain in the public sector and hospital in-patient care use in old age: a 28-year prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela Birgitta; von Bonsdorff, Monika; Kulmala, Jenni; Törmäkangas, Timo; Seitsamo, Jorma; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-05-01

    high job strain increases the risk of health decline, but little is known about the specific consequences and long-term effects of job strain on old age health. purpose was to investigate whether physical and mental job strain in midlife was associated with hospital care use in old age. study population included 5,625 Finnish public sector employees aged 44-58 years who worked in blue- and white-collar professions in 1981. The number of in-patient hospital care days was collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register for the 28-year follow-up period. rates of hospital care days per 1,000 person-years for men were 7.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.71-7.84) for low, 9.68 (95% CI 9.50-9.74) for intermediate and 12.56 (95% CI 12.47-12.66) for high physical job strain in midlife. The corresponding rates for women were 6.63 (95% CI 6.57-6.68), 7.91 (95% CI 7.87-7.95) and 10.35 (95% CI 10.25-10.42), respectively. Rates were parallel but lower for mental job strain. Reporting high physical job strain in midlife increased the risk of hospital care in old age compared with those who reported low job strain, fully adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.17 (95% CI 1.00-1.38) for men and 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) for women. These associations were robust in analyses confined to hospital care that took place after the employees had turned 65 years. exposure to high mental and, particularly, high physical job strain in midlife may set employees on a higher healthcare use trajectory which persists into old age.

  19. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-01-01

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008–2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35–74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic. PMID:28441727

  20. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-04-22

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008-2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35-74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic.

  1. The mediating effect of job stress in the relationship between work-related dimensions and career commitment.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine associations between career commitment, job stress, and work-related dimensions of work routinization, role clarity, social support, and promotional opportunity. Design/methodology/approach - In all, 408 employees holding supervisor or above level job positions in Sri Lanka responded to the survey. For the data analysis, structural equation modelling with maximum likelihood estimation was performed. Findings - Job stress fully mediates the relationship between role clarity and career commitment while partially mediates the relationships between work routinization, social support, and the lack of promotional opportunity and career commitment. Originality/value - An investigation into relationships between work-related dimensions and career commitment holds a number of implications in the current business environment where employee commitment may be shifting from the organization to one's career.

  2. Psychosocial job conditions, fear avoidance beliefs and expected return to work following acute coronary syndrome: a cross-sectional study of fear-avoidance as a potential mediator.

    PubMed

    Söderberg, Mia; Rosengren, Annika; Gustavsson, Sara; Schiöler, Linus; Härenstam, Annika; Torén, Kjell

    2015-12-21

    Despite improvements in treatment, acute coronary syndrome remains a substantial cause for prolonged sick absences and premature retirement. Knowledge regarding what benefits return to work is limited, especially the effect of psychological processes and psychosocial work factors. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were two-fold: to examine associations between adverse psychosocial job conditions and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work, and to determine whether such beliefs mediated the relationship between work conditions and expected return to work in acute coronary syndrome survivors. Study inclusion criteria: acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina diagnosis, below 65 years of age, being a resident in the West county of Sweden and currently working. In all, 509 individuals (21.8 % women) accepted study participation and for whom all data of study interest were available for analysis. Psychosocial work variables; job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance, were assessed with standard questionnaire batteries. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships between psychosocial factors and fear-avoidance, and to evaluate mediator effects for fear-avoidance. Both total sample and gender stratified analyses were calculated. Fear-avoidance beliefs about work were associated to psychosocial job environments characterized by high strain (β 1.4; CI 1.2-1.6), active and passive work and high effort-reward imbalance (β 0.6; CI 0.5-0.7). Further, such beliefs also mediated the relationship between adverse work conditions and expected time for return to work. However, these results were only observed in total sample analyses or among or male participants. For women only high strain was linked to fear-avoidance, and these relationships became non-significant when entering chosen confounders. This cross-sectional study showed that acute coronary syndrome survivors, who laboured under adverse psychosocial work conditions, held fear

  3. Workplace Identity as a Mediator in the Relationship between Learning Climate and Job Satisfaction during Apprenticeship: Suggestions for HR Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortini, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore if and to what extent workplace identity can mediate the relationship between learning climate dimensions and job satisfaction in a group of apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered thanks to a non-profit organization devoted to vocational training. Participants (N 87) were…

  4. Examining the Mediating Effect of Job Satisfaction on the Relation between Responsibilities and Career Aspiration of Vice-Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study designed to examine the mediating effect of vice-principals' job satisfaction on the relation between their responsibility roles and career aspirations. Based on a Hong Kong data set, the study confirmed that responsibilities had both a direct effect and an indirect effect on career aspiration; the latter was mediated…

  5. Workplace Identity as a Mediator in the Relationship between Learning Climate and Job Satisfaction during Apprenticeship: Suggestions for HR Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortini, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to explore if and to what extent workplace identity can mediate the relationship between learning climate dimensions and job satisfaction in a group of apprentices. Design/methodology/approach: Data were gathered thanks to a non-profit organization devoted to vocational training. Participants (N 87) were…

  6. School Leadership and Its Impact on Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of School Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…

  7. School Leadership and Its Impact on Student Achievement: The Mediating Role of School Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…

  8. Mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between job resources and personal resources with turnover intention among female nurses.

    PubMed

    Shahpouri, Samira; Namdari, Kourosh; Abedi, Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    One of the latest models proposed with regard to work engagement is the detailed model put forward by Bakker and Demerouti (2007). The present study aims at investigating the effect of job resources and personal resources on turnover intention with the mediator role of work engagement among female nurses at Isfahan Alzahra Hospital. In the current study, job and personal resources were considered as the predictors of job turnover and work engagement was considered as the mediator variable among predictive and criterion variables. The data of the present study were collected from 208 female nurses who were selected by systematic random sampling. As for the analysis of the collected data, structural equations model, normal distribution method, and Bootstrap method in Macro, Preacher and Hayes, (2004) program were deployed. The findings showed that the personal resources affect the turnover intention both directly and indirectly (through work engagement); however, job resources are just associated with turnover intention with the mediating role of work engagement. The results of the study have important implications for organizations' managers about improving work engagement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Android Robot-Mediated Mock Job Interview Sessions for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Warren, Zachary; Corbett, Blythe A.; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Yuhi, Teruko; Ikeda, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an android robot-mediated mock job interview training in terms of both bolstering self-confidence and reducing biological levels of stress in comparison to a psycho-educational approach human interview was assessed in a randomized study. Young adults (ages 18–25 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were randomized to participate either in a mock job interview training with our android robot system (n = 7) or a self-paced review of materials about job-interviewing skills (n = 8). Baseline and outcome measurements of self-reported performance/efficacy and salivary cortisol were obtained after a mock job interview with a human interviewer. After training sessions, individuals with ASD participating in the android robot-mediated sessions reported marginally improved self-confidence and demonstrated significantly lower levels of salivary cortisol as compared to the control condition. These results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and efficacy of android robot-mediated learning. PMID:28955254

  10. Android Robot-Mediated Mock Job Interview Sessions for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Warren, Zachary; Corbett, Blythe A; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Yuhi, Teruko; Ikeda, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an android robot-mediated mock job interview training in terms of both bolstering self-confidence and reducing biological levels of stress in comparison to a psycho-educational approach human interview was assessed in a randomized study. Young adults (ages 18-25 years) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were randomized to participate either in a mock job interview training with our android robot system (n = 7) or a self-paced review of materials about job-interviewing skills (n = 8). Baseline and outcome measurements of self-reported performance/efficacy and salivary cortisol were obtained after a mock job interview with a human interviewer. After training sessions, individuals with ASD participating in the android robot-mediated sessions reported marginally improved self-confidence and demonstrated significantly lower levels of salivary cortisol as compared to the control condition. These results provide preliminary support for the feasibility and efficacy of android robot-mediated learning.

  11. Female executives are particularly prone to the sleep-disturbing effect of isolated high-strain jobs: a cross-sectional study in German-speaking executives.

    PubMed

    Gadinger, Michael C; Fischer, Joachim E; Schneider, Sven; Fischer, Gisela C; Frank, Gunter; Kromm, Walter

    2009-06-01

    This study assessed the main, curvilinear, interactive and gender-dependent effects of job demands, job control and social support in the prediction of sleep quality. Participants were 348 male and 76 female executives and managers from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A multiple regression controlling for age, occupational hierarchy and various health behaviors was computed. On the level of the main effects of the Job-Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, the results indicate a sleep-promoting effect of social support. A significant three-way interaction of job demands, job control and social support was observed. This interaction confirms the buffering effect of high job control and high social support on high job demands. Further, this three-way interaction of the JDCS dimensions is moderated by gender as indicated by a significant four-way interaction. The directions of the significant interactions suggest that female executives are especially prone to react with impaired sleep quality when exposed to isolated high-strain jobs. The study seems to imply that the JDCS model is a suitable framework for the prediction of sleep quality among executives and managers. The results suggest that the JDCS model might contribute to a better understanding of the higher prevalence of poor sleep amongst female executives. Further, the results imply that high job control and high social support might help executives to maintain good sleep quality despite experiencing high job demands.

  12. Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women?

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2013-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners.

  13. Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: the mediating role of work-to-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between the availability of 2 popular types of flexible work arrangements (i.e., flextime and compressed workweek) and work-to-family enrichment and, in turn, the relation between work-to-family enrichment and (a) job satisfaction and (b) turnover intentions. In a sample of 220 employed working adults, hierarchical regression analyses showed that work-to-family enrichment mediated the relation between flexible work arrangements and both job satisfaction and turnover intentions, even after controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, number of children, and hours worked. Thus, the availability of flexible work arrangements such as flextime and compressed workweek seems to help employees experience greater enrichment from work to home, which, in turn, is associated with higher job satisfaction and lower turnover intentions. The authors discuss the implications for research and practice.

  14. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140,000 men and women.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E; Houtman, Irene L; Joensuu, Matti; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E H; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Marmot, Michael G; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  16. Job Strain and Alcohol Intake: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Houtman, Irene L.; Joensuu, Matti; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Väänänen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1–14, men: 1–21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15–20, men: 22–27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: >20, men: >27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress. PMID:22792218

  17. Organisational change, job strain and increased risk of stroke? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medin, Jennie; Ekberg, Kerstin; Nordlund, Anders; Eklund, Jörgen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore whether organisational change and work-related stress, as measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, were associated with first-ever stroke among working people aged 30-65. In a case-control study a total of 65 consecutive cases, aged 30-65 years of age, with first-ever stroke were recruited from four hospitals in Sweden during 2000-2002. During the same period, 103 random population controls in the same age interval were recruited. Data on job-related stress and traditional medical risk factors were collected by a questionnaire. In the multivariate analyses, organisational change (OR 3.38) increased the likelihood of stroke, while experiencing an active job (OR 0.37) decreased the likelihood of stroke. Regarding risk factors outside work, age (OR 1.11), low physical activity (OR 5.21), low education (OR 2.48) and family history of stroke (OR 2.59) were associated with increased likelihood of stroke. This study suggests an association between organisational change, work-related stress and stroke. The likelihood of stroke was lower for people in active job situations.

  18. Job and Life Stress and Strain Outcomes among Service and Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dytell, Rita Scher

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has ranked 130 jobs in terms of the level of stress they engender. According to this ranking, clerical and service workers are in occupations which engender very high levels of stress. This study examined the relative contribution of a variety of occupational and nonoccupational sources of…

  19. Is the effect of job strain on myocardial infarction risk due to interaction between high psychological demands and low decision latitude? Results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

    PubMed

    Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, F; Theorell, T; Reuterwall, C; Ahlbom, A

    1998-06-01

    The objectives are to examine if the excess risk of myocardial infarction from exposure to job strain is due to interaction between high demands and low control and to analyse what role such an interaction has regarding socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction. The material is a population-based case-referent study having incident first events of myocardial infarction as outcome (SHEEP: Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). The analysis is restricted to males 45-64 yr of age with a more detailed analysis confined to those still working at inclusion. In total, 1047 cases and 1450 referents were included in the analysis. Exposure categories of job strain were formed from self reported questionnaire information. The results show that high demands and low decision latitude interact with a synergy index of 7.5 (95% C.I.: 1.8-30.6) providing empirical support for the core mechanism of the job strain model. Manual workers are more susceptible when exposed to job strain and its components and this increased susceptibility explains about 25-50% of the relative excess risk among manual workers. Low decision latitude may also, as a causal link, explain about 30% of the socioeconomic difference in risk of myocardial infarction. The distinction between the interaction and the causal link mechanisms identifies new etiologic questions and intervention alternatives. The specific causes of the increased susceptibility among manual workers to job strain and its components seem to be an interesting and important research question.

  20. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions: a European Comparison.

    PubMed

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    2011-11-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over work, job strain and work-family conflict influence fertility intentions. National-level measures of childcare enrolment under the age of three and the occurrence of part-time work are also included to examine their relation to fertility intentions and their interplay with perceptions of work. Using data from 23 countries from the 2004/5 European Social Survey (ESS), multilevel logistic regression models of fertility intentions are estimated separately for women without children and women with one child. Women with higher levels of work control are significantly more likely to intend to have a second child. Higher levels of job strain (time pressure) significantly lower fertility intentions for mothers in contexts where childcare availability is low. The prevalence of part-time work amongst the female work force significantly predicts the intention to become a mother but has different effects for women who work part-time themselves compared with full-time employees.

  1. Emotional labour strategies as mediators of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction in Chinese teachers.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjun; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' public service motivation (PSM) and their job satisfaction levels and to investigate the mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and deep acting (DA) on that relationship. The teacher PSM scale, as well as emotional labour strategies and intrinsic satisfaction (IS) and extrinsic satisfaction (ES) scales, were administered to 317 primary and middle school teachers. Results indicated that PSM among Chinese teachers was significantly and positively related to both IS and ES. Furthermore, structural equation modelling analysis showed that SA and DA played mediating roles in the PSM-IS and PSM-ES relationships, respectively. These findings provide a new perspective that explains the mechanism underlying the association between PSM among teachers and their job satisfaction levels. Finally, the possible explanations and implications are discussed.

  2. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  3. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Teaching is not the safe career bet that it once was. The thinking used to be: New students will always be entering the public schools, and older teachers will always be retiring, so new teachers will always be needed. But teaching jobs aren't secure enough to stand up to the "Great Recession," as this drawn-out downturn has been called. Across…

  4. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  5. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  6. Effect of Positive Psychology Elements on Job Pride and Honor with an Emphasis on Mediating Role of Communication among Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosein Kamani, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Job pride and honor is affected by various causes. Elements of positive psychology can be pointed out as one of them that in recent years has played an important role in organizational development. Hence, this study is to provide a prediction model about the impact of hope and resilience on job pride and honor with an emphasis on mediator role of…

  7. Single Mothers in Low-Wage Jobs: Financial Strain, Parenting, and Preschoolers' Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Huang, Chien-Chung; Glassman, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Examined how maternal education, economic conditions, and instrumental support influenced maternal psychological functioning, parenting, and child development among single Black mothers. Found that maternal education positively related to earnings, which, with instrumental support, negatively related to financial strain. Financial strain related…

  8. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  9. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  10. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.

  11. Association of Job Strain With Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Among Shift-Working Health Care Professionals in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and α-amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers.

  12. The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout.

    PubMed

    Estiri, Mehrdad; Nargesian, Abbas; Dastpish, Farinaz; Sharifi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The role of nurses in providing high quality healthcare to patients is so important that creating a desirable working environment to enhance their overall performance is unavoidable. This paper aimed to explore the impact of psychological capital on mental health by investigating the mediating effects of job burnout on this relationship. The data used in this research was obtained via a survey conducted among selected Iranian nurses in public hospitals. In total, 450 questionnaires were distributed and 384 were completed and returned. Collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Findings showed that there is a significant relationship between psychological capital, job burnout and mental health; also, there is a significant negative relationship between psychological capital and job burnout, and a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and mental health. The results have several important practical implications for human resource management in Iranian public hospitals. According to the results of this study, reducing job burnout is an important factor in enhancing psychological capital and can positively enhance nurses' mental health.

  13. Thermal conductivity of graphene mediated by strain and size

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Youdi; Shi, Sanqiang; Wang, Xinjiang; Huang, Baoling; Lindsay, Lucas

    2016-06-09

    Based on first-principles calculations and full iterative solution of the linearized Boltzmann–Peierls transport equation for phonons, we systematically investigate effects of strain, size and temperature on the thermal conductivity k of suspended graphene. The calculated size-dependent and temperature-dependent k for finite samples agree well with experimental data. The results show that, contrast to the convergent room-temperature k = 5450 W/m-K of unstrained graphene at a sample size ~8 cm, k of strained graphene diverges with increasing the sample size even at high temperature. Out-of-plane acoustic phonons are responsible for the significant size effect in unstrained and strained graphene due to their ultralong mean free path and acoustic phonons with wavelength smaller than 10 nm contribute 80% to the intrinsic room temperature k of unstrained graphene. Tensile strain hardens the flexural modes and increases their lifetimes, causing interesting dependence of k on sample size and strain due to the competition between boundary scattering and intrinsic phonon–phonon scattering. k of graphene can be tuned within a large range by strain for the size larger than 500 μm. These findings shed light on the nature of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials and may guide predicting and engineering k of graphene by varying strain and size.

  14. Thermal conductivity of graphene mediated by strain and size

    DOE PAGES

    Kuang, Youdi; Shi, Sanqiang; Wang, Xinjiang; ...

    2016-06-09

    Based on first-principles calculations and full iterative solution of the linearized Boltzmann–Peierls transport equation for phonons, we systematically investigate effects of strain, size and temperature on the thermal conductivity k of suspended graphene. The calculated size-dependent and temperature-dependent k for finite samples agree well with experimental data. The results show that, contrast to the convergent room-temperature k = 5450 W/m-K of unstrained graphene at a sample size ~8 cm, k of strained graphene diverges with increasing the sample size even at high temperature. Out-of-plane acoustic phonons are responsible for the significant size effect in unstrained and strained graphene due tomore » their ultralong mean free path and acoustic phonons with wavelength smaller than 10 nm contribute 80% to the intrinsic room temperature k of unstrained graphene. Tensile strain hardens the flexural modes and increases their lifetimes, causing interesting dependence of k on sample size and strain due to the competition between boundary scattering and intrinsic phonon–phonon scattering. k of graphene can be tuned within a large range by strain for the size larger than 500 μm. These findings shed light on the nature of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials and may guide predicting and engineering k of graphene by varying strain and size.« less

  15. Thermal conductivity of graphene mediated by strain and size

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Youdi; Shi, Sanqiang; Wang, Xinjiang; Huang, Baoling; Lindsay, Lucas

    2016-06-09

    Based on first-principles calculations and full iterative solution of the linearized Boltzmann–Peierls transport equation for phonons, we systematically investigate effects of strain, size and temperature on the thermal conductivity k of suspended graphene. The calculated size-dependent and temperature-dependent k for finite samples agree well with experimental data. The results show that, contrast to the convergent room-temperature k = 5450 W/m-K of unstrained graphene at a sample size ~8 cm, k of strained graphene diverges with increasing the sample size even at high temperature. Out-of-plane acoustic phonons are responsible for the significant size effect in unstrained and strained graphene due to their ultralong mean free path and acoustic phonons with wavelength smaller than 10 nm contribute 80% to the intrinsic room temperature k of unstrained graphene. Tensile strain hardens the flexural modes and increases their lifetimes, causing interesting dependence of k on sample size and strain due to the competition between boundary scattering and intrinsic phonon–phonon scattering. k of graphene can be tuned within a large range by strain for the size larger than 500 μm. These findings shed light on the nature of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials and may guide predicting and engineering k of graphene by varying strain and size.

  16. Psychometric properties concerning four instruments measuring job satisfaction, strain, and stress of conscience in a residential care context.

    PubMed

    Orrung Wallin, Anneli; Edberg, Anna-Karin; Beck, Ingela; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    There are many instruments assessing the wellbeing of staff, but far from all have been psychometrically investigated. When evaluating supportive interventions directed toward nurse assistants in residential care, valid and reliable instruments are needed in order to detect possible changes. The aim of the study was to investigate validity in terms of data quality, construct validity, convergent and divergent validity and reliability in terms of the internal consistency and stability of the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Psychosocial Aspects of Job Satisfaction, the Strain in Dementia Care Scale (SDCS), and the Stress of Conscience Questionnaire (SCQ) in a residential care context. The psychometric properties of the instruments were investigated in terms of data quality, construct validity, convergent and divergent validity and reliability, including test-retest reliability, in a residential care context with a sample consisting of nurse assistants (n=114). The four instruments responded with different psychometric-related problems such as internal missing data, floor and ceiling effects, problems with construct validity and low test-retest reliability, especially when assessed on the item level. These problems were however reduced or disappeared completely when assessed for total and factor scores. From a psychometric perspective, the SDCS seemed to stand out as the best instrument. However, it should be modified in order to reduce floor effects on item level and thereby gain sensitivity. The Job Satisfaction Questionnaire seemed to have problems both with the construct validity and test-retest reliability. The final choice of instrument must, however, be made dependent on what one intends to measure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Work-Family Interface as a Mediator between Job Demands and Employee Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jade S; Heneghan, Camille J; Bailey, Sarah F; Barber, Larissa K

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, we draw from the job demands-resource model and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between job demands, the work-family interface and worker behaviours. Data collected from an online survey of workers revealed that hindrance demands indirectly increase interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family and family interference with work. Challenge demands indirectly predict interpersonal and organizational deviance through work interference with family. Finally, hindrance demands indirectly decreased individual-directed organizational citizenship behaviours through work-to-family enrichment. Taken together, these results stress the relevance of job demand management and resource drain/acquisition to counterproductive and extra-role behaviours.

  18. Suicidal Ideation and Psychological Strain Among Patients Diagnosed With Stomach Cancer: The Mediation of Psychopathological Factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuekun; Zhang, Jie; Procter, Nicholas; Chen, Xiaoyun; Su, Yonggang; Lou, Fenglan; Cao, Fenglin

    2017-07-01

    Patients with stomach cancer are at high risk to experience suicidal ideation. Strain theory of suicide assumes that suicide is preceded by psychological strain. Despite wide international acceptance of the theory, its use with a sample of patients with stomach cancer has not previously been reported. The aims were to examine the relationship between psychological strain and suicidal ideation among patients with stomach cancer and to determine whether psychopathological factors act as mediators. A cross-sectional study was undertaken involving subjects with no history of mental disorder, and questionnaires were administered by face-to-face interview. Patients who experienced more psychological strain, especially coping strain, are more likely to experience suicidal ideation. The mediation effects of hopelessness and psychological distress are significant. Psychological strain, hopelessness, and psychological distress may be the vital factors among patients with stomach cancer in the suicide-risk assessment interview and for care planning and psychological intervention.

  19. Learning Climate and Job Performance among Health Workers. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Michela; Pivetti, Monica; Cervai, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explore if and how psychological strain plays a mediator role between the learning climate and job performance in a group of health workers. Although the relationship between learning climate and job performance has already been explored in the international literature, the role of psychological strain, which may hamper or deepen this relationship, has yet to be investigated. The research hypothesis is that psychological strain mediates the relationship between the climate toward learning (including also the error avoidance climate) and job performance. Data were gathered in a Public hospital in Italy. Participants (N = 61) were health professionals (nurses and obstetricians). Considering the relatively small sample size, a mediation analysis with the aid of the SPSS macro PROCESS was performed. The results show that the relationship between the learning climate (specifically its dimension of organizational appreciation toward learning) and job performance is mediated by psychological strain. The future research agenda and practical implications are discussed in the paper. PMID:27826274

  20. Learning Climate and Job Performance among Health Workers. A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Cortini, Michela; Pivetti, Monica; Cervai, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper will explore if and how psychological strain plays a mediator role between the learning climate and job performance in a group of health workers. Although the relationship between learning climate and job performance has already been explored in the international literature, the role of psychological strain, which may hamper or deepen this relationship, has yet to be investigated. The research hypothesis is that psychological strain mediates the relationship between the climate toward learning (including also the error avoidance climate) and job performance. Data were gathered in a Public hospital in Italy. Participants (N = 61) were health professionals (nurses and obstetricians). Considering the relatively small sample size, a mediation analysis with the aid of the SPSS macro PROCESS was performed. The results show that the relationship between the learning climate (specifically its dimension of organizational appreciation toward learning) and job performance is mediated by psychological strain. The future research agenda and practical implications are discussed in the paper.

  1. The Relationship between Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, A. Ben

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between job involvement and satisfaction in white collar employees of an industrial organization in Israel was studied. Job involvement was related significantly to job satisfaction; however, the relationship was mediated by organizational factors. (Author/BEF)

  2. Job leaving intentions and occupation-related beliefs amongst preregistered dental nurses in Scotland: the mediating role of work engagement and personal accomplishment.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gillian; Freeman, Ruth; McCombes, Wendy; Humphris, Gerry

    2014-02-01

    To identify the job resource beliefs of preregistration dental nurses and subsequently investigate their relationship with work engagement, personal accomplishment and intention to leave amongst this occupational group in Scotland. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Personal accomplishment (a subscale of Maslach Burnout Inventory) and author-developed questions for job resource beliefs and intention to leave were the measuring instruments used. Two hundred and thirty-one dental nurses participated (82% response rate). Mean age was 25 and mean job tenure was 17.5 months. The job resource belief most valued was 'good working relationship'. A multiple mediated path analytical model was explored. Work engagement adjusted for job resource beliefs was very strongly negatively associated with intention to leave (-0.93). There was an indirect relationship between job resource beliefs and intention to leave (-0.28) mediated via work engagement and personal accomplishment. Dental nurses under training held job resource beliefs about their profession that were associated with work engagement, personal accomplishment and their stability of remaining in the job. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands mediate the relationships of job and family demands with stress in the job and family domains.

    PubMed

    Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Cieslak, Roman; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    This study derives from Work-Home Resources model (ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545-556. doi: 10.1037/a0027974 ) and Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall, Inc.) to investigate mechanisms responsible for the effect of job and family demands on work- and family-related perceived stress. We hypothesized that interrole conflict and self-efficacy to manage work and family demands operate either independently or sequentially transmitting the effects of demands on perceived stress. A sample of 100 employees of various occupations participated in the study conducted online in two waves: Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) with a three-month interval. Regression analysis with bootstrapping was applied. Interrole conflict (T1) did not mediate the relationships between demands (T1) and perceived stress (T2), whereas self-efficacy (T1) mediated only those between family demands (T1) and stress (T2). However, data supported the sequential mediation hypotheses: Demands (T1) were associated with increased interrole conflict (T1) which in turn decreased self-efficacy (T1) and ultimately resulted in the elevated perceived stress at work and in the family (T2). Demands originating in one domain can impact stress both in the same and other life areas through the sequence of interrole conflict and context-specific self-efficacy.

  4. Studies of transformational leadership in the consumer service workgroup: cooperative conflict resolution and the mediating roles of job satisfaction and change commitment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2012-10-01

    The present paper evaluates the effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and change commitment along with their interconnected effects (mediation) on cooperative conflict resolution (management) in customer service activities in Taiwan. The multi-source samples consist of data from personnel serving at customer centers (workgroups), such as phone service personnel, customer representatives, financial specialists, and front-line salespeople. An empirical study was carried out using a multiple mediation procedure incorporating boot-strapping techniques and PRODCLIN2 with structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis. The results indicate that the main effect of the leadership style on cooperative conflict resolution is mediated by change commitment and job satisfaction.

  5. Information and communication technology demands at work: the association with job strain, effort-reward imbalance and self-rated health in different socio-economic strata.

    PubMed

    Stadin, Magdalena; Nordin, Maria; Broström, Anders; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Westerlund, Hugo; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2016-10-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is common in modern working life. ICT demands may give rise to experience of work-related stress. Knowledge about ICT demands in relation to other types of work-related stress and to self-rated health is limited. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the association between ICT demands and two types of work-related stress [job strain and effort-reward imbalance (ERI)] and to evaluate the association between these work-related stress measures and self-rated health, in general and in different SES strata. This study is based on cross-sectional data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health collected in 2014, from 14,873 gainfully employed people. ICT demands, job strain, ERI and self-rated health were analysed as the main measures. Sex, age, SES, lifestyle factors and BMI were used as covariates. ICT demands correlated significantly with the dimensions of the job strain and ERI models, especially with the demands (r = 0.42; p < 0.01) and effort (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) dimensions. ICT demands were associated with suboptimal self-rated health, also after adjustment for age, sex, SES, lifestyle and BMI (OR 1.49 [95 % CI 1.36-1.63]), but job strain (OR 1.93 [95 % CI 1.74-2.14) and ERI (OR 2.15 [95 % CI 1.95-2.35]) showed somewhat stronger associations with suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands are common among people with intermediate and high SES and associated with job strain, ERI and suboptimal self-rated health. ICT demands should thus be acknowledged as a potential stressor of work-related stress in modern working life.

  6. Strain- and defect-mediated thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathryn F; Piccione, Brian; Zanjani, Mehdi B; Lukes, Jennifer R; Gianola, Daniel S

    2014-07-09

    The unique thermal transport of insulating nanostructures is attributed to the convergence of material length scales with the mean free paths of quantized lattice vibrations known as phonons, enabling promising next-generation thermal transistors, thermal barriers, and thermoelectrics. Apart from size, strain and defects are also known to drastically affect heat transport when introduced in an otherwise undisturbed crystalline lattice. Here we report the first experimental measurements of the effect of both spatially uniform strain and point defects on thermal conductivity of an individual suspended nanowire using in situ Raman piezothermography. Our results show that whereas phononic transport in undoped Si nanowires with diameters in the range of 170-180 nm is largely unaffected by uniform elastic tensile strain, another means of disturbing a pristine lattice, namely, point defects introduced via ion bombardment, can reduce the thermal conductivity by over 70%. In addition to discerning surface- and core-governed pathways for controlling thermal transport in phonon-dominated insulators and semiconductors, we expect our novel approach to have broad applicability to a wide class of functional one- and two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  7. The effect of psychological capital between work-family conflict and job burnout in Chinese university teachers: Testing for mediation and moderation.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jun; Hou, Hanpo; Ma, Ruiyang; Sang, Jinyan

    2016-03-29

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout as well as the potential mediation/moderation effects of psychological capital. Participants were 357 university teachers who completed a questionnaire packet containing a work-family conflict scale, psychological capital questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General survey. According to the results, work-family conflict and psychological capital were both significantly correlated with job burnout. In addition, psychological capital cannot mediate-but can moderate-the relationship between work-family conflict and job burnout. Taken together, our findings shed light on the psychological capital underlying the association of work-family conflict and job burnout.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of three freshwater microalgal strains.

    PubMed

    Sanitha, Mary; Radha, Sudhakar; Fatima, Anwar Aliya; Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Ramya, Mohandass

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal transformation has gained interest in recent years. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation remains as the most efficient method for the development of transgenic plants and microalgae due to its wide host range, inexpensive procedure and transfer of large segments of DNA. In the present study, three different microalgal species were isolated from freshwater environment and identified based on the morphological characteristics and ITS-2 region amplification. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was successful for the isolates Chlorella sp., Ankistrodesmus sp and Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus. Gene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR amplification of hptII and GUS histochemical assay. A. tumifaciens contamination was checked by amplification of npt II gene (kanamycin resistant) which lies outside the T-border. Based on GUS assay, transformation efficiencies were found to be 12.25% for Chlorella sp. 2.96% for Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus and 3.5% for Ankistrodesmus sp.

  9. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity: An Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of Up to 170,000 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Eleonor I.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Theorell, Töres; Suominen, Sakari; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Siegrist, Johannes; Sabia, Séverine; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Nielsen, Martin L.; Marmot, Michael G.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lunau, Thorsten; Leineweber, Constanze; Kumari, Meena; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Joensuu, Matti; Houtman, Irene L.; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Burr, Hermann; Borritz, Marianne; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Alfredsson, Lars; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-01-01

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985–1988 to 2006–2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2–9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity. PMID:23144364

  10. Competing grain-boundary- and dislocation-mediated mechanisms in plastic strain recovery in nanocrystalline aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wei, Yujie; Yang, Wei; Gao, Huajian

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that plastic strains in nanocrystalline aluminum and gold films with grain sizes on the order of 50 nm are partially recoverable. To reveal the mechanisms behind such strain recovery, we perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations of plastic deformation in nanocrystalline aluminum with mean grain sizes of 10, 20, and 30 nm. Our results indicate that the inhomogeneous deformation in a polycrystalline environment results in significant residual stresses in the nanocrystals. Upon unloading, these internal residual stresses cause strain recovery via competitive deformation mechanisms including dislocation reverse motion/annihilation and grain-boundary sliding/diffusion. By tracking the evolution of each individual deformation mechanism during strain recovery, we quantify the fractional contributions by grain-boundary and dislocation deformation mechanisms to the overall recovered strain. Our analysis shows that, even under strain rates as high as those in molecular dynamics simulations, grain-boundary-mediated processes play important roles in the deformation of nanocrystalline aluminum. PMID:19805266

  11. The impact of intimate partner violence on low-income women's economic well-being: the mediating role of job stability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Tolman, Richard M; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to extend our understanding of the mechanisms by which intimate partner violence (IPV) harms women economically. We examined the mediating role of job instability on the IPV-economic well-being relationship among 503 welfare recipients. IPV had significant negative effects on women's job stability and economic well-being. Job stability was at least partly responsible for the deleterious economic consequences of IPV, and the effects lasted up to three years after the IPV ended. This study demonstrates the need for services and policies that address barriers to employment as a means of improving the economic well-being of low-income women with abusive partners.

  12. Research Update: Electrical manipulation of magnetism through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. T.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrical manipulation of magnetism has been a long sought-after goal to realize energy-efficient spintronics. During the past decade, multiferroic materials combining (anti)ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties are now drawing much attention and many reports have focused on magnetoelectric coupling effect through strain, charge, or exchange bias. This paper gives an overview of recent progress on electrical manipulation of magnetism through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructures.

  13. Specificity of pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake among fluorescent Pseudomonas strains.

    PubMed Central

    Hohnadel, D; Meyer, J M

    1988-01-01

    Pyoverdine-mediated iron transport was determined for seven fluorescent Pseudomonas strains belonging to different species. For all strains, cell or cell outer membrane and iron(III)-pyoverdine combinations were compared with their homologous counterparts in uptake, binding, and cross-feeding experiments. For four strains (Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633, Pseudomonas fluorescens W, P. fluorescens ATCC 17400, and Pseudomonas tolaasii NCPPB 2192), the pyoverdine-mediated iron transport appeared to be strictly strain specific; pyoverdine-facilitated iron uptake by iron-starved cells and binding of ferripyoverdine to the purified outer membranes of such cells were efficient only in the case of the homologous systems. Cross-feeding assays, in liquid or solid cultures, resulted, however, especially for P. fluorescens ATCC 17400, in some discrepancies compared with uptake and binding assays, suggesting that growth experiments are the least likely to yield correct information on specificity of the pyoverdine-mediated iron transport. For the three other strains (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P. chlororaphis ATCC 9446, and P. aeruginosa ATCC 15692), cross-reactivity was demonstrated by the uptake, binding, and cross-feeding experiments. In an attempt to determine which parts of the iron transport system were responsible for the specificity, the differences in amino acid composition of the pyoverdines, together with the differences observed at the level of the iron-sensitive outer membrane protein pattern of the seven strains, are discussed. PMID:3170485

  14. Strain- and Substrate-Dependent Redox Mediator and Electricity Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, Erick M.; Blank, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important, thriving member of microbial communities of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) through the production of versatile phenazine redox mediators. Pure culture experiments with a model strain revealed synergistic interactions of P. aeruginosa with fermenting microorganisms whereby the synergism was mediated through the shared fermentation product 2,3-butanediol. Our work here shows that the behavior and efficiency of P. aeruginosa in mediated current production is strongly dependent on the strain of P. aeruginosa. We compared levels of phenazine production by the previously investigated model strain P. aeruginosa PA14, the alternative model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1, and the BES isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain KRP1 with glucose and the fermentation products 2,3-butanediol and ethanol as carbon substrates. We found significant differences in substrate-dependent phenazine production and resulting anodic current generation for the three strains, with the BES isolate KRP1 being overall the best current producer and showing the highest electrochemical activity with glucose as a substrate (19 μA cm−2 with ∼150 μg ml−1 phenazine carboxylic acid as a redox mediator). Surprisingly, P. aeruginosa PAO1 showed very low phenazine production and electrochemical activity under all tested conditions. IMPORTANCE Microbial fuel cells and other microbial bioelectrochemical systems hold great promise for environmental technologies such as wastewater treatment and bioremediation. While there is much emphasis on the development of materials and devices to realize such systems, the investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying microbiology and ecology are lagging behind. Physiological investigations focus on microorganisms exhibiting direct electron transfer in pure culture systems. Meanwhile, mediated electron transfer with natural redox compounds produced by, for example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa might enable an

  15. Financial strain and birth weight: the mediating role of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Christian, Lisa M

    2017-02-01

    The effects of financial strain during pregnancy have received limited attention. In addition, data examining the pathways by which SES indicators contribute to birth weight are lacking. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential pathway of psychological distress in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. Participants consisted of 138 pregnant women who completed measures assessing financial strain, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific distress, perceived stress, and general anxiety during pregnancy (mean gestational age = 18.5, SD = 7.2). Birth outcome data were obtained via medical record review. Simple and parallel mediation models were conducted using PROCESS. Simple mediation models showed that depressive symptoms (95% CI -24.65, -0.90) and pregnancy-specific distress (95% CI -37.31, -5.91), but not perceived stress (95% CI -31.17, 4.69) or anxiety (95% CI -25.84, 5.57), served as mediators in the relationship between financial strain and birth weight. When depressive symptoms and pregnancy-specific distress were included in the same mediation model, only pregnancy-specific distress remained significant. Financial strain was positively associated with all facets of psychological distress and negatively associated with birth weight during pregnancy. The current study demonstrated the mechanistic role of pregnancy-specific distress in the link between financial strain and birth weight in a racially diverse sample. Interventions targeting pregnancy-specific distress may mitigate the effects of financial strain on birth weight. Studies examining whether pregnancy-specific distress accounts for the relationship between other types of stressor exposures and birth weight would be informative.

  16. Associations of job strain and working overtime with adverse health behaviors and obesity: evidence from the Whitehall II Study, Helsinki Health Study, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi; Roos, Eva; Laaksonen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Head, Jenny; Brunner, Eric; Mosdol, Annhild; Marmot, Michael; Sekine, Michikazu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2008-04-01

    Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45-60-year-old white-collar employees of the Whitehall II Study from London (n=3,397), Helsinki Health Study (n=6,070), and the Japanese Civil Servants Study (n=2,213). Comparable data from all three cohorts were pooled, and logistic regression analysis was used, stratified by cohort and sex. Models were adjusted for age, occupational class, and marital status. Outcomes were unhealthy food habits, physical inactivity, heavy drinking, smoking, and obesity. In London, men reporting passive work were more likely to be physically inactive. A similar association was repeated among women in Helsinki. Additionally, high job strain was associated with physical inactivity among men in London and women in Helsinki. In London, women reporting passive work were less likely to be heavy drinkers and smokers. In Japan, men working overtime reported less smoking, whereas those with high job strain were more likely to smoke. Among men in Helsinki the association between working overtime and non-smoking was also suggested, but it reached statistical significance in the age-adjusted model only. Obesity was associated with working overtime among women in London. In conclusion, job strain and working overtime had some, albeit mostly weak and inconsistent, associations with adverse health behaviors and obesity in these middle-aged white-collar employee cohorts from Britain, Finland, and Japan.

  17. Family and School Strains and Their Effects on Adolescent Deviance in Taiwan: A Mediating Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2016-01-01

    General strain theory is an established criminological theory. Although the theory has been examined by many, the propositions of mediating effects through negative emotions, lower social control, and criminogenic social learning environment are understudied. In addition, previous studies that touched on these mechanisms were limited to…

  18. Family and School Strains and Their Effects on Adolescent Deviance in Taiwan: A Mediating Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2016-01-01

    General strain theory is an established criminological theory. Although the theory has been examined by many, the propositions of mediating effects through negative emotions, lower social control, and criminogenic social learning environment are understudied. In addition, previous studies that touched on these mechanisms were limited to…

  19. Psychological job strain, social support at work and daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy female employees: cross-sectional analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Mase, Junji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) of salivary DHEA, cortisol and C/D ratio was calculated for estimation of daytime secretion and variation. Social support scores were negatively associated with daytime DHEA secretion (standardized partial regression coefficient = −0.343, P < 0.001 by multiple linear regression analysis). This association remained significant when daytime cortisol secretion was additionally adjusted. Social support was not associated with daytime variation of the C/D ratio. Significant association between social support and daytime cortisol secretion was not confirmed. Job strain was not associated with DHEA, cortisol or the C/D ratio. In summary, we found that daytime DHEA secretion was increased in healthy workers with low social support, perhaps independent of daytime cortisol secretion. PMID:26552586

  20. Psychological job strain, social support at work and daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in healthy female employees: cross-sectional analyses.

    PubMed

    Ota, Atsuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Mase, Junji; Ono, Yuichiro

    2015-11-10

    Evidence is limited concerning the influences of high psychological job strain and low social support at work on daytime secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which demonstrates anti-cortisol effects. We carried out a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of job strain and social support with daytime secretion amounts of DHEA and cortisol and daytime variation of the cortisol-to-DHEA ratio (C/D ratio) in healthy female workers. Study subjects comprised 115 healthy female nursery school teachers. Area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) of salivary DHEA, cortisol and C/D ratio was calculated for estimation of daytime secretion and variation. Social support scores were negatively associated with daytime DHEA secretion (standardized partial regression coefficient = -0.343, P < 0.001 by multiple linear regression analysis). This association remained significant when daytime cortisol secretion was additionally adjusted. Social support was not associated with daytime variation of the C/D ratio. Significant association between social support and daytime cortisol secretion was not confirmed. Job strain was not associated with DHEA, cortisol or the C/D ratio. In summary, we found that daytime DHEA secretion was increased in healthy workers with low social support, perhaps independent of daytime cortisol secretion.

  1. Job strain and the incidence of coronary heart diseases: does the association differ among occupational classes? A contribution from a pooled analysis of Northern Italian cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Marco M; Bertù, Lorenza; Grassi, Guido; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between job strain (JS) and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in North Italian employed men, adopting a stratified analysis by occupational class (OC). Methods The study was conducted on 4103 working men, CHD-free at baseline, enrolled in population-based and factory-based cohorts. Risk factor measurements and follow-up procedures were carried out adopting the WHO MONICA standardised procedures. OCs were derived from the Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero classification. JS categories were defined based on overall sample medians of psychological job demand (PJD) and decision latitude (DL) derived from items of the Job Content Questionnaire, satisfying construct validity criteria. Age-adjusted and risk factors-adjusted CHD HRs were estimated from Cox models, contrasting high-strain (high PJD and low DL) versus non-high-strain categories. Results In a median follow-up of 14.6 years, 172 CHD events occurred, corresponding to a CHD incidence rate of 2.78/1000 person-years. In the overall sample, high-strain compared with non-high-strain workers evidenced a 39% excess CHD risk, not statistically significant. No association was found among managers and proprietors. Conversely, the HR of high strain versus non-high strain was 1.78 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.66) among non-manual and manual workers, with no substantial differences between them. The exclusion of the events occurring in the first 3 years of follow-up did not change the results. Adopting the quadrant-term JS groupings, among manual and non-manual workers, high-strain and active (high PJD and high DL) categories in comparison to the low strain one (low PJD and high DL) showed HRs of 2.92 and 2.47, respectively. Conclusions Our findings support the association of JS and CHD incidence among manual and non-manual workers. The non-high strain may not be the best reference category, when assessing the contribution of JS in determining CHD incidence. PMID:28119392

  2. Strain mediated self-assembly of ceramic nano islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Michael

    This dissertation presents the first observations of self-assembled arrays of epitaxial nano islands in ceramic systems, based on RF sputtering and thermal processing of Gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) thin films on an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal substrate. In contrast to the conventional semiconductor nano island self-assembly systems, the island arrays in the GDC-YSZ system provide materials with categorically different physical properties and functionalities, and they exhibit a stronger ordering at a larger characteristic length scale. The initial focus of this study was on the processing and characterization of thin GDC layers on YSZ, which are used in SOFCs as barriers to prevent the reaction of some cathode materials with the YSZ electrolyte. Chapter 3 of this document describes studies on relatively thin (<200 nm) GDC deposits which remained adherent to their substrates during post-deposition processing. The GDC films were amorphous or ultra-fine grained as deposited, with a mixed GDC-YSZ layer at the interface. After annealing at 1150°C, the GDC films were epitaxially oriented on the YSZ substrates, with isolated porosity in their interior. Some of the thick RF-sputtered GDC layers (>300 nm) were found to fail by spalling from the YSZ substrate, leaving behind patches of unspalled film and exposing a sputter-mixed GDC-YSZ surface. Upon annealing, the modified surface spontaneously broke up into two-dimensional arrays of epitaxial islands with sub-micron dimensions, exhibiting order in spacing and alignment. In addition to the classical local effects that drive dewetting processes, the self-assembly of the epitaxial GDC-bearing islands is driven by elastic interactions between them, and these interactions are mediated by the elastically anisotropic underlying YSZ substrate. The stresses in the initial mixed surface layers are modified by two factors: The thermal-expansion mismatch leads to stresses, depending on temperature and heating rates

  3. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  4. Team Performance Improvement: Mediating Roles of Employee Job Autonomy and Quality of Team Leader-Member Relations in Supportive Organizations in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…

  5. The Effect of Perceived Spiritual Leadership on Envy Management of Faculty Members through the Role of Professional Development Mediation and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haris, Zarin Daneshvar; Saidabadi, Reza Yousefi; Niazazari, Kiumars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived spiritual leadership on envy management of faculty members of Islamic Azad Universities of East Azerbaijan province through the role of professional development mediation and job satisfaction. Methodology: this study was a descriptive and correlational study that was conducted…

  6. The Effect of Supportive Organizational Leadership, Organizational Socialization, and Satisfaction with Supervision on Turnover as Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowhorn, Greg L.

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized a predictive, multivariate research design to test the relationship between three independent variables--supportive organizational leadership, organizational socialization, and satisfaction with supervision--and the dependent variable--turnover intent--as mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The…

  7. Job strain and supervisor support in primary care health centres and glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Koponen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Kivimäki, Mika; Suominen, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates associations between healthcare personnel's perceived job strain, supervisor support and the outcome of care in terms of glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Design A cross-sectional study from 2006. Setting 18 primary care health centres (HCs) from five municipalities in Finland. Participants Aggregated survey data on perceived job strain and supervisor support from healthcare personnel (doctors, n=122, mean age 45.5 years, nurses, n=300, mean age 47.1 years) were combined with registered data (Electronic Medical Records) from 8975 patients (51% men, mean age 67 years) with type 2 diabetes. Outcome measure Poor glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results The mean HbA1c level among patients with type 2 diabetes was 7.1 (SD 1.2, range 4.5–19.1), and 43% had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥7%). Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for patient's age and sex, and HC and HC service area-level characteristics, showed that patients’ HbA1c-levels were less optimal in high-strain HCs than in low-strain HCs (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.86). Supervisor support in HCs was not associated with the outcome of care. Conclusions The level of job strain among healthcare personnel may play a role in achieving good glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23645912

  8. Mediating the effects of work-life conflict between transformational leadership and health-care workers' job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Garde, Anne H; Albertsen, Karen; Carneiro, Isabella G

    2012-05-01

    To explore the mediating effects of work-life conflict between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing. The importance of work-life balance for job satisfaction and wellbeing among health-care employees is well-recognized. Evidence shows that transformational leadership style is linked to psychological wellbeing. It is possible that transformational leadership is also associated with employees' perceptions of work-life conflict, thereby influencing their job satisfaction and wellbeing. A longitudinal design was used where staff working within Danish elderly care completed a questionnaire at baseline and 18-month follow-up (N=188). Regression analyses showed that transformational leadership style was directly associated with perceptions of work-life conflict, job satisfaction and psychological wellbeing. Work-life conflict mediated between transformational leadership and wellbeing, but not job satisfaction. The findings suggest transformational leadership style may improve perceptions of work-life balance and employee wellbeing. Managers should adopt transformational leadership styles to reduce work-life conflict and enhance the wellbeing of their staff. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. St. Louis Job Corps Peer Mentor and Peer Mediation "Students Helping Students" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Judith A.; Chatman, Herbert; Foster, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Peer Resources is at the heart of positive youth development. Trained youth serving in roles such as mentor, tutor, mediator, leader, and educator can change the norms of a school and community. Utilizing people as resources is an important concept to embrace. During the last seven years, peer mentors have reduced the drop-out rate of 16- and…

  10. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. Design and methods This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Setting and participants Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. Results P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β −0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was −0.186 (p<0.001); the direct effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was −0.094 (p<0.01); the indirect effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention was −0.092 (p<0.001). Conclusions The effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers. PMID:28399513

  11. Job Strain, Occupational Category, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Hypertension Prevalence: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Landsbergis, Paul A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Fujishiro, Kaori; Baron, Sherry; Kaufman, Joel D; Meyer, John D; Koutsouras, George; Shimbo, Daichi; Shrager, Sandi; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Szklo, Moyses

    2015-11-01

    To assess associations of occupational categories and job characteristics with prevalent hypertension. We analyzed 2517 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants, working 20+ hours per week, in 2002 to 2004. Higher job decision latitude was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, prevalence ratio = 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.91) for the top versus bottom quartile of job decision latitude. Associations, however, differed by occupation: decision latitude was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in health care support occupations (interaction P = 0.02). Occupation modified associations of sex with hypertension: a higher prevalence of hypertension in women (vs men) was observed in health care support and in blue-collar occupations (interaction P = 0.03). Lower job decision latitude is associated with hypertension prevalence in many occupations. Further research is needed to determine reasons for differential impact of decision latitude and sex on hypertension across occupations.

  12. Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, J; Bosma, H; Peter, R; Siegrist, J

    2000-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Job Demand-Control (JD-C) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model on employee well-being. A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 11,636 employed Dutch men and women. Logistic regression analyses were used. Controlling for job sector, demographic characteristics (including educational level) and managerial position, employees reporting high job demands (i.e. psychological and physical demands) and low job control had elevated risks of emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic and physical health complaints and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios ranged from 2.89 to 10.94). Odds ratios were generally higher in employees reporting both high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards (i.e. poor salary, job insecurity and low work support): they ranged from 3.23 to 15.43. Furthermore, overcommitted people had higher risks of poor well-being due to a high effort-low reward mismatch (ORs: 3.57-20.81) than their less committed counterparts (ORs: 3.01-12.71). Finally, high efforts and low occupational rewards were stronger predictors of poor well-being than low job control when both job stress models were simultaneously adjusted. In conclusion, our findings show independent cumulative effects of both the JD-C Model and the ERI Model on employee well-being and are not significantly different in men and women as well as in young and old people. In particular, high (psychological and physical) efforts and low rewards adversely affected employee well-being. Preliminary findings also indicate excess risks of poor well-being in overcommitted persons suffering from high cost--low gain conditions at work.

  13. An Examination of the Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in Relations between Information Literacy and Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information literacy can enhance job performance in the workplace setting. Design/methodology/approach: Building on extant research, an integrated framework in which information literacy is related to person-job fit which in turn influences job performance is proposed. A survey questionnaire…

  14. An Examination of the Mediating Role of Person-Job Fit in Relations between Information Literacy and Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chung-Kai; Hung, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how information literacy can enhance job performance in the workplace setting. Design/methodology/approach: Building on extant research, an integrated framework in which information literacy is related to person-job fit which in turn influences job performance is proposed. A survey questionnaire…

  15. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation mediated by Mn-oxides: from sediment to strain level.

    PubMed

    Javanaud, Cedric; Michotey, Valerie; Guasco, Sophie; Garcia, Nicole; Anschutz, Pierre; Canton, Mathieu; Bonin, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Nitrite and (29)N(2) productions in slurry incubations of anaerobically sediment after (15)NO(3) or (15)NH(4) labelling in the presence of Mn-oxides suggested that anaerobic Mn-oxides mediated nitrification coupled with denitrification in muddy intertidal sediments of Arcachon Bay (SW Atlantic French coast). From this sediment, bacterial strains were isolated and physiologically characterized in terms of Mn-oxides and nitrate reduction as well as potential anaerobic nitrification. One of the isolated strain, identified as Marinobacter daepoensis strain M4AY14, was a denitrifier. Nitrous oxide production by this strain was demonstrated in the absence of nitrate and with Mn-oxides and NH(4) amendment, giving indirect proof of anaerobic nitrate or nitrite production. Anaerobic Mn-oxide-mediated nitrification was confirmed by (29)N(2) production in the presence of (15)NO(3) and (14)NH(4) under denitrifying conditions. Anaerobic nitrification by M4AY14 seemed to occur only in the absence of nitrate, or at nitrate levels lower than that of Mn-oxides. Most of the other isolates were affiliated with the Shewanella genus and were able to use both nitrate and Mn-oxides as electron acceptors. When both electron acceptors were present, whatever their concentrations, nitrate and Mn-oxide reduction co-occurred. These data indicate that bacterial Mn-oxide reduction could be an important process in marine sediments with low oxygen concentrations, and demonstrate for the first time the role of bacteria in anaerobic Mn-mediated nitrification.

  16. [Investigation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli strains].

    PubMed

    Aktepe, Orhan Cem; Aşık, Gülşah; Cetinkol, Yeliz; Biçmen, Meral; Gülay, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are widely used antimicrobial agents, particularly for the treatment of infections caused by gram-negative bacilli such as E.coli. As a consequence, quinolone resistance has been increasing among this species in recent years. Bacterial resistance to quinolones usually results from mutations in the chromosomal genes which encode topoisomerases and also the expression of efflux pumps and loss of porines contributed to development of quinolone resistance. However, recent studies have shown that the spread and increase of quinolone resistance may be due to the transfer of plasmid-mediated genes. To date, three groups of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, namely qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA, have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in E.coli clinical isolates. A total of 112 quinolone-resistant E.coli strains isolated from different clinical specimens (84 urine, 16 blood, 10 wound, 2 bronchoalveolar lavage) of which 78 (69.6%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive, in Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. In the isolates, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qepA, and aac(6')-1b-cr plasmid genes were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After aac(6')- 1b determinant was amplified by PCR, all aac(6')-1b positive amplicons were analyzed by digestion with BseGI restriction enzyme to identify aac(6')-1b-cr variant. It was found that, none of the strains horboured qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC and qepA genes, however, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene aac(6')-1b-cr was found positive in 59.8% (67/112) of the strains. It was notable that 86.6% (58/67) of those isolates were ESBL producers. The rates of quinolone resistance among E.coli isolates infections were high in our region and an increasing trend has been observed in recent years. Our data indicated that the presence of plasmid- mediated resistance genes

  17. Organisation-based self-esteem mediates the effects of social support and job satisfaction on intention to stay in nurses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chao, Wan-Ching; Chou, Hsiu-Ling; Li, Chiu-Kuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of underlying contextual factors on the intention to stay in nurses. Workplace promotion, social support, work stress, job satisfaction and organisation-based self-esteem (OBSE) are psychosocial factors influencing the intention to stay in nurses. However, few studies have analysed the relationships among these factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and a sample was recruited in convenience sampling method from a medical centre in Taiwan. A total of 791 nurses completed a self-report questionnaire over a 3-month period in 2013. Social support, work stress, job satisfaction and OBSE significantly affected the intention to stay in nurses. Furthermore, social support and job satisfaction showed a positive direct effect on the intention to stay and an indirect effect on the intention to stay; the indirect effect was mediated by OBSE. Organisation-based self-esteem mediates the effects of social support and job satisfaction on the intention to stay in nurses. The results showing the influence of OBSE on the intention to stay in nurses can serve as insight for hospital managers to make decisions when encouraging and managing employees. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shang Guan, Chang-Yue; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = −0.372, p < 0.001), whereas psychological capital was positively associated with job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) from a specific province in China. Psychological capital is a mediator between the association of job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres’ job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort

  19. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction among Township Cadres in a Specific Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chang-Yue Shang; Li, Yu; Ma, Hong-Lin

    2017-08-28

    Background: Township cadres, considered as basic executors of state policy, play an important role in Chinese society. Their job satisfaction is a vital issue for township management, but there are few studies on this topic in China. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, and to further examine whether psychological capital (PsyCap) can serve as a mediator between stress and job satisfaction in Chinese township cadres. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during the period of from October 2015 to January 2016 in Liaoning Province of China. The questionnaires, which consisted of an effort-reward imbalance scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) for job satisfaction, and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), as well as questions about demographic characteristics, were distributed to 1800 township cadres and complete responses were received from 1525 participants. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the role that psychological capital played in mediating between occupational stress and job satisfaction. Results: In the present study, effort-reward ratio (ERR= 11 × effort/6 × reward) was negatively associated with job satisfaction (r = -0.372, p < 0.001), whereas psychological capital was positively associated with job satisfaction in township cadres (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) from a specific province in China. Psychological capital is a mediator between the association of job stress and job satisfaction. Conclusions: Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction among Chinese township cadres. Interventions to improve Chinese township cadres' job satisfaction should be developed in the future, especially the enhancement of PsyCap. Interventions need to be verified in further cohort studies. At present, we are only proposing a theoretical model. Intervention effects need to be validated in further cohort

  20. Personality, biographical characteristics, and job interview success: a longitudinal study of the mediating effects of interviewing self-efficacy and the moderating effects of internal locus of causality.

    PubMed

    Tay, Cheryl; Ang, Soon; Van Dyne, Linn

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors developed and tested a model of performance in job interviews that examines the mediating role of interviewing self-efficacy (I-SE; job applicants' beliefs about their interviewing capabilities) in linking personality and biographical background with interview success and the moderating role of locus of causality attributions in influencing the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. The authors tested their model (over 5 months' duration) with matched data from 229 graduating seniors, firms, and university records. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated I-SE mediated the effects of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and leadership experience on interview success. Locus of causality attributions for interview outcomes moderated the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Quantification of charge-to-strain mediated interface coupling transfiguration in FE/FSMA multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-01-01

    Thickness modulated direct, local measurement of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling was executed in a high quality sputter deposited PZT/Ni-Mn-In bilayer system grown on Si(1 0 0) substrate. The additive temperature and magnetic-field-driven shape-memory behavior of bottom ferromagnetic (FM) Ni-Mn-In layer, which vanish at ultra-low regime (8 nm), induce fluctuations in the dielectric and ferroelectric (FE) characteristic of PZT. The prominent magnetic-field-modulated P-E loops registered at room temperature in  ±400 kV cm-1 electric field range illustrate the presence of giant strain-mediated direct ME coupling in bilayers. This giant strain-mediated direct ME coupling in bilayers can be imputed to magnetic-field-actuated shape-memory behavior of Ni-Mn-In film. The I-V characteristic depicts that the PZT/Ni-Mn-In bilayer endures transition from Ohmic conduction (dominant at low field) to interface-limited Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling prevailing at high electric field. Magnetic measurements of the bilayer revealed that voltage-attuned magnetic anisotropy variation was strongly dependent on the thickness of the bilayer. The normalized magnetization (M/M s) versus electric field (ME) plots was sketched to cognize the origin of interfacial converse ME coupling. The occurrence of butterfly-shaped ME loops showed the dominance of strain-mediated coupling in the (200 nm/220 nm) bilayer, in contrast to (40 nm/8 nm) heterostructure coupling which was purely charge mediated. The co-existence of charge- and strain-mediated ME coupling in (80 nm/30 nm) structure was evident from quite asymmetric features of ME curves. In 80 nm/30 nm multiferroic heterostructure two reversible and stable magnetic field states of Ni-Mn-In were observed at zero electric field. Such a non-volatile switching of magnetization accomplished by reversing the electric field could prove useful in future MERAM devices.

  2. Inhibition of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm formation in Cronobacter sakazakii strains.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niharika; Patil, Amrita; Prabhune, Asmita; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated plant extracts for their anti-quorum-sensing (QS) potential to inhibit the biofilm formation in Cronobacter sakazakii strains. The bioassay based on loss of pigment production by Chromobacterium violaceum 026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4(pZLR4) was used for initial screening of the extracts. Further, the effect of extracts on the inhibition of QS-mediated biofilm in C. sakazakii isolates was evaluated using standard crystal violet assay. The effect on biofilm texture was studied using SYTO9 staining and light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the tested extracts, Piper nigrum and Cinnamomum verum at 100 ppm resulted in 78 and 68 % reduction in the production of violacein as well as blue-green colour in both biosensor strains. A higher inhibitory activity (>50 %) on biofilm formation in C. sakazakii was observed for Pip. nigrum and Cin. verum, whereas the other extracts possessed moderate (25-50 %) and minimal (<25 %) inhibitory activities. Further, the fluorescent and scanning electron microscopic images indicated a major disruption in the architecture of biofilms of tested strains by Pip. nigrum. This study points to the possibility of using Pip. nigrum and Cin. verum as inhibitor of QS-mediated biofilm formation by C. sakazakii that could be further explored for novel bioactive molecules to limit the emerging infections of C. sakazakii.

  3. The Association between Job Strain and Emotional Exhaustion in a Cohort of 1,028 Finnish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santavirta, Nina; Solovieva, Svetlana; Theorell, Tores

    2007-01-01

    Background: Teachers' work overload has been the subject of intense research, and the results of these studies show that a substantial proportion of teachers perceive their job as very stressful. Aims: To investigate how different formulations of high demands and low decision latitude was related to teachers' burnout, and to estimate the possible…

  4. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M.; Fila, Marcus J.

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI. PMID:27917145

  5. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance.

    PubMed

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M; Fila, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI.

  6. Production of cellobionate from cellulose using an engineered Neurospora crassa strain with laccase and redox mediator addition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a novel production process for cellobionic acid from cellulose using an engineered fungal strain with the exogenous addition of laccase and a redox mediator. A previously engineered strain of Neurospora crassa (F5'ace-1'cre-1'ndvB) was shown to produce cellobionate directly from cellulose ...

  7. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  8. Variable sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis among Trypanosoma rangeli reference strains.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora; Dos Santos Pereira, Sheila Medeiros; Dos Santos Faissal, Barbara Neves

    2012-02-01

    Six reference strains of Trypanosoma rangeli from different days of growth in axenic cultures were assayed for susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis by non-immune guinea-pig serum. Their authenticity was also confirmed by isoenzyme analyses. Parasites were incubated with 25% active or 68°C-inactivated serum (37°C, 30 min) for all tests; thereafter the lysis rates were determined. Highly variable lysis percentages were observed among T. rangeli strains and in the same stock at different growing days. In a few assays, three strains (Macias, R-1625 and Choachi) presented total or very high resistance. The others (H-14, San Agustín and SC-58) were generally most susceptible, and could reach lysis rates as high as Trypanosoma cruzi. After incubation with active sera, the epimastigotes were usually the predominant stages, being followed by spheromastigotes and/or transitional forms. Those stages and trypomastigotes could also be partially susceptible. In four strains, the short epimastigotes were more resistant to lysis than the long ones. Experiments with C3-deficient serum displayed total or partial participation of the alternative-complement pathway in T. rangeli lysis. This study confirmed the variable complement sensitivity of T. rangeli, which can be related to its intraspecific heterogeneity, to the remarkable complexity of its life-cycle stages, and to the methodology employed.

  9. Rift Valley fever virus strain MP-12 enters mammalian host cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brooke; Schudel, Benjamin R; Maar, Dianna; Kozina, Carol; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Negrete, Oscar A

    2012-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. The lack of efficient countermeasure strategies, the potential for dispersion into new regions, and the pathogenesis in humans and livestock make RVFV a serious public health concern. The receptors, cellular factors, and entry pathways used by RVFV and other members of the family Bunyaviridae remain largely uncharacterized. Here we provide evidence that RVFV strain MP-12 uses dynamin-dependent caveola-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. Caveolae are lipid raft domains composed of caveolin (the main structural component), cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Caveola-mediated endocytosis is responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of host ligands, as well as bacteria, bacterial toxins, and a number of viruses. To determine the cellular entry mechanism of RVFV, we used small-molecule inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), and dominant negative (DN) protein expression to inhibit the major mammalian cell endocytic pathways. Inhibitors and RNAi specific for macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis had no effect on RVFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of caveola-mediated endocytosis, and RNAi targeted to caveolin-1 and dynamin, drastically reduced RVFV infection in multiple cell lines. Expression of DN caveolin-1 also reduced RVFV infection significantly, while expression of DN EPS15, a protein required for the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, and DN PAK-1, an obligate mediator of macropinocytosis, had no significant impact on RVFV infection. These results together suggest that the primary mechanism of RVFV MP-12 uptake is dynamin-dependent, caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis.

  10. Overload, and Cutbacks, and Freezes, Oh My! The Relative Effects of the Recession-Related Stressors on Employee Strain and Job Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Morgan D; Sliter, Michael; Sinclair, Robert R

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe, economic fluctuations have taken their toll on both organizations and employees, particularly during sustained recessions. Surprisingly, little research, however, has directly investigated the effects of recessions on employees. As such, the goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of specific recession-related stressors on employee outcomes (strain and satisfaction). We investigated an archival data set of 7666 individuals collected as part of the Workplace Employment Relations Study for relations among recession-related stressors with strain and job satisfaction variables. We found that recession-related stressors were significantly related to both strain and satisfaction. More specifically, certain recession-related stressors (e.g. increased workload and reorganization of work) were more strongly related to strain and satisfaction than others. These results imply the need for greater attention to stress management strategies aimed at helping both employees and their organizations cope with the human costs of economic recessions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Sun, Nian X

    2014-01-14

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling.

  12. Is the effect of person-organisation fit on turnover intention mediated by job satisfaction? A survey of community health workers in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingji; Yan, Fei; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohong

    2017-02-22

    Person-organisation fit (P-O fit) is a predictor of work attitude. However, in the area of human resource for health, the literature of P-O fit is quite limited. It is unclear whether P-O fit directly or indirectly affects turnover intention. This study aims to examine the mediation effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention based on data from China. This is a cross-sectional survey of community health workers (CHWs) in China in 2013. A questionnaire of P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention was developed, and its validity and reliability were assessed. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling were used to examine the relationship among P-O fit, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Multistage sampling was applied. In total, 656 valid questionnaire responses were collected from CHWs in four provincial regions in China, namely Shanghai, Shaanxi, Shandong and Anhui. P-O fit was directly related to job satisfaction (standardised β 0.246) and inversely related to turnover intention (standardised β -0.186). In the mediation model, the total effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was -0.186 (p<0.001); the direct effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was -0.094 (p<0.01); the indirect effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between P-O fit and turnover intention was -0.092 (p<0.001). The effect of P-O fit on turnover intention was partially mediated through job satisfaction. It is suggested that more work attitude variables and different dimensions of P-O fit be taken into account to examine the complete mechanism of person-organisation interaction. Indirect measures of P-O fit should be encouraged in practice to enhance work attitudes of health workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2014-09-21

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}~55 μC/cm² obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290 K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ~123 emu/cm³. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  14. Associations of educational attainment and cognitive level of job with old age verbal ability and processing speed: The mediating role of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Chicherio, Christian; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Sauter, Julia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-04-03

    We investigated whether the relation of educational attainment and cognitive level of job to performance in verbal ability and processing speed in old age was mediated via the number of chronic diseases. A total of 2,812 older adults participated. Psychometric tests on verbal ability and processing speed were administered. Individuals were interviewed regarding their education, midlife occupation, and chronic diseases in old age. Higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job were correlated with better performance in verbal ability and processing speed (.15 ≤ r ≤ .33, ps < .001). 1.4 to 7.3% of these relations was mediated via the number of chronic diseases (β = .01, ps < .026). In conclusion, individuals with higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job may possibly suffer from fewer chronic diseases later in life. Possibly, this may finally be related to better performance in verbal ability and processing speed in those individuals in old age.

  15. Plasmid-Mediated Resistance to Expanded-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter aerogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Pitout, Johann D. D.; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Ehrhardt, Anton F.; Coudron, Philip; Sanders, Christine C.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins commonly develops in Enterobacter aerogenes during therapy due to selection of mutants producing high levels of the chromosomal Bush group 1 β-lactamase. Recently, resistant strains producing plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been isolated as well. A study was designed to investigate ESBL production among 31 clinical isolates of E. aerogenes from Richmond, Va., with decreased susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and a positive double-disk potentiation test. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard disk diffusion and agar dilution procedures. β-Lactamases were investigated by an isoelectric focusing overlay technique which simultaneously determined isoelectric points (pIs) and substrate or inhibitor profiles. Decreased susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam (MIC range, 1 to 64 μg/ml) was detected and associated with resistance to gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All strains produced an inducible Bush group 1 β-lactamase (pI 8.3). Twenty-nine of the 31 isolates also produced an enzyme similar to SHV-4 (pI 7.8), while 1 isolate each produced an enzyme similar to SHV-3 (pI 6.9) and to SHV-5 (pI 8.2). The three different SHV-derived ESBLs were transferred by transconjugation to Escherichia coli C600N and amplified by PCR. Plasmid profiles of the clinical isolates showed a variety of different large plasmids. Because of the linkage of resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with ESBL production, it is possible that the usage of these drugs was responsible for selecting plasmid-mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in E. aerogenes. Furthermore, it is important that strains such as these be recognized, because they can be responsible for institutional spread of resistance genes. PMID:9517938

  16. Shear strain mediated magneto-electric effects in composites of piezoelectric lanthanum gallium silicate or tantalate and ferromagnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Piskulich, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Qu, P.; Qu, Hongwei; Petrov, V. M.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Nosov, A. P.

    2014-07-21

    Shear strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling is studied in composites of piezoelectric Y-cut lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) or tantalate (LGT) and ferromagnetic Fe-Co-V alloys. It is shown that extensional strain does not result in ME effects in these layered composites. Under shear strain generated by an ac and dc bias magnetic fields along the length and width of the sample, respectively, strong ME coupling is measured at low-frequencies and at mechanical resonance. A model is discussed for the ME effects. These composites of Y-cut piezoelectrics and ferromagnetic alloys are of importance for shear strain based magnetic field sensors.

  17. Nonpathogenic Strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Trigger Progressive Bean Defense Responses during Appressorium-Mediated Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Laugé, Richard; Langin, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    The fungal bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum differentiates appressoria in order to penetrate bean tissues. We showed that appressorium development in C. lindemuthianum can be divided into three stages, and we obtained three nonpathogenic strains, including one strain blocked at each developmental stage. H18 was blocked at the appressorium differentiation stage; i.e., no genuine appressoria were formed. H191 was blocked at the appressorium maturation stage; i.e., appressoria exhibited a pigmentation defect and developed only partial internal turgor pressure. H290 was impaired in appressorium function; i.e., appressoria failed to penetrate into bean tissues. Furthermore, these strains could be further discriminated according to the bean defense responses that they induced. Surprisingly, appressorium maturation, but not appressorium function, was sufficient to induce most plant defense responses tested (superoxide ion production and strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins). However, appressorium function (i.e., entry into the first host cell) was necessary for avirulence-mediated recognition of the fungus. PMID:16085873

  18. Nonpathogenic strains of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum trigger progressive bean defense responses during appressorium-mediated penetration.

    PubMed

    Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Laugé, Richard; Langin, Thierry

    2005-08-01

    The fungal bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum differentiates appressoria in order to penetrate bean tissues. We showed that appressorium development in C. lindemuthianum can be divided into three stages, and we obtained three nonpathogenic strains, including one strain blocked at each developmental stage. H18 was blocked at the appressorium differentiation stage; i.e., no genuine appressoria were formed. H191 was blocked at the appressorium maturation stage; i.e., appressoria exhibited a pigmentation defect and developed only partial internal turgor pressure. H290 was impaired in appressorium function; i.e., appressoria failed to penetrate into bean tissues. Furthermore, these strains could be further discriminated according to the bean defense responses that they induced. Surprisingly, appressorium maturation, but not appressorium function, was sufficient to induce most plant defense responses tested (superoxide ion production and strong induction of pathogenesis-related proteins). However, appressorium function (i.e., entry into the first host cell) was necessary for avirulence-mediated recognition of the fungus.

  19. Strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling strength manipulation by a thin titanium layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Gang; Morley, Nicola A.; Sharp, Joanne; Tian, Ye; Rainforth, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of the strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling strength is investigated by inserting a thin Ti layer (0-10 nm) between a 50 nm Co50Fe50 layer and a (011) oriented lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) substrate. A record high remanence ratio (Mr/Ms) tunability of 100% has been demonstrated in the 50 nm CoFe/8 nm Ti/PMN-PT heterostructure, when a total in-plane piezoelectric strain of -1821 ppm was applied at an electric field (E-field) of 16 kV/cm. The ME coupling strength is gradually optimized as the Ti layer thickness increases. Magnetic energy calculation showed that with increasing Ti layer thickness the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy (Euni) was reduced from 43 ± 1 kJ/m3 to 29.8 ± 1 kJ/m3. The reduction of Euni makes the strain effect dominant in the total magnetic energy, thus gives an obvious enhanced ME coupling strength.

  20. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  1. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  2. Eye-mediated immune tolerance to Type II collagen in arthritis-prone strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shukkur M; Kumar, Ashok; Ashour, Hossam M

    2014-12-01

    Type II collagen (CII) is a cartilage structural protein that plays important roles in joint function, arthritis and ageing. In studying the ability of CII to induce eye-mediated specific immune tolerance, we have recently proven that CII is capable of inducing anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) in Balb/c mice. Here, we study the ability of CII to induce eye-mediated immune tolerance in strains of mice that are prone to the induction of rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, we hypothesized that CII induces ACAID in DBA/1 mice and in C57BL/6 mice through the AC route (direct injection) or the intravenous route (adoptive transfer of in vitro-generated CII-specific ACAID macrophages or of CII-specific in vitro-generated T regulatory cells). Specific immune tolerance induction was assessed using both delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and local adoptive transfer (LAT) assays. Results indicated the ability of CII to generate CII-specific ACAID-mediated immune tolerance in vivo and in vitro in both DBA/1 mice and C57BL/6 mice. These findings could be beneficial in studies of immune tolerance induction using CII.

  3. Thermodynamic theory of strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic film-substrate hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kukhar, V G; Pertsev, N A; Kholkin, A L

    2010-07-02

    A nonlinear thermodynamic theory is developed for the strain-mediated direct magnetoelectric (ME) effect displayed by ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanostructures. This effect results from transmission of magnetic-field-induced deformations of a thick ferromagnetic substrate to a thin ferroelectric overlayer, where the polarization changes due to lattice strains. The strain-dependent polarization and permittivity of an epitaxial nanolayer (few tens of nm thick) are calculated using the thermodynamic theory of single-domain ferroelectric films. The substrate magnetostrictive deformations are described phenomenologically, taking into account their nonlinear variation with magnetic field. The calculations show that ME polarization and voltage coefficients strongly depend on the initial strain state of the film. For BaTiO(3) and PbTiO(3) films deposited on Co(0.8)Zn(0.2)Fe(2)O(4), the out-of-plane polarization and related ME coefficients are calculated numerically as a function of magnetic field parallel to the interface. For films stabilized in the monoclinic phase, this transverse ME response depends on the orientation of magnetic field relative to their in-plane crystallographic axes. The longitudinal ME coefficient is also evaluated and, for a substrate geometry minimizing the demagnetizing field, predicted to be comparable to the transverse one. For BaTiO(3) and PbTiO(3) films deposited on Terfenol-D, the calculations yield high ME polarization coefficients approximately 10(-7) s m(-1) and giant ME voltage coefficients approximately 50 V cm(-1) Oe(-1).

  4. The emergence of the Activity Reduces Conflict Associated Strain (ARCAS) model: a test of a conditional mediation model of workplace conflict and employee strain.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Maria T M; Beersma, Bianca; Cornelissen, Roosmarijn A W M

    2012-07-01

    To test and extend the emerging Activity Reduces Conflict-Associated Strain (ARCAS) model, we predicted that the relationship between task conflict and employee strain would be weakened to the extent that people experience high organization-based self-esteem (OBSE). A survey among Dutch employees demonstrated that, consistent with the model, the conflict-employee strain relationship was weaker the higher employees' OBSE and the more they engaged in active problem-solving conflict management. Our data also revealed that higher levels of OBSE were related to more problem-solving conflict management. Moreover, consistent with the ARCAS model, we could confirm a conditional mediation model in which organization-based self-esteem through its relationship with problem-solving conflict management weakened the relationship between task conflict and employee strain. Potential applications of the results are discussed.

  5. Efficient Vpu-Mediated Tetherin Antagonism by an HIV-1 Group O Strain

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Katharina; Starz, Kathrin; Sauter, Daniel; Langer, Simon; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Learn, Gerald H.; Stürzel, Christina M.; Leoz, Marie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Geyer, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) use their Nef proteins to counteract the restriction factor tetherin. However, a deletion in human tetherin prevents antagonism by the Nef proteins of SIVcpz and SIVgor, which represent the ape precursors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To promote virus release from infected cells, pandemic HIV-1 group M strains evolved Vpu as a tetherin antagonist, while the Nef protein of less widespread HIV-1 group O strains acquired the ability to target a region adjacent to this deletion. In this study, we identified an unusual HIV-1 group O strain (RBF206) that evolved Vpu as an effective antagonist of human tetherin. While both RBF206 Vpu and Nef exert anti-tetherin activity in transient-transfection assays, mainly Vpu promotes RBF206 release in infected CD4+ T cells. Although mutations distinct from the adaptive changes observed in group M Vpus (M-Vpus) were critical for the acquisition of its anti-tetherin activity, RBF206 O-Vpu potently suppresses NF-κB activation and reduces CD4 cell surface expression. Interestingly, RBF206 Vpu counteracts tetherin in a largely species-independent manner, degrading both the long and short isoforms of human tetherin. Downmodulation of CD4, but not counteraction of tetherin, by RBF206 Vpu was dependent on the cellular ubiquitin ligase machinery. Our data present the first example of an HIV-1 group O Vpu that efficiently antagonizes human tetherin and suggest that counteraction by O-Nefs may be suboptimal. IMPORTANCE Previous studies showed that HIV-1 groups M and O evolved two alternative strategies to counteract the human ortholog of the restriction factor tetherin. While HIV-1 group M switched from Nef to Vpu due to a deletion in the cytoplasmic domain of human tetherin, HIV-1 group O, which lacks Vpu-mediated anti-tetherin activity, acquired a Nef protein that is able to target a region adjacent to the deletion. Here we report an unusual exception, identifying a strain of

  6. Efficient Vpu-Mediated Tetherin Antagonism by an HIV-1 Group O Strain.

    PubMed

    Mack, Katharina; Starz, Kathrin; Sauter, Daniel; Langer, Simon; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Learn, Gerald H; Stürzel, Christina M; Leoz, Marie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Geyer, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) use their Nef proteins to counteract the restriction factor tetherin. However, a deletion in human tetherin prevents antagonism by the Nef proteins of SIVcpz and SIVgor, which represent the ape precursors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To promote virus release from infected cells, pandemic HIV-1 group M strains evolved Vpu as a tetherin antagonist, while the Nef protein of less widespread HIV-1 group O strains acquired the ability to target a region adjacent to this deletion. In this study, we identified an unusual HIV-1 group O strain (RBF206) that evolved Vpu as an effective antagonist of human tetherin. While both RBF206 Vpu and Nef exert anti-tetherin activity in transient-transfection assays, mainly Vpu promotes RBF206 release in infected CD4(+) T cells. Although mutations distinct from the adaptive changes observed in group M Vpus (M-Vpus) were critical for the acquisition of its anti-tetherin activity, RBF206 O-Vpu potently suppresses NF-κB activation and reduces CD4 cell surface expression. Interestingly, RBF206 Vpu counteracts tetherin in a largely species-independent manner, degrading both the long and short isoforms of human tetherin. Downmodulation of CD4, but not counteraction of tetherin, by RBF206 Vpu was dependent on the cellular ubiquitin ligase machinery. Our data present the first example of an HIV-1 group O Vpu that efficiently antagonizes human tetherin and suggest that counteraction by O-Nefs may be suboptimal.IMPORTANCE Previous studies showed that HIV-1 groups M and O evolved two alternative strategies to counteract the human ortholog of the restriction factor tetherin. While HIV-1 group M switched from Nef to Vpu due to a deletion in the cytoplasmic domain of human tetherin, HIV-1 group O, which lacks Vpu-mediated anti-tetherin activity, acquired a Nef protein that is able to target a region adjacent to the deletion. Here we report an unusual exception, identifying a strain of HIV-1

  7. Competition between strain and superexchange mediated magnetism in modified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Aman, Abhay Kr.; Singh, Rakesh Kr.; Kar, Manoranjan

    2017-05-01

    Co1-xSrxFe2-xTixO4 (x = 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) has been synthesized using the sol-gel technique. The phase purity of the material has been studied by employing the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The obtained XRD pattern shows the characteristic of F d 3 ¯m space group in cubic symmetry. The magnetic hysteresis loop has been recorded using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature in the field range of ±2T. The loop has been studied using Law of Approach (LA) to saturation to calculate magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy and saturation magnetization decrease with increase in doping concentration. Competition between strain mediated magnetism and magnetism due to superexchange interactions between cations has been observed.

  8. Strain-mediated multiferroic control of spontaneous exchange bias in Ni-NiO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domann, John P.; Sun, Wei-Yang; Schelhas, Laura T.; Carman, Greg P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the measurement of strain-mediated multiferroic control of spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) in magnetostrictive nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) bilayers on ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). Electric field control of a positive to negative exchange bias shift was measured, with an overall shift of 40.5 Oe, corresponding to a 325% change. Observed changes in coercivity are also reported and provide insight into the role of competing anisotropies in these structures. The findings in this paper provide evidence that magnetoelastic anisotropy can be utilized to control spontaneous exchange bias (SEB). This control of SEB is accomplished by modifying a bulk anisotropy (magnetoelasticity) that adjusts the mobility of interfacial anti-ferromagnetic spins and, therefore, the magnitude of the exchange bias. The demonstrated magnetoelastic control of exchange bias provides a useful tool in the creation of future magnetoelectric devices.

  9. Mediated microbial biosensor using a novel yeast strain for wastewater BOD measurement.

    PubMed

    Trosok, S P; Driscoll, B T; Luong, J H

    2001-08-01

    Two new yeast strains (SPT1 and SPT2) were isolated and immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes to form microbial biosensors for estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Ferricyanide was proven to be the most efficient mediator to shuttle electrons from the redox center of reduced microbial enzymes to the electrode in the presence of excess glucose/glutamic acid (GGA). With a 3-fold greater metabolic assimilation capability and greater responses to various effluent samples, SPT1 was selected for sensor-BOD measurements. BOD estimations for the GGA standard resulted in an extended linear range: 2-100 mg/l. Response reproducibility was +/-10% for a GGA standard containing 10 mg BOD/l. For analysis of pulp mill effluents, the BOD detection limit was 2 mg/l with a response time of 5 min.

  10. Paramagnetic Beads and Magnetically Mediated Strain Enhance Cardiomyogenesis in Mouse Embryoid Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Laura R.; Wu, Douglas C.; Ramamoorthy, Divya; Alford, Corinne D.; Suggs, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces play an important role in proper embryologic development, and similarly such forces can directly impact pluripotency and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) in vitro. In addition, manipulation of the embryoid body (EB) microenvironment, such as by incorporation of microspheres or microparticles, can similarly influence fate determination. In this study, we developed a mechanical stimulation regimen using permanent neodymium magnets to magnetically attract cells within an EB. Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid (RGD)-conjugated paramagnetic beads were incorporated into the interior of the EBs during aggregation, allowing us to exert force on individual cells using short-term magnetization. EBs were stimulated for one hour at different magnetic field strengths, subsequently exerting a range of force intensity on the cells at different stages of early EB development. Our results demonstrated that following exposure to a 0.2 Tesla magnetic field, ESCs respond to magnetically mediated strain by activating Protein Kinase A (PKA) and increasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression. The timing of stimulation can also be tailored to guide ESC differentiation: the combination of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) supplementation with one hour of magnetic attraction on Day 3 enhances cardiomyogenesis by increasing contractile activity and the percentage of sarcomeric α-actin-expressing cells compared to control samples with BMP4 alone. Interestingly, we also observed that the beads alone had some impact on differentiation by increasingly slightly, albeit not significantly, the percentage of cardiomyocytes. Together these results suggest that magnetically mediated strain can be used to enhance the percentage of mouse ESC-derived cardiomyocytes over current differentiation protocols. PMID:25501004

  11. Gender and General Strain Theory: A Comparison of Strains, Mediating, and Moderating Effects Explaining Three Types of Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry

    2017-01-01

    The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…

  12. Health effects of unemployment in Europe (2008-2011): a longitudinal analysis of income and financial strain as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete

    2016-05-06

    Unemployment has a number of negative consequences, such as decreased income and poor self-rated health. However, the relationships between unemployment, income, and health are not fully understood. Longitudinal studies have investigated the health effect of unemployment and income separately, but the mediating role of income remains to be scrutinized. Using longitudinal data and methods, this paper investigates whether the effect of unemployment on self-rated health (SRH) is mediated by income, financial strain and unemployment benefits. The analyses use data from the longitudinal panel of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) over the 4 years of 2008 to 2011. Individual fixed effects models are applied, estimating the longitudinal change in SRH as people move from employment to unemployment, and investigating whether this change is reduced after controlling for possible mediating mechanisms, absolute income change, relative income change, relative income rank, income deprivation, financial strain, and unemployment benefits. Becoming unemployed is associated with decreased SRH (-0.048, SE 0.012). This decrease is 19 % weaker (-0.039, SE 0.010) after controlling for change in financial strain. Absolute and relative changes in household equalized income, as well as changes in relative rank and transitions into income deprivation, are not found to be associated with change in SRH. Financial strain is found to be a potential mediator of the individual health effect of unemployment, while neither absolute income, relative income, relative rank, income deprivation nor unemployment benefits are found to be mediators of this relationship.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi strain-specific Osp C-mediated immunity in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bockenstedt, L K; Hodzic, E; Feng, S; Bourrel, K W; de Silva, A; Montgomery, R R; Fikrig, E; Radolf, J D; Barthold, S W

    1997-01-01

    Antibodies to the outer surface proteins (Osps) A, B, and C of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi can prevent infection in animal models of Lyme borreliosis. We have previously demonstrated that immune serum from mice infected with B. burgdorferi N40 can also prevent challenge infection and induce disease regression in infected mice. The antigens targeted by protective and disease-modulating antibodies are presently unknown, but they do not include Osp A or Osp B. Because Osp C antibodies are present in immune mouse serum, we investigated the ability of hyperimmune serum to recombinant Osp C (N40) to protect mice against challenge infection with N40 spirochetes. In both active and passive immunization studies, Osp C (N40) antiserum failed to protect mice from challenge infection with cultured organisms. Mice actively immunized with recombinant Osp C (N40) were susceptible to tick-borne challenge infection, and nymphal ticks remained infected after feeding on Osp C-hyperimmunized mice. In contrast, similar immunization studies performed with Osp C (PKo) antiserum prevented challenge infection of mice with a clone of PKo spirochetes pathogenic for mice. Both Osp C (N40) and Osp C (PKo) antisera showed minimal in vitro borreliacidal activity, and immunofluorescence studies localized Osp C beneath the outer membrane of both N40 and PKo spirochetes. We conclude that Osp C antibody-mediated immunity is strain specific and propose that differences in Osp C surface expression by spirochetes in vivo may account for strain-specific immunity. PMID:9353047

  14. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity.

    PubMed

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N

    2016-08-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities.

  15. Strain Mediated Adaptation Is Key for Myosin Mechanochemistry: Discovering General Rules for Motor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Biman; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    A structure-based model of myosin motor is built in the same spirit of our early work for kinesin-1 and Ncd towards physical understanding of its mechanochemical cycle. We find a structural adaptation of the motor head domain in post-powerstroke state that signals faster ADP release from it compared to the same from the motor head in the pre-powerstroke state. For dimeric myosin, an additional forward strain on the trailing head, originating from the postponed powerstroke state of the leading head in the waiting state of myosin, further increases the rate of ADP release. This coordination between the two heads is the essence of the processivity of the cycle. Our model provides a structural description of the powerstroke step of the cycle as an allosteric transition of the converter domain in response to the Pi release. Additionally, the variation in structural elements peripheral to catalytic motor domain is the deciding factor behind diverse directionalities of myosin motors (myosin V & VI). Finally, we observe that there are general rules for functional molecular motors across the different families. Allosteric structural adaptation of the catalytic motor head in different nucleotide states is crucial for mechanochemistry. Strain-mediated coordination between motor heads is essential for processivity and the variation of peripheral structural elements is essential for their diverse functionalities. PMID:27494025

  16. Biotransformation of arsenic by bacterial strains mediated by oxido-reductase enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Vishnoi, N; Singh, D P

    2014-12-24

    The present study deals with the enzyme mediated biotransformation of arsenic in five arsenic tolerant strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Paenibacillus macerans and Escherichia coli). Biotransformation ability of these isolates was evaluated by monitoring arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. Results showed that arsenic oxidase activity was exclusively present in P. macerans and B. pumilus while B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli strains showed presence of Arsenic oxido-reductase enzyme. The reversible nature of arsenic oxido- reductase suggested that same enzyme can carry out oxidation and reduction of arsenic depending upon the relative concentration of arsenic species. Lineweaver-Burk plot of the arsenite oxidase activity in P. macerans showed highest Km value (Km- 200 μM) and lower Vmax (0.012 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) indicating lowest affinity of the enzyme for arsenite. On the contrary, E. coli showed the lower Km value ( Km- 38.46 μM) and higher Vmax (0.044 μmol mg-1 protein min-1) suggesting for higher affinity for the arsenite. Lineweaver-Burk plot of arsenate reductase activity showed the presence of this enzyme in B. subtilis, B. megaterium and E. coli which were in the range of 200-360 μM Km and Vmax value between 0.256- 0.129 mmol mg-1 protein min-1. These results suggested that affinity of the as reductase enzyme is lowest for arsenate than that for the arsenite. Thus, arsenite oxidase system appears to be a predominant mechanism of cellular defense in these bacterial strains.

  17. Job Support, Coping, and Control: Assessment of Simultaneous Impacts Within the Occupational Stress Process.

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Drummond, Suzie; Biggs, Amanda

    2017-02-13

    The assessment of occupational stress is marred by an overwhelming adoption of simplistic research designs that generally fail to represent the complex reality of the occupational stress process. Informed by the theoretical tenants of both the transactional stress model and the job-demands-control-support model, this paper presents a rare simultaneous assessment of how two types of job demands (cognitive and emotional) are both moderated by job control and social support and mediated by coping for the prediction of work engagement and psychological strain over time. Self-report surveys were administered twice over 12 months to a sample of police-service workers and moderated mediation analyses were conducted on the matched sample of N = 2,481 respondents. The results offer support for the process of occupational stress by demonstrating how both accommodation and avoidance coping mediate the job-demands-outcome relationship over time. The results also demonstrate that this stressor-coping-strain process is simultaneously moderated by job support or job control. We found it interesting that this research also demonstrated that the estimation of work engagement was not unduly influenced by the type of job demands these police employees were exposed to. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains via multilocus sequence analysis of environmentally mediated genes (MLSA-E).

    PubMed

    Parker, Jennifer K; Havird, Justin C; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2012-03-01

    Isolates of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are genetically very similar, but studies on their biological traits have indicated differences in virulence and infection symptomatology. Taxonomic analyses have identified several subspecies, and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes have shown broad host-based genetic differences; however, results are still inconclusive for genetic differentiation of isolates within subspecies. This study employs multilocus sequence analysis of environmentally mediated genes (MLSA-E; genes influenced by environmental factors) to investigate X. fastidiosa relationships and differentiate isolates with low genetic variability. Potential environmentally mediated genes, including host colonization and survival genes related to infection establishment, were identified a priori. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) was calculated to select genes that may be under increased positive selection compared to previously studied housekeeping genes. Nine genes were sequenced from 54 X. fastidiosa isolates infecting different host plants across the United States. Results of maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian phylogenetic (BP) analyses are in agreement with known X. fastidiosa subspecies clades but show novel within-subspecies differentiation, including geographic differentiation, and provide additional information regarding host-based isolate variation and specificity. dN/dS ratios of environmentally mediated genes, though <1 due to high sequence similarity, are significantly greater than housekeeping gene dN/dS ratios and correlate with increased sequence variability. MLSA-E can more precisely resolve relationships between closely related bacterial strains with low genetic variability, such as X. fastidiosa isolates. Discovering the genetic relationships between X. fastidiosa isolates will provide new insights into the epidemiology of populations of X. fastidiosa, allowing

  19. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A.; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:24418911

  20. Magnetic microscopy and simulation of strain-mediated control of magnetization in Ni/PMN-PT nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ian; Chavez, Andres C; Pierce, Daniel T; Unguris, John; Sun, Wei-Yang; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P

    2016-10-01

    Strain-mediated thin film multiferroics comprising piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures enable the electrical manipulation of magnetization with much greater efficiency than other methods; however, the investigation of nanostructures fabricated from these materials is limited. Here we characterize ferromagnetic Ni nanostructures grown on a ferroelectric PMN-PT substrate using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization of the Ni nanostructures can be controlled with a combination of sample geometry and applied electric field, which strains the ferroelectric substrate and changes the magnetization via magnetoelastic coupling. We evaluate two types of simulations of ferromagnetic nanostructures on strained ferroelectric substrates: conventional micromagnetic simulations including a simple uniaxial strain, and coupled micromagnetic-elastodynamic simulations. Both simulations qualitatively capture the response of the magnetization changes produced by the applied strain, with the coupled solution providing more accurate representation.

  1. Magnetic microscopy and simulation of strain-mediated control of magnetization in PMN-PT/Ni nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Ian; Chavez, Andres C.; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Sun, Wei-Yang; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Strain-mediated thin film multiferroics comprising piezoelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures enable the electrical manipulation of magnetization with much greater efficiency than other methods; however, the investigation of nanostructures fabricated from these materials is limited. Here we characterize ferromagnetic Ni nanostructures grown on a ferroelectric [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68[PbTiO3]0.32 substrate using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA) and micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization of the Ni nanostructures can be controlled with a combination of sample geometry and applied electric field, which strains the ferroelectric substrate and changes the magnetization via magnetoelastic coupling. We evaluate two types of simulations of ferromagnetic nanostructures on strained ferroelectric substrates: conventional micromagnetic simulations including a simple uniaxial strain, and coupled micromagnetic-elastodynamic simulations. Both simulations qualitatively capture the response of the magnetization changes produced by the applied strain, with the coupled solution providing more accurate representation.

  2. The influence of the perception of a familial climate on job performance: mediation of loyalty to supervisors and moderation of filial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jen, Chin-Kang; Chou, Li-Fang; Lin, Chu-Yen; Tsai, Ming-Che

    2012-01-01

    With a collectivist cultural perspective, we examined the positive effects of employees' perceptions of a familial climate on loyalty to supervisors, the mediation of loyalty between perception of a familial climate and job performance, and the moderation of employees' filial behaviour on the relationship between perception of a familial climate and loyalty. The participants consisted of 247 supervisor-and-subordinate dyads in Taiwan. The results supported our hypotheses. Through the mechanisms of family behaviour transference, social identification and supervisor-subordinate exchange, perception of an organizational familial climate enhanced loyalty to supervisors. Furthermore, loyalty to supervisors mediated the relationship between perception of a familial climate and job performance. Filial behaviour moderated the relationship between perception of a familial climate and loyalty; thus, the relationship of perception of a familial climate and loyalty was stronger for employees with low levels of filial behaviour and weaker for employees with high levels of filial behaviour. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for future research and management practices.

  3. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    PubMed

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  4. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women: the IPD-Work Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Zins, Marie; Westerlund, Hugo; Westerholm, Peter; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Theorell, Töres; Suominen, Sakari; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Siegrist, Johannes; Sabia, Séverine; Rugulies, Reiner; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Nordin, Maria; Nielsen, Martin L; Marmot, Michael G; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Madsen, Ida E H; Lunau, Thorsten; Leineweber, Constanze; Kumari, Meena; Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Kittel, France; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Joensuu, Matti; Houtman, Irene L; Hooftman, Wendela E; Goldberg, Marcel; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ferrie, Jane E; Erbel, Raimund; Dragano, Nico; De Bacquer, Dirk; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Burr, Hermann; Borritz, Marianne; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Bjorner, Jakob B; Alfredsson, Lars; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G David; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-12-15

    Unfavorable work characteristics, such as low job control and too high or too low job demands, have been suggested to increase the likelihood of physical inactivity during leisure time, but this has not been verified in large-scale studies. The authors combined individual-level data from 14 European cohort studies (baseline years from 1985-1988 to 2006-2008) to examine the association between unfavorable work characteristics and leisure-time physical inactivity in a total of 170,162 employees (50% women; mean age, 43.5 years). Of these employees, 56,735 were reexamined after 2-9 years. In cross-sectional analyses, the odds for physical inactivity were 26% higher (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.38) for employees with high-strain jobs (low control/high demands) and 21% higher (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.31) for those with passive jobs (low control/low demands) compared with employees in low-strain jobs (high control/low demands). In prospective analyses restricted to physically active participants, the odds of becoming physically inactive during follow-up were 21% and 20% higher for those with high-strain (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.32) and passive (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.30) jobs at baseline. These data suggest that unfavorable work characteristics may have a spillover effect on leisure-time physical activity.

  5. Oxidative stress is a mediator for increased lipid accumulation in a newly isolated Dunaliella salina strain.

    PubMed

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cokol, Murat; Pastirmaci, Inanc; Erman, Batu; Cetiner, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Green algae offer sustainable, clean and eco-friendly energy resource. However, production efficiency needs to be improved. Increasing cellular lipid levels by nitrogen depletion is one of the most studied strategies. Despite this, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms of this response have not been well defined. Algae species adapted to hypersaline conditions can be cultivated in salty waters which are not useful for agriculture or consumption. Due to their inherent extreme cultivation conditions, use of hypersaline algae species is better suited for avoiding culture contamination issues. In this study, we identified a new halophilic Dunaliella salina strain by using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We found that growth and biomass productivities of this strain were directly related to nitrogen levels, as the highest biomass concentration under 0.05 mM or 5 mM nitrogen regimes were 495 mg/l and 1409 mg/l, respectively. We also confirmed that nitrogen limitation increased cellular lipid content up to 35% under 0.05 mM nitrogen concentration. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we applied fluorometric, flow cytometric and spectrophotometric methods to measure oxidative stress and enzymatic defence mechanisms. Under nitrogen depleted cultivation conditions, we observed increased lipid peroxidation by measuring an important oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde and enhanced activation of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes. These observations indicated that oxidative stress is accompanied by increased lipid content in the green alga. In addition, we also showed that at optimum cultivation conditions, inducing oxidative stress by application of exogenous H2O2 leads to increased cellular lipid content up to 44% when compared with non-treated control groups. Our results support that oxidative stress and lipid overproduction are linked. Importantly, these results also suggest that

  6. Fast 180° magnetization switching in a strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructure driven by a voltage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Hu, Jia-Mian; Momeni, Kasra; Wang, Jian-Jun; Chen, Long-Qing; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-driven 180° magnetization switching provides a low-power alternative to current-driven magnetization switching widely used in spintronic devices. Here we computationally demonstrate a promising route to achieve voltage-driven in-plane 180° magnetization switching in a strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructure (e.g., a heterostructure consisting of an amorphous, slightly elliptical Co40Fe40B20 nanomagnet on top of a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 film as an example). This 180° switching follows a unique precessional path all in the film plane, and is enabled by manipulating magnetization dynamics with fast, local piezostrains (rise/release time <0.1 ns) on the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 film surface. Our analyses predict ultralow area energy consumption per switching (~0.03 J/m2), approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than that dissipated by current-driven magnetization switching. A fast overall switching time of about 2.3 ns is also demonstrated. Further reduction of energy consumption and switching time can be achieved by optimizing the structure and material selection. The present design provides an additional viable route to realizing low-power and high-speed spintronics. PMID:27272678

  7. Fast 180° magnetization switching in a strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructure driven by a voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ren-Ci; Hu, Jia-Mian; Momeni, Kasra; Wang, Jian-Jun; Chen, Long-Qing; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-driven 180° magnetization switching provides a low-power alternative to current-driven magnetization switching widely used in spintronic devices. Here we computationally demonstrate a promising route to achieve voltage-driven in-plane 180° magnetization switching in a strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructure (e.g., a heterostructure consisting of an amorphous, slightly elliptical Co40Fe40B20 nanomagnet on top of a Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 film as an example). This 180° switching follows a unique precessional path all in the film plane, and is enabled by manipulating magnetization dynamics with fast, local piezostrains (rise/release time <0.1 ns) on the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 film surface. Our analyses predict ultralow area energy consumption per switching (~0.03 J/m2), approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than that dissipated by current-driven magnetization switching. A fast overall switching time of about 2.3 ns is also demonstrated. Further reduction of energy consumption and switching time can be achieved by optimizing the structure and material selection. The present design provides an additional viable route to realizing low-power and high-speed spintronics.

  8. Psychological Strain and Emotional Labor among Police-Officers: A Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Benjamin; Heuven, Ellen; van Veldhoven, Marc; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Croon, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between psychological strain, emotional dissonance and emotional job demands during a working day of 65 Dutch (military) police officers, using a 5-day diary design. We hypothesized that emotional dissonance partly mediated the relationship between psychological strain at the start and at the end of a work…

  9. Psychological Strain and Emotional Labor among Police-Officers: A Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Benjamin; Heuven, Ellen; van Veldhoven, Marc; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Croon, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between psychological strain, emotional dissonance and emotional job demands during a working day of 65 Dutch (military) police officers, using a 5-day diary design. We hypothesized that emotional dissonance partly mediated the relationship between psychological strain at the start and at the end of a work…

  10. Childhood Economic Strains in Predicting Substance Use in Emerging Adulthood: Mediation Effects of Youth Self-Control and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ti; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.; Prybol, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of childhood economic strains on substance use in young adulthood and to assess the mediating roles of self-control as well as positive parenting during adolescence in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. Methods The study included data from participants (n = 1,285) in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, and Transition to Adult. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among risk factors during childhood and adolescence that predicted substance use in early adulthood. Results Conditions of economic strains, especially poverty, during childhood were associated with an increased likelihood of regular smoking in adulthood, which was partially mediated by poorer self-control during adolescence. Conclusions Self-control is negatively affected by economic strains and serves as a mediator between poverty and risk of regular smoking. Additional research is needed to better understand how economic strains effect the development of self-control. PMID:23899658

  11. Rapid and simple identification of Beijing genotype strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yuhki; Iwade, Yoshito; Nakano, Manabu; Akachi, Shigehiro; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nishinaka, Takamichi

    2016-07-01

    Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are geographically widespread and pose a notorious public health problem, these strains causing outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB); some studies have reported an association with drug resistance. Because the prevalence of Beijing strain has a substantial impact on TB control programs, the availability of a rapid and reliable method for detecting these strains is important for epidemiological monitoring of their circulation. The main methods currently used to identify Beijing genotype strains are IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, spoligotyping and PCR to detect specific deletions such as region of difference (RD)207. More recently, multiplex PCR assay using a Beijing-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been developed for detecting Beijing lineage strains. However, these methods are time-consuming and technically demanding. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that allows specific identification of Beijing genotype strain was developed. This Beijing genotype strain-identifying LAMP assay was performed 214 clinical isolates and the results compared with those of conventional PCR that targeted RD207 and Rv0679c-targreting multiplex PCR for Beijing lineage identification. LAMP assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with RD207-PCR. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.3% and 100%, respectively, compared with Rv0679c-multiplex PCR. This LAMP assay could be used routinely in local laboratories to monitor the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain and thereby used to help control the spread of these potentially highly virulent and drug resistant strains.

  12. Rapid identification of drug-type strains in Cannabis sativa using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Masashi; Aragane, Masako; Nakamura, Kou; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yohei

    2017-01-01

    In Cannabis sativa L., tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive compound and exists as the carboxylated form, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). C. sativa is divided into two strains based on THCA content-THCA-rich (drug-type) strains and THCA-poor (fiber-type) strains. Both strains are prohibited by law in many countries including Japan, whereas the drug-type strains are regulated in Canada and some European countries. As the two strains cannot be discriminated by morphological analysis, a simple method for identifying the drug-type strains is required for quality control in legal cultivation and forensic investigation. We have developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identifying the drug-type strains of C. sativa. We designed two selective LAMP primer sets for on-site or laboratory use, which target the drug-type THCA synthase gene. The LAMP assay was accomplished within approximately 40 min. The assay showed high specificity for the drug-type strains and its sensitivity was the same as or higher than that of conventional polymerase chain reaction. We also showed the effectiveness of melting curve analysis that was conducted after the LAMP assay. The melting temperature values of the drug-type strains corresponded to those of the cloned drug-type THCA synthase gene, and were clearly different from those of the cloned fiber-type THCA synthase gene. Moreover, the LAMP assay with simple sample preparation could be accomplished within 1 h from sample treatment to identification without the need for special devices or techniques. Our rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple assay is expected to be applicable to laboratory and on-site detection.

  13. Organizational climate and self-efficacy as predictors of staff strain in caring for dementia residents: A mediation model.

    PubMed

    Karantzas, Gery C; McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Von Treuer, Kathryn; Davison, Tanya E; O'Connor, Daniel; Haselden, Rachel; Konis, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    To date, no research has investigated how the organizational climate of aged care influences the self-efficacy of staff in caring for residents with dementia, or, how self-efficacy is associated with the strain experienced by staff. This study sought to investigate the extent to which the self-efficacy of aged care staff mediates the association between organizational climate variables (such as autonomy, trusting and supportive workplace relations, and the recognition of competence and ability, and perceptions of workplace pressure) and staff strain. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented in which 255 residential aged care staff recruited across aged care facilities in Melbourne, Australia. Staff completed self-report measures of organizational climate, self-efficacy, and strains in caring for residents with dementia. Indirect effects analyses using bootstrapping indicated that self-efficacy of staff mediated the association between the organizational climate variables of autonomy, trust, support, pressure, and staff strain. The findings of this study emphasize that the aged care sector needs to target organizational climate variables that enhance the self-efficacy of staff, and that this in turn, can help ameliorate the strain experienced by staff caring for residents experiencing dementia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Interferon gamma effect on immune mediator production in human nerve cells infected by two strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Mammari, Nour; Vignoles, Philippe; Halabi, Mohamad Adnan; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Courtioux, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is the major immune mediator that prevents toxoplasmic encephalitis in murine models. The lack of IFN-γ secretion causes reactivation of latent T. gondii infection that may confer a risk for severe toxoplasmic encephalitis. We analyse the effect of IFN-γ on immune mediator production and parasite multiplication in human nerve cells infected by tachyzoites of two T. gondii strains (RH and PRU). IFN-γ decreased the synthesis of MCP-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF and Serpin E1 in all cell types. It decreased IL-6, migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and GROα synthesis only in endothelial cells, while it increased sICAM and Serpin E1 synthesis only in neurons. The PRU strain burden increased in all nerve cells and in contrast, RH strain replication was controlled in IFN-γ-stimulated microglial and endothelial cells but not in IFN-γ-stimulated neurons. The proliferation of the PRU strain in all stimulated cells could be a specific effect of this strain on the host cell. PMID:26692261

  15. [Mediator effect analysis of the trait coping style on job stress and fatigue of the military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J J; Jia, J M; Tao, N; Song, Z X; Ge, H; Jiang, Y; Tian, H; Qiu, E C; Tang, J H; Liu, J W

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the fatigue status of military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region, and to analyze the mediator effect of trait coping style on job stress and fatigue. Methods: In October 2010, with the method of cluster random sampling survey, 531 military personnel stationed in plateau and high cold region were chosen as subject. The fatigue status were evaluated by the Chinese version multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) , job stress were evaluated by the Job Stress Survey (JSS) , and trait coping style were evaluated by the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) . Results: According to the information of different population characteristics, mean rank of physical fatigue about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-2.200, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-2.781, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores about the urban (town) group were higher than that of rural group (Z=-3.026, P<0.05) ; mean rank of physical fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-4.045, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-2.182, P<0.05) ; mean rank of mental fatigue about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-2.879, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores about the up or equal 20-years old age group were higher than that of below 20-years old age group (Z=-3.647, P<0.05) ; mean rank of reduced motivation were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group (F=18.965, P<0.05) ; mean rank of general fatigue scores were significant statistical difference among the military officers, sergeancy and soldier group (F=14.711, P<0.05) . The score of negative coping style were

  16. Job strain, bullying and violence at work and asthma in Peruvian cleaners-a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Llanqui, Uriel; Arce, Andrés; Herrera, Ronald; Herbig, Britta; Nowak, Dennis; Parra, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    An increased asthma prevalence was found in cleaners. Many of them work in precarious employment conditions, potentially leading to stress, a known risk factor for asthma. We aimed to analyze whether asthma in cleaners might partly be explained by psychosocial working conditions. The study population of this cross-sectional study included 199 cleaners employed at regional public health services in Puno Province (Peru). They were compared to 79 unexposed workers from Lima, Peru (response 83%). Both groups answered the short version of the European Working Condition Survey and a modified version of the European Community Respiratory Health screening questionnaire. After multiple imputation, the association between psychosocial working conditions and asthma (wheeze without cold or use of asthma medication) was assessed. The 12-months prevalence of asthma was 22% among cleaners versus 5% among unexposed workers (pChi(2) = .001). Cleaners were more likely than unexposed workers to work with temporary or sub-contracts, have a high employment insecurity, high strain working conditions and low social support (all pChi(2) < .05). Twenty-six percent vs. 10% reported a high bullying score; 39% vs. 8% had experienced violence at work (both pChi(2) < .001). High bullying score (adjusted Odds Ratio 5.6; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5-21.4) and violence (2.4; 1.1-5.4) were the main predictors of asthma. Taking these factors into account, being a cleaner was not statistically significantly associated with the outcome (3.5; 0.9-13.8). Poor psychosocial working conditions of cleaners may partly explain the high prevalence of asthma. The underlying mechanism might be a stress-induced inflammatory immune response.

  17. Job demands × job control interaction effects: do occupation-specific job demands increase their occurrence?

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Biggs, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects and job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the inclusion of generic job demands. This research tested these two propositions via a self-report survey assessing key psychological job characteristics administered twice to a sample of correctional workers (N = 746). The research clearly identified that the assessment of correctional-specific job demands (CJD) was more strongly associated with job satisfaction, work engagement, turnover intentions and psychological strain, as compared with an assessment of generic job demands. However, the CJD did not produce a greater proportion of significant job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the generic job demands measure. The results thereby provide further support for the acknowledged 'elusiveness' of these theoretical interactions. Overall, however, the results did support the inclusion of occupation-specific measures of job demands for the accurate assessment of the health and job performance of high-risk workers. The implications for theoretical discussions that describe how high job demands are moderated by job resources are discussed.

  18. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  19. Reciprocal Relations among Job Demands, Job Control, and Social Support Are Moderated by Neuroticism: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslak, Roman; Knoll, Nina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether neuroticism moderates the relations among social support (from coworkers and supervisors) and work strain characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control). A full cross-lagged panel analysis was used to test whether social support predicts job demands and control or whether job demands and job control predict…

  20. Production of Cellobionate from Cellulose Using an Engineered Neurospora crassa Strain with Laccase and Redox Mediator Addition

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Amanda; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel production process for cellobionic acid from cellulose using an engineered fungal strain with the exogenous addition of laccase and a redox mediator. A previously engineered strain of Neurospora crassa (F5∆ace-1∆cre-1∆ndvB) was shown to produce cellobionate directly from cellulose without the addition of exogenous cellulases. Specifically, N. crassa produces cellulases, which hydrolyze cellulose to cellobiose, and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), which oxidizes cellobiose to cellobionate. However, the conversion of cellobiose to cellobionate is limited by the slow re-oxidation of CDH by molecular oxygen. By adding low concentrations of laccase and a redox mediator to the fermentation, CDH can be efficiently oxidized by the redox mediator, with in-situ re-oxidation of the redox mediator by laccase. The conversion of cellulose to cellobionate was optimized by evaluating pH, buffer, and laccase and redox mediator addition time on the yield of cellobionate. Mass and material balances were performed, and the use of the native N. crassa laccase in such a conversion system was evaluated against the exogenous Pleurotus ostreatus laccase. This paper describes a working concept of cellobionate production from cellulose using the CDH-ATBS-laccase system in a fermentation system. PMID:25849253

  1. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B.

    PubMed

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-05-05

    nutrient-rich environment. In this study, we show that in Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, NO mediates symbiosis with the alga Trichodesmium erythraeum, a major marine diazotroph. In addition, Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B is the first characterized bacteria to harbor both the NOS and H-NOX proteins, making it uniquely capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO, analogous to mammalian NO signaling. Our study expands current understanding of the role of NO in bacterial signaling, providing a novel role for NO in bacterial communication and symbiosis. Copyright © 2015 Rao et al.

  2. Local serotonin mediates cyclic strain-induced phenotype transformation, matrix degradation, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cultured sheep mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Carla M R; Kisiday, John; Johnson, Brennan; Orton, E Christopher

    2012-05-15

    This study addressed the following questions: 1) Does cyclic tensile strain induce protein expression patterns consistent with myxomatous degeneration in mitral valves? 2) Does cyclic strain induce local serotonin synthesis in mitral valves? 3) Are cyclic strain-induced myxomatous protein expression patterns in mitral valves dependent on local serotonin? Cultured sheep mitral valve leaflets were subjected to 0, 10, 20, and 30% cyclic strain for 24 and 72 h. Protein levels of activated myofibroblast phenotype markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and nonmuscle embryonic myosin (SMemb); matrix catabolic enzymes, matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 1 and 13, and cathepsin K; and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in mitral valves increased with increased cyclic strain. Serotonin was present in the serum-free media of cultured mitral valves and concentrations increased with cyclic strain. Expression of the serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) increased in strained mitral valves. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serotonin 2B/2C receptor or TPH1 diminished expression of phenotype markers (α-SMA and SMemb) and matrix catabolic enzyme (MMP1, MMP13, and cathepsin K) expression in 10- and 30%-strained mitral valves. These results provide first evidence that mitral valves synthesize serotonin locally. The results further demonstrate that tensile loading modulates local serotonin synthesis, expression of effector proteins associated with mitral valve degeneration, and GAG synthesis. Inhibition of serotonin diminishes strain-mediated protein expression patterns. These findings implicate serotonin and tensile loading in mitral degeneration, functionally link the pathogeneses of serotoninergic (carcinoid, drug-induced) and degenerative mitral valve disease, and have therapeutic implications.

  3. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on academic outcomes, educational expectations and job aspirations 6 years later: the mediating role of parenting and youth mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-02-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths' educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed.

  4. Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Academic Outcomes, Educational Expectations and Job Aspirations 6 Years Later: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Youth Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Erin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wolchik, Sharlene; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Experiencing the death of a parent during childhood is associated with a variety of difficulties, including lower academic achievement, that have implications for functioning in childhood and adulthood. This study examines effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a preventive intervention for parentally-bereaved youth and their caregivers, on grade point averages (GPA), educational expectations and job aspirations of youths 6 years after the intervention. A total of 244 bereaved youths ages 8-16 and their caregivers were randomized to either the FBP or a comparison group that received books about bereavement. Assessments occurred at pretest, post-test, and 11-month and 6-year follow-ups. Direct program effects on educational outcomes and job aspirations 6 years later were non-significant, although the program improved educational expectations for children with fewer behavior problems at program entry, and GPA for younger children. Mediational pathways for program effects on educational outcomes were also tested. Program-induced improvements in effective parenting at 11-month follow-up were associated with higher GPAs at 6-year follow-up for youth who were younger or for whom more time had passed since the loss. Program-induced improvements in parenting and teacher-rated youth mental health problems at the 6-year follow-up mediated program effects on youths’ educational expectations for those with fewer behavior problems at program entry. The implications of these findings for understanding processes related to academic and educational outcomes following the death of a parent and for prevention efforts to help bereaved and other high-risk children succeed in school are discussed. PMID:25052624

  5. Reduction of azo dyes by redox mediators originating in the naphthalenesulfonic acid degradation pathway of Sphingomonas sp. strain BN6.

    PubMed Central

    Keck, A; Klein, J; Kudlich, M; Stolz, A; Knackmuss, H J; Mattes, R

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by Sphingomonas sp. strain BN6 was analyzed. Aerobic conversion of 2-naphthalenesulfonate (2NS) by cells of strain BN6 stimulated the subsequent anaerobic reduction of the sulfonated azo dye amaranth at least 10-fold. In contrast, in crude extracts, the azo reductase activity was not stimulated. A mutant of strain BN6 which was not able to metabolize 2NS showed increased amaranth reduction rates only when the cells were resuspended in the culture supernatant of 2NS-grown BN6 wild-type cells. The same increase could be observed with different bacterial strains. This suggested the presence of an extracellular factor which was formed during the degradation of 2NS by strain BN6. The addition of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, the first intermediate of the degradation pathway of 2NS, or its decomposition products to cell suspensions of the mutant of strain BN6 (2NS-) increased the activity of amaranth reduction. The presence of bacterial cells was needed to maintain the reduction process. Thus, the decomposition products of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene are suggested to act as redox mediators which are able to anaerobically shuttle reduction equivalents from the cells to the extracellular azo dye. PMID:9293019

  6. [Comparison between the risk of mobbing at work and conditions of job strain and effort-reward imbalance in relation to stress-related disorders: a study in the public administration].

    PubMed

    Balducci, C; Fraccaroli, E

    2013-01-01

    A limitation of previous research on mobbing at work was that the individual consequences of the phenomenon were often assessed on 'clinical' samples of victims. Studies in organizations are less numerous and those available rarely evaluated the potential effect of mobbing over and above that of other psychosocial factors which provided robust evidence of adverse health effects. The relationship between exposure to mobbing and stress-related psychophysical conditions was investigated taking in consideration the possible concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. Cross-sectional study on public administration administrative employees (No. = 538, 48% women). The psychosocial factors considered were assessed by means of well known and validated scales. The four health outcomes considered were psychological caseness (as operationalized by means of the general health questionnaire-12-item version), depression, gastritis and colitis/irritable colon syndrome as indicated by having reported a medical diagnosis of such conditions. Covariates: gender, age, body mass index, smoking habits and experience of a traumatic event in the last year. Analysis consisted of a series of logistic regressions. Exposure to mobbing was significantly associated with all the outcomes considered over and above the covariates. The inclusion in the models of job strain and effort-reward imbalance did not substantially alter the results. The relationship between mobbing at work and health outcomes is not confounded by concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. These results offer further confirmation of the uniqueness of mobbing as a psychosocial risk factor.

  7. Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; Santos, Itamar S; Rotenberg, Lucia; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Goulart, Alessandra C; Aquino, Estela M; Benseñor, Isabela

    2016-11-01

    Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain. Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria. Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00-1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08-1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00-1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09-1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine. Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:987-1000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. World Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirault, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Although jobs in international corporations operating in the United States are not substantially different from those of their domestic counterparts, international job opportunities will be greatest for those who have prepared themselves through education, experience, and travel. (Author/JOW)

  9. In vivo vascular wall tissue characterization using a strain tensor measuring (STM) technique for flow-mediated vasodilation analyses.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Frisbee, Jefferson C; D'Audiffret, Alexandre; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2009-10-21

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis, and the measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in brachial and other conduit arteries has become a common method to assess the status of endothelial function in vivo. Based on the direct relationship between the FMD response and local shear stress on the conduit brachial artery endothelium, we hypothesize that measuring relevant changes in the brachial wall strain tensor would provide a non-invasive tool for assessing vascular mechanics during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia. Direct measurement of the wall strain tensor due to FMD has not yet been reported in the literature. In this work, a noninvasive direct ultrasound-based strain tensor measuring (STM) technique is presented to assess changes in the mechanical parameters of the vascular wall during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia and/or FMD, including local velocities and displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates. The STM technique utilizes sequences of B-mode ultrasound images as its input with no extra hardware requirement, and its algorithm starts with segmenting a region of interest within the artery and providing the acquisition parameters. Then a block matching technique based on speckle tracking is employed to measure the frame-to-frame local velocities. Displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates are then calculated by integrating or differentiating velocity components. The accuracy of the STM algorithm was assessed in vitro using phantom studies, where an average error of 7% was reported using different displacement ranging from 100 microm to 1000 microm. Furthermore, in vivo studies using human subjects were performed to test the STM algorithm during pre- and post-occlusion. Good correlations (|r| >0.5, P < 0.05) were found between the post-occlusion responses of diameter change and local wall strains. Results indicate the validity and

  10. In vivo vascular wall tissue characterization using a strain tensor measuring (STM) technique for flow-mediated vasodilation analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; D'Audiffret, Alexandre; Mukdadi, Osama M.

    2009-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis, and the measurement of flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in brachial and other conduit arteries has become a common method to assess the status of endothelial function in vivo. Based on the direct relationship between the FMD response and local shear stress on the conduit brachial artery endothelium, we hypothesize that measuring relevant changes in the brachial wall strain tensor would provide a non-invasive tool for assessing vascular mechanics during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia. Direct measurement of the wall strain tensor due to FMD has not yet been reported in the literature. In this work, a noninvasive direct ultrasound-based strain tensor measuring (STM) technique is presented to assess changes in the mechanical parameters of the vascular wall during post-occlusion reactive hyperemia and/or FMD, including local velocities and displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates. The STM technique utilizes sequences of B-mode ultrasound images as its input with no extra hardware requirement, and its algorithm starts with segmenting a region of interest within the artery and providing the acquisition parameters. Then a block matching technique based on speckle tracking is employed to measure the frame-to-frame local velocities. Displacements, diameter change, local strain tensor and strain rates are then calculated by integrating or differentiating velocity components. The accuracy of the STM algorithm was assessed in vitro using phantom studies, where an average error of 7% was reported using different displacement ranging from 100 µm to 1000 µm. Furthermore, in vivo studies using human subjects were performed to test the STM algorithm during pre- and post-occlusion. Good correlations (|r| >0.5, P < 0.05) were found between the post-occlusion responses of diameter change and local wall strains. Results indicate the validity and versatility of

  11. Job Satisfaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    well include an "overall, global or unidimensional component" (p 184) but that additional specific factors were also evident, ie. "job satisfaction is...between a person’s life style and organisational structure. They hypothesised that job satisfaction may be adversely affected if there is any significant...between job satisfaction and an independent life style, and; thirdly, that "job satisfac- tion is maximispd when the individual places a high value

  12. Job Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsell, Ruth; Thompson, Gretchen

    1979-01-01

    Counselors at the UCLA Placement Center organized the Job Club to develop successful job search techniques with group support, direction, and encouragement. Specific goals were: (a) to provide a forum for sharing; (b) to assist in identifying job-related skills; (c) to provide basic information; (d) to establish guidelines; and (e) assist decision…

  13. Simple differentiation method of mumps Hoshino vaccine strain from wild strains by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoko; Fujino, Motoko; Ota, Yoshinori; Notomi, Tsugunori; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2007-01-26

    Mumps virus is still circulating and annual mumps outbreaks occur with fluctuating magnitudes in Japan. Aseptic meningitis has been reported after vaccination and it would be of importance to determine whether this was related to the vaccination. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic method for the differentiation of the Hoshino vaccine strain from circulating wild types. We developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) region for the detection of mumps virus genome from clinical samples. The typical ladder pattern disappeared after the LAMP products of the Hoshino vaccine strain were digested with ScaI, but those of wild types were not cut by ScaI. We obtained 19 cerebro spinal fluids (CSF) from the patients with aseptic meningitis and 17 salivary swab samples from the patients with acute parotitis after mumps vaccination, in which one case was complicated with orchitis. Mumps virus genome was detected in 18 CSF samples and in all NPS by RT-LAMP. The Hoshino vaccine strain was identified in 16 out of 18 CSF RT-LAMP positives and in 11 out of 17 NPS samples and the remaining samples were identified as wild types. RT-LAMP followed by ScaI digestion is a sensitive, simple and rapid differential method and useful for laboratory surveillance for vaccine-adverse events.

  14. Antibodies to the HMW1/HMW2 and Hia Adhesins of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Mediate Broad-Based Opsonophagocytic Killing of Homologous and Heterologous Strains

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Linda E.

    2014-01-01

    The HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins are highly immunogenic surface adhesins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Approximately 75% of NTHi strains express HMW1/HMW2 adhesins, and most of the remaining 25% express an Hia adhesin. Our objective in this study was to assess the ability of antisera raised against purified HMW1/HMW2 proteins or recombinant Hia proteins to mediate opsonophagocytic killing of a large panel of unrelated NTHi strains. Native HMW1/HMW2 proteins were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Recombinant fusion proteins expressing surface-exposed segments of either of two prototype Hia proteins were purified from Escherichia coli transformants. Immune sera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay with the HL-60 phagocytic cell line. The three HMW1/HMW2 antisera mediated killing of 22 of 65, 43 of 65, and 28 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. As a group, the three sera mediated killing of 48 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia immune sera mediated killing of 12 of 24 and 13 of 24 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains, respectively. Together, they mediated killing of 15 of 24 Hia-expressing strains. Neither the HMW1/HMW2 nor the Hia antisera mediated killing of NTHi expressing the alternative adhesin type. Antibodies directed against native HMW1/HMW2 proteins and recombinant Hia proteins are capable of mediating broad-based opsonophagocytic killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi strains. A vaccine formulated with a limited number of HMW1/HMW2 and Hia proteins might provide protection against disease caused by most NTHi strains. PMID:24574538

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Ligation-Mediated PCR and Spoligotyping as Screening Methods for Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Di Perri, Giovanni; Brunello, Francesca; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Ligozzi, Marco; Fontana, Roberta; Concia, Ercole; Vincent, Veronique

    1999-01-01

    Spoligotyping has been suggested as a screening test in multistep genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Relying on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with IS6110 (IS6110 RFLP analysis) as a “gold standard,” we performed a comparative evaluation of spoligotyping and ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR), a recently described PCR-based typing method, as rapid screening tests for fingerprinting of 158 M. tuberculosis strains collected in Verona, Italy. LMPCR seemed to be comparable to spoligotyping in terms both of feasibility with rapidly extracted DNA and of generation of software-analyzable images. Moreover, LMPCR grouped considerably fewer strains than spoligotyping (38 versus 67%) and was found to reduce the cluster overestimation rate (26.3 versus 58%) and to give a better discriminatory index (0.992 versus 0.970) compared to spoligotyping. In our geographical region, where there was no evidence of clustered strains carrying fewer than six IS6110 copies, LMPCR was found to be more discriminatory than spoligotyping. We also evaluated two models of three-step typing strategies, involving the use of spoligotyping and LMPCR as screening methods and IS6110 RFLP analysis as a further supporting test. LMPCR proved to be a more effective first-step test than spoligotyping, significantly reducing the need for subtyping. LMPCR should be considered an alternative to spoligotyping as a rapid screening method for M. tuberculosis fingerprinting, particularly in areas with a low prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains carrying few copies of IS6110. PMID:10488164

  16. Maternal Caregiving Strain as a Mediator in the Relationship between Child and Mother Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther; Greeno, Catherine; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the general stress--caregiver strain--mental health outcome model may be as appropriate for caregivers of minor-age children as it has been for caregivers of adults with chronic illness. The authors examined whether children's behavioral problems are related to mothers' caregiving strains, which then is related to…

  17. Maternal Caregiving Strain as a Mediator in the Relationship between Child and Mother Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther; Greeno, Catherine; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether the general stress--caregiver strain--mental health outcome model may be as appropriate for caregivers of minor-age children as it has been for caregivers of adults with chronic illness. The authors examined whether children's behavioral problems are related to mothers' caregiving strains, which then is related to…

  18. Job descriptions and job matching.

    PubMed

    Pirie, Susan

    2004-10-01

    As the date for national roll-out and the implementation for Agenda for Change draws near, many of you will be involved in the job matching process. This is designed to measure your job against a national job profile, thus establishing which pay band you will be placed in and so determining your salary.

  19. Strain-induced fetal type II epithelial cell differentiation is mediated via cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulian; Maciejewski, Benjamin S; Lee, Nicole; Silbert, Ophira; McKnight, Nathan L; Frangos, John A; Sanchez-Esteban, Juan

    2006-10-01

    The signaling pathways by which mechanical forces modulate fetal lung development remain largely unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that strain-induced fetal type II cell differentiation is mediated via the cAMP signaling pathway. Freshly isolated E19 fetal type II epithelial cells were cultured on collagen-coated silastic membranes and exposed to mechanical strain for varying intervals, to simulate mechanical forces during lung development. Unstretched samples were used as controls. Mechanical strain activated heterotrimeric G-protein alpha(s) subunit, cAMP, and the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Incubation of E19 cells with the PKA inhibitor H-89 significantly decreased strain-induced CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, adenylate cyclase 5 and CREB genes were also mechanically induced. In contrast, components of the PKA-independent (Epac) pathway, including Rap-1 or B-Raf, were not phosphorylated by strain. The addition of forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP to unstretched E19 monolayers markedly upregulated expression of the type II cell differentiation marker surfactant protein C, whereas the Epac agonist 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP had no effect. Furthermore, incubation of E19 cells with the PKA inhibitor Rp-2'-O-monobutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate or transient transfection with plasmid DNA containing a PKA inhibitor expression vector significantly decreased strain-induced surfactant protein C mRNA expression. In conclusion, these studies indicate that the cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway is activated by force in fetal type II cells and participates in strain-induced fetal type II cell differentiation.

  20. Plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracyclines among Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Poland between 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Młynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Kujawa, Marlena; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Młynarczyk, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of two main mechanisms of resistance in tetracycline-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (TRNG) is associated with the presence of TetM protein responsible for actively blocking of the tetracycline target site in the 30S ribosomal subunit. This mechanism is encoded by conjugative plasmids. The second mechanism is chromosomal in nature and due to mutations in specific genes. Aim To determine the incidence and type of tetM determinants in TRNG strains isolated from patients presenting with gonorrhea infection to the Dermatology and Venereology Clinic in Warsaw in 2012–2013. Material and methods Tetracycline and doxycycline susceptibility was determined by E-Tests. The presence and type of the tetM gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results Tetracycline resistance was detected in 50.8% of the evaluated strains. The TRNG strains containing the tetM plasmid constituted 13.8% of all the evaluated strains. Dutch type tetM constituted 12.3% and American type tetM 1.5% of all the evaluated strains. In the remaining TRNG strains, resistance to tetracyclines was presumably chromosome-encoded. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline ranged from 0.25 to 32.0 mg/l, MIC50 = 2.0 mg/l, MIC90 = 32.0 mg/l. The MIC of doxycycline ranged from 0.25 to 32.0 mg/l, MIC50 = 4.0 mg/l, MIC90 = 16.0 mg/l. Conclusions Unlike most of European countries, in 2012–2013 in Poland, the Dutch type tetM was found to be much more common than the American type. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of tetracycline and doxycycline were similar, with doxycycline exhibiting a somewhat lower effectiveness in vitro than tetracycline towards chromosome-mediated tetracycline resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:28035227

  1. Dietary glucarate-mediated reduction of sensitivity of murine strains to chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Walaszek, Z; Hanausek-Walaszek, M; Webb, T E

    1986-10-01

    Serum beta-glucuronidase activity is shown to differ quantitatively in the following strains of mice, listed in order of increasing activity: C3H, C57BL/6 less than BALB/c, DBA/2, ICR less than SENCAR, A/He. The level of the enzyme in the murine strains is shown to correlate with the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, which in turn reflects the endogenous level of androgens. Dietary calcium D-glucarate, an in vivo beta-glucuronidase inhibitor, reduced the steady state level of both beta-glucuronidase and 17-ketosteroid excretion in the highly susceptible A/He and SENCAR strains to that of strains known to be resistant to chemical carcinogenesis. Sensitivity of the A/He strain is significantly reduced by dietary calcium glucarate, which is shown to inhibit DNA binding and the induction of pulmonary adenomas by benzo[a]pyrene.

  2. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: A life course analysis of working American mothers

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, Erika L.; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Noelke, Clemens; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Work stress and family composition have been separately linked to later-life mortality among working women, but it is not known how combinations of these exposures impact mortality, particularly when exposure is assessed cumulatively over the life course. We tested whether, among US women, lifelong work stress and lifelong family circumstances would jointly predict mortality risk. Procedures We studied formerly working mothers in the US Health and Retirement Study (HRS) born 1924-1957 (n=7,352). We used sequence analysis to determine five prototypical trajectories of marriage and parenthood in our sample. Using detailed information on occupation and industry of each woman’s longest-held job, we assigned each respondent a score for job control and job demands. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates by combined job demands, job control, and family status, then modeled hazard ratios for death based on family constellation, job control tertiles, and their combination. Results Married women who had children later in life had the lowest mortality risks (93/1,000). The highest-risk family clusters were characterized by spells of single motherhood (132/1,000). Generally, we observed linear relationships between job control and mortality hazard within each family trajectory. But while mortality risk was high for all long-term single mothers, we did not observe a job control-mortality gradient in this group. The highest-mortality subgroup was previously married women who became single mothers later in life and had low job control (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.38,2.63). Practical implications Studies of associations between psychosocial work characteristics and health might consider heterogeneity of effects by family circumstances. Worksite interventions simultaneously considering both work and family characteristics may be most effective in reducing health risks. PMID:26513120

  3. Polycystin-1 Mediates Mechanical Strain-Induced Osteoblastic Mechanoresponses via Potentiation of Intracellular Calcium and Akt/β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Wen; Ma, Junqing; Pan, Yongchu; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Weibing

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical regulation of bone formation involves a complex biophysical process, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Polycystin-1 (PC1) is postulated to function as a mechanosensory molecule mediating mechanical signal transduction in renal epithelial cells. To investigate the involvement of PC1 in mechanical strain-induced signaling cascades controlling osteogenesis, PKD1 gene was stably silenced in osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 by using lentivirus-mediated shRNA technology. Here, our findings showed that mechanical tensile strain sufficiently enhanced osteogenic gene expressions and osteoblastic proliferation. However, PC1 deficiency resulted in the loss of the ability to sense external mechanical stimuli thereby promoting osteoblastic osteogenesis and proliferation. The signal pathways implicated in this process were intracellular calcium and Akt/β-catenin pathway. The basal levels of intracellular calcium, phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3β and nuclear accumulation of active β-catenin were significantly attenuated in PC1 deficient osteoblasts. In addition, PC1 deficiency impaired mechanical strain-induced potentiation of intracellular calcium, and activation of Akt-dependent and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, which was able to be partially reversed by calcium ionophore A23187 treatment. Furthermore, applications of LiCl or A23187 in PC1 deficient osteoblasts could promote osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation under mechanical strain conditions. Therefore, our results demonstrated that osteoblasts require mechanosensory molecule PC1 to adapt to external mechanical tensile strain thereby inducing osteoblastic mechanoresponse, partially through the potentiation of intracellular calcium and downstream Akt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:24618832

  4. Job Stressors, Emotional Exhaustion, and Need for Recovery: A Multi-Source Study on the Benefits of Psychological Detachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kuttler, Iris; Fritz, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines psychological detachment (i.e., mentally "switching off") from work during non-work time as a partial mediator between job stressors and low work-home boundaries on the one hand and strain reactions (emotional exhaustion, need for recovery) on the other hand. Survey data were collected from a sample of protestant pastors (N =…

  5. Monooxygenase-mediated 1,2-dichloroethane degradation by Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, J.C.; Hartmans, S.

    1999-06-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Pseudomonas sp. strain DCA1, was isolated from a 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-degrading biofilm. Strain DCA1 utilizes DCA as the sole carbon and energy source and does not require additional organic nutrients, such as vitamins, for optimal growth. The affinity of strain DCA1 for DCA is very high, with a K{sub m} value below the detection limit of 0.5 {micro}M. Instead of a hydrolytic dehalogenation, as in other DCA utilizers, the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1 is an oxidation reaction. Oxygen and NAD(P)H are required for this initial step. Propene was converted to 1,2-epoxypropane by DCA-grown cells and competitively inhibited DCA degradation. The authors concluded that a monooxygenase is responsible for the first step in DCA degradation in strain DCA1. Oxidation of DCA probably results in the formation of the unstable intermediate 1,2-dichloroethanol, which spontaneously releases chloride, yielding chloroacetaldehyde. The DCA degradation pathway is strain DCA1 proceeds from chloroacetaldehyde via chloroacetic acid and presumably glycolic acid, which is similar to degradation routes observed in other DCA-utilizing bacteria.

  6. The substrate strain mediated magnetotransport properties of surface states in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Shengli; Liu, Daqing

    2016-10-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the strained bulk HgTe can be regarded as a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). We further explore the strain effects on magnetotransport in HgTe at magnetic field. We find that the substrate strain associated with the surface index of carriers, can remove the surfaces degeneracy in Landau levels. This accordingly induces the well separated surface quantum Hall plateaus and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. These results can be used to generate and detect surface polarization, not only in HgTe but also in a broad class of TIs, which would be very great news for electronic applications of TIs.

  7. The mediating and moderating role of personal strain and coping resource in the relationship between work stressor and quality of life among Chinese nurses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Yang, Shu-Juan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether personal strain and coping resources act as either mediator or moderator or both in the relationship between work stressor and quality of life among Chinese nurses. A total of 1,012 nurses were selected from eight hospitals located in two provinces in China. Quality of life was measured with the Chinese version of the Short Form-36 Health Survey; work stressor, personal strain, and coping resources were evaluated using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition. The hierarchical multiple regression procedure and Baron and Kenny's model of mediation were applied to test for moderation and mediation, respectively. A structural equation model was fit to assess the interrelationships among these variables. Work stressor was closely associated with quality of life, which was mediated and moderated by personal strain and coping resources. Personal strain also acted both as moderator and mediator in the relationship between coping resources and quality of life. The relationships were verified in the structural equation model. The greatest absolute value of the standardized total effects was seen in personal strain (0.817), followed by work stressor (0.634) and coping resources (0.488). Personal strain and coping resources have both mediating and moderating effects on the relationship between work stress and quality of life in a sample of Chinese nurses. An effective intervention strategy is needed to reduce work stress and ensure better quality of life.

  8. PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting of atypical campylobacter strains isolated from surface and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J; Feuerpfeil, I; Schulze, E

    1996-09-01

    This study shows that typing through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to differentiate between strains of Campylobacter and Arcobacter, whereas by means of conventional biotyping Arcobacter might be identified as atypical Campylobacter. Microaerophilic "campylobacter-like" organisms were isolated from several drinking water treatment plants as well as environmental sources. The strains were characterized by biotyping and PCR amplification of Campylobacter flaA/flaB and 16s-rRNA Arcobacter butzleri-specific genes.

  9. Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, Maria; Martín, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L. lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares et al., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L. lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L. lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains.

  10. Strain-mediated magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Jin, C.; Zheng, D. X.; Bai, H. L.

    2015-10-01

    Strain mediated structure, magnetic, and transport properties of spinel ferrites were investigated by growing epitaxial LuxFe3-xO4 (LFO, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.26 ) films on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates with in-plane compressive and tensile strains, respectively. The lattice parameter of LFO films decreases on SrTiO3 substrates, while increases on MgO substrates with the increasing Lu content. The LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates exhibit larger saturation magnetization and smaller exchange bias and coercive field. Phase shift of anisotropic magnetoresistance is also observed in the LFO films on SrTiO3 substrates. In addition, the nonmagnetic Lu3+ ions in spinel ferrites enhance the spin canting, which further increases the exchange bias and coercive field and strengthens the four-fold symmetry of anisotropic magnetoresistance and the two-fold symmetry of planar Hall effect.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation in the entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii and development of benzimidazole fungicide resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Jin-Jin; Xie, Ming; Peng, De-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Lecanicillium lecanii has been used in the biological control of several insects in agricultural practice. Since the gene manipulation tools for this entomopathogenic fungus have not been sufficiently developed, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) in L. lecanii was investigated in this study, using the wild-type isolate FZ9906 as a progenitor strain and the hygromycin B resistance (hph) gene as a selection marker. Furthermore, a field carbendazim-resistant (mrt) gene from Botrytis cinerea was expressed in L. lecanii FZ9906 via the ATMT system. The results revealed that the frequency of transformation surpassed 25transformants/10(6) conidia, most of the putative transformants contained a single copy of T-DNA, and the T-DNA inserts were stably inherited after five generations. All putative transformants had indistinguishable biological characteristics relative to the wild-type strain, excepting two transformants with altered growth habits or virulence. Moreover, the resistance of the putative transformants to carbendazim (MBC) was improved, and the highest one was 380-fold higher than the wild-type strain. In conclusion, ATMT is an effective and suitable system for L. lecanii transformation, and will be a useful tool for the basic and application research of gene functions and gene modifications of this strain.

  12. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I Mulberry Strains in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jingsheng; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Xiangjiu; Ding, Wei; Xu, Jin; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains are causative agent of bacterial wilt of mulberry. Current diagnostic methods are not adopted to the mulberry wilt disease. In this study, we developed a rapid method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to detect R. solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains. A set of six primers was designed to target the clone MG67 sequence in this LAMP detection which can be completed in 20 min at 64°C. The results of the LAMP reaction could be observed with the naked eye due to magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate produced during the reaction or the color change after adding SYBR Green I. The specificity of the LAMP was confirmed using DNA from 46 representative strains of R. solanacearum and 7 other soil-borne bacteria strains. This method was also of high sensitivity and could be used to detect the presence of less than 160 fg genomic DNA or 2.2 × 10(2) CFU/ml of bacterial cells per 25 μl reaction volume, moreover, the presence of plant tissue fluid did not affect the sensitivity. Since it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions to make disease forecasting more accurate and efficient.

  13. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I Mulberry Strains in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jingsheng; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Xiangjiu; Ding, Wei; Xu, Jin; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains are causative agent of bacterial wilt of mulberry. Current diagnostic methods are not adopted to the mulberry wilt disease. In this study, we developed a rapid method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to detect R. solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains. A set of six primers was designed to target the clone MG67 sequence in this LAMP detection which can be completed in 20 min at 64°C. The results of the LAMP reaction could be observed with the naked eye due to magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate produced during the reaction or the color change after adding SYBR Green I. The specificity of the LAMP was confirmed using DNA from 46 representative strains of R. solanacearum and 7 other soil-borne bacteria strains. This method was also of high sensitivity and could be used to detect the presence of less than 160 fg genomic DNA or 2.2 × 102 CFU/ml of bacterial cells per 25 μl reaction volume, moreover, the presence of plant tissue fluid did not affect the sensitivity. Since it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions to make disease forecasting more accurate and efficient. PMID:28197157

  14. Microscopic evidence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in Co/Pt multilayers/PMN-PT(011) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Zheng, Xiaoli; Cai, Jianwang; Zhao, Yonggang; Liu, Ming

    A promising way to control magnetization(M) via an electric field(E-field) is using magnetoelectric(ME) effect in FM/FE heterostructures. We use magnetic(electric) force microscopy(M(e)FM) to study the strain-mediated E-field modulation of M in (Co/Pt)n with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) or in-plane anisotropy on PMN-PT(011) substrates. MFM were performed on (Co/Pt)n with an DC E-field applied to PMN-PT. In MeFM, we superimpose an AC modulation on a DC one and utilize lock-in technique to detect weak ME effect. For (Co/Pt)n with PMA, MFM images show stripe domains with no obvious changes at varied DC E-fields. However, MeFM shows interesting structures and the image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the PMN-PT substrate. For sample with in-plane anisotropy, both MFM and MeFM images show dipole-like domains. Interestingly, the MeFM image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the substrate. The sign reversal of MeFM contrast indicates that features revealed by MeFM are intrinsic local ME effect. Our MeFM data are consistent with the ferromagnetic resonance results showing that strain-induced anisotropy change will cause part of M switching to the in-plane direction. Possible scenarios will be discussed.

  15. Complete genome sequence of the Sporosarcina psychrophila DSM 6497, a psychrophilic Bacillus strain that mediates the calcium carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenkai; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yu

    2016-05-20

    Sporosarcina psychrophila DSM 6497 is a gram positive, spore-formation psychrophilic bacterial strain, widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here we report its complete sequence including one circular chromosome of 4674191bp with a GC content of 40.3%. Genes encoding urease are predicted in the genome, which provide insight information on the microbiologically mediated urea hydrolysis process. This urea hydrolysis can further lead to an increase of carbonate anion and alkalinity in the environment, which promotes the microbiologically induced carbonate precipitation with various applications, such as the bioremediation of calcium rich wastewater and bio-reservation of architectural patrimony. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Job enrichment in job design.

    PubMed

    Bobeng, B J

    1977-03-01

    For optimal operation in labor-intensive industries, such as foodservice, not only scientific management principles but also behavioral aspects (the people) must be considered in designing job content. Three psychologic states--work that is meaningful, responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of outcomes--are critical in motivating people. These, in turn encompass the core dimensions of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job enrichment and job enlargement--related but not identical means of expanding job content--when combined, offer the likelihood of redesigned jobs in the core dimensions. Effective implementation of a job enrichment program hinges on diagnosing problems in the work system, actual changes in the work, and systematic evaluation of the changes. The importance of the contribution of the behavioral sciences to management cannot be neglected.

  17. Molecularly mediated thin film assembly of nanoparticles on flexible devices: electrical conductivity versus device strains in different gas/vapor environment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Peipei; Luo, Jin; Wang, Lingyan; Cohen, Melissa F; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2011-08-23

    The ability to precisely control nanoparticle-enabled electrical devices for applications involving conformal wrapping/bending adaptability in various complex sensing environments requires an understanding of the electrical correlation with the device strain and exposure to the molecular environment. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of molecularly mediated thin film assembly of gold nanoparticles on flexible chemiresistor devices under different device strains and exposure molecules. Both theoretical and experimental data have revealed that the electrical conductivity of the nanoparticle assembly depends on a combination of the device strain and the exposure molecules. Under no device strain, the electrical conductivity is sensitive to the molecular nature in the exposure environment, revealing a clear increase in electrical conductivity with the dielectric constant of vapor molecules. Under small device strains, the electrical conductivity is shown to respond sensitively to the strain directions (tensile vs compressive strain) and also to the dielectric constant of the vapor molecules in a way resembling the characteristic under no device strain. Under large device strains, the electrical conductivity is shown to respond to the difference in dielectric constant of the vapor molecules but, more significantly, to the device tensile and compressive strains than those under small device strains. This combination of device strain and dielectric characteristic is also dependent on the orientation of the microelectrode patterns with respect to the device strain direction, a finding that has important implications to the design of flexible arrays for a complex sensing environment. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. Voltage pulse induced repeated magnetization reversal in strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets: a size- and material-dependent micromagnetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Huanqing; Cai, Li; Yang, Xiaokuo; Wang, Sen; Feng, Chaowen; Xu, Li; Zhang, Mingliang

    2017-07-01

    Realization of complete magnetization reversal is a major challenge for electrical control of magnetism. This paper focuses on voltage pulse induced magnetization reversal which is mediated by localized strain generated in a two-phase magnetostrictive/piezoelectric multiferroic heterostructure. This paradigm takes advantage of the damping and precessional property of magnetization dynamics, of which the magnetization reversal needs precise control of the voltage pulse. We have performed a micromagnetic study of varied-size elliptical single-domain Ni and Terfenol-D nanomagnets at T  =  300 K. By using the actual ground states of the nanomagnets at T  =  300 K as the initial states, we obtained the key parameters of the voltage pulse which can induce repeated magnetization reversal. Then we uncovered the mechanism of the size-dependent incoherent magnetization switching of Terfenol-D nanomagnets by a quantitative analysis of the interaction between the exchange energy, demagnetization energy and stress anisotropy energy. These results lay the foundation for the application of strain-mediated magnetization switching technology, and also provide a set of guidelines for signal design and the choice of nanomagnets with proper material and size in the design of specific straintronic circuits.

  19. Absence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at fully epitaxial Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} interface (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Radaelli, G. Petti, D.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-05-07

    Interfacial MagnetoElectric coupling (MEC) at ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interfaces has recently emerged as a promising route to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) system, various MEC mechanisms have been theoretically predicted. Experimentally, it is well established that using BTO single crystal substrates MEC is dominated by strain-mediated mechanisms. In case of ferromagnetic layers epitaxially grown onto BTO films, instead, no direct evidence for MEC has been provided, apart from the results obtained on tunneling junction sandwiching a BTO tunneling barrier. In this paper, MEC at fully epitaxial Fe/BTO interface is investigated by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and magnetoresistance measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated on BTO. We find no evidence for strain-mediated MEC mechanisms in epitaxial systems, likely due to clamping of BTO to the substrate. Our results indicate that pure electronic MEC is the route of choice to be explored for achieving the electrical writing of information in epitaxial ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures.

  20. Job Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Rick

    1970-01-01

    Job enrichment means giving people more decision-making power, more responsibility, more grasp of the totality of the job, and a sense of their own importance in the company. This article presents evidence of the successful working of this approach (Donnelly Mirrors), and the lack of success with an opposing approach (General Motors). (NL)

  1. JOB ANALYSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, HAROLD E.

    THE JOB ANALYSES WERE COMPOSED FROM ACTIVITY RECORDS KEPT BY EACH PROFESSIONAL EXTENSION WORKER IN KANSAS. JOB ANALYSES ARE GIVEN FOR THE ADMINISTRATION (DIRECTOR, ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, SATE LEADERS AND DEPARTMENT HEADS), EXTENSION SPECIALISTS, DISTRICT AGENTS, AND COUNTY EXTENSION AGENTS. DISCUSSION OF…

  2. The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership, and job satisfaction and psychological well-being in healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina; Yarker, Joanna; Randall, Raymond; Munir, Fehmidah

    2009-09-01

    The importance of transformational leadership for the health and well-being of staff in the healthcare sector is increasingly acknowledged, however, there is less knowledge about the mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and employee health and well-being. To examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviours to employee job satisfaction and well-being. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in two elderly care centers in large Danish local government. Staff were predominantly healthcare assistants but also nurses and other healthcare-related professions participated in the study. 274 elderly care employees completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all employees working at the centers. 91% were female, the average age was 45 years. A questionnaire was distributed to all members of staff in the elderly care centers and where employees were asked to rate their line manager's leadership style and were asked to evaluate their own level of self-efficacy as well as the level of efficacy in their team (team efficacy) and their job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Both team and self-efficacy were found to act as mediators, however, their effects differed. Self-efficacy was found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being and team efficacy was found to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being. Within the pressurised environment faced by employees in the healthcare sector today transformational leaders may help ensure employees' job satisfaction and psychological well-being. They do so through the establishment of a sense of being in control as individuals but also as being part of a competent group.

  3. Effects of war exposure on air force personnel's mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vinokur, Amiram D; Pierce, Penny F; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a "cascading" chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness.

  4. Effects of war exposure on Air Force personnel’s mental health, job burnout and other organizational related outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vinokur, Amiram D.; Pierce, Penny F.; Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal data from a stratified representative sample of U.S. Air Force personnel (N = 1009) deployed to the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other locations were analyzed in this study. Using structural equation models, we examined the effects of war exposure on traumatic experiences, Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms, resource loss, and on subsequent functioning, perceived health, and on job and organizationally relevant outcomes. The job and organizational outcomes included job burnout, job involvement, job strain, job satisfaction, work-family conflict, organizational commitment, deployment readiness, and intention to reenlist. We found that deployment to the theater of the war increased risk of exposure to trauma, which in turn, predicted elevated PTS symptoms and resource loss. PTS symptoms predicted later loss of resources and deterioration in perceived health and functioning. In turn, resource loss predicted negative job and organizational outcomes. Exposure to trauma fully mediated the effects of deployment to the theater of war on PTS symptoms and resource loss and had additional significant indirect effects on several job and organizational relevant outcomes. For returning veterans, deployment to the theater of war, exposure to trauma, PTS symptoms, and resource loss represents a ‘cascading’ chain of events that over time results in a decline of health and functioning as well as in adverse job and organizationally relevant outcomes that may affect organizational effectiveness. PMID:21280941

  5. Srv mediated dispersal of streptococcal biofilms through SpeB is observed in CovRS+ strains.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Kristie L; Braden, Amy K; Holder, Robert C; Reid, Sean D

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human specific pathogen capable of causing both mild infections and severe invasive disease. We and others have shown that GAS is able to form biofilms during infection. That is to say, they form a three-dimensional, surface attached structure consisting of bacteria and a multi-component extracellular matrix. The mechanisms involved in regulation and dispersal of these GAS structures are still unclear. Recently we have reported that in the absence of the transcriptional regulator Srv in the MGAS5005 background, the cysteine protease SpeB is constitutively produced, leading to increased tissue damage and decreased biofilm formation during a subcutaneous infection in a mouse model. This was interesting because MGAS5005 has a naturally occurring mutation that inactivates the sensor kinase domain of the two component regulatory system CovRS. Others have previously shown that strains lacking covS are associated with decreased SpeB production due to CovR repression of speB expression. Thus, our results suggest the inactivation of srv can bypass CovR repression and lead to constitutive SpeB production. We hypothesized that Srv control of SpeB production may be a mechanism to regulate biofilm dispersal and provide a mechanism by which mild infection can transition to severe disease through biofilm dispersal. The question remained however, is this mechanism conserved among GAS strains or restricted to the unique genetic makeup of MGAS5005. Here we show that Srv mediated control of SpeB and biofilm dispersal is conserved in the invasive clinical isolates RGAS053 (serotype M1) and MGAS315 (serotype M3), both of which have covS intact. This work provides additional evidence that Srv regulated control of SpeB may mediate biofilm formation and dispersal in diverse strain backgrounds.

  6. Interplay of surface morphology, strain relief, and surface stress during surfactant mediated epitaxy of Ge on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahl, P.; Kury, P.; Horn von Hoegen, M.

    Lattice-mismatch-induced surface or film stress has significant influence on the morphology of heteroepitaxial films. This is demonstrated using Sb surfactant-mediated epitaxy of Ge on Si(111). The surfactant forces a two-dimensional growth of a continous Ge film instead of islanding. Two qualitatively different growth regimes are observed. Elastic relaxation: Prior to the generation of strain-relieving defects the Ge film grows pseudomorphically with the Si lattice constant and is under strong compressive stress. The Ge film relieves strain by forming a rough surface on a nm scale which allows partial elastic relaxation towards the Ge bulk lattice constant. The unfavorable increase of surface area is outbalanced by the large decrease of strain energy. The change of film stress and surface morphology is monitored in situ during deposition at elevated temperature with surface stress-induced optical deflection and high-resolution spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction. Plastic relaxation: After a critical thickness the generation of dislocations is initiated. The rough phase acts as a nucleation center for dislocations. On Si(111) those misfit dislocations are arranged in a threefold quasi periodic array at the interface that accommodate exactly the different lattice constants of Ge and Si.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the Rosa26 locus produces Cre reporter rat strains for monitoring Cre-loxP-mediated lineage tracing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwu; Yu, Lei; Pan, Shuo; Gao, Shan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Huang, Lan; Han, Yunlin; Bai, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2017-10-01

    The rat is an important laboratory animal for physiological, toxicological and pharmacological studies. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) is a simple and efficient tool to generate precise genetic modifications in rats, which will promote the accumulation of genetic resources and enable more precise studies of gene function. To monitor Cre-loxP-mediated excision in vivo, we generated a Cre reporter rat strain (Rosa26-imCherry) by knockin of a Cre reporter cassette at the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Rosa26-imCherry rats exhibited inducible expression of the mCherry cassette (imCherry) using the Cre-loxP system, whereas normal rats exhibited ubiquitous expression of eGFP but not mCherry in the whole body. Injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9-Cre into the hippocampus and skeletal muscle resulted in mCherry expression in virus-infected cells. Cre-loxP-mediated mCherry expression was then evaluated by crossing Rosa26-imCherry rats with transgenic rats ubiquitously expressing CAG-Cre, heart-specific α-MHC-Cre transgenic rats and liver-specific Alb-Cre knockin rats. Finally, using the established system the expression pattern of Cre driven by two endogenous gene promoters (Wfs1-Cre knockin rat, FabP2-Cre knockin rat) was traced. In summary, we demonstrated excision of the loxP-flanked allele in Rosa26-imCherry rats via activation of mCherry expression in the presence of Cre recombinase. This newly established Rosa26-imCherry rat strain represents a useful tool to facilitate Cre-expression pattern determination and tracing experiments. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  9. Political Skill as Neutralizer of Felt Accountability-Job Tension Effects on Job Performance Ratings: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Ferris, Gerald R.; Gavin, Mark B.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Hall, Angela T.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of felt accountability, political skill, and job tension on job performance ratings. Specifically, we hypothesized that felt accountability would lead to higher (lower) job performance ratings when coupled with high (low) levels of political skill, and that these relationships would be mediated by job tension. Data…

  10. Job Characteristics and Off-Job Activities as Predictors of Need for Recovery, Well-Being, and Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.

    2006-01-01

    Two empirical studies examined need for recovery (i.e., a person's desire to be temporarily relieved from demands in order to restore his or her resources) as a mediator in the relationship between poor job characteristics (high job demands, low job control) and high off-job demands, on the one hand, and fatigue and poor individual well-being, on…

  11. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  12. Outer membrane vesicles mediate transport of biologically active Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae strains.

    PubMed

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and induces toxicity on mammalian cells and furthermore can induce

  13. Hydrogen-mediated creation and annihilation of strain in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, N.H.; Jackson, W.B.

    1995-02-15

    The influence of an increasing hydrogen concentration on the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon ({ital a}-Si:H) was investigated. An increase of the Si-H bond concentration by as much as 3{times}10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3} changes neither the defect density, the weak-bond density, nor the metastability. These results suggest that hydrogen is accommodated in pairs pinning the hydrogen chemical potential, which is indicative of a negative correlation energy. Data on annealing of {ital a}-Si:H at high temperatures show that the exponential band tails do not broaden as a function of the temperature. These experiments suggest that the random-network strain energy in device-quality {ital a}-Si:H is in metastable equilibrium. Based on our experimental results, we propose that internal strain propagates within the network and can be generated or reduced by annealing and/or the incorporation of hydrogen. According to maximum entropy the slope of the exponential band tails represents the average strain energy per lattice bond.

  14. IS30-related transposon mediated insertional inactivation of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene of Lactobacillus plantarum strain Lp20.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Grover, Sunita; Kaushik, Jai K; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a variety of niches, and its genome may express up to four bsh genes to maximize its survival in the mammalian gut. However, the ecological significance of multiple bsh genes in L. plantarum is still not clearly understood. Hence, this study demonstrated the disruption of bile salt hydrolase (bsh1) gene due to the insertion of a transposable element in L. plantarum Lp20 - a wild strain of human fecal origin. Surprisingly, L. plantarum strain Lp20 produced a ∼2.0 kb bsh1 amplicon against the normal size (∼1.0 kb) bsh1 amplicon of Bsh(+)L. plantarum Lp21. Strain Lp20 exhibited minimal Bsh activity in spite of having intact bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 genes in its genome and hence had a Bsh(-) phenotype. Cloning and sequence characterization of Lp20 bsh1 gene predicted four individual open reading frames (ORFs) within this region. BLAST analysis of ORF1 and ORF2 revealed significant sequence similarity to the L. plantarum bsh1 gene while ORF3 and ORF4 showed high sequence homology to IS30-family transposases. Since, IS30-related transposon element was inserted within Lp20 bsh1 gene in reverse orientation (3'-5'), it introduced several stop codons and disrupted the protein reading frames of both Bsh1 and transposase. Inverted terminal repeats (GGCAGATTG) of transposon, mediated its insertion at 255-263 nt and 1301-1309 nt positions of Lp20 bsh1 gene. In conclusion, insertion of IS30 related-transposon within the bsh1 gene sequence of L. plantarum strain Lp20 demolished the integrity and functionality of Bsh1 enzyme. Additionally, this transposon DNA sequence remains active among various Lactobacillus spp. and hence harbors the potential to be explored in the development of efficient insertion mutagenesis system.

  15. Balancing competing needs mediates the association of caregiving demand with caregiver role strain and depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-Yun; Yang, Ching-Tzu; Wang, Yu-Nu; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Huang, Tzu-Hsin; Lin, Yueh-E; Liu, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Yea-Ing L

    2017-08-17

    To examine the role of balancing competing needs in the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms). Caregivers who do not balance competing needs are more likely to experience negative caregiving outcomes, suggesting that balance mediates between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes. Identifying a mediator of negative caregiving effects may help in developing tailored interventions for family caregivers of persons with dementia. A cross-sectional, correlational design. Data were collected from family caregivers' self-completed questionnaires between March 2013 - April 2014. A convenience sample of 120 family caregivers and care receivers with dementia was enrolled. We examined whether balance mediated the relationship between caregiving demand and caregiving outcomes (caregivers' role strain and depressive symptoms) by multiple regression analysis. To evaluate the significance of the indirect effect of caregiver balance, we used the Sobel test and Monte Carlo method, an alternative approach to testing mediation. Balancing competing needs completely mediated the association of caregiving demand with depressive symptoms and partially mediated the association of caregiving demand with role strain. Assessing caregivers' self-perceived sense of balance may help to identify caregivers at high risk for role strain and depressive symptoms. Interventions to enhance caregivers' perceived sense of balance between competing needs may provide a strategy for reducing the negative effects of caregiving. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of different strain backgrounds in bacterial endotoxin-mediated sensitization to neonatal hypoxic–ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, E.; Phillips, E.; Francesch-Domenech, E.; Thei, L.; Peebles, D.M.; Raivich, G.; Hristova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic background is known to influence the outcome in mouse models of human disease, and previous experimental studies have shown strain variability in the neonatal mouse model of hypoxia–ischemia. To further map out this variability, we compared five commonly used mouse strains: C57BL/6, 129SVJ, BALB/c, CD1 and FVB in a pure hypoxic–ischemic setup and following pre-sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Postnatal day 7 pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by continuous 30 min 8% oxygen exposure at 36 °C. Twelve hours prior, a third of the pups received a single intraperitoneal LPS (0.6 μg/g) or a saline (vehicle) administration, respectively; a further third underwent hypoxia–ischemia alone without preceding injection. Both C57BL/6 and 129SVJ strains showed minimal response to 30 min hypoxia–ischemia alone, BALB/c demonstrated a moderate response, and both CD1 and FVB revealed the highest brain damage. LPS pre-sensitization led to substantial increase in overall brain infarction, microglial and astrocyte response and cell death in four of the five strains, with exception of BALB/c that only showed a significant effect with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Saline administration prior to hypoxia–ischemia resulted in an increase in inflammatory-associated markers, particularly in the astroglial activation of C57BL/6 mice, and in combined microglial activation and neuronal cell loss in FVB mice. Finally, two of the four strongly affected strains – C57BL/6 and CD1 – revealed pronounced contralateral astrogliosis with a neuroanatomical localization similar to that observed on the occluded hemisphere. Overall, the current findings demonstrate strain differences in response to hypoxia–ischemia alone, to stress associated with vehicle injection, and to LPS-mediated pre-sensitization, which partially explains the high variability seen in the neonatal mouse models of hypoxia

  17. Analysis of the Mild strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus, which overcomes Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance in tomato line H24.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Jun; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    In tomato line H24, an isolate of the Mild (Mld) strain of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld [JR:Kis]) overcomes Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance and causes typical symptoms of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). No systemic infection with visible symptoms or accumulation of viral DNA in the upper leaves was observed in H24 challenged with another isolate, TYLCV-IL (TYLCV-IL [JR:Osaka]), confirming that H24 is resistant to the IL strain. To elucidate the genomic regions that cause the breakdown of the Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance, we constructed a series of chimeras by swapping genes between the two strains. A chimeric virus that had the overlapping C4/Rep region of the Mld strain in the context of the IL strain genome, caused severe TYLCD in H24 plants, suggesting that the overlapping C4/Rep region of the Mld strain is associated with the ability of this strain to overcome Ty-2 gene-mediated resistance.

  18. A serial mediation model of workplace social support on work productivity: the role of self-stigma and job tenure self-efficacy in people with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Villotti, Patrizia; Corbière, Marc; Dewa, Carolyn S; Fraccaroli, Franco; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Zaniboni, Sara; Lecomte, Tania

    2017-09-12

    Compared to groups with other disabilities, people with a severe mental illness face the greatest stigma and barriers to employment opportunities. This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between workplace social support and work productivity in people with severe mental illness working in Social Enterprises by taking into account the mediating role of self-stigma and job tenure self-efficacy. A total of 170 individuals with a severe mental disorder employed in a Social Enterprise filled out questionnaires assessing personal and work-related variables at Phase-1 (baseline) and Phase-2 (6-month follow-up). Process modeling was used to test for serial mediation. In the Social Enterprise workplace, social support yields better perceptions of work productivity through lower levels of internalized stigma and higher confidence in facing job-related problems. When testing serial multiple mediations, the specific indirect effect of high workplace social support on work productivity through both low internalized stigma and high job tenure self-efficacy was significant with a point estimate of 1.01 (95% CI = 0.42, 2.28). Continued work in this area can provide guidance for organizations in the open labor market addressing the challenges posed by the work integration of people with severe mental illness. Implications for Rehabilitation: Work integration of people with severe mental disorders is difficult because of limited access to supportive and nondiscriminatory workplaces. Social enterprise represents an effective model for supporting people with severe mental disorders to integrate the labor market. In the social enterprise workplace, social support yields better perceptions of work productivity through lower levels of internalized stigma and higher confidence in facing job-related problems.

  19. Cytotoxicity of Brucella smooth strains for macrophages is mediated by increased secretion of the type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhijun; Wang, Yufei; Qiao, Feng; Wang, Zhoujia; Du, Xinying; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Jin; Qu, Qing; Dong, Shicun; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Huang, Kehe; Chen, Zeliang

    2009-10-01

    Some Brucella rough mutants cause cytotoxicity that resembles oncosis and necrosis in macrophages. This cytotoxicity requires the type IV secretion system (T4SS). In rough mutants, the cell-surface O antigen is shortened and the T4SS structure is thus exposed on the surface. Cytotoxicity effector proteins can therefore be more easily secreted. This enhanced secretion of effector proteins might cause the increased levels of cytotoxicity observed. However, whether this cytotoxicity is unique to the rough mutant and is mediated by overexpression of the T4SS has not been definitively determined. To test this, in the present study, a virB inactivation mutant (BMDeltavirB) and an overexpression strain (BM-VIR) of a smooth Brucella melitensis strain (BM) were constructed and their cytotoxicity for macrophages and intracellular survival capability were analysed and compared. Cytotoxicity was detected in macrophages infected with higher concentrations of strains BM or BM-VIR, but not in those infected with BMDeltavirB. The quorum sensing signal molecule N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C(12)-HSL), a molecule that can inhibit expression of virB, inhibited the cytotoxicity of BM and BM-VIR, but not of BMDeltavirB. These results indicated that overexpression of virB is responsible for Brucella cytotoxicity in macrophages. Transcription analysis showed that virB is regulated in a cell-density-dependent manner both in in vitro culture and during macrophage infection. When compared with BM, BM-VIR showed a reduced survival capacity in macrophages and mice, but both strains demonstrated similar resistance to in vitro stress conditions designed to simulate intracellular environments. Taken together, the cytotoxicity of Brucella for macrophages is probably mediated by increased secretion of effector proteins that results from overexpression of virB or an increase in the number of bacterial cells. The observation that both inactivation and overexpression of virB are detrimental

  20. Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.

    PubMed

    Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

    2014-01-01

    Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process.

  1. Characterization of integrons-mediated antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Qin; Wu, Cong-Ming; Du, Xiang-Dang; Shen, Zhang-Qi; Song, Li-Hua; Chen, Xia; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2008-02-05

    To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons in Escherichia coli strains (n=58) isolated from bovine mastitis in Inner Mongolia, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of various types of integrons were characterized. Most isolates were susceptible to amikacin, colistin, ceftazidime, gentamicin and kanamycin, while those also exhibited high resistant incidence rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxydiazine. The integrase gene of integrons was amplified by PCR using degenerate primers. The integrons were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of positive PCR products. Neither class II nor class III integron was detected, while 56.90% (n=33) of the isolates were positive for the presence of intI1 gene. Sequencing analysis of gene cassettes revealed that seven gene cassettes were found, which encoded resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1 and dfrA17), aminoglycosides (aacA4, aadA1 and aadA5) and chloramphenicol (catB3), respectively. Of them, the gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 was found most prevalent (62.96%). The percentage of positive-integron among the isolates whose resistant profile was relatively broad (n> or =7) is 100.00%, while the one in narrow-profile isolates (n=2-6) is 30.56%. The correlation analysis revealed the incidence of integrons among the isolates were highly related to the resistant profile, indicating integrons play an important role in the dissemination and spread of the antimicrobial resistant strains.

  2. [Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Aureobasidium pullulans and high-efficient screening for polymalic acid producing strain].

    PubMed

    Tu, Guangwei; Wang, Yongkang; Feng, Jun; Li, Xiaorong; Guo, Meijin; Zou, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    To develop a genetic transformation method of Aureobasidium pullulans and T-DNA insertion for high-efficient screening of polymalic acid (PMA) producing strain. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-AGL1, containing the selection genes encoding hygromycin B phosphotase or phosphinothricin acetyltranferase, was used to transform Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M2012223 and transformants were confirmed by colony PCR method. Transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutants were cultured in microwell plate, and screened for high-titer PMA producing strain according to the pH response model. DNA walking was used to detect the insertion sites in the mutant. Results show that the selection markers could stably generated in the transformants, and 80 to 120 transformants could be found per 10(7) single cells. A high-titer PMA mutant H27 was obtained, giving a good PMA production caused by the disruption of phosphoglycerate mutase, that increased by 24.5% compared with the control. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and high-efficient screening method were successfully developed, which will be helpful for genetic transformation of Aureobasidium pullulans and its functional genes discovery.

  3. Strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a NiFe2O4-BaTiO3 multiferroic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorige, Venkataiah; Kati, Raju; Yoon, D. H.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate significant magnetoelectric coupling in ferrimagnetic, NiFe2O4, and ferroelectric, BaTiO3, multiferroic composite bulk materials by measuring temperature dependent magnetization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy data show that the two phases coexist with a highly crystalline and sharp interface without any detectable impurities, which enables significant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. The temperature dependent magnetization data of the composite clearly show the jumps in magnetization curves at the structural phase transitions of BaTiO3, thereby indicating their origin in ME coupling. The change in coercivity of composite sample in different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 has been observed compared to the NiFe2O4 sample. The different lattice strains corresponding to different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 could be the driving force for modulating the magnetization and coercivity of the composite material. This is clear evidence of strain mediated ME coupling in ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric composite materials.

  4. Gene expression analysis using strains constructed by NHEJ-mediated one-step promoter cloning in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayako; Fujii, Hiroshi; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression analysis provides valuable information to evaluate cellular state. Unlike quantitative mRNA analysis techniques like reverse-transcription PCR and microarray, expression analysis using a reporter gene has not been commonly used for multiple-gene analysis, probably due to the difficulty in preparing multiple reporter-gene constructs. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel one-step reporter-gene construction system mediated by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. As a selectable reporter gene, the ScURA3 selection marker was fused in frame with a red fluorescent gene yEmRFP (ScURA3:yEmRFP). The N-terminally truncated ScURA3:yEmRFP fragment was prepared by PCR. Promoter sequences were also prepared by PCR using primers containing the sequence of the deleted ScURA3 N-terminus to attach at their 3(') ends. The two DNA fragments were used for the transformation of a ura3(-) strain of K. marxianus, in which two DNA fragments are randomly joined and integrated into the chromosome through NHEJ. Only the correctly aligned fragments produced transformants on uracil-deficient medium and expressed red fluorescence under the control of the introduced promoters. A total of 36 gene promoters involved in glycolysis and other pathways were analyzed. Fluorescence measurements of these strains allowed real-time gene expression analysis in different culture conditions.

  5. Analysis of a tobacco mosaic virus strain capable of overcoming N gene-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Padgett, H S; Beachy, R N

    1993-05-01

    The genome of Ob, a tobamovirus that overcomes the N gene-mediated hypersensitive response (HR), was cloned as a cDNA, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The genomic organization of Ob is similar to that of other tobamoviruses, consisting of 6506 nucleotides and containing at least four open reading frames. These open reading frames encode a 126-kD polypeptide with a 183-kD readthrough product, a 30.6-kD movement protein, and an 18-kD coat protein. A bacteriophage T7 promoter sequence was fused to the full-length cDNA clone to obtain infectious RNA transcripts. These transcripts, when inoculated onto tobacco plants, induced disease symptoms indistinguishable from plants inoculated with Ob viral RNA. To determine which viral factor is responsible for the resistance-breaking character of Ob, a recombinant virus was constructed in which the movement protein gene of tobacco mosaic virus was replaced with that of Ob. Cultivar Xanthi NN tobacco plants infected with this virus responded with an HR, indicating that the Ob movement protein alone does not act to overcome the N gene-mediated response. Following mutagenesis of the infectious Ob cDNA clone with hydroxylamine, populations of transcripts from the mutagenized DNA were inoculated onto Xanthi NN tobacco, and a variant that induced the HR was identified. The mutant was analyzed and found to contain a single nucleotide change in the 126-kD gene. Recreating the mutation in the Ob cDNA clone by site-directed mutagenesis resulted in a virus that caused symptoms identical to the chemically induced mutant.

  6. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  7. Effects of mechanical strain on the function of Gap junctions in osteocytes are mediated through the prostaglandin EP2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Priscilla P; Cheng, Benxu; Gu, Sumin; Sprague, Eugene; Bonewald, Lynda F; Jiang, Jean X

    2003-10-31

    Osteocytes embedded in the matrix of bone are thought to be mechanosensory cells that translate mechanical strain into biochemical signals that regulate bone modeling and remodeling. We have shown previously that fluid flow shear stress dramatically induces prostaglandin release and COX-2 mRNA expression in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, and that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) released by these cells functions in an autocrine manner to regulate gap junction function and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression. Here we show that fluid flow regulates gap junctions through the PGE2 receptor EP2 activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The expression of the EP2 receptor, but not the subtypes EP1,EP3, and EP4, increased in response to fluid flow. Application of PGE2 or conditioned medium from fluid flow-treated cells to non-stressed MLO-Y4 cells increased expression of the EP2 receptor. The EP2 receptor antagonist, AH6809, suppressed the stimulatory effects of PGE2 and fluid flow-conditioned medium on the expression of the EP2 receptor, on Cx43 protein expression, and on gap junction-mediated intercellular coupling. In contrast, the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost, not the E1/E3 receptor agonist sulprostone, stimulated the expression of Cx43 and gap junction function. Fluid flow conditioned medium and PGE2 stimulated cAMP production and PKA activity suggesting that PGE2 released by mechanically stimulated cells is responsible for the activation of cAMP and PKA. The adenylate cyclase activators, forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP, enhanced intercellular connectivity, the number of functional gap junctions, and Cx43 protein expression, whereas the PKA inhibitor, H89, inhibited the stimulatory effect of PGE2 on gap junctions. These studies suggest that the EP2 receptor mediates the effects of autocrine PGE2 on the osteocyte gap junction in response to fluid flow-induced shear stress. These data support the hypothesis that the EP2 receptor, cAMP, and PKA are critical components

  8. Metolachlor-mediated selection of a microalgal strain producing novel polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stanley; Mansour, Maged P; Blackburn, Susan I

    2007-01-01

    Long-chain (> or = C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, are nutritionally important and provide protection against cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Structural variants of these compounds may have the potential to be used as pharmaceuticals. Marine microalgae are the key producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the global food web. Assuming vast biological and biochemical diversity, we devised a screen to identify microalgae that produce novel fatty acids. The herbicide metolachlor, an inhibitor of long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis, was used in microcosms containing field-collected microalgae to identify naturally resistant strains. We show that one diatom, Melosira cf. moniliformis, is naturally resistant to concentrations of metolachlor, which were cytostatic or lethal to all the other microalgae. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed three fatty acids that have not previously been described-18:4 (Delta5,8,11,14), 18:4 (Delta5,9,12,15), and 18:5 (Delta5,8,11,14,17). We propose that this type of screen may be generally applicable to the search of novel compounds produced by marine microorganisms.

  9. Switching time of electrical tuning of permeability in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.

    2017-08-01

    The switching time of the electrically tunable permeability of the NiFeTa/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 multiferroic material was characterized by using a Vector Network Analyzer and a pulse generator. The measured switching time for the permeability to be electrically tuned from the initial value to the final value upon the change of the applied electrical field is 0.15 s, which is independent of the magnitude of the electrical field and the measured frequency. The result is verified by the measurement of the time response permeability under a series of pulses with different pulse widths. It was found that for the cases of the pulse width smaller than the switching time, the rise time of the permeability response pulse is the same as the pulse width and the pulse height of the response permeability is linearly dependent on the pulse width. It is suggested that the temporal relaxation process of the interface arising from the strain transfer delay time between the film and the substrate plays a dominant role in the contribution of the total switching time of the material.

  10. New aerobactin-mediated iron uptake system in a septicemia-causing strain of Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, L M; Wolf, M K; Actis, L A; Sanders-Loehr, J; Crosa, J H

    1988-01-01

    Unlike the great majority of the aerobactin-producing enteric bacteria documented in the literature, Enterobacter cloacae EK33, isolated from a case of human neonatal meningitis, did not show any homology at the DNA level with the prototype aerobactin system encoded by the ColV-K30 plasmid. However, both the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry of the siderophore purified from EK33 confirmed its identity with aerobactin. Bioassay screening of a gene library of total DNA of EK33 led to the isolation of several aerobactin-positive clones. Under conditions of iron limitation, these clones expressed in Escherichia coli a protein of 72 kilodaltons that reacted with antiserum raised against the pColV-K30 74-kilodalton aerobactin receptor, while the original E. cloacae strain synthesized an 85-kilodalton protein which also cross-reacted with the antiserum. Restriction endonuclease analysis of the cloned DNA confirmed the structural differences between the two aerobactin genetic systems. Images PMID:3192510

  11. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein signaling system mediates resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains to multiple environmental bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Waise, T M Zaved; Kamruzzaman, M; Ghosh, Amar N; Nair, G Balakrish; Mekalanos, John J; Faruque, Shah M

    2010-07-01

    Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the epidemic diarrheal disease cholera, interacts with diverse environmental bacteriophages. These interactions promote genetic diversity or cause selective enrichment of phage-resistant bacterial clones. To identify bacterial genes involved in mediating the phage-resistant phenotype, we screened a transposon insertion library of V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain C6706 to identify mutants showing altered susceptibility to a panel of phages isolated from surface waters in Bangladesh. Mutants with insertion in cyaA or crp genes encoding adenylate cyclase or cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), respectively, were susceptible to a phage designated JSF9 to which the parent strain was completely resistant. Application of the cyaA mutant as an indicator strain in environmental phage monitoring enhanced phage detection, and we identified 3 additional phages to which the parent strain was resistant. Incorporation of the cyaA or crp mutations into other V. cholerae O1 strains caused similar alterations in their phage susceptibility patterns, and the susceptibility correlated with the ability of the bacteria to adsorb these phages. Our results suggest that cAMP-CRP-mediated downregulation of phage adsorption may contribute to a mechanism for the V. cholerae O1 strains to survive predation by multiple environmental phages. Furthermore, the cyaA or crp mutant strains may be used as suitable indicators in monitoring cholera phages in the water.

  12. Usefulness of ligation-mediated PCR genotyping in tracking outbreak-associated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    PubMed

    Mardassi, H; Namouchi, A; Karbouli, A; Khabouchi, N; Haltiti, R; Zarrouk, M; Mhennii, B; Kaabi, S

    2005-01-01

    With the emergence of a multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) outbreak, the availability of a rapid typing method to carry out a nationwide prospective survey for the tracking of newly emerging MDR-TB foci became a priority. For this purpose, we have applied the IS6110 PCR-based genotyping assay, namely, LM-PCR (ligation-mediated PCR). The latter relies on ligation of a synthetic oligonucleotide priming site to a restriction site flanking IS6110. Sequences between the IS element and the restriction site are then amplified using an IS6110 specific outward primer and an oligonucleotide specific to the ligated priming site. Although it was found slightly less discriminative than the standard IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (IS6110 RFLP), LM-PCR allowed for the rapid and prospective identification of new outbreak-related cases within a large pool of circulating M. tuberculosis isolates. In comparison to IS6110 RFLP LM-PCR was found simple enough to justify its implementation in laboratories involved in MDR-TB surveillance at a nationwide scale.

  13. How can core self-evaluations influence job burnout? The key roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiaxi; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Tian, Yu; Miao, Danmin; Xiao, Wei; Zhang, Jiaxi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how core self-evaluations influenced job burnout and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator roles of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A total of 583 female nurses accomplished the Core Self-Evaluation Scale, Organizational Commitment Scale, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The results revealed that core self-evaluations, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job burnout were significantly correlated with each other. Structural equation modeling indicated that core self-evaluations can significantly influence job burnout and are completely mediated by organizational commitment and job satisfaction.

  14. Nitric Oxide Mediates Biofilm Formation and Symbiosis in Silicibacter sp. Strain TrichCH4B

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Minxi; Smith, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important signaling role in all domains of life. Many bacteria contain a heme-nitric oxide/oxygen binding (H-NOX) protein that selectively binds NO. These H-NOX proteins often act as sensors that regulate histidine kinase (HK) activity, forming part of a bacterial two-component signaling system that also involves one or more response regulators. In several organisms, NO binding to the H-NOX protein governs bacterial biofilm formation; however, the source of NO exposure for these bacteria is unknown. In mammals, NO is generated by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and signals through binding the H-NOX domain of soluble guanylate cyclase. Recently, several bacterial NOS proteins have also been reported, but the corresponding bacteria do not also encode an H-NOX protein. Here, we report the first characterization of a bacterium that encodes both a NOS and H-NOX, thus resembling the mammalian system capable of both synthesizing and sensing NO. We characterized the NO signaling pathway of the marine alphaproteobacterium Silicibacter sp. strain TrichCH4B, determining that the NOS is activated by an algal symbiont, Trichodesmium erythraeum. NO signaling through a histidine kinase-response regulator two-component signaling pathway results in increased concentrations of cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, a key bacterial second messenger molecule that controls cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. Silicibacter sp. TrichCH4B biofilm formation, activated by T. erythraeum, may be an important mechanism for symbiosis between the two organisms, revealing that NO plays a previously unknown key role in bacterial communication and symbiosis. PMID:25944856

  15. Antibiotic pressure mediated selection of non-biofilm forming strain of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum causing fatal nosocomial meningitis in a term infant.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sumit; Niranjan, Devendra Kumar; Mishra, Prakash; Singh, Narendra Pal

    2013-01-01

    We describe a fatal case of hospital acquired meningitis in a term infant due to the antibiotic pressure mediated selection of Elizabethkingia meningosepticum. The antibiotics were administered for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. The strain was also phenotypically characterized for beta lactamase production, biofilm forming capability and resistance to in use disinfectants.

  16. Human Lactobacillus Strains from the Intestine can Suppress IgE-Mediated Degranulation of Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harata, Gaku; He, Fang; Takahashi, Kyoko; Hosono, Akira; Miyazawa, Kenji; Yoda, Kazutoyo; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Additional knowledge regarding the interaction of human intestinal Lactobacilli with mast cells is still necessary. Twenty-three strains of Lactobacilli, including commercial and reference strains and strains from the human intestine, were tested for their ability to regulate degranulation of cells from rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3) in vitro based on a β-hexosaminidase release assay. Each of the tested Lactobacilli characteristically suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, and Lactobacillus GG showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the cells. Furthermore, the bacteria isolated from the human intestine significantly suppressed degranulation of RBL-2H3 cellsin comparison with the reference strains. These results suggest that Lactobacilli, particularly those from the human intestine, can affect the activation of mast cells in a strain-dependent manner. Further study should be conducted to analyse the understanding mechanism. PMID:27801804

  17. Plasmid-mediate transfer of FLO1 into industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 strain creates a strain useful for repeat-batch fermentations involving flocculation-sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Daniel G; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2012-03-01

    The flocculation gene FLO1 was transferred into the robust industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 by the lithium acetate method. The recombinant strain showed a fermentation performance similar to that of the parental strain. In 10 repeat-batch cultivations in VHG medium with 345 g glucose/L and cell recycling by flocculation-sedimentation, an average final ethanol concentration of 142 g/L and an ethanol productivity of 2.86 g/L/h were achieved. Due to the flocculent nature of the recombinant strain it is possible to reduce the ethanol production cost because of lower centrifugation and distillation costs.

  18. Nonopsonic binding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to complement receptor type 3 is mediated by capsular polysaccharides and is strain dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Cywes, C; Hoppe, H C; Daffé, M; Ehlers, M R

    1997-01-01

    The choice of host cell receptor and the mechanism of binding (opsonic versus nonopsonic) may influence the intracellular fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have identified two substrains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, designated H37Rv-CC and -HH, that differed in their modes of binding to complement receptor type 3 (CR3) expressed in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-Mac-1) cells: H37Rv-CC bound nonopsonically, whereas H37Rv-HH bound only after opsonization in fresh serum. H37Rv-CC also bound nonopsonically to untransfected CHO cells, whereas H37Rv-HH binding was enhanced by serum and was mediated by the 1D1 antigen, a bacterial adhesin previously identified as a polar phosphatidylinositol mannoside. H37Rv-CC and -HH had identical IS6110 DNA fingerprint patterns. Of five M. tuberculosis clinical isolates examined, four displayed the same binding phenotype as H37Rv-CC, as did the Erdman strain, whereas one isolate, as well as Mycobacterium smegmatis, behaved like H37Rv-HH. Nonopsonic binding of H37Rv-CC to CHO cell-expressed CR3 was apparently to the beta-glucan lectin site, as it was cation independent and inhibited by laminarin (seaweed beta-glucan) and N-acetylglucosamine; laminarin also inhibited the binding of H37Rv-CC to monocyte-derived macrophages. Further, binding of H37Rv-CC to CHO-Mac-1 cells was inhibited by prior agitation of bacteria with glass beads (which strips outer capsular polysaccharides) and by preincubation with amyloglucosidase, as well as by the presence of capsular D-glucan and D-mannan from M. tuberculosis Erdman, but not by Erdman D-arabino-D-mannan, yeast mannan, or capsular components from H37Rv-HH. Analysis of capsular carbohydrates revealed that H37Rv-CC expressed 5-fold more glucose and 2.5-fold more arabinose and mannose than H37Rv-HH. Flow cytometric detection of surface epitopes indicated that H37Rv-CC displayed twofold less surface-exposed phosphatidylinositol mannoside and bound complement C3 less efficiently than H37Rv

  19. BgaA acts as an adhesin to mediate attachment of some pneumococcal strains to human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Limoli, Dominique H.; Sladek, Julie A.; Fuller, Lindsey A.; Singh, Anirudh K.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the respiratory tract is an essential precursor for pneumococcal disease. To colonize efficiently, bacteria must adhere to the epithelial-cell surface. S. pneumoniae possesses surface-associated exoglycosidases that are capable of sequentially deglycosylating human glycans. Two exoglycosidases, neuraminidase (NanA) and β-galactosidase (BgaA), have previously been shown to contribute to S. pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells, as deletion of either of these genes results in reduced adherence. It has been suggested that these enzymes may modulate adherence by cleaving sugars to reveal a receptor on host cells. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with exogenous neuraminidase restores the adherence of a nanA mutant, whereas pretreatment with β-galactosidase does not restore the adherence of a bgaA mutant. These data suggest that BgaA may not function to reveal a receptor, and implicate an alternative role for BgaA in adherence. Here we demonstrate that β-galactosidase activity is not required for BgaA-mediated adherence. Addition of recombinant BgaA (rBgaA) to adherence assays and pretreatment of epithelial cells with rBgaA both significantly reduced the level of adherence of the parental strain, but not the BgaA mutant. One possible explanation of these data is that BgaA is acting as an adhesin and that rBgaA is binding to the receptor, preventing bacterial binding. A bead-binding assay demonstrated that BgaA can bind directly to human epithelial cells, supporting the hypothesis that BgaA is an adhesin. Preliminary characterization of the epithelial-cell receptor suggests that it is a glycan in the context of a glycosphingolipid. To further establish the relevance of this adherence mechanism, we demonstrated that BgaA-mediated adherence contributed to adherence of a recent clinical isolate to primary human epithelial cells. Together, these data suggest a novel role for BgaA as an adhesin and suggest that this

  20. In Vitro Infection of Human Nervous Cells by Two Strains of Toxoplasma gondii: A Kinetic Analysis of Immune Mediators and Parasite Multiplication

    PubMed Central

    Mammari, Nour; Vignoles, Philippe; Halabi, Mohamad Adnan; Darde, Marie Laure; Courtioux, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The severity of toxoplasmic infection depends mainly on the immune status of the host, but also on the Toxoplasma gondii strains, which differ by their virulence profile. The relationship between the human host and T. gondii has not yet been elucidated because few studies have been conducted on human models. The immune mechanisms involved in the persistence of T. gondii in the brains of immunocompetent subjects and during the reactivation of latent infections are still unclear. In this study, we analyzed the kinetics of immune mediators in human nervous cells in vitro, infected with two strains of T. gondii. Human neuroblast cell line (SH SY5Y), microglial (CMH5) and endothelial cells (Hbmec) were infected separately by RH (type I) or PRU (type II) strains for 8 h, 14 h, 24 h and 48 h (ratio 1 cell: 2 tachyzoites). Pro-inflammatory protein expression was different between the two strains and among different human nervous cells. The cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and the chemokines MCP-1 and GROα, and SERPIN E1 were significantly increased in CMH5 and SH SY5Y at 24 h pi. At this point of infection, the parasite burden declined in microglial cells and neurons, but remained high in endothelial cells. This differential effect on the early parasite multiplication may be correlated with a higher production of immune mediators by neurons and microglial cells compared to endothelial cells. Regarding strain differences, PRU strain, but not RH strain, stimulates all cells to produce pro-inflammatory growth factors, G-CSF and GM-CSF. These proteins could increase the inflammatory effect of this type II strain. These results suggest that the different protein expression profiles depend on the parasitic strain and on the human nervous cell type, and that this could be at the origin of diverse brain lesions caused by T. gondii. PMID:24886982

  1. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  2. Your Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz; And Others

    Information and accompanying exercises are provided in this learning module to reinforce basic reading, writing, and math skills and, at the same time, introduce personal assessment and job-seeking techniques. The module's first section provides suggestions for assessing personal interests and identifying the assets one has to offer an employer.…

  3. Job Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angerer, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of job burnout, discusses the pioneering research and current theories of the burnout construct, along with the history of the main burnout assessment--the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concludes that an understanding of the interaction between employee and his or her environment is critical for grasping the origin of burnout.…

  4. Space Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Herman J.; And Others

    This booklet, intended for children in grades K-3 as "vocational guidance in a space age," should be read to the child in early school years at an appropriate time. The booklet is divided into five chapters and a summary. Topics discussed concern space workers, space travelers, jobs in space, spaceships, and preparing for a career in space…

  5. Job Ready.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults of Washington, Seattle.

    Intended for use by employers for assessing how "job-ready" their particular business environment may be, the booklet provides information illustrating what physical changes could be made to allow persons with mobility limitations to enter and conduct business independently in a particular building. Illustrations along with brief explanations are…

  6. Job Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerweck, Debra R.; Chauza, Phyllis J.

    This document consists of materials on Hiawatha (Kansas) High School's 1993 Job Olympics, a competition for high school students with disabilities. The materials are those included in a packet for student participants. A cover/information sheet details eligibility, entry deadline, date and place of competition, opening ceremonies, events, and a…

  7. The interplay between structure and agency in shaping the mental health consequences of job loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers’ mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. Methods We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Results Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Conclusions Respondents’ accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual’s whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances. PMID:23384322

  8. The interplay between structure and agency in shaping the mental health consequences of job loss.

    PubMed

    Anaf, Julia; Baum, Frances; Newman, Lareen; Ziersch, Anna; Jolley, Gwyneth

    2013-02-06

    Job loss is a discrete life event, with multiple adverse consequences for physical and mental health and implications for agency. Our research explores the consequences of job loss for retrenched workers' mental health by examining the interplay between their agency and the structures shaping their job loss experiences. We conducted two waves of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a sample of 33 of the more than 1000 workers who lost their jobs at Mitsubishi Motors in South Australia during 2004 and 2005 as a result of industry restructuring. Interviews capturing the mental health consequences of job loss were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed to determine the health consequences of the job loss and the impact of structural factors. Main themes that emerged from the qualitative exploration of the psychological distress of job loss included stress, changes to perceived control, loss of self-esteem, shame and loss of status, experiencing a grieving process, and financial strain. Drawing on two models of agency we identified the different ways workers employed their agency, and how their agency was enabled, but mainly constrained, when dealing with job loss consequences. Respondents' accounts support the literature on the moderating effects of economic resources such as redundancy packages. The results suggest the need for policies to put more focus on social, emotional and financial investment to mediate the structural constraints of job loss. Our study also suggests that human agency must be understood within an individual's whole of life circumstances, including structural and material constraints, and the personal or interior factors that shape these circumstances.

  9. Job Readiness Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesolowski, Dennis G.

    Designed for professionals in rehabilitation settings, this curriculum guide presents fifteen lessons that focus on preparing to seek a job, job seeking, and job maintenance. Among the lesson titles included in the guide are (1) How to Find the Right Job and Categories of Jobs, (2) Self-Expressed Interests and Attitudes for Specific Jobs, (3)…

  10. The Effects of Formal Learning and Informal Learning on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of the Value of Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonhee; Choi, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Although research has widely recognized the relationships between formal and informal learning and job performance, empirical studies have not paid sufficient attention to these relationships. In addition, there is little understanding how individual perceptions toward learning influence the relationships between the aforementioned two types of…

  11. The Effects of Formal Learning and Informal Learning on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of the Value of Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonhee; Choi, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Although research has widely recognized the relationships between formal and informal learning and job performance, empirical studies have not paid sufficient attention to these relationships. In addition, there is little understanding how individual perceptions toward learning influence the relationships between the aforementioned two types of…

  12. Rhizobacteria-mediated resistance against the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Udaya Shankar, Arakere Chunchegowda; Chandra Nayaka, Siddaiah; Niranjan-Raj, Sathyanarayana; Bhuvanendra Kumar, Hanumanthaiah; Reddy, Munagala S; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa; Prakash, Harishchandra Sripathy

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of seven Bacillus-species plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) seed treatments on the induction of disease resistance in cowpea against mosaic disease caused by the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain of bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Initially, although all PGPR strains recorded significant enhancement of seed germination and seedling vigour, GBO3 and T4 strains were very promising. In general, all strains gave reduced BCMV incidence compared with the non-bacterised control, both under screen-house and under field conditions. Cowpea seeds treated with Bacillus pumilus (T4) and Bacillus subtilis (GBO3) strains offered protection of 42 and 41% against BCMV under screen-house conditions. Under field conditions, strain GBO3 offered 34% protection against BCMV. The protection offered by PGPR strains against BCMV was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with lowest immunoreactive values recorded in cowpea seeds treated with strains GBO3 and T4 in comparison with the non-bacterised control. In addition, it was observed that strain combination worked better in inducing resistance than individual strains. Cowpea seeds treated with a combination of strains GBO3 + T4 registered the highest protection against BCMV. PGPR strains were effective in protecting cowpea plants against BCMV under both screen-house and field conditions by inducing resistance against the virus. Thus, it is proposed that PGPR strains, particularly GBO3, could be potential inducers against BCMV and growth enhancers in cowpea. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Estrogen Receptor α Mediates Proliferation of Osteoblastic Cells Stimulated by Estrogen and Mechanical Strain, but Their Acute Down-regulation of the Wnt Antagonist Sost Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor β*

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Gabriel L.; Meakin, Lee B.; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Zebda, Noureddine; Sunters, Andrew; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Stein, Gary S.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Price, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical strain and estrogens both stimulate osteoblast proliferation through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated effects, and both down-regulate the Wnt antagonist Sost/sclerostin. Here, we investigate the differential effects of ERα and -β in these processes in mouse long bone-derived osteoblastic cells and human Saos-2 cells. Recruitment to the cell cycle following strain or 17β-estradiol occurs within 30 min, as determined by Ki-67 staining, and is prevented by the ERα antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride. ERβ inhibition with 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-β]pyrimidin-3-yl] phenol (PTHPP) increases basal proliferation similarly to strain or estradiol. Both strain and estradiol down-regulate Sost expression, as does in vitro inhibition or in vivo deletion of ERα. The ERβ agonists 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile and ERB041 also down-regulated Sost expression in vitro, whereas the ERα agonist 4,4′,4″-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol or the ERβ antagonist PTHPP has no effect. Tamoxifen, a nongenomic ERβ agonist, down-regulates Sost expression in vitro and in bones in vivo. Inhibition of both ERs with fulvestrant or selective antagonism of ERβ, but not ERα, prevents Sost down-regulation by strain or estradiol. Sost down-regulation by strain or ERβ activation is prevented by MEK/ERK blockade. Exogenous sclerostin has no effect on estradiol-induced proliferation but prevents that following strain. Thus, in osteoblastic cells the acute proliferative effects of both estradiol and strain are ERα-mediated. Basal Sost down-regulation follows decreased activity of ERα and increased activity of ERβ. Sost down-regulation by strain or increased estrogens is mediated by ERβ, not ERα. ER-targeting therapy may facilitate structurally appropriate bone formation by enhancing the distinct ligand-independent, strain-related contributions to proliferation

  14. The strain difference in the effect of mercuric chloride on antigen-triggered serotonin release from rat mast cells is not mediated via interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, D; Oliveira, D B

    1996-01-01

    Previous work has shown that in vitro exposure of Brown-Norway (BN) rat peritoneal mast cells to mercuric chloride (HgCl2) causes enhancement of subsequent mediator release induced by cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin E (IgE). This enhancing effect is seen significantly less often with peritoneal cells from Lewis rats. In addition HgCl2 has been shown to suppress interferon (IFN)-gamma production by BN but not Lewis splenocytes. Given that IFN-gamma is known to inhibit mediator release by mast cells, we hypothesized that the strain difference in the effect of HgCl2 on mediator release was mediated via a differential effect on IFN-gamma release from T cells in the mixed peritoneal cell population: IFN-gamma release would be suppressed in the case of the BN rat, releasing the mast cells from inhibition and resulting in the enhancing effect of HgCl2. The aim of the study was to test two predictions of this hypothesis. Exposure of BN rat mast cells to IFN-gamma inhibited subsequent antigen-induced mediator release but did not significantly reduce HgCl2-mediated enhancement of this release. Exposure of Lewis rat mast cells to blocking concentrations of anti-IFN-gamma did not reveal any HgCl2-mediated enhancement of mediator release. These observations provide strong evidence against the hypothesis that the differential effects of HgCl2 on BN and Lewis rat mast cells are mediated via IFN-gamma. In addition the results revealed that BN rat mast cells are significantly more sensitive than Lewis rat mast cells to the inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma on antigen-induced mediator release. PMID:8958063

  15. Electrochemical Characterization of a Novel Exoelectrogenic Bacterium Strain SCS5, Isolated from a Mediator-Less Microbial Fuel Cell and Phylogenetically Related to Aeromonas jandaei

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subed Chandra Dev; Feng, Cuijie; Li, Jiangwei; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Han; Qin, Dan; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacterium, designated as strain SCS5, was isolated from the anodic biofilm of a mediator-less microbial fuel cell using acetate as the electron donor and α-FeOOH as the electron acceptor. The isolate was Gram-negative, motile, and shaped as short rods (0.9–1.3 μm in length and 0.4–0.5 μm in width). A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoD genes suggested that strain SCS5 belonged to the Aeromonas genus in the Aeromonadaceae family and exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.45%) with Aeromonas jandaei ATCC 49568. However, phenotypic, cellular fatty acid profile, and DNA G+C content analyses revealed that there were some distinctions between strain SCS5 and the type strain A. jandaei ATCC 49568. The optimum growth temperature, pH, and NaCl (%) for strain SCS5 were 35°C, 7.0, and 0.5% respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain SCS5 was 59.18%. The isolate SCS5 was capable of reducing insoluble iron oxide (α-FeOOH) and transferring electrons to extracellular material (the carbon electrode). The electrochemical activity of strain SCS5 was corroborated by cyclic voltammetry and a Raman spectroscopic analysis. The cyclic voltammogram of strain SCS5 revealed two pairs of oxidation-reduction peaks under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. In contrast, no redox pair was observed for A. jandaei ATCC 49568. Thus, isolated strain SCS5 is a novel exoelectrogenic bacterium phylogenetically related to A. jandaei, but shows distinct electrochemical activity from its close relative A. jandaei ATCC 49568. PMID:27396922

  16. The fruits of ones labor: Effort-reward imbalance but not job strain is related to heart rate variability across the day in 35-44-year-old workers.

    PubMed

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Schilling, Oliver; Haxsen, Volker; Jarczok, Marc N; Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that the association between work stress and heart disease is more pronounced in young than in old employees. Similar age specificity may apply to the relation between work stress and heart rate variability (HRV), but data on this issue is sparse. We aimed to assess the age-specificity of the work stress-HRV association in greater detail. We used cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort (n=591) from Germany. Work stress was assessed using the job content and the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaires. HRV was recorded over 24 h and was divided into three periods of the day (work time, leisure time, sleep time). Partial correlation coefficients (PCCs) were calculated for four age groups (17-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-65 years). Further, multilevel growth curve models (GCM) were run to examine whether age may modify potential work stress-HRV associations in a non-linear fashion. Job strain and HRV were unrelated in either analytical approach and this association was not modified by age. In contrast, using PCCs ERI was only related to HRV during work (PCC=-0.231, P<.01) and leisure time (PCC=-0.195, P<.05) in employees aged 35-44. Multilevel GCM models confirmed this finding. The inverse association between work stress as measured by ERI and HRV appears to be most pronounced in workers aged 35-44. These findings may partly be explained by age-dependent HRV declines, age-related differences in career attitudes or increased susceptibility among those aged 35-44 due to facing multiple different stressors at the same time. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Paxillus involutus strains MAJ and NAU mediate K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal Populus x canescens under sodium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Bao, Siqin; Zhang, Yuhong; Ma, Xujun; Mishra-Knyrim, Manika; Sun, Jian; Sa, Gang; Shen, Xin; Polle, Andrea; Chen, Shaoliang

    2012-08-01

    Salt-induced fluxes of H(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) were investigated in ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations formed by Paxillus involutus (strains MAJ and NAU) with the salt-sensitive poplar hybrid Populus × canescens. A scanning ion-selective electrode technique was used to measure flux profiles in non-EM roots and axenically grown EM cultures of the two P. involutus isolates to identify whether the major alterations detected in EM roots were promoted by the fungal partner. EM plants exhibited a more pronounced ability to maintain K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis under salt stress. The influx of Na(+) was reduced after short-term (50 mm NaCl, 24 h) and long-term (50 mm NaCl, 7 d) exposure to salt stress in mycorrhizal roots, especially in NAU associations. Flux data for P. involutus and susceptibility to Na(+)-transport inhibitors indicated that fungal colonization contributed to active Na(+) extrusion and H(+) uptake in the salinized roots of P. × canescens. Moreover, EM plants retained the ability to reduce the salt-induced K(+) efflux, especially under long-term salinity. Our study suggests that P. involutus assists in maintaining K(+) homeostasis by delivering this nutrient to host plants and slowing the loss of K(+) under salt stress. EM P. × canescens plants exhibited an enhanced Ca(2+) uptake ability, whereas short-term and long-term treatments caused a marked Ca(2+) efflux from mycorrhizal roots, especially from NAU-colonized roots. We suggest that the release of additional Ca(2+) mediated K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in EM plants under salt stress.

  18. [Anxiety, job stress and job insecurity among teachers with indefinite or definite time contract].

    PubMed

    Forcella, L; Di Donato, A; Coccia, U; Tamellini, L; Di Giampaolo, L; Grapsi, M; D'Intino, A; Pulini, S; Di Giuseppe, D; Turano, A; Boscolo, P

    2007-01-01

    Object of this study was the occupational stress of 336 teachers (276 women and 60 men) with stable or temporary employment in schools of Pescara, town of Central Italy. The levels of anxiety were determined by STAI and STAI II, those of job strain", "job insecurity" and social support by the Karasek's questionnaire, and the perception of subjective symptoms by a 12 item test. There were no significant differences depending on the type of school. The women with temporary contract showed higher levels of "job insecurity", while the men with temporary job showed also higher values of STAI I and STAI II. The scores of anxiety of the women were positively correlated with "job strain", "job insecurity" and perception of subjective symptoms and negatively with social support, while the only correlations of STAI I and STAI II of men showing statistical significance of men was that with "job insecurity. Job strain was negatively correlated with the perception of symptoms both in women and men. These results evidence differences in the occupational stress of men and women; in particular, job insecurity may enhance anxiety in men.

  19. Safety behavior: Job demands, job resources, and perceived management commitment to safety.

    PubMed

    Hansez, Isabelle; Chmiel, Nik

    2010-07-01

    The job demands-resources model posits that job demands and resources influence outcomes through job strain and work engagement processes. We test whether the model can be extended to effort-related "routine" safety violations and "situational" safety violations provoked by the organization. In addition we test more directly the involvement of job strain than previous studies which have used burnout measures. Structural equation modeling provided, for the first time, evidence of predicted relationships between job strain and "routine" violations and work engagement with "routine" and "situational" violations, thereby supporting the extension of the job demands-resources model to safety behaviors. In addition our results showed that a key safety-specific construct 'perceived management commitment to safety' added to the explanatory power of the job demands-resources model. A predicted path from job resources to perceived management commitment to safety was highly significant, supporting the view that job resources can influence safety behavior through both general motivational involvement in work (work engagement) and through safety-specific processes.

  20. Procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance: the mediating role of need satisfaction and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas; Colombat, Philippe; Michinov, Estelle; Pronost, Anne-Marie; Fouquereau, Evelyne

    2013-11-01

    To test a model linking procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, need satisfaction, organizational support, work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Research in industrial and organizational psychology has shown that procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support lead to positive outcomes. However, very little research related to this subject has been conducted in healthcare settings. Moreover, few studies have examined mechanisms that could account for these positive relationships. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Convenience sampling was used and a sample of 500 nurses working in haematology, oncology and haematology/oncology units in France was surveyed in 2011. The final sample consisted of 323 nurses (64.6% response rate). The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modelling. Procedural justice and supervisor autonomy support significantly and positively influenced need satisfaction and perceived organizational support, which in turn positively predicted work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. Organizations could deliver training programmes for their managers aimed at enhancing the use of fair procedures in allocating outcomes and developing their autonomy-supportive behaviours to improve nurses' work satisfaction, organizational identification and job performance. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Substrate-mediated strain effect on the role of thermal heating and electric field on metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide nanobeams

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Woo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Hyun-Cho; Bae, Tae-Sung; Chang, Sung-Jin; Jang, Ja-Soon; Hong, Woong-Ki; Kim, Bong-Joong

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystalline vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures have recently attracted great attention because of their single domain metal-insulator transition (MIT) nature that differs from a bulk sample. The VO2 nanostructures can also provide new opportunities to explore, understand, and ultimately engineer MIT properties for applications of novel functional devices. Importantly, the MIT properties of the VO2 nanostructures are significantly affected by stoichiometry, doping, size effect, defects, and in particular, strain. Here, we report the effect of substrate-mediated strain on the correlative role of thermal heating and electric field on the MIT in the VO2 nanobeams by altering the strength of the substrate attachment. Our study may provide helpful information on controlling the properties of VO2 nanobeam for the device applications by changing temperature and voltage with a properly engineered strain. PMID:26040637

  2. Differential ability to resist to complement lysis and invade host cells mediated by MBL in R4 and 860 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Evans-Osses, Ingrid; Mojoli, Andres; Beltrame, Marcia Holsbach; da Costa, Denise Endo; DaRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; de Messias-Reason, Iara; Ramirez, Marcel Ivan

    2014-03-18

    To produce an infection Trypanosoma cruzi must evade lysis by the complement system. During early stages of infection, the lectin pathway plays an important role in host defense and can be activated by binding of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens. We hypothesized that MBL has a dual role during parasite-host cell interaction as lectin complement pathway activator and as binding molecule to invade the host cell. We used two polarized strains of T. cruzi, R4 (susceptible) and 860 (resistant) strains, to investigate the role of MBL in complement-mediated lysis. Interestingly R4, but not 860 metacyclic strain, markedly increases the invasion of host cells, suggesting that MBL drives the invasion process while the parasite deactivates the Lectin complement pathway. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. It's My Job: Job Descriptions for Over 30 Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edie

    This book was created to assist youth-camp directors define their camp jobs to improve employee performance assessment, training, and hiring. The book, aimed at clarifying issues in fair-hiring practices required by the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), includes the descriptions of 31 jobs. Each description includes the job's minimum…

  4. It's My Job: Job Descriptions for Over 30 Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edie

    This book was created to assist youth-camp directors define their camp jobs to improve employee performance assessment, training, and hiring. The book, aimed at clarifying issues in fair-hiring practices required by the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), includes the descriptions of 31 jobs. Each description includes the job's minimum…

  5. Nurses' exhaustion: the role of flow at work between job demands and job resources.

    PubMed

    Zito, Margherita; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    In the light of the job demands-resources model, this study aimed to detect the mediating role of flow at work between job demands and job resources on one side, and exhaustion on the other. In a historical period where it is necessary to reduce the abandonment of nursing profession, flow is a useful tool to investigate the factors that can promote work motivation and prevent psychological distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital, and 279 nurses completed a questionnaire. Analyses conducted are descriptive statistics, alphas, correlations and a structural equations model that considers the mediating role of flow at work. Findings show both the central role of job resources in determining flow at work, and the mediating role of flow at work in decreasing exhaustion, starting from job resources, and in decreasing the effect of job demands on exhaustion. Moreover, flow at work directly decreases exhaustion. Results show the relevance of containing job demands and provide job resources to promote positive experiences at work. To promote flow at work, organizations should offer specific resources, such as supervisors' support, job autonomy, and psychological support to manage the emotional charge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fitness Cost Implications of PhiC31-Mediated Site-Specific Integrations in Target-Site Strains of the Mexican Fruit Fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meza, José S.; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M.; Schetelig, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain. PMID:25303238

  7. Fitness cost implications of PhiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, José S; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M; Schetelig, Marc F

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain.

  8. Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqi; Huang, Jason L; Wang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The current meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of job search interventions in facilitating job search success (i.e., obtaining employment). Major theoretical perspectives on job search interventions, including behavioral learning theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and coping theory, were reviewed and integrated to derive a taxonomy of critical job search intervention components. Summarizing the data from 47 experimentally or quasi-experimentally evaluated job search interventions, we found that the odds of obtaining employment were 2.67 times higher for job seekers participating in job search interventions compared to job seekers in the control group, who did not participate in such intervention programs. Our moderator analysis also suggested that job search interventions that contained certain components, including teaching job search skills, improving self-presentation, boosting self-efficacy, encouraging proactivity, promoting goal setting, and enlisting social support, were more effective than interventions that did not include such components. More important, job search interventions effectively promoted employment only when both skill development and motivation enhancement were included. In addition, we found that job search interventions were more effective in helping younger and older (vs. middle-aged) job seekers, short-term (vs. long-term) unemployed job seekers, and job seekers with special needs and conditions (vs. job seekers in general) to find employment. Furthermore, meta-analytic path analysis revealed that increased job search skills, job search self-efficacy, and job search behaviors partially mediated the positive effect of job search interventions on obtaining employment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  9. Do job demands and job control affect problem-solving?

    PubMed

    Bergman, Peter N; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Johansson, Gun; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Aborg, Carl; Hallsten, Lennart; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    The Job Demand Control model presents combinations of working conditions that may facilitate learning, the active learning hypothesis, or have detrimental effects on health, the strain hypothesis. To test the active learning hypothesis, this study analysed the effects of job demands and job control on general problem-solving strategies. A population-based sample of 4,636 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with the same job characteristics measured at two times with a three year time lag was used. Main effects of demands, skill discretion, task authority and control, and the combined effects of demands and control were analysed in logistic regressions, on four outcomes representing general problem-solving strategies. Those reporting high on skill discretion, task authority and control, as well as those reporting high demand/high control and low demand/high control job characteristics were more likely to state using problem solving strategies. Results suggest that working conditions including high levels of control may affect how individuals cope with problems and that workplace characteristics may affect behaviour in the non-work domain.

  10. Can job redesign interventions influence a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics? A quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Holman, David; Axtell, Carolyn

    2016-07-01

    Many job redesign interventions are based on a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model in which the job redesign intervention indirectly influences a broad range of employee outcomes by changing multiple job characteristics. As this model remains untested, the aim of this study is to test a multiple mediator-multiple outcome model of job redesign. Multilevel analysis of data from a quasi-experimental job redesign intervention in a call center confirmed the hypothesized model and showed that the job redesign intervention affected a broad range of employee outcomes (i.e., employee well-being, psychological contract fulfillment, and supervisor-rated job performance) through changes in 2 job characteristics (i.e., job control and feedback). The results provide further evidence for the efficacy and mechanisms of job redesign interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Inhibitory effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus strain on immunoglobulin E-mediated degranulation and late-phase immune reactions of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the in vitro effect of Lactobacillus strains, a major group of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, on immunoglobulin E (IgE)- and antigen-induced mast cell degranulation and subsequent gene expression. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from DBA/2 mice were cultured with heat-killed Lactobacillus strains for 24 h. Some strains significantly inhibited IgE- and antigen-induced β-hexosaminidase release from BMMCs. Furthermore, Lactobacillus reuteri NBRC 15892, which exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity, significantly reduced the elevated interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels that was induced by 1-2 h of stimulation with IgE and antigens. The suppressive effect of NBRC 15892 strain on BMMC degranulation was significantly reduced in the presence of a toll-like receptor (TLR)2-neutralizing antibody. In addition, downregulation of cell surface FcεRIα expression was observed after 6 h of NBRC 15892 treatment. These results suggest that some Lactobacillus strains inhibited IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and subsequent late-phase reactions involving mast cells via a TLR2-dependent mechanism with FcεRIα downregulation.

  12. Highly Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cloning and Functional Characterization of Gastric Cancer-Derived Epstein-Barr Virus Strains.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Teru; Furuse, Yuki; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2016-05-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is etiologically linked to approximately 10% of gastric cancers, in which viral genomes are maintained as multicopy episomes. EBV-positive gastric cancer cells are incompetent for progeny virus production, making viral DNA cloning extremely difficult. Here we describe a highly efficient strategy for obtaining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of EBV episomes by utilizing a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated strand break of the viral genome and subsequent homology-directed repair. EBV strains maintained in two gastric cancer cell lines (SNU719 and YCCEL1) were cloned, and their complete viral genome sequences were determined. Infectious viruses of gastric cancer cell-derived EBVs were reconstituted, and the viruses established stable latent infections in immortalized keratinocytes. While Ras oncoprotein overexpression caused massive vacuolar degeneration and cell death in control keratinocytes, EBV-infected keratinocytes survived in the presence of Ras expression. These results implicate EBV infection in predisposing epithelial cells to malignant transformation by inducing resistance to oncogene-induced cell death. Recent progress in DNA-sequencing technology has accelerated EBV whole-genome sequencing, and the repertoire of sequenced EBV genomes is increasing progressively. Accordingly, the presence of EBV variant strains that may be relevant to EBV-associated diseases has begun to attract interest. Clearly, the determination of additional disease-associated viral genome sequences will facilitate the identification of any disease-specific EBV variants. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage of EBV episomal DNA enabled the cloning of disease-associated viral strains with unprecedented efficiency. As a proof of concept, two gastric cancer cell-derived EBV strains were cloned, and the infection of epithelial cells with reconstituted viruses provided important clues about the mechanism of EBV-mediated epithelial carcinogenesis. This

  13. Job burnout.

    PubMed

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  14. An overview of job embeddedness.

    PubMed

    Reitz, O Ed; Anderson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Nursing turnover in health care organizations is a considerable problem that needs to be reframed within the context of "nurse retention" and "job embeddedness" (JE). A construct from the business literature, JE has been associated with "retention" or "antiwithdrawal." Conversely, turnover encompasses the process of quitting. This distinction is significant. JE represents a mediating construct between various "on-the-job" (organizational) factors, "off-the-job" (community) factors, and employee retention. This article presents an overview of JE including the dimensions, the related concepts of turnover and retention, and associated research. JE may be used to develop specific nurse-retention strategies following careful organizational and community assessment. With the current and looming nursing shortage, perhaps it is time for health care institutions to consider the adaptation of JE tenets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Employees' Job Satisfaction: A Test of the Job Characteristics Model Among Social Work Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Blanz, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    The present article describes an investigation of the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) by Hackman and Oldham (1976) for the prediction of job satisfaction of employees in social work areas. While there is considerable evidence for the JCM with respect to profit-oriented organizations, it was tested whether it can also be applied to the non-profit sector. The present study surveyed 734 holders of jobs in social work in Germany in order to assess their job satisfaction and the core variables of the JCM (i.e., the five job characteristics and the three psychological states). Regression and mediation analyses were used to examine the relations between these variables. The results showed that the expected relations were remarkably in accordance with the findings from the for-profit sector. All model variables correlated positively with job satisfaction, with the psychological states showing higher coefficients than the job characteristics. In addition, the influence of job characteristics on job satisfaction was significantly mediated through the psychological states. These findings were supported by a replication study. Implications of the JCM for practice, in particular for assessment and interventions in social work organizations, are discussed.

  16. Effect of acute and chronic job demands on effective individual teamwork behaviour in medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Josette; van Erven, Pierre; de Jonge, Jan; Maas, Maaike; de Jong, Jos

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the combined effect of acute and chronic job demands on acute job strains experienced during medical emergencies, and its consequences for individual teamwork behaviour. Medical emergency personnel have to cope with high job demands, which may cause considerable work stress (i.e. job strains), particularly when both acute and chronic job demands are experienced to be high. This may interfere with effective individual teamwork behaviour. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2008, involving 48 members (doctors and nurses) of medical emergency teams working in the emergency department of a Dutch general hospital. Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical regression analyses. High acute job demands impeded effective teamwork behaviour, but only when they resulted in acute job strain. Acute emotional demands were more likely to result in acute job strain when chronic emotional job demands were also experienced as high. Although acute cognitive and physical strains were also detrimental, effective teamwork behaviour was particularly impeded by acute emotional strain. Acute job strains impair effective individual teamwork behaviour during medical emergencies, and there is urgent need to prevent or reduce a build-up of job strain from high acute and chronic demands, particularly of the emotional kind.

  17. Occurrence of chromosome- or plasmid-mediated aerobactin iron transport systems and hemolysin production among clonal groups of human invasive strains of Escherichia coli K1.

    PubMed

    Valvano, M A; Silver, R P; Crosa, J H

    1986-04-01

    The incidence of the aerobactin system and the genetic location of aerobactin genes were investigated in Escherichia coli K1 neonatal isolates belonging to different clonal groups. A functional aerobactin system was found in all members of the O7 MP3, O1 MP5, O1 MP9, and O18 MP9 clonal groups examined and also in K1 strains having O6, O16, and O75 lipopolysaccharide types, which are less frequently associated with neonatal infections. In contrast, the aerobactin system was not detected in strains from the O18 MP6 clone. The combined results of plasmid and colony hybridization experiments showed that the aerobactin genes were located on the chromosome in the majority (75%) of the aerobactin-producing K1 isolates, the genetic location of the aerobactin genes was closely correlated with the outer membrane protein profile rather than the O lipopolysaccharide type, the K1 strains harboring a chromosome-mediated aerobactin system did not possess colicin V genes, and five of six K1 isolates possessing a plasmid-borne aerobactin system contained colicin V genes which were located on the same plasmids carrying the aerobactin genes. The comparison of hemolysin production with possession of the aerobactin system in virulent clones of E. coli K1 strains showed that all of the aerobactin-producing strains from the O18 MP9 and O7 MP3 clonal groups did not synthesize hemolysin, whereas 11 of 12 aerobactin-nonproducing O18 MP6 isolates were hemolytic. Of the K1 strains examined, 92.5% possessed either the aerobactin system or the ability to produce hemolysin or both.

  18. Get a job

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    At AGU's 1996 Fall Meeting, a record number of jobs were advertised through the AGU Job Center. Approximately 150 employers advertised 164 jobs at the meeting in San Francisco, while 302 applicants used the center's services and about 50 sat for on-site interviews. At the 1995 Fall Meeting, the Job Center attracted 87 employers and 230 applicants.

  19. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Takuo; Ohshita, Yoshio; Kamiya, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Takahasi, Masamitu

    2011-12-01

    Dislocation-mediated strain relaxation during lattice-mismatched InGaAs/GaAs(001) heteroepitaxy was studied through in situ x-ray reciprocal space mapping (in situ RSM). At the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, a hybrid system of molecular beam epitaxy and x-ray diffractometry with a two-dimensional detector enabled us to perform in situ RSM at high-speed and high-resolution. Using this experimental setup, four results in terms of film properties were simultaneously extracted as functions of film thickness. These were the lattice constants, the diffraction broadenings along in-plane and out-of-plane directions, and the diffuse scattering. Based on correlations among these results, the strain relaxation processes were classified into four thickness ranges with different dislocation behavior. In addition, the existence of transition regimes between the thickness ranges was identified. Finally, the dominant dislocation behavior corresponding to each of the four thickness ranges and transition regimes was noted.

  20. Construction of an engineering strain producing high yields of α-transglucosidase via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Asperillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Liying; Liu, Meng; Huang, Yunyan; Sun, Xin; Lu, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was used in breeding industrial strains for the purpose of improving α-transglucosidase production. Firstly, an efficient ATMT system for Asperillus niger was established by optimization of several influencing factors, in which transformation efficiency was improved up to 14-fold compared with the initial conditions. Furthermore, binary vector pBI-Glu containing an α-transglucosidase expression cassette was constructed and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 in order to infect A. niger. By the efficient ATMT method, the gene for α-transglucosidase, driven by strong promoter PglaA (the glucoamylase gene promoter), had a high expression level in A. niger A-8 (25.02 U/mL). The optimized ATMT system was found to be effective and suitable for A. niger, and should be a useful tool for studying the function of A. niger genes and for industrial breeding of this strain.

  1. Novel Plasmids and Resistance Phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: Unique Plasmid Inventory of Strain Java 9 Mediates High Levels of Arsenic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn25