Science.gov

Sample records for joining future safeguards

  1. Nuclear materials safeguards for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Basic concepts of domestic and international safeguards are described, with an emphasis on safeguards systems for the fuel cycles of commercial power reactors. Future trends in institutional and technical measures for nuclear materials safeguards are outlined. The conclusion is that continued developments in safeguards approaches and technology, coupled with institutional measures that facilitate the global management and protection of nuclear materials, are up to the challenge of safeguarding the growing inventories of nuclear materials in commercial fuel cycles in technologically advanced States with stable governments that have signed the nonproliferation treaty. These same approaches also show promise for facilitating international inspection of excess weapons materials and verifying a fissile materials cutoff convention.

  2. FUTURE SAFEGUARDS EFFECTIVENESS: CONCEPTS AND ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    K. W. BUDLONG-SYLVESTER; J. F. PILAT

    2000-09-01

    With new safeguards measures (under old and new authority) now available to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), there will be fundamental changes in the manner IAEA safeguards are implemented, raising questions about their effectiveness in meeting expanded Agency safeguards objectives. In order to characterize the capability of various safeguards approaches in meeting their objectives, it will be necessary to fully understand what is involved in the new safeguards equation. Both old and new measures will be required to construct a comprehensive picture of a State's nuclear activities and capabilities, and they both have strengths and weaknesses. There are (for political and cost reasons) likely to be tradeoffs between the two types of measures. Significant differences among measures with respect to the probability of their detecting an anomaly, along with other characteristics, need be considered in this context. Given the important role of both types of measures in future approaches, their inherent differences with regard to their capabilities and limitations, and their potential impact on the credibility of safeguards, it will be essential to consider these measures systematically, independently, and in combination in any effectiveness evaluation. This paper will consider concepts and issues in addressing this need.

  3. Joining forces, joining futures: hospice at the crossroads.

    PubMed

    Pietroburgo, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Faced with health-policy changes, increased competition, and limited funding, hospices must either find more efficient ways to provide end-of-life care or risk organizational demise. Increasingly, hospices are re-evaluating their organizations to stretch resources and remain viable. Prevalent restructuring options for addressing environmental pressures are integration, alliance, and collaboration with other organizations. This study examines the restructuring phenomenon by evaluating trends among nonprofit hospices in six states. The study identifies demographic characteristics predictive of organizational decisions to join forces, and it examines the dominant political and economic reasons that propel or impede restructuring decisions. In addition, the study evaluates the results of restructuring actions.

  4. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  5. Safeguards: The past present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Seaton, M.B.

    1987-07-01

    The non-destructive assay techniques developed at Los Alamos have become a primary means for verification by the IAEA and most important for domestic safeguards. We must challenge our assumptions, e.g., that inventory differences are a valid measure of safeguards performance, that more money is the solution, and the threats are much exaggerated. A human reliability program will be initiated. Material control, accounting, and physical protection need further integration. A serious effort involving scholarships, internships, etc. is needed to attract and motivate young people. Increased emphasis will be placed on designing safeguards into new systems such as laser isotope separation. Finally, continuing generous support for the IAEA is most important.

  6. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  7. Becoming stranger: When future selves join the out-group.

    PubMed

    Burum, Bethany A; Gilbert, Daniel T; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    One of the most powerful rules of interpersonal behavior is that people are kinder to members of their in-groups than to members of their out-groups. Are people also kinder to their future selves when they expect them to remain members of their current in-groups rather than become members of their current out-groups? In 2 studies, participants in an emotionally charged debate expected either to remain on the same team or to join the opposing team when they returned the following week. Those who expected to join the opposing team were less willing to sacrifice for their future selves, leaving more of an unpleasant task for their future selves to finish and treating their future selves as unkindly as they treated a stranger. These results suggest that the rules that govern interpersonal behavior may also govern intertemporal behavior, and suggest new strategies to encourage prudent decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27559617

  8. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O'Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  9. Optical surveillance for international safeguards: Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. S.; Sonnier, C. S.; Waddoups, I. G.

    Optical surveillance, one of the principal containment and surveillance measures is accomplished using film camera and video systems. Improved film camera and video systems developed in several countries in the final stages of evaluation and are expected to be placed into routine safeguards use in the near future. One system is the Surveillance and Television Recording (STAR) System. This system is a dual camera high capability unit which is expected to replace the current systems as time progresses. Another is the MINISTATE which is a much smaller, single camera unit which incorporates recent technology advances, and retains many of the basic STAR features at a considerably lower cost. Beyond these near-term advances, it is expected that video camera and recording technology will soon be available which will make video systems competitive with the film camera systems. The introduction of such technology will provide for other advanced techniques, such as laser disc recording and image processing, which are expected to improve the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems.

  10. Future challenges and DOE/NNSA-JAEA cooperation for the development of advanced safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mc Clelland - Kerr, John; Senzaki, Masao; Hori, Masato

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has been cooperating with Japan on nuclear safeguards for over thirty years. DOE/NNSA has collaborated with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors in addressing the need for innovative solutions to nuclear transparency and verification issues in one of the world's most advanced nuclear fuel cycle states. This collaboration includes over ninety activities that have involved nearly every facility in the JAEA complex and many national laboratories in the U.S. complex. The partnership has yielded new technologies and approaches that have benefited international safeguards not only in Japan, but around the world. The International Atomic Energy Agency uses a number of safeguards solutions developed under this collaboration to improve its inspection efforts in Japan and elsewhere. Japanese facilities serve as test beds for emerging safeguards technologies and are setting the trend for new nuclear energy and fuel cycle development worldwide. The collaboration continues to be an essential component of U.S. safeguards outreach and is integral to the DOE/NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative. In addition to fostering international safeguards development, the cooperation is an opportunity for U.S. scientists to work in facilities that have no analog in the United States, thus providing crucial real-life experience for and aiding development of the next generation of U.S. safeguards specialists. It is also an important element of promoting regional transparency thereby building confidence in the peaceful nature of nuclear programs in the region. The successes engendered by this partnership provide a strong basis for addressing future safeguards challenges, in Japan and elsewhere. This paper summarizes these challenges and the associated cooperative efforts that are either underway or anticipated.

  11. Joining and Attachment Technologies for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Current Status and Future Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic composites are either currently being used, or are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications. The engineering designs require fabrication and manufacturing of complex shaped parts. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various aerospace and ground based applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in composites will be presented. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed along with an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). A wide variety of ceramic composites (C/C, C/SiC, and SiC), in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technology. Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints will be reported. Current status of various ceramic joining technologies and future prospects for their applications will also be discussed.

  12. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on October 21, 2010, at 11545... Subcommittee will review current Design Acceptance Criteria associated with Digital Instrumentation and...

  13. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on January 17... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed...

  14. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on November 2..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC...

  15. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 9... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed...

  16. 76 FR 5220 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on February 9, 2011, at 11545... small modular reactor applications. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold...

  17. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, at 11545..., 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the NRC Staff's High Temperature Gas Cooled...

  18. 75 FR 61227 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ..., General Electric--Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH), and their contractors, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

  19. ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security) update: Current status and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A. ); Cousins, T.D. ); Hoover, E.R. )

    1990-07-15

    The Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security (ASSESS) has been released for use by DOE field offices and their contractors. In October, 1989, we offered a prototype workshop to selected representatives of the DOE community. Based on the prototype results, we held the first training workshop at the Central Training Academy in January, 1990. Four additional workshops are scheduled for FY 1990. ASSESS is a state-of-the-art analytical tool for management to conduct integrated evaluation of safeguards systems at facilities handling facilities. Currently, ASSESS focuses on the threat of theft/diversion of special nuclear material by insiders, outsiders, and a special form of insider/outsider collusion. ASSESS also includes a neutralization module. Development of the tool is continuing. Plans are underway to expand the capabilities of ASSESS to evaluate against violent insiders, to validate the databases, to expand the neutralization module, and to assist in demonstrating compliance with DOE Material Control and Accountability (MC A) Order 5633.3. These new capabilities include the ability to: compute a weighted average for performance capability against a spectrum of insider adversaries; conduct defense-in-depth analyses; and analyze against protracted theft scenarios. As they become available, these capabilities will be incorporated in our training program. ASSESS is being developed jointly by Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security.

  20. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  1. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  2. Record linkage in Australian epidemiological research: health benefits, privacy safeguards and future potential.

    PubMed

    Sibthorpe, B; Kliewer, E; Smith, L

    1995-06-01

    Epidemiologists are increasingly concerned with the health effects of interventions and of exposure to noninfectious agents, but there may be long periods between exposure and outcome. Collecting information from respondents is a costly and often inefficient way of obtaining the longitudinal data necessary to study these effects. Linking existing data can be an effective and efficient alternative. However, it is often not practicable to obtain informed consent from the individuals whose records are to be linked. This raises important issues relating to protection of privacy. This paper examines the health benefits and privacy issues of epidemiological and health services research involving record linkage in Australia. The future potential for studies based on record linkage is discussed in the context of recent national and international developments in data protection. In the interests of public health and the rational use of health resources a balance must be struck between protecting individual privacy and conducting such health research for the common good.

  3. Ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the relation between reactions at ceramic-metal interfaces and the development of strong interfacial bonds in ceramic joining. Studies on a number of systems are described, including silicon nitrides, aluminium nitrides, mullite, and aluminium oxides. Joints can be weakened by stresses such as thermal expansion mismatch. Ceramic joining is used in a variety of applications such as solid oxide fuel cells.

  4. Liverpool's healthcare future safeguarded.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David

    2014-03-01

    David Lewis, Principal and design lead for the London studio of international design and architecture firm, NBBJ, and part of the Carillion consortium designing the new Royal Liverpool University Hospital with HKS for The Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, describes how the masterplan will seek to more clearly define the urban space of the street, restore public access to the centre of the site, and 'knit' the hospital more fully into fabric of Liverpool than is the case with the current, 1970s-built, Royal Liverpool University Hospital. PMID:24697095

  5. Nuclear Materials Safeguards - Manpower Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Manuel A.

    Nuclear safeguard systems, their operation and implications for future manpower needs, and the need for these topics to be integrated into the engineering education curriculum, are focused on in this paper. The elements of a safeguard system and factors influencing the selection of a particular system are presented. Projections concerning the use…

  6. Network adaptable information systems for safeguard applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.; Burczyk, L.; Chare, P.; Wagner, H.

    1996-09-01

    While containment and surveillance systems designed for nuclear safeguards have greatly improved through advances in computer, sensor, and microprocessor technologies, the authors recognize the need to continue the advancement of these systems to provide more standardized solutions for safeguards applications of the future. The benefits to be gained from the use of standardized technologies are becoming evident as safeguard activities are increasing world-wide while funding of these activities is becoming more limited. The EURATOM Safeguards Directorate and Los Alamos National Laboratory are developing and testing advanced monitoring technologies coupled with the most efficient solutions for the safeguards applications of the future.

  7. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  8. A free topology safeguards network

    SciTech Connect

    Kadner, S.P.; Resnik, W.M.; Schurig, A.

    1995-12-31

    Free Topology Network technology provides cost reduction benefits as well as flexibility in safeguards applications. Power line communications technologies have proven viability for transmission and reception of safeguards data, including surveillance photographs, the source of the largest data files. In the future, enhancements will be made to the technology that should boost both performance and flexibility. Work is already underway to achieve higher data rates over power line communications eventually, it should be possible to reach data rates of one million bits per second or higher. Also, the use of technologies such as Novell Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) and Echelon LON technology will allow a greater number of safeguards technologies to become resident on the Free Topology Safeguards Network.

  9. Mitigating the consequences of future earthquakes in historical centres: what perspectives from the joined use of past information and geological-geophysical surveys?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terenzio Gizzi, Fabrizio; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Zotta, Cinzia; Simionato, Maurizio; Pileggi, Domenico; Castenetto, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    To mitigate the damage effects of earthquakes in urban areas and particularly in historical centres prone to high seismic hazard is an important task to be pursued. As a matter of fact, seismic history throughout the world informs us that earthquakes have caused deep changes in the ancient urban conglomerations due to their high building vulnerability. Furthermore, some quarters can be exposed to an increase of seismic actions if compared with adjacent areas due to the geological and/or topographical features of the site on which the historical centres lie. Usually, the strategies aimed to estimate the local seismic hazard make only use of the geological-geophysical surveys. Thorough this approach we do not draw any lesson from what happened as a consequences of past earthquakes. With this in mind, we present the results of a joined use of historical data and traditional geological-geophysical approach to analyse the effects of possible future earthquakes in historical centres. The research activity discussed here is arranged into a joint collaboration between the Department of Civil Protection of the Presidency of Council of Ministers, the Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering and the Institute of Archaeological and Monumental Heritage of the National (Italian) Research Council. In order to show the results, we discuss the preliminary achievements of the integrated study carried out on two historical towns located in Southern Apennines, a portion of the Italian peninsula exposed to high seismic hazard. Taking advantage from these two test sites, we also discuss some methodological implications that could be taken as a reference in the seismic microzonation studies.

  10. Safeguarding Porpoises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NetMark 1000 by the Dukane Corporation, used to safeguard porpoises from net entanglement, employs technology developed in the late 1960s by NASA engineers at the Langley Research Center. It is based on an underwater location aid, able to withstand high impact, then emit multidirectional signals for hours on end, originally used in the retrieval of NASA payloads following watery touch-downs on Earth. Dukane and Burnett Electronics later obtained a license from NASA, further improving on the beacon design. In a large scale experiment off the coast of New Hampshire in autumn of 1994, it was found that the use of acoustic alarms appears to hold considerable promise in reducing the number of harbor porpoises killed in the sink gill nets in the Gulf of Maine. Dukane has sold well over 100,000 units. Applications of the pinger are also expanding to other animal species.

  11. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  12. Safeguards Considerations for Thorium Fuel Cycles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Worrall, Louise G.; Worrall, Andrew; Flanagan, George F.; Croft, Steven

    2016-04-21

    We report that by around 2025, thorium-based fuel cycles are likely to be deployed internationally. States such as China and India are pursuing research, development, and deployment pathways toward a number of commercial-scale thorium fuel cycles, and they are already building test reactors and the associated fuel cycle infrastructure. In the future, the potential exists for these emerging programs to sell, export, and deploy thorium fuel cycle technology in other states. Without technically adequate international safeguards protocols and measures in place, any future potential clandestine misuse of these fuel cycles could go undetected, compromising the deterrent value of these protocolsmore » and measures. The development of safeguards approaches for thorium-based fuel cycles is therefore a matter of some urgency. Yet, the focus of the international safeguards community remains mainly on safeguarding conventional 235U- and 239Pu-based fuel cycles while the safeguards challenges of thorium-uranium fuel cycles remain largely uninvestigated. This raises the following question: Is the International Atomic Energy Agency and international safeguards system ready for thorium fuel cycles? Furthermore, is the safeguards technology of today sufficiently mature to meet the verification challenges posed by thorium-based fuel cycles? In defining these and other related research questions, the objectives of this paper are to identify key safeguards considerations for thorium-based fuel cycles and to call for an early dialogue between the international safeguards and the nuclear fuel cycle communities to prepare for the potential safeguards challenges associated with these fuel cycles. In this paper, it is concluded that directed research and development programs are required to meet the identified safeguards challenges and to take timely action in preparation for the international deployment of thorium fuel cycles.« less

  13. Precision Joining Center

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  14. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  15. Precision Joining Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a Precision Joining Center (PJC) is proposed. The PJC will be a cooperatively operated center with participation from U.S. private industry, the Colorado School of Mines, and various government agencies, including the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The PJC's primary mission will be as a training center for advanced joining technologies. This will accomplish the following objectives: (1) it will provide an effective mechanism to transfer joining technology from the NWC to private industry; (2) it will provide a center for testing new joining processes for the NWC and private industry; and (3) it will provide highly trained personnel to support advance joining processes for the NWC and private industry.

  16. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  17. Safeguards Implementation: Establishment of Indonesian Safeguards Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Geist, William H.; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A; Suharyanta, Suharyanta; Sunaryadi, Dedi

    2011-01-01

    Under the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), U.S. National Laboratories support the Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to ''collaborate with international partners to strengthen international safeguards at all stages of nuclear development.'' This engagement in safeguards implementation cooperation is the basis for the security and safeguards arrangement with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia (BAPETEN) and includes strengthening of the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC). There are many components in a robust SSAC. While INSEP carries on its program in a holistic approach, it is more effective and efficient to address individual components, rather than the entire system at one time, with the objective of strengthening the system as a whole. Nuclear material accountancy is one of these components. Nuclear material accountancy necessitates that a State periodically take an inventory of its material and record changes. To better perform these activities, BAPETEN requested assistance with establishing a safeguards laboratory where its staff could perform independent material characterization, maintain nondestructive assay equipment, and facilitate hands-on training of BAPETEN safeguards inspectors. In compliance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines and safety series documents, INSEP and BAPETEN opened the BAPETEN Safeguards Laboratory in February 2010 to provide these competencies. BAPETEN showcased these new capabilities in July 2010 at the IAEA-sponsored Regional Workshop on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Facilities where hands-on activities were held at BAPETEN's Headquarters in Jakarta using the equipment supplied by INSEP. Discussions have begun on the establishment of a security and safeguards laboratory at the BAPETEN Training Center located in Cisarua. This paper describes the many steps

  18. Joined concentric tubes

    SciTech Connect

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  19. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  20. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  1. Safeguards resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Protecting nuclear materials is a challenging problem for facility managers. To counter the broad spectrum of potential threats, facility managers rely on diverse safeguards measures, including elements of physical protection, material control and accountability, and human reliability programs. Deciding how to upgrade safeguards systems involves difficult tradeoffs between increased protection and the costs and operational impact of protection measures. Effective allocation of safeguards and security resources requires a prioritization of system upgrades based on a relative measure of upgrade benefits to upgrade costs. Analytical tools are needed to help safeguards managers measure the relative benefits and costs and allocate their limited resources to achieve balanced, cost-effective protection against the full spectrum of threats. This paper presents a conceptual approach and quantitative model that have been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to aid safeguards managers. The model is in the preliminary stages of implementation, and an effort is ongoing to make the approach and quantitative model available for general use. The model, which is designed to complement existing nuclear safeguards evaluation tools, incorporates a variety of factors and integrates information on the likelihood of potential threats, safeguards capabilities to defeat threats, and the relative consequences if safeguards fail. The model uses this information to provide an overall measure for comparing safeguards upgrade projects at a facility.

  2. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael C; Menlove, Howard O

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  3. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-07-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  4. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  5. Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

    2008-06-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

  6. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  7. Plasma enhanced microwave joining

    SciTech Connect

    Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.; Sayir, A.

    1995-12-31

    A new method for plasma enhanced microwave joining of high purity (99.8%) alumina has been developed. The controlled application of a plasma between the adjoining surfaces of two rods initially heats the microwave-low-absorbing alumina rods to temperatures high enough for them to absorb microwave energy efficiently. With this technology, the adjacent surfaces of alumina rods can be melted and welded together in less than three minutes using approximately 400 watts of microwave energy. Four point bending tests measured fracture strengths of up to 130 MPa at the joined interface. Optical and SEM micrographs indicated that exaggerated grain growth prevailed for all joints studied.

  8. Remote monitoring: A global partnership for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J.

    1996-08-01

    With increased awareness of the significant changes of the past several years and their effect on the expectations to international safeguards, it is necessary to reflect on the direction for development of nuclear safeguards in a new era and the resulting implications. The time proven monitoring techniques, based on quantitative factors and demonstrated universal application, have shown their merit. However, the new expectations suggest a possibility that a future IAEA safeguards system could rely more heavily on the value of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. With the establishment of such a regime, it is highly likely that remote monitoring will play a significant role. Several states have seen value in cooperating with each other to address the many problems associated with the remote interrogation of integrated monitoring systems. As a consequence the International Remote Monitoring Project was organized to examine the future of remote monitoring in International Safeguards. This paper provides an update on the technical issues, the future plans, and the safeguards implications of cooperative programs relating to remote monitoring. Without providing answers to the policy questions involved, it suggests that it is timely to begin addressing these issues.

  9. Joining a Gym

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trade Commission Consumer Information consumer.ftc.gov español Search form Search Vea esta página en español Joining ... rate ends.  Find Out What Other People Think Search for reviews online Do a search online to ...

  10. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  11. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill; William Charlton; Robert Bean

    2008-07-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of “non-traditional” operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes.

  12. Method for joining ceramic shapes

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.

    1992-01-01

    A method for joining shapes of ceramic materials together to form a unitary ceramic structure. In the method of the invention, a mixture of two or more chemical components which will react exothermically is placed between the surfaces to be joined, and the joined shapes heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate the exothermic reaction forming a joining material which acts to bond the shapes together. Reaction materials are chosen which will react exothermically at temperatures below the degradation temperature of the materials to be joined. The process is particularly suited for joining composite materials of the silicon carbide-silicon carbide fiber type.

  13. The potential use of domestic safeguards interior monitors in International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    An important future element of International Safeguards instrumentation is expected to be the merging of containment/surveillance and nondestructive assay equipment with domestic physical protection equipment into integrated systems, coupled with remote monitoring. Instrumentation would include interior monitoring and assessment and entry/exit monitoring. Of particular importance is the application of interior monitors in spaces of declared inactivity; for example, in nuclear material storage locations that are entered infrequently. The use of modern interior monitors in International Safeguards offers potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency. Within the context of increased cooperation, one can readily envision increased interaction between International Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards, including increased joint use of State System of Accounting and Control data.

  14. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  15. Multicolor printing plate joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An upper plate having ink flow channels and a lower plate having a multicolored pattern are joined. The joining is accomplished without clogging any ink flow paths. A pattern having different colored parts and apertures is formed in a lower plate. Ink flow channels each having respective ink input ports are formed in an upper plate. The ink flow channels are coated with solder mask and the bottom of the upper plate is then coated with solder. The upper and lower plates are pressed together at from 2 to 5 psi and heated to a temperature of from 295 F to 750 F or enough to melt the solder. After the plates have cooled and the pressure is released, the solder mask is removed from the interior passageways by means of a liquid solvent.

  16. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  17. Joined ceramic product

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  18. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  19. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    /infrared astronomical observing site in Europe and site of the Spanish 10m GranTeCan telescope now nearing completion. With the high quality of Spanish astronomical research as well as the technological competence of Spanish industry, it is only fitting that Spain should join ESO, world-leader in ground-based astronomy. Through ESO Spain will enjoy full access both to all of ESO's current facilities and to unrestricted participation in the great projects that ESO is planning for the future. Spain is already an active partner of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), whose construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO. ESO's Council approved the admission of Spain at its 107th meeting held in Garching on 7 and 8 December 2005. High resolution images and their captions are available on this page.

  20. 17 CFR 39.18 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Division of Clearing and Risk promptly of: (1) Any hardware or software malfunction, cyber security... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false System safeguards. 39.18 Section 39.18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES...

  1. 17 CFR 49.24 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false System safeguards. 49.24 Section 49.24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SWAP...) Information security; (2) Business continuity—disaster recovery planning and resources; (3) Capacity...

  2. 17 CFR 39.18 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Division of Clearing and Risk promptly of: (1) Any hardware or software malfunction, cyber security... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false System safeguards. 39.18 Section 39.18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES...

  3. 17 CFR 49.24 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false System safeguards. 49.24 Section 49.24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SWAP DATA... shall address each of the following categories of risk analysis and oversight: (1) Information...

  4. The evolution of information-driven safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Budlong-sylvester, Kory W; Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-10-14

    From the adoption of the Model Additional Protocol and integrated safeguards in the 1990s, to current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts to deal with cases of noncompliance, the question of how the Agency can best utilize all the information available to it remains of great interest and increasing importance. How might the concept of 'information-driven' safeguards (IDS) evolve in the future? The ability of the Agency to identify and resolve anomalies has always been important and has emerged as a core Agency function in recent years as the IAEA has had to deal with noncompliance in Iran and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Future IAEA safeguards implementation should be designed with the goal of facilitating and enhancing this vital capability. In addition, the Agency should utilize all the information it possesses, including its in-house assessments and expertise, to direct its safeguards activities. At the State level, knowledge of proliferation possibilities is currently being used to guide the analytical activities of the Agency and to develop inspection plans. How far can this approach be extended? Does it apply across State boundaries? Should it dictate a larger fraction of safeguards activities? Future developments in IDS should utilize the knowledge resident within the Agency to ensure that safeguards resources flow to where they are most needed in order to address anomalies first and foremost, but also to provide greater confidence in conclusions regarding the absence of undeclared nuclear activities. The elements of such a system and related implementation issues are assessed in this paper.

  5. Recent progress in ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Loehman, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Both fundamental and practical aspects of ceramic joining are understood well enough for many, if not most, applications requiring moderate strengths at room temperature. This paper argues that the two greatest needs in ceramic joining are for techniques to join buried interfaces by selective heating, and methods for joining ceramics for use at temperatures of 800 to 1,200 C. Heating with microwave radiation or with high-energy electron beams has been used to join buried ceramic interfaces, for example SiC to SiC. Joints with varying levels of strength at temperatures of 600 to 1,000 C have been made using four techniques: (1) transient liquid phase bonding; (2) joining with refractory braze alloys; (3) joining with refractory glass compositions; and (4) joining using preceramic polymers. Joint strengths as high as 550 MPa at 1,000 C have been reported for silicon nitride-silicon nitride bonds tested in four-point flexure.

  6. Welding and joining: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of NASA-developed technology in welding and joining. Topics discussed include welding equipment, techniques in welding, general bonding, joining techniques, and clamps and holding fixtures.

  7. Method of joining ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  8. Joining of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    A handbook dealing with the many aspects of beryllium that would be important for the users of this metal is currently being prepared. With an introduction on the applications, advantages and limitations in the use of this metal the following topics will be discussed in this handbook: physical, thermal, and nuclear properties; extraction from the ores; purification and casting of ingots; production and types of beryllium powders; consolidation methods, grades, and properties; mechanical properties with emphasis on the various factors affecting these properties; forming and mechanical working; welding, brazing, bonding, and fastening; machining; powder deposition; corrosion; health aspects; and examples of production of components. This report consists of ''Section X--Joining'' from the handbook. The prefix X is maintained here for the figures, tables and references. In this section the different methods used for joining beryllium and the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of each are presented. The methods discussed are fusion welding, brazing, solid state bonding (diffusion bonding and deformation bonding), soldering, and mechanical fastening. Since beryllium has a high affinity for oxygen and nitrogen with the formation of oxides and nitrides, considerable care must be taken on heating the metal, to protect it from the ambient atmosphere. In addition, mating surfaces must be cleaned and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses as well as locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part is subjected to moisture or to any type of corroding environment. This becomes a problem if the less noble (anodic) metal has a significantly smaller area than the more noble (cathodic) metal since the ions (positive charges) from the anodic (corroding) metal must correspond to the number of electrons (negative charges) involved at the cathode. Beryllium is anodic to almost

  9. Ceramic transactions: Ceramic joining. Volume 77

    SciTech Connect

    Reimanis, I.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1997-11-01

    The advent of new materials for engineering applications almost always brings a new challenge: how will these new materials be joined to a larger engineering structure? New ceramic materials are being developed for a wide variety of applications in areas such as power generation, energy conversion, automotive and aerospace, with specific applications including heat exchangers, fuel cells, turbocharger rotors, combustor liners, and for many other applications. Typically the new materials will be exposed to more hostile environments with respect to temperature, corrosion, and stress than materials in the past, and thus, many of the conventional joining techniques developed for less hostile environments do not work. Understanding fundamental issues in joining enables the development of new techniques to be able to utilize new materials. A previous DOE workshop defined fundamental and critical issues in ceramic joining and classified them into four general areas: joining techniques; joint failure; residual stress; and characterization and testing. The present international symposium is an effort to discuss some of these fundamental issues and to define areas for future research. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this symposium.

  10. Join NASA: The Sky is NOT the Limit

    NASA Video Gallery

    We're going to send humans farther into space than ever before ... and eventually to Mars. We need YOU to help plan for this future of exploration. Join NASA: Get your application in now for the 20...

  11. The integration of process monitoring for safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen R.

    2010-09-01

    The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model is a reprocessing plant model that has been developed for safeguards analyses of future plant designs. The model has been modified to integrate bulk process monitoring data with traditional plutonium inventory balances to evaluate potential advanced safeguards systems. Taking advantage of the wealth of operator data such as flow rates and mass balances of bulk material, the timeliness of detection of material loss was shown to improve considerably. Four diversion cases were tested including both abrupt and protracted diversions at early and late times in the run. The first three cases indicated alarms before half of a significant quantity of material was removed. The buildup of error over time prevented detection in the case of a protracted diversion late in the run. Some issues related to the alarm conditions and bias correction will need to be addressed in future work. This work both demonstrates the use of the model for performing diversion scenario analyses and for testing advanced safeguards system designs.

  12. Nuclear safeguards research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. N.

    1981-11-01

    The status of a nuclear safeguard research and development program is presented. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards, training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  13. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  14. NEAMS safeguards and separations

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, Pratap; De Paoli, David W

    2011-01-25

    This presentation provides a program management update on the Safeguards and Separations Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) program in the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS). It provides an overview of FY11 work packages at multiple DOE Labs and includes material on challenge problem definitions for the IPSC effort.

  15. Facility Safeguardability Analysis In Support of Safeguards-by-Design

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Roald Wigeland; Robert Bari; Trond Bjornard; John Hockert; Michael Zentner

    2010-07-01

    The following report proposes the use of Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) to: i) compare and evaluate nuclear safeguards measures, ii) optimize the prospective facility safeguards approach, iii) objectively and analytically evaluate nuclear facility safeguardability, and iv) evaluate and optimize barriers within the facility and process design to minimize the risk of diversion and theft of nuclear material. As proposed by the authors, Facility Safeguardability Analysis would be used by the Facility Designer and/or Project Design Team during the design and construction of the nuclear facility to evaluate and optimize the facility safeguards approach and design of the safeguards system. Through a process of “Safeguards-by-Design” (SBD), this would be done at the earliest stages of project conceptual design and would involve domestic and international nuclear regulators and authorities, including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The benefits of the Safeguards-by-Design approach is that it would clarify at a very early stage the international and domestic safeguards requirements for the Construction Project Team, and the best design and operating practices for meeting these requirements. It would also minimize the risk to the construction project, in terms of cost overruns or delays, which might otherwise occur if the nuclear safeguards measures are not incorporated into the facility design at an early stage. Incorporating nuclear safeguards measures is straight forward for nuclear facilities of existing design, but becomes more challenging with new designs and more complex nuclear facilities. For this reason, the facility designer and Project Design Team require an analytical tool for comparing safeguards measures, options, and approaches, and for evaluating the “safeguardability” of the facility. The report explains how preliminary diversion path analysis and the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRPP) evaluation

  16. Finland to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Finland will become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. Today, during a ceremony at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), a corresponding Agreement was signed by the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, in the presence of other high officials from Finland and the ESO member states (see Video Clip 02/04 below). Following subsequent ratification by the Finnish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols [2], it is foreseen that Finland will formally join ESO on July 1, 2004. Uniting European Astronomy ESO PR Photo 03/04 ESO PR Photo 03/04 Caption : Signing of the Finland-ESO Agreement on February 9, 2004, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). At the table, the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen . [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 499 pix - 52k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 997 pix - 720k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2126 x 2649 pix - 2.9M] The Finnish Minister of Education and Science, Ms. Tuula Haatainen, began her speech with these words: "On behalf of Finland, I am happy and proud that we are now joining the European Southern Observatory, one of the most successful megaprojects of European science. ESO is an excellent example of the potential of European cooperation in science, and along with the ALMA project, more and more of global cooperation as well." She also mentioned that besides science ESO offers many technological challenges and opportunities. And she added: "In Finland we will try to promote also technological and industrial cooperation with ESO, and we hope that the ESO side will help us to create good working relations. I am confident that Finland's membership in ESO will be beneficial to both sides." Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General, warmly welcomed the Finnish intention to join ESO. "With the accession of their country to ESO, Finnish

  17. A fast neighbor joining method.

    PubMed

    Li, J F

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of sequencing technologies, an increasing number of sequences are available for evolutionary tree reconstruction. Although neighbor joining is regarded as the most popular and fastest evolutionary tree reconstruction method [its time complexity is O(n(3)), where n is the number of sequences], it is not sufficiently fast to infer evolutionary trees containing more than a few hundred sequences. To increase the speed of neighbor joining, we herein propose FastNJ, a fast implementation of neighbor joining, which was motivated by RNJ and FastJoin, two improved versions of conventional neighbor joining. The main difference between FastNJ and conventional neighbor joining is that, in the former, many pairs of nodes selected by the rule used in RNJ are joined in each iteration. In theory, the time complexity of FastNJ can reach O(n(2)) in the best cases. Experimental results show that FastNJ yields a significant increase in speed compared to RNJ and conventional neighbor joining with a minimal loss of accuracy. PMID:26345805

  18. Next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI) program plan for safeguards by design

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory; Lockwood, Dunbar

    2010-01-01

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is defined as the incorporation of safeguards features early in the design phase of a new nuclear facility in order to avoid the need to redesign the facility at a later date, or retrofit the completed facility. Not only can SBD avoid the need for redesign or retrofit, but consideration of safeguards features early in the facility design effort can provide for a more efficient and effective safeguards design. A program has been initiated by the United States Department of Energy during the past several years to develop, demonstrate and institutionalization SBD. This plan has been developed in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA while taking into account their achievements and future plans. The United States SBD program is focused on (1) identification of best practices that satisfy existing safeguards requirements, (2) identification of advanced concepts where best practices can be improved, and (3) institutionalizing SBD by gaining its acceptance as a global norm for the design of new nuclear facilities. SBD guidance documents are being prepared as an aid to industry for their design activities, to describe the relationship between requirements, best practices, and advanced concepts. SBD 'lessons learned' studies have been conducted to help identify the existing best practices and potential areas for improvement. Finally, acceptance as a global norm is being pursued by way of international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example by way of its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States.

  19. Designing and Operating for Safeguards: Lessons Learned From the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Shirley J.; Ehinger, Michael

    2010-08-07

    This paper will address the lessons learned during the implementation of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) which are relevant to the issue of ‘safeguards by design’. However, those lessons are a result of a cumulative history of international safeguards experiences starting with the West Valley reprocessing plant in 1969, continuing with the Barnwell plant, and then with the implementation of international safeguards at WAK in Germany and TRP in Japan. The design and implementation of safeguards at RRP in Japan is the latest and most challenging that the IAEA has faced. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the development of a safeguards approach, the design and operating features that were introduced to improve or aid in implementing the safeguards approach, and the resulting recommendations for future facilities. It will provide an overview of how ‘safeguardability’ was introduced into RRP.

  20. Reassessment of safeguards parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Richter, J.L.; Mullen, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is reassessing the timeliness and goal quantity parameters that are used in defining safeguards approaches. This study reviews technology developments since the parameters were established in the 1970s and concludes that there is no reason to relax goal quantity or conversion time for reactor-grade plutonium relative to weapons-grade plutonium. For low-enriched uranium, especially in countries with advanced enrichment capability there may be an incentive to shorten the detection time.

  1. HIP Joining of Cemented Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Derby, B.; Miodownik, M.

    1999-04-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is investigated as a technique for joining the cermet WC-15% Co to itself. Encapsulation of the specimens prior to HIPing was carried out using steel encapsulation, glass encapsulation and self encapsulation. The bonds were evaluated using a four point bend method. It is shown that the glass and steel encapsulation methods have a number of inherent problems which make them inappropriate for near net shape processing. In contrast the novel self encapsulation method, described for the first time in this communication, is both simple and effective, producing joined material with bulk strength. The concept of self encapsulation is potentially widely applicable for joining composite materials.

  2. Defining and Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-07-31

    In light of the shift toward State Level Evaluations and information driven safeguards, this paper offers a refined definition of safeguards culture and a set of metrics for measuring the extent to which a safeguards culture exists in a state. Where the IAEA is able to use the definition and metrics to come to a positive conclusion about the country, it may help reduce the burden on the Agency and the state.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue; Eipeldauer, Mary D; Whitaker, J Michael

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined trends and events impacting the mission of international safeguards and the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements on the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system, as well as the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review's findings and recommendations were summarized in the report, 'International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007)'. One of the report's key recommendations was for DOE/NNSA to launch a major new program to revitalize the international safeguards technology and human resource base. In 2007, at the International Atomic Energy Agency's General Conference, then Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced the newly created Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). NGSI consists of five program elements: (1) Policy development and outreach; (2) Concepts and approaches; (3) Technology and analytical methodologies; (4) Human resource development; and (5) Infrastructure development. The ensuing report addresses the 'Human Resource Development (HRD)' component of NGSI. The goal of the HRD as defined in the NNSA Program Plan (November 2008) is 'to revitalize and expand the international safeguards human capital base by attracting and training a new generation of talent.' One of the major objectives listed in the HRD goal includes education and training, outreach to universities, professional societies, postdoctoral appointments, and summer internships at national laboratories. ORNL is a participant in the NGSI program, together with several DOE laboratories such as Pacific

  4. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  5. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  6. Full spectrum optical safeguard

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Mark R.

    2008-12-02

    An optical safeguard device with two linear variable Fabry-Perot filters aligned relative to a light source with at least one of the filters having a nonlinear dielectric constant material such that, when a light source produces a sufficiently high intensity light, the light alters the characteristics of the nonlinear dielectric constant material to reduce the intensity of light impacting a connected optical sensor. The device can be incorporated into an imaging system on a moving platform, such as an aircraft or satellite.

  7. Research and Development for Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Guy M.

    This report summarizes the results of unclassified research and development contracts in the field of peaceful use safeguards regarding the use of nuclear material. These summaries indicate there is really no sharp line of demarcation between research for safeguards and research for many other purposes. It includes areas of research effort and…

  8. The Importance of Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2013-12-20

    This is a paper we plan to submit to the Nonproliferation Review for publication. The paper provides an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture and gauges its value to the safeguards community. Accompanying the paper are three additional documents that contain the figures and tables cited in the paper. NPR guidelines state these figures and tables are to be submitted in separate documents.

  9. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  10. THE NEXT GENERATION SAFEGUARDS PROFESSIONAL NETWORK: PROGRESS AND NEXT STEPS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernosek, Alena V; Lynch, Patrick D; Scholz, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    President Obama has repeatedly stated that the United States must ensure that the international safeguards regime, as embodied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has 'the authority, information, people, and technology it needs to do its job.' The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) works to implement the President's vision through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), a program to revitalize the U.S. DOE national laboratories safeguards technology and human capital base so that the United States can more effectively support the IAEA and ensure that it meets current and emerging challenges to the international safeguards system. In 2009, in response to the human capital development goals of NGSI, young safeguards professionals within the Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory launched the Next Generation Safeguards Professional Network (NGSPN). The purpose of this initiative is to establish working relationships and to foster collaboration and communication among the next generation of safeguards leaders. The NGSPN is an organization for, and of, young professionals pursuing careers in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation - as well as mid-career professionals new to the field - whether working within the U.S. DOE national laboratory complex, U.S. government agencies, academia, or industry or at the IAEA. The NGSPN is actively supported by the NNSA, boasts more than 70 members, maintains a website and newsletter, and has held two national meetings as well as an NGSPN session and panel at the July 2010 Institute of Nuclear Material Management Annual Meeting. This paper discusses the network; its significance, goals and objectives; developments and progress to date; and future plans.

  11. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  12. Bonding and Joining Technology: a Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles concerning the methods and uses of aerospace bonding and joining techniques in industrial processes is presented. Data include methods to bond and join metal components, joining techniques for adhesive materials, and shop hints for bonding and joining a variety of other items and materials.

  13. Video imaging for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.; Brown, J.E.; Rodriguez, C.A.; Stoltz, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    The field of Nuclear Safeguards has received increasing amounts of public attention since the events of the Iraq-UN conflict over Kuwait, the dismantlement of the former Soviet Union, and more recently, the North Korean resistance to nuclear facility inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The role of nuclear safeguards in these and other events relating to the world`s nuclear material inventory is to assure safekeeping of these materials and to verify the inventory and usage of these materials as reported by states that have signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Nuclear Safeguards are measures prescribed by domestic and international regulatory bodies and implemented by the nuclear facility or the regulatory body. These measures include destructive and nondestructive analysis of product materials and process by-products for materials control and accountancy purposes, physical protection for domestic safeguards, and containment and surveillance for international safeguards. In this presentation we will introduce digital video image processing and analysis systems that have been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for application to the nuclear safeguards problem. Of specific interest to this audience is the detector-activated predictive wavelet transform image coding used to reduce drastically the data storage requirements for these unattended, remote safeguards systems.

  14. Safeguards Envelope: The First Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Jean Ragusa; Robert Bean

    2008-03-01

    The possibility exists for real time accountancy and assay of nuclear materials as they move through a reprocessing facility. This project aims to establish working parameters and local figures of merit to identify possible diversion in real time with minimal operational impact. Factors such as pH, NOX gas concentration, flow speeds and radiation fields are rarely taken into account in safeguards methodologies and will be included to increase the confidence of location and assay of nuclear materials. An adaptable, real data model is being created of the contactors of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility and will be analyzed using the appropriate modeling codes. This model will then be subjected to three, diversion scenarios and a figure of merit methodology will be utilized to create the operational parameters under which these diversion scenarios would be detected. This analysis for figure of merit methodology will include statistical fluctuations, operator error, and a rudimentary analysis of transient conditions. The long term goal of the project includes expansion universally over the plant, methods of detection without requiring access to proprietary information, and an evaluation of the requirements for future figure of merit methodologies.

  15. SILICON CARBIDE JOINING. FINAL TOPICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    Future energy systems will be required to fire lower-grade fuels and meet higher energy conversion efficiencies than today's systems. The steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum temperature of 550 C because above that, the stainless steel tubes deform and corrode excessively. To boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required. Although high-temperature alloys will suffice for the construction of these components in the near term, the greatest efficiency increases can be reached only with the use of advanced structural ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). However, SiC does not melt, but instead sublimes at temperatures over 2000 C. Therefore, it is not possible to join pieces of it through welding, and most brazing compounds have much lower melting points, so the joints lose strength at temperatures much lower than the maximum use temperature of the SiC. Since larger objects such as heat exchangers cannot be easily created from smaller ceramic pieces, the size of the SiC structures that can presently be manufactured are limited by the size of the sintering furnaces (approximately 10 feet for sintered alpha SiC). In addition, repair of the objects will require the use of field-joining techniques. Some success has been had by causing silicon and carbon to react at 1400--1500 C to form SiC in a joint (Rabin, 1995), but these joints contain continuous channels of unreacted silicon, which cause the joints to corrode and creep excessively at temperatures below 1260 C (Breder and Parten, 1996). The objective of this work conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to develop a patentable technique for joining large SiC structures in the field. The key to developing a successful technique will be the use of reactive joining compounds to lower the joining temperature without leaving continuous channels of unreacted compounds that can weaken the joint at temperatures below 1260 C or serve as conduits for

  16. Joining NZP ceramics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklas, K.D.; Richey, M.W.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Santella, M.L.

    1995-09-26

    Objective was to assess techniques for joining NZP ceramics, a new family of ceramic materials that have low coefficient of thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity, and excellent thermal-shock resistance. Initially, the authors evaluated laser-beam welding over volatile fluxing agents (ferric oxide, copper oxide, boric acid, and boron nitride). They also examined other laser, arc-welding, brazing, and cold joining techniques. The NZP materials were capable of sustaining the thermal stresses associated with these joining processes without substantial cracking. Of the volatile fluxes, only the copper oxide promoted weld fusion. Efforts to accomplish fusion by laser-beam welding over copper, titanium, stainless steel, yttrium barium copper oxide, fused silica glass, and mullite/alumina were unsuccessful. Gas-tungsten arc welding accompanied by porosity, irregularities, and cracking was achieved on copper sheet sandwiched between NZP tiles. Attempts at conventional oxy-acetylene welding and torch brazing were unproductive. Silica-based oxide mixtures and copper oxide-based materials show potential for development into filler materials for furnace brazing, and phosphate-based cements show promise as a means of cold joining.

  17. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  18. The Join-Up Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    I recently took on a new assignment and, as is my norm, I scheduled a series of one-hour, 1:1 join-up meetings with the various lead personnel on the team and their hierarchy. During one of these meetings, the person I was meeting with informed me how pleasantly surprised she was that I had scheduled this meeting as very few individuals took the time anymore to have them. I was shocked. I was taught that establishing a 1:1 relationship with the people on your team is critical to the project's success. This was the first time I'd heard anything like this about join-up meetings. I filed this feedback away. Later I was talking to my project manager-mentor, and he indicated he had finished his join-up meetings with every person in his new organization. He also indicated his predecessor had conducted few, if any, join-up meetings. Again, I was shocked. When I reflected on these two experiences, I realized a very negative trend might be emerging in our fast-paced, schedule-driven, 500-e-mail-per-day, cell-phone -ringing, 24/7 -communication, multi-tasking work lives: NO FACE TIME! Face time is what you spend with people to talk about the project you are working on, their expectations of you, your expectations of them, your hierarchy's expectations about each of you, and/or-last but certainly not least-what each of you plans on achieving during the project. A 1:1, face-to-face, join-up meeting is the only way I know to build solid trust between the project manager and the team members and their hierarchy.

  19. Developing the Next Generation of International Safeguards and Nonproliferation Experts: Highlights of Select Activities at the National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J; Mathews, C; Kirk, B; Lynch, P; Doyle, J; Meek, E; Pepper, S; Metcalf, R

    2010-03-31

    With many safeguards experts in the United States at or near retirement age, and with the growing and evolving mission of international safeguards, attracting and educating a new generation of safeguards experts is an important element of maintaining a credible and capable international safeguards system. The United States National Laboratories, with their rich experience in addressing the technical and policy challenges of international safeguards, are an important resource for attracting, educating, and training future safeguards experts. This presentation highlights some of the safeguards education and professional development activities underway at the National Laboratories. These include university outreach, summer courses, internships, mid-career transition, knowledge retention, and other projects. The presentation concludes with thoughts on the challenge of interdisciplinary education and the recruitment of individuals with the right balance of skills and backgrounds are recruited to meet tomorrow's needs.

  20. Evolution of Safeguards over Time: Past, Present, and Projected Facilities, Material, and Budget

    SciTech Connect

    Kollar, Lenka; Mathews, Caroline E.

    2009-07-01

    This study examines the past trends and evolution of safeguards over time and projects growth through 2030. The report documents the amount of nuclear material and facilities under safeguards from 1970 until present, along with the corresponding budget. Estimates for the future amount of facilities and material under safeguards are made according to non-nuclear-weapons states’ (NNWS) plans to build more nuclear capacity and sustain current nuclear infrastructure. Since nuclear energy is seen as a clean and economic option for base load electric power, many countries are seeking to either expand their current nuclear infrastructure, or introduce nuclear power. In order to feed new nuclear power plants and sustain existing ones, more nuclear facilities will need to be built, and thus more nuclear material will be introduced into the safeguards system. The projections in this study conclude that a zero real growth scenario for the IAEA safeguards budget will result in large resource gaps in the near future.

  1. Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, R.J.; Sheely, K.B.; Brown, J.B.; Horton, R.D.; Strittmatter, R.; Manatt, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The requirements for the management of information at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Department of Safeguards are rapidly changing. Historically, the Department of Safeguards has had the requirement to process large volumes of conventional safeguards information. An information management system is currently in place that adequately handles the IAEA`s conventional safeguards data needs. In the post-Iraq environment, however, there is a growing need to expand the IAEA information management capability to include unconventional forms of information. These data include environmental sampling results, photographs, video film, lists of machine tools, and open-source materials such as unclassified publications. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responded to this information management need by implementing the Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) initiative. SIMS was created by the DOE to anticipate and respond to IAEA information management needs through a multilaboratory initiative that will utilize an integrated approach to develop and deploy technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. The DOE will use the SIMS initiative to coordinate US information management activities that support the IAEA Department of Safeguards.

  2. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  3. Continuous remote unattended monitoring for safeguards data collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klosterbuer, S.F.; Halbig, J.K.; Harker, W.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Painter, J.A.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    To meet increased inspection requirements, unattended and remote monitoring systems have been developed and installed in several large facilities to perform safeguards functions. These unattended monitoring systems are based on instruments originally developed for traditional safeguards and the domestic nuclear industry to nondestructively assay nuclear materials. Through specialized measurement procedures, these instruments have been adapted to be unattended monitors. This paper defines the parts of these unattended monitoring systems, describes the systems that have been installed in the field and their status, and discusses future trends for unattended systems.

  4. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  5. Universal connectors for joining stringers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Jr., Ernest (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention is a lightweight, universal connector that joins stringers at various angles. The connectors 10 are fabricated from fiber-epoxy resin strips that wrap around stringers 30 and have ends, tabs 16 and 18, which extend in one general direction. The inside surface of the first tab 16 lies on a plane defined by the stringers being joined, and the second tab 18 is separated from the first tab 16 by a distance equal to their thickness. Stringers 30 of different shapes and sizes are joined by alternately bonding the first tab 16 of one connector between the first 16 and second 18 tabs of another connector. Tee-joints are formed by using web elements 41 and 42 which each partially wrap around a stringer 3010 and have tabs 411 and 421 which are offset, and are bonded between tabs 16 and 18 of universal connectors 109 and 1010 bonded to another stringer 309. Sharp corners are trimmed from the tabs so that a gusset area remains between the stringers for support. Acute angle through obtuse angle joints are formed by trimming those edges of the tabs which lie against the stringers. A specific application of the invention is a Walker 60, utilized by handicapped individuals, fabricated from composite materials that is 40% lighter than similar metallic structures.

  6. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  7. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this training course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and systems of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussion will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios.

  8. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and system of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussions will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios. This report presents a discussion on basic separation and cascade theory, uranium hexafluoride, and detailed separation theory, including gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion.

  9. Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards:Safeguards-by-Design at Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Jon D.; McGinnis, Brent R; Morgan, James B; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Mr. Dunbar; Shipwash, Jacqueline L

    2011-01-01

    The Third International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards (NGS3) was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) in Washington, D.C. on 14-15 December 2010; this meeting focused on the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) concept. There were approximately 100 participants from 13 countries, comprised of safeguards policy and technical experts from government and industry. Representatives also were present from the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the European Atomic Energy Agency (Euratom), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The primary objective of this meeting was to exchange views and provide recommendations on implementation of the SBD concept for four specific nuclear fuel cycle facility types: gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), GEN III and GEN IV reactors, aqueous reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities. The general and facility-specific SBD documents generated from the four working groups, which were circulated for comment among working group participants, are intended to provide a substantive contribution to the IAEA's efforts to publish SBD guidance for these specific types of nuclear facilities in the near future. The IAEA has described the SBD concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), the DOE is working to establish SBD as a global norm through DOE laboratory studies, international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example through its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States. This paper describes the discussion topics and final recommendations of the Enrichment Facilities Working

  10. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  11. Joining of tubes by gas detonation forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkouk, Vahid; Patil, Sandeep; Markert, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    For many applications, such as in structural components, it is required to join two tubes - sometimes with dissimilar material properties. Only few research studies have investigated the joining of tubular metallic components by means of high-velocity forming processes. In this paper, we present the novel process of joining of two tubes by a gas detonation pressure wave. In particular, the joining of a copper and a steel tube is discussed by means of a finite element study and a conducted experiment.

  12. IAEA safeguards and classified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.; Kratzer, M.

    1997-11-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA`s safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials.

  13. Safeguards and security modeling for electrochemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, B.B.; Duran, F.A.; Mendoza, L.A.; Parks, M.J.; Dominguez, D.; Le, T.D.

    2013-07-01

    Safeguards and security design for reprocessing plants can lead to excessive costs if not incorporated early in the design process. The design for electrochemical plants is somewhat uncertain since these plants have not been built at a commercial scale in the past. The Separation and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, has been used for safeguards design and evaluation for multiple reprocessing plant types. The SSPM includes the following capabilities: -) spent fuel source term library, -) mass tracking of elements 1-99 and bulk solid/liquids, -) tracking of heat load and activity, -) customisable measurement points, -) automated calculation of ID and error propagation, -) alarm conditions and statistical tests, and -) user-defined diversion scenarios. Materials accountancy and process monitoring data can provide more timely detection of material loss specifically to protect against the insider threat. While the SSPM is capable of determining detection probabilities and examining detection times for material loss scenarios, it does not model the operations or spatial effects for a plant design. The STAGE software was chosen to model the physical protection system. STAGE provides a framework to create end-to-end scalable force-on-force combat simulations. It allows for a complete 3D model of a facility to be designed along with the design of physical protection elements. This software, then, can be used to model operations and response for various material loss scenarios. The future integration of the SSPM model data with the STAGE software will provide a more complete analysis of diversion scenarios to assist plant designers.

  14. Implementing Safeguards-by-Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; Phillip Casey Durst; John Hockert; James Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Executive Summary Excerpt Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) is an approach to the design and construction of nuclear facilities whereby safeguards are designed-in from the very beginning. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards (MC&A), physical security, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge, and this report focuses on that aspect of SBD. The present report continues the work begun in 2008 and focuses specifically on the design process, or project management and coordination - the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of activities of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project, in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, as well as describing the documents created and how they are used. Designing and constructing a nuclear facility is an extremely complex undertaking. The stakeholders in an actual project are many – owner, operator, State regulators, nuclear facility primary contractor, subcontractors (e.g. instrument suppliers), architect engineers, project management team, safeguards, safety and security experts, in addition to the IAEA and its team. The purpose of the present report is to provide a common basis for discussions amongst stakeholders to collaboratively develop a SBD approach that will be both practically useful and mutually beneficial. The principal conclusions from the present study are: • In the short term, the successful implementation of SBD is principally a project management problem.

  15. Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Safeguards Summary Event List (SSEL) provides brief summaries of several hundred safeguards-related events involving nuclear material or facilities regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Because of public interest, the Miscellaneous category includes a few events which involve either source material, byproduct material, or natural uranium which are exempt from safeguards requirements. Events are described under the categories of bomb-related, intrusion, missing and/or allegedly stolen, transportation, tampering/vandalism, arson, firearms, radiological sabotage, nonradiological sabotage, pre-1990 alcohol and drugs (involving reactor operators, security force members, or management persons), and miscellaneous. The information contained in the event descriptions is derived primarily from official NRC reporting channels.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a comprehensive review of the current and potential future challenges facing the international safeguards system. The review examined: trends and events that have an effect on the mission of international safeguards; the implications of expanding and evolving mission requirements of the legal authorities and institutions that serve as the foundation of the international safeguards system; and, the technological, financial, and human resources required for effective safeguards implementation. The review’s findings and recommendations were summarized in the report International Safeguards: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century (October 2007). The executive summary is available at the following link: http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/inlinefiles/NGSI_Report.pdf.

  17. Safeguarding Our Health: Vaccines Protect Us All

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Safeguarding Our Health Vaccines Protect Us All We share more than food and culture within ... safeguarding your health. “There’s a huge benefit to all of us getting the recommended vaccines,” explains Dr. ...

  18. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Lim, Yong Chae; Mahoney, Murray; Sanderson, Samuel; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale; Fairchild, Doug P; Wasson, Andrew J; Babb, Jon; Higgins, Paul

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  19. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  20. International Safeguards Technology and Policy Education and Training Pilot Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G A; Essner, J T; Dougan, A D; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokava, E; Wehling, F; Martin, J; Charlton, W

    2009-06-16

    A major focus of the National Nuclear Security Administration-led Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. NNSA launched two pilot programs in 2008 to develop university level courses and internships in association with James, Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) at the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS) and Texas A&M University (TAMU). These pilot efforts involved 44 students in total and were closely linked to hands-on internships at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between TAMU, LANL, and LLNL. The LANL-based coursework was shared with the students undertaking internships at LLNL via video teleconferencing. A weeklong hands-on exercise was also conducted at LANL. A second pilot effort, the International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at MIIS in cooperation with LLNL. Speakers from MIIS, LLNL, and other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were senior classmen or new master's degree graduates from MIIS specializing in nonproliferation policy studies. The two pilots programs concluded with an NGSI Summer Student Symposium, held at LLNL, where 20 students participated in LLNL facility tours and poster sessions. The value of bringing together the students from the technical and policy pilots was notable and will factor into the planning for the continued refinement of the two programs in the coming years.

  1. Wireless networking for international safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Smartt, Heidi Anne; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2003-06-01

    Wireless networking using the IEEE 802.11standards is a viable alternative for data communications in safeguards applications. This paper discusses the range of 802.11-based networking applications, along with their advantages and disadvantages. For maximum performance, safety, and security, Wireless networking should be implemented only after a comprehensive site survey has determined detailed requirements, hazards, and threats.

  2. Reversing the Trend: Creating a Growing and Sustainable Cadre of Safeguards Experts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Dunbar; Mathews, Caroline E.; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-07-17

    In October 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a wide-ranging study on international safeguards issues that found, inter alia, that the human capital base in the United States must be revitalized and expanded to ensure a seamless succession from the current generation of safeguards experts. Many current safeguards experts will soon retire and a new generation of talent with capabilities that cover the full spectrum of safeguards-relevant disciplines is needed. The success of this effort will have direct bearing on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). An effective international safeguards system that responds to current and future nonproliferation challenges requires a cadre of skilled safeguards specialists. However, a number of factors have converged in recent years that have challenged the IAEA’s ability to effectively carry out its safeguards mission, e.g. flat funding, expanding responsibilities, and several ad hoc high profile investigations. In the near future, the Agency will require increased numbers of qualified staff to address the expansion and evolution of its mission and anticipated worldwide growth in nuclear energy production. Without a large-scale effort to address this requirement in the near future, the international community will have far less confidence that nuclear material in civil programs is not being diverted for nuclear weapons and the risks of nuclear proliferation will increase around the world. This paper will describe in detail NNSA’s efforts, in coordination with other federal agencies, to address the safeguards human resources challenge, focusing on the recommendations of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  3. Safeguards instrumentation: a computer-based catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Keisch, B.

    1981-08-01

    The information contained in this catalog is needed to provide a data base for safeguards studies and to help establish criteria and procedures for international safeguards for nuclear materials and facilities. The catalog primarily presents information on new safeguards equipment. It also describes entire safeguards systems for certain facilities, but it does not describe the inspection procedures. Because IAEA safeguards do not include physical security, devices for physical protection (as opposed to containment and surveillance) are not included. An attempt has been made to list capital costs, annual maintenance costs, replacement costs, and useful lifetime for the equipment. For equipment which is commercially available, representative sources have been listed whenever available.

  4. Georneys joins AGU's blog network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2011-07-01

    A blog on geological musings, wanderings, and adventures, called Georneys, has joined AGU's network of Earth and space science blogs. With the addition of Georneys, on 11 July, the AGU Blogosphere (http://blogs.agu.org), as the network is known, has grown to showcase eight independent blogs since its launch last fall. “One reason I write this blog is to maintain my sanity as I finish up my Ph.D. In the midst of much stress, long days in lab, and long nights writing thesis chapters, I write to remind myself of why I love geology,” says Georneys blogger Evelyn Mervine. “I also write to document some of my geological adventures and to share my love of geology with others.”

  5. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott F; Mullen, Mark

    2011-10-05

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  6. Simplified Explosive Joining of Tubes to Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.; Finch, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Technique simplifies tube-to-fitting joining, as compared to fusion welding, and provides improvement on standard procedures used to join tubes explosively to tube fittings. Special tool inserted into tube to be joined. Tool allows strip of ribbon explosive to be placed right at joint. Ribbon explosive and mild detonating fuse allows use of smaller charge. Assembled tool storable, and process amenable to automation. Assembly of components, insertion of tool into weld site, and joining operation mechanized without human contact. Used to assemble components in nuclear reactors or in other environments hostile to humans.

  7. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoint) is a method for joining high temperature- resistant ceramic pieces together, establishing joints that are strong, and allowing joining to be done in the field. This new way of joining allows complex shapes to be formed by joining together geometrically simple shapes. The joining technology at NASA is one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon-carbide-based ceramic and composite components in demanding and high-temperature applications. The technology is being developed and tested for high-temperature propulsion parts for aerospace use. Commercially, it can be used for joining ceramic pieces used for high temperature applications in the power-generating and chemical industries, as well as in the microelectronics industry. This innovation could yield big payoffs for not only the power-generating industry but also the Silicon Valley chipmakers. This technology, which was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center by Dr. Mrityunjay Singh, is a two-step process involving first using a paste to join together ceramic pieces and bonding them by heating the joint to 110 to 120 C for between 10 and 20 min. This makes the joint strong enough to be handled for the final joining. Then, a silicon-based substance is applied to the joint and heated to 1400 C for 10 to 15 min. The resulting joint is as strong as the original ceramic material and can withstand the same high temperatures.

  8. Visualizing Safeguards: Software for Conceptualizing and Communicating Safeguards Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, N.

    2015-07-12

    The nuclear programs of states are complex and varied, comprising a wide range of fuel cycles and facilities. Also varied are the types and terms of states’ safeguards agreements with the IAEA, each placing different limits on the inspectorate’s access to these facilities. Such nuances make it difficult to draw policy significance from the ground-level nuclear activities of states, or to attribute ground-level outcomes to the implementation of specific policies or initiatives. While acquiring a firm understanding of these relationships is critical to evaluating and formulating effective policy, doing so requires collecting and synthesizing large bodies of information. Maintaining a comprehensive working knowledge of the facilities comprising even a single state’s nuclear program poses a challenge, yet marrying this information with relevant safeguards and verification information is more challenging still. To facilitate this task, Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed a means of capturing the development, operation, and safeguards history of all the facilities comprising a state’s nuclear program in a single graphic. The resulting visualization offers a useful reference tool to policymakers and analysts alike, providing a chronology of states’ nuclear development and an easily digestible history of verification activities across their fuel cycles.

  9. Organizational Culture for Safety, Security, and Safeguards in New Nuclear Power Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will contain the following sections: Existing international norms and standards for developing the infrastructure to support new nuclear power programs The role of organizational culture and how it supports the safe, secure, and peaceful application of nuclear power Identifying effective and efficient strategies for implementing safety, security and safeguards in nuclear operations Challenges identified in the implementation of safety, security and safeguards Potential areas for future collaboration between countries in order to support nonproliferation culture

  10. Safeguards-by-Design: An Element of 3S Integration

    SciTech Connect

    R. S. Bean; T. A. Bjornard; D. J. Hebdich

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, the “20/20 Vision for the Future” background report by the IAEA Director General identified the possibility of integrating certain activities related to safeguards, safety, and security. Later in the year, the independent Commission report prepared at the request of the IAEA Director General noted that the Agency’s roles in nuclear safeguards, safety, and security (3S) complement and can mutually reinforce each other. Safeguards-by-design (SBD) is a practical measure that strengthens 3S integration, especially for the stage of nuclear facility design and construction, but also with ramifications for other stages of the facility life-cycle. This paper describes the SBD concept, with examples for diverse regulatory environments, being developed in the U.S under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. This is compared with related international SBD work performed in the recent IAEA workshop on “Facility Design and Plant Operation Features that Facilitate the Implementation of IAEA Safeguards”. Potential future directions for further development of SBD and its integration within 3S are identified.

  11. FY 2008 Next Generation Safeguards Initiative International Safeguards Education and Training Pilot Progerams Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G; Essner, J; Dougan, A; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokova, E; Wehling, F

    2008-10-17

    Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were

  12. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  13. Safe-Guarding Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.

    2006-08-01

    There is a host of uncontestable reasons, ranging from scientific to economic via issues of efficiency, why a properly-managed data archive is an essential facility in an observational science like astronomy. While most astronomers would agree with the principle of archiving data of all kinds for the wider community benefit, in practice our achievements are patchy, particularly in issues of preservation and accessibility. This talk will try to analyse why that seems to be so. How effectively archiving is being accomplished reflects prevailing attitudes. It is those attitudes, both individual and corporate, that largely direct where and how we distribute our resources; they control, prioritise and thereby effect (and affect) the quality, content and future of the science which only observational data can support.

  14. Acoustic techniques in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Sinha, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    Acoustic techniques can be employed to address many questions relevant to current nuclear technology needs. These include establishing and monitoring intrinsic tags and seals, locating holdup in areas where conventional radiation-based measurements have limited capability, process monitoring, monitoring containers for corrosion or changes in pressure, and facility design verification. These acoustics applications are in their infancy with respect to safeguards and nuclear material management, but proof-of-principle has been demonstrated in many of the areas listed.

  15. Advanced integrated safeguards at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Bambas, K.J.; Barnes, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    The development and initial performance testing of an advanced integrated safeguards system at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) is described. The program concentrates on the integration and coordination of physical security and nuclear materials control and accounting at a single location. Hardware and software for this phase have been installed and are currently being evaluated. The AGNS/DOE program is now in its third year of development at the BNFP.

  16. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    PubMed

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines. PMID:15212014

  17. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    PubMed

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines.

  18. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-07-26

    The purpose of this talk is to give an overview of the role of modeling and simulation in Safeguards R&D and introduce you to (some of) the tools used. Some definitions are: (1) Modeling - the representation, often mathematical, of a process, concept, or operation of a system, often implemented by a computer program; (2) Simulation - the representation of the behavior or characteristics of one system through the use of another system, especially a computer program designed for the purpose; and (3) Safeguards - the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. The role of modeling and simulation are: (1) Calculate amounts of material (plant modeling); (2) Calculate signatures of nuclear material etc. (source terms); and (3) Detector performance (radiation transport and detection). Plant modeling software (e.g. FACSIM) gives the flows and amount of material stored at all parts of the process. In safeguards this allow us to calculate the expected uncertainty of the mass and evaluate the expected MUF. We can determine the measurement accuracy required to achieve a certain performance.

  19. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf

    2010-10-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  20. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2008-08-19

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  1. Joining and forming using torsional ultrasonic principles.

    PubMed

    Frost, M

    2009-10-01

    Developments in torsional ultrasonic joining mean that it is now used in a diverse range of joining, forming, selective weakening and "break-off" applications in the medical device industry.The principles and benefits of the technique are described together with application examples.

  2. Joining of advanced materials by superplastic deformation

    DOEpatents

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.; Gutierrez-Mora, Felipe

    2005-12-13

    A method for utilizing superplastic deformation with or without a novel joint compound that leads to the joining of advanced ceramic materials, intermetallics, and cermets. A joint formed by this approach is as strong as or stronger than the materials joined. The method does not require elaborate surface preparation or application techniques.

  3. Efficient Joins with Compressed Bitmap Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Computational Research Division; Madduri, Kamesh; Wu, Kesheng

    2009-08-19

    We present a new class of adaptive algorithms that use compressed bitmap indexes to speed up evaluation of the range join query in relational databases. We determine the best strategy to process a join query based on a fast sub-linear time computation of the join selectivity (the ratio of the number of tuples in the result to the total number of possible tuples). In addition, we use compressed bitmaps to represent the join output compactly: the space requirement for storing the tuples representing the join of two relations is asymptotically bounded by min(h; n . cb), where h is the number of tuple pairs in the result relation, n is the number of tuples in the smaller of the two relations, and cb is the cardinality of the larger column being joined. We present a theoretical analysis of our algorithms, as well as experimental results on large-scale synthetic and real data sets. Our implementations are efficient, and consistently outperform well-known approaches for a range of join selectivity factors. For instance, our count-only algorithm is up to three orders of magnitude faster than the sort-merge approach, and our best bitmap index-based algorithm is 1.2x-80x faster than the sort-merge algorithm, for various query instances. We achieve these speedups by exploiting several inherent performance advantages of compressed bitmap indexes for join processing: an implicit partitioning of the attributes, space-efficiency, and tolerance of high-cardinality relations.

  4. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  5. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  6. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  7. Joining of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels for Advanced Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B. W.; Brewer, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of structural materials capable of operation in the high temperatures, corrosive environments, and radiation damage spectra of future reactor designs remain one of the key pacing items for advanced reactor designs. The most promising candidate structural materials are vanadium-based refractory alloys, silicon carbide composites and oxide dispersion strengthened steels. Of these, oxide dispersion strengthened steels are a likely near-term candidate to meet required demands. This paper reviews different variants of oxide dispersion strengthened steels and discusses their capability with regard to high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and radiation damage resistance. Additionally, joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, which has been cited as a limiting factor preventing their use, is addressed and reviewed. Specifically, friction stir welding of these steels is reviewed as a promising joining method for oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  8. Method of joining metallic and composite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for joining a metallic member to a structure made of a composite matrix material. One or more surfaces of a portion of the metallic member that is to be joined to the composite matrix structure is provided with a plurality of outwardly projecting studs. The surface including the studs is brought into engagement with a portion of an uncured composite matrix material so that fibers of the composite matrix material intertwine with the studs, and the metallic member and composite structure form an assembly. The assembly is then companion cured so as to join the metallic member to the composite matrix material structure.

  9. Joining of ceramics for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilpas, Martti

    1987-01-01

    Summarized is a literature survey of the methods for joining ceramics to ceramics or ceramics to metals for high temperature applications. Also mechanical properties and potential applications of the joints are considered. The joining of ceramics is usually carried out by brazing or diffusion bonding. Especially the latter has been found useful, increasing the application of bonded ceramics. The possibility of using electron beam and laser beam welding for joining ceramics has also recently been investigated. The bonding of ceramics has found numerous applications typical for high operating temperatures, i.e., sensors and thermocouples.

  10. Microwave joining of SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I.; Tian, Y.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on identification of the most effective joining methods for scale-up to large tube assemblies, including joining using SiC produced in situ from chemical precursors. During FY 1996, a new microwave applicator was designed, fabricated and tested that provides the capability for vacuum baking of the specimens and insulation and for processing under inert environment. This applicator was used to join continuous fiber-reinforced (CFCC) SiC/SiC composites using a polymer precursor to form a SiC interlayer in situ.

  11. REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP ON NUCLEAR FACILITY DESIGN INFORMATION EXAMINATION AND VERIFICATION FOR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-10-01

    in the future. Consequently, the NNSA Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243) sponsored a team of U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory nuclear safeguards experts and technologists to conduct a workshop on methods and technologies for improving this activity, under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Approaches Project. The workshop focused on reviewing and discussing the fundamental safeguards needs, and presented technology and/or methods that could potentially address those needs more effectively and efficiently. Conclusions and Recommendations for technology to enhance the performance of DIV inspections are presented by the workshop team.

  12. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) in Chile and the very large optical/infrared telescopes now undergoing conceptual studies. ESO membership will give UK astronomers access to the suite of four world-class 8.2-meter VLT Unit Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (Chile), as well as other state-of-the-art facilities at ESO's other observatory at La Silla. Through PPARC the UK already participates in joint collaborative European science programmes such as CERN and the European Space Agency (ESA), which have already proved their value on the world scale. Joining ESO will consolidate this policy, strengthen ESO and enhance the future vigour of European astronomy. Statements Commenting on the funding announcement, Prof. Ian Halliday , PPARC's CEO, said that " this new funding will ensure our physicists and astronomers remain at the forefront of international research - leading in discoveries that push back the frontiers of knowledge - and the UK economy will also benefit through the provision of highly trained people and the resulting advances in IT and commercial spin-offs ". Prof. Mike Edmunds , UCW Cardiff, and Chairman of the UK Astronomy Review Panel which recently set out a programme of opportunities and priorities for the next 10 - 20 years added that " this is excellent news for UK science and lays the foundation for cutting edge research over the next ten years. British astronomers will be delighted by the Government's rapid and positive response to their case. " Speaking on behalf of the ESO Organisation and the community of more than 2500 astronomers in the ESO member states [2], the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , declared: "When ESO was created in 1962, the UK decided not to join, because of access to other facilities in the Southern Hemisphere. But now ESO has developed into one of the world's main astronomical organisations, with top technology and operating the VLT at Paranal, the largest and most efficient optical/infrared telescope facility in the

  13. 7 CFR 947.55 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 947.55 Section 947.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... safeguards to prevent shipments pursuant to § 947.54 from entering channels of trade and other outlets...

  14. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  15. 17 CFR 39.18 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false System safeguards. 39.18... ORGANIZATIONS Compliance with Core Principles § 39.18 System safeguards. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this... means the metropolitan or other geographic area within which a derivatives clearing organization...

  16. 17 CFR 49.24 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false System safeguards. 49.24... REPOSITORIES § 49.24 System safeguards. (a) Each registered swap data repository shall, with respect to all... procedures and the development of automated systems that are reliable, secure, and have adequate...

  17. 5 CFR 2500.9 - Safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding. 2500.9 Section 2500.9 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.9 Safeguarding. The Office of Administration shall protect information in its...

  18. 5 CFR 2500.9 - Safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguarding. 2500.9 Section 2500.9 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.9 Safeguarding. The Office of Administration shall protect information in its...

  19. 34 CFR 104.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.36 Procedural safeguards. A recipient that operates a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural safeguards. 104.36 Section 104.36 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Safeguard clause. 26.21 Section 26.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  1. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Safeguard clause. 26.21 Section 26.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  2. Joining porous components to solid metal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Tulisiak, G.

    1972-01-01

    Process for joining porous metal material to solid metal structure without cracking or blockage of porous component is described. Procedures of electron beam welding and electroforming are discussed. Illustration of microstructure resulting from process is included.

  3. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY09

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Metcalf; Robert Bean

    2009-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters which nuclear facilities may operate within to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). As a result of the U.S. having no operating nuclear chemical reprocessing plants, there has been a strong interest in obtaining process monitoring data from the ICPP. The ICPP was shut down in 1996 and a recent effort has been made to retrieve the PM data from storage in a data mining effort. In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z- testing7.

  4. Enhanced safeguards via solution monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.; Wangen, L.

    1996-09-01

    Solution monitoring is defined as the essentially continuous monitoring of solution level, density, and temperature in all tanks in the process that contain, or could contain, safeguards-significant quantities of nuclear material. This report describes some of the enhancements that solution monitoring could make to international safeguards. The focus is on the quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring, but qualitatively, solution monitoring can be viewed as a form of surveillance. Quantitatively, solution monitoring can in some cases improve diversion detection probability. For example, the authors show that under certain assumptions, solution monitoring can be used to reduce the standard deviation of the annual material balance, {sigma}{sub MB}, from approximately 17 kg to approximately 4 kg. Such reduction in {sigma}{sub MB} will not always be possible, as they discuss. However, in all cases, solution monitoring would provide assurance that the measurement error models are adequate so that one has confidence in his estimate of {sigma}{sub MB}. Some of the results in this report were generated using data that were simulated with prototype solution monitoring software that they are developing. An accompanying document describes that software.

  5. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  6. Adult safeguarding; guidance for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Lewney, J; Boland, B

    2015-09-25

    The legal responsibilities of all those involved in the care of adults at risk of harm were set out in the 'Care Act 2014' which became law in England in April 2015. In the same month, the General Dental Council (GDC) announced that 'safeguarding vulnerable adults' was to become a recommended topic for continuing professional development (CPD), along with 'safeguarding children and young people.' This paper updates on relevant legislation, and outlines the role of dental professionals in adult safeguarding. It then advises on issues surrounding safeguarding concerns, using three scenarios for illustration. Rather than covering the very broad topic of abuse of adults in general, the paper focusses on 'adults at risk' to whom statutory safeguarding law applies. PMID:26404993

  7. Safeguards and retrievability from waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Danker, W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes issues discussed at a session from the PLutonium Stabilization and Immobilization Workshop related to safeguards and retrievability from waste forms. Throughout the discussion, the group probed the goals of disposition efforts, particularly an understanding of the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard{close_quotes}, since the disposition material form derives from these goals. The group felt strongly that not only the disposition goals but safeguards to meet these goals could affect the material form. Accordingly, the Department was encouraged to explore and apply safeguards as early in the implementation process as possible. It was emphasized that this was particularly true for any planned use of existing facilities. It is much easier to build safeguards approaches into the development of new facilities, than to backfit existing facilities. Accordingly, special safeguards challenges are likely to be encountered, given the cost and schedule advantages offered by use of existing facilities.

  8. Safeguards technology and computer security training

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.; Zack, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Safeguards Systems Group provides a variety of training services to the federal government and its contractors. The US Department of Energy sponsors a Safeguards Technology Training Program at Los Alamos in which seminars are offered concerning materials accounting for nuclear safeguards, measurement control for materials accounting, and variance propagation and systems analysis. These seminars provide guidance and techniques for accounting for nuclear material, developing and quantifying quality nuclear material measurements, and assessing overall accounting system performance. The Safeguards Systems Group also provides training in computer and data security applications; i.e., a workshop and the Los Alamos Vulnerability/Risk Assessment System (LAVA), computer system security officer training, and nuclear material safeguards for managers training, which are available on request. This paper describes the purpose, content, and expected benefits of the training activities that can be applied at nuclear materials facilities or where there are computer and/or data security concerns.

  9. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, Susan E.; Pickett, Chris A.; Queirolo, Al; Bachner, Katherine M.; Worrall, Louise G.

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  10. SAFEGUARD: An Assured Safety Net Technology for UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Evan T.; Young, Steven D.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    As demands increase to use unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a broad spectrum of commercial applications, regulatory authorities are examining how to safely integrate them without loss of safety or major disruption to existing airspace operations. This work addresses the development of the Safeguard system as an assured safety net technology for UAS. The Safeguard system monitors and enforces conformance to a set of rules defined prior to flight (e.g., geospatial stay-out or stay-in regions, speed limits, altitude limits). Safeguard operates independently of the UAS autopilot and is strategically designed in a way that can be realized by a small set of verifiable functions to simplify compliance with regulatory standards for commercial aircraft. A framework is described that decouples the system from any other devices on the UAS as well as introduces complementary positioning source(s) for applications that require integrity and availability beyond what the Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide. Additionally, the high level logic embedded within the software is presented, as well as the steps being taken toward verification and validation (V&V) of proper functionality. Next, an initial prototype implementation of the described system is disclosed. Lastly, future work including development, testing, and system V&V is summarized.

  11. Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Humberto Garcia; William Desmond; Scott Demuth

    2010-11-01

    International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

  12. Taxonomy of potential international safeguards regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemley, J.R.; Allentuck, J.

    1994-08-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) search for the components of Iraq`s nuclear weapons program under the auspices of the United Nations Security Council, a consensus for enhancing, strengthening or expanding the scope of international safeguards has developed. Some of the enhanced safeguards concepts which have been suggested include the following: short-notice, challenge, and random inspections; effluent monitoring in onsite, near site, and fly-by modes; local and wide-area environmental monitoring; and utilization of data from space-platform sensors. Potential safeguards regimes can be classified according to the functional and technical criteria which would be necessary for implementation of various enhanced safeguards concepts. While the nature of the regime which will emerge cannot be predicted, the classification of possible regimes according to major characteristics can be useful for identifying functional criteria and implementation challenges, focusing development efforts on the functional criteria, and planning for efficient use of safeguards resources. Precedents established in previously negotiated treaties -- the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe, START, and Open Skies -- are examined with regard to enhancement of the international safeguards regime for nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Bilateral, multilateral and regional integration of enhanced safeguards elements is considered.

  13. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the US Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these field trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology. Fortunately, modern technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime.

  14. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Kouzes, R.; McElroy, R.; Peerani, P.; Aspinall, M.; Baird, K.; Bakel, A.; Borella, M.; Bourne, M.; Bourva, L.; Cave, F.; Chandra, R.; Chernikova, D.; Croft, S.; Dermody, G.; Dougan, A.; Ely, J.; Fanchini, E.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gavron, Victor; Kureta, M.; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Ishiyama, K.; Lee, T.; Martin, Ch.; McKinny, K.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Orton, Ch.; Pappalardo, A.; Pedersen, B.; Peranteau, D.; Plenteda, R.; Pozzi, S.; Schear, M.; Seya, M.; Siciliano, E.; Stave, S.; Sun, L.; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Tagziria, H.; Vaccaro, S.; Takamine, J.; Weber, A. -L.; Yamaguchi, T.; Zhu, H.

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3

  15. Room temperature semiconductor detectors for safeguards measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlt, R.; Rundquist, D. E.

    A summary is given of the principal areas of application where CdTe detectors are presently used by the IAEA in nuclear material safeguards. Hemispheric detectors with a sensitive volume of about 20 mm 3 have their principal application in the verification of irradiated nuclear material. Larger volume hemispheric detectors are used for the verification of unirradiated material. Their availability, however, is still limited. Problems with the commercial supply of detectors and with ruggedizing the design of the miniature detection probes need to be solved. New results which are relevant for future applications are described. It has been shown that hemispheric detectors made of CdZnTe provide a resolution of 3-4% and a peak/Compton ratio larger than two for 137Cs. Large volume planar CdZnTe have been used in conjunction with pulse shape discrimination electronics. The detector efficiency, however, still remains below the values expected from their geometric dimensions. A new technique to achieve single charge collection in large volume CdZnTe detectors has been developed. Planar detectors with PIN structure and Peltier cooling have further improved. However, the problem of long term stability has not been solved yet. Silicon detectors are increasingly used in unattended radiation monitoring systems. They have a proven long term stability and can cover a signal range of 5-6 decades if used with fast pulse counting electronics.

  16. 42 CFR 431.303 - State authority for safeguarding information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State authority for safeguarding information. 431... Safeguarding Information on Applicants and Recipients § 431.303 State authority for safeguarding information... subpart for safeguarding information about applicants and recipients....

  17. SAFEGUARDS CULTURE: WHAT IS IT AND DOES IT MATTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. With the support of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) the authors have attempted a rigorous analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, with the goal of determining its value to the international safeguards community, and to provide recommendations as to whether the concept deserves further development. As part of this analysis, the authors explore the distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance. The authors also discuss synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture.

  18. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Scott J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is intended to provide the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its safeguards obligations. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of IAEA safeguards as those safeguards evolve towards a “State-Level approach.” The Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept can facilitate the implementation of these effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards (Bjornard, et al. 2009a, 2009b; IAEA, 1998; Wonder & Hockert, 2011). This report, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, introduces a methodology intended to ensure that the diverse approaches to Safeguards by Design can be effectively integrated and consistently used to cost effectively enhance the application of international safeguards.

  19. Low temperature joining of ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Nosrati, Mohammad; Unal, Ozer

    2001-04-10

    A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or cermaic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

  20. Low temperature joining of ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Nosrati, Mohammad; Unal, Ozer

    1999-01-12

    A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or cermaic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

  1. Low temperature joining of ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Nosrati, Mohammad; Unal, Ozer

    1999-07-13

    A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or ceramic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

  2. Low temperature joining of ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Anderson, I.E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Nosrati, M.; Unal, O.

    1999-07-13

    A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or ceramic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 C to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix. 3 figs.

  3. Low temperature joining of ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Anderson, I.E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Nosrati, M.; Unal, O.

    1999-01-12

    A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or ceramic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix. 3 figs.

  4. Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Bates, Carl H.; Couhig, John T.; Pelletier, Paul J.

    1990-05-01

    A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

  5. Recent development on methods for superconductor joining

    SciTech Connect

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Blaugher reviews two recent joint development programs for superconductor joining. The force-cooled steel-enclosed westinghouse LCP Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor and the problem it presented of connecting lengths of full-size conductor and individual strands during wire manufacture were responsible for the first program, pursued both by Westinghouse and Airco, who focused on three main approaches: butt-resistance welding, lap joining, and cold welding. Results of the research into each of these approaches is given; butt-resistance welding was the method decided on. The second program was directed at the copper-stabilized Nb-Ti multifilamentary superconductor for the Westinghouse/EPRI 3000 MVA generator. Again, three main approaches were considered: butt-resistance, ultrasonic welding, and lap/mechanical joining. Experimentation with each approach led to the development of an ultrasonic welding method which offered high mechanical strength as well as acceptable electrical properties at low temperatures.

  6. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOEpatents

    Gunkel, Ronald W.; Podey, Larry L.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  7. 45 CFR 84.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identification, evaluation, or educational placement of persons who, because of handicap, need or are believed to need special instruction or related services, a system of procedural safeguards that includes...

  8. 45 CFR 84.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identification, evaluation, or educational placement of persons who, because of handicap, need or are believed to need special instruction or related services, a system of procedural safeguards that includes...

  9. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  10. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, Nicholas; Poe, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  11. 7 CFR 987.59 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 987.59 Section 987.59 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... objectives of this part. Reports and Records...

  12. The Concept of Goals-Driven Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T Bjornard; B. Castle

    2009-02-01

    The IAEA, NRC, and DOE regulations and requirements for safeguarding nuclear material and facilities have been reviewed and each organization’s purpose, objectives, and scope are discussed in this report. Current safeguards approaches are re-examined considering technological advancements and how these developments are changing safeguards approaches used by these organizations. Additionally, the physical protection approaches required by the IAEA, NRC, and DOE were reviewed and the respective goals, objectives, and requirements are identified and summarized in this report. From these, a brief comparison is presented showing the high-level similarities among these regulatory organizations’ approaches to physical protection. The regulatory documents used in this paper have been assembled into a convenient reference library called the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Reference Library. The index of that library is included in this report, and DVDs containing the full library are available.

  13. Security Management and Safeguards Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bewley, Nathaniel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Security Management and Safeguards Office at NASA is here to keep the people working in a safe environment. They also are here to protect the buildings and documents from sabotage, espionage, and theft. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Richard Soppet in Physical Security. While I was working here I helped out with updating the map that we currently use at NASA Glenn Research Center, attended meetings for homeland security, worked with the security guards and the locksmith. The meetings that I attended for homeland security talked about how to protect ourselves before something happened, they told us to always be on the guard and look for anything suspicious, and the different ways that terrorist groups operate. When I was with the security guards I was taught how to check someone into the base, showed how to use a radar gun, observed a security guard make a traffic stop for training and was with them while they patrolled NASA Glenn Research Center to make sure things were running smooth and no one was in danger. When I was with the lock smith I was taught how to make keys and locks for the employees here at NASA. The lock smith also showed me that he had inventory cabinets of files that show how many keys were out to people and who currently has access to the rooms that they keys were made for. I also helped out the open house at NASA Glenn Research Center. I helped out by showing the Army Reserves, and Brook Park's SWAT team where all the main events were going to take place a week before the open house was going to begin. Then during the open house I helped out by making sure people had there IDS, checked through there bags, and handed out a map to them that showed where the different activities were going to take place. So the main job here at NASA Glenn Research Center for the Security Management and Safeguards Office is to make sure that nothing is stolen, sabotaged, and espionaged. Also most importantly make sure all the employees here at NASA are

  14. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Richard; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-06-24

    U.S. efforts to promote the international expansion of nuclear energy through the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will result in a dramatic expansion of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the United States. New demonstration facilities, such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF), the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), and the Consolidated Fuel Treatment Center (CFTC) will use advanced nuclear and chemical process technologies that must incorporate increased proliferation resistance to enhance nuclear safeguards. The ASA-100 Project, “Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities,” commissioned by the NA-243 Office of NNSA, has been tasked with reviewing and developing advanced safeguards approaches for these demonstration facilities. Because one goal of GNEP is developing and sharing proliferation-resistant nuclear technology and services with partner nations, the safeguards approaches considered are consistent with international safeguards as currently implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This first report reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new fuel reprocessing processes to be deployed at the AFCF and CFTC facilities. Similar analyses addressing the ABR and transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication lines at AFCF and CFTC will be presented in subsequent reports.

  15. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  16. 17 CFR 160.30 - Procedures to safeguard customer records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures to safeguard customer records and information. 160.30 Section 160.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws;...

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.; Rosenthal, M.; Fishbone, L.; Occhiogrosso, D.; Carroll, C.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Rankhauser, J.

    2008-10-22

    In 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a yearlong review of the challenges facing the international safeguards system today and over the next 25 years. The study found that without new investment in international safeguards, the U.S. safeguards technology base, and our ability to support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, will continue to erode and soon may be at risk. To reverse this trend, the then U.S. Secretary of Energy, Samuel Bodman, announced at the 2007 IAEA General Conference that the Department of Energy (DOE) would launch the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). He stated 'IAEA safeguards must be robust and capable of addressing proliferation threats. Full confidence in IAEA safeguards is essential for nuclear power to grow safely and securely. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy will seek to ensure that modern technology, the best scientific expertise, and adequate resources are available to keep pace with expanding IAEA responsibilities.' To meet this goal, the NGSI objectives include the recruitment of international safeguards experts to work at the U.S. national laboratories and to serve at the IAEA's headquarters. Part of the latter effort will involve enhancing our existing efforts to place well-qualified Americans in a sufficient number of key safeguards positions within the IAEA's Department of Safeguards. Accordingly, the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards (ERIS) on October 22 and 23, 2008. The ISPO used a workshop format developed earlier with Sonalysts, Inc., that was followed at the U.S. Support Program's (USSP's) technology road-mapping sessions. ISPO invited participants from the U.S. DOE, the IAEA, the U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who either

  18. Joining Forces: Working with Spirituality in Organisations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Robin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes "Joining Forces" (Lindamood); "Spiritual Dimension of the Learning Organisation" (Hawkins); "Management--A 'Spiritual' Foundation?" (Nevard); "Hermit in Organisations" (Murray); "Towards a Spiritual Perspective on Behavior at Work" (Henson); "On Uncertainty" (Adlam); "Spirituality in Organisations" (Lee); "Ecological Organisation" (Conn);…

  19. Flexible coiled spline securely joins mating cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppernol, R. W.

    1966-01-01

    Mating cylindrical members are joined by spline to form an integral structure. The spline is made of tightly coiled, high tensile-strength steel spiral wire that fits a groove between the mating members. It provides a continuous bearing surface for axial thrust between the members.

  20. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  1. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  2. New Trio Launches to Join Expedition 33

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new crew members are on their way to join their Expedition 33 crewmates onboard the International Space Station. They launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft at 6:51 a.m. EDT (5:51 p.m. ...

  3. Join the Teal Pumpkin Project on Halloween

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161749.html Join the Teal Pumpkin Project on Halloween Painted pumpkins let trick-or-treaters with food allergies know ... for kids with food allergies, but the Teal Pumpkin Project aims to make their trick-or-treating ...

  4. Microwave joining of SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Silberglitt, R.; Ahmad, I.; Black, W.M.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to optimize the properties of SiC-SiC joints made using microwave energy. The current focus is on optimization of time-temperature profiles, production of SiC from chemical precursors, and design of new applicators for joining of long tubes.

  5. Deformation and Forming of Joined Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carsley, John; Hovanski, Yuri; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2014-09-23

    Introductory article to a set of invited papers from the TMS committee on shaping and forming. This paper introduces a set of papers that were prepared to discussing the deformation and forming of joined materials, and to announce an upcoming symposium at the 2015 MS&T meeting in Columbus Ohio.

  6. States Rushing to Join Assessment Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Spurred by the promise of $350 million in Race to the Top money for improved tests--as well as an opportunity to strengthen bids for part of the federal fund's larger $4 billion pot--states are scrambling to join consortia to develop common assessments. Six state consortia are now engaged in discussions about common tests, and the multiple…

  7. Robust Joining and Assembly Technologies for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mrityunjay, Singh; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aeronautics, energy, process, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs require fabrication and manufacturing of complex shaped parts. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by Joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed along with an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technology. Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints will be reported. Current status of various ceramic joining technologies and future prospects for their applications will also be discussed.

  8. Building a Successful Machine Safeguarding Program

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S

    2003-03-06

    Safeguarding hazards associated with machines is a goal common to all health and safety professionals. Whether the individual is new to the safety field or has held associated responsibilities for a period of time, safeguarding personnel who work with or around machine tools and equipment should be considered an important aspect of the job. Although significant progress has been made in terms of safeguarding machines since the era prior to the organized safety movement, companies continue to be cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and workers continue to be injured, even killed by machine tools and equipment. In the early 1900s, it was common practice to operate transmission machinery (gears, belts, pulleys, shafting, etc.) completely unguarded. At that time, the countersunk set screw used on shafting had not been invented and projecting set screws were involved in many horrific accidents. Manufacturers built machines with little regard for worker safety. Workers were killed or seriously injured before definitive actions were taken to improve safety in the workplace. Many states adopted legislation aimed at requiring machine guarding and improved injury reduction. The first patent for a machine safeguard was issued in 1868 for a mechanical interlock. Other patents followed. As methods for safeguarding machinery and tools were developed, standards were written and programs were set up to monitor factories for compliance. Many of those standards continue to govern how we protect workers today. It is common to see machine tools built in the forties, fifties and sixties being used in machine shops today. In terms of safeguarding, these machines may be considered poorly designed, improperly safeguarded or simply unguarded. In addition to the potential threat of an OSHA citation, these conditions expose the operator to serious hazards that must be addressed. The safety professional can help line management determine workable solutions for

  9. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  10. Advanced Nuclear Measurements - Sensitivity Analysis Emerging Safeguards, Problems and Proliferation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1999-07-15

    During the past year this component of the Advanced Nuclear Measurements LDRD-DR has focused on emerging safeguards problems and proliferation risk by investigating problems in two domains. The first is related to the analysis, quantification, and characterization of existing inventories of fissile materials, in particular, the minor actinides (MA) formed in the commercial fuel cycle. Understanding material forms and quantities helps identify and define future measurement problems, instrument requirements, and assists in prioritizing safeguards technology development. The second problem (dissertation research) has focused on the development of a theoretical foundation for sensor array anomaly detection. Remote and unattended monitoring or verification of safeguards activities is becoming a necessity due to domestic and international budgetary constraints. However, the ability to assess the trustworthiness of a sensor array has not been investigated. This research is developing an anomaly detection methodology to assess the sensor array.

  11. Lessons Learned from the Development of an Example Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Henry, Michael J.; Burtner, IV, E. R.; Doehle, J. R.; Hampton, S. D.; La Mothe, R. R.; Nordquist, P. L.; Zarzhitsky, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is interested in increasing capabilities of IAEA safeguards inspectors to access information that would improve their situational awareness on the job. A mobile information platform could potentially provide access to information, analytics, and technical and logistical support to inspectors in the field, as well as providing regular updates to analysts at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna or at satellite offices. To demonstrate the potential capability of such a system, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) implemented a number of example capabilities within a PNNL-developed precision information environment (PIE), and using a tablet as a mobile information platform. PNNL’s safeguards proof-of-concept PIE intends to; demonstrate novel applications of mobile information platforms to international safeguards use cases; demonstrate proof-of-principle capability implementation; and provide “vision” for capabilities that could be implemented. This report documents the lessons learned from this two-year development activity for the Precision Information Environment for International Safeguards (PIE-IS), describing the developed capabilities, technical challenges, and considerations for future development, so that developers working to develop a similar system for the IAEA or other safeguards agencies might benefit from our work.

  12. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, David W.; Birdwell, Joseph F.; Gauld, Ian C.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F.

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  13. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F; DePaoli, David W; Gauld, Ian C

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  14. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.E.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Occhogrosso, D.M.; Lockwood, D.; Carroll, C.J.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Fankhauser, J.

    2009-07-12

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards October 22 and 23, 2008. The workshop was sponsored by DOE/NA-243 under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Placing well-qualified Americans in sufficient number and in key safeguards positions within the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Department of Safeguards is an important U.S. non-proliferation objective. The goal of the NGSI Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards was to improve U.S. efforts to recruit U.S. citizens for IAEA positions in the Department of Safeguards. The participants considered the specific challenges of recruiting professional staff, safeguards inspectors, and managers. BNL’s International Safeguards Project Office invited participants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the IAEA, U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who are either experts in international safeguards or who understand the challenges of recruiting for technical positions. A final report for the workshop will be finalized and distributed in early 2009. The main finding of the workshop was the need for an integrated recruitment plan to take into account pools of potential candidates, various government and private agency stakeholders, the needs of the IAEA, and the NGSI human capital development plan. There were numerous findings related to and recommendations for maximizing the placement of U.S. experts in IAEA Safeguards positions. The workshop participants offered many ideas for increasing the pool of candidates and increasing the placement rate. This paper will provide details on these findings and recommendations

  15. Task 6.3/6.7.4 - Silicon Carbide Joining

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; John P. Kay

    1998-02-01

    Future energy systems will be required to fire low-grade fuels and meet higher energy conversion efficiencies than today's systems. The steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum temperature of 550 "C, because above that the stainless steel tubes deform and corrode excessively. To boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required. Although high-temperature alloys will suffice for the construction of these components in the near-term, the greatest efficiency increases can only be reached with the use of advanced structural ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). However, SiC does not melt, but instead sublimes at temperatures over 2000 "C. Therefore, it is not possible to join pieces of it through welding, and most brazing compounds have much lower melting points so the joints lose strength at temperatures much lower than the maximum use temperature of the SiC. Since larger objects, such as heat exchangers, cannot be easily created from smaller ceramic pieces, the size of the SiC structures that can presently be manufactured are limited by the size of the sintering furnaces (approximately 10 feet for sintered alpha silicon carbide). In addition, repair of the objects will require the use of field joining techniques. Some success has been made by causing silicon and carbon to react at 1400 0-1 500 "C to form SiC in a joint (Rabin, 1995) but these joints contain continuous channels of unreacted silicon which cause the joints to corrode and creep excessively at temperatures below 1260 "C (Breder, 1996). At present, no joining techniques are available that allow sintered alpha SiC to be used to its full potential.

  16. Training in Environmental Analyses for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Hutcheon, N A; Kersting, A B

    2009-05-28

    Responding to recommendations of the DOE/NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, a new course, Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards, is being offered as a summer internship opportunity at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first students completed the 8 week program during the summer of 2008. Interns are given training in the analysis of bulk environmental samples for safeguards through hands-on experience working in a clean laboratory, purifying U and Pu from bulk environmental samples, and measuring U and Pu isotope ratios by multi-collector ICP mass spectrometry. A series of lectures by invited safeguards and non-proliferation experts gives the students a broad picture of the safeguards work of the IAEA. At the end of the course, the students prepare a poster of their work to showcase at LLNL's summer student poster symposium. Both undergraduate and graduate students are recruited and hired as paid interns under the aegis of the Glenn T. Seaborg Institute in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. This training course seeks to introduce students to analytical and interpretive skill-sets that are not generally taught at universities, and to encourage them to pursue careers with the IAEA.

  17. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  18. Joining of silicon nitrides using oxynitride glasses

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.H.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a study on commercial silicon nitrides that were successfully joined using oxynitride glasses. Sintered silicon nitride was joined by either closed or glass-filled joints. Glass-filled joints were successfully used on hot-pressed silicon nitrides and were comparable in fast fracture strength to unjoined silicon nitrides up to approximately 1000C. Above that temperature, strengths decreased rapidly and glass flow failure began. The study observed that time-dependent failure currently limits the service temperatures of glass-filled joints. Creep failure occurred in excess of 1000C. Between 900 and 1000C, slow crack growth failure was observed. Cavitation (or viscous deformation) was the rate-controlling mechanism of slow crack growth.

  19. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  20. Rhenium Mechanical Properties and Joining Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Biaglow, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) provides thermal margin for high performance and long life radiation cooled rockets. Two issues that have arisen in the development of flight Ir/Re engines are the sparsity of rhenium (Re) mechanical property data (particularly at high temperatures) required for engineering design, and the inability to directly electron beam weld Re chambers to C103 nozzle skirts. To address these issues, a Re mechanical property database is being established and techniques for creating Re/C103 transition joints are being investigated. This paper discusses the tensile testing results of powder metallurgy Re samples at temperatures from 1370 to 2090 C. Also discussed is the evaluation of Re/C103 transition pieces joined by both, explosive and diffusion bonding. Finally, the evaluation of full size Re transition pieces, joined by inertia welding, as well as explosive and diffusion bonding, is detailed.

  1. Innovative tube forming and joining technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. M.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces new manufacturing technologies for shaping tubes into metallic liners for composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's) that are commonly utilized in aerospace applications and for joining tubes in a wide range of applications comprising plumbing, air conditioned, refrigeration, process piping and lightweight structures, among others. The presentation gives emphasis to the tooling systems and to the numerical modeling and experimentation with the objective of describing the technical details and demonstrating the flexibility, versatility and cost effectiveness of the proposed technologies.

  2. Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to advance the friction stir welding (FSW) process as a manufacturing technology that can be deployed for on-site construction of large, complex and typically thick-sectioned structures made of high performance and high-temperature materials. This would transform FSW from a specialty joining process into one with pervasive application potential across a number of industrial sectors where the payoff of energy reduction, environmental and economic benefits would be significant.

  3. Joining of materials using laser heating

    DOEpatents

    Cockeram, Brian V.; Hicks, Trevor G.; Schmid, Glenn C.

    2003-07-01

    A method for diffusion bonding ceramic layers such as boron carbide, zirconium carbide, or silicon carbide uses a defocused laser beam to heat and to join ceramics with the use of a thin metal foil insert. The metal foil preferably is rhenium, molybdenum or titanium. The rapid, intense heating of the ceramic/metal/ceramic sandwiches using the defocused laser beam results in diffusive conversion of the refractory metal foil into the ceramic and in turn creates a strong bond therein.

  4. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  5. Integrated international safeguards concepts for fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.; Camp, A.L.; Cameron, C.P.; Bleck, M.E.; Ellwein, L.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of efforts by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to identify problems and propose solutions for international safeguarding of light-water reactor spent-fuel reprocessing plants. Problem areas for international safeguards were identified in a previous Problem Statement (LA-7551-MS/SAND79-0108). Accounting concepts that could be verified internationally were presented in a subsequent study (LA-8042). Concepts for containment/surveillance were presented, conceptual designs were developed, and the effectiveness of these designs was evaluated in a companion study (SAND80-0160). The report discusses the coordination of nuclear materials accounting and containment/surveillance concepts in an effort to define an effective integrated safeguards system. The Allied-General Nuclear Services fuels reprocessing plant at Barnwell, South Carolina, was used as the reference facility.

  6. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  7. Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards: ethical and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arpita

    2015-04-01

    The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards were introduced in 2009 as an addition to the Mental Capacity Act 2005. This review discusses the legal impact of the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in the management of incapacitated patients.

  8. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, N S

    2008-09-07

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  9. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe joining fittings. 56.15-1 Section 56.15-1 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-1 Pipe joining fittings. (a) Pipe joining fittings certified in accordance with... stress greater than one-fourth of the ultimate tensile strength of the material for Class II systems...

  10. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe joining fittings. 56.15-1 Section 56.15-1 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-1 Pipe joining fittings. (a) Pipe joining fittings certified in accordance with... stress greater than one-fourth of the ultimate tensile strength of the material for Class II systems...

  11. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe joining fittings. 56.15-1 Section 56.15-1 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-1 Pipe joining fittings. (a) Pipe joining fittings certified in accordance with... stress greater than one-fourth of the ultimate tensile strength of the material for Class II systems...

  12. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... representative model to a proof test or experimental stress analysis described in paragraph A-22 of Section I of... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe joining fittings. 56.15-1 Section 56.15-1 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-1 Pipe joining fittings. (a) Pipe joining fittings certified in accordance...

  13. 46 CFR 56.15-1 - Pipe joining fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... representative model to a proof test or experimental stress analysis described in paragraph A-22 of Section I of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe joining fittings. 56.15-1 Section 56.15-1 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Fittings § 56.15-1 Pipe joining fittings. (a) Pipe joining fittings certified in accordance...

  14. 7 CFR 400.408 - Safeguards and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safeguards and storage. 400.408 Section 400.408... and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.408 Safeguards and storage. Records must be maintained in secured storage with proper safeguards sufficient...

  15. 7 CFR 400.408 - Safeguards and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safeguards and storage. 400.408 Section 400.408... and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.408 Safeguards and storage. Records must be maintained in secured storage with proper safeguards sufficient...

  16. 7 CFR 400.408 - Safeguards and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safeguards and storage. 400.408 Section 400.408... and Storage of Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.408 Safeguards and storage. Records must be maintained in secured storage with proper safeguards sufficient...

  17. 21 CFR 312.88 - Safeguards for patient safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safeguards for patient safety. 312.88 Section 312... Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.88 Safeguards for patient safety. All of the safeguards incorporated within parts 50, 56, 312, 314, and 600 of this chapter designed to ensure the safety of clinical...

  18. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  19. 7 CFR 319.40-7 - Treatments and safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Treatments and safeguards. 319.40-7 Section 319.40-7....40-7 Treatments and safeguards. (a) Certification of treatments or safeguards. If APHIS determines...) Treatments. Treatment of regulated articles under this subpart must be conducted in accordance with part...

  20. 16 CFR 314.3 - Standards for safeguarding customer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for safeguarding customer... OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.3 Standards for safeguarding customer information. (a) Information security program. You shall develop, implement, and maintain...

  1. New Measures to Safeguard Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Jr., James; Garner, James R; Whitaker, Michael; Lockwood, Dunbar; Gilligan, Kimberly V; Younkin, James R; Hooper, David A; Henkel, James J; Krichinsky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    As Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) increase in separative work unit (SWU) capacity, the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) model safeguards approach needs to be strengthened. New measures to increase the effectiveness of the safeguards approach are being investigated that will be mutually beneficial to the facility operators and the IAEA. One of the key concepts being studied for application at future GCEPs is embracing joint use equipment for process monitoring of load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations. A mock F/W system was built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to generate and collect F/W data from an analogous system. The ORNL system has been used to collect data representing several realistic normal process and off-normal (including diversion) scenarios. Emphasis is placed on the novelty of the analysis of data from the sensors as well as the ability to build information out of raw data, which facilitates a more effective and efficient verification process. This paper will provide a progress report on recent accomplishments and next steps.

  2. Innovative and Highly Productive Joining Technologies for Multi-Material Lightweight Car Body Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschut, G.; Janzen, V.; Olfermann, T.

    2014-05-01

    Driven by increasing costs for energy and raw material and especially by the European CO2-emission laws, automotive industry faces the challenge to develop more lightweight and at the same time still rigid and crash-stable car bodies, that are affordable for large-scale production. The implementation of weight-reduced constructions depends not only on the availability of lightweight materials and related forming technologies, but also on cost-efficient and reliable joining technologies suitable for multi-material design. This article discusses the challenges and requirements for these technologies, based on the example of joining aluminium with press-hardened boron steels, what is considered as a very important material combination for affordable future lightweight mobility. Besides a presentation of recent developments for extending the process limits of conventional mechanical joining methods, new promising technologies such as resistance element welding are introduced. In addition, the performance, advantages, and disadvantages of the presented technologies are compared and discussed.

  3. METHOD OF JOINING CARBIDES TO BASE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, N.H.; Farr, J.D.; Witteman, W.G.

    1962-02-13

    A method is described for joining a refractory metal carbide such as UC or ZrC to a refractory metal base such as Ta or Nb. The method comprises carburizing the surface of the metal base and then sintering the base and carbide at temperatures of about 2000 deg C in a non-oxidizing atmosphere, the base and carbide being held in contact during the sintering step. To reduce the sintering temperature and time, a sintering aid such as iron, nickel, or cobait is added to the carbide, not to exceed 5 wt%. (AEC)

  4. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  5. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  6. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Boyer, Brian; Wallace, Rick L.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Kovacic, Don N.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This third report in the series reviews possible safeguards approaches for new fast reactors in general, and the ABR in particular. Fast-neutron spectrum reactors have been used since the early 1960s on an experimental and developmental level, generally with fertile blanket fuels to “breed” nuclear fuel such as plutonium. Whether the reactor is designed to breed plutonium, or transmute and “burn” actinides depends mainly on the design of the reactor neutron reflector and the whether the blanket fuel is “fertile” or suitable for transmutation. However, the safeguards issues are very similar, since they pertain mainly to the receipt, shipment and storage of fresh and spent plutonium and actinide-bearing “TRU”-fuel. For these reasons, the design of existing fast reactors and details concerning how they have been safeguarded were studied in developing advanced safeguards approaches for the new fast reactors. In this regard, the design of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II “EBR-II” at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was of interest, because it was designed as a collocated fast reactor with a pyrometallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication line – a design option being considered for the ABR. Similarly, the design of the Fast Flux Facility (FFTF) on the Hanford Site was studied, because it was a successful prototype fast reactor that ran for two decades to evaluate fuels and the design for commercial-scale fast reactors.

  7. Evaluating safeguard effectiveness against violent insiders

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Fortney, D.S.

    1990-07-16

    The threat posed by a violent insiders presents a major challenge to safeguards managers. These insiders, in addition to their ability to exploit their special authorities, access, and knowledge of facility operations and safeguards, could use violence to defeat safeguards components and personnel. In protecting against theft of special nuclear material, facilities have emphasized the use of perimeter protection and physical barriers to protect against attacks by an outsider adversary group. Recently emphasis has begun to shift toward the implementation of hardware and procedural measures to protect against nonviolent insiders. Approaches are also needed to help assess the effectiveness of protection against those insiders who are willing to use violence. In this paper we describe an approach we're developing for dealing with violent insiders. We begin by categorizing insiders according to whether they are active or passive, rational or irrational, and whether they are willing to use force against safeguards components or coworkers. We define characteristics of each category, and describe the extent to which each category is adequately modelled by existing evaluation tools. We also discuss several modelling issues posed by active insiders, including: entry of contraband; reluctance to use violence; neutralization of insiders; and the ability to switch modes of attack between force, stealth, and deceit. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Applications of Virtual Reality to Nuclear Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.

    1998-11-03

    This paper explores two potential applications of Virtual Reality (VR) to international nuclear safeguards: training and information organization and navigation. The applications are represented by two existing prototype systems, one for training nuclear weapons dismantlement and one utilizing a VR model to facilitate intuitive access to related sets of information.

  9. 7 CFR 945.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 945.56 Section 945.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... prevent shipments pursuant to § 945.53 from entering channels of trade and other outlets for other...

  10. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 966.56 Section 966.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... from entering channels of trade for other than the specific purpose authorized therefor, and...

  11. 7 CFR 948.24 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 948.24 Section 948.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... entering trade channels other than those authorized by regulations and by such rules as may be...

  12. 7 CFR 946.55 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 946.55 Section 946.55 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... channels of trade and other outlets for other than the specific purposes authorized therefor, and...

  13. 7 CFR 906.44 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguards. 906.44 Section 906.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... pursuant to § 906.41 or § 906.42 from entering channels of trade for other than the specific...

  14. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Detection probabilities in fuel cycle oriented safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, J.J.; Stein, G.; Avenhaus, R. )

    1987-01-01

    An intensified discussion of evaluation criteria for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards effectiveness is currently under way. Considerations basic to the establishment of such criteria are derived from the model agreement INFCIRC/153 and include threshold amounts, strategic significance, conversion times, required assurances, cost-effectiveness, and nonintrusiveness. In addition to these aspects, the extent to which fuel cycle characteristics are taken into account in safeguards implementations (Article 81c of INFCIRC/153) will be reflected in the criteria. The effectiveness of safeguards implemented under given manpower constraints is evaluated. As the significant quantity and timeliness criteria have established themselves within the safeguards community, these are taken as fixed. Detection probabilities, on the other hand, still provide a certain degree of freedom in interpretation. The problem of randomization of inspection activities across a fuel cycle, or portions thereof, is formalized as a two-person zero-sum game, the payoff function of which is the detection probability achieved by the inspectorate. It is argued, from the point of view of risk of detection, that fuel cycle-independent, minimally accepted threshold criteria for such detection probabilities cannot and should not be applied.

  16. 45 CFR 605.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedural safeguards. 605.36 Section 605.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  17. Improving the Safeguardability of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; D. Hebditch; P. Peterson; M. Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to reduce security risks and proliferation hazards while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency, in a world where significant expansion of nuclear energy use may occur. Correspondingly, the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) includes objectives to contribute to international efforts to develop SBD, and to apply SBD in the development of new U.S. nuclear infrastructure. Here, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical protection, and safety objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility, from initial planning through design, construction and operation. The SBD process, in its simplest form, may be applied usefully today within most national regulatory environments. Development of a mature approach to implementing SBD requires work in the areas of requirements definition, design processes, technology and methodology, and institutionalization. The U.S. efforts described in this paper are supportive of SBD work for international safeguards that has recently been initiated by the IAEA with the participation of many stakeholders including member States, the IAEA, nuclear technology suppliers, nuclear utilities, and the broader international nonproliferation community.

  18. Institutionalizing Safeguards By Design for Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, James B; Kovacic, Donald N; Whitaker, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    Safeguards for nuclear facilities can be significantly improved by developing and implementing methodologies for integrating proliferation resistance into the design of new facilities. This paper proposes a method to systematically analyze a facility's processes, systems, equipment, structures and management controls to ensure that all relevant proliferation scenarios that could potentially result in unacceptable consequences have been identified, evaluated and mitigated. This approach could be institutionalized into a country's regulatory structure similar to the way facilities are licensed to operate safely and are monitored through inspections and incident reporting to ensure compliance with domestic and international safeguards. Furthermore, taking credit for existing systems and equipment that have been analyzed and approved to assure a facility's reliable and safe operations will reduce the overall cost of implementing intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant features. The ultimate goal is to integrate safety, reliability, security and safeguards operations into the design of new facilities to effectively and efficiently prevent diversion, theft and misuse of nuclear material and sensitive technologies at both the facility and state level. To facilitate this approach at the facility level, this paper discusses an integrated proliferation resistance analysis (IPRA) process. If effectively implemented, this integrated approach will also facilitate the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.

  19. Readability of Special Education Procedural Safeguards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Rudd, Rima; Hehir, Thomas; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on literacy-related barriers to understanding the rights of students with disabilities and their parents within the special education system. SMOG readability scores were determined for procedural safeguards documents issued by all state departments of education. The average reading grade level was 16; 6% scored in the high…

  20. 45 CFR 605.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedural safeguards. 605.36 Section 605.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  1. 45 CFR 605.36 - Procedural safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedural safeguards. 605.36 Section 605.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  2. 28 CFR 25.8 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.8 System safeguards. (a) Information maintained in the NICS... may be delegated to responsible criminal justice agency personnel in the case of a satellite...

  3. 28 CFR 25.8 - System safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.8 System safeguards. (a) Information maintained in the NICS... may be delegated to responsible criminal justice agency personnel in the case of a satellite...

  4. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may prescribe adequate safeguards to prevent handling of tomatoes pursuant to § 966.53 or § 966.54... applications with the committee to ship tomatoes pursuant to §§ 966.53 and 966.54; or (2) Handlers shall...

  5. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may prescribe adequate safeguards to prevent handling of tomatoes pursuant to § 966.53 or § 966.54... applications with the committee to ship tomatoes pursuant to §§ 966.53 and 966.54; or (2) Handlers shall...

  6. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may prescribe adequate safeguards to prevent handling of tomatoes pursuant to § 966.53 or § 966.54... applications with the committee to ship tomatoes pursuant to §§ 966.53 and 966.54; or (2) Handlers shall...

  7. 7 CFR 966.56 - Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may prescribe adequate safeguards to prevent handling of tomatoes pursuant to § 966.53 or § 966.54... applications with the committee to ship tomatoes pursuant to §§ 966.53 and 966.54; or (2) Handlers shall...

  8. From the Laboratory Safeguards Sub-Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Presents recommendations sent to schools by the Laboratory Safeguards Sub-Committee in the United Kingdom to prevent hazards of a number of chemicals. How to avoid phosphorous fires and accidents from doing dangerous experiments in chemistry are also included. (HM)

  9. "Safeguarding" Sports Coaching: Foucault, Genealogy and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Dean; Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a genealogical account of safeguarding in sport. Drawing specifically on Foucault's work, it examines the "politics of touch" in relation to the social and historical formation of child protection policy in sports coaching. While the analysis has some resonance with the context of coaching as a whole, for…

  10. Corrosion issues in joining lightweight materials: A review of the latest achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemor, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    Multimaterials assemblies and, in particular, assemblies made of lightweight components are of utmost relevance in many technical applications. These assemblies include multimetal, metal-polymer, metal-adhesive, and metal-composites combinations, among others. Presently, the transportation sector is looking for lighter materials that allow for reducing fuel consumption and the environmental footprint. Aluminum and magnesium alloys, as well as composites and polymers, are considered strategic for such purposes, and their joining in metal-metal or hybrid assemblies has been explored to develop lightweight components. These multimaterial assemblies are often exposed to aggressive environments in which moisture and aggressive species are present. Under these conditions corrosion phenomena are a major source of material failures. Depending on the nature of the metals and nonmetals and of the joining process, the mechanism and extent of corrosion can vary significantly. Thus, it is essential to understand the impact of corrosion in joined materials and to know which counter-measures can be adopted to mitigate corrosion events in the system of concern. This chapter aims at reviewing the latest results of studies focused in corrosion issues in the joining of lightweight materials. It describes the most common corrosion phenomena observed in joined materials, and it emphasizes corrosion issues in assemblies that combine different metals and that combine metals with nonmetals. Moreover, it overviews the state-of-the-art in corrosion protection strategies that can be applied and, finally, it overlooks the future trends.

  11. Microstructural Evolution of DP980 Steel during Friction Bit Joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Sato, Y. S.; Kokawa, H.; Miles, M. P.; Kohkonen, K.; Siemssen, B.; Steel, R. J.; Packer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The authors study a new solid-state spot joining process, friction bit joining (FBJ), which relies on the use of a consumable joining bit. It has been reported that FBJ is feasible for the joining of steel/steel and aluminum/steel, but the metallurgical characteristics of the joint for enhancement of the properties and reliability remain unclear. Therefore, this study produced friction bit joints in DP980 steel and then examined the microstructures in the joint precisely. In this article, the microstructure distribution associated with hardness in the friction-bit-joined DP980 steel and the microstructural evolution during FBJ are reported.

  12. Long Term Stability of Laser Joined Plastic Metal Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesner, A.; Olowinsky, A.; Gillner, A.

    To join plastic to metal a laser based two-step laser process is described. The first process step is the laser micro structuring of the metal surface to create microstructures with undercut grooves. The subsequent transmission joining process allows a selective heating of arbitrary component geometries and the local control of the joining temperature. Both parts are brought into direct contact prior to welding. The plastic part is melted and expands into the microstructures through the external clamping pressure. The joining results due to micro cramping after setting. The long term stability of the joining is described.

  13. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  14. In-Network Processing of Joins in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2013-01-01

    The join or correlated filtering of sensor readings is one of the fundamental query operations in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Although the join in centralized or distributed databases is a well-researched problem, join processing in WSNs has quite different characteristics and is much more difficult to perform due to the lack of statistics on sensor readings and the resource constraints of sensor nodes. Since data transmission is orders of magnitude more costly than processing at a sensor node, in-network processing of joins is essential. In this paper, the state-of-the-art techniques for join implementation in WSNs are surveyed. The requirements and challenges, join types, and components of join implementation are described. The open issues for further research are identified. PMID:23478603

  15. International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards after Iraq - some Austrailian perceptions

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, J.; Carlson, J.; Hill, J.

    1994-12-31

    Iraq`s nuclear weapons development program used facilities and nuclear material separate from its safeguarded activities. To detect such a strategy the IAEA`s safeguards inspectors need access to locations and information beyond that foreseen in NPT safeguards agreements. But the IAEA is short of money. And detecting undeclared activities could be expensive. If the IAEA can establish a capability to detect undeclared activities, then it might be able to save on regular safeguards. But it`s important not to put the cart before the horse - effective safeguards must come first, savings second.

  16. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  17. Joining of thermoplastic substrates by microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining two or more items having surfaces of thermoplastic material includes the steps of depositing an electrically-conductive material upon the thermoplastic surface of at least one of the items, and then placing the other of the two items adjacent the one item so that the deposited material is in intimate contact with the surfaces of both the one and the other items. The deposited material and the thermoplastic surfaces contacted thereby are then exposed to microwave radiation so that the thermoplastic surfaces in contact with the deposited material melt, and then pressure is applied to the two items so that the melted thermoplastic surfaces fuse to one another. Upon discontinuance of the exposure to the microwave energy, and after permitting the thermoplastic surfaces to cool from the melted condition, the two items are joined together by the fused thermoplastic surfaces. The deposited material has a thickness which is preferably no greater than a skin depth, .delta..sub.s, which is related to the frequency of the microwave radiation and characteristics of the deposited material in accordance with an equation.

  18. SARP-II: Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program, Revised

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A computer code, SARP (Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program) which will generate and maintain at-facility safeguards accounting records, and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user, was completed in 1990 by the Safeguards, Safety, and Nonproliferation Division (formerly the Technical Support Organization) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a task under the US Program of Technical Support to IAEA safeguards. The code was based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for off-load refueled power reactor facilities, with model facility and safeguards accounting regime as described in IAEA Safeguards Publication STR-165. Since 1990, improvements in computing capabilities and comments and suggestions from users engendered revision of the original code. The result is an updated, revised version called SARP-II which is discussed in this report.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Safeguards and Security quarterly progress report to the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Al-Ayat, R.; Cole, C.E.; Thomas, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program (STP) at Livermore supports the Technology Development Program of the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) in three subprogram areas (tasks): 1. Science and Technology Base Development Intelligent Actinide Analysis System Deterioration of Pu Isotopic Analysis with Neutron Damage to HPGe Detectors 2. Onsite Test and Evaluation and Facility Support Isotopic Analysis of Plutonium Samples Enriched in {sup 238}Pu Actinide Isotopic Analysis System for Los Alamos Plutonium-Handling Facility 3. International Safeguards MGA Workshop Transportable X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis System. The report describes the activities in Safeguards Technology and Systems studies, computer security and Advanced Laser Isotope Systems safeguards. 3 refs., 3 figs. (JF)

  20. Safeguards and security considerations for automated and robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.E.; Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Within the reconfigured Nuclear Weapons Complex there will be a large number of automated and robotic (A&R) systems because of the many benefits derived from their use. To meet the overall security requirements of a facility, consideration must be given to those systems that handle and process nuclear material. Since automation and robotics is a relatively new technology, not widely applied to the Nuclear Weapons Complex, safeguards and security (S&S) issues related to these systems have not been extensively explored, and no guidance presently exists. The goal of this effort is to help integrate S&S into the design of future A&R systems. Towards this, the authors first examined existing A and R systems from a security perspective to identify areas of concern and possible solutions of these problems. They then were able to develop generalized S&S guidance and design considerations for automation and robotics.

  1. A conceptual review of interprofessional expertise in child safeguarding.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rick; Gillespie, Judy; Davies, Jonathon

    2016-07-01

    It is increasingly accepted that practitioners across a range of professional fields must work together in order to promote children's welfare and protect them from harm. However, it has also become apparent that interprofessional working is a challenging area of practice that cannot simply be prescribed through protocols and procedures, nor acquired as a set of technical competences. This article develops the concept of interprofessional expertise in order to explain how practitioners become more proficient at working with others to manage complex child welfare issues. Key principles are outlined with reference to relevant theoretical frameworks, including models of skill acquisition. The article concludes by discussing some potential implications for future research and contemporary developments in child safeguarding practice. PMID:27294315

  2. Web-Based Training Applications in Safeguards and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, R.L.

    1999-05-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires all employees who hold a security clearance and have access to classified information and/or special nuclear material to be trained in the area of Safeguards and Security. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, personnel who are responsible for training have capitalized on this communication medium to develop and deliver Web-based training. Unlike traditional computer based training where the student was required to find a workstation where the training program resided, one of Web-based training strongest advantage is that the training can be delivered right to the workers desk top computer. This paper will address reasons for the driving forces behind the utilization of Web-based training at the Laboratory with a brief explanation of the different types of training conducted. Also discussed briefly is the different types of distance learning used in conjunction with Web-based training. The implementation strategy will be addressed and how the Laboratory utilized a Web-Based Standards Committee to develop standards for Web-based training applications. Web-based problems resulting from little or no communication between training personnel across the Laboratory will be touched on and how this was solved. Also discussed is the development of a ''Virtual Training Center'' where personnel can shop on-line for their training needs. Web-based training programs within the Safeguards and Security arena will be briefly discussed. Specifically, Web-based training in the area of Materials Control and Accountability will be explored. A Web-based example of what a student would experience during a training session is also discussed. A short closing statement of what the future of Web-based Training holds in the future is offered.

  3. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated

  4. G. N. Rassam Joins AGU Staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassan N. Rassam joined the AGU staff today, assuming the dual roles of Division Director for Public Information and Marketing and of Special Assistant for Nonprint Publications. He comes to AGU from the American Geological Institute, where he has been chief editor and assistant director of the GeoRef Information System.As Director of Public Information and Marketing, Rassam will head one of AGU's five divisions. He will have under his purview the Public Information Department and the Promotion and Sales Department. The Public Information Department produces Eos and also has the responsibility for press relations, including the preparation of news releases and the operation of press rooms at meetings. These activities are critical to the implementation of AGU's public education and public affairs initiatives, as well as to the central role of AGU in promoting the unity of geophysics.

  5. Overview of the Facility Safeguardability Analysis (FSA) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Robert A.; Hockert, John; Wonder, Edward F.; Johnson, Shirley J.; Wigeland, Roald; Zentner, Michael D.

    2011-10-10

    The safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides the international community with credible assurance that a State is fulfilling its nonproliferation obligations. The IAEA draws such conclusions from the evaluation of all available information. Effective and cost-efficient IAEA safeguards at the facility level are, and will remain, an important element of this “State-level” approach. Efficiently used, the Safeguards by Design (SBD) methodologies , , , now being developed can contribute to effective and cost-efficient facility-level safeguards. The Facility Safeguardability Assessment (FSA) introduced here supports SBD in three areas. 1. It describes necessary interactions between the IAEA, the State regulator, and the owner / designer of a new or modified facility to determine where SBD efforts can be productively applied, 2. It presents a screening approach intended to identify potential safeguard issues for; a) design changes to existing facilities; b) new facilities similar to existing facilities with approved safeguards approaches, and c) new designs, 3. It identifies resources (the FSA toolkit), such as good practice guides, design guidance, and safeguardability evaluation methods that can be used by the owner/designer to develop solutions for potential safeguards issues during the interactions with the State regulator and IAEA. FSA presents a structured framework for the application of the SBD tools developed in other efforts. The more a design evolves, the greater the probability that new safeguards issues could be introduced. Likewise, for first-of-a-kind facilities or research facilities that involve previously unused processes or technologies, it is reasonable to expect that a number of possible safeguards issues might exist. Accordingly, FSA is intended to help the designer and its safeguards experts identify early in the design process: • Areas where elements of previous accepted safeguards approach(es) may be applied

  6. LESSONS LEARNED IN TESTING OF SAFEGUARDS EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; FARNITANO,M.; CARELLI,J.; HAZELTINE,J.; BAILEY,D.

    2001-10-29

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process.

  7. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ON THE DUPIC SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    H. KIM; H. CHA; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A safeguards system has been developed since 1993 in the course of supporting a fuel cycle process to fabricate CANDU fuel with spent PWR fuel (known as Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU, DUPIC). The major safeguards technology involved here was to design and fabricate a neutron coincidence counting system for process accountability, and also an unattended continuous monitoring system in association with independent verification by the IAEA. This combined technology was to produce information of nuclear material content and to maintain knowledge of the continuity of nuclear material flow. In addition to hardware development, diagnosis software is being developed to assist data acquisition, data review, and data evaluation based on a neural network system on the IAEA C/S system.

  8. Safeguards and Security progress report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.; Jaramillo, G.R.

    1990-11-01

    From January to December 1989, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Research and Development (R D) program carried out the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Science and Technology Base Development, Basic Systems Design, Onsite Test and Evaluation and Facility Support, and International Safeguards. For the most part, these activities were sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Safeguards and Security. Part 1 covers development of the basic technology essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards and security. It includes our computer security R D and the activities of the DOE Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this important technology. Part 2 treats activities aimed at developing methods for designing and evaluating safeguards systems, with special emphasis on the integration of the several subsystems into a real safeguards system. Part 3 describes efforts of direct assistance to the DOE and its contractors and includes consultation on materials control and accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and demonstration of advanced safeguards systems. Part 3 also reports a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards that makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Part 5 reports several safeguards-related activities that have sponsors other than the DOE/OSS. 87 refs., 52 figs.

  9. Pebble bed modular reactor safeguards: developing new approaches and implementing safeguards by design

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, Brian David; Beddingfield, David H; Durst, Philip; Bean, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) does not fit or seem appropriate to the IAEA safeguards approach under the categories of light water reactor (LWR), on-load refueled reactor (OLR, i.e. CANDU), or Other (prismatic HTGR) because the fuel is in a bulk form, rather than discrete items. Because the nuclear fuel is a collection of nuclear material inserted in tennis-ball sized spheres containing structural and moderating material and a PBMR core will contain a bulk load on the order of 500,000 spheres, it could be classified as a 'Bulk-Fuel Reactor.' Hence, the IAEA should develop unique safeguards criteria. In a multi-lab DOE study, it was found that an optimized blend of: (i) developing techniques to verify the plutonium content in spent fuel pebbles, (ii) improving burn-up computer codes for PBMR spent fuel to provide better understanding of the core and spent fuel makeup, and (iii) utilizing bulk verification techniques for PBMR spent fuel storage bins should be combined with the historic IAEA and South African approaches of containment and surveillance to verify and maintain continuity of knowledge of PBMR fuel. For all of these techniques to work the design of the reactor will need to accommodate safeguards and material accountancy measures to a far greater extent than has thus far been the case. The implementation of Safeguards-by-Design as the PBMR design progresses provides an approach to meets these safeguards and accountancy needs.

  10. Science and Technology Challenges for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The science and technology challenges for international safeguards range from cutting edge physics needs to practical technology solutions for high volume data handling and analysis issues. This paper will take a narrow look at some of the predominant challenges, which include those at high throughput commercial facilities and those in the detection of undeclared facilities. It is hoped that by highlighting these areas it can encourage a concerted effort by scientific institutions and industry to provide robust cost-effective solutions.

  11. Design Vulnerability Assessments for Safeguards Sealing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, Linda; Johnston, Roger; Kravtchenko, Victor; Undem, Halvor A.; Wishard, Bernard

    2010-08-11

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the "Agency") engages in a rigorous equipment authorization process prior to deploying Safeguards instrumentation, including Safeguards sealing systems, for world-wide use. A positive result from a vulnerability assessment is one of the many requirements that must be met prior to instrumentation deployment. Given the long time period in the Safeguards instrumentation development cycle, the substantial Member State investments made, and the significant Agency staff time required, a negative result for the vulnerability assessment can result in the loss of time, considerable additional expense, or even the failure to deploy an instrument or sealing system at all. First suggested in 1998 by the General Physics Institute in Moscow, an approach that incorporates a design vulnerability assessment minimizes the risk of deployment failure by teaming a public sector vulnerability assessment team with the instrument or sealing system design team in order to identify, at the earliest possible design stage, inherent vulnerabilities. Involving the vulnerability assessors early and often in the design and development process avoids many of the problems inherent in evaluating security vulnerabilities only after the design is finalized. The disadvantages include increased costs and time to deployment. An improved pressure-sensitive adhesive label seal, called the "VOID-3 seal" was developed for the Agency using this design vulnerability assessment process.

  12. Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI) Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Alice Price

    2010-07-11

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) began operating Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) under the Safeguards First Principle Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based and cost-effective program, in December 2006. The NTS SFPI Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Systems (COMPASS) Model is made up of specific elements (MC&A plan, graded safeguards, accounting systems, measurements, containment, surveillance, physical inventories, shipper/receiver differences, assessments/performance tests) and various sub-elements, which are each assigned effectiveness and contribution factors that when weighted and rated reflect the health of the MC&A program. The MC&A Cost Model, using an Excel workbook, calculates budget and/or actual costs using these same elements/sub-elements resulting in total costs and effectiveness costs per element/sub-element. These calculations allow management to identify how costs are distributed for each element/sub-element. The Cost Model, as part of the SFPI program review process, enables management to determine if spending is appropriate for each element/sub-element.

  13. A NEW APPROACH TO JOINING SIC/SIC COMPOSITES

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.

    2004-06-30

    A new approach to joining SiC-based ceramics is described and evaluated for Fusion Energy systems. The joining method is based on pre-ceramic polymers filled with reactive and inert filler powders and is similar to other approaches that use such materials. This approach differs in the particular polymer system and in the details of the processing. A principal advantage of this approach relative to other, similar approaches is that the polymer system is easily handled in ambient air and can be processed in air. This makes the joining process simple and field repairable. The joining compound is a liquid that can be painted, sprayed, or applied by dip coating.

  14. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  15. Join or be excluded from biomedicine? JOINS and Post-colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Eunjeong

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses re-emergence of Korean medicine(s) in the global context with a focus on a natural drug JOINS, a highly contentious drug regarding its legal status. By following through its life world, the paper contends that the drug is the embodiment of the postcolonial anxiety that crosses the intersections between the aspiring nation and globalizing strategies of the bio-pharmaceutical industry. JOINS is a natural drug prescribed to alleviate the symptoms of degenerative arthritis. SK Chemicals, Ltd., a giant domestic pharmaceutical company developed the drug by utilizing the knowledge of traditional pharmacopeia and put it on the market in 2001. In the domestic market, the drug is treated as a prescription drug, implying that Western medicine-trained doctors (as opposed to Korean medicine doctors) are entitled to prescribe drugs. It also indicates that the drug has undergone a series of lab tests such as toxicity, efficacy, and clinical trials in compliance with regulatory guidelines. However, the domestic standards are not rigorous enough to satisfy international standards, so that it is exported as a nutritional supplement abroad. The government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the Western medicine profession are happy with how the drug stands domestically and internationally. Rather, it is Korean doctors who try to disrupt the status quo and reclaim their rights to traditional knowledge, who have been alienated from the pharmaceuticalization of traditional knowledge. Thus, the JOINS tablet embodies the complex web of modern Korean society, professional interests, the pharmaceutical industry, and globalization. PMID:25641583

  16. Join or be excluded from biomedicine? JOINS and Post-colonial Korea.

    PubMed

    Ma, Eunjeong

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses re-emergence of Korean medicine(s) in the global context with a focus on a natural drug JOINS, a highly contentious drug regarding its legal status. By following through its life world, the paper contends that the drug is the embodiment of the postcolonial anxiety that crosses the intersections between the aspiring nation and globalizing strategies of the bio-pharmaceutical industry. JOINS is a natural drug prescribed to alleviate the symptoms of degenerative arthritis. SK Chemicals, Ltd., a giant domestic pharmaceutical company developed the drug by utilizing the knowledge of traditional pharmacopeia and put it on the market in 2001. In the domestic market, the drug is treated as a prescription drug, implying that Western medicine-trained doctors (as opposed to Korean medicine doctors) are entitled to prescribe drugs. It also indicates that the drug has undergone a series of lab tests such as toxicity, efficacy, and clinical trials in compliance with regulatory guidelines. However, the domestic standards are not rigorous enough to satisfy international standards, so that it is exported as a nutritional supplement abroad. The government, the pharmaceutical industry, and the Western medicine profession are happy with how the drug stands domestically and internationally. Rather, it is Korean doctors who try to disrupt the status quo and reclaim their rights to traditional knowledge, who have been alienated from the pharmaceuticalization of traditional knowledge. Thus, the JOINS tablet embodies the complex web of modern Korean society, professional interests, the pharmaceutical industry, and globalization.

  17. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

  18. Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) through a Common Global Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott Francis; Miller, Michael Conrad; Pshakin, Gennady

    2015-02-23

    Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with power levels significantly less than the currently standard 1000 to 1600-MWe reactors have been proposed as a potential game changer for future nuclear power. SMRs may offer a simpler, more standardized, and safer modular design by using factory built and easily transportable components. Additionally, SMRs may be more easily built and operated in isolated locations, and may require smaller initial capital investment and shorter construction times. Because many SMRs designs are still conceptual and consequently not yet fixed, designers have a unique opportunity to incorporate updated design basis threats, emergency preparedness requirements, and then fully integrate safety, physical security, and safeguards/material control and accounting (MC&A) designs. Integrating safety, physical security, and safeguards is often referred to as integrating the 3Ss, and early consideration of safeguards and security in the design is often referred to as safeguards and security by design (SSBD). This paper describes U.S./Russian collaborative efforts toward developing an internationally accepted common approach for implementing SSBD/3Ss for SMRs based upon domestic requirements, and international guidance and requirements. These collaborative efforts originated with the Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security working group established under the U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential Commission during the 2009 Presidential Summit. Initial efforts have focused on review of U.S. and Russian domestic requirements for Security and MC&A, IAEA guidance for security and MC&A, and IAEA requirements for international safeguards. Additionally, example SMR design features that can enhance proliferation resistance and physical security have been collected from past work and reported here. The development of a U.S./Russian common approach for SSBD/3Ss should aid the designer of SMRs located anywhere in the world. More specifically, the application of this approach may

  19. Development of Safeguards System Simulator Composed of Multi-Functional Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Ihara, Hitoshi

    Due to the large plutonium (Pu) throughput and high burn-up fuel in an advanced reprocessing facility, we are faced with the inevitable increasing burden of nuclear material accountancy (NMA) to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. A large volume of sampling analysis and inspectors' activities result in a great cost for facility operation. Therefore, it is increasingly important to evaluate a cost-effective performance for the safeguards system. In order to design an advanced safeguards system, we have initiated the development of a safeguards system simulator. The simulator is composed of several interrelated cores and a separate core is planned to develop. The NMA core is a near-real-time accounting (NRTA) code that had been originally developed more than ten years ago and has been improved on an objective-driven pre- and post-processor. A multivariate and multi-scale core based on a principle component analysis with a wavelet technique has been developed to provide an algorithm of process monitoring. The time and frequency decomposition was verified to be an effective technique to detect an abnormal event. In addition, a multiple optimization core has been developed with a fuzzy-linear-programming technique to investigate the cost-effective performance of the conceptual safeguards system. It is shown that a combination of flow-meter and non-destructive assay can be applied to the system in a cost-effective manner. In the future, a virtual design core will be developed to support a walk-through and three dimensional visible plant model.

  20. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  1. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan, Kimberly V.; Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2015-01-01

    The Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop was held December 15–18, 2014, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This workshop was made possible by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development (NGSI HCD) Program. The idea of the workshop was to move beyond the tried-and-true boot camp training of nonproliferation concepts to spend several days on the unique perspective of applying modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions to safeguards challenges.

  2. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  3. Preliminary calibration of the ACP safeguards neutron counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. H.; Kim, H. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Swinhoe, M.; Menlove, H. O.

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP), a kind of pyroprocess, has been developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Since there is no IAEA safeguards criteria for this process, KAERI has developed a neutron coincidence counter to make it possible to perform a material control and accounting (MC&A) for its ACP materials for the purpose of a transparency in the peaceful uses of nuclear materials at KAERI. The test results of the ACP Safeguards Neutron Counter (ASNC) show a satisfactory performance for the Doubles count measurement with a low measurement error for its cylindrical sample cavity. The neutron detection efficiency is about 21% with an error of ±1.32% along the axial direction of the cavity. Using two 252Cf neutron sources, we obtained various parameters for the Singles and Doubles rates for the ASNC. The Singles, Doubles, and Triples rates for a 252Cf point source were obtained by using the MCNPX code and the results for the ft8 cap multiplicity tally option with the values of ɛ, fd, and ft measured with a strong source most closely match the measurement results to within a 1% error. A preliminary calibration curve for the ASNC was generated by using the point model equation relationship between 244Cm and 252Cf and the calibration coefficient for the non-multiplying sample is 2.78×10 5 (Doubles counts/s/g 244Cm). The preliminary calibration curves for the ACP samples were also obtained by using an MCNPX simulation. A neutron multiplication influence on an increase of the Doubles rate for a metal ingot and UO2 powder is clearly observed. These calibration curves will be modified and complemented, when hot calibration samples become available. To verify the validity of this calibration curve, a measurement of spent fuel standards for a known 244Cm mass will be performed in the near future.

  4. An American Academy for Training Safeguards Inspectors - An Idea Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Robert Bean

    2010-07-01

    In 2009, we presented the idea of an American academy for training safeguards inspectors for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), due to the declining percentage of Americans in that international organization. In this paper we assert that there is still a compelling need for this academy. While the American Safeguards Academy would be useful in preparing and pre-training American inspectors for the IAEA, it would also be useful for preparing Americans for domestic safeguards duties in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. DOE National Laboratories, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It is envisioned that such an academy would train graduate and post-graduate university students, DOE National Laboratory interns, and nuclear safeguards professionals in the modern equipment, safeguards measures, and approaches currently used by the IAEA. It is also envisioned that the Academy would involve the domestic nuclear industry, which could provide use of commercial nuclear facilities for tours and demonstrations of the safeguards tools and methods in actual nuclear facilities. This would be in support of the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This training would also help American nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation professionals better understand the potential limitations of the current tools used by the IAEA and give them a foundation from which to consider even more effective and efficient safeguards measures and approaches.

  5. Comprehensive safeguards evaluation methods and societal risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    Essential capabilities of an integrated evaluation methodology for analyzing safeguards systems are discussed. Such a methodology must be conceptually meaningful, technically defensible, discriminating and consistent. A decompostion of safeguards systems by function is mentioned as a possible starting point for methodology development. The application of a societal risk equation to safeguards systems analysis is addressed. Conceptual problems with this approach are discussed. Technical difficulties in applying this equation to safeguards systems are illustrated through the use of confidence intervals, information content, hypothesis testing and ranking and selection procedures.

  6. 75 FR 78777 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...: The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was established by Section 29 of the Atomic Energy Act... accident phenomena; design of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components; materials...

  7. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  8. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  9. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  11. 49 CFR 192.283 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. 192... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.283 Plastic pipe: Qualifying joining procedures. (a) Heat fusion... for making plastic pipe joints by a heat fusion, solvent cement, or adhesive method, the...

  12. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Copper-alloy brazing. (1) Copper-alloy brazing may be employed to join pipe, valves, and fittings... satisfactory for the brazing alloy to be employed, method of heating, and material to be joined. The annular... in place until the brazing alloy has set so as to prevent any strain on the joint until the...

  13. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Copper-alloy brazing. (1) Copper-alloy brazing may be employed to join pipe, valves, and fittings... satisfactory for the brazing alloy to be employed, method of heating, and material to be joined. The annular... in place until the brazing alloy has set so as to prevent any strain on the joint until the...

  14. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Copper-alloy brazing. (1) Copper-alloy brazing may be employed to join pipe, valves, and fittings... satisfactory for the brazing alloy to be employed, method of heating, and material to be joined. The annular... in place until the brazing alloy has set so as to prevent any strain on the joint until the...

  15. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Copper-alloy brazing. (1) Copper-alloy brazing may be employed to join pipe, valves, and fittings... satisfactory for the brazing alloy to be employed, method of heating, and material to be joined. The annular... in place until the brazing alloy has set so as to prevent any strain on the joint until the...

  16. 46 CFR 56.75-30 - Pipe joining details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Copper-alloy brazing. (1) Copper-alloy brazing may be employed to join pipe, valves, and fittings... satisfactory for the brazing alloy to be employed, method of heating, and material to be joined. The annular... in place until the brazing alloy has set so as to prevent any strain on the joint until the...

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative research to determine the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies: Purpose, approach, constraints, implementation, and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Schear, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy has funded a multi-lab/multi-university collaboration to quantify the plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins from them. The goal of this research effort is to quantify the capability of various non-destructive assay (NDA) technologies as well as to train a future generation of safeguards practitioners. This research is "technology driven" in the sense that we will quantify the capabilities of a wide range of safeguards technologies of interest to regulators and policy makers; a key benefit to this approach is that the techniques are being tested in a unified manner. When the results of the Monte Carlo modeling are evaluated and integrated, practical constraints are part of defining the potential context in which a given technology might be applied. This paper organizes the commercial spent fuel safeguard needs into four facility types in order to identify any constraints on the NDA system design. These four facility types are the following: future reprocessing plants, current reprocessing plants, once-through spent fuel repositories, and any other sites that store individual spent fuel assemblies (reactor sites are the most common facility type in this category). Dry storage is not of interest since individual assemblies are not accessible. This paper will overview the purpose and approach of the NGSI spent fuel effort and describe the constraints inherent in commercial fuel facilities. It will conclude by discussing implementation and calibration of measurement systems. This report will also provide some motivation for considering a couple of other safeguards concepts (base measurement and fingerprinting) that might meet the safeguards need but not require the determination of plutonium mass.

  18. NASA Now: The Future Of Space Travel

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Greg Johnson joins NASA Now to discuss the future of space exploration and the logical progression of sending humans to Mars. He talks about sending astronauts back to the moon and t...

  19. Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology (ARCJoinT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based ceramic and composite components in a number of demanding and high temperature applications in aerospace and ground-based systems. An affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT) for joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics and fiber reinforced composites has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using this technique. These joints maintain their mechanical strength up to 1350 C in air. This technology is suitable for the joining of large and complex shaped ceramic and composite components and with certain modifications, can be applied to repair ceramic components damaged in service.

  20. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  1. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A; Quiter, Brian J; Ambers, Scott D

    2011-02-04

    In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of {gamma} rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. The promise of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique (NDA) in safeguards applications lies in its potential to directly quantify a specific isotope in an assay target without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as often required by other NDA methods. The use of NRF for detection of sensitive nuclear materials and other contraband has been researched in the past. In the safeguards applications considered here one has to go beyond mere detection and precisely quantify the isotopic content, a challenge that is discussed throughout this report. Basic NRF measurement methods, instrumentation, and the analytical calculation of NRF signal strengths are described in Section 2. Well understood modeling and simulation tools are needed for assessing the potential of NRF for safeguards and for designing measurement systems. All our simulations were performed with the radiation transport code MCNPX, a code that is widely used in the safeguards community. Our initial studies showed that MCNPX grossly underestimated the elastically scattered background at backwards angles due to an incorrect treatment of Rayleigh scattering. While new, corrected calculations based on ENDF form factors showed much better agreement with experimental data for the elastic scattering of photons on an uranium target, the elastic backscatter is still not rigorously treated. Photonuclear scattering processes (nuclear Thomson, Delbruck and Giant Dipole Resonance scattering), which are expected to play an important role at higher energies, are not yet included. These missing elastic scattering contributions were studied and their importance evaluated evaluated against data found in the literature as discussed in Section 3. A transmission experiment

  2. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  3. Secret Objective Standoff: International Safeguards Educational Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Okowita, Samantha L

    2014-01-01

    The International Safeguards Regime, being so multi-faceted, can be overwhelming to those first introduced to its many components. The organizers and lecturers of workshops and courses on nonproliferation often provide a series of independent lectures and must somehow demonstrate the cohesive and effective nature of the system. An exercise titled The Secret Objective Standoff was developed to complement lectures with hands-on learning to assist participants in bringing all the many components (IAEA agreements, export controls, treaty obligations, international diplomacy, etc.) of the International Safeguards Regime together. This exercise divides participants into teams that are assigned the role of either a country or the IAEA and asks that they fully immerse themselves in their roles. The teams are then randomly assigned three unique and secret objectives that are intended to represent realistic and current geopolitical scenarios. Through construction, trading, or hoarding of four resources (experts, technology, money, and uranium), the teams have a finite number of turns to accomplish their objectives. Each turn has three phases random dispersal of resources, a timed discussion where teams can coordinate and strategize with others, and an action phase. During the action phase, teams inform the moderator individually and secretly what they will be doing that turn. The exercise has been tested twice with Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel, and has been conducted with outside participants twice, in each case the experience was well received by both participants and instructors. This exercise provides instructors the ability to modify the exercise before or during game play to best fit their educational goals. By offering a range of experiences, from an in-depth look at specific components to a generalized overview, this exercise is an effective tool in helping participants achieve a full understanding the International Safeguards Regime.

  4. A Simple Candle Filter Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    2002-09-18

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal utilization. Two main designs employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs) and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCCs). In both designs, the suspended particulates, or dust, must be cleaned from the gas before it enters the turbine to prevent fouling and erosion of the blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in commercial use. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the dust on the surface. The three main configurations are candle, cross-flow, and tube. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are primarily composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer o n the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle, and individual elements can fail, allowing the particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Because of the possibility of occasional filter breakage, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the dust streaming through broken filters from reaching the turbine. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) safeguard device is composed of three main parts: the ceramic substrate, the adhesive coating, and the safeguard device housing. This report describes the development and laboratory testing of each of those parts as well as the bench-scale performance of both types of complete SGDs.

  5. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  6. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards systems to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  7. Process monitoring concepts for safeguards and demonstrations at an Oak Ridge National Laboratory test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility has been constructed to demonstrate advanced equipment, processes, and controls for use in future reprocessing plants. The facility contains full-size plant equipment for shear and dissolution, feed preparation solvent extraction, and product recovery. The facility is integrated with chemical recovery systems to allow continuous operation using depleted uranium feed solutions to simulate operations. The IET facility features computer interface to instrumentation and equipment for process control and information. Part of the CFRP has been the development of a safeguards system to make use of extensive process monitoring data available from ''next-generation'' reprocessing and fuel facilities. This paper describes the IET facility and tests conducted to demonstrate sensitivities of process monitoring safeguards applications.

  8. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  9. Thermal-stress-free fasteners for joining orthotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    1987-01-01

    Hot structures fabricated from orthotropic materials are an attractive design option for future high speed vehicles. Joining subassemblies of these materials with standard cylindrical fasteners can lead to loose joints or highly stressed joints due to thermal stress. A method has been developed to eliminate thermal stress and maintain a tight joint by shaping the fastener and mating hole. This method allows both materials (fastener and structure), with different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE's) in each of the three principal material directions, to expand freely with temperature yet remain in contact. For the assumptions made in the analysis, the joint will remain snug, yet free of thermal stress at any temperature. Finite element analysis was used to verify several thermal-stress-free fasteners and to show that conical fasteners, which are thermal-stress-free for isotropic materials, can reduce thermal stresses for transversely isotropic materials compared to a cylindrical fastener. Equations for thermal-stress-free shapes are presented and typical fastener shapes are shown.

  10. Thermal-stress-free fasteners for joining orthotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    Hot structures fabricated from orthotropic materials are an attractive design option for future high speed vehicles. Joining subassemblies of these materials with standard cylindrical fasteners can lead to loose joints or highly stressed joints due to thermal stress. A method has been developed to eliminate thermal stresses and maintain a tight joint by shaping the fastener and mating hole. This method allows both materials (fastener and structure), with different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) in each of the three material directions, to expand freely with temperature yet remain in contact. For the assumptions made in the analysis, the joint will remain snug, yet free of thermal stress at any temperature. Finite element analysis was used to verify several thermal-stress-free fasteners and to show that conical fasteners, which are thermal-stress-free for isotropic materials, can reduce thermal stresses for transversely isotropic materials compared to a cylindrical fastener. Equations for thermal-stress-free shapes are presented and typical fastener shapes are shown.

  11. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was

  12. Lanthanum Bromide Detectors for Safeguards Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.

    2011-05-25

    Lanthanum bromide has advantages over other popular inorganic scintillator detectors. Lanthanum bromide offers superior resolution, and good efficiency when compared to sodium iodide and lanthanum chloride. It is a good alternative to high purity germanium detectors for some safeguards applications. This paper offers an initial look at lanthanum bromide detectors. Resolution of lanthanum bromide will be compared lanthanum chloride and sodium-iodide detectors through check source measurements. Relative efficiency and angular dependence will be looked at. Nuclear material spectra, to include plutonium and highly enriched uranium, will be compared between detector types.

  13. Fuzzy risk analysis for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1993-05-01

    Analysis of a safeguards system, based on the notion of fuzzy sets and linguistic variables, concerns such as complexity and inherent imprecision in estimating the possibility of loss or compromise. The automated risk analysis allows the risk to be determined for an entire system based on estimates for lowest level components and the component proportion. In addition, for each component (asset) the most effective combination of protection mechanisms against a given set of threats is determined. A distinction between bar and featured risk is made.

  14. Fuzzy risk analysis for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of a safeguards system, based on the notion of fuzzy sets and linguistic variables, concerns such as complexity and inherent imprecision in estimating the possibility of loss or compromise. The automated risk analysis allows the risk to be determined for an entire system based on estimates for lowest level components and the component proportion. In addition, for each component (asset) the most effective combination of protection mechanisms against a given set of threats is determined. A distinction between bar and featured risk is made.

  15. Nonproliferation and safeguarding via ionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Steadman, P.

    1995-05-01

    A significant signature of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) is ionizing radiation. SNM naturally decays with the emission of alpha particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. Detecting and monitoring these emissions is an important capability for international safeguards. A new detection method collects the ions produced by such radiation in ambient air. Alpha particles in particular are specific to heavy nuclei but have very short range. The ions produced by an alpha, however, can be transported tens of meters to an ion detector. These new monitors are rugged, very sensitive, respond in real time, and in most cases are quite portable.

  16. Modeling Non-homologous End Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway and involves several NHEJ proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, Ligase IV and so on. Once DSBs are generated, Ku is first recruited to the DNA end, followed by other NHEJ proteins for DNA end processing and ligation. Because of the direct ligation of break ends without the need for a homologous template, NHEJ turns out to be an error-prone but efficient repair pathway. Some mechanisms have been proposed of how the efficiency of NHEJ repair is affected. The type of DNA damage is an important factor of NHEJ repair. For instance, the length of DNA fragment may determine the recruitment efficiency of NHEJ protein such as Ku [1], or the complexity of the DNA breaks [2] is accounted for the choice of NHEJ proteins and subpathway of NHEJ repair. On the other hand, the chromatin structure also plays a role of the accessibility of NHEJ protein to the DNA damage site. In this talk, some mathematical models of NHEJ, that consist of series of biochemical reactions complying with the laws of chemical reaction (e.g. mass action, etc.), will be introduced. By mathematical and numerical analysis and parameter estimation, the models are able to capture the qualitative biological features and show good agreement with experimental data. As conclusions, from the viewpoint of modeling, how the NHEJ proteins are recruited will be first discussed for connection between the classical sequential model [4] and recently proposed two-phase model [5]. Then how the NHEJ repair pathway is affected, by the length of DNA fragment [6], the complexity of DNA damage [7] and the chromatin structure [8], will be addressed

  17. Multivariate diagnostics and anomaly detection for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.; Jones, J.; Wangen, L.

    1994-08-01

    For process control and other reasons, new and future nuclear reprocessing plants are expected to be increasingly more automated than older plants. As a consequence of this automation, the quantity of data potentially available for safeguards may be much greater in future reprocessing plants than in current plants. The authors first review recent literature that applies multivariate Shewhart and multivariate cumulative sum (Cusum) tests to detect anomalous data. These tests are used to evaluate residuals obtained from a simulated three-tank problem in which five variables (volume, density, and concentrations of uranium, plutonium, and nitric acid) in each tank are modeled and measured. They then present results from several simulations involving transfers between the tanks and between the tanks and the environment. Residuals from a no-fault problem in which the measurements and model predictions are both correct are used to develop Cusum test parameters which are then used to test for faults for several simulated anomalous situations, such as an unknown leak or diversion of material from one of the tanks. The leak can be detected by comparing measurements, which estimate the true state of the tank system, with the model predictions, which estimate the state of the tank system as it ``should`` be. The no-fault simulation compares false alarm behavior for the various tests, whereas the anomalous problems allow one to compare the power of the various tests to detect faults under possible diversion scenarios. For comparison with the multivariate tests, univariate tests are also applied to the residuals.

  18. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  19. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  20. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  1. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  2. The Role of School Psychologists in Child Protection and Safeguarding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…

  3. Safeguards-By-Design: Guidance and Tools for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein; Shirley Johnson

    2012-02-01

    Effective implementation of the Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) approach can help meet the challenges of global nuclear energy growth, by designing facilities that have improved safeguardability and reduced safeguards-related life cycle costs. The ultimate goal of SBD is to implement effective and efficient safeguards that reduce the burden to both the facility operator and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Since 2008, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Safeguards By Design Project has initiated multiple studies and workshops with industry and regulatory stakeholders, including the IAEA, to develop relevant documents to support the implementation of SBD. These 'Good Practices Guides' describe facility and process design features that will facilitate implementation of effective nuclear material safeguards starting in the earliest phases of design through to final design. These guides, which are in their final editorial stages, start at a high level and then narrow down to specific nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as Light Water Reactors, Generation III/IV Reactors, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors, and Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants. Most recently, NGSI has begun development of a facility safeguardability assessment toolkit to assist the designer. This paper will review the current status of these efforts, provide some examples of these documents, and show some standard IAEA Unattended Instrumentation that is permanently installed in nuclear facilities for monitoring.

  4. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1008 - Relocation of drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relocation of drills; safeguards. 77.1008... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1008 Relocation of drills; safeguards. (a) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1008 - Relocation of drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation of drills; safeguards. 77.1008... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1008 Relocation of drills; safeguards. (a) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  8. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  9. 30 CFR 77.1008 - Relocation of drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relocation of drills; safeguards. 77.1008... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1008 Relocation of drills; safeguards. (a) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  11. 30 CFR 77.1008 - Relocation of drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relocation of drills; safeguards. 77.1008... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1008 Relocation of drills; safeguards. (a) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  13. 30 CFR 77.1008 - Relocation of drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relocation of drills; safeguards. 77.1008... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1008 Relocation of drills; safeguards. (a) When a drill is being moved from one drilling area to another, drill steel, tools, and other equipment shall be secured and...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1013 - Air drills; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air drills; safeguards. 77.1013 Section 77.1013... Control § 77.1013 Air drills; safeguards. Air shall be turned off and bled from the air hoses before hand-held air drills are moved from one working area to another....

  15. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  16. 42 CFR 438.58 - Conflict of interest safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest safeguards. 438.58 Section 438... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE State Responsibilities § 438.58 Conflict of interest... safeguards against conflict of interest on the part of State and local officers and employees and agents...

  17. 48 CFR 52.239-1 - Privacy or Security Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy or Security....239-1 Privacy or Security Safeguards. As prescribed in 39.107, insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Privacy or Security Safeguards (AUG 1996) (a) The Contractor shall not publish...

  18. Systems Analysis of Safeguards Effectiveness in a Uranium Conversion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; Lambert, H; O'Connell, W J

    2004-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems. For this goal several DOE National Laboratories are defining the characteristics of typical facilities of several size scales, and the safeguards measures and instrumentation that could be applied. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is providing systems modeling and analysis of facility and safeguards operations, diversion path generation, and safeguards system effectiveness. The constituent elements of diversion scenarios are structured using directed graphs (digraphs) and fault trees. Safeguards indicator probabilities are based on sampling statistics and/or measurement accuracies. Scenarios are ranked based on value and quantity of material removed and the estimated probability of non-detection. Significant scenarios, especially those involving timeliness or randomly varying order of events, are transferred to simulation analysis. Simulations show the range of conditions encountered by the safeguards measurements and inspections, e.g., the quantities of intermediate materials in temporary storage and the time sequencing of material flow. Given a diversion campaign, simulations show how much the range of the same parameters observed by the safeguards system can differ from the base-case range. The combination of digraphs, fault trees, statistics and simulation constitute a method for evaluation of the estimated benefit of alternate or additional safeguards equipment or features. A generic example illustrates the method.

  19. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  20. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  1. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.114 - Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. 1304.114 Section 1304.114 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.114 Responsibility for maintaining adequate safeguards. The Board has the responsibility for maintaining...

  3. Safeguarding and Protecting Children in Maternity Services: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Greer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This article debates the issues involved in safeguarding and protecting children in maternity services and offers implications for professional practice. Midwives and other staff who work as members of the maternity team have a safeguarding role to play in the identification of babies and children who have been abused, or are at risk of abuse, and…

  4. Changing Landscapes in Safeguarding Babies and Young Children in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of safeguarding children from violence is internationally recognised. However, detecting, intervening and protecting children from abuse both within the family and in institutions is complex. This paper specifically focuses on safeguarding in England and how workforce reform in the early years offers the opportunity to forge new…

  5. 10 CFR 73.71 - Reporting of safeguards events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of safeguards events. 73.71 Section 73.71 Energy... § 73.71 Reporting of safeguards events. (a)(1) Each licensee subject to the provisions of §§ 73.25, 73... revised information. Each licensee shall maintain a copy of the written report of an event submitted...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6803-1 - Accounting and safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accounting and safeguarding. 301.6803-1 Section 301.6803-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... Accounting and safeguarding. In cases coming within the provisions of section 6802 (2) and (3) and...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6803-1 - Accounting and safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accounting and safeguarding. 301.6803-1 Section 301.6803-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... Accounting and safeguarding. In cases coming within the provisions of section 6802 (2) and (3) and...

  8. 75 FR 8154 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... NRC staff regarding new advanced reactor designs such as NuScale, Iris, Babcock and Wilcox Modular... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards In accordance with the purposes of Sections 29 and 182b of the Atomic Energy Act (42 U.S.C. 2039, 2232b), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6803-1 - Accounting and safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accounting and safeguarding. 301.6803-1 Section 301.6803-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE... Accounting and safeguarding. In cases coming within the provisions of section 6802 (2) and (3) and...

  10. Safeguards and security status report, August 1981-January 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    From August 1981 through January 1982, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in many activities that are described in the four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers those efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance varies from consultation on materials accounting problems, through development of specialized techniques and devices, to comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards helps make the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 concerns a relatively new set of activities at Los Alamos aimed at the security of information and computer systems. The focus this period has been on furthering the development of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating the emerging technology. Part 3 describes the development efforts that are essential to continued improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, in every case they are directed ultimately at recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. In addition, enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer.

  11. 30 CFR 77.204 - Openings in surface installations; safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Openings in surface installations; safeguards... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.204 Openings in surface installations; safeguards....

  12. 26 CFR 301.6803-1 - Accounting and safeguarding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting and safeguarding. 301.6803-1 Section 301.6803-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION General Provisions Relating to Stamps § 301.6803-1 Accounting and safeguarding. In cases...

  13. DESIGN INFORMATION VERIFICATION FOR NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Bean; Richard R. M. Metcalf; Phillip C. Durst

    2009-07-01

    A critical aspect of international safeguards activities performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the verification that facility design and construction (including upgrades and modifications) do not create opportunities for nuclear proliferation. These Design Information Verification activities require that IAEA inspectors compare current and past information about the facility to verify the operator’s declaration of proper use. The actual practice of DIV presents challenges to the inspectors due to the large amount of data generated, concerns about sensitive or proprietary data, the overall complexity of the facility, and the effort required to extract just the safeguards relevant information. Planned and anticipated facilities will (especially in the case of reprocessing plants) be ever larger and increasingly complex, thus exacerbating the challenges. This paper reports the results of a workshop held at the Idaho National Laboratory in March 2009, which considered technologies and methods to address these challenges. The use of 3D Laser Range Finding, Outdoor Visualization System, Gamma-LIDAR, and virtual facility modeling, as well as methods to handle the facility data issues (quantity, sensitivity, and accessibility and portability for the inspector) were presented. The workshop attendees drew conclusions about the use of these techniques with respect to successfully employing them in an operating environment, using a Fuel Conditioning Facility walk-through as a baseline for discussion.

  14. A colalborative environment for information driven safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Mark R; Michel, Kelly D

    2010-09-15

    For two decades, the IAEA has recognized the need for a comprehensive and strongly integrated Knowledge Management system to support its Information Driven Safeguards activities. In the past, plans for the development of such a system have progressed slowly due to concerns over costs and feasibility. In recent years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a knowledge management system that could serve as the basis for an IAEA Collaborative Environment (ICE). The ICE derivative knowledge management system described in this paper addresses the challenge of living in an era of information overload coupled with certain knowledge shortfalls. The paper describes and defines a system that is flexible, yet ensures coordinated and focused collaboration, broad data evaluation capabilities, architected and organized work flows, and improved communications. The paper and demonstration of ICE will utilize a hypothetical scenario to highlight the functional features that facilitate collaboration amongst and between information analysts and inspectors. The scenario will place these two groups into a simulated planning exercise for a safeguards inspection drawing upon past data acquisitions, inspection reports, analyst conclusions, and a coordinated walk-through of a 3-D model of the facility. Subsequent to the conduct of the simulated facility inspection, the detection of an anomaly and pursuit of follow up activities will illustrate the event notification, information sharing, and collaborative capabilities of the system. The use of a collaborative environment such as ICE to fulfill the complicated knowledge management demands of the Agency and facilitate the completion of annual State Evaluation Reports will also be addressed.

  15. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  16. Community Colleges Join the Green Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Across the country, mayors, business owners, government workers, and labor leaders are saying it's time to push for a greener world. Community colleges are advancing the jobs of the future at a much faster rate than anyone else. To truly embrace sustainability, it must be integrated into all facets of the college: mission and planning, curricula,…

  17. Can a safeguards accountancy system really detect an unauthorized removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Theoretical investigations and system studies indicate safeguards material balance data from reprocessing plants can be used to detect unauthorized removals. Plant systems have been modeled and simulated data used to demonstrate the techniques. But how sensitive are the techniques when used with actual plant data. What is the effect of safeguards applications on plant operability. Can safeguards be acceptable to plant operators, and are there any benefits to be derived. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) has been devoted to answering these and other questions over the past several years. A computerized system of near-real-time accounting and in-process inventory has been implemented and demonstrated during actual plant test runs. Measured inventories and hourly material balance closures have been made to assess safeguards in an operating plant application. The tests have culminated in actual removals of material from the operating plant to investigate the response and measure the sensitivity of the safeguards and data evaluation system.

  18. Safeguardability of the vitrification option for disposal of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-05-01

    Safeguardability of the vitrification option for plutonium disposition is rather complex and there is no experience base in either domestic or international safeguards for this approach. In the present treaty regime between the US and the states of the former Soviet Union, bilaterial verifications are considered more likely with potential for a third-party verification of safeguards. There are serious technological limitations to applying conventional bulk handling facility safeguards techniques to achieve independent verification of plutonium in borosilicate glass. If vitrification is the final disposition option chosen, maintaining continuity of knowledge of plutonium in glass matrices, especially those containing boron and those spike with high-level wastes or {sup 137}Cs, is beyond the capability of present-day safeguards technologies and nondestructive assay techniques. The alternative to quantitative measurement of fissile content is to maintain continuity of knowledge through a combination of containment and surveillance, which is not the international norm for bulk handling facilities.

  19. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities.

  20. Organizational Culture, 3S, and Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-01-31

    While Safety and Security Culture are well socialized among nuclear facility designers, the concept of safeguards culture is less well defined. One area where safeguards culture may play a helpful role is in the area of Safeguards by Design. This paper will include a theoretical discussion of organizational culture, leading with safety culture and security culture that are well known, and positing that there may be room to think about safeguards culture along with the others. It will also examine the utility of the 3S concept and how this concept has been used in training for newcomer states. These will lead into a discussion of how the addition of safeguards to the mix of safety by design and security by design can be valuable, particularly as it is socialized to newcomer states.

  1. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  2. Feasibility of remotely manipulated welding in space: A step in the development of novel joining technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masubuchi, K.; Agapakis, J. E.; Debiccari, A.; Vonalt, C.

    1985-01-01

    A six month research program entitled Feasibility of Remotely Manipulated Welding in Space - A Step in the Development of Novel Joining Technologies is performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA, under Contract No. NASW-3740. The work is performed as a part of the Innovative Utilization of the Space Station Program. The final report from M.I.T. was issued in September 1983. This paper presents a summary of the work performed under this contract. The objective of this research program is to initiate research for the development of packaged, remotely controlled welding systems for space construction and repair. The research effort includes the following tasks: (1) identification of probable joining tasks in space; (2) identification of required levels of automation in space welding tasks; (3) development of novel space welding concepts; (4) development of recommended future studies; and (5) preparation of the final report.

  3. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  4. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    From January to December 1985, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Safeguards Operations, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Support. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development and demonstration of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and evaluation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this period was on continuing the activities of the Center for Computer Security, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards and international safeguards for reprocessing plants required a significant portion of our resources. All of these efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  5. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development and Integration with Safety and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; McClelland-Kerr, John; Van sickle, Matthew; Bissani, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing global energy demands, many developing countries are considering building their first nuclear power plant. As a country embarks upon or expands its nuclear power program, it should consider how it will address the 19 issues laid out in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document Milestones in Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. One of those issues specifically addresses the international nonproliferation treaties and commitments and the implementation of safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons. Given the many legislative, economic, financial, environmental, operational, and other considerations preoccupying their planners, it is often difficult for countries to focus on developing the core strengths needed for effective safeguards implementation. Typically, these countries either have no nuclear experience or it is limited to the operation of research reactors used for radioisotope development and scientific research. As a result, their capacity to apply safeguards and manage fuel operations for a nuclear power program is limited. This paper argues that to address the safeguards issue effectively, a holistic approach must be taken to integrate safeguards with the other IAEA issues including safety and security - sometimes referred to as the '3S' concept. Taking a holistic approach means that a country must consider safeguards within the context of its entire nuclear power program, including operations best practices, safety, and security as well as integration with its larger nonproliferation commitments. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) has been involved in bilateral technical cooperation programs for over 20 years to promote nonproliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. INSEP is currently spearheading efforts to promote the development of

  6. Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Timothy; Nelson, Roger

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an over

  7. TRANSFORMER FOR JOINING UNBALANCED TO BALANCED TRANSMISSION MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Bittner, B.J.; Opperman, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    An improved transformer is invented for joining an unbalanced transmission means to a balanced transmission means and is useful, for example, in transmitting an electromagnetic signal from a coaxial cable to a balanced dipole antenna.

  8. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  9. Conventional and Microwave Joining of Silicon Carbide Using Displacement Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsley, J.; Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave heating was used to join Silicon Carbide rods using a thin TiC /Si tape interlayer . Microwaves quickly heated the rods and tape to temperatures where solid-state displacement reactions between TiC and Si occurred.

  10. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Holographic optical assembly and photopolymerized joining of planar microspheres.

    PubMed

    Shaw, L A; Chizari, S; Panas, R M; Shusteff, M; Spadaccini, C M; Hopkins, J B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research is to demonstrate a holographically driven photopolymerization process for joining colloidal particles to create planar microstructures fixed to a substrate, which can be monitored with real-time measurement. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) have been used to arrange arrays of microparticles prior to this work; here we introduce a new photopolymerization process for rapidly joining simultaneously handled microspheres in a plane. Additionally, we demonstrate a new process control technique for efficiently identifying when particles have been successfully joined by measuring a sufficient reduction in the particles' Brownian motion. This technique and our demonstrated joining approach enable HOT technology to take critical steps toward automated additive fabrication of microstructures. PMID:27472621

  12. Joining of Aluminium Alloy Sheets by Rectangular Mechanical Clinching

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Y.; Mori, K.; Kato, T.

    2011-05-04

    A mechanical clinching has the advantage of low running costs. However, the joint strength is not high. To improve the maximum load of the joined sheets by a mechanical clinching, square and rectangular mechanical clinching were introduced. In the mechanical clinching, the two sheets are mechanically joined by forming an interlock between the lower and upper sheets by the punch and die. The joined length with the interlock was increased by the rectangular punch and die. The deforming behaviours of the sheets in the mechanical clinching were investigated, and then the interlock in the sheets had distribution in the circumference of the projection. Although the interlocks were formed in both projection side and diagonal, the interlock in the diagonal was smaller because of the long contact length between the lower sheet and the die cavity surface. The maximum load of the joined sheets by the rectangular mechanical clinching was two times larger than the load by the round mechanical clinching.

  13. Microwave joining of SiC ceramics and composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R.; Tian, Y.L.; Katz, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Potential applications of SiC include components for advanced turbine engines, tube assemblies for radiant burners and petrochemical processing and heat exchangers for high efficiency electric power generation systems. Reliable methods for joining SiC are required in order to cost-effectively fabricate components for these applications from commercially available shapes and sizes. This manuscript reports the results of microwave joining experiments performed using two different types of SiC materials. The first were on reaction bonded SiC, and produced joints with fracture toughness equal to or greater than that of the base material over an extended range of joining temperatures. The second were on continuous fiber-reinforced SiC/SiC composite materials, which were successfully joined with a commercial active brazing alloy, as well as by using a polymer precursor.

  14. Joining SI3N4 for Advanced Turbomachinery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    GLASS, S. JILL; LOEHMAN, RONALD E.; HOSKING, F. MICHAEL; STEPHENS JR., JOHN J.; VIANCO, PAUL T.; NEILSEN, MICHAEL K.; WALKER, CHARLES A.; POLLINGER, J.P.; MAHONEY, F.M.; QUILLEN, B.G.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop reliable, low-cost techniques for joining silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) to itself and to metals. For Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to be widely used in advanced turbomachinery applications, joining techniques must be developed that are reliable, cost-effective, and manufacturable. This project addressed those needs by developing and testing two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joining systems; oxynitride glass joining materials and high temperature braze alloys. Extensive measurements were also made of the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the braze materials. Finite element models were used to predict the magnitudes and positions of the stresses in the ceramic regions of ceramic-to-metal joints sleeve and butt joints, similar to the geometries used for stator assemblies.

  15. Explosive Joining for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Sanok, Joseph T.

    2000-01-01

    A unique, small-scale, ribbon explosive joining process is being developed as an option for closing and sealing a metal canister to allow the return of a pristine sample of the Martian surface and atmosphere to Earth. This joining process is accomplished by an explosively driven, high-velocity, angular collision of the metal, which melts and effaces the oxide films from the surfaces to allow valence electron sharing to bond the interface. Significant progress has been made through more than 100 experimental tests to meet the goals of this ongoing developmental effort. The metal of choice, aluminum alloy 6061, has been joined in multiple interface configurations and in complete cylinders. This process can accommodate dust and debris on the surfaces to be joined. It can both create and sever a joint at its midpoint with one explosive input. Finally, an approach has been demonstrated that can capture the back blast from the explosive.

  16. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. Holographic optical assembly and photopolymerized joining of planar microspheres

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shaw, L. A.; Chizari, S.; Panas, R. M.; Shusteff, M.; Spadaccini, C. M.; Hopkins, J. B.

    2016-07-27

    The aim of this research is to demonstrate a holographically driven photopolymerization process for joining colloidal particles to create planar microstructures fixed to a substrate, which can be monitored with real-time measurement. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) have been used to arrange arrays of microparticles prior to this work; here we introduce a new photopolymerization process for rapidly joining simultaneously handled microspheres in a plane. Additionally, we demonstrate a new process control technique for efficiently identifying when particles have been successfully joined by measuring a sufficient reduction in the particles’ Brownian motion. Furthermore, this technique and our demonstrated joining approach enablemore » HOT technology to take critical steps toward automated additive fabrication of microstructures.« less

  18. Under-sodium viewing technology for improvement of fast-reactor safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Gerhart, Jeremy J; Kawakubo, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The current safeguards approach for fast reactors relies exclusively on maintenance of continuity of knowledge to track the movement of fuel assemblies through these facilities. The remote handling of fuel assemblies, the visual opacity of the liquid metal coolant. and the chemical reactivity of sodium all combine and result in significant limitations on the available options to verify fuel assembly identification numbers or the integrity of these assemblies. These limitations also serve to frustrate attempts to restore the continuity-of-knowledge in instances where the information is under a variety of scenarios. The technology of ultrasonic under-sodium viewing offers new options to the safeguards community for recovering continuity-of-knowledge and applying more traditional item accountancy to fast reactor facilities. We have performed a literature review to investigate the development of under-sodium viewing technologies. In this paper we will summarize our findings and report the state of development of this technology and we will present possible applications to the fast reactor system to improve the existing safeguards approach at these reactors and in future fast reactors.

  19. [Volunteering shapes rural areas. Opportunities and limits of civic engagement for municipal safeguarding of sustenance].

    PubMed

    Klie, T; Marzluff, S

    2012-12-01

    Rural areas are challenged differently by demographic change than urban areas. Prognostic data for the newly formed German states illustrate very clearly that the safeguarding of sustenance in rural areas requires redirection in order to maintain vivid municipalities that are prepared for the future. Civic engagement has a special meaning in this context, as it can open new possibilities for action. It is hoped that civic engagement by many inhabitants can be one answer to urgent challenges for safeguarding sustenance at the local level. Projects to screen the potential of civic involvement have been set up at the political level. Research has been initiated in order to identify success factors to cope with these trends, e.g., the program "Aktiv im Alter" (Active Ageing) and the workshop series on how volunteering/civic activities can help shape rural areas. The analysis of the projects makes visible the potential inherent in self-organization and civic engagement in many municipalities. However, it becomes clear that framework conditions need to be adequate. Also, there is a limit to what can be achieved through self-organization and civic engagement. This approach does not release politics and administration from their responsibility to take care of the safeguarding of sustenance. PMID:23184300

  20. Joining of Thin Metal Sheets by Shot Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    In shot peening the substrate undergoes large plastic deformation near the surface due to the hit with shots. The plastic flow areas formed by cold working may form the surface layer. Authors have recently proposed new joining methods using shot peening, shot lining and shot caulking. Our approach has been applied to the butt joining of the dissimilar metal sheets. In the present study, joining of thin metal sheets using a shot peening process was investigated to improve the joinability. In the joined section, the edge of sheets is the equally-spaced slits. In this method, the convex edges of the sheet are laid on top of the other sheet. Namely, the two sheets are superimposed in the joining area. When the connection is shot-peened, the material of the convex area undergoes large plastic deformation near the surface due to the collision of shots. In this process, particularly noteworthy is the plastic flow near surface layer. The convex edges of the sheet can be joined to the other sheet, thus two sheets are joined each other. In the experiment, the shot peening treatment was performed by using an air-type peening machine. The shots used were made of high carbon cast steel. Air pressure was 0.6 MPa and peening time was in the range of 30-150s. The peening conditions were controlled in the experiment. The thin sheets were commercial low-carbon steel, stainless steel, pure aluminum, and aluminium alloy. The effects of processing conditions on the joinability were mainly examined. The joint strength increased with the kinetic energy of shots. It was found that the present method was effective for joining of thin metal sheets.

  1. Joining of SiC parts by polishing and hipping

    DOEpatents

    Rossi, Guilio A.; Pelletier, Paul J.

    1990-05-15

    A method of joining two pre-sintered pieces of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails polishing the surfaces to be joined to a mirror-finish, fitting the polished surfaces together to form a composite structure, and then subjecting the composite structure to hot isostatic pressing under conditions which are sufficient to form a joint which is essentially indistinguishable from the original silicon carbide pieces.

  2. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  3. Implementation of ion based applications for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.L.; Johnson, C.S.

    1996-08-01

    The uses of the LON, `Local Operating Network,` developed by Echelon Corporation, Palo Alto, California, has been expanded to handle a number of safeguards applications. A magnetic and vibration sensor pack has been developed to monitor for magnetic fields and vibration. This sensor pack can be attached to any source that generates a magnetic field, such as electrical solenoids or motors, to detect when the source is activated. New network nodes that interface directly with the raw data of Sandia developed radiation sensors, for detecting the presence of radiation sources, have been developed. The capacity of the network has been expanded to allow the transmission of large data sets, specifically the transmission of digital video images from the Sandia-developed-Image Compression and Authentication Module (ICAM).

  4. Apparatus for safeguarding a radiological source

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M

    2014-10-07

    A tamper detector is provided for safeguarding a radiological source that is moved into and out of a storage location through an access porthole for storage and use. The radiological source is presumed to have an associated shipping container approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for transporting the radiological source. The tamper detector typically includes a network of sealed tubing that spans at least a portion of the access porthole. There is an opening in the network of sealed tubing that is large enough for passage therethrough of the radiological source and small enough to prevent passage therethrough of the associated shipping cask. Generally a gas source connector is provided for establishing a gas pressure in the network of sealed tubing, and a pressure drop sensor is provided for detecting a drop in the gas pressure below a preset value.

  5. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    From January to December 1984, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. was Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  6. Analysis of the impact of safeguards criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.F.; Reardon, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to assist in developing and demonstrating a model for assessing the impact of setting criteria for the application of IAEA safeguards. This report presents the results of PNL's work on the task. The report is in three parts. The first explains the technical approach and methodology. The second contains an example application of the methodology. The third presents the conclusions of the study. PNL used the model and computer programs developed as part of Task C.5 (Estimation of Inspection Efforts) of the Program of Technical Assistance. The example application of the methodology involves low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication facilities. The effects of variations in seven parameters are considered: false alarm probability, goal probability of detection, detection goal quantity, the plant operator's measurement capability, the inspector's variables measurement capability, the inspector's attributes measurement capability, and annual plant throughput. Among the key results and conclusions of the analysis are the following: the variables with the greatest impact on the probability of detection are the inspector's measurement capability, the goal quantity, and the throughput; the variables with the greatest impact on inspection costs are the throughput, the goal quantity, and the goal probability of detection; there are important interactions between variables. That is, the effects of a given variable often depends on the level or value of some other variable. With the methodology used in this study, these interactions can be quantitatively analyzed; reasonably good approximate prediction equations can be developed using the methodology described here.

  7. Safeguards and security progress report, January-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    From January to December 1983, the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Program was involved in the activities described in the first four parts of this report: Nuclear Facility Support, Security Development and Support, Safeguards Technology Development, and International Safeguards. Part 1 covers efforts of direct assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensee facilities. This assistance includes consultation on materials accounting problems, development of specialized techniques and instruments, and comprehensive participation in the design and implementation of advanced safeguards systems. In addition, a series of training courses in various aspects of safeguards makes the technology more accessible to those who must apply it. Part 2 treats activities aimed at the security of information and computer systems. Our focus this peiod was on continuing the activities of the Computer Security Center, which provides the basis for encouraging and disseminating this emerging technology, and on the development and demonstration of secure computer systems. Part 3 describes the broad development efforts essential to continuing improvements in the practice of safeguards. Although these projects are properly classified as developmental, they address recognized problems that commonly occur in operating facilities. Finally, Part 4 covers international safeguards activities, including both support to the International Atomic Energy Agency and bilateral exchanges. Enrichment plant safeguards, especially those concerning the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant, required a significant portion of our resources. These efforts are beginning to provide substantial returns on our investment in technology transfer, not only in raising the level of safeguards effectiveness but also in our benefiting from field experiences in operating environments.

  8. Austria to join ESO on 1 July 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Today, at a ceremony in Vienna, the Austrian Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, signed the formal Accession Agreement between Austria and ESO, paving the way for Austria to join ESO as its 14th member state by 1 July this year. Signing Austria Agreement ESO PR Photo 20a/08 The Signing Ceremony "This will not only give the high-quality Austrian astronomical community full access to ESO's facilities, it will give Austrian scientists a say, together with their colleagues from the other member-states, in shaping the future of our science," said Tim de Zeeuw. The signing of the Agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during its meeting in Prague on 3 June and the decision by the Austrian Government on 25 June. At the ceremony, Minister Hahn emphasised that the accession of Austria to ESO is a strong commitment to fundamental research and particularly to astronomy. "This sustainable investment enables Austrian science to gain access to a leading, international research infrastructure, and provides an important impulse for the attractiveness of Austria as a place for research," he said. "With the signature of the agreement today we bring a long discussion to a happy end and Austrian astronomy to new horizons." Since the Agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Austrian Parliament for ratification. "It is not possible to plan for radical changes, but ideal conditions will be created by this accession, which will strengthen Austrian and European astronomy. It is now for the scientists to use this opportunity," concluded the Austrian Minister.

  9. Laser-generated Macroscopic and Microscopic Surface Structures for the Joining of Aluminum and Thermoplastics using Friction Press Joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Alexander N.; Wirth, Franz X.; Rinck, Philipp; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Structural lightweight construction is increasingly utilized in the aerospace and automotive industry. Hybrid structures have great potential, especially with regard to load-specific component layouts. Usually, a surface pre-treatment is applied prior to joining dissimilar materials to improve bonding mechanisms such as form closure. In previous studies pulsed wave (pw) lasers were used for structuring metals. This paper presents the results of aluminum pre-treatment via a continuous wave (cw) single-mode fiber laser: macroscopic and microscopic structures were generated on the aluminum surface; the samples were joined with glass fiber reinforced polyamide using Friction Press Joining (FPJ), a method for joining metals and thermoplastic polymers in lap joint configuration. Using these new methods for surface structuring, shear strength was increased by 40% compared to previous studies with pw lasers.

  10. Spent fuel in geologic repositories: Swedish aspects of safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Ekenstam, G.; Larsson, S.E.; Forsstroem, H.

    1996-12-31

    When the safeguards system was defined and established, spent fuel was destined for reprocessing. The deposition without reprocessing represents a conceptual change for the back end of the fuel cycle in that nuclear material is not intended for further use in any nuclear application. Much effort has been devoted to finding a solution whereby the spent fuel can be left unattended forever. The disposal of spent fuel, and specifically the need to protect humans and the environment in the distant future, is given particular attention in all countries engaged in nuclear generation. The system considered for spent-fuel disposal in Sweden includes the encapsulation of the spent fuel elements in a corrosion-resistant tight canister and disposal of the canister at {approx}500m depth in Swedish bedrock. The canister will be made of thick copper (for corrosion resistance) and will have an internal steel container (for mechanical strength). The encapsulation is planned to be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the central interim storage facility, CLAB.

  11. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  12. Process data in safeguards at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The desire to improve timeliness and sensitivity of material control and accounting capabilities is the basis for evaluation and upgrade of regulatory requirements throughout the nuclear industry. Improvements invariably require better measurement capabilities and more frequent measurements. Operating plants typically include a broad range of measurements and equipment devoted to process control. How can these measurements be used to benefit safeguards. A part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has focused on the use of process data for safeguards. This report discusses recent safeguards demonstrations and current activities in a test facility at Oak Ridge.

  13. Implementation of IT-based applications in the safeguards field

    SciTech Connect

    Ekenstam, G.C. af; Sallstrom, M.

    1995-12-31

    For many years the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, has used computers as a tool within nuclear material control and accountancy. Over the last five years a lot of effort has been put into projects related to the increasing possibilities of fast and reliable data transfer over large distances. The paper discusses related administrative and technical issues and presents experience gained in tasks of the Swedish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and during the alternative Safeguards trials carried out by SKI. The following topics will be presented: (1) Main Safeguards purposes and data transfer; (2) Administrative systems and requirements; (3) Technical possibilities and experiences; and (4) The cost aspect.

  14. In vitro non-homologous DNA end joining assays—The 20th anniversary

    PubMed Central

    Pastwa, Elzbieta; Somiari, Richard I.; Malinowski, Mariusz; Somiari, Stella B.; Winters, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most serious forms of DNA damage in cells. Unrepaired or misrepaired DSBs account for some of the genetic instabilities that lead to mutations or cell death, and consequently, to cancer predisposition. In human cells non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) is the main repair mechanism of these breaks. Systems for DNA end joining study have been developing during the last 20 years. New assays have some advantages over earlier in vitro DSBs repair assays because they are less time-consuming, allow the use of clinical material and examination of the joining DNA ends produced physiologically in mammalian cells. Proteins involved in NHEJ repair pathway can serve as biomarkers or molecular targets for anticancer drugs. Results of studies on NHEJ in cancer could help to select potent repair inhibitors that may selectively sensitize tumor cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy. Here, we review the principles and practice of in vitro NHEJ assays and provide some insights into the future prospects of this assay in cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19110069

  15. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  16. Panel on protection and management of plutonium: Subpanel on safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear materials safeguards and security systems are described in the context of the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Materials of interest to safeguards, threats, proposals to strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards, evolving safeguards issues and requirements, system effectiveness, and elements of a global nuclear materials management regime are discussed. Safeguards are seen as an essential element of nuclear materials management, but not a driver for decisions regarding nuclear power or the disposal of excess weapon nuclear materials.

  17. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  18. Multilayered genetic safeguards limit growth of microorganisms to defined environments.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Ryan R; Patel, Jaymin R; Interiano, Alexander L; Rovner, Alexis J; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-18

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are commonly used to produce valuable compounds in closed industrial systems. However, their emerging applications in open clinical or environmental settings require enhanced safety and security measures. Intrinsic biocontainment, the creation of bacterial hosts unable to survive in natural environments, remains a major unsolved biosafety problem. We developed a new biocontainment strategy containing overlapping 'safeguards'-engineered riboregulators that tightly control expression of essential genes, and an engineered addiction module based on nucleases that cleaves the host genome-to restrict viability of Escherichia coli cells to media containing exogenously supplied synthetic small molecules. These multilayered safeguards maintain robust growth in permissive conditions, eliminate persistence and limit escape frequencies to <1.3 × 10(-12). The staged approach to safeguard implementation revealed mechanisms of escape and enabled strategies to overcome them. Our safeguarding strategy is modular and employs conserved mechanisms that could be extended to clinically or industrially relevant organisms and undomesticated species. PMID:25567985

  19. Nuclear safeguards and security: we can do better.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Warner, Jon S.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Martinez, R. K.; Lopez, L. N.; Pacheco, A. N.; Trujillo, S. J.; Herrera, A. M.; Bitzer, E. G. , III

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of practical ways to significantly improve nuclear safeguards and security. These include recognizing and minimizing the insider threat; using adversarial vulnerability assessments to find vulnerabilities and countermeasures; fully appreciating the disparate nature of domestic and international nuclear safeguards; improving tamper detection and tamper-indicating seals; not confusing the inventory and security functions; and recognizing the limitations of GPS tracking, contact memory buttons, and RFID tags. The efficacy of nuclear safeguards depends critically on employing sophisticated security strategies and effective monitoring hardware. The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has extensively researched issues associated with nuclear safeguards, especially in the areas of tamper/intrusion detection, transport security, and vulnerability assessments. This paper discusses some of our findings, recommendations, and warnings.

  20. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  1. 46 CFR 503.59 - Safeguarding classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... periodic inspections to determine if the procedural safeguards prescribed in this subpart are in effect at... access to classified information, or other sanctions in accordance with applicable law and...

  2. The integrated model of restorative supervision for use within safeguarding.

    PubMed

    Wallbank, Sonya; Wonnacott, Jane

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers a review of a new model of supervision; the integrated restorative model, to underpin effective safeguarding supervision in health settings. This seeks to capitalize on the benefits of using both restorative supervision (Wallbank, 2010) and an integrated model commonly referred to as the 4x4x4 model (Morrison 2005, Wonnacott, 2012). It challenges the notion that restorative supervision is a stand- alone supervisory process sitting outside of safeguarding supervision and demonstrates how effective safeguarding supervision needs to combine critical reflective practice and critical thinking with a restorative experience in order for the professional to feel supported and maintain their capacity to think. The paper urges health settings to ensure that individuals undertaking safeguarding supervision are appropriately trained to identify how those sessions can support professionals to retain their reflective capacity and decision-making skills. PMID:26364336

  3. Safeguards operations in the integral fast reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Brumbach, S.B.; Dickerman, C.E.; Tompot, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently demonstrating the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The safeguards aspects of the fuel cycle demonstration must be approved by the United States Department of Energy, but a further goal of the program is to develop a safeguards system that could gain acceptance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and International Atomic Energy Agency. This fuel cycle is described with emphasis on aspects that differ from aqueous reprocessing and on its improved safeguardability due to decreased attractiveness and diversion potential of all process streams, including the fuel product.

  4. Aeroelastic tailoring and structural optimization of joined-wing configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hwan

    2002-08-01

    Methodology for integrated aero-structural design was developed using formal optimization. ASTROS (Automated STRuctural Optimization System) was used as an analyzer and an optimizer for performing joined-wing weight optimization with stress, displacement, cantilever or body-freedom flutter constraints. As a pre/post processor, MATLAB was used for generating input file of ASTROS and for displaying the results of the ASTROS. The effects of the aeroelastic constraints on the isotropic and composite joined-wing weight were examined using this developed methodology. The aeroelastic features of a joined-wing aircraft were examined using both the Rayleigh-Ritz method and a finite element based aeroelastic stability and weight optimization procedure. Aircraft rigid-body modes are included to analyze of body-freedom flutter of the joined-wing aircraft. Several parametric studies were performed to determine the most important parameters that affect the aeroelastic behavior of a joined-wing aircraft. The special feature of a joined-wing aircraft is body-freedom flutter involving frequency interaction of the first elastic mode and the aircraft short period mode. In most parametric study cases, the body-freedom flutter speed was less than the cantilever flutter speed that is independent of fuselage inertia. As fuselage pitching moment of inertia was increased, the body-freedom flutter speed increased. When the pitching moment of inertia reaches a critical value, transition from body-freedom flutter to cantilever flutter occurred. The effects of composite laminate orientation on the front and rear wings of a joined-wing configuration were studied. An aircraft pitch divergence mode, which occurred because of forward movement of center of pressure due to wing deformation, was found. Body-freedom flutter and cantilever-like flutter were also found depending on combination of front and rear wing ply orientations. Optimized wing weight behaviors of the planar and non

  5. Containment/surveillance concepts for international safeguards in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bleck, M. E.; Cameron, C. P.; Camp, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of advanced containment/surveillance instrumentation systems for international safeguards in reprocessing plants. Several conceptual systems for the surveillance of containment boundary penetrations in a reference reprocessing plant are described and evaluated. The results of the evaluation aid in understanding the potential capabilities and limitations of containment/surveillance as an international safeguards concept in this type of facility.

  6. Use of penetration monitoring in safeguards systems. [Containment and surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, S.; Bleck, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the performance assessment of penetration monitoring systems has been developed within the Containment and Surveillance Subgroup of the International Working Group on Reprocessing Plant Safeguards. The paper examines the use of this method and concludes that the technique is extremely useful in containment and surveillance system design and could also be valuable in operational safeguards systems providing the information generated was used with the care appropriate to the inherent assumptions.

  7. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Six, D E

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

  8. Potential for meeting IAEA safeguards goals for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Bambas, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    The author concludes that: Safeguards which allow the meeting of IAEA uranium and plutonium diversion detection goals for large-scale reprocessing plants are achievable. Concepts exists for ways in which IAEA inspectors could verify data received from operations of such facilities. Additional work is needed, particularly in the futher development of on-line instruments. Computerized near real-time accounting systems may provide significant operational benefits in addition to being required for safeguards purposes.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 73 - Reportable Safeguards Events

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... G Appendix G to Part 73—Reportable Safeguards Events Pursuant to the provisions of 10 CFR 73.71 (b) and (c), licensees subject to the provisions of 10 CFR 73.20, 73.37, 73.50, 73.55, 73.60, and 73.67... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reportable Safeguards Events G Appendix G to Part...

  10. Termination of Safeguards on ULWBR Material

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan R. Thomas; Ernest L. Laible

    2008-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management, has approved the disposition of 31 metric tons of Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (ULWBR) material in canisters stored within dry wells of the Underground Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This unirradiated material consists primarily of ceramic pellets of thorium oxide in stainless steel cladding, but it also contains 300 kilograms of uranium that is 98 wt% U-233. The ULWBR material was not processed at the INTEC because it was incompatible with prior chemical separation schemes. Other economical recovery options have not been identified, and expressions of interest for consolidating the material with existing projects at other DOE sites have not been received. The U-233 could be used for producing the medical isotope Actinium-225, but the proof-of-principle demonstration and follow-on pilot program have not been developed to the point of requiring production quantities of U-233. Consequently, the selected disposition of the ULWBR material was burial as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which required terminating safeguards controls for the contained Category II quantity of Attractiveness Level D special nuclear material (SNM). The requested termination followed the twelve point evaluation criteria of the Historical Defense Program Discard Guidance and included a security analysis for evaluating the risks of theft, diversion, and radiological sabotage associated with the material. Continuity of knowledge in the book inventory was assured by documenting that the original shipper’s measurements accurately reflected the quantities of materials received and that the ULWBR materials had remained under adequate physical protection and had been subject to periodic physical inventories. The method selected for substantiating the book values as the basis for terminating safeguards was the nondestructive assay used during physical

  11. Health Information Security in Hospitals: the Application of Security Safeguards

    PubMed Central

    Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A hospital information system has potentials to improve the accessibility of clinical information and the quality of health care. However, the use of this system has resulted in new challenges, such as concerns over health information security. This paper aims to assess the status of information security in terms of administrative, technical and physical safeguards in the university hospitals. Methods: This was a survey study in which the participants were information technology (IT) managers (n=36) who worked in the hospitals affiliated to the top ranked medical universities (university A and university B). Data were collected using a questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was examined by the experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α=0.75). Results: The results showed that the administrative safeguards were arranged at a medium level. In terms of the technical safeguards and the physical safeguards, the IT managers rated them at a strong level. Conclusion: According to the results, among three types of security safeguards, the administrative safeguards were assessed at the medium level. To improve it, developing security policies, implementing access control models and training users are recommended. PMID:27046944

  12. THIEF: An interactive simulation of nuclear materials safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbro, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The safeguards community is facing an era in which it will be called upon to tighten protection of nuclear material. At the same time, it is probable that safeguards will face more competition for available resources from other activities such as environmental cleanup. To exist in this era, it will be necessary to understand and coordinate all aspects of the safeguards system. Because of the complexity of the interactions involved, this process puts a severe burden on designers and operators of safeguards systems. This paper presents a simulation tool developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to allow users to examine the interactions among safeguards elements as they apply to combating the insider threat. The tool consists of a microcomputer-based simulation in which the user takes the role of the insider trying to remove nuclear material from a facility. The safeguards system is run by the computer and consists of both physical protection and MC A computer elements. All data elements describing a scenario can be altered by the user. The program can aid in training, as well as in developing threat scenarios. 4 refs.

  13. Permanent wire splicing by an explosive joining process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Kushnick, Anne C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebent, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires, and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity, angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding results in electron sharing linkups.

  14. Hot-isostatic-press joining of cemented carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Miodownik, M.; Derby, B.

    1999-12-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) is investigated as a technique for joining the cermet AC-15% Co to itself. Encapsulation of the specimens prior to HIPing was carried out using steel encapsulation, glass encapsulation, and self-encapsulation. The bonds were evaluated using a four-point-bend method. It is shown that the glass and steel encapsulation methods have a number of inherent problems which make them inappropriate for near net shape processing. In contrast the novel self-encapsulation method, described for the first time in this communication, is both simple and effective, producing joined material with bulk strength. The concept of self-encapsulation is potentially widely applicable for joining composite materials.

  15. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  16. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  17. SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY INTEGRATION WITH SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, J; James Lightner, J

    2007-04-13

    The objective of this paper is to share the Savannah River Site lessons learned on Safeguards and Security (S&S) program integration with K-Area Complex (KAC) safety basis. The KAC Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), is managed by the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the S&S program, managed by Wackenhut Services, Incorporated--Savannah River Site (WSI-SRS). WSRC and WSI-SRS developed a contractual arrangement to recognize WSI-SRS requirements in the KAC safety analysis. Design Basis Threat 2003 (DBT03) security upgrades required physical modifications and operational changes which included the availability of weapons which could potentially impact the facility safety analysis. The KAC DSA did not previously require explicit linkage to the S&S program to satisfy the safety analysis. WSI-SRS have contractual requirements with the Department of Energy (DOE) which are separate from WSRC contract requirements. The lessons learned will include a discussion on planning, analysis, approval of the controls and implementation issues.

  18. Toxicological safeguards in the manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Safeguards against toxic chemical exposures during manned Mars missions (MMMs) will be important for the maintenance of crew health and the accomplishment of mission objectives. Potential sources include offgassing, thermodegradation or combustion of materials, metabolic products of crew members, and escape of chemical from containment. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC) limits will have to be established for potential contaminants during the MMMs. The following factors will be used in establishing these limits: duration of mission, simultaneous exposure to other contaminants, deconditioning of crew members after long periods of reduced gravity, and simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation. Atmospheric contaminant levels in all compartments of the transit spacecraft and Manned Mars Station (MMS) will be monitored at frequent intervals with a real time analyzer. This analyzer will be highly automated, requiring minimal crew time and expertise. The atmospheric analyzer will find other usages during the MMMs such as analyzing Martian atmospheres and soils, exhaled breath and body fluids of crew members, and reaction products in chemical processing facilities.

  19. Ultraviolet imager for nuclear safeguards inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attas, E. Michael; Chen, J. Dennis; Young, Gary J.

    1992-06-01

    An ultraviolet imaging device has been developed for use in nuclear safeguards. The handheld device detects and amplifies a restricted portion (250 - 350 nm) of the faint Cerenkov glow produced in water around irradiated nuclear fuel stored in used-fuel pools. A 105 mm quartz objective lens, a UV-pass filter and a microchannel-plate image intensifier tube form the real- time visible-light image, which can be photographed or viewed directly through an eyepiece. Normal artificial lighting of the fuel storage bay does not interfere with the Cerenkov-light image. Anomalous fuel assemblies can be detected in the presence of normal assemblies by differences in the Cerenkov-light image. The latest version of this Cerenkov Viewing Device, the Mark IV CVD, is being used routinely by inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify declared inventories of irradiated light-water power-reactor fuel. Its design and operation are illustrated and described in this paper, together with plans for further enhancements of the instrumentation.

  20. Tool and process for miniature explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Bailey, James W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tool and process to be used in the explosive joining of tubes is disclosed. The tool consists of an initiator, a tool form, and a ribbon explosive. The assembled tool is a compact, storable, and safe device suitable for explosive joining of small, lightweight tubes down to 0.20 inch in diameter. The invention is inserted into either another tube or a tube plate. A shim or standoff between the two surfaces to be welded is necessary. Initiation of the explosive inside the tube results in a high velocity, angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding wherein electron-sharing linkups are formed.

  1. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Ravi, G.B.; Routbort, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60 and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C.

  2. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  3. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components.

  4. Liquid-solid joining of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjiang; Xue, Peng; Guo, Shu; Wu, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Fan, Hongbo; Ning, Zhiliang; Cao, Fuyang; Xing, Dawei; Sun, Jianfei; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we successfully welded two bulk metallic glass (BMG) materials, Zr51Ti5Ni10Cu25Al9 and Zr50.7Cu28Ni9Al12.3 (at. %), using a liquid-solid joining process. An atomic-scale metallurgical bonding between two BMGs can be achieved. The interface has a transition layer of ~50 μm thick. The liquid-solid joining of BMGs can shed more insights on overcoming their size limitation resulting from their limited glass-forming ability and then promoting their applications in structural components. PMID:27471073

  5. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Routbort, J. L.

    1999-12-10

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60, and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C.

  6. Torsional Shear Strength Tests for Glass-Ceramic Joined Silicon Carbide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Salvo, Milena; Katoh, Yutai; Gross, Dietmar

    2014-03-17

    A torsion test on hour-glass-shaped samples with a full joined or a ring-shaped joined area was chosen in this study to measure shear strength of glass-ceramic joined silicon carbide. Shear strength of about 100 MPa was measured for full joined SiC with fracture completely inside their joined area. Attempts to obtain this shear strength with a ring-shaped joined area failed due to mixed mode fractures. However, full joined and ring-shaped steel hour-glasses joined by a glass-ceramic gave the same shear strength, thus suggesting that this test measures shear strength of joined components only when their fracture is completely inside theirmore » joined area.« less

  7. Torsional Shear Strength Tests for Glass-Ceramic Joined Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Salvo, Milena; Katoh, Yutai; Gross, Dietmar

    2014-03-17

    A torsion test on hour-glass-shaped samples with a full joined or a ring-shaped joined area was chosen in this study to measure shear strength of glass-ceramic joined silicon carbide. Shear strength of about 100 MPa was measured for full joined SiC with fracture completely inside their joined area. Attempts to obtain this shear strength with a ring-shaped joined area failed due to mixed mode fractures. However, full joined and ring-shaped steel hour-glasses joined by a glass-ceramic gave the same shear strength, thus suggesting that this test measures shear strength of joined components only when their fracture is completely inside their joined area.

  8. Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management: A view from the DOE Chicago Operations Office

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.E.; Ahlberg, C.G.

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear Materials Safeguards (also known as Material Control and Accountability or MC&A) and Nuclear Materials Management as practiced within the US Department of Energy (DOE) are separate, but related disciplines with differing goals and objectives. Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management are closely related through the common use of transaction and inventory reporting data from the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Adherence to Nuclear Materials management principals may enhance Nuclear Materials Safeguards, and has the potential to result in savings for both program and safeguards costs. Both the Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management Programs for the Chicago Operations Office are administered by the Safeguards and Security Division, Safeguards Branch. This paper discusses Safeguards and Materials Management issues within the Chicago Operations Office, some of which relate to problems faced by the DOE complex as a whole.

  9. Lessons Learned in International Safeguards - Implementation of Safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, Michael H; Johnson, Shirley

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this report is lessons learned at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). However, the subject of lessons learned for application of international safeguards at reprocessing plants includes a cumulative history of inspections starting at the West Valley (New York, U.S.A.) reprocessing plant in 1969 and proceeding through all of the efforts over the years. The RRP is the latest and most challenging application the International Atomic Energy Agency has faced. In many ways the challenges have remained the same, timely inspection and evaluation with limited inspector resources, with the continuing realization that planning and preparations can never start early enough in the life cycle of a facility. Lessons learned over the years have involved the challenges of using ongoing advances in technology and dealing with facilities with increased throughput and continuous operation. This report will begin with a review of historical developments and lessons learned. This will provide a basis for a discussion of the experiences and lessons learned from the implementation of international safeguards at RRP.

  10. Integrating Safeguards and Security with Safety into Design

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Bean; John W. Hockert; David J. Hebditch

    2009-05-01

    There is a need to minimize security risks, proliferation hazards, and safety risks in the design of new nuclear facilities in a global environment of nuclear power expansion, while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) covering many safeguards areas. One of these, launched by NNSA with support of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, was a multi-laboratory project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to develop safeguards by design. The proposed Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process has been developed as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical security, and safety objectives into the overall design process for the nuclear facility lifecycle. A graded, iterative process was developed to integrate these areas throughout the project phases. It identified activities, deliverables, interfaces, and hold points covering both domestic regulatory requirements and international safeguards using the DOE regulatory environment as exemplar to provide a framework and guidance for project management and integration of safety with security during design. Further work, reported in this paper, created a generalized SBD process which could also be employed within the licensed nuclear industry and internationally for design of new facilities. Several tools for integrating safeguards, safety, and security into design are discussed here. SBD appears complementary to the EFCOG TROSSI process for security and safety integration created in 2006, which focuses on standardized upgrades to enable existing DOE facilities to meet a more severe design basis threat. A collaborative approach is suggested.

  11. Treaty on Open Skies sensor technologies with potential international safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M.B.

    1996-12-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies is a precedent-setting agreement that allows signatory states to fly aircraft over each other`s territory with sensor systems. The purpose of the Treaty is to improve confidence and security with respect to military activities of the signatories. This paper reviews the sensor technology that is currently allowed by the Treaty on Open Skies and potential future sensor technology. The Treaty on Open Skies does have provisions to allow for the improvement of the technology of the current sensor systems and for the proposal of new sensors after a period of time. This can occur only after the Treaty has been ratified and has entered into force. If this regime was to be used for other than Treaty on Open Skies applications some modifications to the allowed sensor technology should be examined. This paper presents some ideas on potential improvements to existing allowed sensor technology as well as some suggested new advanced sensor systems that would be useful for future potential monitoring of safeguard`s related activities. This paper addresses advanced imaging sensors and non-imaging sensors for potential use in aerial remote sensing roles that involve international data sharing.

  12. Nonhomologous end joining: a good solution for bad ends

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Crystal Ann; Strande, Natasha Tiffany; Wyatt, David William; Pryor, John Michael; Ramsden, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Double strand breaks pose unique problems for DNA repair, especially when broken ends possess complex structures that interfere with standard DNA transactions. Nonhomologous end joining can use multiple strategies to solve these problems. It further uses sophisticated means to ensure the strategy chosen provides the ideal balance of flexibility and accuracy. PMID:24630899

  13. Joining Forces: The Case of Alliant International University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are a prevalent force in higher education as more colleges and universities are joining forces to expand resources, enhance missions, or prevent closures. This study examines the merger of Alliant University (formerly California School of Professional Psychology) with United States International University to create what…

  14. Efficient and Scalable Graph Similarity Joins in MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifan; Zhang, Weiming; Tang, Jiuyang

    2014-01-01

    Along with the emergence of massive graph-modeled data, it is of great importance to investigate graph similarity joins due to their wide applications for multiple purposes, including data cleaning, and near duplicate detection. This paper considers graph similarity joins with edit distance constraints, which return pairs of graphs such that their edit distances are no larger than a given threshold. Leveraging the MapReduce programming model, we propose MGSJoin, a scalable algorithm following the filtering-verification framework for efficient graph similarity joins. It relies on counting overlapping graph signatures for filtering out nonpromising candidates. With the potential issue of too many key-value pairs in the filtering phase, spectral Bloom filters are introduced to reduce the number of key-value pairs. Furthermore, we integrate the multiway join strategy to boost the verification, where a MapReduce-based method is proposed for GED calculation. The superior efficiency and scalability of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated by extensive experimental results. PMID:25121135

  15. Embedded Heaters for Joining or Separating Plastic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Melvin A., III

    2004-01-01

    A proposed thermal-bonding technique would make it possible to join or separate thermoplastic parts quickly and efficiently. The technique would eliminate the need for conventional welding or for such conventional fastening components as bolted flanges or interlocking hooks. The technique could be particularly useful in the sign industry (in which large quantities of thermoplastics are used) or could be used to join plastic pipes. A thin sheet of a suitable electrically conductive material would be formed to fit between two thermoplastic parts to be joined (see figure). The electrically conductive sheet and the two parts would be put together tightly, then an electrical current would be sent through the conductor to heat the thermoplastic locally. The magnitude of the current and the heating time would be chosen to generate just enough heat to cause the thermoplastic to adhere to both sides of the electrically conductive sheet. Optionally, the electrically conductive sheet could contain many small holes to provide purchase or to increase electrical resistance to facilitate the generation of heat. After thermal bonding, the electrically conductive sheet remains as an integral part of the structure. If necessary, the electrically conductive sheet can be reheated later to separate the joined thermoplastic parts.

  16. New Method For Joining Stainless Steel to Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    In new process, edge of stainless-steel sheet is perforated, and joined to titanium by resistance seam welding. Titanium flows into perforations, forming a strong interlocking joint. Process creates a quasi-metallurgical bond between the thin sheets of stainless steel and titanium.

  17. 5 CFR 1201.36 - Consolidating and joining appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... For example, individual appeals rising from a single reduction in force might be consolidated. (2... join cases on his or her own motion or on the motion of a party if doing so would: (1) Expedite... motion for consolidation or joinder must be filed within 10 days of the date of service of the motion....

  18. 5 CFR 1201.36 - Consolidating and joining appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... For example, individual appeals rising from a single reduction in force might be consolidated. (2... join cases on his or her own motion or on the motion of a party if doing so would: (1) Expedite... motion for consolidation or joinder must be filed within 10 days of the date of service of the motion....

  19. 5 CFR 1201.36 - Consolidating and joining appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... For example, individual appeals rising from a single reduction in force might be consolidated. (2... or join cases on his or her own motion or on the motion of a party if doing so would: (1) Expedite... motion for consolidation or joinder must be filed within 10 days of the date of service of the motion....

  20. 5 CFR 1201.36 - Consolidating and joining appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... For example, individual appeals rising from a single reduction in force might be consolidated. (2... or join cases on his or her own motion or on the motion of a party if doing so would: (1) Expedite... motion for consolidation or joinder must be filed within 10 days of the date of service of the motion....

  1. Governing Bodies That Consider Joining or Creating Federations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study exploring what motivates governing bodies to consider joining or creating a federation, their experiences of the process and the barriers faced. The research methodology involved semi-structured telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews and analysis of relevant documentation. The varied…

  2. Multiprocessor sort-merge join algorithm for relational data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.C. III; Ries, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using multiprocessor systems for rapid processing of relational operations in relational databases is currently a topic of some interest. This paper presents a new multiprocessor algorithm for merge joins of relations. Considerable gains in speed in comparison with existing algorithms are exhibited by this algorithm.

  3. Multiprocessor sort-merge join algorithm for relational databases

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.C. III; Ries, D.R.

    1981-12-01

    Using multiprocessor systems for rapid processing of relational operations in relational databases is currently a topic of some interest. This paper presents a new multiprocessor algorithm for merge joins of relations. Considerable gains in speed in comparison with existing algorithms are exhibited by this algorithm.

  4. Two hospitals join forces to sponsor "A Woman's Comfort Day".

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Two Baton Rouge, La., hospitals--usually strong competitors--decided to join forces and collaborate on a special event for the women of the community. "A Woman's Comfort Day," now in its third year, was the successful result. If they're feeling good about themselves, can the Super Bowl be far behind?

  5. Safeguard monitoring of direct electrolytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurovitzki, Abraham L.

    Nuclear power is regaining global prominence as a sustainable energy source as the world faces the consequences of depending on limited fossil based, CO2 emitting fuels. A key component to achieving this sustainability is to implement a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Without achieving this goal, a relatively small fraction of the energy value in nuclear fuel is actually utilized. This involves recycling of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)---separating fissile actinides from waste products and using them to fabricate fresh fuel. Pyroprocessing is a viable option being developed for this purpose with a host of benefits compared to other recycling options, such as PUREX. Notably, pyroprocessing is ill suited to separate pure plutonium from spent fuel and thus has non-proliferation benefits. Pyroprocessing involves high temperature electrochemical and chemical processing of SNF in a molten salt electrolyte. During this batch process, several intermediate and final streams are produced that contain radioactive material. While pyroprocessing is ineffective at separating pure plutonium, there are various process misuse scenarios that could result in diversion of impure plutonium into one or more of these streams. This is a proliferation risk that should be addressed with innovative safeguards technology. One approach to meeting this challenge is to develop real time monitoring techniques that can be implemented in the hot cells and coupled with the various unit operations involved with pyroprocessing. Current state of the art monitoring techniques involve external chemical assaying which requires sample removal from these unit operations. These methods do not meet International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) timeliness requirements. In this work, a number of monitoring techniques were assessed for their viability as online monitoring tools. A hypothetical diversion scenario for the direct electrolytic reduction process was experimentally verified (using Nd2O3 as a surrogate for PuO2

  6. ELECTROCHEMICALLY-MODULATED SEPARATIONS FOR SAFEGUARDS MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Liezers, Martin; Orton, Christopher R.; Douglas, Matthew; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Hazelton, Sandra G.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2010-08-11

    A critical objective of materials accountability in safeguards is the accurate and timely analysis of fuel reprocessing streams to detect both abrupt and prolonged diversions of nuclear materials. For this reason both on-line nondestructive (NDA) and destructive analysis (DA) approaches are sought-after. Current methods for DA involve grab sampling and laboratory based column extractions that are costly, hazardous, and time consuming. While direct on-line gamma measurements of Pu are desirable, they are not possible due to contributions from other actinides and fission products. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are currently investigating electrochemically-modulated separation (EMS) as a straightforward, cost-effective technology for selective separation of Pu or U from aqueous reprocessing streams. The EMS selectivity is electrochemically controlled and results from the sorption of Pu4+ and U4+ redox states onto the anodized target electrode, allowing for selective accumulation of U or Pu from nitric acid streams to be turned “on” or “off.” It is envisioned that this technology can be utilized to isolate Pu for both NDA and DA analysis. For the NDA approach, rapid Pu analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy could be performed after chemical clean-up of activation and fission products by EMS. Likewise, in the DA approach, EMS could be used to retain and concentrate the Pu in nanogram quantities on the electrode surface to be transported to the lab for analysis using high precision mass spectrometry. Due to the challenges associated with complex matrices, a systematic investigation of the redox-dependent accumulation of Pu using EMS was necessary, and results will be presented. Approaches to mitigate interelement effects using large surface area cells will also be discussed. The EMS chemistry and spectroscopy for Pu isolation and measurement will be presented, proof-of-principle measurements will be described, and the application of this

  7. Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The

  8. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  9. Advanced Safeguards Approaches for New TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, Philip C.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Boyer, Brian; Therios, Ike; Bean, Robert; Dougan, A.; Tolk, K.

    2007-12-15

    This second report in a series of three reviews possible safeguards approaches for the new transuranic (TRU) fuel fabrication processes to be deployed at AFCF – specifically, the ceramic TRU (MOX) fuel fabrication line and the metallic (pyroprocessing) line. The most common TRU fuel has been fuel composed of mixed plutonium and uranium dioxide, referred to as “MOX”. However, under the Advanced Fuel Cycle projects custom-made fuels with higher contents of neptunium, americium, and curium may also be produced to evaluate if these “minor actinides” can be effectively burned and transmuted through irradiation in the ABR. A third and final report in this series will evaluate and review the advanced safeguards approach options for the ABR. In reviewing and developing the advanced safeguards approach for the new TRU fuel fabrication processes envisioned for AFCF, the existing international (IAEA) safeguards approach at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) and the conceptual approach planned for the new J-MOX facility in Japan have been considered as a starting point of reference. The pyro-metallurgical reprocessing and fuel fabrication process at EBR-II near Idaho Falls also provided insight for safeguarding the additional metallic pyroprocessing fuel fabrication line planned for AFCF.

  10. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  11. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  12. 45 CFR 1159.15 - Who has the responsibility for maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent unauthorized disclosure or destruction of... of maintaining adequate technical, physical, and security safeguards to prevent...

  13. Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Intervention Technology? Join a Study Learn More Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment Introduction ... What is NIMH’s Role in Mental Health Intervention Technology? Between FY2009 and FY2015, NIMH awarded 404 grants ...

  14. Boron-10 Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-01

    The shortage of 3He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security applications, including international nuclear safeguards. Any alternative neutron detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. For nuclear safeguards, a system must perform measurements in the field with a prescribed precision in a specified time. This paper describes an effort to design, model and test an alternatives-based neutron coincidence counter for nuclear safeguards applications. The technology chosen for use in an alternatives-based uranium neutron coincidence collar was boron-lined proportional counters. Extensive modeling was performed of various system configurations and comparisons were made to measurements on a commercial prototype boron-10 based uranium neutron coincidence collar.

  15. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  16. The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards: observations and limitations.

    PubMed

    Phull, Jaspreet Singh

    2011-10-01

    The recently introduced Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), which came into force in April 2009, was created to protect the liberty of people lacking capacity admitted to care homes and hospitals in England and Wales. This paper discusses observations and some limitations of the DoLS for protecting the liberty of residents within institutional settings. The regulation, safeguards and recent relevant case law are examined critically. The author suggests that their effectiveness may be limited by the under-recognition of cases, ambiguity and limited safeguards within the statute. The paper concludes that the DoLS legislation has been a positive step towards protecting the liberty of those lacking capacity but that limitations present could undermine the purpose of the legislation.

  17. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  18. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  19. Multilayered genetic safeguards limit growth of microorganisms to defined environments

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Ryan R.; Patel, Jaymin R.; Interiano, Alexander L.; Rovner, Alexis J.; Isaacs, Farren J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are commonly used to produce valuable compounds in closed industrial systems. However, their emerging applications in open clinical or environmental settings require enhanced safety and security measures. Intrinsic biocontainment, the creation of bacterial hosts unable to survive in natural environments, remains a major unsolved biosafety problem. We developed a new biocontainment strategy containing overlapping ‘safeguards’—engineered riboregulators that tightly control expression of essential genes, and an engineered addiction module based on nucleases that cleaves the host genome—to restrict viability of Escherichia coli cells to media containing exogenously supplied synthetic small molecules. These multilayered safeguards maintain robust growth in permissive conditions, eliminate persistence and limit escape frequencies to <1.3 × 10−12. The staged approach to safeguard implementation revealed mechanisms of escape and enabled strategies to overcome them. Our safeguarding strategy is modular and employs conserved mechanisms that could be extended to clinically or industrially relevant organisms and undomesticated species. PMID:25567985

  20. Safeguards and security research and development progress report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.B.; Jaramillo, G.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the activities carried out by the Los Alamos Safeguards and Security Research and Development (R&D) program from October 1993 through September 1994. The activities presented in the first part of the report were directed primarily to domestic US safeguards applications and were, for the most part, sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS, NN-50). The activities described in Part 2, International Safeguards, were supported by the International Safeguards Division of the Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE/OACN, NN-40). Part 3 describes several safeguards or safeguards-related activities that have other sponsors. The final part of the report lists titles and abstracts of Los Alamos safeguards R&D reports, technical journal articles, and conference papers that were published or presented in 1994.

  1. 75 FR 65038 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Procedures for Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... Federal Register Notice, care of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Procedures for Meetings Background This notice...

  2. 76 FR 64126 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Procedures for Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Federal Register Notice, care of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Procedures for Meetings Background This notice...

  3. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  4. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  5. Assessment of Critical Mass Laboratory safeguards and security upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.; DeMyer, J.J.

    1985-05-31

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation of the safeguards and security systems at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) in February 1985, to identify appropriate upgrading actions necessary to ensure that effective and efficient systems consistent with DOE-RL policies, procedures, and site priorities are in place. Since that evaluation, there have been changes in Patrol contingency philosophy, response tactics, and distribution of manpower. Because of these changes, and at the request of DOE-RL, PNL has re-evaluated the safeguards and security systems in place at CML.

  6. 2013 Snapshot of NGSI Human Capital Development and Future Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Melissa A; Poe, Sarah M; Dewji, Shaheen A; Finklea, Lauren R

    2013-01-01

    Since its creation in 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogram of NNSA s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has been striving to develop sustainable academic and technical programs that support the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals. This effort endeavors to develop additional human resources to equip a new cadre of safeguards and nonproliferation experts to meet the needs of both the United States and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for decades to come, specifically in response to data that indicates that 82% of the 2009 safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the program since its last presentation at the INMM Annual Meeting in 2010, including strengthened and integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and mid-career professional support, additional short safeguards coursework, and expanded university engagement. In particular, the paper will cover the NGSI Human Capital Roadmap currently being developed in safeguards and nonproliferation education, training, and knowledge retention. The NGSI Human Capital Roadmap aims to provide additional data points and metrics on where the human capital demand lies, which disciplines and skill sets are needed in the field, and how NGSI HCD can best address these issues to meet future demand.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Safeguards and Security quarterly progress report ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.; Davis, G.; Johnson, D.; Mansur, D.L.; Ruhter, W.D.; Strait, R.S.

    1996-04-01

    LLNL carries out safeguards and security activities for DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) and other organizations within and outside DOE. LLNL is supporting OSS in 6 areas: safeguards technology, safeguards and materials accountability, computer security--distributed systems, complex-wide access control, standardization of security systems, and information technology and security center. This report describes the activities in each of these areas.

  8. Nuclear safeguards research and development. Program status report, October 1980-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.N.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the status of the Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development Program pursued by the Energy, Chemistry-Materials Science, and Operational Security/Safeguards Divisions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards systems. Also discussed are training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  9. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeff; Schneider, Judy; Walker, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including titanium and its alloys. Thus solid state joining processes, such as friction stir welding (FSWing) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSWing), are being pursued as alternatives to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Unlike the FSWing process where the tool is used to heat the workpiece, TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material prior to stirring thus minimizing the burden on the weld tool and thereby extending its life. This study reports on the initial results of using a hybrid (H)-TSW process to join commercially pure, 1.3cm thick panels of titanium (CP Ti) Grade 2.

  10. Joining of Silicon Carbide: Diffusion Bond Optimization and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Joining and integration methods are critically needed as enabling technologies for the full utilization of advanced ceramic components in aerospace and aeronautics applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. In the application, several SiC substrates with different hole patterns to form fuel and combustion air channels are bonded to form the injector. Diffusion bonding is a joining approach that offers uniform bonds with high temperature capability, chemical stability, and high strength. Diffusion bonding was investigated with the aid of titanium foils and coatings as the interlayer between SiC substrates to aid bonding. The influence of such variables as interlayer type, interlayer thickness, substrate finish, and processing time were investigated. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe analysis were used to characterize the bonds and to identify the reaction formed phases.

  11. Solid-state joining of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1993-04-22

    A joining study of these steels was initiated to determine the feasibility of using ultrahigh carbon steels in structural applications. The high carbon content (1.5 wt%) in these steels and the desire to maintain the superplastic microstructure limit the use of conventional arc-welding processes. We chose two solid-state joining processes: diffusion bonding and inertia friction welding. Preliminary results show that sound bonds can be obtained with tensile properties nearly equal to those of the base metal. Of three UHC steels bonded by both inertia-friction welding and diffusion- bonding processes, the one with the lowest aluminum content had the best overall properties. Diffusion bonding with a nickel interlayer showed the most promising results for the UHC steel containing 1.6 wt% aluminum. The properties of inertia-friction-welded steels can be improved by a post-weld heat treatment.

  12. Joining of ceramics of different biofunction by hot isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianguo . Center for Dental Technology and Biomaterials); Harmansson, L. ); Soeremark, R. . Dept. of Prosthodontics)

    1993-10-01

    Monolithic zirconia (Z) and zirconia-hydroxyapatite (Z/HA) composites were joined by cold isostatic pressing (CIP at 300 MPa) and subsequently by glass-encapsulated hot isostatic pressing (HIP at 1225 C, 1 h and 200 MPa). The physical and mechanical properties of the materials were measured. The fracture surface was studied using a light microscope. The results indicate a strength level of the joint similar to that of the corresponding composite material (Z/HA), 845 and 860 MPa, respectively. Similar experiments with monolithic alumina (A) and alumina-hydroxyapatite (A/HA) were carried out without success. Cracking occurred in the joint area during the cold isostatic pressing process. It seems that ceramics with high green strength and similar green density are essential when joining ceramics by combined CIP and HIP processes.

  13. Recent progress in micro and nano-joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, A.; Khan, M. I.; Wu, W.; Tam, B.; Yavuz, M.

    2009-05-01

    Micro and nano-joining has been identified as a key enabling technology in the construction of micromechanical and microelectronic devices. The current article reviews recent progress in micro and nano-joining. In particular, laser micro-welding (LMW) of crossed 316 LVM stainless steel (SS) wire was compared to conventional resistance micro-welding (RMW) and was successfully employed in welding a Pt-Ir /SS dissimilar combination. Welding of Au nanoparticles was realized using femtosecond laser irradiation and its application in the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy was investigated. Brazing between carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles and Ni electrodes was attained in vacuum, resulting in the development of a novel CNT filament of incandescent lamps.

  14. Joining and Integration of Silicon Carbide for Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Coddington, Bryan; Asthana, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    The critical need for ceramic joining and integration technologies is becoming better appreciated as the maturity level increases for turbine engine components fabricated from ceramic and ceramic matrix composite materials. Ceramic components offer higher operating temperatures and reduced cooling requirements. This translates into higher efficiencies and lower emissions. For fabricating complex shapes, diffusion bonding of silicon carbide (SiC) to SiC is being developed. For the integration of ceramic parts to the surrounding metallic engine system, brazing of SiC to metals is being developed. Overcoming the chemical, thermal, and mechanical incompatibilities between dissimilar materials is very challenging. This presentation will discuss the types of ceramic components being developed by researchers and industry and the benefits of using ceramic components. Also, the development of strong, crack-free, stable bonds will be discussed. The challenges and progress in developing joining and integration approaches for a specific application, i.e. a SiC injector, will be presented.

  15. Breast cancer survivors' decisions to join a dragon boating team.

    PubMed

    Weisenbach, Beth B; McDonough, Meghan H

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity is associated with psychosocial and physical health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Little is known, however, about survivors' decision-making processes when considering joining group physical activity programs designed for survivors. Guided by interpretive description methodology (Thorne, 2008), N = 15 breast cancer survivors who were considering or had made the decision to join a dragon boating team were interviewed about their decisions to participate. Four patterns of decision making were identified: searching for a way to care for physical and social needs, taking advantage of opportunities created by breast cancer, dove in with little contemplation, and hesitant to connect with other survivors. Results have implications for understanding decisions to participate in physical activity groups in this population and overcoming challenges to participation.

  16. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  17. Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis of Joined-Wing Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, Rauno

    Aeroelastic design of joined-wing configurations is yet a relatively unexplored topic which poses several difficulties. Due to the overconstrained nature of the system combined with structural geometric nonlinearities, the behavior of Joined Wings is often counterintuitive and presents challenges not seen in standard layouts. In particular, instability observed on detailed aircraft models but never thoroughly investigated, is here studied with the aid of a theoretical/computational framework. Snap-type of instabilities are shown for both pure structural and aeroelastic cases. The concept of snap-divergence is introduced to clearly identify the true aeroelastic instability, as opposed to the usual aeroelastic divergence evaluated through eigenvalue approach. Multi-stable regions and isola-type of bifurcations are possible characterizations of the nonlinear response of Joined Wings, and may lead to branch-jumping phenomena well below nominal critical load condition. Within this picture, sensitivity to (unavoidable) manufacturing defects could have potential catastrophic effects. The phenomena studied in this work suggest that the design process for Joined Wings needs to be revisited and should focus, when instability is concerned, on nonlinear post-critical analysis since linear methods may provide wrong trend indications and also hide potentially catastrophical situations. Dynamic aeroelastic analyses are also performed. Flutter occurrence is critically analyzed with frequency and time-domain capabilities. Sensitivity to different-fidelity aeroelastic modeling (fluid-structure interface algorithm, aerodynamic solvers) is assessed showing that, for some configurations, wake modeling (rigid versus free) has a strong impact on the results. Post-flutter regimes are also explored. Limit cycle oscillations are observed, followed, in some cases, by flip bifurcations (period doubling) and loss of periodicity of the solution. Aeroelastic analyses are then carried out on a

  18. Electron Beam Welding to Join Gamma Titanium Aluminide Articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Thomas Joseph (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method is provided for welding two gamma titanium aluminide articles together. The method includes preheating the two articles to a welding temperature of from about 1700 F to about 2100 F, thereafter electron beam welding the two articles together at the welding temperature and in a welding vacuum to form a welded structure, and thereafter annealing the welded structure at an annealing temperature of from about 1800 F to about 2200 F, to form a joined structure.

  19. INSTITUTIONALIZING SAFEGUARDS-BY-DESIGN: HIGH-LEVEL FRAMEWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard PhD; Joseph Alexander; Robert Bean; Brian Castle; Scott DeMuth, Ph.D.; Phillip Durst; Michael Ehinger; Prof. Michael Golay, Ph.D.; Kevin Hase, Ph.D.; David J. Hebditch, DPhil; John Hockert, Ph.D.; Bruce Meppen; James Morgan; Jerry Phillips, Ph.D., PE

    2009-02-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities can reduce proliferation risks. A multi-laboratory team was sponsored in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008 to define a SBD process and determine how it could be incorporated into existing facility design and construction processes. The possibility to significantly influence major design features, such as process selection and plant layout, largely ends with the conceptual design step. Therefore SBD’s principal focus must be on the early inclusion of safeguards requirements and the early identification of beneficial design features. The result could help form the basis for a new international norm for integrating safeguards into facility design. This is an interim report describing progress and project status as of the end of FY08. In this effort, SBD is defined as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost-effective integration of international and national safeguards, physical security, and other nonproliferation objectives into the overall design process for a nuclear facility. A key objective is to ensure that security and nonproliferation issues are considered when weighing facility design alternatives. Central to the work completed in FY08 was a study in which a SBD process was developed in the context of the current DOE facility acquisition process. The DOE study enabled the development of a “SBD design loop” that is suitable for use in any facility design process. It is a graded, iterative process that incorporates safeguards concerns throughout the conceptual, preliminary and final design processes. Additionally, a set of proposed design principles for SBD was developed. A “Generic SBD Process” was then developed. Key features of the process include the initiation of safeguards design activities in the pre-conceptual planning phase, early incorporation of safeguards requirements into the project requirements, early appointment of an SBD team, and

  20. DNA Polymerase θ: A Unique Multifunctional End-Joining Machine.

    PubMed

    Black, Samuel J; Kashkina, Ekaterina; Kent, Tatiana; Pomerantz, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) was discovered over ten years ago as having a role in suppressing genome instability in mammalian cells. Studies have now clearly documented an essential function for this unique A-family polymerase in the double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway alternative end-joining (alt-EJ), also known as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), in metazoans. Biochemical and cellular studies show that Polθ exhibits a unique ability to perform alt-EJ and during this process the polymerase generates insertion mutations due to its robust terminal transferase activity which involves template-dependent and independent modes of DNA synthesis. Intriguingly, the POLQ gene also encodes for a conserved superfamily 2 Hel308-type ATP-dependent helicase domain which likely assists in alt-EJ and was reported to suppress homologous recombination (HR) via its anti-recombinase activity. Here, we review our current knowledge of Polθ-mediated end-joining, the specific activities of the polymerase and helicase domains, and put into perspective how this multifunctional enzyme promotes alt-EJ repair of DSBs formed during S and G2 cell cycle phases. PMID:27657134