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Sample records for joint prosthetic infections

  1. Prosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Saima; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections represent a major therapeutic challenge for both healthcare providers and patients. This paper reviews the predisposing factors, pathogenesis, microbiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of prosthetic joint infection. The most optimal management strategy should be identified based on a number of considerations including type and duration of infection, antimicrobial susceptibility of the infecting pathogen, condition of infected tissues and bone stock, patient wishes and functional status. PMID:22847032

  2. Gonococcal Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Gassiep, Ian; Gilpin, Bradley; Douglas, Joel; Siebert, David

    2017-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Disseminated gonococcal infection is an infrequent presentation and rarely can be associated with septic arthritis. Incidence of this infection is rising, both internationally and in older age groups. We present the first documented case of N. gonorrhoea prosthetic joint infection which was successfully treated with laparoscopic debridement and antimicrobial therapy.

  3. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tande, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437

  4. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  5. Corynebacterium Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of Corynebacterium species may be challenging. Corynebacterium species are occasional causes of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), but few data are available on the subject. Based on the literature, C. amycolatum, C. aurimucosum, C. jeikeium, and C. striatum are the most common Corynebacterium species that cause PJI. We designed a rapid PCR assay to detect the most common human Corynebacterium species, with a specific focus on PJI. A polyphosphate kinase gene identified using whole-genome sequence was targeted. The assay differentiates the antibiotic-resistant species C. jeikeium and C. urealyticum from other species in a single assay. The assay was applied to a collection of human Corynebacterium isolates from multiple clinical sources, and clinically relevant species were detected. The assay was then tested on Corynebacterium isolates specifically associated with PJI; all were detected. We also describe the first case of C. simulans PJI. PMID:22337986

  6. Management of Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Tande, Aaron J; Gomez-Urena, Eric O; Berbari, Elie F; Osmon, Douglas R

    2017-06-01

    Although uncommon, prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication. This challenging condition requires a coordinated management approach to achieve good patient outcomes. This review details the general principles to consider when managing patients with prosthetic joint infection. The different medical/surgical treatment strategies and how to appropriately select a strategy are discussed. The data to support each strategy are presented, along with discussion of antimicrobial strategies in specific situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Prosthetic Joint Infection from Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Gilbert; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed; Myers, James

    2016-12-01

    Prosthetic joint infection from Listeria monocytogenes is rare. We decided to shed light on this illness and review the reported cases to better understand its characteristics. We conducted a comprehensive review of the English literature using PubMed. We also included one case that we had managed. We found 25 cases of prosthetic joint infection from L. monocytogenes reported individually and a retrospective study of 43 cases of joint and bone listerial infection, including 34 with prosthetic joint infection, conducted in France. We have described their clinical and para-clinical features and tried to elaborate on the pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention. Prosthetic joint infection from L. monocytogenes is mainly late. Systemic inflammation may be absent. Although rare, it must be suspected in patients at high risk for both prosthetic joint and listerial infections. In addition, those patients must be instructed on appropriate preventive measures.

  8. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Trueperella bernardiae.

    PubMed

    Gilarranz, Raul; Chamizo, Francisco; Horcajada, Iballa; Bordes-Benítez, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Trueperella bernardiae is a Gram-positive coryneform bacilli which role as human pathogen is unknown because it has been usually considered a contaminant. Furthermore its identification by biochemical test was difficult. We describe a prosthetic joint infection in a women who years ago underwent a total knee replacement with superinfection and necrosis of the patellar tendon as major complications. In the sample of synovial fluid collected grew a gram-positive bacilli which was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) as T. bernardiae. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and currently preserves the prosthesis without signs of infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prosthetic Joint Infections and Cost Analysis?

    PubMed

    Haddad, F S; Ngu, A; Negus, J J

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery that can lead to debilitating morbidity for the patient and significant expense for the healthcare system. With the continual rise of arthroplasty cases worldwide every year, the revision load for infection is becoming a greater financial burden on healthcare budgets. Prevention of infection has to be the key to reducing this burden. For treatment, it is critical for us to collect quality data that can guide future management strategies to minimise healthcare costs and morbidity / mortality for patients. There has been a management shift in many countries to a less expensive 1-stage strategy and in selective cases to the use of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention. These appear very attractive options on many levels, not least cost. However, with a consensus on the definition of joint infection only clarified in 2011, there is still the need for high quality cost analysis data to be collected on how the use of these different methods could impact the healthcare expenditure of countries around the world. With a projected spend on revision for infection at US$1.62 billion in the US alone, this data is vital and urgently needed.

  10. Staphylococcus capitis isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B

    2017-01-01

    Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.

  11. Prosthetic vascular graft infection and prosthetic joint infection caused by Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Bonares, Michael J; Vaisman, Alon; Sharkawy, Abdu

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri is infrequently isolated from clinical specimens, and if isolated, more likely represents colonization or contamination rather than infection. Despite this, there are dozens of case reports which describe clinically significant P. stutzeri infections at variable sites. A 69-year-old man had a P. stutzeri infection of a prosthetic vascular graft infection, which he received in Panama City. He was successfully treated with a single antipseudomonal agent for 6 weeks and the removal of the infected vascular graft. A 70-year-old man had a P. stutzeri infection of a prosthetic joint, which was successfully treated with a single anti-pseudomonal agent for 6 weeks. There is only one other documented case of a prosthetic vascular graft infection secondary to P. stutzeri . There are 5 documented cases of P. stutzeri prosthetic joint infections. The previous cases were treated with antibiotics and variably, source control with the removal of prosthetic material. Most cases of P. stutzeri infection are due to exposure in health care settings. Immunocompromised states such as HIV or hematological and solid tumor malignancies are risk factors for P. stutzeri infection. Infections caused by P. stutzeri are far less frequent and less fatal than those caused by P. aeruginosa. The etiology of a P. stutzeri infection could be exposure to soil and water, but also contaminated material in the health care setting or an immunocompromised state. Iatrogenic infections that are secondary to health care tourism are a potential cause of fever in the returned traveler.

  12. Second-site prosthetic joint infection in patients with multiple prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Clesham, Kevin; Hughes, Andrew J; O' hEireamhoin, Sven; Fleming, Catherine; Murphy, Colin G

    2018-04-10

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are among the most serious complications in arthroplasty. A second-site PJI in patients with multiple prosthetic joints increases morbidity, with many requiring further revision procedures. We aimed to establish why some patients with multiple joints develop second-site infections. Our institution's arthroplasty database was reviewed from 2004 to 2017. All PJIs were identified, and all patients with more than one prosthetic joint in situ were included. We recorded risk factors, causative organisms, number of procedures and length of stay. Forty-four patients meeting the criteria were identified. Four patients (9.1%) developed second-site infection. Eight patients (18.2%) developed re-infection of the primary PJI. Positive MRSA carrier status and PJI of a total knee replacement were associated with an increased risk of a second episode of infection. Patients who developed further infection had more frequent admission and longer lengths of stay than isolated PJIs. Higher morbidity and use of hospital resources are associated with this cohort of patients. PJIs in total knee replacements and positive MRSA status are associated with higher rates of second infection. Identifying this vulnerable cohort of patients at an early stage is critical to ensure measures are taken to reduce the risks of further infection.

  13. Periprosthetic joint infection: are patients with multiple prosthetic joints at risk?

    PubMed

    Jafari, S Mehdi; Casper, David S; Restrepo, Camilo; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F

    2012-06-01

    Patients who present with a periprosthetic joint infection in a single joint may have multiple prosthetic joints. The risk of these patients developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint is unknown. Our purposes were (1) to identify the risk of developing a subsequent infection in another prosthetic joint and (2) to describe the time span and organism profile to the second prosthetic infection. We retrospectively identified 55 patients with periprosthetic joint infection who had another prosthetic joint in place at the time of presentation. Of the 55 patients, 11 (20%) developed a periprosthetic joint infection in a second joint. The type of organism was the same as the first infection in 4 (36%) of 11 patients. The time to developing a second infection averaged 2.0 years (range, 0-6.9 years). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction for prosthetic knee joint infection.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Kawai, Akira; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infection of prosthetic knee joints because rotationplasty is rarely performed for this indication. We reviewed four patients who had undergone resection of osteosarcomas of the femur, placement of a prosthetic knee joint, and rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction from 2010 to 2013. The mean interval between prosthetic joint replacement and rotationplasty was 10.4 years and the mean interval between the diagnosis of prosthesis infection and rotationplasty was 7.9 years. Rotationplasty was successful in all patients; however, in one patient, arterial thrombosis developed and necessitated urgent surgical removal and arterial reconstruction. All patients were able to walk independently with a prosthetic limb after rehabilitation. Although there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate method of vascular management during rotationplasty for revision of infected prosthetic joints, vascular transection and reanastomosis is a useful option.

  15. Granulicatella adiacens prosthetic hip joint infection after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Aweid, Osama; Sundararajan, Sabapathy; Teferi, Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Granulicatella adiacens is a Gram-positive bacteria and a normal component of oral flora. It is also found in dental plaques, endodontic abscesses and can rarely cause more serious infections. We describe a prosthetic hip joint infection in an 81-year-old fit and healthy man due to Granulicatella adiacens who underwent a prolonged dental intervention two days earlier without antibiotic prophylaxis. The infection was successfully treated with surgical intervention and a combination of antibiotics. The patient eventually succumbed to severe community-acquired pneumonia two months later. Current guidelines recommend avoidance of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental treatment in patients who have no co-morbidities and no prior operation on the index prosthetic joint. This case report indicates that infections of prosthetic joints may be associated with dental procedures even in fit and healthy patients without the recognized risk factors.

  16. Future Research Opportunities in Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berbari, Elie; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A panel of PJI content experts identified nine PJI prevention research opportunities based on both evidence gaps identified through the guideline development process (transfusion, immunosuppressive therapy, anticoagulation, orthopedic space suit, and biofilm) and expert opinion (anesthesia, operative room environment, glycemic control, and Staphylococcus aureus nasal screening and decolonization. This article offers a road map for PJI prevention research.

  17. Intraoperative Considerations for Treatment/Prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Linda I; Mesko, Daniel R; Nam, Denis

    2018-06-23

    Innovative measures have recently been proposed to prevent periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty. We sought to review these recent innovations to determine the reported reduction in periprosthetic joint infection. The most recent literature demonstrates promising results in regard to hydrofiber dressings as an independent risk factor for primary prosthetic joint infection reduction, which in turn is also linked with cost savings. As our understanding of safe yet effective concentrations of antiseptic solutions develops, dilute betadine in particular has demonstrated encouraging efficacy which warrants continued investigation through controlled trials. In summary, we found that the application of a hydrofiber dressing may prove beneficial in decreasing the risk of prosthetic joint infection following primary total hip and knee arthroplasty. The gold standard for an infection prevention protocol continues to be explored and optimized.

  18. Factors influencing the cost of prosthetic joint infection treatment.

    PubMed

    Peel, T N; Cheng, A C; Lorenzo, Y P; Kong, D C M; Buising, K L; Choong, P F M

    2013-11-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with significant costs to the healthcare system. Current literature examines the cost of specific treatment modalities without assessing other cost drivers for PJI. To examine the overall cost of the treatment of PJI and to identify factors associated with management costs. The costs of treatment of prosthetic joint infections were examined in 139 patients across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008). Cost calculations included hospitalization costs, surgical costs, hospital-in-the-home costs and antibiotic therapy costs. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to model factors associated with total cost. The median cost of treating prosthetic joint infection per patient was Australian $34,800 (interquartile range: 20,305, 56,929). The following factors were associated with increased treatment costs: septic revision arthroplasty (67% increase in treatment cost; P = 0.02), hypotension at presentation (70% increase; P = 0.03), polymicrobial infections (41% increase; P = 0.009), surgical treatment with one-stage exchange (100% increase; P = 0.002) or resection arthroplasty (48% increase; P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased treatment costs. Culture-negative prosthetic joint infections were associated with decreased costs (29% decrease in treatment cost; P = 0.047). Treatment failure was associated with 156% increase in treatment costs. This study identifies clinically important factors influencing treatment costs that may be of relevance to policy-makers, particularly in the setting of hospital reimbursement and guiding future research into cost-effective preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Candida Prosthetic Joint Infection. A Review of Treatment Methods.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-01-01

    Fungal microorganisms are still a rare cause of bone and joint infections. We report a new case of knee prosthetic joint infection due to Candida albicans in a patient with a previous two-stage right knee arthroplasty for septic arthritis due to S. epidermidis occurred several months ago. Moreover, the treatment in 76 cases of Candida prosthetic joint infection has been discussed. Forty patients were female and mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs. No risk factors for candidal infection were found in 25 patients. Infection site was the knee in 38 patients and hip in 36; pain was present in 44 patients and swelling in 24. The most frequent species was C. albicans , followed by C. parapsilosis . Eleven patients were only treated with antifungal drugs being the outcome favourable in all of them. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients, and resection arthroplasty in other 30; in three patients one-stage exchange arthroplasty was done. A favourable outcome was found in 58 patients after antifungal plus surgical treatment, in 11 after antifungal treatment alone and in one after surgery alone. The type of treatment is still not clearly defined and an algorithm for treatment in fungal PJI should be established, but various types of surgical procedures may be applied.

  20. Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection detected by PCR.

    PubMed

    Farrell, John J; Larson, Joshua A; Akeson, Jeffrey W; Lowery, Kristin S; Rounds, Megan A; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Patel, Robin

    2014-06-01

    We describe the first reported case of Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection (PJI) detected by PCR. Ureaplasma species do not possess a cell wall and are usually associated with colonization and infection of mucosal surfaces (not prosthetic material). U. parvum is a relatively new species name for certain serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and PCR is useful for species determination. Our patient presented with late infection of his right total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperative fluid and tissue cultures and pre- and postoperative synovial fluid cultures were all negative. To discern the pathogen, we employed PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Our patient's failure to respond to empirical antimicrobial treatment and our previous experience with PCR/ESI-MS in culture-negative cases of infection prompted us to use this approach over other diagnostic modalities. PCR/ESI-MS detected U. parvum in all samples. U. parvum-specific PCR testing was performed on all synovial fluid samples to confirm the U. parvum detection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  2. Conventional and molecular diagnostic strategies for prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Jaime; Sorlí, Luisa; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Puig, Lluís; Horcajada, Juan P

    2014-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the mainstay for an optimized clinical management. This review analyzes different diagnostic strategies of PJI, with special emphasis on molecular diagnostic tools and their current and future applications. Until now, the culture of periprosthetic tissues has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of PJI. However, sonication of the implant increases the sensitivity of those cultures and is being increasingly adopted by many centers. Molecular diagnostic methods compared with intraoperative tissue culture, especially if combined with sonication, have a higher sensitivity, a faster turnaround time and are not influenced by previous antimicrobial therapy. However, they still lack a system for detection of antimicrobial susceptibility, which is crucial for an optimized and less toxic therapy of PJI. More studies are needed to assess the clinical value of these methods and their cost-effectiveness.

  3. [Prosthetic joint infection: a prospective study in five Catalonian hospitals].

    PubMed

    García-Pont, Javier; Blanch-Falp, Jesús; Coll-Colell, Rosa; Rosell-Abaurrea, Francesc; Tapiz-Reula, Alfons; Dorca-Badía, Ester; Masabeu-Urrutia, Angels; Martín-Urda, Anabel; Barrufet-Barque, Pilar; Force-Sanmartín, Lluis

    2006-03-01

    Prosthetic joint infections are a cause of increasing morbidity and medical expenditure. To determine the incidence and the clinical and the epidemiological characteristics of knee and hip prosthetic infections (PI) in patients undergoing elective surgery in five Catalonian hospitals. To determine the predictive factors of PI. A total of 425 patients operated on between 8 January and 8 July 2001 were prospectively followed for a period of two years. The cumulative incidence, incidence rate and effect measures were determined. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with PI. Average age was 71 years and 63.1% were women. Antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin was given to 44.7% of the patients, with a mean duration of two days. Prophylaxis was administered during anesthesia induction in 75.6% of the patients. Among the total, 63.4% of the patients were ASA 2. Microbiological confirmation was obtained in all the infected patients; Staphylococcus epidermidis was found in 58%. Fourteen PI were diagnosed, 71% during the first 3 months, with a cumulative incidence of 3.29% and a 3-month incidence rate of 63 patients/10,000 patients/month. Diabetes mellitus was the only variable related to PI in the multivariate analysis: 3.18, 95% CI (1.1-9.9). The cumulative incidence of PI was slightly higher than that seen in other studies. Variations were observed in the antibiotic used for prophylaxis, and the place where it was administered. PI occurred 3.18 times more frequently in diabetic patients.

  4. Cost analysis of debridement and retention for management of prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Peel, T N; Dowsey, M M; Buising, K L; Liew, D; Choong, P F M

    2013-02-01

    Prosthetic joint infection remains one of the most devastating complications of arthroplasty. Debridement and retention of the prosthesis is an attractive management option in carefully selected patients. Despite this, there are no data investigating the cost of this management modality for prosthetic joint infections. The aim of this case-control study was to calculate the cost associated with debridement and retention for management of prosthetic joint infection compared with primary joint replacement surgery without prosthetic joint infection. From 1 January 2008 to 30 June 2010, there were 21 prosthetic joint infections matched to 42 control patients. Controls were matched to cases according to the arthroplasty site, age and sex. Cases had a greater number of unplanned readmissions (100% vs. 7.1%; p <0.001), more additional surgery (3.3 vs. 0.07; p <0.001) and longer total bed days (31.6 vs. 7.9 days; p <0.001). In addition they had more inpatient, outpatient and emergency department visits (p <0.001, respectively). For patients with prosthetic joint infection the total cost, including index operation and costs of management of the prosthetic joint infection, was 3.1 times the cost of primary arthoplasty; the mean cost for cases was Australian dollars (AUD) $69,414 (±29,869) compared with $22,085 (±8147) (p <0.001). The demand for arthroplasty continues to grow and with that, the number of prosthetic joint infections will also increase, placing significant burden on the health system. Our study adds significantly to the growing body of evidence highlighting the substantial costs associated with prosthetic joint infection. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Hematogenous Prosthetic Joint Infection in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Tande, Aaron J; Palraj, Bharath Raj; Osmon, Douglas R; Berbari, Elie F; Baddour, Larry M; Lohse, Christine M; Steckelberg, James M; Wilson, Walter R; Sohail, M Rizwan

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a life-threatening condition that may lead to metastatic infection, including prosthetic joint infection. To assess clinical factors associated with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection, we retrospectively reviewed all patients with a joint arthroplasty in place at the time of a first episode of S. aureus bacteremia over a 5-year period at our institution. Patients with postsurgical prosthetic joint infection without hematogenous prosthetic joint infection were excluded. There were 85 patients (143 arthroplasties) with either no prosthetic joint infection (n = 50; 58.8%) or hematogenous prosthetic joint infection in at least one arthroplasty (n = 35; 41.2%). The odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection was significantly increased among patients with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 18.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.64-infinity; P = .001), as compared with nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia, in which there were no patients with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection. After adjusting for S. aureus bacteremia classification, the presence of ≥3 joint arthroplasties in place was associated with a nearly ninefold increased odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection as compared with those with 1-2 joint arthroplasties in place (OR 8.55; 95% CI 1.44-95.71; P = .012). All but one joint with prosthetic joint infection demonstrated at least one clinical feature suggestive of infection. There were 4 additional S. aureus prosthetic joint infections diagnosed during a median of 3.4 years of follow-up post hospitalization for S. aureus bacteremia. Prosthetic joint infection is frequent in patients with existing arthroplasties and concomitant S. aureus bacteremia, particularly with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia and multiple prostheses. In contrast, occult S. aureus prosthetic joint infection without clinical features suggestive of prosthetic joint infection at the time of S. aureus bacteremia

  6. Is Asymptomatic Bacteriuria a Risk Factor for Prosthetic Joint Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ricardo; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Quayle, Jonathan; Dias da Costa, Luis; Casals, Cristina; Scott, Phylip; Leite, Pedro; Vilanova, Paz; Garcia, Sebastian; Ramos, Maria Helena; Dias, Joana; Soriano, Alex; Guyot, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infection is a major complication after total joint arthroplasty. The urinary tract is a possible source of surgical site contamination, but the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective surgery and the subsequent risk of infection is poorly understood. Methods. Candidates for total hip or total knee arthroplasty were reviewed in a multicenter cohort study. A urine sample was cultured in all patients, and those with ASB were identified. Preoperative antibiotic treatment was decided on an individual basis, and it was not mandatory or randomized. The primary outcome was prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the first postoperative year. Results. A total of 2497 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of ASB was 12.1% (303 of 2497), 16.3% in women and 5.0% in men (odds ratio, 3.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.65–5.09; P < .001). The overall PJI rate was 1.7%. The infection rate was significantly higher in the ASB group than in the non-ASB group (4.3% vs 1.4%; odds ratio, 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–6.27; P = .001). In the ASB group, there was no significant difference in PJI rate between treated (3.9%) and untreated (4.7%) patients. The ASB group had a significantly higher proportion of PJI due to gram-negative microorganisms than the non-ASB group, but these did not correlate to isolates from urine cultures. Conclusions. ASB was an independent risk factor for PJI, particularly that due to gram-negative microorganisms. Preoperative antibiotic treatment did not show any benefit and cannot be recommended. PMID:24723280

  7. Silver Nanocoating Technology in the Prevention of Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Jiri; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Kriegova, Eva; Hradilova, Sarka; Hobza, Martin; Holinka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a feared complication of total joint arthroplasty associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is a growing body of evidence that bacterial colonization and biofilm formation are critical pathogenic events in PJI. Thus, the choice of biomaterials for implanted prostheses and their surface modifications may significantly influence the development of PJI. Currently, silver nanoparticle (AgNP) technology is receiving much interest in the field of orthopaedics for its antimicrobial properties and a strong anti-biofilm potential. The great advantage of AgNP surface modification is a minimal release of active substances into the surrounding tissue and a long period of effectiveness. As a result, a controlled release of AgNPs could ensure antibacterial protection throughout the life of the implant. Moreover, the antibacterial effect of AgNPs may be strengthened in combination with conventional antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Here, our main attention is devoted to general guidelines for the design of antibacterial biomaterials protected by AgNPs, its benefits, side effects and future perspectives in PJI prevention. PMID:28773461

  8. Treatment of prosthetic joint infections due to Propionibacterium

    PubMed Central

    Van Hooff, Miranda L; Meis, Jacques F; Vos, Fidel; Goosen, Jon H M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Currently, Propionibacterium is frequently recognized as a causative microorganism of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We assessed treatment success at 1- and 2-year follow-up after treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI of the shoulder, hip, and knee. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether postoperative treatment with rifampicin is favorable. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which we included patients with a primary or revision joint arthroplasty of the shoulder, hip, or knee who were diagnosed with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI between November 2008 and February 2013 and who had been followed up for at least 1 year. Results We identified 60 patients with a Propionibacterium-associated PJI with a median duration of 21 (0.1–49) months until the occurrence of treatment failure. 39 patients received rifampicin combination therapy, with a success rate of 93% (95% CI: 83–97) after 1 year and 86% (CI: 71–93) after 2 years. The success rate was similar in patients who were treated with rifampicin and those who were not. Interpretation Propionibacterium-associated PJI treated with surgery in combination with long-term antibiotic administration had a successful outcome at 1- and 2-year follow-up irrespective of whether the patient was treated with rifampicin. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the use of rifampicin is beneficial in the treatment of Propionibacterium-associated PJI. PMID:26414972

  9. Tubercular prosthetic joint infection: two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Veloci, Sara; Mencarini, Jessica; Lagi, Filippo; Beltrami, Giovanni; Campanacci, Domenico Andrea; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    Tubercular prosthetic joint infection (TB-PJI) is an uncommon complication. Lack of evidence of systemic tuberculosis and clinical suspicion could bring a delay in the time of the diagnosis. The aims of this study are to underline the importance of awareness and suspicion of mycobacterial infection in the differential diagnosis in PJI and to evaluate the appropriateness of different therapeutic options. Case report and literature review. We report two cases of TB-PJI after total knee arthroplasty in Caucasian patients without prior history of tubercular disease or exposure. In both cases, the diagnosis was obtained years after the onset of symptoms. Despite that, both patients improved during antitubercular treatment (a four-drug regimen consisting of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid). Moreover, after an 18-month course of treatment, there was no need for surgical therapy. The result of the literature review allows us to identify 64 cases of TB-PJI. Many differences in both medical and surgical management have been found, among those reviewed cases. Considering our experience and the literature review, we recommend considering a conservative approach (debridement and adequate antituberculous chemotherapy) as a suitable and safe option.

  10. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection as the endpoint. The effect of risk factors such as the year of surgery, age, sex, diagnosis, type of prosthesis, and fixation were assessed. Results 2,778 (0.6%) of the primary THAs were revised due to infection. Compared to the period 1995–1999, the relative risk (with 95% CI) of revision due to infection was 1.1 (1.0–1.2) in 2000–2004 and 1.6 (1.4–1.7) in 2005–2009. Adjusted cumulative 5–year revision rates due to infection were 0.46% (0.42–0.50) in 1995–1999, 0.54% (0.50–0.58) in 2000–2004, and 0.71% (0.66–0.76) in 2005–2009. The entire increase in risk of revision due to infection was within 1 year of primary surgery, and most notably in the first 3 months. The risk of revision due to infection increased in all 4 countries. Risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, hybrid fixation, cement without antibiotics, and THA performed due to inflammatory disease, hip fracture, or femoral head necrosis. None of these risk factors increased in incidence during the study period. Interpretation We found increased relative risk of revision and increased cumulative 5–year revision rates due to infection after primary THA during the period 1995–2009. No change in risk factors in the NARA dataset could explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA. PMID

  11. Remote transient Lactobacillus animalis bacteremia causing prosthetic hip joint infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, R; Lynch, T; Powell, J N; Gregson, D

    2016-11-04

    Lactobacillus spp. are uncommon pathogens in immunocompetent hosts, and even rarer causes of prosthetic device infections. A case of chronic hip prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by L. animalis is described. This occurred 5 years after a transient bacteremia with the same organism. Whole genome sequencing of both isolates proved this PJI infection resulted from this remote bacteremia. We document that prosthetic joint infections may be a consequence of bacteremia as much as 3 years before the onset of symptoms.

  12. Good quality of life outcomes after treatment of prosthetic joint infection with debridement and prosthesis retention.

    PubMed

    Aboltins, Craig; Dowsey, Michelle; Peel, Trish; Lim, Wen K; Choong, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated for early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with surgical debridement and prosthesis retention have a rate of successful infection eradication that is similar to patients treated with the traditional approach of prosthesis exchange. It is therefore important to consider other outcomes after prosthetic joint infection treatment that may influence management decisions, such as quality of life (QOL). Our aim was to describe infection cure rates and quality of life for patients with prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention and to determine if treatment with this approach was a risk factor for poor quality of life outcomes. Prospectively collected pre and post-arthroplasty data were available for 2,134 patients, of which PJI occurred in 41. For patients treated for prosthetic joint infection, the 2-year survival free of treatment failure was 87% (95%CI 84-89). Prosthetic joint infection cases treated with debridement and retention had a similar improvement from pre-arthroplasty to 12-months post-arthroplasty as patients without PJI in QOL according to the SF-12 survey. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and retention was not a risk factor for poor quality of life on univariate or multivariate analysis. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention results in good cure rates and quality of life. Further studies are required that directly compare quality of life for different surgical approaches for prosthetic joint infection to better inform management decisions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:898-902, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Granulicatella adiacens: a case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Quénard, Fanny; Seng, Piseth; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Fenollar, Florence; Stein, Andreas

    2017-06-23

    Bone and joint infection involving Granulicatella adiacens is rare, and mainly involved in cases of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. Here we report three cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that were successfully treated with surgery and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. We also review the two cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that are reported in the literature. Not all five cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by G. adiacens were associated with bacteremia or infectious endocarditis. Dental care before the onset of infection was observed in two cases. The median time delay between arthroplasty implantation and the onset of infection was of 4 years (ranging between 2 and 10 years). One of our cases was identified with 16srRNA gene sequencing, one case with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and one case with both techniques. Two literature cases were diagnosed by 16srRNA gene sequencing. All five cases were cured after surgery including a two-stage prosthesis exchange in three cases, a one-stage prosthesis exchange in one case, and debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis in one case, and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. Prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens is probably often dismissed due to difficult culture or misdiagnosis, in particular in the cases of polymicrobial infection. Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis associated with prolonged antimicrobial treatment (≥ 8 weeks) should be considered as a treatment strategy for prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens.

  14. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  15. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60-79, 80-99, 100-119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35-39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8-9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  17. [Clinical characters of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection].

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Yang, Rui; Geng, Lei; Yang, Yunjian; Zhang, Zhendong; Chen, Jiying

    2014-01-01

    To explore the clinical characters and histopathologic differences between patients with culture-positive and culture-negative prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Between January 2012 and July 2013, 66 PJI patients in accord with diagnostic criteria were enrolled. According to the results of preoperative aspiration and intraoperative cultures, the patients were divided into culture-negative group (CN group, n = 21) and culture-positive group (CP group, n = 45). There was no significant difference in gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index between 2 groups (P > 0.05). Preoperative C reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and prosthesis survival time were compared between 2 groups. Intraoperative frozen sections and paraffin sections were both performed to identify infections, and histological typing was performed according to Morawietz's methods. The preoperative CRP was (1.29 +/- 1.84) mg/dL in CN group and (5.08 +/- 9.57) mg/dL in CP group, showing significant difference (t = 2.094, P = 0.038). The preoperative ESR was (22.86 +/- 28.42) mm/1 h in CN group and (36.74 +/- 31.26) mm/1 h in CP group, showing significant difference (t = 7.761, P = 0.000). The median survival time of prosthesis was 72 months (range, 8-504 months) in CN group and 25 months (range, 15 days-300 months) in CP group, showing significant difference (U = 2.231, P = 0.026). Morawietz's histological typing results showed that 2 cases were rated as type I, 7 cases as type II, and 12 cases as type III in CN group; 6 cases were rated as type I, 25 cases as type II, 13 cases as type III, and 1 case as type IV in CP group. The positive culture rate was 68.18% (45/66), and pathogenic bacteria was dominated by Staphylococcus, accounting for 68.89%. The patients with culture-negative PJI have slow onset and mild inflammatory response, so comprehensive diagnosis should be made based on pathological detection, laboratory examination, and intraoperative cultures.

  18. Increased risk of prosthetic joint infection associated with esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy with biopsy.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Prabhu, Nayantara; Oxentenko, Amy S; Osmon, Douglas R; Baron, Todd H; Hanssen, Arlen D; Wilson, Walter R; Steckelberg, James M; Baddour, Larry M; Harmsen, William S; Mandrekar, Jay; Berbari, Elie F

    2013-02-01

    There are no prospective data regarding the risk of prosthetic joint infection following routine gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. We wanted to determine the risk of prosthetic hip or knee infection following gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in patients with joint arthroplasty. We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study at a single, tertiary-care referral center. Cases were defined as adult patients hospitalized for prosthetic joint infection of the hip or knee between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Controls were adult patients with hip or knee arthroplasties but without a diagnosis of joint infection, hospitalized during the same time period at the same orthopedic hospital. The main outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of prosthetic joint infection after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures performed within 2 years before admission. 339 cases and 339 controls were included in the study. Of these, 70 cases (21%) cases and 82 controls (24%) had undergone a gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure in the preceding 2 years. Among gastrointestinal procedures that were assessed, esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection (OR = 3, 95% CI: 1.1-7). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for sex, age, joint age, immunosuppression, BMI, presence of wound drain, prior arthroplasty, malignancy, ASA score, and prothrombin time, the OR for infection after EGD with biopsy was 4 (95% CI: 1.5-10). EGD with biopsy was associated with an increased risk of prosthetic joint infection in patients with hip or knee arthroplasties. This association will need to be confirmed in other epidemiological studies and adequately powered prospective clinical trials prior to recommending antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients.

  19. [Microbiological characteristics and patterns of resistance in prosthetic joint infections in a referral hospital].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Peña, Silvestre; Colín-Castro, Claudia; Hernández-Duran, Melissa; López-Jácome, Esaú; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The prosthetic joint infection is the most feared and catastrophic complication for cause severe physical damage to patients and, generates high economic costs. To describe the microbiological characteristics and to determine the resistance pattern in prosthetic joint infections in a reference hospital in Mexico. Patients whose prosthetic devices were withdrawn due to suspicion of septic and aseptic loosening were included. Cultures were performed to identify microorganisms and susceptibility analysis. Of the 111 patients included, 55% were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection, with the most frequent prosthesis being of the hip (43%). Positive cultures were obtained in 97% of the infected cases, of which 75% were monomicrobial infections. The most frequent bacterial species isolated were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (31%), Enterococcus faecalis (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%), and Escherichia coli (8%). The resistance patterns for the Staphylococcus genus were: oxacillin (79%), erythromycin (45%) and ciprofloxacin (37%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a high percentage of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (86%), and fluoroquinolones (43%). The large majority (86%) of Escherichia coli were extended spectrum beta-lactamases positive, in addition to having high resistance to fluoroquinolones (86%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (86%) and gentamicin (72%). The microbiological characteristics found in prosthetic joint infections vary according to the hospitals. In this series, a high proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. were found, as well as a high bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased Mortality After Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary THA.

    PubMed

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Varnum, Claus; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-11-01

    Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients' health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased mortality compared with patients who do not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA? (2) Do patients who undergo a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have an increased mortality risk compared with patients who undergo an aseptic revision? (3) Are there particular bacteria among patients with PJI that are associated with an increased risk of death? This population-based cohort study was based on the longitudinally maintained Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register on primary THA performed in Denmark from 2005 to 2014. Data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register were linked to microbiology databases, the National Register of Patients, and the Civil Registration System to obtain data on microbiology, comorbidity, and vital status on all patients. Because reporting to the register is compulsory for all public and private hospitals in Denmark, the completeness of registration is 98% for primary THA and 92% for revisions (2016 annual report). The mortality risk for the patients who underwent revision for PJI within 1 year from implantation of primary THA was compared with (1) the mortality risk for patients who did not undergo revision for any reason within 1 year of primary THA; and (2) the mortality risk for patients who underwent an aseptic revision. A total of 68,504 primary THAs in 59,954 patients were identified, of those 445 primary THAs underwent revision for PJI, 1350 primary THAs underwent revision for other causes and the remaining 66,709 primary THAs did not undergo revision. Patients were followed from implantation of primary THA until death or 1 year of followup, or, in case of a revision, 1 year from the date of revision. Within 1 year of primary THA, 8% (95% CI, 6%-11%) of

  1. Clinical characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of prosthetic joint infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chih; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lo, Wan-Yu; Jiang, Ching-Chuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-04-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee or hip replacement is a devastating complication associated with substantial morbidity and economic cost. The incidence of prosthetic joint infection is increasing as the use of mechanical joint replacement increases. The treatment approach to prosthetic joint infection is based on different clinical situations such as a patient's comorbidities, epidemic microbiology data, and surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to understand clinical characteristics of prosthetic joint infection, the microbiology of the prosthetic joint infection, and the outcomes of different treatment strategies during 2006-2011. We retrospectively collected cases of prosthetic joint infection in the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011. The patients' characteristics, microbiology, outcomes, and factors associated with treatment success were recorded. One hundred and forty-four patients were identified as having PJI. Of these, 92 patients were entered into per-protocol analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organism (29.9%), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci (16.7%), and Enterococci (9.7%). The overall treatment success rate was 50%. Patients who received a two-stage revision had a better outcome, compared to patients who underwent other types of surgeries (70% vs. 32.7%, respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the two-stage revision was significantly associated with treatment success (odds ratio = 3.923, 95% confidence interval = 1.53-10.04). Our study demonstrates that Staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative organisms in PJI. Performing two-stage revisions was significantly associated with a better outcome. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Is There an Association Between Smoking Status and Prosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Amanda I; Luime, Jolanda J; Uçkay, Ilker; Hannouche, Didier; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-02-23

    Recent reports highlighted the association between smoking and higher risk of postsurgical infections. The aim was to compare the incidence of prosthetic joint infection after primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) according to smoking status. A prospective hospital registry-based cohort study was performed including all primary knee and hip TJAs performed between March 1996 and December 2013. Smoking status preoperatively was classified into never, former, and current smoker. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for prosthetic joint infection according to smoking status were assessed within the first year and beyond. We included 8559 primary TJAs (mean age 69.5 years), and median follow-up was 67 months. There were 5722 never, 1315 former, and 1522 current smokers. Incidence rates of infection within the first year for never, former, and current smokers were, respectively, 4.7, 10.1, and 10.9 cases/1000 person-years, comparing ever vs never smokers, crude and adjusted HRs were 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.98) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.04-3.2). Beyond the first year, crude and adjusted HRs were 1.37 (95% CI 0.78-2.39) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.61-2.04). Smoking increased the infection risk about 1.8 times after primary hip or knee TJA in both current and former smokers. Beyond the first year, the infection risk was similar to never smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiological Aetiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Profile of Prosthetic Joint Infections: Are Current Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guidelines Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Allen C.; Buising, Kirsty L.; Choong, Peter F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections remain a major complication of arthroplasty. At present, local and international guidelines recommend cefazolin as a surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. This retrospective cohort study conducted across 10 hospitals over a 3-year period (January 2006 to December 2008) investigated the epidemiology and microbiological etiology of prosthetic joint infections. There were 163 cases of prosthetic joint infection identified. From a review of the microbiological culture results, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated in 45% of infections. In addition, polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving Gram-negative bacilli and enterococcal species, were common (36%). The majority (88%) of patients received cefazolin as an antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of arthroplasty. In 63% of patients in this cohort, the microorganisms subsequently obtained were not susceptible to the antibiotic prophylaxis administered. The results of this study highlight the importance of ongoing reviews of the local ecology of prosthetic joint infection, demonstrating that the spectrum of pathogens involved is broad. The results should inform empirical antibiotic therapy. This report also provokes discussion about infection control strategies, including changing surgical antibiotic prophylaxis to a combination of glycopeptide and cefazolin, to reduce the incidence of infections due to methicillin-resistant staphylococci. PMID:22314530

  4. Revision for prosthetic joint infection following hip arthroplasty: Evidence from the National Joint Registry.

    PubMed

    Lenguerrand, E; Whitehouse, M R; Beswick, A D; Jones, S A; Porter, M L; Blom, A W

    2017-06-01

    We used the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man (NJR) to investigate the risk of revision due to prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing primary and revision hip arthroplasty, the changes in risk over time, and the overall burden created by PJI. We analysed revision total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the NJR between 2003 and 2014. The cohort analysed consisted of 623 253 index primary hip arthroplasties, 63 222 index revision hip arthroplasties and 7585 revision THAs performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. We demonstrated a prevalence of revision THA due to prosthetic joint infection of 0.4/100 procedures following primary and 1.6/100 procedures following revision hip arthroplasty. The prevalence of revision due to PJI in the three months following primary hip arthroplasty has risen 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 4.1) between 2005 and 2013, and 3.0-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 8.5) following revision hip arthroplasty. Over 1000 procedures are performed annually as a consequence of hip PJI, an increase of 2.6-fold between 2005 and 2013. Although the risk of revision due to PJI following hip arthroplasty is low, it is rising and, coupled with the established and further predicted increased incidence of both primary and revision hip arthroplasty, this represents a growing and substantial treatment burden. Cite this article : E. Lenguerrand, M. R. Whitehouse, A. D. Beswick, S. A. Jones, M. L. Porter, A. W. Blom. Revision for prosthetic joint infection following hip arthroplasty: Evidence from the National Joint Registry. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:391-398. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.66.BJR-2017-0003.R1. © 2017 Lenguerrand et al.

  5. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. Patients and methods — We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: < 24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, 35–39.9, and ≥ 40) and weight (5 categories: < 60, 60–79, 80–99, 100–119, and ≥ 120 kg). Numbers of TJAs according to BMI categories (lowest to highest) were as follows: 2,956, 3,350, 1,908, 633, and 214, respectively. The main outcome was prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5–18 years). Results — 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (< 35), but they were twice as high with BMI 35–39.9 (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–4.3) and 4 times higher with BMI ≥ 40 (adjusted HR = 4.2, 95% CI: 1.8–9.7). Weight ≥ 100 kg was identified as threshold for a significant increase in infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–3.6). Interpretation — BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics. PMID:26731633

  6. Acinetobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated with Debridement and High-Dose Tigecycline.

    PubMed

    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Amadio, Claudio; Leiva, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Prosthesis retention is not recommended for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter prosthetic joint infection due to its high failure rate. Nevertheless, replacing the prosthesis implies high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Although tigecycline is not approved for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, its appropriate use may preclude prosthesis exchange. Since the area under the curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration is the best pharmacodynamic predictor of its efficacy, we used tigecycline at high dose, in order to optimize its efficacy and achieve implant retention in 3 patients who refused prosthesis exchange. All patients with prosthetic joint infections treated at our Institution are prospectively registered in a database. Three patients with early prosthetic joint infection of total hip arthroplasty due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii were treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention, using a high maintenance dose of tigecycline (100 mg every 12 hours). The cases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients signed informed consent for receiving off-label use of tigecycline. Tigecycline was well tolerated, allowing its administration at high maintenance dose for a median of 40 days (range 30-60). Two patients were then switched to minocycline at standard doses for a median of 3.3 months in order to complete treatment. Currently, none of the patients showed relapse. Increasing the dose of tigecycline could be considered as a means to better attain pharmacodynamic targets in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat infections. Tigecycline at high maintenance dose might be useful when retention of the implant is attempted for treatment for prosthetic joint infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Although this approach might be promising, off-label use of tigecycline should be interpreted cautiously until prospective data are available. Tigecycline is

  7. Vancomycin-Rifampin Combination Therapy Has Enhanced Efficacy against an Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Niska, Jared A.; Shahbazian, Jonathan H.; Ramos, Romela Irene; Francis, Kevin P.; Bernthal, Nicholas M.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of prosthetic joint infections often involves a two-stage exchange, with implant removal and antibiotic spacer placement followed by systemic antibiotic therapy and delayed reimplantation. However, if antibiotic therapy can be improved, one-stage exchange or implant retention may be more feasible, thereby decreasing morbidity and preserving function. In this study, a mouse model of prosthetic joint infection was used in which Staphylococcus aureus was inoculated into a knee joint containing a surgically placed metallic implant extending from the femur. This model was used to evaluate whether combination therapy of vancomycin plus rifampin has increased efficacy compared with vancomycin alone against these infections. On postoperative day 7, vancomycin with or without rifampin was administered for 6 weeks with implant retention. In vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex vivo CFU enumeration, X-ray imaging, and histologic analysis were carried out. We found that there was a marked therapeutic benefit when vancomycin was combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin alone. Taken together, our results suggest that the mouse model used could serve as a valuable in vivo preclinical model system to evaluate and compare efficacies of antibiotics and combinatory therapy for prosthetic joint infections before more extensive studies are carried out in human subjects. PMID:23917317

  8. Actinobaculum schaalii, a new cause of knee prosthetic joint infection in elderly.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, H; Benmansour, H; Zadegan, F; Hannouche, D; Micaelo, M; Mongiat-Artus, P; Salomon, E; Cambau, E; Berçot, B

    2016-08-01

    Actinobaculum schaalii is an emerging pathogen particularly involved in urinary tract infection of elderly people and/or patient with urological risk factors of urinary tract infection. This microorganism is a difficult-to-diagnose pathogen and is rarely involved in systemic or deep infections. Here, we report the first case of prosthetic joint infection due to A. schaalii in an 84-year-old man with a benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with chronic retention of urine. This case underlines the importance to optimize the diagnosis of emerging uropathogens as A. schaalii, to prevent systemic infections, particularly in patients with orthopaedic implants.

  9. In vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-02-01

    We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline by Etest against staphylococci recovered from patients with prosthetic joint infection, including 97 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (36%, oxacillin resistant) and 74 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates (74%, oxacillin resistant). Ceftaroline inhibited all staphylococci at ≤0.5 μg/mL. The ceftaroline MIC(90/50) values for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis were 0.19/0.125, 0.094/0.047, 0.5/0.38, and 0.38/0.19 μg/mL, respectively. Based on these in vitro findings, ceftaroline should be further evaluated as a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Prosthetic Joint Infection Pathogen, Mycoplasma salivarium, Identified by Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Thoendel, Matthew; Jeraldo, Patricio; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Chia, Nicholas; Abdel, Matthew P; Steckelberg, James M; Osmon, Douglas R; Patel, Robin

    2017-07-15

    Defining the microbial etiology of culture-negative prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Metagenomic shotgun sequencing is a new tool to identify organisms undetected by conventional methods. We present a case where metagenomics was used to identify Mycoplasma salivarium as a novel PJI pathogen in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pre-operative Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Risk Factor For Prosthetic Joint Infection?

    PubMed

    Weale, R; El-Bakri, F; Saeed, Kordo

    2018-04-13

    Infection is a rare complication following implantation of prosthetic material into a joint. The impact of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) before elective operations and the subsequent risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) are not well understood. • Assess the prevalence of ASB amongst patients undergoing total arthroplasty of the hip and knee. • Determine the rates of PJI diagnosed within two years of the arthroplasty and if ASB is an independent risk factor for developing PJI. Patients who had total/unicondylar knee or total hip arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed over a five-year period. Pre-operative urine samples within one year of surgery were analysed and those with ASB identified. Primary outcome was prosthetic joint infection (PJI) within the first postoperative year. 5542 patients were included. 4368 had a pre-operative urine culture recorded. The prevalence of ASB was 140 of 4368 (3.2%). The overall PJI rate was 56 of 5542 (1.01%). Of those with a PJI, 33 had a pre-operative urine sample recorded. The infection rate in the ASB group was 5% (7 of 140), in the no-ASB group it was 0.61% (26 of 4228) and in the group without a urine sample it was 1.96% (23 of 1174) (p value <0.001). The ASB isolate was the same microorganism as the PJI isolate in only one of the seven cases. The association between ASB and PJI is statistically significant, but the urine isolates did not relate to the isolates in the prosthetic joint, suggestive the relationship is unlikely causal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Multi-Disciplinary Antimicrobial Strategies for Improving Orthopaedic Implants to Prevent Prosthetic Joint Infections in Hip and Knee

    PubMed Central

    Getzlaf, Matthew A.; Lewallen, Eric A.; Kremers, Hilal M.; Jones, Dakota L.; Bonin, Carolina A.; Dudakovic, Amel; Thaler, Roman; Cohen, Robert C.; Lewallen, David G.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2016-01-01

    Like any foreign object, orthopaedic implants are susceptible to infection when introduced into the human body. Without additional preventative measures, the absolute number of annual prosthetic joint infections will continue to rise, and may exceed the capacity of health care systems in the near future. Bacteria are difficult to eradicate from synovial joints due to their exceptionally diverse taxonomy, complex mechanistic attachment capabilities, and tendency to evolve antibiotic resistance. When a primary orthopaedic implant fails from prosthetic joint infection, surgeons are generally challenged by limited options for intervention. In this review, we highlight the etiology and taxonomic groupings of bacteria known to cause prosthetic joint infections, and examine their key mechanisms of attachment. We propose that antimicrobial strategies should focus on the most harmful bacteria taxa within the context of occurrence, taxonomic diversity, adhesion mechanisms, and implant design. Patient-specific identification of organisms that cause prosthetic joint infections will permit assessment of their biological vulnerabilities. The latter can be targeted using a range of antimicrobial techniques that exploit different colonization mechanisms including implant surface attachment, biofilm formation, and/or hematogenous recruitment. We anticipate that customized strategies for each patient, joint, and prosthetic component will be most effective at reducing prosthetic joint infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant and polymicrobial bacteria. PMID:26449208

  13. Propionibacterium avidum as an Etiological Agent of Prosthetic Hip Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Holger; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Leimbach, Andreas; Söderquist, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-established as a possible etiologic agent of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Other Propionibacterium spp. have occasionally been described as a cause of PJIs, but this has not previously been the case for P. avidum despite its capacity to form biofilm. We describe two patients with prosthetic hip joint infections caused by P. avidum. Both patients were primarily operated with an anteriorly curved skin incision close to the skin crease of the groin, and both were obese. Initial treatment was performed according to the DAIR procedure (debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention). In case 1, the outcome was successful, but in case 2, a loosening of the cup was present 18 months post debridement. The P. avidum isolate from case 1 and two isolates from case 2 (obtained 18 months apart) were selected for whole genome sequencing. The genome of P. avidum obtained from case 1 was approximately 60 kb larger than the genomes of the two isolates of case 2. These latter isolates were clonal with the exception of SNPs in the genome. All three strains possessed the gene cluster encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis. P. avidum has a pathogenic potential and the ability to cause clinically relevant infections, including abscess formation, in the presence of foreign bodies such as prosthetic joint components. Skin incision in close proximity to the groin or deep skin crease, such as the anteriorly curved skin incision approach, might pose a risk of PJIs by P. avidum, especially in obese patients. PMID:27355425

  14. Candida-induced prosthetic joint infection. A literature review including 72 cases and a case report.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; López, Enrique M; Jiménez, Gemma; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-02-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Candida species is described, including 72 cases in the literature and a case of Candida glabrata infection handled at the present centre. We describe one patient and using the key words 'fungal prosthetic joint infection' and 'candida prosthetic joint infection' we searched MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane systematic review databases for case reports of this condition. Out of the 73 patients, 38 were female; mean age at diagnosis was 65.7 (± SD 18) yrs; 50 had risk factors for candidal infection such as systemic disease (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus) and/or immunosuppressive therapy in 18 (24.6%) cases, diabetes mellitus in 14 (19.1%), immunosuppression due to malignant or chronic disease in 24 (32.8%) and long-term antibiotic use in four (5.4%) patients. Infection site was the knee in 36 patients and hip in 35; pain was present in 43 patients and swelling in 23 and the mean surgery-diagnosis interval was 32 months. The most frequent species was C. albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis. The diagnosis was obtained from joint fluid aspirate in 33 cases and intra-operative samples in 16. Susceptibility to antifungals was tested in only 21 isolates. The most frequently used antifungals were fluconazole and amphotericin B. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty was performed in 30 patients and resection arthroplasty in 31; 56 patients were cured with a combination of medical and surgical treatment; one patient died from the infection. PJI caused by Candida requires a high index of suspicion; surgery with long-term antifungal therapy is recommended.

  15. First described case of prosthetic joint infection with Clostridium disporicum.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joseph A; Sterkel, Alana K; Rehrauer, William M; Smith, Jeannina A

    2017-12-01

    An orthopedic hardware infection with Clostridium disporicum is described. C. disporicum is a gram positive anaerobic bacillus which can contain two subterminal spores. C. disporicum had not previously been reported in musculoskeletal infections. Gram stains demonstrating gram positive bacilli with two subterminal spores should alert practitioners to the possibility of C. disporicum infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A Modern Approach to Preventing Prosthetic Joint Infections.

    PubMed

    Papas, Paraskevi Vivian; Congiusta, Dominick; Scuderi, Giles R; Cushner, Fred D

    2018-02-28

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is recognized as one of the most successful surgical procedures performed today. One of the most common and dreaded complications of TKA is postoperative infection. To prevent infections, it is critical to identify patients at high risk through analyzing their risk factors, and help in addressing them prior to surgery. The effort to prevent infection must be carried through every step of the surgical process, from preoperative counseling to intraoperative measures and postoperative protocols. Hair removal, the application of antiseptics, the utilization of antibiotics, barbed sutures, smart dressings, and antibacterial washes are some of the avenues surgeons may explore to help prevent infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p < .001). Implant removal was associated with improved favorable outcomes at 6 months (OR 5.96; 95% CI 1.88-18.88; p < .01) and 12 months (OR 3.96; 95% CI 1.15-13.71; p = .03) after the infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  18. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles.

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Dylla, Brenda L; Hughes, John G; Lynch, David T; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Cheng, Allen C; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2016-01-05

    Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001), with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster. Prosthetic joint infections are a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery. Despite this, current microbiological techniques to detect and diagnose infections are imperfect. This study examined a new approach to diagnosing infections, through the inoculation of

  19. Genomic analysis of a Raoultella ornithinolytica strain causing prosthetic joint infection in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Beye, Mamadou; Hasni, Issam; Seng, Piseth; Michelle, Caroline; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2018-06-21

    We sequenced the genome of Raoultella ornithinolytica strain Marseille-P1025 that caused a rare case of prosthetic joint infection in a 67-year-old immunocompetent male. The 6.7-Mb genome exhibited a genomic island (RoGI) that was unique among R. ornithinolytica strains. RoGI was likely acquired by lateral gene transfer from a member of the Pectobacterium genus and coded for a type IVa secretion system found in other pathogenic bacteria and that may have conferred strain Marseille-P1025 an increased virulence. Strain Marseille-P1025 was also able to infect, multiply within, and kill Acanthamoaeba castellanii amoebae.

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of prosthetic joint infection caused by small colony variant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Tande, Aaron J; Osmon, Douglas R; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Mabry, Tad M; Hanssen, Arlen D; Patel, Robin

    2014-09-30

    Small colony variants (SCVs) are naturally occurring subpopulations of bacteria. The clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by staphylococcal SCVs are unknown. This study was a retrospective series of 113 patients with staphylococcal PJI, with prospective testing of archived sonicate fluid samples. SCVs were defined using two-investigator review. Treatment failure was defined as (i) subsequent revision surgery for any reason, (ii) PJI after the index surgery, (iii) prosthesis nonreimplantation due to ongoing infection, or (iv) amputation of the affected limb. There were 38 subjects (34%) with SCVs and 75 (66%) with only normal-phenotype (NP) bacteria. Subjects with SCVs were more likely to have been on chronic antimicrobials prior to surgery (P = 0.048), have had prior surgery for PJI (P = 0.03), have had a longer duration of symptoms (P = 0.0003), and have had a longer time since joint implantation (P = 0.007), compared to those with only NP bacteria. Over a median follow-up of 30.6 months, 9 subjects (24%) with SCVs and 23 (32%) with only NP bacteria experienced treatment failure (P = 0.51). Subjects infected with Staphylococcus aureus were more likely to fail than were those infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis (hazard ratio [HR], 4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 9.04). While frequently identified in subjects with PJI and associated with several potential predisposing factors, SCVs were not associated with excess treatment failure compared to NP infections in this study, where they were primarily managed with two-stage arthroplasty exchange. Bacteria with the small colony variant (SCV) phenotype are described in small case series as causing persistent or relapsing infection, but there are insufficient data to suggest that they should be managed differently than infection with normal-phenotype bacteria. In an effort to investigate the clinical importance of this phenotype, we

  1. [Joint Prosthetic Infection: UpDate Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment].

    PubMed

    Belov, B S; Makarov, S A; Byalik, E I

    2015-01-01

    At present endoprosthetics of the joints is considered as a progressive and ever developing method in the surgical treatment of patients with affection of the locomotor system of any genesis. Hence, increasing of the number of endoprosthetic results in increasing of the number of patients with periprosthetic infection. Polymorphism of the clinical picture and inspecificity of the diagnostic tests often cause a delay in the diagnosis of the joint prosthetic infection (JPI) and consequently the late treatment. The contemporary data on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical picture and diagnosis of JPI are presented. The importance of cooperated treatment of JPI, i.e. combination of the surgical management and etiotropic antibacterial therapy is indicated. The choice of the concrete treatment method is defined by the patient state, comorbid pathology, the infection severity and duration.

  2. Prosthetic joint infection development of an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Pohlig, Florian; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; Kelch, Sarah; Harrasser, Norbert; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    2017-03-09

    Increasing rates of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have presented challenges for general practitioners, orthopedic surgeons and the health care system in the recent years. The diagnosis of PJI is complex; multiple diagnostic tools are used in the attempt to correctly diagnose PJI. Evidence-based algorithms can help to identify PJI using standardized diagnostic steps. We reviewed relevant publications between 1990 and 2015 using a systematic literature search in MEDLINE and PUBMED. The selected search results were then classified into levels of evidence. The keywords were prosthetic joint infection, biofilm, diagnosis, sonication, antibiotic treatment, implant-associated infection, Staph. aureus, rifampicin, implant retention, pcr, maldi-tof, serology, synovial fluid, c-reactive protein level, total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and combinations of these terms. From an initial 768 publications, 156 publications were stringently reviewed. Publications with class I-III recommendations (EAST) were considered. We developed an algorithm for the diagnostic approach to display the complex diagnosis of PJI in a clear and logically structured process according to ISO 5807. The evidence-based standardized algorithm combines modern clinical requirements and evidence-based treatment principles. The algorithm provides a detailed transparent standard operating procedure (SOP) for diagnosing PJI. Thus, consistently high, examiner-independent process quality is assured to meet the demands of modern quality management in PJI diagnosis.

  3. Molecularly specific detection of bacterial lipoteichoic acid for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection of the bone.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Julie E; Thompson, John M; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Minola, Andrea; Corti, Davide; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Miller, Lloyd S; Thorek, Daniel Lj

    2018-01-01

    Discriminating sterile inflammation from infection, especially in cases of aseptic loosening versus an actual prosthetic joint infection, is challenging and has significant treatment implications. Our goal was to evaluate a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb) probe directed against the Gram-positive bacterial surface molecule lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Specificity and affinity were assessed in vitro. We then radiolabeled the anti-LTA mAb and evaluated its effectiveness as a diagnostic imaging tool for detecting infection via immunoPET imaging in an in vivo mouse model of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). In vitro and ex vivo binding of the anti-LTA mAb to pathogenic bacteria was measured with Octet, ELISA, and flow cytometry. The in vivo PJI mouse model was assessed using traditional imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]NaF as well as X-ray computed tomography (CT), before being evaluated with the zirconium-89-labeled antibody specific for LTA ([ 89 Zr]SAC55). The anti-LTA mAb exhibited specific binding in vitro to LTA-expressing bacteria. Results from imaging showed that our model could reliably simulate infection at the surgical site by bioluminescent imaging, conventional PET tracer imaging, and bone morphological changes by CT. One day following injection of both the radiolabeled anti-LTA and isotype control antibodies, the anti-LTA antibody demonstrated significantly greater ( P  < 0.05) uptake at S . aureus -infected prosthesis sites over either the same antibody at sterile prosthesis sites or of control non-specific antibody at infected prosthesis sites. Taken together, the radiolabeled anti-LTA mAb, [ 89 Zr]SAC55, may serve as a valuable diagnostic molecular imaging probe to help distinguish between sterile inflammation and infection in the setting of PJI. Future studies are needed to determine whether these findings will translate to human PJI.

  4. Current management of prosthetic joint infections in adults: results of an Emerging Infections Network survey

    PubMed Central

    Marschall, Jonas; Lane, Michael A.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Polgreen, Philip; Babcock, Hilary M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of guidance on the management of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), in particular because of the lack of high-quality evidence for optimal antibiotics. Thus, we designed a nine-question survey of current practices and preferences among members of the Emerging Infections Network, a CDC-sponsored network of infectious diseases physicians, which was distributed in May 2012. In total, 556 (47.2%) of 1178 network members responded. As first-line antibiotic choice for MSSA PJI, 59% of responders indicated oxacillin/nafcillin, 33% cefazolin and 7% ceftriaxone; the commonest alternative was cefazolin (46%). For MRSA PJI, 90% preferred vancomycin, 7% daptomycin and 0.8% ceftaroline; the commonest alternative was daptomycin (65%). Antibiotic selection for coagulase-negative staphylococci varied depending on meticillin susceptibility. For staphylococcal PJIs with retained hardware, most providers would add rifampicin. Propionibacterium is usually treated with vancomycin (40%), penicillin (23%) or ceftriaxone (17%). Most responders thought 10–19% of all PJIs were culture-negative. Culture-negative PJIs of the lower extremities are usually treated with a vancomycin/fluoroquinolone combination, and culture-negative shoulder PJIs with vancomycin/ceftriaxone. The most cited criteria for selecting antibiotics were ease of administration and the safety profile. A treatment duration of 6–8 weeks is preferred (by 77% of responders) and is mostly guided by clinical response and inflammatory markers. Ninety-nine percent of responders recommend oral antibiotic suppression (for varying durations) in patients with retained hardware. In conclusion, there is considerable variation in treatment of PJIs both with identified pathogens and those with negative cultures. Future studies should aim to identify optimum treatment strategies. PMID:23312602

  5. Synovial Calprotectin: An Inexpensive Biomarker to Exclude a Chronic Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Ottink, Karsten; Kampinga, Greetje A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, Lucie; Jutte, Paul C; Kobold, Anneke C M

    2018-04-01

    To diagnose or exclude a chronic prosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be a clinical challenge. Therefore, sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed in the diagnostic work-up. Calprotectin is a protein with antimicrobial properties and is released by activated neutrophils, making it a specific marker for infection. Because of its low costs and ability to obtain a quantitative value as a point of care test, it is an attractive marker to use in clinical practice. In addition, the test is already used in routine care in most hospitals for other indications and therefore easy to implement. Between June 2015 and June 2017 we collected synovial fluid of all consecutive patients who underwent revision surgery of a prosthetic joint because of chronic pain with or without prosthetic loosening. Synovial calprotectin was measured using a lateral flow immunoassay. A PJI was defined by the diagnostic criteria described by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Fifty-two patients with chronic pain were included. A PJI was diagnosed in 15 of 52 (29%) patients. The median calprotectin in the PJI group was 859 mg/L (interquartile range 86-1707) vs 7 mg/L (interquartile range 3-25) in the control group (P < .001). With a cut-off value of 50 mg/L, synovial calprotectin showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 86.7%, 91.7%, 81.3%, and 94.4%, respectively. Synovial calprotectin is a useful and cheap biomarker to use in the diagnostic work-up of patients with chronic pain, especially to exclude a PJI prior to revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [(124)I]FIAU: Human dosimetry and infection imaging in patients with suspected prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan M; Zhang, Halle H; McLeroth, Patrick; Berkowitz, Richard D; Mont, Michael A; Stabin, Michael G; Siegel, Barry A; Alavi, Abass; Barnett, T Marc; Gelb, Jeffrey; Petit, Chantal; Spaltro, John; Cho, Steve Y; Pomper, Martin G; Conklin, James J; Bettegowda, Chetan; Saha, Saurabh

    2016-05-01

    Fialuridine (FIAU) is a nucleoside analog that is a substrate for bacterial thymidine kinase (TK). Once phosphorylated by TK, [(124)I]FIAU becomes trapped within bacteria and can be detected with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). [(124)I]FIAU PET/CT has been shown to detect bacteria in patients with musculoskeletal bacterial infections. Accurate diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) has proven challenging because of the lack of a well-validated reference. In the current study, we assessed biodistribution and dosimetry of [(124)I]FIAU, and investigated whether [(124)I]FIAU PET/CT can diagnose PJIs with acceptable accuracy. To assess biodistribution and dosimetry, six subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI and six healthy subjects underwent serial PET/CT after being dosed with 74MBq (2mCi) [(124)I]FIAU intravenously (IV). Estimated radiation doses were calculated with the OLINDA/EXM software. To determine accuracy of [(124)I]FIAU, 22 subjects with suspected hip or knee PJI were scanned at 2-6 and 24-30h post IV injection of 185MBq (5mCi) [(124)I]FIAU. Images were interpreted by a single reader blinded to clinical information. Representative cases were reviewed by 3 additional readers. The utility of [(124)I]FIAU to detect PJIs was assessed based on the correlation of the patient's infection status with imaging results as determined by an independent adjudication board (IAB). The kidney, liver, spleen, and urinary bladder received the highest radiation doses of [(124)I]FIAU. The effective dose was 0.16 to 0.20mSv/MBq and doses to most organs ranged from 0.11 to 0.76mGy/MBq. PET image quality obtained from PJI patients was confounded by metal artifacts from the prostheses and pronounced FIAU uptake in muscle. Consequently, a correlation with infection status and imaging results could not be established. [(124)I]FIAU was well-tolerated in healthy volunteers and subjects with suspected PJI, and had acceptable dosimetry. However, the

  7. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Trisha N.; Dylla, Brenda L.; Hughes, John G.; Lynch, David T.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Cheng, Allen C.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs) is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM) in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014) at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32%) met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively); this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003). The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001), with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster. PMID:26733067

  8. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  9. Prosthetic elbow joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An artificial, manually positionable elbow joint for use in an upper extremity, above-elbow, prosthetic is described. The prosthesis provides a locking feature that is easily controlled by the wearer. The instant elbow joint is very strong and durable enough to withstand the repeated heavy loadings encountered by a wearer who works in an industrial, construction, farming, or similar environment. The elbow joint of the present invention comprises a turntable, a frame, a forearm, and a locking assembly. The frame generally includes a housing for the locking assembly and two protruding ears. The forearm includes an elongated beam having a cup-shaped cylindrical member at one end and a locking wheel having a plurality of holes along a circular arc on its other end with a central bore for pivotal attachment to the protruding ears of the frame. The locking assembly includes a collar having a central opening with a plurality of internal grooves, a plurality of internal cam members each having a chamfered surface at one end and a V-shaped slot at its other end; an elongated locking pin having a crown wheel with cam surfaces and locking lugs secured thereto; two coiled compression springs; and a flexible filament attached to one end of the elongated locking pin and extending from the locking assembly for extending and retracting the locking pin into the holes in the locking wheel to permit selective adjustment of the forearm relative to the frame. In use, the turntable is affixed to the upper arm part of the prosthetic in the conventional manner, and the cup-shaped cylindrical member on one end of the forearm is affixed to the forearm piece of the prosthetic in the conventional manner. The elbow joint is easily adjusted and locked between maximum flex and extended positions.

  10. Prosthetic joint infection-a devastating complication of hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Guren, Ellen; Figved, Wender; Frihagen, Frede; Watne, Leiv Otto; Westberg, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Background and purpose - Hemiarthroplasty is the most common treatment in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fracture. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a feared complication. The infection rate varies in the literature, and there are limited descriptive data available. We investigated the characteristics and outcome of PJI following hemiarthroplasty over a 15-year period. Patients and methods - Patients with PJI were identified among 519 patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture at Oslo University Hospital between 1998 and 2012. We used prospectively registered data from previous studies, and recorded additional data from the patients' charts when needed. Results - Of the 519 patients, we identified 37 patients (6%) with early PJI. 20 of these 37 patients became free of infection. Soft tissue debridement and retention of implant was performed in 35 patients, 15 of whom became free of infection with an intact arthroplasty. The 1-year mortality rate was 15/37. We found an association between 1-year mortality and treatment failure (p = 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus and polymicrobial infection were the most common microbiological findings, each accounting for 14 of the 37 infections. Enterococcus spp. was found in 9 infections, 8 of which were polymicrobial. There was an association between polymicrobial infection and treatment failure, and between polymicrobial infection and 1-year mortality. Interpretation - PJI following hemiarthroplasty due to femoral neck fracture is a devastating complication in the elderly. We found a high rate of polymicrobial PJIs frequently including Enterococcus spp, which is different from what is common in PJI after elective total hip arthroplasty.

  11. Excellent AUC for joint fluid cytology in the detection/exclusion of hip and knee prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Jiri; Juranova, Jarmila; Svoboda, Michal; Zapletalova, Jana

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of synovial fluid (SF) white cell count (SWCC) and neutrophil/lymphocyte percentage in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for particular threshold values. This was a prospective study of 391 patients in whom SF specimens were collected before total joint replacement revisions. SF was aspirated before joint capsule incision. The PJI diagnosis was based only on non-SF data. Receiver operating characteristic plots were constructed for the SWCC and differential counts of leukocytes in aspirated fluid. Logistic binomic regression was used to distinguish infected and non-infected cases in the combined data. PJI was diagnosed in 78 patients, and aseptic revision in 313 patients. The areas (AUC) under the curve for the SWCC, the neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 0.974, 0.962, and 0.951, respectively. The optimal cut-off for PJI was 3,450 cells/μL, 74.6% neutrophils, and 14.6% lymphocytes. Positive likelihood ratios for the SWCC, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 19.0, 10.4, and 9.5, respectively. Negative likelihood ratios for the SWCC, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages were 0.06, 0.076, and 0.092, respectively. Based on AUC, the present study identified cut-off values for the SWCC and differential leukocyte count for the diagnosis of PJI. The likelihood ratio for positive/negative SWCCs can significantly change the pre-test probability of PJI.

  12. Efficacy of Antibiotic Suppressive Therapy in Patients with a Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Nijman, Jasperina M; Kampinga, Greetje A; van Assen, Sander; Jutte, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. AST was defined as antibiotic treatment for PJI that was started after the usual 3 months of antibiotic treatment. The time of follow-up was defined from the time point AST was started. Treatment was considered as failed, when the patient still experienced joint pain, when surgical intervention (debridement, removal, arthrodesis or amputation) was needed to control the infection and/or when death occurred due to the infection. Results: We included 21 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 21 - 88) and with a median follow-up of 21 months (range 3 - 81). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (n=6), S. aureus (n=6) and polymicrobial flora (n=4) were the most frequently found causative pathogens. Most patients with CNS and S. aureus were treated with minocycline (67%) and clindamycin (83%) as AST, respectively. Overall, treatment was successful in 67% of patients. Failure was due to persistent joint pain (n=1), surgical intervention because of an uncontrolled infection (n=3), and death due the infection (n=3). We observed a treatment success of 90% in patients with a 'standard' prosthesis (n=11), compared to only 50% in patients with a tumor-prosthesis (n=10). Also, treatment was successful in 83% of patients with a CNS as causative microorganism for the infection, compared to 50% in patients with a S. aureus . Patients who failed on AST had a

  13. Synovial calprotectin: a potential biomarker to exclude a prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M; Ploegmakers, J J W; Kampinga, G A; Wagenmakers-Huizenga, L; Jutte, P C; Muller Kobold, A C

    2017-05-01

    Recently, several synovial biomarkers have been introduced into the algorithm for the diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Alpha defensin is a promising biomarker, with a high sensitivity and specificity, but it is expensive. Calprotectin is a protein that is present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, is released upon neutrophil activation and exhibits anti-microbial activity. Our aim, in this study, was to determine the diagnostic potential of synovial calprotectin in the diagnosis of a PJI. In this pilot study, we prospectively collected synovial fluid from the hip, knee, shoulder and elbow of 19 patients with a proven PJI and from a control group of 42 patients who underwent revision surgery without a PJI. PJI was diagnosed according to the current diagnostic criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society. Synovial fluid was centrifuged and the supernatant was used to measure the level of calprotectin after applying a lateral flow immunoassay. The median synovial calprotectin level was 991 mg/L (interquartile range (IQR) 154 to 1787) in those with a PJI and 11 mg/L (IQR 3 to 29) in the control group (p < 0.0001). Using a cut-off value of 50 mg/L, this level showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy, with an area under the curve of 0.94. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 89%, 90%, 81% and 95% respectively. The NPV was 97% in the nine patients with a chronic PJI. Synovial calprotectin may be a valuable biomarker in the diagnosis of a PJI, especially in the exclusion of an infection. With a lateral flow immunoassay, a relatively rapid quantitative diagnosis can be made. The measurement is cheap and is easy to use. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:660-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. Current antibiotic management of prosthetic joint infections in Italy: the 'Udine strategy'.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Cadeo, Barbara; Villa, Giovanni; Sartor, Assunta; Cainero, Vanni; Causero, Araldo

    2014-09-01

    The rate of prosthetic joint infections followed and cured at our institution is constantly increasing, in line with epidemiological data from the recent literature. This is probably related to the greater number of knee and hip prostheses implanted every year. For intermediate and late infections, only the two-stage approach is applied, as this demonstrates the best outcome in our experience. Particular attention is paid to microbiological isolation of the pathogen: multiple samples of tissue are collected during the interventions, and kept in culture for a longer period of time than usual. Sonication of prosthetic devices is used to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the microbiological cultures. Histological examination influences surgical choices either towards implantation of a new prosthesis or replacement of the spacer. An empirical antibiotic backbone of a glycopeptide/lipopeptide and rifampicin is chosen, due to the leading role of Gram-positive bacteria in this setting and the high incidence of methicillin resistance in our centre (>30%), followed by an antibiotic regimen containing linezolid. If specific risk factors are present, an anti-Gram-negative drug is added to the regimen. Duration of therapy depends upon the approach that is chosen, usually being 6 weeks when the prosthesis is removed. Despite at the moment being limited by its small sample size, data from our experience confirms that our empirical approach may represent a valid choice during the early phase of treatment, by keeping linezolid for a step-down therapy of shorter duration (4 weeks). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sonication technique improves microbiological diagnosis in patients treated with antibiotics before surgery for prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Scorzolini, Laura; Lichtner, Miriam; Iannetta, Marco; Mengoni, Fabio; Russo, Gianluca; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Vasso, Michele; Vasto, Michele; Bove, Marco; Villani, Ciro; Mastroianni, Claudio M; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Microbiological diagnosis is crucial for the appropriate management of implant-associated orthopedic infections (IAOIs). Sonication of biomaterials for microbiological diagnosis has not yet been introduced in routine clinical practice. Aim of this study was to describe the advantages and feasibility of this procedure in the clinical setting. We prospectively studied 56 consecutive patients undergoing revision because of IAOI and compared the sensitivity of sonication of explanted orthopedic implants with standard cultures. Patients were divided into two groups: those with foreign body infection (FBI, 15 patients) and those with prosthetic joint infection (PJI, 41 patients). Clinical, radiological and microbiological features were recorded. In the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication in detecting bacterial growth was higher than conventional culture (77% vs 34.1% respectively, p<0.002), while no difference was observed in the FBI group (85.7% vs 86% respectively, p>0.05). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 90% of the bacteria detected by sonication. Moreover, we found that in the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication was not affected by the timing of antibiotic interruption before surgery. Sonication remains an important tool to improve microbiological diagnosis in PJIs, especially in patients who received previous antimicrobial treatment.

  16. [Tuberculous prosthetic knee joint infection: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Lara-Oya, A; Liébana-Martos, M C; Rodríguez-Granger, J; Sampedro-Martínez, A; Aliaga-Martínez, L; Gutierrez-Fernández, J; Navarro-Marí, J M

    2016-08-01

    Prosthetic late infection occurs in the second month after surgery in the context of haematogenous spread from another source. Prosthetic mycobacterial infection is a rare complication whose clinical management is not standardized. Patient of 77 years with no personal history except for diabetes and a prosthetic replacement of right knee with osteoarthritis three years ago. Patient goes to hospital emergency box for 6 months pain in the right knee with mechanical inflammatory signs but no fever associated. After their return within 5 days and clinical worsening is reporting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in knee aspirate and antitubercular treatment is established for 9 months. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging studies also confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis spondylitis in the clinical context of the patients. After surgery, M. tuberculosis was again isolated from intraoperative samples and therefore the patient received another batch of treatment for 9 months. After a year of monitoring, the development was acceptable but few months later, the patient died for cardiovascular causes. In the literature review, 15 publications with a total of 17 clinical cases of prosthetic infection by M. tuberculosis were found from 1980 to 2014. Prosthetic tuberculous arthritis, although it is a rare presentation, it should be noted, especially in patients with predisposing conditions with a history of tuberculosis infection.

  17. Human prosthetic joint infections are associated with myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs): Implications for infection persistence.

    PubMed

    Heim, Cortney E; Vidlak, Debbie; Odvody, Jessica; Hartman, Curtis W; Garvin, Kevin L; Kielian, Tammy

    2017-11-15

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of joint arthroplasty surgery typified by biofilm formation. Currently, mechanisms whereby biofilms persist and evade immune-mediated clearance in immune competent patients remain largely ill-defined. Therefore, the current study characterized leukocyte infiltrates and inflammatory mediator expression in tissues from patients with PJI compared to aseptic loosening. CD33 + HLA-DR - CD66b + CD14 -/low granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) were the predominant leukocyte population at sites of human PJI compared to aseptic tissues. MDSCs inhibit T cell proliferation, which coincided with reduced T cells in PJIs compared to aseptic tissues. IL-10, IL-6, and CXCL1 were significantly elevated in PJI tissues and have been implicated in MDSC inhibitory activity, expansion, and recruitment, respectively, which may account for their preferential increase in PJIs. This bias towards G-MDSC accumulation during human PJI could account for the chronicity of these infections by preventing the pro-inflammatory, antimicrobial actions of immune effector cells. Animal models of PJI have revealed a critical role for MDSCs and IL-10 in promoting infection persistence; however, whether this population is prevalent during human PJI and across distinct bacterial pathogens remains unknown. This study has identified that granulocytic-MDSC infiltrates are unique to human PJIs caused by distinct bacteria, which are not associated with aseptic loosening of prosthetic joints. Better defining the immune status of human PJIs could lead to novel immune-mediated approaches to facilitate PJI clearance in combination with conventional antibiotics. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Candida glabrata prosthetic joint infection, successfully treated with anidulafungin: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Koutserimpas, Christos; Samonis, George; Velivassakis, Emmanouil; Iliopoulou-Kosmadaki, Stylliani; Kontakis, Georgios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P

    2018-04-01

    Non-albicans Candida prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is extremely rare. A case of a Candida glabrata knee PJI is a 68-year-old splenectomised female smoker, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and alcoholism is reported. The patient presented with a peri-prosthetic fracture, 15 years after total knee replacement surgery. Cultures of the intraoperative peri-prosthetic tissue and materials yielded C. glabrata, as well as a methicillin-resistant S. epidermitis. The patient was treated with anidulafungin and vancomycin. The knee prosthetic joint was removed and cement-spacer with vancomycin and gentamycin was placed. Additionally, an external fixation was performed. A second stage revision surgery was planned, after completion of the antimicrobial and antifungal treatment. The patient is followed up for 4 months without signs, symptoms or findings of infection. PJI Candida infections require a high clinical suspicion index. It is of utmost importance to report these cases, since there is no consensus yet of the proper antifungal treatment. Furthermore, a literature review regarding treatment of those cases is provided. First-line treatment with an echinocandin seems most proper, due to their fungicidal properties, their effectiveness against biofilm, as well as their minimal toxicity, making them ideal for long-term use. Further experience is needed, for better understanding the disease's pathogenesis and optimal treatment. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Single-stage revision for fungal peri-prosthetic joint infection: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Klatte, T O; Kendoff, D; Kamath, A F; Jonen, V; Rueger, J M; Frommelt, L; Gebauer, M; Gehrke, T

    2014-04-01

    Fungal peri-prosthetic infections of the knee and hip are rare but likely to result in devastating complications. In this study we evaluated the results of their management using a single-stage exchange technique. Between 2001 and 2011, 14 patients (ten hips, four knees) were treated for a peri-prosthetic fungal infection. One patient was excluded because revision surgery was not possible owing to a large acetabular defect. One patient developed a further infection two months post-operatively and was excluded from the analysis. Two patients died of unrelated causes. After a mean of seven years (3 to 11) a total of ten patients were available for follow-up. One patient, undergoing revision replacement of the hip, had a post-operative dislocation. Another patient, undergoing revision replacement of the knee, developed a wound infection and required revision 29 months post-operatively following a peri-prosthetic femoral fracture. The mean Harris hip score increased to 74 points (63 to 84; p < 0.02) in those undergoing revision replacement of the hip, and the mean Hospital for Special Surgery knee score increased to 75 points (70 to 80; p < 0.01) in those undergoing revision replacement of the knee. A single-stage revision following fungal peri-prosthetic infection is feasible, with an acceptable rate of a satisfactory outcome.

  20. Linezolid in late-chronic prosthetic joint infection caused by gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Javier; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Euba, Gorane; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Palomino, Julián; del Toro, Ma Dolores; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Riera, Melchor; Ariza, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Linezolid may be an interesting alternative for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to its bioavailability and its antimicrobial spectrum. However, experience in this setting is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess linezolid's clinical and microbiological efficacy, and also its tolerance. This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, non-comparative study of 25 patients with late-chronic PJI caused by Gram-positive bacteria managed with a two-step exchange procedure plus 6 weeks of linezolid. Twenty-two (88%) patients tolerated linezolid without major adverse effects, although a global decrease in the platelet count was observed. Three patients were withdrawn because of major toxicity, which reversed after linezolid stoppage. Among patients who completed treatment, 19 (86%) demonstrated clinical and microbiological cure. Two patients presented with clinical and microbiological failure, and one showed clinical cure and microbiological failure. In conclusion, linezolid showed good results in chronic PJI managed with a two-step exchange procedure. Tolerance seems acceptable, though close surveillance is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpha-defensin and the Synovasure lateral flow device for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Marson, B A; Deshmukh, S R; Grindlay, D J C; Scammell, B E

    2018-06-01

    Aims The aim of this review was to evaluate the available literature and to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the different alpha-defensin test systems that may be used to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Materials and Methods Studies using alpha-defensin or Synovasure (Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) to diagnose PJI were identified from systematic searches of electronic databases. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS) tool. Meta-analysis was completed using a bivariate model. Results A total of 11 eligible studies were included. The median QUADAS score was 13 (interquartile range 13 to 13) out of 14. Significant conflicts of interest were identified in five studies. The pooled sensitivity for the laboratory alpha-defensin test was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 0.98) and the pooled specificity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.98) for four studies with a threshold level of 5.2 mgl -1 The pooled sensitivity for the lateral flow cassette test was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92) and the pooled specificity was 0.90 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.98). There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity (p = 0.019), but not specificity (p = 0.47). Conclusion Laboratory-based alpha-defensin testing remains a promising tool for diagnosing PJI. The lateral flow cassette has a significantly lower performance and pooled results are comparable to the leucocyte esterase test. Further studies are required before the widespread adoption of the lateral flow cassette alpha-defensin test. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:703-11.

  2. Contribution of a multiplex serological test for the preoperative diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Seynes, Camille; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Dutronc, Hervé; Ribes, Clément; Crémer, Paul; Dubois, Véronique; Fabre, Thierry; Dupon, Michel; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine

    2018-03-22

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of orthopaedic surgery. Preoperative diagnosis, although sometimes difficult, is key to choose the relevant treatment. We conducted a prospective study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of a multiplex serological test for the pre-operative diagnosis of PJI. Blood samples were collected between 1 July 2016 and 31 July 2017 among patients referred for suspected PJI that occurred at least six weeks prior. Infection diagnosis was confirmed using intraoperative bacteriological cultures during prosthetic exchange. Seventy-one patients were included, with a median age of 73 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 66-81) and 40 (56%) were male. Twenty-six patients had aseptic loosening and 45 patients had PJI. Among the latter, median time since the last surgery was 96 weeks (IQR: 20-324). Intraoperative cultures found Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp or both in 39, 5 and 1 patients, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 81.8, 95.4, 97.3 and 72.4%, respectively, for all patients and 87.5, 93.5, 94.6 and 85.3%, respectively, for staphylococcal infections. Patients with false negative (FN) results had a significantly lower blood lymphocyte count (p = .045). Multiplex serological test performed well among patients with chronic staphylococcal prosthetic infection. This approach could contribute to PJI diagnosis especially in patients for whom the pre-operative analysis of joint fluid is not informative.

  3. Prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy for prosthetic joint infection in the elderly: a national multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Prendki, V; Ferry, T; Sergent, P; Oziol, E; Forestier, E; Fraisse, T; Tounes, S; Ansart, S; Gaillat, J; Bayle, S; Ruyer, O; Borlot, F; Le Falher, G; Simorre, B; Dauchy, F-A; Greffe, S; Bauer, T; Bell, E N; Martha, B; Martinot, M; Froidure, M; Buisson, M; Waldner, A; Lemaire, X; Bosseray, A; Maillet, M; Charvet, V; Barrelet, A; Wyplosz, B; Noaillon, M; Denes, E; Beretti, E; Berlioz-Thibal, M; Meyssonnier, V; Fourniols, E; Tliba, L; Eden, A; Jean, M; Arvieux, C; Guignery-Kadri, K; Ronde-Oustau, C; Hansmann, Y; Belkacem, A; Bouchand, F; Gavazzi, G; Herrmann, F; Stirnemann, J; Dinh, A

    2017-09-01

    During prosthetic joint infection (PJI), optimal surgical management with exchange of the device is sometimes impossible, especially in the elderly population. Thus, prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy (PSAT) is the only option to prevent acute sepsis, but little is known about this strategy. We aimed to describe the characteristics, outcome and tolerance of PSAT in elderly patients with PJI. We performed a national cross-sectional cohort study of patients >75 years old and treated with PSAT for PJI. We evaluated the occurrence of events, which were defined as: (i) local or systemic progression of the infection (failure), (ii) death and (iii) discontinuation or switch of PSAT. A total of 136 patients were included, with a median age of 83 years [interquartile range (IQR) 81-88]. The predominant pathogen involved was Staphylococcus (62.1%) (Staphylococcus aureus in 41.7%). A single antimicrobial drug was prescribed in 96 cases (70.6%). There were 46 (33.8%) patients with an event: 25 (18%) with an adverse drug reaction leading to definitive discontinuation or switch of PSAT, 8 (5.9%) with progression of sepsis and 13 died (9.6%). Among patients under follow-up, the survival rate without an event at 2 years was 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 51;74]. In the multivariate Cox analysis, patients with higher World Health Organization (WHO) score had an increased risk of an event [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.5, p = 0.014], whereas patients treated with beta-lactams are associated with less risk of events occurring (HR = 0.5, p = 0.048). In our cohort, PSAT could be an effective and safe option for PJI in the elderly.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility among Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections, with focus on doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Tarza; Hellmark, Bengt; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa; Söderquist, Bo

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, coagulase-negative staphylococci such as Staphylococcus epidermidis have gained importance as nosocomial pathogens, especially in immunocompromised patients and prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). These infections are often long lasting and difficult to treat due to the production of bacterial biofilm and the transformation of the bacteria into a stationary growth phase. Rifampicin is able to penetrate the biofilm, but to reduce the risk of development of rifampicin resistance it should be used in combination with an additional antibiotic. In this study we used Etest to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 134 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis obtained from PJIs to six oral antibiotics: doxycycline, rifampicin, linezolid, fusidic acid, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin. We also performed synergy testing on doxycycline in combination with each of the remaining antibiotics. Ninety-three (69%) of the 134 isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, 94/134 (70%) to rifampicin, 56/134 (42%) to clindamycin, 25/134 (19%) to ciprofloxacin, 81/134 (60%) to fusidic acid, and 100% to linezolid. Thirty-two (80%) of the 40 isolates not fully susceptible to rifampicin were susceptible to doxycycline. Doxycycline in combination with each of the other investigated antibiotics exerted an additive effect on nearly half of the isolates, with the exception of clindamycin, which displayed an even higher percentage of additive effect (69%). To conclude, as the majority of the S. epidermidis isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, this antimicrobial agent may provide a potential alternative for combination therapy together with rifampicin. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Direct Detection and Identification of Prosthetic Joint Infection Pathogens in Synovial Fluid by Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Morgan I; Thoendel, Matthew J; Jeraldo, Patricio R; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Hanssen, Arlen D; Abdel, Matthew P; Chia, Nicholas; Yao, Janet Z; Tande, Aaron J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Patel, Robin

    2018-05-30

    Background: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing has the potential to transform how serious infections are diagnosed by offering universal, culture-free pathogen detection. This may be especially advantageous for microbial diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) by synovial fluid analysis, since synovial fluid cultures are not universally positive, and synovial fluid is easily obtained pre-operatively. We applied a metagenomics-based approach to synovial fluid in an attempt to detect microorganisms in 168 failed total knee arthroplasties. Results: Genus- and species-level analysis of metagenomic sequencing yielded the known pathogen in 74 (90%) and 68 (83%) of the 82 culture-positive PJIs analyzed, respectively, with testing of two (2%) and three (4%) samples, respectively, yielding additional pathogens not detected by culture. For the 25 culture-negative PJIs tested, genus- and species-level analysis yielded 19 (76%) and 21 (84%) samples with insignificant findings, respectively, and 6 (24%) and 4 (16%) with potential pathogens detected, respectively. Genus- and species-level analysis of the 60 culture-negative aseptic failure cases yielded 53 (88.3%) and 56 (93.3%) cases with insignificant findings, and 7 (11.7%) and 4 (6.7%) with potential clinically-significant organisms detected, respectively. There was one case of aseptic failure with synovial fluid culture growth; metagenomic analysis showed insignificant findings, suggesting possible synovial fluid culture contamination. Conclusion: Metagenomic shotgun sequencing can detect pathogens involved in PJI when applied to synovial fluid and may be particularly useful for culture-negative cases. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Group B Streptococcal Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection Linked to the Consumption of Raw Fish

    PubMed Central

    Law, Gin Way; Wijaya, Limin; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Group B Streptococcal (GBS) prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare, accounting for only 4.6-6% of primary and revision total knee replacements (TKRs). In 2015, there was an outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore with an association confirmed between consumption of Chinese-style raw fish dishes (snakehead fish, Asian bighead carp) and GBS infection, Type III GBS ST283 strain, affecting more than 200 patients in Singapore. This outbreak is the largest of its kind in the world and also the first time that foodborne transmission of GBS has been proven. We present the first reported case in the literature of a confirmed PJI in a TKR related to foodborne transmission of GBS through consumption of raw fish (Snakehead fish). Case Report: Our patient is a 66-year-old Chinese female admitted with a 24-h history of acute right knee pain and swelling with associated fever in the context of consuming raw fish porridge 3 days before the onset of her symptoms. She had a TKR performed in the same knee 7 years before this presentation. Her GBS PJI was confirmed on both blood and intraoperative tissue/fluid cultures during the outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore. This was managed with debridement, polyethylene liner change, retention of metal prosthesis, and culture-directed antibiotics with good outcomes. Conclusion: Snakehead fish is a popular dish in the Asian community as a traditional remedy to promote wound healing after surgery. Our paper highlights the link between raw fish consumption and invasive GBS causing PJIs. This can occur in healthy adults, even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, despite being a foodborne transmission. Our paper also highlights that GBS PJIs can be managed with debridement, antibiotic therapy, and implant retention with good outcomes in the setting of acute hematogenous infection. We recommend the inclusion of raw fish consumption on history taking in the workup of suspected PJIs and counseling patients

  7. Group B Streptococcal Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection Linked to the Consumption of Raw Fish.

    PubMed

    Law, Gin Way; Wijaya, Limin; Tan, Andrew Hwee Chye

    2017-01-01

    Group B Streptococcal (GBS) prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are rare, accounting for only 4.6-6% of primary and revision total knee replacements (TKRs). In 2015, there was an outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore with an association confirmed between consumption of Chinese-style raw fish dishes (snakehead fish, Asian bighead carp) and GBS infection, Type III GBS ST283 strain, affecting more than 200 patients in Singapore. This outbreak is the largest of its kind in the world and also the first time that foodborne transmission of GBS has been proven. We present the first reported case in the literature of a confirmed PJI in a TKR related to foodborne transmission of GBS through consumption of raw fish (Snakehead fish). Our patient is a 66-year-old Chinese female admitted with a 24-h history of acute right knee pain and swelling with associated fever in the context of consuming raw fish porridge 3 days before the onset of her symptoms. She had a TKR performed in the same knee 7 years before this presentation. Her GBS PJI was confirmed on both blood and intraoperative tissue/fluid cultures during the outbreak of GBS infections in Singapore. This was managed with debridement, polyethylene liner change, retention of metal prosthesis, and culture-directed antibiotics with good outcomes. Snakehead fish is a popular dish in the Asian community as a traditional remedy to promote wound healing after surgery. Our paper highlights the link between raw fish consumption and invasive GBS causing PJIs. This can occur in healthy adults, even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, despite being a foodborne transmission. Our paper also highlights that GBS PJIs can be managed with debridement, antibiotic therapy, and implant retention with good outcomes in the setting of acute hematogenous infection. We recommend the inclusion of raw fish consumption on history taking in the workup of suspected PJIs and counseling patients preoperatively on the risk of GBS PJIs with the

  8. Introduction to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection: Prosthetic Joint Arthroplasty Section.

    PubMed

    Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Berbari, Elie; Ricks, Philip; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I

    Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty that appears to be increasing as more of these procedures are performed. Numerous risk factors for incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSIs) have been identified. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional SSI and PJI. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) recently updated the national Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. The updated guideline applies evidence-based methodology, presents recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI, and includes an arthroplasty-specific section. This article serves to introduce the guideline development process and to complement the Prosthetic Joint Arthroplasty section with background information on PJI-specific economic burden, epidemiology, pathogenesis and microbiology, and risk factor information.

  9. Implementation of an Algorithm for Prosthetic Joint Infection: Deviations and Problems.

    PubMed

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Schauwecker, Johannes

    The outcome of revision surgery in arthroplasty is based on a precise diagnosis. In addition, the treatment varies based on whether the prosthetic failure is caused by aseptic or septic loosening. Algorithms can help to identify periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and standardize diagnostic steps, however, algorithms tend to oversimplify the treatment of complex cases. We conducted a process analysis during the implementation of a PJI algorithm to determine problems and deviations associated with the implementation of this algorithm. Fifty patients who were treated after implementing a standardized algorithm were monitored retrospectively. Their treatment plans and diagnostic cascades were analyzed for deviations from the implemented algorithm. Each diagnostic procedure was recorded, compared with the algorithm, and evaluated statistically. We detected 52 deviations while treating 50 patients. In 25 cases, no discrepancy was observed. Synovial fluid aspiration was not performed in 31.8% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-45.6%), while white blood cell counts (WBCs) and neutrophil differentiation were assessed in 54.5% of patients (95% CI, 39.8%-69.3%). We also observed that the prolonged incubation of cultures was not requested in 13.6% of patients (95% CI, 3.5%-23.8%). In seven of 13 cases (63.6%; 95% CI, 35.2%-92.1%), arthroscopic biopsy was performed; 6 arthroscopies were performed in discordance with the algorithm (12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). Self-critical analysis of diagnostic processes and monitoring of deviations using algorithms are important and could increase the quality of treatment by revealing recurring faults.

  10. Prosthetic joint infection: A pluridisciplinary multi-center audit bridging quality of care and outcome.

    PubMed

    Roger, P-M; Tabutin, J; Blanc, V; Léotard, S; Brofferio, P; Léculé, F; Redréau, B; Bernard, E

    2015-06-01

    Care to patients with prosthetic joint infections (PJI) is provided after pluridisciplinary collaboration, in particular for complex presentations. Therefore, to carry out an audit in PJI justifies using pluridisciplinary criteria. We report an audit for hip or knee PJI, with emphasis on care homogeneity, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. Fifteen criteria were chosen for quality of care: 5 diagnostic tools, 5 therapeutic aspects, and 5 pluridisciplinary criteria. Among these, 6 were chosen: surgical bacterial samples, surgical strategy, pluridisciplinary discussion, antibiotic treatment, monitoring of antibiotic toxicity, and prevention of thrombosis. They were scored on a scale to 20 points. We included PJI diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 from 6 different hospitals. PJI were defined as complex in case of severe comorbid conditions or multi-drug resistant bacteria, or the need for more than 1 surgery. Eighty-two PJI were included, 70 of which were complex (85%); the median score was 15, with a significant difference among hospitals: from 9 to 17.5 points, P < 0.001. The median LOS was 17 days, and not related to the criterion score; 16% of the patients required intensive care and 13% died. The cure rate was 41%, lost to follow-up 33%, and therapeutic failure 13%. Cure was associated with a higher score than an unfavorable outcome in the univariate analysis (median [range]): 16 [9-18] vs 13 [4-18], P = 0.002. Care to patients with PJI was heterogeneous, our quality criteria being correlated to the outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sampedro, M; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Garces-Zarzalejo, C; Alonso-Aguirre, M A; Salas-Venero, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fariñas, M C

    2017-08-25

    A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI. A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. The diagnostic accuracy of the different methods was evaluated constructing receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve areas. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included: 18 (13.8%) early PJI, 35 (27%) delayed PJI and 77 (59.2%) late PJI. For individual parameters, the area under the ROC curve for peri-implant tissue culture was larger for early (0.917) than for delayed (0.829) and late PJI (0.778), p = 0.033. There was a significantly larger difference for ROC area in the synovial fluid culture for delayed (0.803) than for early (0.781) and late infections (0.679), p = 0.039. The comparison of the areas under the ROC curves for the two microbiological tests showed that sonicate fluid was significantly different from peri-implant tissue in delayed (0.951 vs 0.829, p = 0.005) and late PJI (0.901 vs 0.778, p = 0.000). The conjunction of preoperative parameters, synovial fluid culture and CRP, improved the accuracy for late PJI (p = 0.01). The conjunction of histopathology and sonicate fluid culture increased the area under ROC curve of sonication in early (0.917 vs 1.000); p = 0.06 and late cases (0.901 vs 0.999); p < 0.001. For early PJI, sonicate fluid and peri-implant tissue cultures achieve the same best sensitivity. For delayed and late PJI, sonicate fluid culture is the most sensitive individual diagnostic method. By combining histopathology and peri-implant tissue, all early, 97% of

  12. Sonication contribution to identifying prosthetic joint infection with Ralstonia pickettii: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birlutiu, Rares Mircea; Roman, Mihai Dan; Cismasiu, Razvan Silviu; Fleaca, Sorin Radu; Popa, Crina Maria; Mihalache, Manuela; Birlutiu, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    In the context of an increase number of primary and revision total hip and total knee arthroplasty performed yearly, an increased risk of complication is expected. Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains the most common and feared arthroplasty complication. Ralstonia pickettii is a Gram-negative bacterium, that has also been identified in biofilms. It remains an extremely rare cause of PJI. There is no report of an identification of R. pickettii on an extracted spacer loaded with antibiotic. We present the case of an 83-years-old Caucasian male patient, that underwent a right cemented total hip replacement surgery. The patient is diagnosed with an early PJI with no isolated microorganism. A debridement and change of mobile parts is performed. At the beginning of 2016, the patient in readmitted into the Orthopedic Department for sever, right abdominal and groin pain and elevated serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A joint aspiration is performed with a negative microbiological examination. A two-stage exchange with long interval management is adopted, and a preformed spacer loaded with gentamicin was implanted. In July 2016, based on the proinflammatory markers evolution, a shift a three-stage exchange strategy is decided. In September 2016, a debridement, and changing of the preformed spacer loaded with gentamicin with another was carried out. Bacteriological examination of the tissues sampled intraoperatively was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. From the sonication fluid, no bacteria were isolated on culture or identified using the bbFISH assay. During the hospitalization period, the patient received i.v. ceftazidime 3x2g/day and p.o. ciprofloxacin 2x750mg/day, antibiotic therapy that was continued after discharge with p.o. ciprofloxacin 2x750mg/day for 6 weeks. In February 2017, a reimplantation of a revision prosthesis is performed. The retrieved spacer is sonicated, and after 4 days of incubation of the sonication fluid, R

  13. Prosthetic Device Infections.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Bowen, Thomas R; Foltzer, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    The immunocompromised host is a particularly vulnerable population in whom routine and unusual infections can easily and frequently occur. Prosthetic devices are commonly used in these patients and the infections associated with those devices present a number of challenges for both the microbiologist and the clinician. Biofilms play a major role in device-related infections, which may contribute to failed attempts to recover organisms from routine culture methods. Moreover, device-related microorganisms can be difficult to eradicate by antibiotic therapy alone. Changes in clinical practice and advances in laboratory diagnostics have provided significant improvements in the detection and accurate diagnosis of device-related infections. Disruption of the bacterial biofilm plays an essential role in recovering the causative agent in culture. Various culture and nucleic acid amplification techniques are more accurate to guide directed treatment regimens. This chapter reviews the performance characteristics of currently available diagnostic assays and summarizes published guidelines, where available, for addressing suspected infected prosthetic devices.

  14. Isolated Lactobacillus chronic prosthetic knee infection.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David M; Shekhel, Tatyana; Radelet, Matt; Miller, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus is a gram-positive rod bacteria found primarily in the gastrointestinal and female genital tracts. Prosthetic infections in implants are being increasingly reported. The authors present a case of a 58-year-old patient with Lactobacillus septic prosthetic knee joint infection. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of chronic prosthetic knee infection with isolated Lactobacillus species. Lactobacillus has been most commonly implicated with bacteremia and endocarditis and rarely with pneumonia, meningitis, and endovascular infection, and a vast majority of the cases are reported in immunocompromised patients. In the current case, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, malnutrition, anemia, and liver failure were comorbid conditions, placing the patient at increased risk of infection. The findings suggest that further case series are necessary to establish the significance of Lactobacillus as an etiologic agent in chronic low-virulence, and potentially vancomycin-resistant, prosthetic joint infection. The need also exists for further research aimed at the risk of prosthetic joint infection with oral intake of certain probiotic foods and supplements. The goal of this case report is to bring to light the potential of this organism to be a cause of subtle chronic prosthetic joint infection.

  15. Temporomandibular Prosthetic Joint Infections Associated With Propionibacterium acnes: A Case Series, and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Khader, Ruba; Tingey, Joseph; Sewall, Steven

    2017-12-01

    The orthopedic literature has shown an increasing incidence of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) associated with Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes). These infections present serious diagnostic and management challenges to the treating surgeons. In this review, the authors report on cases of P acnes-related temporomandibular joint (TMJ) PJIs that have been diagnosed and treated at their institution. After approval by the institutional review board, information was obtained through a retrospective chart review. Records were retrieved from clinic visits from January 1, 2010 through January 1, 2015 using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Data extracted included patient demographics, prostheses details, prosthetic infection history, interventions, diagnostic procedures, and culture processing methods. Of the 7 patients who met the search criteria, 4 (1 with bilateral prostheses) had cultures positive for P acnes. For the 5 TMJ PJIs with cultures positive for P acnes, tissue cultures were obtained in the operating room and processed using mass spectrometry. Symptoms identified in these 4 patients were vague and included pain and intermittent swelling; clinical and radiographic findings were nonspecific. Treatment regimens included oral and parenteral antibiotics and operative interventions. In this case series, the authors report on the management of 4 cases of P acnes-related TMJ PJI. When patients with TMJ prostheses report vague symptoms of swelling and pain that do not fit the typical infection scenario, the surgeon should consider P acnes as a source of infection. Additional case series and retrospective reviews will be necessary before developing prospective trials that could aid in the prevention and management of this infection. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential bacterial load on components of total knee prosthesis in patients with prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Johannes; Pilz, Magdalena; Hirschl, Alexander M; Graninger, Wolfgang; Windhager, Reinhard; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate and quantify the bacterial adherence on different components of total knee prosthesis with the sonication culture method. Explanted components of all patients with presumptive prosthetic or implant infection were treated by sonication separately in sterile containers to dislodge the adherent bacteria from the surfaces and cultured. The bacterial load of the different knee components (femur, tibia, PE-inlay and patella) was evaluated by counting of colony-forming units (CFU) dislodged from the components surfaces using the sonication culture method. Overall, 27 patients had positive sonication cultures of explanted total knee prostheses. Microorganisms were detected from 88 of 100 explanted components. Twenty femoral components were culture positive and 7 negative, 23 tibial components as well as 23 polyethylene (PE) platforms had positive microorganism detection from the surface. Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to the highest number of components whereas Staphylococcus aureus yielded the highest load of CFU in the sonication cultures. Although not significant, PE-inlays and tibial components were most often affected. The highest CFU count was detected in polyethylene components. The sonication culture method is a reliable method to detect bacteria from the components. Additionally, the results demonstrate that bacterial adherence is not affecting a single component of knee prosthesis only. Thus, in septic revision surgery partial prosthetic exchange or exchange of single polyethylene components alone may be not sufficient.

  17. Use of an automated blood culture system (BD BACTEC™) for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: easy and fast.

    PubMed

    Minassian, Angela M; Newnham, Robert; Kalimeris, Elizabeth; Bejon, Philip; Atkins, Bridget L; Bowler, Ian C J W

    2014-05-04

    For the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) automated BACTEC™ blood culture bottle methods have comparable sensitivity, specificity and a shorter time to positivity than traditional cooked meat enrichment broth methods. We evaluate the culture incubation period required to maximise sensitivity and specificity of microbiological diagnosis, and the ability of BACTEC™ to detect slow growing Propionibacteria spp. Multiple periprosthetic tissue samples taken by a standardised method from 332 patients undergoing prosthetic joint revision arthroplasty were cultured for 14 days, using a BD BACTEC™ instrumented blood culture system, in a prospective study from 1st January to 31st August 2012. The "gold standard" definition for PJI was the presence of at least one histological criterion, the presence of a sinus tract or purulence around the device. Cases where > =2 samples yielded indistinguishable isolates were considered culture-positive. 1000 BACTEC™ bottle cultures which were negative after 14 days incubation were sub-cultured for Propionibacteria spp. 79 patients fulfilled the definition for PJI, and 66 of these were culture-positive. All but 1 of these 66 culture-positive cases of PJI were detected within 3 days of incubation. Only one additional (clinically-insignificant) Propionibacterium spp. was identified on terminal subculture of 1000 bottles. Prolonged microbiological culture for 2 weeks is unnecessary when using BACTEC™ culture methods. The majority of clinically significant organisms grow within 3 days, and Propionibacteria spp. are identified without the need for terminal subculture. These findings should facilitate earlier decisions on final antimicrobial prescribing.

  18. Outcome and Predictors of Treatment Failure in Total Hip/Knee Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Joulie, Donatienne; Legout, Laurence; Valette, Michel; Dezèque, Hervé; Beltrand, Eric; Roselé, Bernadette; d’Escrivan, Thibaud; Loïez, Caroline; Caillaux, Michèle; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Maynou, Carlos; Migaud, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Variables associated with the outcome of patients treated for prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus are not well known. Methods. The medical records of patients treated surgically for total hip or knee prosthesis infection due to S. aureus were reviewed. Remission was defined by the absence of local or systemic signs of implant-related infection assessed during the most recent contact with the patient. Results. After a mean posttreatment follow-up period of 43.6 ± 32.1 months, 77 (78.6%) of 98 patients were in remission. Retention of the infected implants was not associated with a worse outcome than was their removal. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)–related PJIs were not associated with worse outcome, compared with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA)–related PJIs. Pathogens identified during revision for failure exhibited no acquired resistance to antibiotics used as definitive therapy, in particular rifampin. In univariate analysis, parameters that differed between patients whose treatment did or did not fail were: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, prescription of adequate empirical postsurgical antibiotic therapy, and use of rifampin combination therapy upon discharge from hospital. In multivariate analysis, ASA score ≤2 (odds ratio [OR], 6.87 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.45–32.45]; P = .04) and rifampin-fluoroquinolone combination therapy (OR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.17–0.97]; P = .01) were 2 independent variables associated with remission. Conclusions. The results of the present study suggest that the ASA score significantly affects the outcome of patients treated for total hip and knee prosthetic infections due to MSSA or MRSA and that rifampin combination therapy is associated with a better outcome for these patients when compared with other antibiotic regimens. PMID:21810745

  19. Diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection with alpha-defensin using a lateral flow device: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Van Cauter, M; Driesen, R; Neyt, J; Cornu, O; Bellemans, J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this current multicentre study is to analyse the presence of alpha-defensin proteins in synovial fluid using the Synovasure lateral flow device and to determine its diagnostic reliability and accuracy compared with the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) criteria produced by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). A cohort of 121 patients comprising 85 total knee arthroplasties and 36 total hip arthroplasties was prospectively evaluated between May 2015 and June 2016 in three different orthopaedic centres. The tests were performed on patients with a chronically painful prosthesis undergoing a joint aspiration in a diagnostic pathway or during revision surgery. Based on the MSIS criteria, 34 patients (28%) would have had a PJI, and 87 patients had no PJI. Testing with the lateral flow device had a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 84.5 to 99.9) and a specificity of 96.6% (95% CI 90.3 to 99.2). The positive predictive value was 91.7% (95% CI 77.7% to 98.3), and the negative predictive value was 98.8% (95% CI 93.6 to 99.9). Receiver operator characteristics analysis demonstrated an area under the curve for the Synovasure test of 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.00). Our findings suggest that the Synovasure test has an excellent diagnostic performance to confirm or reject the diagnosis of a PJI. The results are promising for the care of the painful or problematic knee and hip joint arthroplasty and the test should be considered as part of the diagnostic toolbox for PJIs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1176-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. Preoperative Anemia Is Associated With Failure of Open Debridement Polyethylene Exchange in Acute and Acute Hematogenous Prosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Richard D; Butterfield, James A; Irwin, Timothy J; Zurlo, John J; Davis, Charles M

    2018-06-01

    Acute and acute hematogenous prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are often treated with open debridement and polyethylene exchange (ODPE) in an effort to save the prosthesis, decrease morbidity, and reduce costs. However, failure of ODPE may compromise a subsequent 2-stage treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify patient factors that impact the success of ODPE for acute and acute hematogenous PJIs. A retrospective review examined comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and patient history for patients with successful and failed ODPE treatment for acute perioperative or acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip or knee joint infections. Successful treatment was defined as retaining a well-fixed implant without the need for additional surgery for a minimum of 6-month follow-up with or without lifelong oral maintenance antibiotics. Fifty-three of 72 patients (73.6%) underwent successful ODPE. Of the 19 failures, 14 completed 2-stage revision with one subsequent known failure for recurrent infection. Patients with a Staphylococcus aureus infection were more likely to fail ODPE (48.3% vs 11.6%, P = .0012, odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 2.3-25.3). Patients with a preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 were also more likely to fail ODPE (55% vs 16%, P = .0013, odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.2-22.4). When neither risk factor was present, 97.1% of PJIs were successfully treated with ODPE. S aureus infection and preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 are independent risk factors for ODPE failure. ODPE is a safe alternative to 2-stage revision in patients without preoperative anemia and without S aureus infection. Two-thirds of patients with a failed ODPE were successfully treated with a 2-stage reimplantation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections due to gram-negative bacilli treated with retention of prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Jaén, N; Martínez-Pastor, J C; Muñoz-Mahamud, E; García-Ramiro, S; Bosch, J; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2012-09-01

    To update the clinical information of the 47 patients with a prosthetic joint infection due to Gram-negative bacilli included in a previous study and to reassess the predictors of failure after a longer follow-up. Using the electronic files of our hospital, all the information regarding readmissions to the hospital, new surgical procedures and the reason for the new surgery (infection, aseptic loosening), and the last visit in the hospital were registered. The medical chart of the 35 patients that were considered in remission in the previous publication was reviewed. In 30 patients no clinical evidence of failure was detected and no additional surgery on the previously infected prosthesis was necessary and they were considered in long-term remission. In 5 cases a late complication was identified. One case had a reinfection due to coagulase-negative staphylococci after 22 months from the open debridement and required a 2-stage revision surgery. The other 4 cases developed an aseptic loosening and it was necessary to perform a 1-stage exchange. Receiving a fluoroquinolone when all the Gram-negatives involved in the infection were susceptible to fluoroquinolones was the only factor associated with remission in the univariate analysis (p=0.002). After a long-term follow-up, our results support the importance of using fluoroquinolones in acute PJI due to Gram-negative bacilli.

  2. Salvage Procedures for Management of Prosthetic Joint Infection After Hip and Knee Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Samer S.S.; Sukeik, Mohamed; Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Shaath, Mohammed; Sabri, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing load placed by joint replacement surgery on health care systems makes infection, even with the lowest rates, a serious concern that needs to be thoroughly studied and addressed using all possible measures. Methods: A comprehensive review of the current literature on salvage procedures for recurrent PJIs using PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL has been conducted. Results: Prolonged suppressive antibiotic therapy (PSAT), resection arthroplasty and arthrodesis were the most common procedures performed. Suppressive antibiotic therapy is based on the use of well tolerated long term antibiotics in controlling sensitive organisms. Resection arthroplasty which should be reserved as a last resort provided more predictable outcomes in the hip whereas arthrodesis was associated with better outcomes in the knee. Various methods for arthrodesis including internal and external fixation have been described. Conclusion: Despite good union and infection control rates, all methods were associated with complications occasionally requiring further surgical interventions. PMID:28144373

  3. Efficacy of a novel PCR- and microarray-based method in diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods enable detection and species identification of many pathogens. We assessed the efficacy of a new PCR and microarray-based platform for detection of bacteria in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Methods This prospective study involved 61 suspected PJIs in hip and knee prostheses and 20 negative controls. 142 samples were analyzed by Prove-it Bone and Joint assay. The laboratory staff conducting the Prove-it analysis were not aware of the results of microbiological culture and clinical findings. The results of the analysis were compared with diagnosis of PJIs defined according to the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria and with the results of microbiological culture. Results 38 of 61 suspected PJIs met the definition of PJI according to the MSIS criteria. Of the 38 patients, the PCR detected bacteria in 31 whereas bacterial culture was positive in 28 patients. 15 of the PJI patients were undergoing antimicrobial treatment as the samples for analysis were obtained. When antimicrobial treatment had lasted 4 days or more, PCR detected bacteria in 6 of the 9 patients, but positive cultures were noted in only 2 of the 9 patients. All PCR results for the controls were negative. Of the 61 suspected PJIs, there were false-positive PCR results in 6 cases. Interpretation The Prove-it assay was helpful in PJI diagnostics during ongoing antimicrobial treatment. Without preceding treatment with antimicrobials, PCR and microarray-based assay did not appear to give any additional information over culture. PMID:24564748

  4. Efficacy of indefinite chronic oral antimicrobial suppression for prosthetic joint infection in the elderly: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Prendki, V; Sergent, P; Barrelet, A; Oziol, E; Beretti, E; Berlioz-Thibal, M; Bouchand, F; Dauchy, F A; Forestier, E; Gavazzi, G; Ronde-Oustau, C; Stirnemann, J; Dinh, A

    2017-07-01

    During prosthetic joint infection (PJI), surgical management is sometimes impossible and indefinite chronic oral antimicrobial suppression (ICOAS) may be the only option. The outcomes of elderly patients who benefited from ICOAS with strictly palliative intent were evaluated. A national retrospective cohort study was performed in France, involving patients aged >75 years with a PJI who were managed with planned life-long ICOAS from 2009 to 2014. Patients who experienced an event were compared to those who did not. An event was defined as a composite outcome in patients undergoing ICOAS, including local or systemic progression of the infection, death, or discontinuation of antimicrobial therapy because of an adverse drug reaction. Twenty-one patients were included, with a median age of 85 years (interquartile range 81-88 years). Eight of the 21 patients experienced an event: one had an adverse drug reaction, three had systemic progression of sepsis, and two had local progression. Two of the 21 patients died. No death was related to ICOAS or infection. There was no significant difference between the population with an event and the population free of an event with regard to demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics (p>0.05). ICOAS appeared to be an effective and safe option in this cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Gram-negative prosthetic joint infection: outcome of a debridement, antibiotics and implant retention approach. A large multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pardo, D; Pigrau, C; Lora-Tamayo, J; Soriano, A; del Toro, M D; Cobo, J; Palomino, J; Euba, G; Riera, M; Sánchez-Somolinos, M; Benito, N; Fernández-Sampedro, M; Sorli, L; Guio, L; Iribarren, J A; Baraia-Etxaburu, J M; Ramos, A; Bahamonde, A; Flores-Sánchez, X; Corona, P S; Ariza, J

    2014-11-01

    We aim to evaluate the epidemiology and outcome of gram-negative prosthetic joint infection (GN-PJI) treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR), identify factors predictive of failure, and determine the impact of ciprofloxacin use on prognosis. We performed a retrospective, multicentre, observational study of GN-PJI diagnosed from 2003 through to 2010 in 16 Spanish hospitals. We define failure as persistence or reappearance of the inflammatory joint signs during follow-up, leading to unplanned surgery or repeat debridement>30 days from the index surgery related death, or suppressive antimicrobial therapy. Parameters predicting failure were analysed with a Cox regression model. A total of 242 patients (33% men; median age 76 years, interquartile range (IQR) 68-81) with 242 episodes of GN-PJI were studied. The implants included 150 (62%) hip, 85 (35%) knee, five (2%) shoulder and two (1%) elbow prostheses. There were 189 (78%) acute infections. Causative microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae in 78%, Pseudomonas spp. in 20%, and other gram-negative bacilli in 2%. Overall, 19% of isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant. DAIR was used in 174 (72%) cases, with an overall success rate of 68%, which increased to 79% after a median of 25 months' follow-up in ciprofloxacin-susceptible GN-PJIs treated with ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin treatment exhibited an independent protective effect (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13-0.40; p<0.001), whereas chronic renal impairment predicted failure (aHR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.14-5.77; p 0.0232). Our results confirm a 79% success rate in ciprofloxacin-susceptible GN-PJI treated with debridement, ciprofloxacin and implant retention. New therapeutic strategies are needed for ciprofloxacin-resistant PJI. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. Ten questions on prosthetic shoulder infection

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Elizabeth M; Ong, Joshua CY; Bale, R Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic shoulder infection can cause significant morbidity secondary to pain and stiffness. Symptoms may be present for years before diagnosis because clinical signs are often absent and inflammatory markers may be normal. An emerging common culprit, Propionibacterium acnes, is hard to culture and so prolonged incubation is necessary. A negative culture result does not always exclude infection and new synovial fluid biochemical markers such as α defensin are less sensitive than for lower limb arthroplasty. A structured approach is necessary when assessing patients for prosthetic shoulder joint infection. This includes history, examination, serum inflammatory markers, plain radiology and aspiration and/or biopsy. A classification for the likelihood of prosthetic shoulder infection has been described based on culture, pre-operative and intra-operative findings. Treatment options include antibiotic suppression, debridement with component retention, one-stage revision, two-stage revision and excision arthroplasty. Revision arthroplasty is associated with the best outcomes. PMID:27583013

  7. Ten questions on prosthetic shoulder infection.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Elizabeth M; Ong, Joshua Cy; Bale, R Stephen; Trail, Ian A

    2016-07-01

    Prosthetic shoulder infection can cause significant morbidity secondary to pain and stiffness. Symptoms may be present for years before diagnosis because clinical signs are often absent and inflammatory markers may be normal. An emerging common culprit, Propionibacterium acnes, is hard to culture and so prolonged incubation is necessary. A negative culture result does not always exclude infection and new synovial fluid biochemical markers such as α defensin are less sensitive than for lower limb arthroplasty. A structured approach is necessary when assessing patients for prosthetic shoulder joint infection. This includes history, examination, serum inflammatory markers, plain radiology and aspiration and/or biopsy. A classification for the likelihood of prosthetic shoulder infection has been described based on culture, pre-operative and intra-operative findings. Treatment options include antibiotic suppression, debridement with component retention, one-stage revision, two-stage revision and excision arthroplasty. Revision arthroplasty is associated with the best outcomes.

  8. Suppressive antibiotic therapy with oral doxycycline for Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection: a retrospective study of 39 patients.

    PubMed

    Pradier, M; Nguyen, S; Robineau, O; Titecat, M; Blondiaux, N; Valette, M; Loïez, C; Beltrand, E; Dézeque, H; Migaud, H; Senneville, E

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of oral doxycycline as suppressive antibiotic therapy (SAT) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus periprosthetic (hip or knee) joint infections. The medical charts of all patients with surgical revisions for S. aureus hip or knee prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) who were given doxycycline-based SAT because of a high risk of failure of various origins were reviewed. Data regarding tolerability and effectiveness of doxycycline-based SAT were analysed. A total of 39 patients (mean age 66.1 ± 16.3 years) received doxycycline-base SAT in the period from January 2006 to January 2014. PJIs involved the hip in 23 patients (59.0%) and the knee in 16 (41.0%), and were qualified as early in 15 patients (38.5%). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 22% of the total number of bacterial strains identified. All patients included in the study had surgery, which consisted of debridement and implant retention in 32 (82.1%). Adverse events likely attributable to SAT were reported in six patients (15.4%), leading to discontinuation of SAT in three (7.7%). A total of 29 patients (74.4%) remained event-free and 10 (25.6%) failed, including 8 (20.5%) relapses and 2 (5.1%) superinfections. Overall, 8 of the 10 failure cases were related to a doxycycline-susceptible pathogen. These results suggest that oral doxycycline used as SAT in patients treated for S. aureus hip or knee PJIs has an acceptable tolerability and effectiveness and appears to be a reasonable option in this setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy-a promising treatment for prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Timothy; Blunn, Gordon; Hislop, Simon; Ramalhete, Rita; Bagley, Caroline; McKenna, David; Coathup, Melanie

    2018-04-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is associated with high patient morbidity and a large financial cost. This study investigated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a means of eradicating bacteria that cause PJI, using a laser with a 665-nm wavelength and methylene blue (MB) as the photosensitizer. The effectiveness of MB concentration on the growth inhibition of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii was investigated. The effect of laser dose was also investigated and the optimized PDT method was used to investigate its bactericidal effect on species within planktonic culture and following the formation of a biofilm on polished titanium and hydroxyapatite coated titanium discs. Results showed that Staphylococci were eradicated at the lowest concentration of 0.1 mM methylene blue (MB). With P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, increasing the MB concentration improved the bactericidal effect. When the laser dose was increased, results showed that the higher the power of the laser the more bacteria were eradicated with a laser power ≥ 35 J/cm 2 and an irradiance of 35 mW/cm 2 , eradicating all S. epidermidis. The optimized PDT method had a significant bactericidal effect against planktonic MRSA and S. epidermidis compared to MB alone, laser alone, or control (no treatment). When biofilms were formed, PDT treatment had a significantly higher bactericidal effect than MB alone and laser alone for all species of bacteria investigated on the polished disc surfaces. P. aeruginosa grown in a biofilm was shown to be less sensitive to PDT when compared to Staphylococci, and a HA-coated surface reduced the effectiveness of PDT. This study demonstrated that PDT is effective for killing bacteria that cause PJI.

  10. Failure of the first step of two-stage revision due to polymicrobial prosthetic joint infection of the hip.

    PubMed

    Bozhkova, Svetlana; Tikhilov, Rashid; Labutin, Dmitry; Denisov, Alexey; Shubnyakov, Igor; Razorenov, Vadim; Artyukh, Vasilii; Rukina, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The unsuccessful treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with two-stage revision leads to infection recurrence. The objectives of the study were to assess the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with polymicrobial PJI, and to evaluate the role of the microbial profile involved in PJI in the risk of infection recurrence after the first step of two-stage revision surgery. A retrospective analysis of 189 cases of culture-positive PJI following total hip replacement over a 5-year period was performed. The demographic characteristics of patients, clinical symptoms, microbiology cultures of intraoperative biopsies, laboratory values of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups-135 with monomicrobial and 54 with polymicrobial infection. Of all patients, 68.9 % in the monomicrobial and 83.3 % in the polymicrobial group had a body mass index >25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.05). The median CRP values were 5.7 mg/L (IQR 4.0-10.0 mg/L) in the monomicrobial compared to 8.8 mg/L (IQR 5.0-27 mg/L) in the polymicrobial group (p = 0.01). The percentage of successful outcomes was 27.8 % in patients with microbial associations (p < 0.0001). Gram-negative pathogens caused polymicrobial PJI in 61.5 % of cases with infection recurrence (OR 4.4; 95 % CI 1.18-16.37; p = 0.03). Overweight and obese patients or those with elevated CRP had a greater risk of polymicrobial PJI. They were predisposed to recurrence of infection after the first step of two-stage revision. An unsuccessful outcome was more likely in cases with polymicrobial infection compared to those with monomicrobial infection. In addition, the presence of multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria substantially increased the risk of PJI treatment being unsuccessful. Level III, therapeutic study.

  11. In vitro activity of novel anti-MRSA cephalosporins and comparator antimicrobial agents against staphylococci involved in prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Isnard, Christophe; Dhalluin, Anne; Malandain, Damasie; Bruey, Quentin; Auzou, Michel; Michon, Jocelyn; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Guérin, François; Cattoir, Vincent

    2018-02-05

    Ceftaroline and ceftobiprole are new parenteral cephalosporins with potent activity against methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci, which are the leading cause of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The aim of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro activities of both molecules against staphylococcal isolates recovered from clinically documented PJIs. A collection of 200 non-duplicate clinical isolates [100 Staphylococcus aureus and 100 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), including 19 and 27 MR isolates, respectively] was studied. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxacillin, ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, linezolid and daptomycin were determined by the broth microdilution method. Bactericidal activity (at 4× MIC) of ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin was assessed by time-kill assay. Among the S. aureus isolates, 100% were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC 50/90 , 0.25/0.5μg/mL) and 98% were susceptible to ceftobiprole (MIC 50/90 , 0.5/1μg/mL), regardless of their methicillin resistance. The two ceftobiprole-non-susceptible strains (including one MRSA) showed MICs at 4mg/L. Against CoNS isolates, ceftaroline and ceftobiprole exhibited in vitro potency with MIC 50/90 values at 0.06/0.25μg/mL and 0.25/1μg/mL, respectively. At 4× MIC, ceftaroline and ceftobiprole showed rapid and marked bactericidal activity against both S. aureus and CoNS (after 24/12h and 12/6h of incubation, respectively), whilst none of the other molecules tested had a bactericidal effect by 24h. This study showed that ceftaroline and ceftobiprole have excellent in vitro activity against clinical isolates of staphylococci involved in PJIs. These molecules may therefore represent promising alternatives for the treatment of such infections. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of Infection in Orthopedic Prosthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chirca, Ioana; Marculescu, Camelia

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty is a generally safe orthopedic procedure; however, infection is a potentially devastating complication. Multiple risk factors have been identified for development of prosthetic joint infections. Identification of patients at risk and preoperative correction of known risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, anemia, malnutrition, and decolonization of Staphylococcus carriers, represent well-established actions to decrease the infection risk. Careful operative technique, proper draping and skin preparation, and appropriate selection and dosing of antimicrobials for perioperative prophylaxis are also very important in prevention of infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Deep prosthetic joint infection: a qualitative study of the impact on patients and their experiences of revision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Ashley W; Whitehouse, Michael R; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Around 1% of patients who have a hip replacement have deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI) afterwards. PJI is often treated with antibiotics plus a single revision operation (1-stage revision), or antibiotics plus a 2-stage revision process involving more than 1 operation. This study aimed to characterise the impact and experience of PJI and treatment on patients, including comparison of 1-stage with 2-stage revision treatment. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews with patients who had undergone surgical revision treatment for PJI. Patients were interviewed between 2 weeks and 12 months postdischarge. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed, anonymised and analysed using a thematic approach, with 20% of transcripts double-coded. Setting Patients from 5 National Health Service (NHS) orthopaedic departments treating PJI in England and Wales were interviewed in their homes (n=18) or at hospital (n=1). Participants 19 patients participated (12 men, 7 women, age range 56–88 years, mean age 73.2 years). Results Participants reported receiving between 1 and 15 revision operations after their primary joint replacement. Analysis indicated that participants made sense of their experience through reference to 3 key phases: the period of symptom onset, the treatment period and protracted recovery after treatment. By conceptualising their experience in this way, and through themes that emerged in these periods, they conveyed the ordeal that PJI represented. Finally, in light of the challenges of PJI, they described the need for support in all of these phases. 2-stage revision had greater impact on participants’ mobility, and further burdens associated with additional complications. Conclusions Deep PJI impacted on all aspects of patients’ lives. 2-stage revision had greater impact than 1-stage revision on participants’ well-being because the time in between revision procedures meant long periods of immobility and related psychological distress

  14. Review: emerging developments in the use of bioactive glasses for treating infected prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Huang, Wenhai

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial contamination of implanted orthopedic prostheses is a serious complication that requires prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy, major surgery to remove infected implants, bone reconstruction, and considerable morbidity. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotics using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cement as the carrier, along with systemic antibiotics, is the standard treatment. However, PMMA is not biodegradable, and it can present a surface on which secondary bacterial infection can occur. PMMA spacers used to treat deep implant infections must be removed after resolution of the infection. Alternative carrier materials for antibiotics that could also restore deficient bone are therefore of interest. In this article, the development of bioactive glass-based materials as a delivery system for antibiotics is reviewed. Bioactive glass is osteoconductive, converts to hydroxyapatite, and heals to hard and soft tissues in vivo. Consequently, bioactive glass-based carriers can provide the combined functions of controlled local antibiotic delivery and bone restoration. Recently-developed borate bioactive glasses are of particular interest since they have controllable degradation rates coupled with desirable properties related to osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Such glasses have the potential for providing a new class of biomaterials, as substitutes for PMMA, in the treatment of deep bone infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The “true” incidence of surgically treated deep prosthetic joint infection after 32,896 primary total hip arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Overgaard, Søren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Pedersen, Alma Becic

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose It has been suggested that the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) may be underestimated if based only on arthroplasty registry data. We therefore wanted to estimate the “true” incidence of PJI in THA using several data sources. Patients and methods We searched the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) for primary THAs performed between 2005 and 2011. Using the DHR and the Danish National Register of Patients (NRP), we identified first revisions for any reason and those that were due to PJI. PJIs were also identified using an algorithm incorporating data from microbiological, prescription, and clinical biochemistry databases and clinical findings from the medical records. We calculated cumulative incidence with 95% confidence interval. Results 32,896 primary THAs were identified. Of these, 1,546 had first-time revisions reported to the DHR and/or the NRP. For the DHR only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.51% (0.44–0.59) and 0.64% (0.51–0.79). For the NRP only, the 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences of PJI were 0.48% (0.41–0.56) and 0.57% (0.45–0.71). The corresponding 1- and 5-year cumulative incidences estimated with the algorithm were 0.86% (0.77–0.97) and 1.03% (0.87–1.22). The incidences of PJI based on the DHR and the NRP were consistently 40% lower than those estimated using the algorithm covering several data sources. Interpretation Using several available data sources, the “true” incidence of PJI following primary THA was estimated to be approximately 40% higher than previously reported by national registries alone. PMID:25637247

  16. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and diagnostic testing for prosthetic joint infection in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Cole, Nicolynn C; Dylla, Brenda L; Patel, Robin

    2015-03-01

    Identification of pathogen(s) associated with prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical for patient management. Historically, many laboratories have not routinely identified organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci to the species level. The advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has enhanced clinical laboratory capacity for accurate species-level identification. The aim of this study was to describe the species-level identification of microorganisms isolated from periprosthetic tissue and fluid specimens using MALDI-TOF MS alongside other rapid identification tests in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Results of rapid identification of bacteria isolated from periprosthetic joint fluid and/or tissue specimens were correlated with clinical findings at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, between May 2012 and May 2013. There were 178 PJI and 82 aseptic failure (AF) cases analyzed, yielding 770 organisms (median, 3/subject; range, 1-19/subject). MALDI-TOF MS was employed for the identification of 455 organisms (59%) in 197 subjects (123 PJIs and 74 AFs), with 89% identified to the species level using this technique. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 68% and 93% of isolates in PJI and AF, respectively. However, the profile of species associated with infection compared to specimen contamination differed. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus caprae were always associated with infection, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were equally likely to be a pathogen or a contaminant, whereas the other coagulase-negative staphylococci were more frequently contaminants. Most streptococcal and Corynebacterium isolates were pathogens. The likelihood that an organism was a pathogen or contaminant differed with the prosthetic joint location, particularly in the case of Propionibacterium acnes. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for the identification of bacteria isolated from patients

  18. Brucella melitensis prosthetic joint infection in a traveller returning to the UK from Thailand: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joseph M; Folb, Jonathan; Kalra, Sanjay; Squire, S Bertel; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Beeching, Nick J

    Brucella spp. prosthetic joint infections are infrequently reported in the literature, particularly in returning travellers, and optimal treatment is unknown. We describe a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) caused by Brucella melitensis in a traveller returning to the UK from Thailand, which we believe to be the first detailed report of brucellosis in a traveller returning from this area. The 23 patients with Brucella-related PJI reported in the literature are summarised, together with our case. The diagnosis of Brucella-related PJI is difficult to make; only 30% of blood cultures and 75% of joint aspiration cultures were positive in the reported cases. Culture of intraoperative samples provides the best diagnostic yield. In the absence of radiological evidence of joint loosening, combination antimicrobial therapy alone may be appropriate treatment in the first instance; this was successful in 6/7 [86%] of patients, though small numbers of patients and the likelihood of reporting bias warrant caution in drawing any firm conclusions about optimal treatment. Aerosolisation of synovial fluid during joint aspiration procedures and nosocomial infection has been described. Brucella-related PJI should be considered in the differential of travellers returning from endemic areas with PJI, including Thailand. Personal protective equipment including fit tested filtering face piece-3 (FFP3) mask or equivalent is recommended for personnel carrying out joint aspiration when brucellosis is suspected. Travellers can reduce the risk of brucellosis by avoiding unpasteurised dairy products and animal contact (particularly on farms and abattoirs) in endemic areas and should be counselled regarding these risks as part of their pre-travel assessment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a commercial multiplex PCR (Unyvero i60®) designed for the diagnosis of bone and joint infections using prosthetic-joint sonication.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Borja, Laura; Rodriguez-Sevilla, Graciela; Auñon, Alvaro; Pérez-Jorge, Concepción; Sandoval, Enrique; Garcia-Cañete, Joaquín; Gadea, Ignacio; Fernandez-Roblas, Ricardo; Blanco, Antonio; Esteban, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    The development of sonication protocols over the last few years has improved the sensitivity of conventional cultures for the diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection (PJI). However, the development of a new, specifically designed kit for the molecular diagnosis of PJI could provide a major improvement in this field. Prostheses retrieved from patients who underwent implant removal from May 2014 to May 2015 were sent for culture, and processed according to a previously defined protocol that included sonication. Furthermore, 180 microlitres of sonication fluid were used to carry out the multiplex PCR test (Unyvero i60 system ® ). A comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value, was performed. The study was approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee. The analysis included 88 prostheses from 68 patients (1.29 prostheses/patient). The type of prostheses studied were knee (n=55), total hip (n=26), partial hip (n=5), and shoulder (n=2). Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with a PJI (15 delayed, 12 acute, and 2 haematogenous infections). In 24 cases, the result of the PCR was positive, all but 1 corresponding to patients with clinical criteria of PJI. Nine resistance mechanisms were detected from 5 samples. The Unyvero i60 system ® showed slightly better results than traditional culture in terms of specificity and PPV. The Unyvero i60 system ® may play a role in rapid diagnosis of PJI, due to its high specificity and PPV. However, despite these results, cultures have to be performed to detect organisms not detected by the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  2. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    PubMed Central

    Legout, Laurence; Senneville, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections. PMID:24288493

  3. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections, clarification on this topic is critical. A systematic review was performed with the following research question: in patients who undergo revision surgery of a prosthetic joint, does preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis affect the culture yield of intraoperative samples in comparison with nonpreoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis? Seven articles were included in the final analysis. In most studies, standard diagnostic culture techniques were used. In patients with a PJI, pooled analysis showed a culture yield of 88% (145/165) in the prophylaxis group versus 95% (344/362) in the nonprophylaxis group ( P = 0.004). Subanalysis of patients with chronic PJIs showed positive cultures in 88% (78/89) versus 91% (52/57), respectively ( P = 0.59). In patients with a suspected chronic infection, a maximum difference of 4% in culture yield between the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups was observed. With the use of standard culture techniques, antimicrobial prophylaxis seems to affect cultures in a minority of patients. Along with the known risk of surgical site infections due to inadequate timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis, we discourage the postponement of prophylaxis until tissue samples are obtained in revision surgery. Future studies are necessary to conclude whether the small percentage of false-negative cultures after prophylaxis can be further reduced with the use of more-sensitive culture techniques, like sonication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. The Effect of Preoperative Antimicrobial Prophylaxis on Intraoperative Culture Results in Patients with a Suspected or Confirmed Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Natividad; Soriano, Alex

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining reliable cultures during revision arthroplasty is important to adequately diagnose and treat a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The influence of antimicrobial prophylaxis on culture results remains unclear. Since withholding prophylaxis increases the risk for surgical site infections, clarification on this topic is critical. A systematic review was performed with the following research question: in patients who undergo revision surgery of a prosthetic joint, does preoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis affect the culture yield of intraoperative samples in comparison with nonpreoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis? Seven articles were included in the final analysis. In most studies, standard diagnostic culture techniques were used. In patients with a PJI, pooled analysis showed a culture yield of 88% (145/165) in the prophylaxis group versus 95% (344/362) in the nonprophylaxis group (P = 0.004). Subanalysis of patients with chronic PJIs showed positive cultures in 88% (78/89) versus 91% (52/57), respectively (P = 0.59). In patients with a suspected chronic infection, a maximum difference of 4% in culture yield between the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups was observed. With the use of standard culture techniques, antimicrobial prophylaxis seems to affect cultures in a minority of patients. Along with the known risk of surgical site infections due to inadequate timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis, we discourage the postponement of prophylaxis until tissue samples are obtained in revision surgery. Future studies are necessary to conclude whether the small percentage of false-negative cultures after prophylaxis can be further reduced with the use of more-sensitive culture techniques, like sonication. PMID:28659322

  5. One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W; Board, Tim; Kay, Peter; Wroblewski, B Mike; Zeller, Valérie; Chen, Szu-Yuan; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin; Masri, Bassam A; Herman, Amir; Jenny, Jean-Yves; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Whittaker, John-Paul; Burston, Ben; Huang, Ronald; Restrepo, Camilo; Parvizi, Javad; Rudelli, Sergio; Honda, Emerson; Uip, David E; Bori, Guillem; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Darley, Elizabeth; Ribera, Alba; Cañas, Elena; Cabo, Javier; Cordero-Ampuero, José; Redó, Maria Luisa Sorlí; Strange, Simon; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Webb, Jason; MacGowan, Alasdair; Dieppe, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Beswick, Andrew D

    2018-04-05

    One-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort studies with PJI of the hip treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and reporting re-infection outcomes were retrieved by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; as well as email contact with investigators. We analysed IPD of 1856 participants with PJI of the hip from 44 cohorts across four continents. The primary outcome was re-infection (recurrence of infection by the same organism(s) and/or re-infection with a new organism(s)). Hazard ratios (HRs) for re-infection were calculated using Cox proportional frailty hazards models. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years, 222 re-infections were recorded. Re-infection rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 16.8 (95% CI 13.6-20.7) and 32.3 (95% CI 27.3-38.3) for one-stage and two-stage strategies respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted HR of re-infection for two-stage revision was 1.70 (0.58-5.00) when compared with one-stage revision. The association remained consistently absent after further adjustment for potential confounders. The HRs did not vary importantly in clinically relevant subgroups. Analysis of pooled individual patient data suggest that a one-stage revision strategy may be as effective as a two-stage revision strategy in treating PJI of the hip.

  6. The unsuspected prosthetic joint infection : incidence and consequences of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic knee and hip revisions.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A M E; Bénard, M; Meis, J F; van Hellemondt, G; Goosen, J H M

    2017-11-01

    Positive cultures are not uncommon in cases of revision total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA) for presumed aseptic causes. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic revision of TKA and THA, and to determine whether the presence of intra-operative positive cultures results in inferior survival in such cases. A retrospective cohort study was assembled with 679 patients undergoing revision knee (340 cases) or hip arthroplasty (339 cases) for presumed aseptic causes. For all patients three or more separate intra-operative cultures were obtained. Patients were diagnosed with a previously unsuspected prosthetic joint infection (PJI) if two or more cultures were positive with the same organism. Records were reviewed for demographic details, pre-operative laboratory results and culture results. The primary outcome measure was infection-free implant survival at two years. The incidence of unsuspected PJI was 27 out of 340 (7.9%) in TKA and 41 out of 339 (12.1%) in THA. Following revision TKA, the rate of infection-free implant survival in patients with an unsuspected PJI was 88% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 60 to 97) at two years compared with 98% (95% CI 94 to 99) in patients without PJI (p = 0.001). After THA, the rate of survival was similar in those with unsuspected PJI (92% (95% CI 73 to 98) at two years) and those without (94% (95% CI 89 to 97), p = 0.31). Following revision of TKA and THA for aseptic diagnoses, around 10% of cases were found to have positive cultures. In the knee, such cases had inferior infection-free survival at two years compared with those with negative cultures; there was no difference between the groups following THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1482-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Plasmatic Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a New Oxidative Stress Biomarker in Patients with Prosthetic-Joint-Associated Infections?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most common cause of failure of total joint arthroplasty, but a gold standard for PJI diagnosis is still lacking. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proinflammatory molecules inducing intracellular oxidative stress (OS) after binding to their cell membrane receptors (RAGE). The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), as a new OS and infection marker correlating sRAGE to the level of OS and antioxidant defenses, in PJI, in order to explore the possible application of this new biomarker in the early diagnosis of PJI. Plasmatic sRAGE levels (by ELISA assay), plasma antioxidant total defenses (by lag time method), plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels (by colorimetric assay) were evaluated in 11 PJI patients and in 30 matched controls. ROS and TBARS were significantly higher (p < 0.001) while plasma total antioxidant capacity and sRAGE were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in patients with PJI compared to controls. Our results confirm the OS in PJI and show a strong negative correlation between the level of sRAGE and oxidative status, suggesting the plasmatic sRAGE as a potential marker for improving PJI early diagnosis. PMID:29386700

  8. Plasmatic Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products as a New Oxidative Stress Biomarker in Patients with Prosthetic-Joint-Associated Infections?

    PubMed

    Massaccesi, Luca; Bonomelli, Barbara; Marazzi, Monica Gioia; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco Corsi; Erba, Daniela; Papini, Nadia; Barassi, Alessandra; Goi, Giancarlo; Galliera, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most common cause of failure of total joint arthroplasty, but a gold standard for PJI diagnosis is still lacking. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proinflammatory molecules inducing intracellular oxidative stress (OS) after binding to their cell membrane receptors (RAGE). The aim of this study was to evaluate plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), as a new OS and infection marker correlating sRAGE to the level of OS and antioxidant defenses, in PJI, in order to explore the possible application of this new biomarker in the early diagnosis of PJI. Plasmatic sRAGE levels (by ELISA assay), plasma antioxidant total defenses (by lag time method), plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels (by colorimetric assay) were evaluated in 11 PJI patients and in 30 matched controls. ROS and TBARS were significantly higher ( p < 0.001) while plasma total antioxidant capacity and sRAGE were significantly lower ( p < 0.01) in patients with PJI compared to controls. Our results confirm the OS in PJI and show a strong negative correlation between the level of sRAGE and oxidative status, suggesting the plasmatic sRAGE as a potential marker for improving PJI early diagnosis.

  9. Synovial Fluid α-Defensin as a Biomarker for Peri-Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yi; Xu, Guokang

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been one of the most beneficial interventions for treating patients suffering from joint disorders. However, peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication that often accompanies TJA and the diagnosis of PJI is remains difficult. Questions remain regarding whether certain biomarkers can be valuable in the diagnosis of PJI. We conducted our systematic review by searching PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Science Direct with the key words "periprosthetic joint infection," "synovial fluid," and "α-defensin." Studies that provided sufficient data to construct 2 × 2 contingency tables were chosen based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed according to the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated for the included studies. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (AUSROC) were used to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance. Eight studies were included in this systematic review. Among them four articles were included in meta-analysis. A total of 421 participants were studied in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.00), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), and 1095.49 (95% CI: 283.68.58-4230.45), respectively. The AUSROC was 0.9949 (standard error [SE] 0.0095). Synovial fluid α-defensin is a biomarker of high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PJI.

  10. Managing uncertainty - a qualitative study of surgeons' decision-making for one-stage and two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic hip joint infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, Andrew J; Blom, Ashley W; Whitehouse, Michael R; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2017-04-12

    Approximately 88,000 primary hip replacements are performed in England and Wales each year. Around 1% go on to develop deep prosthetic joint infection. Between one-stage and two-stage revision arthroplasty best treatment options remain unclear. Our aims were to characterise consultant orthopaedic surgeons' decisions about performing either one-stage or two-stage revision surgery for patients with deep prosthetic infection (PJI) after hip arthroplasty, and to identify whether a randomised trial comparing one-stage with two-stage revision would be feasible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 consultant surgeons who perform revision surgery for PJI after hip arthroplasty at 5 high-volume National Health Service (NHS) orthopaedic departments in England and Wales. Surgeons were interviewed before the development of a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. There is no single standardised surgical intervention for the treatment of PJI. Surgeons balance multiple factors when choosing a surgical strategy which include multiple patient-related factors, their own knowledge and expertise, available infrastructure and the infecting organism. Surgeons questioned whether it was appropriate that the two-stage revision remained the best treatment, and some surgeons' willingness to consider more one-stage revisions had increased over recent years and were influenced by growing evidence showing equivalence between surgical techniques, and local observations of successful one-stage revisions. Custom-made articulating spacers was a practice that enabled uncertainty to be managed in the absence of definitive evidence about the superiority of one surgical technique over the other. Surgeons highlighted the need for research evidence to inform practice and thought that a randomised trial to compare treatments was needed. Most surgeons thought that patients who they treated would be eligible for trial participation in instances

  11. Executive summary of management of prosthetic joint infections. Clinical practice guidelines by the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

    PubMed

    Ariza, Javier; Cobo, Javier; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Benito, Natividad; Bori, Guillermo; Cabo, Javier; Corona, Pablo; Esteban, Jaime; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Murillo, Oscar; Palomino, Julián; Parra, Jorge; Pigrau, Carlos; Del Pozo, José Luis; Riera, Melchor; Rodríguez, Dolores; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Soriano, Alex; Del Toro, M Dolores; de la Torre, Basilio

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is expected to increase in the coming years. PJI has serious consequences for patients, and high costs for the health system. The complexity of these infections makes it necessary to organize the vast quantity of information published in the last several years. The indications for the choice of a given surgical strategy and the corresponding antimicrobial therapy are specifically reviewed. The authors selected clinically relevant questions and then reviewed the available literature in order to give recommendations according to a pre-determined level of scientific evidence. The more controversial aspects were debated, and the final composition was agreed at an ad hoc meeting. Before its final publication, the manuscript was made available online in order that all SEIMC members were able to read it and make comments and suggestions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) in an ex vivo model of whole blood killing and in prosthetic joint infection (PJI): A role for C5a.

    PubMed

    Al-Ishaq, Rand; Armstrong, Jayne; Gregory, Martin; O'Hara, Miriam; Phiri, Kudzai; Harris, Llinos G; Rohde, Holger; Siemssen, Nicolaus; Frommelt, Lars; Mack, Dietrich; Wilkinson, Thomas S

    2015-12-01

    A major complication of using medical devices is the development of biofilm-associated infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis where polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is a major mechanism of biofilm accumulation. PIA affects innate and humoral immunity in isolated cells and animal models. Few studies have examined these effects in prosthetic joint infection (PJI). This study used ex vivo whole blood modelling in controls together with matched-serum and staphylococcal isolates from patients with PJI. Whole blood killing of PIA positive S. epidermidis and its isogenic negative mutant was identical. Differences were unmasked in immunosuppressed whole blood pre-treated with dexamethasone where PIA positive bacteria showed a more resistant phenotype. PIA expression was identified in three unique patterns associated with bacteria and leukocytes, implicating a soluble form of PIA. Purified PIA reduced whole blood killing while increasing C5a levels. In clinically relevant staphylococcal isolates and serum samples from PJI patients; firstly complement C5a was increased 3-fold compared to controls; secondly, the C5a levels were significantly higher in serum from PJI patients whose isolates preferentially formed PIA-associated biofilms. These data demonstrate for the first time that the biological effects of PIA are mediated through C5a in patients with PJI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Health Care Needs and Support for Patients Undergoing Treatment for Prosthetic Joint Infection following Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Beswick, Andrew D; Peters, Tim J; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W; Moore, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Hip and knee arthroplasty are common interventions for the treatment of joint conditions, most notably osteoarthritis. Although many patients benefit from surgery, approximately 1% of patients develop infection afterwards known as deep prosthetic joint infection (PJI), which often requires further major surgery. To assess support needs of patients undergoing treatment for PJI following hip or knee arthroplasty and to identify and evaluate what interventions are routinely offered to support such patients. Systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cinahl, Social Science Citation Index, The Cochrane Library, and reference lists of relevant studies from January 01, 1980 to October 05, 2016. Observational (prospective or retrospective cohort, nested case-control or case-control) studies, qualitative studies, or clinical trials conducted in patients treated for PJI and/or other major adverse occurrences following hip or knee arthroplasty. Data were extracted by two independent investigators and consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Given the heterogeneous nature of study designs, methods, and limited number of studies, a narrative synthesis is presented. Of 4,213 potentially relevant citations, we identified one case-control, one prospective cohort and two qualitative studies for inclusion in the synthesis. Patients report that PJI and treatment had a profoundly negative impact affecting physical, emotional, social and economic aspects of their lives. No study evaluated support interventions. The findings demonstrate that patients undergoing treatment for PJI have extensive physical, psychological, social and economic support needs. The interpretation of study results is limited by variation in study design, outcome measures and the small number of relevant eligible studies. However, our review highlights a lack of evidence about support strategies for patients undergoing treatment for PJI and other adverse occurrences following hip or

  14. How Many Samples and How Many Culture Media To Diagnose a Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Clinical and Microbiological Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Julie; Tandé, Didier; Plouzeau, Chloé; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bret, Laurent; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Burucoa, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous perioperative samples and culture media are required to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI), their exact number and types have not yet been definitely determined with a high level of proof. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to determine the minimal number of samples and culture media required for accurate diagnosis of PJI. Over a 2-year period, consecutive patients with clinical signs suggesting PJI were included, with five perioperative samples per patient. The bacteriological and PJI diagnosis criteria were assessed using a random selection of two, three, or four samples and compared with those obtained using the recommended five samples (references guidelines). The results obtained with two or three culture media were then compared with those obtained with five culture media for both criteria. The times-to-positivity of the different culture media were calculated. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, with a bacteriological criterion in 192 (89%). The PJI was monomicrobial (85%) or polymicrobial (15%). Percentages of agreement of 98.1% and 99.7%, respectively, for the bacteriological criterion and confirmed PJI diagnosis were obtained when four perioperative samples were considered. The highest percentages of agreement were obtained with the association of three culture media, a blood culture bottle, a chocolate agar plate, and Schaedler broth, incubated for 5, 7, and 14 days, respectively. This new procedure leads to significant cost saving. Our prospective multicenter study showed that four samples seeded on three culture media are sufficient for diagnosing PJI. PMID:26637380

  15. Early prosthetic hip joint infection treated with debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics: functional outcomes, quality of life and complications.

    PubMed

    Aboltins, C; Dowsey, M M; Peel, T; Lim, W K; Parikh, S; Stanley, P; Choong, P F

    2013-07-01

    Patients treated for early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with surgical debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics, such as rifampicin or fluoroquinolones have a rate of successful infection eradication that is similar to patients treated with the traditional approach of prosthesis exchange. It is therefore important to consider other outcomes after PJI treatment that may influence management decisions, such as function, quality of life (QOL) and treatment-associated complications. To describe rates of successful treatment for patients with PJI undergoing surgical debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics and compare their functional outcomes, QOL and complication rates to patients without PJI. Nineteen patients treated for PJI after hip arthroplasty with debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics were matched to 76 controls who underwent hip arthroplasty with no infection. Cumulative survival free from treatment failure at 2 years was 88% (95% confidence interval, 59-97%). PJI cases had significant improvement from pre-arthroplasty to 12-months post-arthroplasty in function according to Harris Hip Score and QOL according to the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary. There was no significant difference in the improvement between controls and cases. PJI was not a risk factor for poor function or QOL. Medical complications occurred more frequently in cases (6/19 (32%)) than controls (9/76 (12%); P = 0.04), with this difference being accounted for by drug reactions. Surgical complications were the same in the two groups. Treatment of PJI with debridement, prosthesis retention and biofilm-active antibiotics is successful, well tolerated and results in significant improvements in function and QOL, which are similar to patients without PJI. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Identification of bacteria on the surface of clinically infected and non-infected prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and by microbiological culture

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Kate E; Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Hannah, Victoria E; Ramage, Gordon; Allan, David; Bagg, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It has been postulated that bacteria attached to the surface of prosthetic hip joints can cause localised inflammation, resulting in failure of the replacement joint. However, diagnosis of infection is difficult with traditional microbiological culture methods, and evidence exists that highly fastidious or non-cultivable organisms have a role in implant infections. The purpose of this study was to use culture and culture-independent methods to detect the bacteria present on the surface of prosthetic hip joints removed during revision arthroplasties. Ten consecutive revisions were performed by two surgeons, which were all clinically and radiologically loose. Five of the hip replacement revision surgeries were performed because of clinical infections and five because of aseptic loosening. Preoperative and perioperative specimens were obtained from each patient and subjected to routine microbiological culture. The prostheses removed from each patient were subjected to mild ultrasonication to dislodge adherent bacteria, followed by aerobic and anaerobic microbiological culture. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each sonicate and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair 27f/1387r. All 10 specimens were positive for the presence of bacteria by both culture and PCR. PCR products were then cloned, organised into groups by RFLP analysis and one clone from each group was sequenced. Bacteria were identified by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with those deposited in public access sequence databases. A total of 512 clones were analysed by RFLP analysis, of which 118 were sequenced. Culture methods identified species from the genera Leifsonia (54.3%), Staphylococcus (21.7%), Proteus (8.7%), Brevundimonas (6.5%), Salibacillus (4.3%), Methylobacterium (2.2%) and Zimmermannella (2.2%). Molecular detection methods identified a more diverse microflora. The predominant genus detected was Lysobacter, representing 312 (60.9%) of 512 clones

  17. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    PubMed

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score.

    PubMed

    Löwik, Claudia A M; Jutte, Paul C; Tornero, Eduard; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Knobben, Bas A S; de Vries, Astrid J; Zijlstra, Wierd P; Dijkstra, Baukje; Soriano, Alex; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan

    2018-03-27

    Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C-reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort. We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after debridement. A total of 386 patients were included. Failure occurred in 148 patients (38.3%). Patients with KLIC scores of ≤2, 2.5-3.5, 4-5, 5.5-6.5, and ≥7 had failure rates of 27.9%, 37.1%, 49.3%, 54.5%, and 85.7%, respectively (P < .001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.59-0.69). A KLIC score higher than 6 points showed a specificity of 97.9%. The KLIC score is a relatively good preoperative risk score for DAIR failure in patients with early acute PJI and appears to be most useful in clinical practice for patients with low or high KLIC scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short- versus long-duration levofloxacin plus rifampicin for acute staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection managed with implant retention: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Euba, Gorane; Cobo, Javier; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Soriano, Alex; Sandoval, Enrique; Pigrau, Carles; Benito, Natividad; Falgueras, Luis; Palomino, Julián; Del Toro, María Dolores; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Iribarren, José Antonio; Sánchez-Somolinos, Mar; Ramos, Antonio; Fernández-Sampedro, Marta; Riera, Melchor; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu Mirena; Ariza, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Levofloxacin plus rifampicin (L+R) is the treatment of choice for acute staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection (PJI) managed with debridement and implant retention (DAIR). Long courses have been empirically recommended, but some studies have suggested that shorter treatments could be as effective. Our aim was to prove that a short treatment schedule was non-inferior to the standard long schedule. An open-label, multicentre, randomised clinical trial (RCT) was performed. Patients with an early post-surgical or haematogenous staphylococcal PJI, managed with DAIR and initiated on L+R were randomised to receive 8 weeks of treatment (short schedule) versus a long schedule (3 months or 6 months for hip or knee prostheses, respectively). The primary endpoint was cure rate. From 175 eligible patients, 63 were included (52% women; median age, 72 years): 33 patients (52%) received the long schedule and 30 (48%) received the short schedule. There were no differences between the two groups except for a higher rate of polymicrobial infection in the long-schedule group (27% vs. 7%; P = 0.031). Median follow-up was 540 days. In the intention-to-treat analysis, cure rates were 58% and 73% in patients receiving the long and short schedules, respectively (difference -15.7%, 95% CI -39.2% to 7.8%). Forty-four patients (70%) were evaluable per-protocol: cure rates were 95.0% and 91.7% for the long and short schedules, respectively (difference 3.3%, 95% CI -11.7% to 18.3%). This is the first RCT suggesting that 8 weeks of L+R could be non-inferior to longer standard treatments for acute staphylococcal PJI managed with DAIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Rothia mucilaginosa Prosthetic Device Infections: a Case of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Tokarczyk, Mindy J.; Jungkind, Donald; DeSimone, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Rothia mucilaginosa is increasingly recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen associated with prosthetic device infections. Infective endocarditis is one of the most common clinical presentations. We report a case of R. mucilaginosa prosthetic valve endocarditis and review the literature of prosthetic device infections caused by this organism. PMID:23467598

  1. How Many Samples and How Many Culture Media To Diagnose a Prosthetic Joint Infection: a Clinical and Microbiological Prospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Pascale; Léger, Julie; Tandé, Didier; Plouzeau, Chloé; Valentin, Anne Sophie; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Lemarié, Carole; Kempf, Marie; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Bret, Laurent; Juvin, Marie Emmanuelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Corvec, Stéphane; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous perioperative samples and culture media are required to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI), their exact number and types have not yet been definitely determined with a high level of proof. We conducted a prospective multicenter study to determine the minimal number of samples and culture media required for accurate diagnosis of PJI. Over a 2-year period, consecutive patients with clinical signs suggesting PJI were included, with five perioperative samples per patient. The bacteriological and PJI diagnosis criteria were assessed using a random selection of two, three, or four samples and compared with those obtained using the recommended five samples (references guidelines). The results obtained with two or three culture media were then compared with those obtained with five culture media for both criteria. The times-to-positivity of the different culture media were calculated. PJI was confirmed in 215/264 suspected cases, with a bacteriological criterion in 192 (89%). The PJI was monomicrobial (85%) or polymicrobial (15%). Percentages of agreement of 98.1% and 99.7%, respectively, for the bacteriological criterion and confirmed PJI diagnosis were obtained when four perioperative samples were considered. The highest percentages of agreement were obtained with the association of three culture media, a blood culture bottle, a chocolate agar plate, and Schaedler broth, incubated for 5, 7, and 14 days, respectively. This new procedure leads to significant cost saving. Our prospective multicenter study showed that four samples seeded on three culture media are sufficient for diagnosing PJI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Influence of daily dosage and frequency of administration of rifampicin-levofloxacin therapy on tolerance and effectiveness in 154 patients treated for prosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, S; Robineau, O; Titecat, M; Blondiaux, N; Valette, M; Loiez, C; Beltrand, E; Migaud, H; Senneville, E

    2015-08-01

    Data on the tolerance and effectiveness of rifampicin-levofloxacin combination therapy (RLCT) in patients treated for prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) according to daily dosage are lacking. A review of the clinical data from patients treated with RLCT for PJIs in a French referent center for PJIs was conducted. A total of 154 patients (75 F/79 M), with a median age of 64.1 years and median body weight of 83.1 kg, were included. The median daily dosages of rifampicin and levofloxacin were, respectively, 1,200 mg (range 300-2,100) and 750 mg (range 500-1,500), corresponding to a mean daily dose per kg of, respectively, 16.2 ± 4.3 mg/kg and 10.1 ± 3.0 mg/kg. After a mean follow-up period of 55.6 ± 27.1 months (range 24-236), 127 patients (82.5 %) were in remission. Adverse events attributable to rifampicin and levofloxacin were reported in 48 (31.2 %) and 13 (8.4 %) patients (p < 0.001), respectively. Patients who experienced rifampicin-related adverse events had been given higher rifampicin daily doses than the other patients (p = 0.04). The rifampicin daily dosage did not influence patient outcome and nor did the levofloxacin daily dosage on both tolerance and patient outcome. Our results suggest that adjusting rifampicin daily doses to the patient total body weight when combined with levofloxacin for the treatment of PJIs is associated with a poor tolerance. High daily doses of rifampicin (>600 mg) and levofloxacin (750 mg) do not improve patient outcome when compared to lower daily doses in this setting.

  3. Improving the accuracy of synovial fluid analysis in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection with simple and inexpensive biomarkers: C-reactive protein and adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Sousa, R; Serrano, P; Gomes Dias, J; Oliveira, J C; Oliveira, A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to increase the diagnostic accuracy of the analysis of synovial fluid in the differentiation of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) by the addition of inexpensive biomarkers such as the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), adenosine deaminase (ADA), alpha-2-macrogloblulin (α2M) and procalcitonin. Between January 2013 and December 2015, synovial fluid and removed implants were requested from 143 revision total joint arthroplasties. A total of 55 patients met inclusion criteria of the receipt of sufficient synovial fluid, tissue samples and removed implants for analysis. The diagnosis of PJI followed the definition from a recent International Consensus Meeting to create two groups of patients; septic and aseptic. Using receiver operating characteristic curves we determined the cutoff values and diagnostic accuracy for each marker. There were 23 PJIs and 32 patients with aseptic loosening. The levels of total leucocyte count, proportion of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), CRP, ADA and α2M in the synovial fluid were all significantly higher in those with a PJI than in those with aseptic loosening. The levels of procalcitonin were comparable in the two groups. Cutoff values for the optimal performance in the diagnosis of infection were: total leucocyte count > 1463 cells/μL (sensitivity (Sens) 100%, specificity (Spec) 71.9%, positive predictive value (PPV) 71.9%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100%); proportion of PMNs > 81% (Sens 78.3%, Spec 75.0%, PPV 69.2%, NPV 82.8%); CRP > 6.7mg/L (Sens 78.3%, Spec 93.8%, PPV 90.0%, NPV 85.7%); ADA > 61U/L (Sens 78.3%, Spec 96.9%, PPV 94.7%, NPV 86.1%) and α2M > 958 mg/L (Sens 47.8%, Spec 96.9%, PPV 91.7%, NPV 72.1%). The addition of a raised level of CRP or ADA to the total leukocyte count increased the specificity: total leukocyte count > 1463 cells/μL and CRP > 6.7mg/L (Sens 78.3%, Spec 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 86.5%) or with ADA > 61U/L (Sens 78.3%, Spec 96.9%, PPV 94.7%, NPV 86.1%). The total

  4. Two-stage reimplantation for treating prosthetic shoulder infections.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Vani J; Ho, Jason C; Kovacevic, David; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2011-09-01

    Two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection reportedly has the lowest risk for recurrent infection. Most studies to date have evaluated revision surgery for infection using an anatomic prosthetic. As compared with anatomic prostheses, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reported to have a higher rate of infection. We determined reinfection rates, functional improvement, types and rates of complications, and influence of rotator cuff tissue on function for two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic joint infection treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients treated with a two-stage reimplantation for prosthetic shoulder infection using a uniform protocol for management of infection; of these, 17 had reverse shoulder arthroplasty at second-stage surgery. Types of organisms cultured, recurrence rates, complications, function, and radiographic followup were reviewed for all patients. One of the 17 patients had recurrence of infection. The mean (± SD) Penn shoulder scores for patients treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty improved from 24.9 ± 22.3 to 66.4 ± 20.8. The average motion at last followup was 123° ± 33° of forward flexion and 26° ± 8° of external rotation in patients treated with a reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The major complication rate was 35% in reverse shoulder arthroplasty, with five dislocations and one reinfection. There was no difference in final Penn score between patients with and without external rotation weakness. Shoulder function and pain improved in patients treated with a second-stage reimplantation of a reverse prosthesis and the reinfection rate was low. Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections due to gram-negative bacilli treated with open debridement and retention of the prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan C; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2009-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of < or = 15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of < or = 15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis < or = 15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone.

  6. Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pastor, Juan C.; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A.; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ≤15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ≤15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone. PMID:19687237

  7. Mycobacterium smegmatis infection of a prosthetic total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saffo, Zaid; Ognjan, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most common organisms causing prosthetic knee joint infections are staphylococci. However, arthroplasty infections with atypical microbial pathogens, such as Mycobacteria can occur. Due to the rarity of mycobacterial prosthetic joint infections, diagnosis, treatment, and management of these atypical infections represent a clinical challenge. A 71-year old female post-operative day 40 after a left total knee arthroplasty was hospitalized secondary to left knee pain and suspected arthroplasty infection. She had failed outpatient oral antimicrobial treatment for superficial stitch abscess; and outpatient IV/Oral antimicrobials for a clinical postoperative septic bursitis. Ultimately, resection arthroplasty with operative tissue acid fast bacterial cultures demonstrated growth of the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Post-operatively, she completed a combination course of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin and successfully completed a replacement arthroplasty with clinical and microbial resolution of the infection. To our knowledge, literature review demonstrates three case of knee arthroplasty infection caused by the Mycobacterium smegmatis group. Correspondingly, optimal surgical procedures and antimicrobial management including antimicrobial selection, treatment duration are not well defined. Presently, the best treatment options consists of two step surgical management including prosthesis hardware removal followed by extended antimicrobial therapy, followed by consideration for re-implantation arthroplasty. Our case illustrates importance of considering atypical mycobacterial infections in post-operative arthroplasty infections not responding to traditional surgical manipulations and antimicrobials. For an arthroplasty infection involving the atypical Mycobacterium smegmatis group, two step arthroplasty revision, including arthroplasty resection, with a combination of oral doxycycline and levofloxacin can lead to successful infection resolution, allowing for a

  8. Corynebacterium minutissimum vascular graft infection: case report and review of 281 cases of prosthetic device-related Corynebacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Reece, Rebecca M; Cunha, Cheston B; Rich, Josiah D

    2014-09-01

    Corynebacterium spp. have proven their pathogenic potential in causing infections, particularly in the setting of immunosuppression and prosthetic devices. We conducted a PubMed literature review of all cases of Corynebacterium prosthetic device infections published in the English language through December 2013. The majority of cases involved peritoneal dialysis and central venous catheters, but prosthetic joints and central nervous system shunts/drains were also involved. The management of these cases in terms of retention or removal of the device was not uniform; however, the overall mortality remained the same among both groups. All of these prosthetic device infections pose potential problems in management when the device cannot be removed safely for the patient, especially with the lack of data on the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium species. However with better identification of species and sensitivities, successful treatment is possible even with retention of the device.

  9. [Incidence of hip and knee prosthetic infections in a specialized center of Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Contreras-Córdova, Erika Lizbeth; Mondragón-Eguiluz, Jaime Arturo; Vanegas-Rodríguez, Edgar Samuel; Ilizaliturri-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo

    Hip and knee prosthetic replacements have proven to be the most appropriate treatment in the joints that do not benefit from medical or arthroscopic interventions; however, infections are the most feared complication. It is recommended that the incidence of infection should not exceed 2%. This was an observational, prospective, longitudinal and observational study conducted in patients fitted with a prosthetic joint from August 2011 to July 2012. Patients were followed up pre and post-surgery for one year to identify a prosthetic infection, diagnosed using international parameters. We calculated the incidence of prosthetic infection, as well as the incidence density. A total of 339 patients (179 hip and 160 knee) were included. Variations in the time of pre-operative antibiotics' administration were observed. Six prosthetic infections were identified with an incidence rate of 1.79/339 arthroplasties, 2.2/179 hip procedures, and 1.25/160 knee arthroplasties. An incidence density of 0.02/year for hip arthroplasties and 0.11/year for knee procedures was identified. There were 4 infections of hip and 2 of knee. Five infections were acute and one chronic. The isolated microorganisms were E. faecalis, S. epidermidis (2), S. mitis, S. aureus and P. stomatis. The incidence of prosthetic joint infection in the first year of follow-up at our centre is within the recommended parameters. Surgical techniques and organizational practices influence the results. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Synovial aspiration and serological testing in two-stage revision arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection: evaluation before reconstruction with a mean follow-up of twenty seven months.

    PubMed

    Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Knebel, C; Pohlig, Florian; Feihl, Susanne; Harrasser, Norbert; Schauwecker, Johannes; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger

    2018-02-01

    The two-stage revision protocol is the gold standard for controlling and treating low-grade prosthetic joint infections of total hip and total knee arthroplasty. The antibiotic pause for diagnostic reasons before reconstruction (stage two) is discussed in relation to the persistence of the infection and the development of resistant bacterial strains. Serological markers and a synovial analysis are commonly used to exclude the persistence of infection. Therefore, we asked (1) is the serological testing of C-reactive protein and leucocytes a valuable tool to predict a persistence of infection? and (2) what is the role of synovial aspiration of Plymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) spacers in hip and knee joints? One hundred twelve patients who were MSIS criteria-positive for a prosthetic joint infection were studied, including 45 total hip arthroplasties (THA) and 67 total knee artrhoplasties (TKA) patients. All patients were treated with a two-stage-protocol using a mobile PMMA spacer after a 14-day antibiotic-free interval, during which we measured serological markers (C-reactive protein and leucocytes) and performed synovial aspiration (white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear cell percentage, and microbiological culture) in these patients and compared the results with those of their long-term-follow-up (mean follow-up 27 months, range 24-36 months). Of the 112 patients, 89 patients (79.5%; 95% CI 72-86.9) exhibited infection control after a two-stage exchange, and we detected most methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) in cases of a persistent infection. The mean sensitivity of serum C-reactive protein in the patients was 0.43 (range 0.23-0.64), and the mean specificity was 0.73 (range 0.64-0.82). For serum leucocytes, the mean sensitivity was 0.09 (range 0-0.29), and the mean specificity was 0.81 (range 0.7-0.92). The mean sensitivity for the WBC count in the synovial fluid (PMMA spacer aspiration) was 0.1 (range 0-0.29), and the mean

  11. Salmonella Typhimurium gastroenteritis leading to chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Milo; Clarke, Michael; Dallman, Tim; Peart, Steven; Wilson, Deborah; Weiand, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection. Three years earlier, she had undergone a prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft for critical limb ischaemia. The infected prosthetic vascular graft was removed and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated on culture. In the intervening period, Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from a faecal specimen, collected during an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) showed that the respective Salmonella Typhimurium isolates differed by only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Salmonella Typhimurium was not isolated on culture of a faecal specimen collected five days following cessation of antimicrobial therapy. Six months after removal of the prosthetic graft, the patient remains under follow-up for her peripheral vascular disease, which currently requires no further surgical intervention. Conclusion. This case has clear implications for the management of chronic PVGI. It is vital to collect high-quality surgical specimens for microbiological analysis and empirical choices of antibiotics are unlikely to cover all potential pathogens. It may also be prudent to enquire about a history of acute gastroenteritis when assessing patients presenting with chronic PVGI.

  12. One-stage or two-stage revision surgery for prosthetic hip joint infection--the INFORM trial: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Strange, Simon; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Board, Tim; Burston, Amanda; Burston, Ben; Carroll, Fran E; Dieppe, Paul; Garfield, Kirsty; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Jones, Stephen; Kunutsor, Setor; Lane, Athene; Lenguerrand, Erik; MacGowan, Alasdair; Moore, Andrew; Noble, Sian; Simon, Joanne; Stockley, Ian; Taylor, Adrian H; Toms, Andrew; Webb, Jason; Whittaker, John-Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Wylde, Vikki; Blom, Ashley W

    2016-02-17

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) affects approximately 1% of patients following total hip replacement (THR) and often results in severe physical and emotional suffering. Current surgical treatment options are debridement, antibiotics and implant retention; revision THR; excision of the joint and amputation. Revision surgery can be done as either a one-stage or two-stage operation. Both types of surgery are well-established practice in the NHS and result in similar rates of re-infection, but little is known about the impact of these treatments from the patient's perspective. The main aim of this randomised controlled trial is to determine whether there is a difference in patient-reported outcome measures 18 months after randomisation for one-stage or two-stage revision surgery. INFORM (INFection ORthopaedic Management) is an open, two-arm, multi-centre, randomised, superiority trial. We aim to randomise 148 patients with eligible PJI of the hip from approximately seven secondary care NHS orthopaedic units from across England and Wales. Patients will be randomised via a web-based system to receive either a one-stage revision or a two-stage revision THR. Blinding is not possible due to the nature of the intervention. All patients will be followed up for 18 months. The primary outcome is the WOMAC Index, which assesses hip pain, function and stiffness, collected by questionnaire at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include the following: cost-effectiveness, complications, re-infection rates, objective hip function assessment and quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore patients' and surgeons' experiences, including their views about trial participation and randomisation. INFORM is the first ever randomised trial to compare two widely accepted surgical interventions for the treatment of PJI: one-stage and two-stage revision THR. The results of the trial will benefit patients in the future as the main focus is on patient-reported outcomes: pain, function

  13. Graft-Sparing Strategy for Thoracic Prosthetic Graft Infection.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kakii, Bunpachi; Furui, Masato

    2018-04-01

     Thoracic prosthetic graft infection is a rare but serious complication with no standard management. We reported our surgical experience on graft-sparing strategy for thoracic prosthetic graft infection.  This study included patients who underwent graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection at Matsubara Tokushukai Hospital in Japan from January 2000 to October 2017.  There were 17 patients included in the analyses, with a mean age at surgery of 71.0 ± 10.5 years; 11 were men. In-hospital mortality was observed in five patients (29.4%).  Graft-sparing surgery for thoracic prosthetic graft infection is an alternative option particularly for early graft infection after hemiarch replacement. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Experimental and failure analysis of the prosthetic finger joint implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Sanjiv H.

    Small joint replacement arthroplasty of the hand is a well accepted surgical procedure to restore function and cosmesis in an individual with a crippled hand. Silicone elastomers have been used as prosthetic material in various small hand joints for well over three decades. Although the clinical science aspects of silicone elastomer failure are well known, the physical science aspects of prosthetic failure are scant and vague. In the following thesis, using both an animal model, and actual retrieved specimens which have failed in human service, experimental and failure analysis of silicone finger joints are presented. Fractured surfaces of retrieved silicone trapezial implants, and silicone finger joint implants were studied with both FESEM and SEM; the mode of failure for silicone trapezium is by wear polishing, whereas the finger joint implants failed either by fatigue fracture or tearing of the elastomer, or a combination of both. Thermal analysis revealed that the retrieved elastomer implants maintained its viscoelastic properties throughout the service period. In order to provide for a more functional and physiologic arthroplasty a novel finger joint (Rolamite prosthesis) is proposed using more recently developed thermoplastic polymers. The following thesis also addresses the outcome of the experimental studies of the Rolamite prosthesis in a rabbit animal model, in addition to the failure analysis of the thermoplastic polymers while in service in an in vivo synovial environment. Results of retrieved Rolamite specimens suggest that the use for thermoplastic elastomers such as block copolymer based elastomers in a synovial environment such as a mammalian joint may very well be limited.

  15. Treatment Challenges of Prosthetic Hip Infection with Associated Iliacus Muscle Abscess: Report of 5 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, Joshua M; Mesko, Nathan W; Higuera, Carlos A; Molloy, Robert M; Simpfendorfer, Claus; Babic, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is an unfortunate though well-recognized complication of total joint arthroplasty. An iliacus and/or iliopsoas muscle abscess is a rarely documented presentation of hip prosthetic joint infection. It is thought an unrecognized retroperitoneal nidus of infection can be a source of continual seeding of the prosthetic hip joint, prolonging attempts to eradicate infection despite aggressive debridement and explant attempts. The current study presents five cases demonstrating this clinical scenario, and discusses various treatment challenges. In each case we report the patient's clinical history, pertinent imaging, management and outcome. Diagnosis of the iliacus muscle abscess was made using computed tomography imaging. In brief, the mean number of total drainage procedures (open and percutaneous) per patient was 4.2, and outcomes consisted of one patient with a hip girdlestone, two patients with delayed revisions, and two patients with retained prosthesis. All patients ended with functional pain and on oral antibiotic suppression with an average follow up of 18 months. This article highlights an iliacus muscle abscess as an unrecognized source of infection to a prosthetic hip. It demonstrates resilience to standard treatment protocols for prosthetic hip infection, and is associated with poor patient outcomes. Aggressive surgical debridement appears to remain critical to treatment success, and early retroperitoneal debridement of the abscess should be considered.

  16. May one-stage exchange for Candida albicans peri-prosthetic infection be successful?

    PubMed

    Jenny, J-Y; Goukodadja, O; Boeri, C; Gaudias, J

    2016-02-01

    Fungal infection of a total joint arthroplasty has a low incidence but is generally considered as more difficult to cure than bacterial infection. As for bacterial infection, two-stage exchange is considered as the gold standard of treatment. We report two cases of one-stage total joint exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection with Candida albicans, where the responsible pathogens was only identified on intraoperative samples. This situation can be considered as a one-stage exchange for fungal peri-prosthetic infection without preoperative identification of the responsible organism, which is considered as having a poor prognosis. Both cases were free of infection after two years. One-stage revision has several potential advantages over two-stage revision, including shorter hospital stay and rehabilitation, no interim period with significant functional impairment, shorter antibiotic treatment, better functional outcome and probably lower costs. We suggest that one-stage revision for C. albicans peri-prosthetic infection may be successful even without preoperative fungal identification. Level IV-Historical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A powered prosthetic ankle joint for walking and running.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, Martin; Holgate, Matthew; Holgate, Robert; Boehler, Alexander; Ward, Jeffrey; Hollander, Kevin; Sugar, Thomas; Seyfarth, André

    2016-12-19

    Current prosthetic ankle joints are designed either for walking or for running. In order to mimic the capabilities of an able-bodied, a powered prosthetic ankle for walking and running was designed. A powered system has the potential to reduce the limitations in range of motion and positive work output of passive walking and running feet. To perform the experiments a controller capable of transitions between standing, walking, and running with speed adaptations was developed. In the first case study the system was mounted on an ankle bypass in parallel with the foot of a non-amputee subject. By this method the functionality of hardware and controller was proven. The Walk-Run ankle was capable of mimicking desired torque and angle trajectories in walking and running up to 2.6 m/s. At 4 m/s running, ankle angle could be matched while ankle torque could not. Limited ankle output power resulting from a suboptimal spring stiffness value was identified as a main reason. Further studies have to show to what extent the findings can be transferred to amputees.

  18. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Periprosthetic Tissue Culture in Blood Culture Bottles to That of Prosthesis Sonication Fluid Culture for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) by Use of Bayesian Latent Class Modeling and IDSA PJI Criteria for Classification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qun; Karau, Melissa J; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Osmon, Douglas R; Abdel, Matthew P; Patel, Robin

    2018-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that culturing periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles (BCBs) improves sensitivity compared to conventional agar and broth culture methods for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We have also shown that prosthesis sonication culture improves sensitivity compared to periprosthetic tissue culture using conventional agar and broth methods. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of tissue culture in BCBs (subsequently referred to as tissue culture) to prosthesis sonication culture (subsequently referred to as sonicate fluid culture). We studied 229 subjects who underwent arthroplasty revision or resection surgery between March 2016 and October 2017 at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Using the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) PJI diagnostic criteria (omitting culture criteria) as the gold standard, the sensitivity of tissue culture was similar to that of the sonicate fluid culture (66.4% versus 73.1%, P = 0.07) but was significantly lower than that of the two tests combined (66.4% versus 76.9%, P < 0.001). Using Bayesian latent class modeling, which assumes no gold standard for PJI diagnosis, the sensitivity of tissue culture was slightly lower than that of sonicate fluid culture (86.3% versus 88.7%) and much lower than that of the two tests combined (86.3% versus 99.1%). In conclusion, tissue culture in BCBs reached sensitivity similar to that of prosthesis sonicate fluid culture for diagnosis of PJI, but the two tests combined had the highest sensitivity without compromising specificity. The combination of tissue culture in BCBs and sonicate fluid culture is recommended to achieve the highest level of microbiological diagnosis of PJI. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Prosthetic Knee Joint Using the Geared Five-Bar Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanxi; Ge, Wenjie; Zheng, Jia; Dong, Dianbiao

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, dynamics analysis and ankle trajectory analysis of a prosthetic knee joint using the geared five-bar mechanism. Compared with traditional four-bar or six-bar mechanisms, the geared five-bar mechanism is better at performing diverse movements and is easy to control. This prosthetic knee joint with the geared five-bar mechanism is capable of fine-tuning its relative instantaneous center of rotation and ankle trajectory. The centrode of this prosthetic knee joint, which is mechanically optimized according to the centrode of human knee joint, is better in the bionic performance than that of a prosthetic knee joint using the four-bar mechanism. Additionally, the stability control of this prosthetic knee joint during the swing and stance phase is achieved by a motor. By adjusting the gear ratio of this prosthetic knee joint, the ankle trajectories of both unilateral and bilateral amputees show less deviations from expected than that of the four-bar knee joint.

  20. Gradual Hunterian ligation for infected prosthetic bypass.

    PubMed

    Egun, A; Slade, D; McCollum, C N

    2000-04-01

    To review gradual snare occlusion for the management of complex or recurrent graft infection. Medical records of patients treated with gradual snare occlusion following graft infection were reviewed for indication for operation, type of bypass and graft material used. In addition, infecting organism, grade of infection (Szilágyi) and outcome were recorded. Four femoropopliteal, two extra-anatomic (axillofemoral) and aortobifemoral bypasses were included in this study. All had chronic infection (Szilágyi grade III) with onset of 4 to 24 months and two of which were recurrent. The causative organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in three patients, with no organism isolated in the remaining cases. There was no loss of limb following gradual snare occlusion but there was only one death due to aortic stump rupture 2 weeks later. Gradual snare occlusion is an alternative for the management of chronic or recurrent graft infection. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  1. Design and clinical outcome of a novel 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Ackland, David; Robinson, Dale; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Dimitroulis, George

    2018-05-11

    Stock prosthetic temporomandibular joint replacements come in limited sizes, and do not always encompass the joint anatomy that presents clinically. The aims of this study were twofold. Firstly, to design a personalized prosthetic total joint replacement for the treatment of a patient's end-stage temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis, to implant the prosthesis into the patient, and assess clinical outcome 12-months post-operatively; and secondly, to evaluate the influence of changes in prosthetic condyle geometry on implant load response during mastication. A 48-year-old female patient with Grade-5 osteoarthritis to the left temporomandibular joint was recruited, and a prosthesis developed to match the native temporomandibular joint anatomy. The prosthesis was 3D printed, sterilized and implanted into the patient, and pain and function measured 12-months post-operatively. The prosthesis load response during a chewing-bite and maximum-force bite was evaluated using a personalized multi-body musculoskeletal model. Simulations were performed after perturbing condyle thickness, neck length and head sphericity. Increases in prosthetic condyle neck length malaligned the mandible and perturbed temporomandibular joint force. Changes in condylar component thickness greatly influenced fixation screw stress response, while a more eccentric condylar head increased prosthetic joint-contact loading. Post-operatively, the prosthetic temporomandibular joint surgery reduced patient pain from 7/10 to 1/10 on a visual analog scale, and increased intercisal opening distance from 22 mm to 38 mm. This study demonstrates effectiveness of a personalized prosthesis that may ultimately be adapted to treat a wide-range of end-stage temporomandibular joint conditions, and highlights sensitivity of prosthesis load response to changes in condylar geometry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immediate effects of a new microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint: a comparative biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, Malte; Schmalz, Thomas; Ludwigs, Eva; Blumentritt, Siegmar

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the immediate biomechanical effects after transition to a new microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint. Intervention cross-over study with repeated measures. Only prosthetic knee joints were changed. Motion analysis laboratory. Men (N=11; mean age ± SD, 36.7±10.2y; Medicare functional classification level, 3-4) with unilateral transfemoral amputation. Two microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints: C-Leg and a new prosthetic knee joint, Genium. Static prosthetic alignment, time-distance parameters, kinematic and kinetic parameters, and center of pressure. After a half-day training and an additional half-day accommodation, improved biomechanical outcomes were demonstrated by the Genium: lower ground reaction forces at weight acceptance during level walking at various velocities, increased swing phase flexion angles during walking on a ramp, and level walking with small steps. Maximum knee flexion angle during swing phase at various velocities was nearly equal for Genium. Step-over-step stair ascent with the Genium knee was more physiologic as demonstrated by a more equal load distribution between the prosthetic and contralateral sides and a more natural gait pattern. When descending stairs and ramps, knee flexion moments with the Genium tended to increase. During quiet stance on a decline, subjects using Genium accepted higher loading of the prosthetic side knee joint, thus reducing same side hip joint loading as well as postural sway. In comparision to the C-Leg, the Genium demonstrated immediate biomechanical advantages during various daily ambulatory activities, which may lead to an increase in range and diversity of activity of people with above-knee amputations. Results showed that use of the Genium facilitated more natural gait biomechanics and load distribution throughout the affected and sound musculoskeletal structure. This was observed during quiet stance on a decline, walking on level ground, and walking up and down ramps and

  3. A patterned microtexture to reduce friction and increase longevity of prosthetic hip joints

    PubMed Central

    Chyr, Anthony; Qiu, Mingfeng; Speltz, Jared; Jacobsen, Ronald L.; Sanders, Anthony P.; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-01-01

    More than 285,000 total hip replacement surgeries are performed in the US each year. Most prosthetic hip joints consist of a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) femoral head that articulates with a polyethylene acetabular component, lubricated with synovial fluid. The statistical survivorship of these metal-on-polyethylene prosthetic hip joints declines significantly after 10 to 15 years of use, primarily as a result of polyethylene wear and wear debris incited disease. The current engineering paradigm to increase the longevity of prosthetic hip joints is to improve the mechanical properties of the polyethylene component, and to manufacture ultra-smooth articulating surfaces. In contrast, we show that adding a patterned microtexture to the ultra-smooth CoCr femoral head reduces friction when articulating with the polyethylene acetabular liner. The microtexture increases the load-carrying capacity and the thickness of the joint lubricant film, which reduces contact between the articulating surfaces. As a result, friction and wear is reduced. We have used a lubrication model to design the geometry of the patterned microtexture, and experimentally demonstrate reduced friction for the microtextured compared to conventional smooth surrogate prosthetic hip joints. PMID:25013240

  4. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    PubMed

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  5. A personalized 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint: From implant design to implantation.

    PubMed

    Ackland, David C; Robinson, Dale; Redhead, Michael; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Dimitroulis, George

    2017-05-01

    Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve. The Melbourne prosthetic TMJ was developed for a 58-year-old female recipient with end-stage osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The load response of the prosthesis during chewing and a maximum-force bite was quantified using a personalized musculoskeletal model of the patient's masticatory system developed using medical images. The simulations were then repeated after implantation of the Biomet Microfixation prosthetic TMJ, an established stock device. The maximum condylar stresses, screw stress and mandibular stress at the screw-bone interface were lower in the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ (259.6MPa, 312.9MPa and 198.4MPa, respectively) than those in the Biomet Microfixation device (284.0MPa, 416.0MPa and 262.2MPa, respectively) during the maximum-force bite, with similar trends also observed during the chewing bite. After trialing surgical placement and evaluating prosthetic TMJ stability using cadaveric specimens, the prosthesis was fabricated using 3D printing, sterilized, and implanted into the female recipient. Six months post-operatively, the prosthesis recipient had a normal jaw opening distance (40.0 mm), with no complications identified. The new design features and immediate load response of the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ suggests that it may provide improved clinical and biomechanical joint function compared to a commonly used stock device, and reduce risk of intra-operative nerve damage

  6. The transport of wear particles in the prosthetic hip joint: a computational fluid dynamics investigation.

    PubMed

    Hölzer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Sadoghi, Patrick; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar

    2012-02-02

    The joint fluid mechanics and transport of wear particles in the prosthetic hip joint were analyzed for subluxation and flexion motion using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The entire joint space including a moving capsule boundary was considered. It was found that particles suspended in the joint space are drawn into the joint gap between prosthesis cup and head during subluxation, which was also documented by Lundberg et al. (2007; Journal of Biomechanics 40, 1676-1685), however, wear particles remain in the joint gap. Wear particles leave the joint gap during flexion and can finally migrate to the proximal boundaries including the acetabular bone, where the particle deposition can cause osteolysis according to the established literature. Thus, the present study supports the theory of polyethylene wear particle induced osteolysis of the acetabular bone as a major factor in the loosening of hip prosthesis cups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Description of the rates, trends and surgical burden associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following primary and revision knee replacements in England and Wales: an analysis of the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

    PubMed

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Toms, Andrew D; Porter, Martyn L; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-07-10

    To describe the prevalence rates of revision surgery for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing knee replacement, their time trends, the cumulative incidence function of revision for PJI and estimate the burden of PJI at health service level. We analysed revision knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the National Joint Registry from 2003 to 2014 for England and Wales. The cohort analysed consisted of 679 010 index primary knee replacements, 33 920 index revision knee replacements and 8247 revision total knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence rates, their time trends investigated by time from index surgery to revision for PJI, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. The incidence of revision total knee replacement due to PJI at 2 years was 3.2/1000 following primary and 14.4/1000 following revision knee replacement, respectively. The prevalence of revision due to PJI in the 3 months following primary knee replacement has risen by 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) from 2005 to 2013 and 7.5-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 56.1) following revision knee replacement. Over 1000 procedures per year are performed as a consequence of knee PJI, an increase of 2.8 from 2005 to 2013. Overall, 75% of revisions were two-stage with an increase in use of single-stage from 7.9% in 2005 to 18.8% in 2014. Although the risk of revision due to PJI following knee replacement is low, it is rising, and coupled with the established and further predicted increased incidence of both primary and revision knee replacements, this represents an increasing and substantial treatment burden for orthopaedic service delivery in England and Wales. This has implications for future service design and the funding of individual and specialist centres. © Article author

  8. Description of the rates, trends and surgical burden associated with revision for prosthetic joint infection following primary and revision knee replacements in England and Wales: an analysis of the National Joint Registry for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man

    PubMed Central

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew D; Toms, Andrew D; Porter, Martyn L; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence rates of revision surgery for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) for patients undergoing knee replacement, their time trends, the cumulative incidence function of revision for PJI and estimate the burden of PJI at health service level. Design We analysed revision knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI and the linked index procedures recorded in the National Joint Registry from 2003 to 2014 for England and Wales. The cohort analysed consisted of 679 010 index primary knee replacements, 33 920 index revision knee replacements and 8247 revision total knee replacements performed due to a diagnosis of PJI. The prevalence rates, their time trends investigated by time from index surgery to revision for PJI, cumulative incidence functions and the burden of PJI (total procedures) were calculated. Overall linear trends were investigated with log-linear regression. Results The incidence of revision total knee replacement due to PJI at 2 years was 3.2/1000 following primary and 14.4/1000 following revision knee replacement, respectively. The prevalence of revision due to PJI in the 3 months following primary knee replacement has risen by 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 5.3) from 2005 to 2013 and 7.5-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 56.1) following revision knee replacement. Over 1000 procedures per year are performed as a consequence of knee PJI, an increase of 2.8 from 2005 to 2013. Overall, 75% of revisions were two-stage with an increase in use of single-stage from 7.9% in 2005 to 18.8% in 2014. Conclusions Although the risk of revision due to PJI following knee replacement is low, it is rising, and coupled with the established and further predicted increased incidence of both primary and revision knee replacements, this represents an increasing and substantial treatment burden for orthopaedic service delivery in England and Wales. This has implications for future service design and the funding of individual and

  9. Success rates for initial eradication of peri-prosthetic knee infection treated with a two-stage procedure.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Andrzej; Citak, Mustafa; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Fehmer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rates of primary total knee arthroplasty procedures and exchange arthroplasty procedures continue to rise. Late-onset peri-prosthetic infection constitutes a serious complication whose management may be dependent upon the spectrum of micro-organisms involved. The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of initial eradication measures performed as part of a two-stage procedure. Between 2002 and 2008, a total of 328 patients who had received a first-time diagnosis of chronic peri-prosthetic knee infection following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) subsequently underwent surgery at our clinic. The surgical approach consisted of a two-stage procedure, with the initial procedure consisting of the removal of the prosthesis and radical debridement, followed by insertion of an antibiotic-loaded static spacer. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed after six weeks, with each patient undergoing a number of clinical and laboratory-based tests, including knee joint aspiration. Staphylococcus aureus strains were responsible for 68% (n=223) of the total number of cases of peri-prosthetic knee infection. 19% of cases (n=62) showed evidence of gram-negative bacteria, while MRSA accounted for 15% (n=49) of cases. Six weeks after completion of the above-named treatment regimen, eradication of infection was considered successful in 289 patients (88.1%). Eradication was unsuccessful in 22% of MRSA infections (n=11) and 7% of MSSA infections (n=23). The treatment regimen outlined in this report is capable of achieving satisfactory results in the management of late-onset peri-prosthetic knee infection, with one exception: patients with infections caused by MRSA showed high failure rates.

  10. Psoas abscess masquerading as a prosthetic hip infection: A case report.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Malik, Azeem Tariq; Noordin, Shahryar

    2018-01-01

    Psoas abscess is an unusual condition and is defined as a collection of pus in the iliopsoas compartment. Due to the unique anatomy of psoas muscle it forms a conduit for spread of infection from upper part of body to hip joint in neglected cases. A 67year old lady presented with left groin pain for three weeks. She underwent an uncemented unipolar hemiarthoplasty eight years back. Currently, she developed fever and was unable to do any active left hip range of motion. Passive motion of the left hip was restricted to 30° flexion, no internal rotation, 5° external rotation, and 10° abduction. Lab workup showed raised serum infective markers and radiographs of pelvis were normal with no evidence of any radiolucency. Ultrasound guided aspiration of left hip joint showed E coli. Arthrotomy revealed clear fluid in hip joint but pus was drained at psoas insertion. Later on, culture reported presence of E. coli and biopsy confirmed psoas abscess. Postoperatively CT scan abdomen showed pyelonephritis. Antibiotics were given for three months. Twenty months later, she remains asymptomatic without evidence of infection with normal gait. Psoas abscess is a rare clinical entity that may mimic symptoms of a primary prosthetic hip infection. Treatment outcomes are directly related to early detection with adequate dissection of the psoas muscle up to sites of attachment and complete eradication of infection. This case highlights importance of thorough initial clinical examination, lab workup and radiological assessment to rule out rare causes of hip joint pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparative biomechanical analysis of current microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, Malte; Schmalz, Thomas; Blumentritt, Siegmar

    2010-04-01

    To investigate and identify functional differences of 4 microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (C-Leg, Hybrid Knee [also called Energy Knee], Rheo Knee, Adaptive 2). Tested situations were walking on level ground, on stairs and ramps; additionally, the fall prevention potentials for each design were examined. The measuring technology used included an optoelectronic camera system combined with 2 forceplates as well as a mobile spiroergometric system. The study was conducted in a gait laboratory. Subjects with unilateral transfemoral amputations (N=9; mobility grade, 3-4; age, 22-49y) were tested. Participants were fitted and tested with 4 different microprocessor-controlled knee joints. Static prosthetic alignment, time distance parameters, kinematic and kinetic data and metabolic energy consumption. Compared with the Hybrid Knee and the Adaptive 2, the C-Leg offers clear advantages in the provision of adequate swing phase flexion resistances and terminal extension damping during level walking at various speeds, especially at higher walking speeds. The Rheo Knee provides sufficient terminal extension; however, swing phase flexion resistances seem to be too low. The values for metabolic energy consumption show only slight differences during level walking. The joint resistances generated for descending stairs and ramps relieve the contralateral side to varying degrees. When walking on stairs, safety-relevant technical differences between the investigated joint types can be observed. Designs with adequate internal resistances offer stability advantages when the foot is positioned on the step. Stumble recovery tests reveal that the different knee joint designs vary in their effectiveness in preventing the patient from falling. The patient benefits provided by the investigated electronic prosthetic knee joints differ considerably. The C-Leg appears to offer the amputee greater functional and safety-related advantages than the other tested knee joints. Reduced

  12. Evolution of central nervous system multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and late relapse of cryptic prosthetic hip joint tuberculosis: complications during treatment of disseminated isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in an immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Upton, Arlo; Woodhouse, Andrew; Vaughan, Ross; Newton, Sandie; Ellis-Pegler, Rod

    2009-02-01

    We report a case of disseminated isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis in an immunocompromised patient with evolution of rifampin (rifampicin) resistance in the central nervous system. This was cured with intraventricular and oral treatment but was followed by a late relapse of the original infection in a prosthetic hip joint. We provide drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum.

  13. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms.

    PubMed

    Jasni, Farahiyah; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Mohd Syah, Nor Elleeiana; Chung, Tze Y; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-01-01

    The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users) walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints) were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the lower limb between

  14. Influence of Prosthetic Screw Material on Joint Stability in Passive and Non-Passive Implant-Supported Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; de Arruda Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the influence of prosthetic screw material on joint stability in implantsupported dentures at two levels of fit. Methods: Ten mandibular implant-supported dentures were fabricated. Twenty cast models were fabricated using these dentures. Four groups (n=10) were tested, according to the vertical fit of the dentures [passive and non-passive] and prosthetic screw materials [titanium (Ti) or gold (Au) alloy]. The one-screw test was performed to quantify the vertical misfits using an optic microscope. The loosening torque for the prosthetic screws was measured 24 hours after the tightening torque (10 Ncm) using a digital torque meter. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: Overall, dentures with passive fit and Ti screws resulted in significantly higher loosening torque of the prosthetic screws (p<0.05). No significant interaction was found between fit level and screw material (p=0.199). The prosthetic screw material and fit of implant-supported dentures have an influence on screw joint stability. Ti screws presented higher joint stability than Au screws and minimum of misfit should be found clinically to improve the mechanical behavior of the screw joint. PMID:20148135

  15. Design and energetic evaluation of a prosthetic knee joint actuator with a lockable parallel spring.

    PubMed

    Geeroms, J; Flynn, L; Jimenez-Fabian, R; Vanderborght, B; Lefeber, D

    2017-02-03

    There are disadvantages to existing damping knee prostheses which cause an asymmetric gait and higher metabolic cost during level walking compared to non-amputees. Most existing active knee prostheses which could benefit the amputees use a significant amount of energy and require a considerable motor. In this work, a novel semi-active actuator with a lockable parallel spring for a prosthetic knee joint has been developed and tested. This actuator is able to provide an approximation of the behavior of a healthy knee during most of the gait cycle of level walking. This actuator is expanded with a series-elastic actuator to mimic the full gait cycle and enable its use in other functional tasks like stair climbing and sit-to-stance. The proposed novel actuator reduces the energy consumption for the same trajectory with respect to a compliant or directly-driven prosthetic active knee joint and improves the approximation of healthy knee behavior during level walking compared to passive or variable damping knee prostheses.

  16. Implant salvage in breast reconstruction with severe peri-prosthetic infection.

    PubMed

    Meybodi, Farid; Sedaghat, Negin; French, James; Keighley, Caitlin; Mitchell, David; Elder, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Although treatment of mild peri-prosthetic infection in implant-based breast reconstruction results in high rates of resolution, successful management of severe peri-prosthetic infection remains a significant challenge. In this case series, a protocol utilizing a novel dressing - negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) - for the management of severe peri-prosthetic infection in breast reconstruction patients is described. This is an operative technique involving: (i) explantation of the breast prosthesis and application of the NPWTi dressing to the implant pocket; (ii) change of the NPWTi dressing; (iii) intraoperative fluid/tissue cultures; and (iv) reimplantation of the breast prosthesis when cultures yield no growth. This protocol was utilized in six cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection in five patients with immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer or risk-reducing surgery. Cultures of fluid/tissue grew typical and/or unusual organisms. Only one case did not yield an organism. The hospital length of stay upon completion of the protocol ranged from 7-16 days (mean, 12 days). Successful implant salvage was achieved in five of six cases. The protocol was aborted in one case to allow for completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Early findings from this case series suggest that in cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection this novel operative protocol may result in successful implant salvage for breast reconstruction patients. Further studies are needed to more fully elaborate the role of NPWTi to achieve implant salvage in challenging cases of peri-prosthetic infection. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Propionibacterium Acnes Infection of a Metacarpophalangeal Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bacle, Guillaume; Sikora, Sheena K; Ek, Eugene T H

    2017-05-01

    Neglected and underestimated in the past, Propionibacterium acnes is currently the most prevalent organism associated with deep prosthetic infections around the shoulder. Surprisingly, it has never been reported as a cause of infection in the hand. Here we report a case of a late presentation of a P. acnes infection in a metacarpophalangeal joint replacement, resulting in chronic low-grade pain with movement. The patient underwent a 2-stage revision, with initial removal of the prosthesis. Positive cultures for P. acnes required 15 days of extended incubation. The patient subsequently had 6 weeks of oral antibiotics followed by a second-stage revision with a Silastic implant. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Aspergillus infection of the proximal aortic prosthetic graft with associated vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Kron, I L

    1984-07-01

    This is a case report of an unusual vascular graft infection involving an invasive Aspergillus species with associated vertebral osteomyelitis. Successful treatment was obtained by graft incision, extra-anatomic bypass, and prolonged antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge this is the first successful treatment of invasive Aspergillus of an aortic prosthetic graft.

  19. Diagnosis Of Persistent Infection In Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: PCR analysis of Sonication fluid From Bone Cement Spacers.

    PubMed

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Tafin, Ulrika Furustrand; Borens, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: When treating periprosthetic joint infections with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers are used in the interval between removal of prosthesis and reimplantation. According to our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of our study was to investigate whether PCR analysis would improve the detection of bacteria in the spacer sonication fluid. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria were two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Beside tissues samples and sonication, broad range bacterial PCRs, specific S. aureus PCRs and Unyvero-multiplex PCRs were performed on the sonicated spacer fluid. Results: 30 patients were identified (15 hip, 14 knee and 1 ankle replacements). At reimplantation, cultures of tissue samples and spacer sonication fluid were all negative. Broad range PCRs were all negative. Specific S. aureus PCRs were positive in 5 cases. We had two persistent infections and four cases of infection recurrence were observed, with bacteria different than for the initial infection in three cases. Conclusion: The three different types of PCRs did not detect any bacteria in spacer sonication fluid that was culture-negative. In our study, PCR did not improve the bacterial detection and did not help to predict whether the patient will present a persistent or recurrent infection. Prosthetic 2-stage exchange with short interval and antibiotic-impregnated spacer is an efficient treatment to eradicate infection as both culture- and molecular-based methods were unable to detect bacteria in spacer sonication fluid after reimplantation.

  20. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2016-12-01

    There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012-2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3 ± 8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Bio-absorbable antibiotic impregnated beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Baril, Donald T; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is limited investigation into the use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections. Our goal was to investigate the rates of infection eradication, graft preservation, and limb salvage in patients who are not candidates for graft explant or extensive reconstruction. Methods A retrospective review of patients implanted with antibiotic impregnated bio-absorbable calcium sulfate beads at a major university center was conducted. Results Six patients with prosthetic graft infections were treated with bio-absorbable antibiotics beads from 2012–2014. Grafts included an aortobifemoral, an aorto-hepatic/superior mesenteric artery, and four extra-anatomic bypasses. Pathogens included Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Half of the patients underwent graft explant with reconstruction and half debridement of the original graft, all with antibiotic bead placement around the graft. Mean follow-up was 7.3±8.3 months; all patients had infection resolution, healed wounds, and 100% graft patency, limb salvage, and survival. Conclusion This report details the successful use of bio-absorbable antibiotic beads for the treatment prosthetic vascular graft infections in patients at high risk for graft explant or major vascular reconstruction. At early follow-up, we demonstrate successful infection suppression, graft preservation, and limb salvage with the use of these beads in a subset of vascular patients. PMID:26896286

  2. Multidisciplinary Treatment Approach for Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infection in the Thoracic Aortic Area

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area is a rare but serious complication. Adequate management of the complication is essential to increase the chance of success of open surgery. While surgical site infection is suggested as the root cause of the complication, it is also related to decreased host tolerance, especially as found in elderly patients. The handling of prosthetic vascular graft infection has been widely discussed to date. This paper mainly provides a summary of literature reports published within the past 5 years to discuss issues related to multidisciplinary treatment approaches, including surgical site infection, timing of onset, diagnostic methods, causative pathogens, auxiliary diagnostic methods, antibiotic treatment, anti-infective structures of vascular prostheses, surgical treatment, treatment strategy against infectious aortic aneurysms, future surgical treatment, postoperative systemic therapy, and antimicrobial stewardship. A thorough understanding of these issues will enable us to prevent prosthetic vascular graft infection in the thoracic aortic area as far as possible. In the event of its occurrence, the early introduction of appropriate treatment is expected to cure the disease without worsening of the underlying pathological condition. PMID:26356686

  3. A new three-dimensional, print-on-demand temporomandibular prosthetic total joint replacement system: Preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, George; Austin, Stephen; Sin Lee, Peter Vee; Ackland, David

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study is to present the preliminary clinical data on the OMX Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prosthetic total joint replacement system. A prospective, cohort, clinical study was undertaken of consecutive adult patients with Category 5 end-stage joint disease who were implanted with the OMX TMJ prosthesis between May 2015 and April 2017. A total of 50 devices were implanted in 38 patients, with 12 patients receiving bilateral prosthetic joints. There were 31 females and 7 males in this cohort, who ranged in age from 20 to 66 years, with a mean of 43.8 years (±14.0 years). Ten of the 50 prosthetic joints (20%) were fully customized, while the remaining were patient matched using virtual planning software. Based on a mean follow-up period of 15.3 months (range 12-24 months) following the TMJ total joint replacement, preliminary results suggest the OMX TMJ prosthesis has made a positive impact on clinical outcomes, with a mean 74.4% reduction in joint pain levels and significant improvements (p < 0.05) in jaw function as measured by the visual analogue scales for mouth opening (30.8%), diet (77.1%), and function (59.2%). No device failures were reported during the study period. This study suggests that the print-on-demand OMX TMJ prosthesis, designed for rapid delivery of both patient-matched and fully customize devices, represents a safe, reliable and versatile implantable joint replacement system for the treatment of category 5 end-stage TMJ disease. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a surrogate contact pair to evaluate polyethylene wear in prosthetic knee joints.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anthony P; Lockard, Carly A; Weisenburger, Joel N; Haider, Hani; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    With recent improvements to the properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in joint replacements, prosthetic knee and hip longevity may extend beyond two decades. However, it is difficult and costly to replicate such a long in vivo lifetime using clinically relevant in vitro wear testing approaches such as walking gait joint simulators. We advance a wear test intermediate in complexity between pin-on-disk and knee joint simulator tests. The test uses a surrogate contact pair, consisting of a surrogate femoral and tibial specimen that replicate the contact mechanics of any full-scale knee condyle contact pair. The method is implemented in a standard multi-directional pin-on-disk wear test machine, and we demonstrate its application via a two-million-cycle wear test of three different UHMWPE formulations. Further, we demonstrate the use of digital photography and image processing to accurately quantify fatigue damage based on the reduced transmission of light through a damage area in a UHMWPE specimen. The surrogate contact pairs replicate the knee condyle contact areas within -3% to +12%. The gravimetric wear test results reflect the dose of crosslinking radiation applied to the UHMWPE: 35 kGy yielded a wear rate of 7.4 mg/Mcycles, 55 kGy yielded 1.0 mg/Mcycles, and 75 kGy (applied to a 0.1% vitamin E stabilized UHMWPE) yielded 1.5 mg/Mcycles. A precursor to spalling fatigue is observed and precisely measured in the radiation-sterilized (35 kGy) and aged UHMWPE specimen. The presented techniques can be used to evaluate the high-cycle fatigue performance of arbitrary knee condyle contact pairs under design-specific contact stresses, using existing wear test machines. This makes the techniques more economical and well-suited to standardized comparative testing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cryopreserved Human Allografts for the Reconstruction of Aortic and Peripheral Prosthetic Graft Infection.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Matteo; Tozzi, Matteo; Franchin, Marco; Ferraro, Stefania; Rivolta, Nicola; Ferrario, Massimo; Guttadauro, Chiara; Castelli, Patrizio; Piffaretti, Gabriele

    2017-12-25

    Background : This study aimed to present cases with cryopreserved human allografts (CHAs) for vascular reconstruction in both aortic and peripheral infected prosthetic grafts. Materials and Methods : This is a single center, observational descriptive study with retrospective analysis. In all cases, the infected prosthetic graft material was completely removed. At discharge, patients were administered anticoagulants. Follow-up examinations included clinical visits, echo-color-Doppler ultrasounds, or computed tomography angiography within 30 days and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, and then twice per year. Results : We treated 21 patients (90% men, n=19) with the mean age of 71±12 years and mean interval between the initial operation and replacement with CHA of 30 months [range, 1-216; interquartile range (IQR), 2-36]. In-hospital mortality was 14% (n=3); no CHA-related complication led to death. Limb salvage was 100%. No patient was lost at the median follow-up of 14 months (range, 2-61; IQR, 6-39). No rupture, aneurysmal degeneration, or re-infection occurred. Estimated freedom from CHA-related adverse events (95% confidence interval, 43-63) was 95% at 3 years. Conclusion : In our experience, CHAs are a viable option for prosthetic graft infections and provide satisfactory clinical results and favorable stability because of a very low rate of CHA-related adverse events during follow-up.

  6. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, H; Yuan, L; Li, C; Kan, Y; Hao, R; Yang, J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  7. Cryopreserved Cadaveric Arterial Allograft for Arterial Reconstruction in Patients with Prosthetic Infection.

    PubMed

    Lejay, Anne; Delay, Charline; Girsowicz, Elie; Chenesseau, Bettina; Bonnin, Emilie; Ghariani, Mohamed-Zied; Thaveau, Fabien; Georg, Yannick; Geny, Bernard; Chakfe, Nabil

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcomes of cryopreserved arterial allografts used as a vascular substitute in the setting of prosthetic material infection. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted including all consecutive interventions performed with cryopreserved arterial allografts used for vascular reconstruction in the setting of prosthetic material infection between January 2005 and December 2014. Five year outcomes included allograft related re-interventions, survival, primary patency, and limb salvage rates. Fifty-three procedures were performed using cryopreserved allografts for vascular prosthetic infection: 25 procedures (47%) were performed at aorto-iliac level (Group 1) and 28 procedures (53%) at peripheral level (Group 2). The mean follow-up was 52 months. Five year allograft related re-intervention was 55% in Group 1 (6 allograft ruptures and 5 allograft aneurysm degenerations) and 33% in Group 2 (2 allograft ruptures and 7 allograft aneurysm degenerations). Five year survival was 40% and 68%, primary patency was 89% and 59% and limb salvage was 100% and 89% for Group 1 and 2 respectively. Use of cryopreserved arterial allografts provides acceptable results but is tempered by suboptimal 5 year outcomes with high re-intervention rates. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    SciT

    Warner, Jacob A.; Timmers, Heiko; Smith, Paul N.

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes {sup 97}Ru, {sup 100}Pd, {sup 100}Rh, and {sup 101m}Rh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by {sup 12}C ions in a {sup 92}Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. Themore » concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 {mu}m. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24 deg. flexion angle removed (14{+-}1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12{+-}3) mm{sup 3}/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.« less

  9. Optimal Irrigation and Debridement of Infected Joint Implants

    PubMed Central

    Schwechter, Evan M.; Folk, David; Varshney, Avanish K.; Fries, Bettina C.; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute postoperative and acute, late hematogenous prosthetic joint infections have been treated with 1-stage irrigation and debridement with polyethylene exchange. Success rates, however, are highly variable. Reported studies demonstrate that detergents are effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts on orthopedic implants. Our hypothesis is that the combination of a detergent and an antiseptic would be more effective than using a detergent alone to decrease colony counts from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-coated titanium alloy disk simulating an orthopedic implant. In our study of various agents tested, chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (antiseptic and detergent) was the most effective at decreasing bacterial colony counts both prereincubation and postreincubation of the disks; pulse lavage and scrubbing were not more effective than pulse lavage alone. PMID:21641757

  10. Measures and procedures utilized to determine the added value of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPKs) has been assessed using a variety of outcome measures in a variety of health and health-related domains. However, if the patient is to receive a prosthetic knee joint that enables him to function optimally in daily life, it is vital that the clinician has adequate information about the effects of that particular component on all aspects of persons’ functioning. Especially information concerning activities and participation is of high importance, as this component of functioning closely describes the person’s ability to function with the prosthesis in daily life. The present study aimed to review the outcome measures that have been utilized to assess the effects of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPK), in comparison with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints, and aimed to classify these measures according to the components and categories of functioning defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Subsequently, the gaps in the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of MPKs were determined. Methods A systematic literature search in 6 databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo) identified scientific studies that compared the effects of using MPKs with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints on persons’ functioning. The outcome measures that have been utilized in those studies were extracted and categorized according to the ICF framework. Also, a descriptive analysis regarding all studies has been performed. Results A total of 37 studies and 72 outcome measures have been identified. The majority (67%) of the outcome measures that described the effects of using an MPK on persons’ actual performance with the prosthesis covered the ICF body functions component. Only 31% of the measures on persons’ actual performance investigated how an MPK may affect

  11. Measures and procedures utilized to determine the added value of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Theeven, Patrick J R; Hemmen, Bea; Brink, Peter R G; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M

    2013-11-27

    The effectiveness of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPKs) has been assessed using a variety of outcome measures in a variety of health and health-related domains. However, if the patient is to receive a prosthetic knee joint that enables him to function optimally in daily life, it is vital that the clinician has adequate information about the effects of that particular component on all aspects of persons' functioning. Especially information concerning activities and participation is of high importance, as this component of functioning closely describes the person's ability to function with the prosthesis in daily life. The present study aimed to review the outcome measures that have been utilized to assess the effects of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joints (MPK), in comparison with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints, and aimed to classify these measures according to the components and categories of functioning defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Subsequently, the gaps in the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of MPKs were determined. A systematic literature search in 6 databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and PsychInfo) identified scientific studies that compared the effects of using MPKs with mechanically controlled prosthetic knee joints on persons' functioning. The outcome measures that have been utilized in those studies were extracted and categorized according to the ICF framework. Also, a descriptive analysis regarding all studies has been performed. A total of 37 studies and 72 outcome measures have been identified. The majority (67%) of the outcome measures that described the effects of using an MPK on persons' actual performance with the prosthesis covered the ICF body functions component. Only 31% of the measures on persons' actual performance investigated how an MPK may affect performance in daily life. Research also

  12. Cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with prosthetic joints: Comparisons of antibiotic regimens for patients with total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Skaar, Daniel D; Park, Taehwan; Swiontkowski, Marc F; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-11-01

    Clinician uncertainty concerning the need for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent prosthetic joint infection (PJI) after undergoing dental procedures persists. Improved understanding of the potential clinical and economic risks and benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis will help inform the debate and facilitate the continuing evolution of clinical management guidelines for dental patients with prosthetic joints. The authors developed a Markov decision model to compare the lifetime cost-effectiveness of alternative antibiotic prophylaxis strategies for dental patients aged 65 years who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA). On the basis of the authors' interpretation of previous recommendations from the American Dental Association and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, they compared the following strategies: no prophylaxis, prophylaxis for the first 2 years after arthroplasty, and lifetime prophylaxis. A strategy of foregoing antibiotic prophylaxis before dental visits was cost-effective and resulted in lower lifetime accumulated costs ($11,909) and higher accumulated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (12.375) when compared with alternative prophylaxis strategies. The results of Markov decision modeling indicated that a no-antibiotic prophylaxis strategy was cost-effective for dental patients who had undergone THA. These results support the findings of case-control studies and the conclusions of an American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs report that questioned general recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures. The results of cost-effectiveness decision modeling support the contention that routine antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint arthroplasty should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis of Persistent Infection in Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: Evaluation of the Effect of Sonication on Antibiotic Release from Bone Cement Spacers.

    PubMed

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : When treating periprosthetic joint infection with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers can be used in the interval between prosthetic removal and reimplantation. In our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of the study was to assess whether that sonication causes an elution of antibiotics, leading to elevated antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid inhibiting bacterial growth and thus causing false-negative cultures. Methods : A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to March 2016. Inclusion criteria were a two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Spacers were made of gentamicin-containing cement to which tobramycin and vancomycin were added. Antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid were determined by mass-spectometry (LC-MS). Results : 30 patients were identified (15 hip and 14 knee and 1 ankle arthroplasties). No cases of culture positive sonicated spacer fluid were observed in our serie. In the sonication fluid median concentrations of 13.2µg/ml, 392 µg/ml and 16.6 µg/ml were detected for vancomycin, tobramycin and gentamicin, respectively. According to the European Committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST), these concentrations released from cement spacer during sonication are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for most bacteria relevant in prosthetic joint infections. Conclusion: Spacer sonication cultures remained sterile in all of our cases. Elevated concentrations of antibiotics released during sonication could explain partly negative-cultured sonicated spacers. Indeed, the absence of antibiotic free interval during the two-stages can also contribute to false-negative spacers sonicated cultures.

  14. Treatment of medial shoulder joint instability in dogs by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament: 39 cases (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Erica M; Canapp, Sherman O; Cook, James L; Pike, Fred

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical outcomes for dogs surgically treated for medial shoulder joint instability (MSI) by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament. DESIGN Retrospective multicenter case series. ANIMALS 39 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 veterinary medical centers were searched to identify dogs with MSI diagnosed by clinical examination and arthroscopic assessment and treated by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament. A minimum 6-month follow-up period was required for study inclusion. Signalment, function or use of the dog, duration of clinical signs, clinical and diagnostic imaging data, MSI grade (1 [mild] to 4 [complete luxation]), follow-up duration, complications, and outcome data were recorded. RESULTS All grades of MSI were represented. Implants were placed successfully in all dogs. Complications (4 major and 2 minor) were recorded for 6 of 39 (15%) dogs; all were treated successfully. Function at the time of last follow-up (6 to 68 months) was deemed full in 30 of 39 (77%) dogs and acceptable in 9 (23%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical treatment of MSI in dogs by extracapsular stabilization with a prosthetic ligament was associated with a complication rate considered acceptable for orthopedic procedures. All patient outcomes were considered successful.

  15. Engineered biomaterial and biophysical stimulation as combinatorial strategies to address prosthetic infection by pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Boda, Sunil Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2017-10-01

    A plethora of antimicrobial strategies are being developed to address prosthetic infection. The currently available methods for implant infection treatment include the use of antibiotics and revision surgery. Among the bacterial strains, Staphylococcus species pose significant challenges particularly, with regard to hospital acquired infections. In order to combat such life threatening infectious diseases, researchers have developed implantable biomaterials incorporating nanoparticles, antimicrobial reinforcements, surface coatings, slippery/non-adhesive and contact killing surfaces. This review discusses a few of the biomaterial and biophysical antimicrobial strategies, which are in the developmental stage and actively being pursued by several research groups. The clinical efficacy of biophysical stimulation methods such as ultrasound, electric and magnetic field treatments against prosthetic infection depends critically on the stimulation protocol and parameters of the treatment modality. A common thread among the three biophysical stimulation methods is the mechanism of bactericidal action, which is centered on biophysical rupture of bacterial membranes, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bacterial membrane depolarization evoked by the interference of essential ion-transport. Although the extent of antimicrobial effect, normally achieved through biophysical stimulation protocol is insufficient to warrant therapeutic application, a combination of antibiotic/ROS inducing agents and biophysical stimulation methods can elicit a clinically relevant reduction in viable bacterial numbers. In this review, we present a detailed account of both the biomaterial and biophysical approaches for achieving maximum bacterial inactivation. Summarizing, the biophysical stimulation methods in a combinatorial manner with material based strategies can be a more potent solution to control bacterial infections. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B

  16. Differential FDG-PET Uptake Patterns in Uninfected and Infected Central Prosthetic Vascular Grafts.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Vaartjes, I; Scholtens, A; Moll, F L; De Borst, G J; De Keizer, B; Bots, M L; Blankensteijn, J D

    2015-09-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning has been suggested as a means to detect vascular graft infections. However, little is known about the typical FDG uptake patterns associated with synthetic vascular graft implantation. The aim of the present study was to compare uninfected and infected central vascular grafts in terms of various parameters used to interpret PET images. From 2007 through 2013, patients in whom a FDG-PET scan was performed for any indication after open or endovascular central arterial prosthetic reconstruction were identified. Graft infection was defined as the presence of clinical or biochemical signs of graft infection with positive cultures or based on a combination of clinical, biochemical, and imaging parameters (other than PET scan data). All other grafts were deemed uninfected. PET images were analyzed using maximum systemic uptake value (SUVmax), tissue to background ratio (TBR), visual grading scale (VGS), and focality of FDG uptake (focal or homogenous). Twenty-seven uninfected and 32 infected grafts were identified. Median SUVmax was 3.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.0-4.2) for the uninfected grafts and 5.7 for the infected grafts (IQR 2.2-7.8). Mean TBR was 2.0 (IQR 1.4-2.5) and 3.2 (IQR 1.5-3.5), respectively. On VGS, 44% of the uninfected and 72% of the infected grafts were judged as a high probability for infection. Homogenous FDG uptake was noted in 74% of the uninfected and 31% of the infected grafts. Uptake patterns of uninfected and infected grafts showed a large overlap for all parameters. The patterns of FDG uptake for uninfected vascular grafts largely overlap with those of infected vascular grafts. This questions the value of these individual FDG-PET-CT parameters in identifying infected grafts. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prosthetic vascular graft infection through a median sternotomy: a multicentre review †.

    PubMed

    Oda, Tatsuya; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Okita, Yutaka; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Nishimura, Kunihiro

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the treatment outcomes of thoracic prosthetic graft infection. A retrospective chart review was conducted at six hospitals and included the records of 68 patients treated for postoperative prosthetic vascular graft infection (mean age: 62.3 ± 15.1, male 51) from January 2000 to December 2013. The number of patients and the locations of the treated infections were as follows: 13 for aortic root, 16 for ascending aorta, 35 for aortic arch and 4 for aortic root to arch. In-hospital infection occurred in 43 patients and after discharge in 25. The mean follow-up time was 2.0 ± 2.3 years. The follow-up rate was 94.1%. The most commonly isolated micro-organism was Staphylococcus aureus (72.1%). Rereplacement of infectious graft was performed in 18 patients (Dacron graft in 12, homograft in 4 and rifampicin-bonded Dacron graft in 2). The overall hospital mortality rate was 35.3% (24/68). The mortality rate among the patients with graft rereplacement was 33.3% (6/18), with pedicled muscle flaps or pedicled omental flaps to cover the graft 25.9% (7/27), with irrigation 55.0% (11/20) and on antibiotic therapy only 0% (0/3). Our multivariate analysis demonstrated that the risk factors of hospital death increased in the absence of pedicled flaps (muscle or omentum) to cover the graft (P = 0.001), age over 55 (P = 0.003), time from onset of initial operation <1 week (P = 0.031) and period before 2008 (P = 0.001). The overall 1-year survival rate was 58.6%. The treatment outcomes of thoracic prosthetic vascular graft infection have not been satisfactory. However, the use of pedicled muscle or omental flaps to cover the graft could improve the outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of the Knee Joint with a Depth Sensor Camera for Prosthetics and Movement Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risto, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to model and simulate the knee joint. A computer model of the knee joint was first created, which was controlled by Microsoft's Kinect for Windows. Kinect created a depth map of the knee and lower leg motion independent of lighting conditions through an infrared sensor. A combination of open source software such as Blender, Python, Kinect SDK and NI_Mate were implemented for the creation and control of the simulated knee based on movements of a live physical model. A physical size model of the knee and lower leg was also created, the movement of which was controlled remotely by the computer model and Kinect. The real time communication of the model and the robotic knee was achieved through programming in Python and Arduino language. The result of this study showed that Kinect in the modelling of human kinematics and can play a significant role in the development of prosthetics and other assistive technologies.

  19. Role of radionuclide imaging for diagnosis of device and prosthetic valve infections

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Trottier, Mikaël; Tessier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations. In their 2015 guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis, the European Society of Cardiology incorporated cardiac nuclear imaging as part of their diagnostic algorithm for PVE, but not CIED infection since the data were judged insufficient at the moment. This article reviews the actual knowledge and recent studies on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBC SPECT/CT in the context of CIED infection and PVE, and describes the technical aspects of cardiac radionuclide imaging. It also discusses their accepted and potential indications for the diagnosis and management of CIED infection and PVE, the limitations of these tests, and potential areas of future research. PMID:27721936

  20. Detection of Prosthetic Hip Infection at Revision Arthroplasty by Immunofluorescence Microscopy and PCR Amplification of the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tunney, Michael M.; Patrick, Sheila; Curran, Martin D.; Ramage, Gordon; Hanna, Donna; Nixon, James R.; Gorman, Sean P.; Davis, Richard I.; Anderson, Neil

    1999-01-01

    In this study the detection rates of bacterial infection of hip prostheses by culture and nonculture methods were compared for 120 patients with total hip revision surgery. By use of strict anaerobic bacteriological practice during the processing of samples and without enrichment, the incidence of infection by culture of material dislodged from retrieved prostheses after ultrasonication (sonicate) was 22%. Bacteria were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in 63% of sonicate samples with a monoclonal antibody specific for Propionibacterium acnes and polyclonal antiserum specific for Staphylococcus spp. The bacteria were present either as single cells or in aggregates of up to 300 bacterial cells. These aggregates were not observed without sonication to dislodge the biofilm. Bacteria were observed in all of the culture-positive samples, and in some cases in which only one type of bacterium was identified by culture, both coccoid and coryneform bacteria were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria from skin-flake contamination were readily distinguishable from infecting bacteria by immunofluorescence microscopy. Examination of skin scrapings did not reveal large aggregates of bacteria but did reveal skin cells. These were not observed in the sonicates. Bacterial DNA was detected in 72% of sonicate samples by PCR amplification of a region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene with universal primers. All of the culture-positive samples were also positive for bacterial DNA. Evidence of high-level infiltration either of neutrophils or of lymphocytes or macrophages into associated tissue was observed in 73% of patients. Our results indicate that the incidence of prosthetic joint infection is grossly underestimated by current culture detection methods. It is therefore imperative that current clinical practice with regard to the detection and subsequent treatment of prosthetic joint infection be reassessed in the light of these results. PMID:10488193

  1. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scanning has been suggested as an alternative for the diagnosis and assessment of infectious processes. Hybrid 18F-FDG PET/CT has established the role of 18F-FDG PET for the assessment of suspected VPGI, providing accurate anatomic localization of the site of infection. However, there are no clear guidelines for the interpretation of the uptake patterns of 18F-FDG as clinical tool for VPGI. Based on the available literature it is suggested that a linear, diffuse, and homogeneous uptake should not be regarded as an infection whereas focal or heterogeneous uptake with a projection over the vessel on CT is highly suggestive of infection. Nevertheless, 18F-FDG PET and 18F-FDG PET/CT can play an important role in the detection of VPGI and monitoring response to treatment. However an accurate uptake and pattern recognition is warranted and cut-off uptake values and patterns need to be standardized before considering the technique to be the new standard. PMID:25210712

  2. Prevention of Propionibacterium acnes biofilm formation in prosthetic infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Robert P; Winnard, Christopher; Angus, Elizabeth M; Frapwell, Connor J; Webb, Jeremy S; Cooper, John J; Aiken, Sean S; Bishop, Julie Y; Stoodley, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The role of Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder arthroplasty and broadly in orthopedic prosthetic infections has historically been underestimated, with biofilm formation identified as a key virulence factor attributed to invasive isolates. With an often indolent clinical course, P acnes infection can be difficult to detect and treat. This study investigates absorbable cements loaded with a broad-spectrum antibiotic combination as an effective preventive strategy to combat P acnes biofilms. P acnes biofilm formation on an unloaded synthetic calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) bone void filler cement bead was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over a period of 14 days. Beads loaded with tobramycin alone or vancomycin alone (as comparative controls) and beads loaded with a vancomycin-tobramycin dual treatment were assessed for their ability to eradicate planktonic P acnes, prevent biofilm formation, and eradicate preformed biofilms using a combination of viable-cell counts, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. P acnes surface colonization and biofilm formation on unloaded CaSO 4 beads was slow. Beads loaded with antibiotics were able to kill planktonic cultures of 10 6  colony-forming units/mL, prevent bacterial colonization, and significantly reduce biofilm formation over periods of weeks. Complete eradication of established biofilms was achieved with a contact time of 1 week. This study demonstrates that antibiotic-loaded CaSO 4 beads may represent an effective antibacterial and antibiofilm strategy to combat prosthetic infections in which P acnes is involved. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgical and Antimicrobial Treatment of Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infections at Different Surgical Sites: A Retrospective Study of Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Elzi, Luigia; Gurke, Lorenz; Battegay, Manuel; Widmer, Andreas F.; Weisser, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about optimal management of prosthetic vascular graft infections, which are a rare but serious complication associated with graft implants. The goal of this study was to compare and characterize these infections with respect to the location of the graft and to identify factors associated with outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study over more than a decade at a tertiary care university hospital that has an established multidisciplinary approach to treating graft infections. Cases of possible prosthetic vascular graft infection were identified from the hospital's infectious diseases database and evaluated against strict diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into groups according to the locations of their grafts: thoracic-aortic, abdominal-aortic, or peripheral-arterial. Statistical analyses included evaluation of patient and infection characteristics, time to treatment failure, and factors associated specifically with cure rates in aortic graft infections. The primary endpoint was cure at one year after diagnosis of the infection. Results Characterization of graft infections according to the graft location did show that these infections differ in terms of their characteristics and that the prognosis for treatment seems to be influenced by the location of the infection. Cure rate and all-cause mortality at one year were 87.5% and 12.5% in 24 patients with thoracic-aortic graft infections, 37.0% and 55.6% in 27 patients with abdominal-aortic graft infections, and 70.0% and 30.0% in 10 patients with peripheral-arterial graft infections. In uni- and multivariate analysis, the type of surgical intervention used in managing infections (graft retention versus graft replacement) did not affect primary outcome, whereas a rifampicin-based antimicrobial regimen was associated with a higher cure rate. Conclusions We recommend that future prospective studies differentiate prosthetic vascular graft infections according to the location of the

  4. Healthcare-associated prosthetic heart valve, aortic vascular graft, and disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Philipp; Kuster, Stefan P; Bloemberg, Guido; Schulthess, Bettina; Frank, Michelle; Tanner, Felix C; Rössle, Matthias; Böni, Christian; Falk, Volkmar; Wilhelm, Markus J; Sommerstein, Rami; Achermann, Yvonne; Ten Oever, Jaap; Debast, Sylvia B; Wolfhagen, Maurice J H M; Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, George J; Vos, Margreet C; Bogers, Ad; Serr, Annerose; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Sax, Hugo; Böttger, Erik C; Weber, Rainer; van Ingen, Jakko; Wagner, Dirk; Hasse, Barbara

    2015-10-21

    We identified 10 patients with disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infections subsequent to open-heart surgery at three European Hospitals. Infections originated from the heater-cooler unit of the heart-lung machine. Here we describe clinical aspects and treatment course of this novel clinical entity. Interdisciplinary care and follow-up of all patients was documented by the study team. Patients' characteristics, clinical manifestations, microbiological findings, and therapeutic measures including surgical reinterventions were reviewed and treatment outcomes are described. The 10 patients comprise a 1-year-old child and nine adults with a median age of 61 years (range 36-76 years). The median duration from cardiac surgery to diagnosis was 21 (range 5-40) months. All patients had prosthetic material-associated infections with either prosthetic valve endocarditis, aortic graft infection, myocarditis, or infection of the prosthetic material following banding of the pulmonary artery. Extracardiac manifestations preceded cardiovascular disease in some cases. Despite targeted antimicrobial therapy, M. chimaera infection required cardiosurgical reinterventions in eight patients. Six out of 10 patients experienced breakthrough infections, of which four were fatal. Three patients are in a post-treatment monitoring period. Healthcare-associated infections due to M. chimaera occurred in patients subsequent to cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation and implantation of prosthetic material. Infections became clinically apparent after a time lag of months to years. Mycobacterium chimaera infections are easily missed by routine bacterial diagnostics and outcome is poor despite long-term antimycobacterial therapy, probably because biofilm formation hinders eradication of pathogens. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative bacteriological samples in 85 chronic peri-prosthetic infections.

    PubMed

    Matter-Parrat, V; Ronde-Oustau, C; Boéri, C; Gaudias, J; Jenny, J-Y

    2017-04-01

    Whether pre-operative microbiological sampling contributes to the management of chronic peri-prosthetic infection remains controversial. We assessed agreement between the results of pre-operative and intra-operative samples in patients undergoing single-stage prosthesis exchange to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative samples exceeds 75% in patients undergoing single-stage exchange of a hip or knee prosthesis to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. This single-centre retrospective study included 85 single-stage prosthesis exchange procedures in 82 patients with chronic peri-prosthetic infection at the hip or knee. Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative sample results was evaluated. Changes to the initial antibiotic regimen made based on the intra-operative sample results were recorded. Of 149 pre-operative samples, 109 yielded positive cultures, in 75/85 cases. Of 452 intra-operative samples, 354 yielded positive cultures, in 85/85 cases. Agreement was complete in 54 (63%) cases and partial in 9 (11%) cases; there was no agreement in the remaining 22 (26%) cases. The complete agreement rate was significantly lower than 75% (P=0.01). The initial antibiotic regimen was inadequate in a single case. Pre-operative sampling may contribute to the diagnosis of peri-prosthetic infection but is neither necessary nor sufficient to confirm the diagnosis and identify the causative agent. The spectrum of the initial antibiotic regimen cannot be safely narrowed based on the pre-operative sample results. We suggest the routine prescription of a probabilistic broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen immediately after the prosthesis exchange, even when a pathogen was identified before surgery. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Early prosthetic aortic valve infection identified with the use of positron emission tomography in a patient with lead endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Sana; Tlili, Ghoufrane; Sohal, Manav; Bordenave, Laurence; Bordachar, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) scanning has recently been proposed as a diagnostic tool for lead endocarditis (LE). FDG PET/CT might be also useful to localize associated septic emboli in patients with LE. We report an interesting case of a LE patient with a prosthetic aortic valve in whom a trans-esophageal echocardiogram did not show associated aortic endocarditis. FDG PET/CT revealed prosthetic aortic valve infection. A second TEE performed 2 weeks after identified aortic vegetation. A longer duration of antimicrobial therapy with serial follow-up echocardiography was initiated. There was also increased uptake in the sigmoid colon, corresponding to focal polyps resected during a colonoscopy. FDG PET/CT scanning seems to be highly sensitive for prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis diagnosis. This promising diagnostic tool may be beneficial in LE patients, by identifying septic emboli and potential sites of pathogen entry.

  7. Measurement of installation deformation of the acetabulum during prosthetic replacement of a hip joint using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Dong; Bai, Pengxiang; Zhu, Feipeng

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, acetabulum prosthesis replacement is widely used in clinical medicine. However, there is no efficient way to evaluate the implantation effect of the prosthesis. Based on a modern photomechanics technique called digital image correlation (DIC), the evaluation method of the installation effect of the acetabulum was established during a prosthetic replacement of a hip joint. The DIC method determines strain field by comparing the speckle images between the undeformed sample and the deformed counterpart. Three groups of experiments were carried out to verify the feasibility of the DIC method on the acetabulum installation deformation test. Experimental results indicate that the installation deformation of acetabulum generally includes elastic deformation (corresponding to the principal strain of about 1.2%) and plastic deformation. When the installation angle is ideal, the plastic deformation can be effectively reduced, which could prolong the service life of acetabulum prostheses.

  8. Comparison of prosthetic materials for abdominal wall reconstruction in the presence of contamination and infection.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G L; Richardson, J D; Malangoni, M A; Tobin, G R; Ackerman, D; Polk, H C

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects resulting from trauma, invasive infection, or hernia present a difficult problem for the surgeon. In order to study the problems associated with the prosthetic materials used for abdominal wall reconstruction, an animal model was used to simulate abdominal wall defects in the presence of peritonitis and invasive infection. One hundred guinea pigs were repaired with either polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) or polypropylene mesh (PPM). Our experiments included intra-operative contamination with Staphylococcus aureus. We found significantly fewer organisms (p less than 0.05) adherent to the PTFE than to the PPM when antibiotics were administered after surgery, as well as when no antibiotics were given. In the presence of peritonitis, we found no real difference in numbers of intraperitoneal bacteria present whether PTFE or PPM was used. In all instances, the PTFE patches produced fewer adhesions and were more easily removed. From these experiments, it appears that PTFE may be associated with fewer problems than PPM in the presence of contamination and infection. Images FIG. 1. PMID:3159353

  9. Cumulative incidence of graft infection after primary prosthetic aortic reconstruction in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Berger, P; Vaartjes, I; Moll, F L; De Borst, G J; Blankensteijn, J D; Bots, M L

    2015-05-01

    The introduction of endovascular techniques has had a major impact on the case mix of patients that undergo open aortic reconstruction. Hypothetically, this may also have increased the incidence of aortic graft infection (AGI). The aim of this study was to report on the short and mid-term incidence of AGI after primary open prosthetic aortic reconstruction in the endovascular era. From 2000 to 2010, all 514 patients in a tertiary referral university hospital, undergoing primary open prosthetic aortic reconstruction for aneurysmal or occlusive aortic disease with at least one aortic anastomosis were included. Data were obtained by retrospectively analyzing the medical records, by contacting patients or their general practitioner by telephone, and by merging the dataset with the national Cause of Death Register. AGI was defined as proven by cultures or clinically in combination with positive imaging results. The 30 day, 1 year, and 2 year incidence rates were computed using life table analysis and expressed as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI). AGI was diagnosed in 23 of the 514 included patients. 56% of the patients underwent elective surgery and 86% underwent surgery for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The 30 day incidence was 1.6% (95% CI 0.4-2.8%), 1 year incidence was 3.6% (95% CI 1.7-5.5%), and 2 year incidence for AGI was 4.5% (95% CI 2.4-6.6%). The total number of person years (1058) yielded an AGI rate of 2.2 per 100 person years. The 2 year cumulative incidence of AGI following primary, open aortic procedures with at least one aortic anastomosis is considerable, at around 1 in 20. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Of bugs and joints: the relationship between infection and joints.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Luis R; García-Valladares, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The association between microbes and joints has existed since antiquity, and remains complex. Diagnosis is often times difficult to determine despite highly suspicious clinical characteristics for the presence of an underlying infection. Over the several past decades, considerable advances have occurred in diagnostic methodologies and therapy. However, the morbidity and mortality of septic arthritis remains high. Great advances have occurred in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapeutic management of reactive arthritis, and there is evidence that when the responsible microorganism is Chlamydia trachomathis, complete remission and cure is possible. Emergent infections, especially viral, has been recognized, i.e. HIV, hepatitis C, and most recently Chikengunya virus, and in the case of HIV associated articular manifestations, the introduction of HAART has resulted in a decrease in the incidence and development of newer complications such as the immune reconstitution syndrome. The infectious etiology of rheumatoid arthritis is being strongly considered once again, and the exciting association with periodontal disease is at the forefront of intense research. The gut microbiota is also being investigated and new and most interesting data is being gathered of the potential role of commensal gut organisms and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Evidence for Decreasing Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, John P; Somerville, Lyndsa E; Naudie, Douglas D; Howard, James L

    2016-12-01

    Multiple periprosthetic joint infections (MPJIs) are uncommon. We determine the prevalence of developing a second-site periprosthetic joint infection. Our institutional arthroplasty database was reviewed. Those who developed a second-site infection had a retrospective chart review to determine the pathogen, timing of infection, comorbidities, and results of treatment. Thirteen of 206 (6.3%) patients at-risk for MPJI experienced a second periprosthetic joint infection. Mode of the second infection was hematogenous in 6, all of whom were being treated for the index periprosthetic joint infection. Seven secondary infections did not relate to the index infection. Two patients were lost to follow-up, 5 continued on suppressive antibiotics, and 6 successfully cleared infection. The prevalence of MPJI has decreased compared with previous reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiology and management of joint and bone infections due to anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2008-03-01

    To describes the microbiology, diagnosis, and management of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria. The predominant anaerobes in arthritis are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB) including the Bacteroides fragilis group, Fusobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium acnes. Infection with P. acnes is associated with a prosthetic joint, previous surgery, and trauma. B. fragilis group is associated with distant infection, Clostridium spp. with trauma, and Fusobacterium spp. with oropharyngeal infection. Most cases of anaerobic arthritis, in contrast to anaerobic osteomyelitis, involved a single isolate, and most cases are secondary to hematogenous spread. The predominant anaerobes in osteomyelitis are Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp. as well as P. acnes. Conditions predisposing to bone infections are vascular disease, bites, contiguous infection, peripheral neuropathy, hematogenous spread, and trauma. Pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. are mostly isolated in skull and bite infections, members of the B. fragilis group in hand and feet infections, and Fusobacterium spp. in skull, bite, and hematogenous long bone infections. Many patients with osteomyelitis due to anaerobic bacteria have evidence of an anaerobic infection elsewhere in the body that is the source of the organisms involved in the osteomyelitis. Treatment of arthritis and osteomyelitis involving anaerobic bacteria includes symptomatic therapy, immobilization in some cases, adequate drainage of purulent material, and antibiotic therapy effective against these organisms. Anaerobic bacteria can cause septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy are important contributor to successful outcome.

  13. Sound side joint contact forces in below knee amputee gait with an ESAR prosthetic foot.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Salami, Firooz; Esrafilian, Amir; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Alimusaj, Merkur; Putz, Cornelia; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2017-10-01

    The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments. A group of seven subjects with BK amputation and a group of ten unimpaired subjects were recruited for this study. Gait data were measured by 3D motion capture and force plates. OpenSim software was applied to calculate JCF. Maximum joint angles, ground reaction forces, and moments as well as time distance parameters were determined and compared between groups showing no significant differences, with some JCF components of knee and hip even being slightly smaller in subjects with BK compared to the reference group. This positive finding may be due to the selected ESAR foot. However, other beneficial factors may also have influenced this positive result such as the general good health status of the subjects or the thorough and proper fitting and alignment of the prosthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a Valved-Conduit for Exclusion of the Infected Portion in the Prosthetic Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joonho; Lee, Cheol Joo; Lim, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Ho; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with complaints of fever and hemoptysis. After evaluation of the fever focus, he was diagnosed with pulmonary valve infective endocarditis. Thus pulmonary valve replacement and antibiotics therapy were performed and discharged. He was brought to the emergency unit presenting with a high fever (>39℃) and general weakness 6 months after the initial operation. The echocardiography revealed prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis. Therefore, redo-pulmonary valve replacement using valved conduit was performed in the Rastelli fashion because of the risk of pulmonary arterial wall injury and recurrent endocarditis from the remnant inflammatory tissue. We report here on the successful surgical treatment of prosthetic pulmonary valve endocarditis with an alternative surgical method. PMID:23772409

  15. Detection of thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Narita, Yuji; Mutsuga, Masato; Kato, Katsuhiko; Usui, Akihiko

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in detecting thoracic aortic prosthetic graft infection. Nine patients with clinically suspected thoracic aortic graft infection underwent FDG-PET/CT scanning. In these patients, the diagnoses could not be confirmed using conventional modalities. The patients' clinical courses were retrospectively reviewed. On the basis of surgical, microbiological and clinical follow-up findings, the aortic grafts were considered infected in 4 patients and not infected in 5. All 4 patients with graft infection (root: 2 cases, arch: 1 case and descending: 1 case) eventually underwent in situ re-replacement. Two of the 4 patients also had abdominal grafts; however, only the thoracic grafts were replaced because uptake was low around the abdominal grafts. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the perigraft area was higher in the infected group than in the non-infected group (11.4 ± 4.5 vs 6.9 ± 6.4), although the difference was not statistically significant. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, SUVmax >8 appeared to be the cut-off value in distinguishing the two groups (sensitivity: 1.0 and specificity: 0.8). FDG-PET/CT is useful for confirming the presence of graft infection by detecting high uptake around grafts and excluding other causes of inflammation. An SUVmax value greater than 8 around a graft suggests the presence of graft infection. In addition, FDG-PET/CT can be used to clarify the precise extent of infection. This is especially useful if multiple separated prosthetic grafts have been implanted.

  16. Psychophysical testing of visual prosthetic devices: a call to establish a multi-national joint task force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Ayton, Lauren N.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of visual prostheses, as showcased in this special feature of Journal of Neural Engineering , have led to promising results from clinical trials of a number of devices. However, as noted by these groups there are many challenges involved in assessing vision of people with profound vision loss. As such, it is important that there is consistency in the methodology and reporting standards for clinical trials of visual prostheses and, indeed, the broader vision restoration research field. Two visual prosthesis research groups, the Boston Retinal Implant Project (BRIP) and Bionic Vision Australia (BVA), have agreed to work cooperatively to establish a multi-national Joint Task Force. The aim of this Task Force will be to develop a consensus statement to guide the methods used to conduct and report psychophysical and clinical results of humans who receive visual prosthetic devices. The overarching goal is to ensure maximum benefit to the implant recipients, not only in the outcomes of the visual prosthesis itself, but also in enabling them to obtain accurate information about this research with ease. The aspiration to develop a Joint Task Force was first promulgated at the inaugural 'The Eye and the Chip' meeting in September 2000. This meeting was established to promote the development of the visual prosthetic field by applying the principles of inclusiveness, openness, and collegiality among the growing body of researchers in this field. These same principles underlie the intent of this Joint Task Force to enhance the quality of psychophysical research within our community. Despite prior efforts, a critical mass of interested parties could not congeal. Renewed interest for developing joint guidelines has developed recently because of a growing awareness of the challenges of obtaining reliable measurements of visual function in patients who are severely visually impaired (in whom testing is inherently noisy), and of the importance of

  17. Risk factors and outcomes for nosocomial infection after prosthetic vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Fariñas, María Carmen; Campo, Ana; Duran, Raquel; Sarralde, José Aurelio; Nistal, Juan Francisco; Gutiérrez-Díez, José Francisco; Fariñas-Álvarez, Concepción

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for nosocomial infections (NIs) and predictors of mortality in patients with prosthetic vascular grafts (PVGs). This was a prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients who underwent PVG of the abdominal aorta with or without iliac-femoral involvement and peripheral PVG from April 2008 to August 2009 at a university hospital. Patients younger than 15 years and those with severe immunodeficiency were excluded. The follow-up period was until 3 years after surgery or until death. There were 261 patients included; 230 (88.12%) were male, and the mean age was 67.57 (standard deviation, 10.82) years. The reason for operation was aortic aneurysm in 49 (18.77%) patients or lower limb arteriopathy in 212 (81.23%) patients. NIs occurred in 71 (27.20%) patients. Of these, 42 were surgical site infections (SSIs), of which 61.9% occurred in the lower extremities (14 superficial, 10 deep, and 2 PVG infections) and 38.1% in the abdomen (7 superficial, 7 deep, and 2 PVG infections); 15 were respiratory tract infections; and 15 were urinary tract infections. Active lower extremity skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) at the time of surgery was a significant predictor of NI for both types of PVG (abdominal aortic PVG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-138.19; peripheral PVG: adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.08-5.47). Other independent predictors of NI were mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 55.96; 95% CI, 3.9-802.39) for abdominal aortic PVG and low hemoglobin levels on admission (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and emergent surgery (adjusted OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.51-12.74) for peripheral PVG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.92%. The probability of surviving the first month was 0.96, and significant predictors of mortality were active lower extremity SSTI (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 12.07; 95% CI, 1.04-154.75), high postsurgical glucose levels (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1

  18. Bone and joint infections by Mucorales, Scedosporium, Fusarium and even rarer fungi.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Philipp; Tacke, Daniela; Cornely, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    Mucorales, Scedosporium and Fusarium species are rarely considered as cause for bone and joint infections. However, these moulds are emerging as important fungal pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Typical pre-disposing host conditions are immunosuppression and diabetes. Most common causative pathogens are Mucorales followed by Scedosporium and Fusarium. Acremonium and Phialemonium species are rare but some case reports exist. MRI is the gold standard imaging technique. Tissue specimens obtained as aspirates, imaging guided biopsy or open surgery need mycological and histopathological work-up for genus and species identification. Multimodal treatment strategies combine surgical debridement, drainage of joints or abscesses, removal of infected prosthetic joints and systemic antifungals. The treatment of mucormycosis is polyene based and may be combined with either posaconazole or - in rare cases - caspofungin. As Scedosporium species are intrinsically resistant to polyenes and azoles show absence of in vitro activity, voriconazole plus synergistic treatment regimens become the therapeutic standard. In fusariosis, fungal susceptibility is virtually impossible to predict, so that combination treatment of voriconazole and lipid-based amphotericin B should be the first-line strategy while susceptibility results are pending. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, infections due to the above moulds should be registered, e.g. in the registries of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM).

  19. First report of Sneathia sanguinegens together with Mycoplasma hominis in postpartum prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kotaskova, Iva; Nemec, Petr; Vanerkova, Martina; Malisova, Barbora; Tejkalova, Renata; Orban, Marek; Zampachova, Vita; Freiberger, Tomas

    2017-08-14

    The presence of more than one bacterial agent is relatively rare in infective endocarditis, although more common in prosthetic cases. Molecular diagnosis from a removed heart tissue is considered a quick and effective way to diagnose fastidious or intracellular agents. Here we describe the case of postpartum polymicrobial prosthetic valve endocarditis in a young woman. Sneathia sanguinegens and Mycoplasma hominis were simultaneously detected from the heart valve sample using broad range 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing while culture remained negative. Results were confirmed by independent PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Before the final agent identification, the highly non-compliant patient left from the hospital against medical advice on empirical intravenous treatment with aminopenicillins, clavulanate and gentamicin switched to oral amoxycillin and clavulanate. Four months after surgery, no signs of inflammation were present despite new regurgitation and valve leaflet flail was detected. However, after another 5 months the patient died from sepsis and recurrent infective endocarditis of unclarified etiology. Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative agent of infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, presented case is the first report of Sneathia sanguinegens detected in this condition. Molecular techniques were shown to be useful even in polymicrobial infective endocarditis samples.

  20. Do Prolonged Prophylactic Antibiotics Reduce the Incidence of Surgical-Site Infections in Immediate Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Frederick; Chin, Robin; Piper, Merisa; Esserman, Laura; Sbitany, Hani

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 50,000 women in the United States undergo mastectomy and immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction annually, and most receive postoperative prophylactic antibiotics. The effect of these antibiotics on the risk of surgical-site infections remains unclear. The authors searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that compared less than 24 hours and greater than 24 hours of antibiotics following immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. Primary outcomes were surgical-site infections and implant loss. Conservative random effects models were used to obtain pooled relative risk estimates. The authors identified 927 studies, but only four cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial met their inclusion criteria. Unadjusted incidences of surgical-site infections were 14 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 19 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 16 percent overall. Unadjusted incidences of implant loss were 8 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 10 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 9 percent overall. The pooled relative risk of implant loss was 1.17 (95 percent CI, 0.39 to 3.6) with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, which was not statistically significant. Prolonged antibiotic use did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing surgical-site infections or implant loss. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, and prolonged antibiotics may have increased the risk of implant loss in the randomized controlled trial. Definitive evidence may only be obtained with data from more prospective randomized controlled trials.

  1. Periprosthetic joint infections: a clinical practice algorithm.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Luigi; Indelli, Pier Francesco; Latella, Leonardo; Poli, Paolo; Yakupoglu, Jale; Marcucci, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) accounts for 25% of failed total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and 15% of failed total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The purpose of the present study was to design a multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm to detect a PJI as cause of a painful TKA or THA. from April 2010 to October 2012, 111 patients with suspected PJI were evaluated. The study group comprised 75 females and 36 males with an average age of 71 years (range, 48 to 94 years). Eighty-four patients had a painful THA, while 27 reported a painful TKA. The stepwise diagnostic algorithm, applied in all the patients, included: measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels; imaging studies, including standard radiological examination, standard technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan (if positive, confirmation by LeukoScan was obtained); and joint aspiration with analysis of synovial fluid. following application of the stepwise diagnostic algorithm, 24 out of our 111 screened patients were classified as having a suspected PJI (21.7%). CRP and ESR levels were negative in 84 and positive in 17 cases; 93.7% of the patients had a positive technetium-labeled bone scan, and 23% a positive LeukoScan. Preoperative synovial fluid analysis was positive in 13.5%; analysis of synovial fluid obtained by preoperative aspiration showed a leucocyte count of > 3000 cells μ/l in 52% of the patients. the present study showed that the diagnosis of PJI requires the application of a multimodal diagnostic protocol in order to avoid complications related to surgical revision of a misdiagnosed "silent" PJI. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  2. Does positron emission tomography/computed tomography aid the diagnosis of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis?

    PubMed

    Balmforth, Damian; Chacko, Jacob; Uppal, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) aids the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE)? A total of 107 publications were found using the reported search, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The reported outcome of all studies was a final diagnosis of confirmed endocarditis on follow-up. All the six studies were non-randomized, single-centre, observational studies and thus represented level 3 evidence. The diagnostic capability of PET/CT for PVE was compared with that of the modified Duke Criteria and echocardiography, and reported in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. All studies demonstrated an increased sensitivity for the diagnosis of PVE when PET/CT was combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission. A higher SUVmax on PET was found to be significantly associated with a confirmed diagnosis of endocarditis and an additional diagnostic benefit of PET/CT angiography over conventional PET/non-enhanced CT is reported due to improved anatomical resolution. However, PET/CT was found to be unreliable in the early postoperative period due to its inability to distinguish between infection and residual postoperative inflammatory changes. PET/CT was also found to be poor at diagnosing cases of native valve endocarditis. We conclude that PET/CT aids in the diagnosis of PVE when combined with the modified Duke Criteria on admission by increasing the diagnostic sensitivity. The diagnostic ability of PET/CT can be potentiated by the use of PET/CTA; however, its use may be unreliable in the early postoperative period or in native valve endocarditis. © The Author 2016. Published by

  3. Management of an infected cementless cup with prosthetic retention and antibiotic therapy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Dan, B J; Kim, S E; Pozzi, A

    2014-11-01

    A two-year-old Rottweiler presented for acute onset of a right hindlimb lameness 20 weeks after a cementless total hip replacement (THR) and 16 weeks after open reduction to address luxation of the THR. Radiographs revealed periosteal proliferation of the medial acetabulum and a stable implant. Synovial fluid cytology was consistent with inflammatory joint fluid. Treatment consisted of surgical debridement and intravenous and oral antibiotics. THR implants were not removed. Culture of tissue removed from the THR site yielded growth of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus species. Lameness resolved 2 months after surgery. Twenty months after surgery, the dog was exercising normally with no clinical lameness and pelvic radiographs revealed no evidence of implant loosening and markedly decreased periosteal reaction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an infected THR site successfully treated without prosthesis explantation in the dog. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. The treatment and outcome of peri-prosthetic infection of the ankle: a single cohort-centre experience of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Kessler, B; Knupp, M; Graber, P; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Zimmerli, W; Sendi, P

    2014-06-01

    The treatment of peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the ankle is not standardised. It is not clear whether an algorithm developed for hip and knee PJI can be used in the management of PJI of the ankle. We evaluated the outcome, at two or more years post-operatively, in 34 patients with PJI of the ankle, identified from a cohort of 511 patients who had undergone total ankle replacement. Their median age was 62.1 years (53.3 to 68.2), and 20 patients were women. Infection was exogenous in 28 (82.4%) and haematogenous in six (17.6%); 19 (55.9%) were acute infections and 15 (44.1%) chronic. Staphylococci were the cause of 24 infections (70.6%). Surgery with retention of one or both components was undertaken in 21 patients (61.8%), both components were replaced in ten (29.4%), and arthrodesis was undertaken in three (8.8%). An infection-free outcome with satisfactory function of the ankle was obtained in 23 patients (67.6%). The best rate of cure followed the exchange of both components (9/10, 90%). In the 21 patients in whom one or both components were retained, four had a relapse of the same infecting organism and three had an infection with another organism. Hence the rate of cure was 66.7% (14 of 21). In these 21 patients, we compared the treatment given to an algorithm developed for the treatment of PJI of the knee and hip. In 17 (80.9%) patients, treatment was not according to the algorithm. Most (11 of 17) had only one criterion against retention of one or both components. In all, ten of 11 patients with severe soft-tissue compromise as a single criterion had a relapse-free survival. We propose that the treatment concept for PJI of the ankle requires adaptation of the grading of quality of the soft tissues. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Hip Arthroplasty: Is There an Association Between Infection and Bearing Surface Type?

    PubMed

    Pitto, Rocco P; Sedel, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary studies have raised the question of whether certain prosthetic biomaterials used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearings are associated with increased risk of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). For example, some observational data suggest the risk of PJI is higher with metal-on-metal bearings. However, it is not known whether other bearings-including ceramic bearings or metal-on-polyethylene bearings-may be associated with a higher or lower risk of PJI. The objective of this study was to use a national arthroplasty registry to assess whether the choice of bearings-metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), or metal-on-metal (MoM)-is associated with differences in the risk of revision for deep infection, either (1) within 6 months or (2) over the entire period of observation, which spanned 15 years. Data from primary THAs were extracted from the New Zealand Joint Registry over a 15-year period. A total of 97,889 hips were available for analysis. Inclusion criterion was degenerative joint disease; exclusion criteria were previous surgery, trauma, and any other diagnosis (12,566 hips). We also excluded a small group of ceramic-on-metal THAs (429) with short followup. The median observation period of the selected group of hips (84,894) was 9 years (range, 1-15 years). The mean age of patients was 68 years (SD ± 11 years), and 52% were women. There were 54,409 (64%) MoP, 16,503 (19%) CoP, 9051 (11%) CoC, and 4931 (6%) MoM hip arthroplasties. Four hundred one hips were revised for deep infection. A multivariate assessment was carried out including the following risks factors available for analysis: age, sex, operating room type, use of body exhaust suits, THA fixation mode, and surgeon volume. Because of late introduction of data collection in the Registry, we were unable to include body mass index (BMI, recording started 2010) and medical comorbidities according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists

  6. One-Step Salvage of Infected Prosthetic Breast Reconstructions Using Antibiotic-Impregnated Polymethylmethacrylate Plates and Concurrent Tissue Expander Exchange.

    PubMed

    Albright, Steven B; Xue, Amy S; McKnight, Aisha; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Hollier, Larry H; Brown, Rodger H; Bullocks, Jamal M; Izaddoost, Shayan A

    2016-09-01

    Periprosthetic infection represents a major complication in breast reconstruction, frequently leading to expander-implant loss. Recent studies report variable success in the salvage of infected breast prostheses through systemic antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. There is currently no consensus regarding a management algorithm for attempted salvage. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the early outcomes of a protocol using antibiotic-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implant placement with expander device exchange. A retrospective database was queried to identify all patients with infected implant-based breast reconstruction who were treated by the study authors and who underwent attempted salvage under the study protocol. All patients received intravenous antibiotics followed by surgical debridement of the infected pocket, insertion of antibiotic-impregnated PMMA plates and/or beads, device exchange, and postoperative antibiotics. After clinical resolution of infection, tissue expansion was performed with the PMMA implants remaining in situ until exchanged to permanent implants. All patients with infected prosthetic breast reconstructions achieved implant pocket sterilization using this method. At a mean follow-up of 8.2 months (range, 1-19 months), none of these patients have required reoperation for capsular contracture. One patient, while under treatment with prednisone for a rash, developed recurrent infection, which led to explantation of her implant. Two patients underwent radiation therapy while an antibiotic plate and tissue expander were in place, with no observed exposure or infection recurrence. Sustained local antibiotic delivery using PMMA implants and expander device exchange can successfully salvage an infected breast implant. Perceived benefits include shorter time to completed reconstruction, preserved skin envelope integrity, and possibly improved long-term aesthetic outcomes.

  7. Once Is Not Enough: Withholding Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics in Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, John L.; Bazakas, Andrea; Lee, Clara N.; Hultman, C. Scott; Halvorson, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a trend toward limiting perioperative prophylactic antibiotics, based on research not conducted in plastic surgery patients. The authors’ university hospital instituted antibiotic prescribing guidelines based on the Surgical Care Improvement Project. An increased rate of surgical-site infections was noted in breast reconstruction patients. The authors sought to determine whether the change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen affected rates of surgical-site infections. Methods A retrospective study compared patients undergoing breast reconstruction who received preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics with a group who received only a single dose of preoperative antibiotic. Type of reconstruction and known risk factors for implant infection were noted. Results Two hundred fifty patients were included: 116 in the pre–Surgical Care Improvement Project group and 134 in the Surgical Care Improvement Project group. The overall rate of surgical-site infections increased from 18.1 percent to 34.3 percent (p = 0.004). Infections requiring reoperation increased from 4.3 percent to 16.4 percent (p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that patients in the Surgical Care Improvement group were 4.74 times more likely to develop a surgical-site infection requiring reoperation (95 percent CI, 1.69 to 13.80). Obesity, history of radiation therapy, and reconstruction with tissue expanders were associated with increased rates of surgical-site infection requiring reoperation. Conclusions Withholding postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in prosthetic breast reconstruction is associated with an increased risk of surgical-site infection, reoperation, and thus reconstructive failure. The optimal duration of postoperative prophylactic antibiotic use is the subject of future study. PMID:22575852

  8. Once is not enough: withholding postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in prosthetic breast reconstruction is associated with an increased risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Clayton, John L; Bazakas, Andrea; Lee, Clara N; Hultman, C Scott; Halvorson, Eric G

    2012-09-01

    There has been a trend toward limiting perioperative prophylactic antibiotics, based on research not conducted in plastic surgery patients. The authors' university hospital instituted antibiotic prescribing guidelines based on the Surgical Care Improvement Project. An increased rate of surgical-site infections was noted in breast reconstruction patients. The authors sought to determine whether the change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen affected rates of surgical-site infections. A retrospective study compared patients undergoing breast reconstruction who received preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics with a group who received only a single dose of preoperative antibiotic. Type of reconstruction and known risk factors for implant infection were noted. Two hundred fifty patients were included: 116 in the pre-Surgical Care Improvement Project group and 134 in the Surgical Care Improvement Project group. The overall rate of surgical-site infections increased from 18.1 percent to 34.3 percent (p = 0.004). Infections requiring reoperation increased from 4.3 percent to 16.4 percent (p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that patients in the Surgical Care Improvement group were 4.74 times more likely to develop a surgical-site infection requiring reoperation (95 percent CI, 1.69 to 13.80). Obesity, history of radiation therapy, and reconstruction with tissue expanders were associated with increased rates of surgical-site infection requiring reoperation. Withholding postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in prosthetic breast reconstruction is associated with an increased risk of surgical-site infection, reoperation, and thus reconstructive failure. The optimal duration of postoperative prophylactic antibiotic use is the subject of future study.

  9. 18F-FDG-PET/CT angiography in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and cardiac device infection in adult patients with congenital heart disease and prosthetic material.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, María N; Dos-Subirà, L; Roque, Albert; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Cuéllar-Calabria, Hug; Pijuan Domènech, Antonia; Gonzàlez-Alujas, María T; Subirana-Domènech, M T; Miranda-Barrio, B; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; González-López, Juan J; Igual, Albert; Maisterra-Santos, Olga; García-Dorado, David; Castell-Conesa, Joan; Almirante, Benito; Escobar Amores, Manuel; Tornos, Pilar; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) and cardiac device infection (CDI) are a major complication in the growing number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching adulthood. We aimed to evaluate the added value of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT angiography (PET/CTA) in the diagnosis of IE-CDI in adults with CHD and intravascular or intracardiac prosthetic material, in whom echocardiography (ECHO) and modified Duke Criteria (DC) have limitations because of the patients' complex anatomy. A prospective study was conducted in a referral center with multidisciplinary IE and CHD Units. PET/CTA and ECHO findings were compared in consecutive adult (≥18years) patients with CHD who have prosthetic material and suspected IE-CDI. The initial diagnosis using the DC and the diagnosis with the additional PET/CTA data (DC+PET/CTA) were compared with the final diagnostic consensus established by an expert team at three months. Between November-2012 and April-2017, 25 patients (15 men; median age 40years) were included. Cases were initially classified as definite in 8 (32%), possible in 14 (56%) and rejected in 3 (12%). DC+PET/CTA allowed reclassification of 12/14 (86%) cases initially identified as possible IE. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of DC at IE suspicion were 39.1%/83.3%/90.4%/25.5%/61.2%, respectively. The diagnostic performance increased significantly with addition of PET/CTA data: 87%/83.3%/95.4%/61.5%/85.1%, respectively. PET/CTA also provided an alternative diagnosis in 3 patients with rejected IE, and detected pulmonary embolisms in 3 patients. PET/CTA was a useful diagnostic tool in the complex group of adult patients with CHD who have cardiac or intravascular prosthetic material and suspected IE or CDI, providing added diagnostic value to the modified DC (increased sensitivity) and improving case classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of a novel strategy for poststernotomy deep sternal infection after thoracic aorta replacement using a prosthetic graft.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Motone; Yoshida, Yukitaka; Ninomiya, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shin; Sasaguri, Shiro; Akita, Shinsuke; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Poststernotomy deep sternal wound infections are persistent and occasionally fatal, especially in cases involving prosthetic grafts, because of their complicated structure and virtual impossibility of removal. We aimed to verify the influence of cooperation with plastic surgeons and our novel strategy for treating deep sternal wound infection after aortic replacement on cardiovascular surgery outcomes. Nine hundred eighty-three consecutive patients were divided into two groups: an early group (2012-2013) and a late group (2014-2015). The late group had received cooperatively improved perioperative wound management: our novel strategy of deep sternal infection based on radical debridement and immediate reconstruction decided by reference to severities of the patient's general condition and widespread infection by early intervention of plastic surgeons. The groups were analysed retrospectively. Binary variables were analysed statistically with the Fisher exact test and continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney U test. Inter-group differences were assessed with the chi-square test. Twenty of 390 cases in the early group and 13 of 593 cases in the late group were associated with deep sternal infection. Morbidity rates of deep sternal wound infection and associated mortality rates 1 year after reconstruction surgery were significantly less (p <0.05 for both) in the late group. Intervention by plastic surgeons improved perioperative wound management outcomes. Our treatment strategy for deep sternal wound infection also reduced associated mortality rates. Facilities should consider the early inclusion of plastic surgeons in the treatment of patients undergoing aortic replacement to facilitate better outcomes. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of Candida guilliermondii joint infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Antonello; Maggio, Chiara; Moretti, Giulia; Crovace, Alberto; Stefanetti, Valentina; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2016-07-08

    Candida spp. are dimorphic fungi in the family Cryptococcaceae. Infections with Candida spp. are usually rare conditions in dogs, but immunocompromised patients have a higher risk for developing invasive candidal infections. A 5-year-old male Boxer, positive to Leishmania infantum, was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy for examination of a non-weight bearing left hind limb lameness of a duration of at least 3 months. During this period, treatment involved systemic anti-inflammatory medications and intra-articular corticosteroid administration. On presentation, clinical examination and radiographic findings were suggestive of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. To support this diagnosis a stifle arthroscopy was performed: it confirmed a partial rupture of cranial cruciate ligament. Samples culture of synovial fluid and membrane was routinely collected as well, and revealed Candida guilliermondii joint infection. Treatment for the C. guilliermondii joint infection involved systemic anti-fungal therapy, joint lavage and intra-articular administration of antifungal drugs. Lameness improved markedly during this treatment, but lameness did not resolve completely, probably due to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) was chosen in order to treat stifle instability and was performed 4 weeks following cessation of treatment of the C. guilliermondii joint infection. Six month after TTA the dog showed a completely recovery with no lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of Candida spp. joint infection reported in dogs. The cause of the progression of the joint C. guilliermondii infection remains unclear but it may be associated with leishmaniasis or intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Treatment with systemic and intra-articular anti-fungal therapies was successful. In the evaluation of hind limb lameness in a chronically

  12. Long-term clinical evaluation of the automatic stance-phase lock-controlled prosthetic knee joint in young adults with unilateral above-knee amputation.

    PubMed

    Andrysek, Jan; Wright, F Virginia; Rotter, Karin; Garcia, Daniela; Valdebenito, Rebeca; Mitchell, Carlos Alvarez; Rozbaczylo, Claudio; Cubillos, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the automatic stance-phase lock (ASPL) knee mechanism against participants' existing weight-activated braking (WAB) prosthetic knee joint. This prospective crossover study involved 10 young adults with an above-knee amputation. Primary measurements consisted of tests of walking speeds and capacity. Heart rate was measured during the six-minute walk test and the Physiological Cost Index (PCI) which was calculated from heart rate estimated energy expenditure. Activity was measured with a pedometer. User function and quality of life were assessed using the Lower Limb Function Questionnaire (LLFQ) and Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ). Long-term follow-up over 12 months were completed. Walking speeds were the same for WAB and APSL knees. Energy expenditure (PCI) was lower for the ASPL knees (p = 0.007). Step counts were the same for both knees, and questionnaires indicated ASPL knee preference attributed primarily to knee stability and improved walking, while limitations included terminal impact noise. Nine of 10 participants chose to keep using the ASPL knee as part of the long-term follow-up. Potential benefits of the ASPL knee were identified in this study by functional measures, questionnaires and user feedback, but not changes in activity or the PEQ.

  13. Current Options and Emerging Biomaterials for Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Levack, Ashley E; Cyphert, Erika L; Bostrom, Mathias P; Hernandez, Christopher J; von Recum, Horst A; Carli, Alberto V

    2018-04-30

    Infection in the setting of total joint arthroplasty, referred to as periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), is a devastating complication requiring prolonged and costly treatment. The unique environment around an artificial joint and ability of surrounding tissues to sequester bacteria collectively make prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition challenging. In light of the unique pathogenesis of PJI, this review explores the limitations of contemporary treatments and discusses novel treatment options. Recent advancements in local antibiotic delivery platforms for preventing and treating PJI include titanium nanotube arrays, synthetic polymers, resorbable hydrogels, and cyclodextrin-based drug delivery options. In particular, cyclodextrins have facilitated great advancements in other clinical disorders and have demonstrated early promise as a future option in the arena of PJI. Novel treatment modalities for PJI optimize the implant surfaces to prevent bacterial biofilm formation or provide prolonged intra-articular antibiotic dosing to eradicate bacteria.

  14. Forced-Air Warming Discontinued: Periprosthetic Joint Infection Rates Drop.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Scott D

    2017-06-23

    Several studies have shown that the waste heat from forced-air warming (FAW) escapes near the floor and warms the contaminated air resident near the floor. The waste heat then forms into convection currents that rise up and contaminate the sterile field above the surgical table. It has been shown that a single airborne bacterium can cause a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following joint replacement surgery. We retrospectively compared PJI rates during a period of FAW to a period of air-free conductive fabric electric warming (CFW) at three hospitals. Surgical and antibiotic protocols were held constant. The pooled multicenter data showed a decreased PJI rate of 78% following the discontinuation of FAW and a switch to air-free CFW (n=2034; P=0.002). The 78% reduction in joint implant infections observed when FAW was discontinued suggests that there is a link between the waste FAW heat and PJIs.

  15. Forced-Air Warming Discontinued: Periprosthetic Joint Infection Rates Drop

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the waste heat from forced-air warming (FAW) escapes near the floor and warms the contaminated air resident near the floor. The waste heat then forms into convection currents that rise up and contaminate the sterile field above the surgical table. It has been shown that a single airborne bacterium can cause a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following joint replacement surgery. We retrospectively compared PJI rates during a period of FAW to a period of air-free conductive fabric electric warming (CFW) at three hospitals. Surgical and antibiotic protocols were held constant. The pooled multicenter data showed a decreased PJI rate of 78% following the discontinuation of FAW and a switch to air-free CFW (n=2034; P=0.002). The 78% reduction in joint implant infections observed when FAW was discontinued suggests that there is a link between the waste FAW heat and PJIs. PMID:28713524

  16. Are homografts superior to conventional prosthetic valves in the setting of infective endocarditis involving the aortic valve?

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Bum; Ejiofor, Julius I; Yammine, Maroun; Camuso, Janice M; Walsh, Conor W; Ando, Masahiko; Melnitchouk, Serguei I; Rawn, James D; Leacche, Marzia; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cohn, Lawrence H; Byrne, John G; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-05-01

    Surgical dogma suggests that homografts should be used preferentially, compared with conventional xenograft or mechanical prostheses, in the setting of infective endocarditis (IE), because they have greater resistance to infection. However, comparative data that support this notion are limited. From the prospective databases of 2 tertiary academic centers, we identified 304 consecutive adult patients (age ≥17 years) who underwent surgery for active IE involving the aortic valve (AV), in the period 2002 to 2014. Short- and long-term outcomes were evaluated using propensity scores and inverse-probability weighting to adjust for selection bias. Homografts, and xenograft and mechanical prostheses, were used in 86 (28.3%), 139 (45.7%), and 79 (26.0%) patients, respectively. Homografts were more often used in the setting of prosthetic valve endocarditis (58.1% vs 28.8%, P = .002) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (25.6% vs 12.1%, P = .002), compared with conventional prostheses. Early mortality occurred in 17 (19.8%) in the homograft group, and 20 (9.2%) in the conventional group (P = .019). During follow-up (median: 29.4 months; interquartile-range: 4.7-72.6 months), 60 (19.7%) patients died, and 23 (7.7%) experienced reinfection, with no significant differences in survival (P = .23) or freedom from reinfection rates (P = .65) according to the types of prostheses implanted. After adjustments for baseline characteristics, using propensity-score analyses, use of a homograft did not significantly affect early death (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-3.40, P = .23), overall death (hazard ratio 1.10; 95% CI, 0.62-1.94, P = .75), or reinfection (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI, 0.49-2.18, P = .93). No significant benefit to use of homografts was demonstrable with regard to resistance to reinfection in the setting of IE. The choice among prosthetic options should be based on technical and patient-specific factors. Lack of availability of homografts should

  17. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    PubMed

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  18. Prosthetic Engineering

    MedlinePlus

    ... torque adapter in the pylons of transtibial amputees. Energy Storage & Release Many ambulatory lower limb amputees exhibit ... Future Directions Current Project Summaries Development of Controlled Energy Storage and Release Prosthetic Foot Development of Inverting- ...

  19. An electromechanical swing-phase-controlled prosthetic knee joint for conversion of physiological energy to electrical energy: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Andrysek, Jan; Chau, Gilbert

    2007-12-01

    Microprocessor-controlled prostheses facilitate a more natural and efficient gait for individuals with above-knee amputations by continually adjusting the level of swing-phase damping. One caveat associated with these technologies is that the user must charge the onboard batteries on a daily basis. It is, therefore, the aim of this study to examine the feasibility of using an electromechanical system to provide prosthetic swing-phase damping and, concomitantly, the function of converting physiological energy that is normally dissipated during the swing phase, to electrical energy. Gait data from a single subject and data from a kinematic simulator were used to develop an empirical model. The findings in this study indicate that an electromagnetic system has appropriate characteristics for use in swing-phase control and also has the potential to recover energy under particular conditions.

  20. Periprosthetic Joint Infection of Shoulder Arthroplasties: Diagnostic and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Sevelda, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most frequent reasons for painful shoulder arthroplasties and revision surgery of shoulder arthroplasties. Cutibacterium acnes (Propionibacterium acnes) is one of the microorganisms that most often causes the infection. However, this slow growing microorganism is difficult to detect. This paper presents an overview of different diagnostic test to detect a periprosthetic shoulder infection. This includes nonspecific diagnostic tests and specific tests (with identifying the responsible microorganism). The aspiration can combine different specific and nonspecific tests. In dry aspiration and suspected joint infection, we recommend a biopsy. Several therapeutic options exist for the treatment of PJI of shoulder arthroplasties. In acute infections, the options include leaving the implant in place with open debridement, septic irrigation with antibacterial fluids like octenidine or polyhexanide solution, and exchange of all removable components. In late infections (more than four weeks after implantation) the therapeutic options are a permanent spacer, single-stage revision, and two-stage revision with a temporary spacer. The functional results are best after single-stage revisions with a success rate similar to two-stage revisions. For single-stage revisions, the microorganism should be known preoperatively so that specific antibiotics can be mixed into the cement for implantation of the new prosthesis and specific systemic antibiotic therapy can be applied to support the surgery. PMID:29423407

  1. Pasteurella multocida non-native joint infection after a dog lick: A case report describing a complicated two-stage revision and a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Philip W, Lam; Page, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are commonly caused by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, other microbial etiologies and specific risk factors are increasingly recognized. Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the normal oral flora in many animals, and is particularly common in dogs and cats. PJIs caused by P multocida have been reported only rarely in the literature and typically occur in the context of an animal bite or scratch. The present article describes a P multocida joint infection that occurred after a dog lick and complicated a two-stage revision arthroplasty. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding P multocida PJIs follows. PMID:26361490

  2. Secondary infection of haematoma following closed acromioclavicular joint dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Dupley, Leanne; Berg, Andrew James; Mohil, Randeep

    2016-01-01

    An unusual case of a patient presenting with a large infected haematoma following a traumatic grade II acromioclavicular joint dislocation is reported. Diagnosis of this rare complication, of an otherwise common self-limiting injury, was delayed until 19 days postinjury despite several presentations during this time with worsening swelling and pain. The patient was found to have significant tissue destruction by the time washout was performed and required multiple procedures to treat the infection. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for complications, even following common self-limiting injuries, when patients represent with symptoms that do not fit the usual natural history of the condition, particularly if they have risk factors for bleeding and infection. PMID:26786526

  3. Definition of periprosthetic joint infection: is there a consensus?

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Javad; Jacovides, Christina; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Jung, Kwang Am

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) continues to pose a challenge. While many diagnostic criteria have been proposed, a gold standard for diagnosis is lacking. Use of multiple diagnostic criteria within the joint arthroplasty community raises concerns in patient treatment and comparison of research pertaining to PJI. We (1) determined the variation in existing diagnostic criteria, (2) compared the existing criteria to a proposed new set of criteria that incorporates aspirate cell count analysis, and (3) investigated the variations between the existing criteria and the proposed criteria. We retrospectively identified 182 patients undergoing 192 revision knee arthroplasties who had a preoperative joint aspiration analysis at our institution between April 2002 and November 2009. We excluded 20 cases due to insufficient laboratory parameters, leaving 172 cases for analysis. We applied six previously published sets of diagnostic criteria for PJI to determine the variation in its incidence using each set of criteria. We then compared these diagnostic criteria to our proposed new criteria and investigated cases where disagreement occurred. We identified 41 cases (24%) in which at least one established criteria set classified the case as infected while at least one other criteria set classified the case as uninfected. With our proposed criteria, the infected/uninfected ratio was 92/80. The proposed criteria had a large variance in sensitivity (54%-100%), specificity (39%-100%), and accuracy (53%-100%) when using each of the established criteria sets as the reference standard. The discrepancy between definitions of infection complicates interpretation of the literature and the treatment of failed TKAs owing to PJI. Based on our findings, we suggest establishing a common set of diagnostic criteria utilizing aspirate analysis to improve the treatment of PJI and facilitate interpretation of the literature. Level III, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for

  4. Synovial fluid multiplex PCR is superior to culture for detection of low-virulent pathogens causing periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Christian; Cabric, Sabrina; Perka, Carsten; Trampuz, Andrej; Renz, Nora

    2018-02-01

    Analysis of joint aspirate is the standard preoperative investigation for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We compared the diagnostic performance of culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of synovial fluid for diagnosis of PJI. Patients in whom aspiration of the prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included. The performance of synovial fluid culture and multiplex PCR was compared by McNemar's chi-squared test. A total of 142 patients were included, 82 with knee and 60 with hip prosthesis. PJI was diagnosed in 77 patients (54%) and aseptic failure in 65 patients (46%). The sensitivity of synovial fluid culture and PCR was 52% and 60%, respectively, showing concordant results in 116 patients (82%). In patients with PJI, PCR missed 6 high-virulent pathogens (S. aureus, streptococci, E. faecalis, E. coli) which grew in synovial fluid culture, whereas synovial fluid culture missed 12 pathogens detected by multiplex PCR, predominantly low-virulent pathogens (Cutibacterium acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococci). In patients with aseptic failure, PCR detected 6 low-virulent organisms (predominantly C. acnes). While the overall performance of synovial fluid PCR was comparable to culture, PCR was superior for detection of low-virulent bacteria such as Cutibacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci. In addition, synovial fluid culture required several days for growth, whereas multiplex PCR provided results within 5hours in an automated manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maintenance of arytenoid abduction following carbon dioxide laser debridement of the articular cartilage and joint capsule of the cricoarytenoid joint combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty in horses: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J F; Couetil, L; Miller, M A

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate CO2 laser debridement of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) combined with prosthetic laryngoplasty to prevent post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction in seven horses. Horses were assigned to either laser debridement of the left CAJ and laryngoplasty (laser treated, n=5) or control laryngoplasty (sham, n=2), and were evaluated with endoscopic examinations and measurement of right to left angle quotients (RLQ) to assess maintenance of arytenoid abduction. The animals were euthanased at intervals after surgery and larynges were harvested for post-mortem testing, including determination of translaryngeal flow, pressure, impedance and RLQ. Measurements were obtained under increasing vacuum-generated negative pressure with laryngoplasty sutures intact and with the knot/crimp of the laryngoplasty sutures removed. Following post-mortem testing the cricoarytenoid joints were examined histologically. Post-operative endoscopic examinations revealed no significant differences between RLQ measurements calculated for day 1 following surgery to the termination date of the study for the seven horses. Post-mortem RLQ at airflows of 10 and 60 L/s was significantly higher in sham than in laser treated horses both before and after knot/crimp removal. Translaryngeal impedance at 10 and 60 L/s was not statistically different between groups. Histopathology revealed necrosis and loss of articular cartilage in the laser treated horses. The lymphoid cell infiltration subsided but joint capsule and periarticular fibrosis increased over the course of the study. Post-operative loss of arytenoid abduction after laryngoplasty can be minimized with CO2 laser debridement of the CAJ joint. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  7. 3D printed liner for treatment of periprosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won B; Lopez, Osvaldo J; Sharkey, Jillian P; Marden, Kyle R; Murshed, Muhammad Ridwan; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I

    2017-05-01

    In the United States, long standing deep infections of joint arthroplasty, such as total knee and total hip replacements, are treated with two-stage exchange. This requires the removal of the prior implant, placement of an antibiotic eluting spacer block made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), followed by re-implantation of a new implant after treatment with intravenous antibiotics for six to eight weeks. Unfortunately, the use of PMMA as a spacer material has limitations in terms of mechanical and drug-eluting properties. PMMA is brittle and elutes most of the antibiotics within the first few days. Furthermore, the polymerization reaction for PMMA is highly exothermic, thereby limiting the use to heat-stable antibiotics. We hypothesize that the use of a 3D printed polymeric liner made of polylactic acid (PLA) would overcome the limitations of PMMA because it is a stronger and a less brittle material than PMMA. Furthermore, the liner can also act as a controlled drug delivery vehicle by using built in reservoirs and a network of micro-channels as well as by incorporating antibiotics directly into the polymer during manufacturing stage. Finally, the liner can be 3D printed according to the anatomy of the patient and thereby has the potential to transform the manner in which periprosthetic joint infections are currently treated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  9. [Classification of prosthetic loosening and determination of wear particles].

    PubMed

    Otto, M

    2008-11-01

    Nowaday, loosening of orthopaedic implants implies important medical and socioeconomic problems. Implant loosening is caused by implant infections as well as aseptic loosening, due to particle disease and mechanical alterations. Clinically we divide the implant infection into early and late infections. Morphologically it is possible to reliably detect the infection by quantification of neutrophil granulocytes. Additionally molecular methods are suitable to detect micro-organisms which are responsible for the prosthetic joint infection including their resistance to antibiotics. Particle disease may be reproducibly classified by the detection of different types of wear particles, particularly polyethylene, metal, ceramic and cement. The aetiology of the indeterminate type of the periprosthetic membrane is obscure, but may be associated with osteopathies. This classification of the periprosthetic membrane morphology provides clinically significant information concerning clinical management of implant loosening.

  10. Live intramacrophagic Staphylococcus aureus as a potential cause of antibiotic therapy failure: observations in an in vivo mouse model of prosthetic vascular material infections.

    PubMed

    Boudjemaa, Rym; Steenkeste, Karine; Jacqueline, Cédric; Briandet, Romain; Caillon, Jocelyne; Boutoille, David; Le Mabecque, Virginie; Tattevin, Pierre; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Revest, Matthieu

    2018-06-12

    To evaluate the significant role played by biofilms during prosthetic vascular material infections (PVMIs). We developed an in vivo mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus PVMI allowing its direct observation by confocal microscopy to describe: (i) the structure of biofilms developed on Dacron® vascular material; (ii) the localization and effect of antibiotics on these biostructures; and (iii) the interaction between bacteria and host tissues and cells during PVMI. In this model we demonstrated that the biofilm structures are correlated to the activity of antibiotics. Furthermore, live S. aureus bacteria were visualized inside the macrophages present at the biofilm sites, which is significant as antibiotics do not penetrate these immune cells. This intracellular situation may explain the limited effect of antibiotics and also why PVMIs can relapse after antibiotic therapy.

  11. Endoglin (CD105) expression differentiates between aseptic loosening and periprosthetic joint infection after total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Philipp; Mumme, Torsten; Randau, Thomas; Gravius, Sascha; Hermanns-Sachweh, Benita

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation between aseptic loosening and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total joint arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy. A better understanding of pathogenesis of aseptic loosening and PJI may help to prevent or treat these complications. Previous investigations revealed an increased vascularization in the periprosthetic membrane in cases of PJI via PET signals. Based on these findings our hypothesis was that PJI is associated with an increased neovascularization in the periprosthetic membrane. Tissue samples from periprosthetic membranes of the bone-implant interface were investigated histologically for inflammation, wear particles, vascularization and fibrosis. To identify vascular structures antibodies against CD 31, CD 34, factor VIII and CD 105 (endoglin) were applied for immunohistochemical investigations. According to a consensus classification of Morawietz the tissue samples were divided into four types: type I (wear particle induced type, n = 11), type II (infectious type, n = 7), type III (combined type, n = 7) and type IV (indeterminate type, n = 7). Patients with PJI (type II) showed a pronounced infiltration of neutrophil granulocytes in the periprosthetic membrane and an enhanced neovascularization indicated by positive immunoreaction with antibodies against CD 105 (endoglin). Tissue samples classified as type I, type III and type IV showed significantly less immune reaction for CD 105. In cases of aseptic loosening and PJI vascularization is found in different expression in periprosthetic membranes. However, in aseptic loosening, there is nearly no neovascularization with CD 105-positive immune reaction. Therefore, endoglin (CD 105) expression allows for differentiation between aseptic loosening and PJI.

  12. Periprosthetic joint infection by Propionibacterium acnes: Clinical differences between monomicrobial versus polymicrobial infection.

    PubMed

    Figa, Raúl; Muñetón, David; Gómez, Lucía; Matamala, Alfredo; Lung, Mayli; Cuchi, Eva; Corona, Pablo S

    2017-04-01

    To compare a series of monomicrobial Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) knee and hip periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases with cases of polymicrobial PJI which included P. acnes. We hypothesized that the presence of a polymicrobial P. acnes infection would lead to worse outcomes than those in cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI. Retrospective multicentre study. All patients with hip or knee PJIs including P. acnes diagnosed from August-2002 to July-2013 in two university hospitals were included. We collected demographic data, McPherson classification, local signs of infection (swelling or wound drainage), laboratory and histological data, surgical management, antibiotic treatment and outcomes. Data were compared between two groups: cases of monomicrobial P. acnes PJI, and cases of polymicrobial PJI involving P. acnes. Thirty-eight patients who presented with 38 PJIs were included; median age was 71 (IQR:62.5-79); 21 were men (55%); median follow-up was 42 months (IQR:17.5-58). Local signs of infection were present in 14 patients (36.8%); ESR>30 mm/h in 14 patients (36.8%); CRP>1 mg/dl in 15 patients (39.5%); 11 out of 25 patients (44%) had positive preoperative cultures from joint aspiration. Positive histologic studies (Feldman's criteria) were found in 5 out of 28 patients (17.8%). Twenty-four patients (63%) had monomicrobial PJIs; 14 patients (37%) had polymicrobial PJIs. There were no significant outcome differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial PJIs cases; overall, the success rates were 79.2% and 85.7% respectively (P > 0.05). We did not find any significant differences between monomicrobial and polymicrobial P. acnes PJI outcomes. ESR, CRP and histologic study are established parameters for diagnosing PJI which did not prove useful in P. acnes PJI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Gillon, J; Eykyn, S J; Phillips, I

    1983-01-01

    During 1965 to 1982, 32 episodes of infective endocarditis on prosthetic valves in 30 patients were treated at this hospital. In early endocarditis (presenting within four months of operation) staphylococci were the organisms most commonly responsible. Early endocarditis appears to be declining in incidence and is largely preventable; sternal sepsis was the main predisposing factor, requiring urgent and effective treatment. Streptococci were the most common organisms in late onset disease, but as with natural valve endocarditis a wide range or organisms was responsible. All but one of the patients with early onset disease were treated conservatively, but mortality was high; prompt surgical replacement of infected prostheses is probably indicated in such patients. Medical management was effective in most patients with late onset disease, and for them early surgical intervention may not be justified. PMID:6412805

  14. Microprocessor prosthetic knees.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dale

    2006-02-01

    This article traces the development of microprocessor prosthetic knees from early research in the 1970s to the present. Read about how microprocessor knees work, functional options, patient selection, and the future of this prosthetic.

  15. Medical treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections: Review of the literature and proposals of a Working Group.

    PubMed

    Revest, M; Camou, F; Senneville, E; Caillon, J; Laurent, F; Calvet, B; Feugier, P; Batt, M; Chidiac, C

    2015-09-01

    More than 400000 vascular grafts are inserted annually in the USA. Graft insertion is complicated by infection in 0.5-4% of cases. Vascular graft infections (VGIs) are becoming one of the most frequent prosthesis-related infections and are associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 10 to 25% within 30 days following the diagnosis. Treatment of VGI is based on urgent surgical removal of the infected graft followed by prolonged antibiotherapy. Data regarding the best antibiotherapy to use are lacking since no well designed trial to study antimicrobial treatment of VGI exists. Moreover, since VGIs demonstrate very specific pathophysiology, guidelines on other material-related infections or infective endocarditis treatment cannot be entirely applied to VGI. A French multidisciplinary group gathering infectious diseases specialists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists, microbiologists, radiologists and vascular surgeons was created to review the literature dealing with VGI and to make some proposals regarding empirical and documented antibiotic therapy for these infections. This article reveals these proposals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Candida periprosthetic joint infection: A rare and difficult-to-treat infection.

    PubMed

    Escolà-Vergé, Laura; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Morata, Laura; Murillo, Oscar; Vilchez, Helem; Sorli, Luisa; Carrión, Laura Guío; Barbero, José Mª; Palomino-Nicás, Julián; Bahamonde, Alberto; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Benito, Natividad; Escudero, Rosa; Sampedro, Marta Fernandez; Vidal, Rafael Pérez; Gómez, Lucía; Corona, Pablo S; Almirante, Benito; Ariza, Javier; Pigrau, Carles

    2018-05-08

    Candida periprosthetic joint infection (CPJI) is a rare, difficult-to-treat disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of CPJI treated with various surgical and antifungal strategies. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of all CPJI diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 in 16 Spanish hospitals. Forty-three patients included: median age, 75 years, and median Charlson Comorbidity Index score, 4. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients had ≥1 risk factor for Candida infection. Most common causative species were C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. Thirty-five patients were evaluable for outcome: overall, treatment succeeded in 17 (48.6%) and failed in 18 (51.4%). Success was 13/20 (67%) in patients with prosthesis removal and 4/15 (27%) with debridement and prosthesis retention (p = 0.041). All 3 patients who received an amphotericin B-impregnated cement spacer cured. In the prosthesis removal group, success was 5/6 (83%) with an antibiofilm regimen and 8/13 (62%) with azoles (p = 0.605). In the debridement and prosthesis retention group, success was 3/10 (30%) with azoles and 1/5 (20%) with antibiofilm agents. Therapeutic failure was due to relapse in 9 patients, need for suppressive treatment in 5, persistent infection in 2, and CPJI-related death in 2; overall attributable mortality was 6%. CPJI is usually a chronic disease in patients with comorbidities and risk factors for Candida infection. Treatment success is low, and prosthesis removal improves outcome. Although there is insufficient evidence that use of antifungals with antibiofilm activity has additional benefits, our experience indicates it may be recommendable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Early Valve Surgery on Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Valve Infective Endocarditis: Analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R.; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Nacinovich, Francisco; Oses, Pablo Fernandez; Ronderos, Ricardo; Sucari, Adriana; Thierer, Jorge; Casabé, José; Cortes, Claudia; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Harris, Owen; Kennedy, Karina; Tan, Ren; Gordon, David; Papanicolas, Lito; Eisen, Damon; Grigg, Leeanne; Street, Alan; Korman, Tony; Kotsanas, Despina; Dever, Robyn; Jones, Phillip; Konecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Rees, David; Ryan, Suzanne; Feneley, Michael P.; Harkness, John; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Post, Jeffrey; Reinbott, Porl; Ryan, Suzanne; Gattringer, Rainer; Wiesbauer, Franz; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; de Brito, Ana Cláudia Passos; Guimarães, Armenio Costa; Grinberg, Max; Mansur, Alfredo José; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; de Medeiros Tranchesi, Regina Aparecida; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Fortes, Claudio Querido; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna; Golebiovski, Wilma; Lamas, Cristiane; Santos, Marisa; Weksler, Clara; Karlowsky, James A.; Keynan, Yoav; Morris, Andrew M.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Jones, Sandra Braun; Garcia, Patricia; Cereceda, M; Fica, Alberto; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Barsic, Bruno; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Pangercic, Ana; Rudez, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Freiberger, Tomas; Pol, Jiri; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ashour, Zainab; El Kholy, Amani; Mishaal, Marwa; Rizk, Hussien; Aissa, Neijla; Alauzet, Corentine; Alla, Francois; Campagnac, Catherine; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Selton-Suty, Christine; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Delahaye, François; Delahaye, Armelle; Vandenesch, Francois; Donal, Erwan; Donnio, Pierre Yves; Michelet, Christian; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Violette, Jérémie; Chevalier, Florent; Jeu, Antoine; Sorel, Claire; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Bernard, Yvette; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Mazaheri, Bahram; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Athanasia, Sofia; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Mylona, Elena; Paniara, Olga; Papanicolaou, Konstantinos; Pyros, John; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Sharma, Gautam; Francis, Johnson; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Venugopal, Krishnan; Hannan, Margaret; Hurley, John; Gilon, Dan; Israel, Sarah; Korem, Maya; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Casillo, Roberta; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Dialetto, Giovanni; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Irene, Mattucci; Ragone, Enrico; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco; Forno, Davide; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Tebini, Alessandro; Grossi, Paolo; Lattanzio, Mariangela; Toniolo, Antonio; Goglio, Antonio; Raglio, Annibale; Ravasio, Veronica; Rizzi, Marco; Suter, Fredy; Carosi, Giampiero; Magri, Silvia; Signorini, Liana; Baban, Tania; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.; Yasmine, Mohamad; Abidin, Imran; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Martínez, Eduardo Rivera; Soto Nieto, Gabriel Israel; van der Meer, Jan T.M.; Chambers, Stephen; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Murdoch, David R.; Dragulescu, Stefan; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Butkevich, O.M.; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vadim, Kulichenko; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Edathodu, Jameela; Halim, Magid; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Commerford, Patrick; Commerford, Anita; Deetlefs, Eduan; Hansa, Cass; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Almela, Manuel; Armero, Yolanda; Azqueta, Manuel; Castañeda, Ximena; Cervera, Carlos; del Rio, Ana; Falces, Carlos; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Fita, Guillermina; Gatell, Jose M.; Marco, Francesc; Mestres, Carlos A.; Miró, José M.; Moreno, Asuncion; Ninot, Salvador; Paré, Carlos; Pericas, Joan; Ramirez, Jose; Rovira, Irene; Sitges, Marta; Anguera, Ignasi; Font, Bernat; Guma, Joan Raimon; Bermejo, Javier; Bouza, Emilio; Fernández, Miguel Angel Garcia; Gonzalez-Ramallo, Victor; Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Pedromingo, Miguel; Roda, Jorge; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Solis, Jorge; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; Tornos, Pilar; de Alarcón, Arístides; Parra, Ricardo; Alestig, Eric; Johansson, Magnus; Olaison, Lars; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Pachirat, Orathai; Pachirat, Pimchitra; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Senthong, Vichai; Casey, Anna; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Eyton, Christina; Klein, John L.; Bradley, Suzanne; Kauffman, Carol; Bedimo, Roger; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Douglas, Pamela; Drew, Laura; Fowler, Vance G.; Holland, Thomas; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Mudrick, Daniel; Samad, Zaniab; Sexton, Daniel; Stryjewski, Martin; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Cantey, Robert; Steed, Lisa; Wray, Dannah; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Bonilla, Hector; DiPersio, Joseph; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Baddley, John; Patel, Mukesh; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy; Afonso, Luis; Kulman, Theresa; Levine, Donald; Rybak, Michael; Cabell, Christopher H.; Baloch, Khaula; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Dixon, Christy C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Harding, Tina; Jones-Richmond, Marian; Pappas, Paul; Park, Lawrence P.; Redick, Thomas; Stafford, Judy; Anstrom, Kevin; Athan, Eugene; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Karchmer, A. W.; Miró, José M.; Murdoch, David R.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Wang, Andrew; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian; Corey, G. Ralph; Durack, David T.; Eykyn, Susannah; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Moreillon, Phillipe; Olaison, Lars; Raoult, Didier; Rubinstein, Ethan; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15). Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. PMID:25389255

  18. Impact of early valve surgery on outcome of Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: analysis in the International Collaboration of Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G; Sexton, Daniel J; Corey, G Ralph; Chu, Vivian H; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non-S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39-1.15]; P = .15). In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A computational method for comparing the behavior and possible failure of prosthetic implants

    SciT

    Nielsen, C.; Hollerbach, K.; Perfect, S.

    1995-05-01

    Prosthetic joint implants currently in use exhibit high Realistic computer modeling of prosthetic implants provides an opportunity for orthopedic biomechanics researchers and physicians to understand possible in vivo failure modes, without having to resort to lengthy and costly clinical trials. The research presented here is part of a larger effort to develop realistic models of implanted joint prostheses. The example used here is the thumb carpo-metacarpal (cmc) joint. The work, however, can be applied to any other human joints for which prosthetic implants have been designed. Preliminary results of prosthetic joint loading, without surrounding human tissue (i.e., simulating conditions undermore » which the prosthetic joint has not yet been implanted into the human joint), are presented, based on a three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analysis of three different joint implant designs.« less

  20. Validation and Application of a Dried Blood Spot Assay for Biofilm-Active Antibiotics Commonly Used for Treatment of Prosthetic Implant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Knippenberg, Ben; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Clark, Ben; Dyer, John; Batty, Kevin T.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) antibiotic assays can facilitate pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) studies in situations where venous blood sampling is logistically difficult. We sought to develop, validate, and apply a DBS assay for rifampin (RIF), fusidic acid (FUS), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). These antibiotics are considered active against organisms in biofilms and are therefore commonly used for the treatment of infections associated with prosthetic implants. A liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy DBS assay was developed and validated, including red cell partitioning and thermal stability for each drug and the rifampin metabolite desacetyl rifampin (Des-RIF). Plasma and DBS concentrations in 10 healthy adults were compared, and the concentration-time profiles were incorporated into population PK models. The limits of quantification for RIF, Des-RIF, CIP, and FUS in DBS were 15 μg/liter, 14 μg/liter, 25 μg/liter, and 153 μg/liter, respectively. Adjusting for hematocrit, red cell partitioning, and relative recovery, DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable to measured plasma concentrations for each antibiotic (r > 0.95; P < 0.0001), and Bland-Altman plots showed no significant bias. The final population PK estimates of clearance, volume of distribution, and time above threshold MICs for measured and DBS-predicted plasma concentrations were comparable. These drugs were stable in DBSs for at least 10 days at room temperature and 1 month at 4°C. The present DBS antibiotic assays are robust and can be used as surrogates for plasma concentrations to provide valid PK and PK/PD data in a variety of clinical situations, including therapeutic drug monitoring or studies of implant infections. PMID:27270283

  1. Econazole-releasing porous space maintainers for fungal periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Alexander M; Rozich, Allison J; Kontoyiannis, Panayiotis D; Watson, Emma; Albert, Nathaniel D; Bennett, George N; Mikos, Antonios G

    2018-05-11

    While antibiotic-eluting polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers have shown efficacy in the treatment of bacterial periprosthetic joint infection and osteomyelitis, antifungal-eluting space maintainers are associated with greater limitations for treatment of fungal musculoskeletal infections including limited elution concentration and duration. In this study, we have designed a porous econazole-eluting space maintainer capable of greater inhibition of fungal growth than traditional solid space maintainers. The eluted econazole demonstrated bioactivity in a concentration-dependent manner against the most common species responsible for fungal periprosthetic joint infection as well as staphylococci. Lastly, these porous space maintainers retain compressive mechanical properties appropriate to maintain space before definitive repair of the joint or bony defect.

  2. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  3. DISCUSSION ON INFECTION IN THE DORMITORY: Joint Discussion No. 7.

    PubMed

    1932-10-01

    (1) An attempt is made to show that infection in the dormitory is of paramount importance in most of the epidemics which occur in boarding schools and residential institutions. (2) The conditions in dormitories which favour a rapid and easy transmission of infection are: proximity of beds, deficient and not "cross" ventilation, insufficient floor space, "dead" space in ceiling, and "dead" corners. More than two rows of beds are to be deprecated. (3) The occurrence of epidemic tonsillitis or of serious complications of measles and influenza, and, bacteriologically, the presence of high carrier rates of haemolytic streptococci, may indicate the presence of such conditions in dormitories. (4) The minima suggested by the Board of Education (a) for dormitories and (b) for sanatorium wards or sick rooms are important for the prevention of the spread of infection.

  4. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-05-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different 18 F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax

  5. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component. This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied. Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive. Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable. PMID:27828871

  6. Analysis of clinically important factors on the performance of advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee joints based on 899 trial fittings.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Lang, Michael; Stuckart, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate whether clinically important factors may predict an individual's capability to utilize the functional benefits provided by an advanced hydraulic, microprocessor-controlled exo-prosthetic knee component.This retrospective cross-sectional cohort analysis investigated the data of above knee amputees captured during routine trial fittings. Prosthetists rated the performance indicators showing the functional benefits of the advanced maneuvering capabilities of the device. Subjects were asked to rate their perception. Simple and multiple linear and logistic regression was applied.Data from 899 subjects with demographics typical for the population were evaluated. Ability to vary gait speed, perform toileting, and ascend stairs were identified as the most sensitive performance predictors. Prior C-Leg users showed benefits during advanced maneuvering. Variables showed plausible and meaningful effects, however, could not claim predictive power. Mobility grade showed the largest effect but also failed to be predictive.Clinical parameters such as etiology, age, mobility grade, and others analyzed here do not suffice to predict individual potential. Daily walking distance may pose a threshold value and be part of a predictive instrument. Decisions based solely on single parameters such as mobility grade rating or walking distance seem to be questionable.

  7. [Treatment of bacterial infection in the interphalangeal joints of the hand].

    PubMed

    Vorderwinkler, K-P; Mühldorfer, M; Pillukat, T; van Schoonhoven, J

    2011-07-01

    Radical debridement of joint infection, prevention of further infection-related tissue destruction. Septic arthritis of interphalangeal joints in the thumb and fingers. Extensive soft tissue defects. Severe impairment of blood circulation, finger gangrene. Noncompliance for immobilization or for treatment with external fixator. Arthrotomy and irrigation with isotonic solution. Radical tissue debridement. Joint preservation possible only in the absence of infection-related macroscopic cartilage damage. Otherwise, resection of the articular surfaces and secondary arthrodesis. Insertion of antibiotic-coated devices. Temporary immobilization with external fixator. Inpatient postoperative treatment with 5-day intravenous administration of a second-generation cephalosporine (e.g., Cefuroxim®) followed by 7-10 days oral application. Adaptation of antibiotics according to antibiogram results. In joint-preserving procedures, radiographs and fixator removal after 4 weeks, active joint mobilization. If joint surfaces were resected, removal of fixator after 6 weeks; arthrodesis under 3-day intravenous broad-band antibiotic prophylaxis. Splint immobilization until consolidation (6-8 weeks). In 10 of 40 patients, the infected joint could be preserved. All infections healed. After an average duration of therapy of 6 (3-11) weeks, 4 individuals were free of complaints, and 6 patients had minor symptoms. Overall range of motion in the affected finger was reduced by 25-50° in 5 patients. All patients could return to work after 6.6 (4-11) weeks. A total of 30 patients were treated with joint resection and external fixator. After 5.6 (4-8) weeks, arthrodesis was performed, leading to consolidation in 29 patients. One patient underwent amputation after 4 months due to delayed gangrene. Treatment duration was 15.7 (7-25) weeks. Eight patients reported no complaints, 14 suffered mild symptoms, 5 had moderate, and 3 had severe symptoms in daily life. In 15 cases, range

  8. Diagnosis and management of the infected total joint arthroplasty

    SciT

    Cuckler, J.M.; Star, A.M.; Alavi, A.

    The preoperative diagnosis of the infected orthopedic implant is complicated by lack of a single precise test to forewarn patient and surgeon of the presence of microorganisms. Given the overall limitation of accuracy of preoperative diagnosis to approximately 80% when 111In scanning, preoperative aspiration, and ESR are considered, it would seem prudent to approach each revision surgery with the possibility in mind of subclinical sepsis as the cause for failure of the implant. The essentials of surgical technique including thorough debridement of the wound and removal of all existing foreign bodies, especially including PMMA bone cement, are critical to minimizingmore » the risk for occurrence or persistence of sepsis. Although the use of antibiotic impregnated bone cement may enhance the treatment of orthopedic sepsis, the data available to date lead to the conclusion that two-stage revision surgery in the face of known sepsis remains the cornerstone of surgical therapy for the infected implant, along with aggressive and rational antibiotic treatment. The surgeon is offered the following guidelines in the management of the septic total hip arthroplasty. 1. Preoperative evaluation including ESR, 111In WBC scan, and aspiration for culture and sensitivity (fluoroscopically guided for the hip) will produce on average approximately 80% accuracy. 2. Intraoperative cultures at the time of revision surgery should be obtained prior to administration of systemic antibiotics; three tissue specimens (hip capsule, femoral membrane, acetabular membrane) should be submitted for culture and sensitivity determination. 3. Careful debridement of the surgical site of granulation tissue and all foreign bodies (e.g., PMMA) should be performed within the limits of patient safety to maximize the likelihood of success. 37 refs.« less

  9. Staphylococcus aureus nasal decolonization in joint replacement surgery reduces infection.

    PubMed

    Hacek, Donna M; Robb, William J; Paule, Suzanne M; Kudrna, James C; Stamos, Van Paul; Peterson, Lance R

    2008-06-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) with Staphylococcus aureus are a recognized adverse event of hip and knee replacements. We evaluated the impact of a program to detect S. aureus nasal carriers before surgery with preoperative decolonization (using mupirocin twice daily for 5 days prior to surgery) of carriers. Nasal swab samples were obtained from patients prior to surgery from 8/1/2003 through 2/28/2005. Samples were tested using real-time PCR technology to detect S. aureus. The group that developed S. aureus SSI was compared to a combined concurrent and historical control for one year following the operation. S. aureus caused 71% of SSIs in the combined control groups. Of the 1495 surgical candidates evaluated, 912 (61.0%) were screened for S. aureus; 223 of those screened (24.5%) were positive and then decolonized with mupirocin. Among the 223 positive and decolonized patients, three (1.3%) developed a SSI. Among the 689 screen-negative patients, four (0.6%) developed SSIs for an overall rate of 0.77%. Among the 583 control patients who were not screened or decolonized, 10 (1.7%) developed S. aureus SSIs. SSIs from other organisms were 0.44% and 0.69%, respectively. Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of Cresco-Ti laser-welded joints and stress analyses using finite element models of fixed distal extension and fixed partial prosthetic designs.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hakan; Kurtoglu, Cem; Gurbuz, Riza; Tutuncu, Naki

    2005-03-01

    The Cresco-Ti System uses a laser-welded process that provides an efficient technique to achieve passive fit frameworks. However, mechanical behavior of the laser-welded joint under biomechanical stress factors has not been demonstrated. This study describes the effect of Cresco-Ti laser-welding conditions on the material properties of the welded specimen and analyzes stresses on the weld joint through 3-dimensional finite element models (3-D FEM) of implant-supported fixed dentures with cantilever extensions and fixed partial denture designs. Twenty Grade III (ASTM B348) commercially pure titanium specimens were machine-milled to the dimensions described in the EN10002-1 tensile test standard and divided into test (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. The test specimens were sectioned and laser-welded. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing to determine yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and percent elongation (PE). The Knoop micro-indentation test was performed to determine the hardness of all specimens. On welded specimens, the hardness test was performed at the welded surface. Data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t test (alpha=.05). Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy to characterize the mode of fracture and identify defects due to welding. Three-dimensional FEMs were created that simulated a fixed denture with cantilever extensions supported by 5 implants (M1) and a fixed partial denture supported by 2 implants (M2), 1 of which was angled 30 degrees mesio-axially. An oblique load of 400 N with 15 degrees lingual-axial inclinations was applied to both models at various locations. Test specimens fractured between the weld and the parent material. No porosities were observed on the fractured surfaces. Mean values for YS, UTS, PE, and Knoop hardness were 428 +/- 88 MPa, 574 +/- 113 MPa, 11.2 +/- 0.4%, 270 +/- 17 KHN, respectively, for the control group and 642 +/- 2 MPa, 772 +/- 72

  11. [Mixed knee arthrodesis a rescue alternative in knee periprosthetic joint infection].

    PubMed

    López-Cervantes, Roberto Enrique; Rivera-Villa, Adrián Huematzin; Miguel-Pérez, Adrián; Morales-de Los Santos, René; Torres-González, Rubén; Pérez-Atanasio, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Knee arthrodesis is a rescue procedure for patients with knee periprosthetic joint infection who are not candidates for a revision surgery. The actual methods present a high complication rate with only moderate efectivity. We retrospectively analyzed 17 cases, of patients with knee periprosthetic joint infection and bone loss treated by intramedular expandable nail and monoplanar external fixator with a mínimum evolution of 1 year, evaluating the medical records and digitalized X-rays by 2 sub specialized doctors in osteoarticular rescue surgery. From the 17 patients, 88.2% were classified as Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute classification grade (III) and the 11.2% IIB. We obtained fusion in 82.5%, staged Hammer (I-II) in a mean time of 6.33 months. Achieving independent gait was reported in 88.2%. Our complication rate was 47.1%, most of them minor complications except for a supracondylar amputation. Our infection recurrence rate was 35.4%. Mean intervention rate was 2.47 surgeries, all without any operative room complication. We achieved a fusion rate similar to other available knee arthrodesis methods in a similar treatment time; with lower complication rate, making it a suitable rescue alternative for knee arthrodesis in patients with significant bone loss and knee periprosthetic joint infection.

  12. Progressive upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lake, Chris; Dodson, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The field of upper extremity prosthetics is a constantly changing arena as researchers and prosthetists strive to bridge the gap between prosthetic reality and upper limb physiology. With the further development of implantable neurologic sensing devices and targeted muscle innervation (discussed elsewhere in this issue), the challenge of limited input to control vast outputs promises to become a historical footnote in the future annals of upper limb prosthetics. Soon multidextrous terminal devices, such as that found in the iLimb system(Touch EMAS, Inc., Edinburgh, UK), will be a clinical reality (Fig. 22). Successful prosthetic care depends on good communication and cooperation among the surgeon, the amputee, the rehabilitation team, and the scientists harnessing the power of technology to solve real-life challenges. If the progress to date is any indication, amputees of the future will find their dreams limited only by their imagination.

  13. Amputation and Prosthetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extremity Prosthetics Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1: Thumb Prosthesis - not attached Figure ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  14. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... VA Learning University (VALU) SimLearn Libraries (VALNET) VA Software Documentation Library (VDL) About VHA Learn about VHA Forms & ... & Sensory Aids Service (PSAS) Our Mission The mission of the Prosthetic & ...

  15. Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography

  16. Incidence of Infection and Inhospital Mortality in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure After Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer F; Yoo, Joanne Y; Restrepo, Camilo; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2016-11-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) may require total joint arthroplasty (TJA) to treat degenerative joint disease, fractures, osteonecrosis, or amyloid arthropathy. There have been conflicting results, however, regarding outcomes of TJA in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of this case-controlled study was to determine the outcome of TJA in patients with CRF, with particular interest in the incidence of infections and inhospital mortality. We queried our electronic database to determine which patients among the 29,389 TJAs performed at our institution between January 2000 and June 2012 had a diagnosis of CRF. A total of 359 CRF patients were identified and matched for procedure, gender, age (±4 years), date of surgery (±2 years), and body mass index (±5 kg/m 2 ) in a 2:1 ratio to 718 control patients. The incidence of infection and inhospital mortality was not significantly different between the nondialysis CRF patients and controls, whereas it was significantly higher in dialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure patients compared to controls. Of the 50 CRF patients receiving hemodialysis, 10 (20%) developed surgical site infection, of which 4 (8%) were periprosthetic joint infection, and 4 (8%) died during hospital stay. The odds ratio for infection in the dialysis group was 7.54 (95% confidence interval: 2.83-20.12) and 10.46 (95% confidence interval: 1.67-65.34) for the inhospital mortality. We conclude that end-stage renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis have higher postoperative infection and inhospital mortality rates after an elective TJA procedure, whereas nondialysis CRF patients have similar outcomes compared with the general TJA population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pasteurella multocida infected total knee arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, KB; Bharadwaj, R; MacDonald, A; Syme, B

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. This infection generally follows significant animal contact, usually licks and scratches. We report a case of P multocida infection that was treated with linezolid with salvage of the implant. Linezolid is generally active against Gram-positive organisms only with the exception of Pasteurella, which is Gram-negative. We extensively review the previous reported cases of implant infection with P multocida. PMID:24780653

  18. Percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling for infection: aspiration, biopsy, and technique.

    PubMed

    Knipp, David; Simeone, F Joseph; Nelson, Sandra B; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate methods of CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling in patients with suspected infection. All CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling procedures for suspected infection were reviewed for sampling type (aspiration, lavage aspiration, biopsy), microbiology results, and clinical and imaging follow-up. The primary gold standard was anatomic pathology. If pathology was not available, then positive blood culture with the same organism as SIJ sampling, imaging and clinical follow-up, or clinical follow-up only were used. Anterior and posterior joint distention was evaluated by MRI within 7 days of the procedure. A total of 34 patients (age 39 ± 20 (range, 6-75) years; 21 F, 13 M) were included. Aspiration samples only were obtained in 13/34 (38%) cases, biopsy samples only in 9/34 (26%) cases, and both samples in 12/34 (35%) cases. There was an overall 54% sensitivity and 86% specificity. For the aspiration samples, sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 81%, respectively, compared to 45 and 90% for the biopsy samples. In cases with both samples, biopsy did not add additional microbial information. Seventeen (17/34, 50%) patients had an MRI. The anterior joint was more distended than the posterior joint in 15/17 (88%) of patients, and this difference was significant (P = 0.0003). All of these 17 patients had an attempted aspiration by a posterior approach; 6/17 (35%) resulted in a successful aspiration. Aspiration of the sacroiliac joint has a higher sensitivity than biopsy and should always be attempted first. MRI may be helpful for procedure planning.

  19. The History of the European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS)

    PubMed Central

    Walenkamp, Geert H.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    The European Bone and Joint Infection Society (EBJIS) was founded by a French initiative as a Study Group in 1982. The group of 26 founding members increased to around 60 members in 1992, and membership was limited to surgeons from Europe, experienced in orthopedic infections. In 1993, a transformation to a Society was performed with a more open structure for all kind of doctors and scientists. Annual meetings, a Travelling Fellowship, research projects and instructional courses were organized. Professional support and improved publicity has resulted in an increase to more than 400 members, from worldwide. PMID:29761069

  20. Biological response to prosthetic debris

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Diana; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Joint arthroplasty had revolutionized the outcome of orthopaedic surgery. Extensive and collaborative work of many innovator surgeons had led to the development of durable bearing surfaces, yet no single material is considered absolutely perfect. Generation of wear debris from any part of the prosthesis is unavoidable. Implant loosening secondary to osteolysis is the most common mode of failure of arthroplasty. Osteolysis is the resultant of complex contribution of the generated wear debris and the mechanical instability of the prosthetic components. Roughly speaking, all orthopedic biomaterials may induce a universal biologic host response to generated wear débris with little specific characteristics for each material; but some debris has been shown to be more cytotoxic than others. Prosthetic wear debris induces an extensive biological cascade of adverse cellular responses, where macrophages are the main cellular type involved in this hostile inflammatory process. Macrophages cause osteolysis indirectly by releasing numerous chemotactic inflammatory mediators, and directly by resorbing bone with their membrane microstructures. The bio-reactivity of wear particles depends on two major elements: particle characteristics (size, concentration and composition) and host characteristics. While any particle type may enhance hostile cellular reaction, cytological examination demonstrated that more than 70% of the debris burden is constituted of polyethylene particles. Comprehensive understanding of the intricate process of osteolysis is of utmost importance for future development of therapeutic modalities that may delay or prevent the disease progression. PMID:25793158

  1. Novel Materials for Prosthetic Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragolta, Carolina I.; Morford, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury that reduce quality of life. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material. Moisture vapor permeability was tested by incubating four aerogel varieties with an artificial sweat solution at 37.0 C and less than 20% relative humidity for 24 hours. Two aerogel varieties were eliminated from the study due to difficulties in handling the material, and further testing proceeded with Pyrogel in 2.0 and 6.0 mm thicknesses. Force distribution was tested by compressing samples under a load of 4448 N at a rate of 2.5 mm/min. Biofilm formation was tested in a high-shear CDC Biofilm Reactor. Results showed that 2.0 mm Pyrogel blanket allowed 55.7 plus or minus 28.7% of an artificial sweat solution to transpire, and 35.5 plus or minus 27.8% transpired through 6.0 mm Pyrogel blanket. Samples also outperformed the load-bearing capabilities of existing liner materials. No statistically significant difference was found between the two Pyrogel thicknesses for either moisture vapor permeability or force distribution. In addition, biofilm formation results showed no change between the two Pyrogel thicknesses. The breathability and load bearing properties of aerogel make it a suitable material for application to prosthetic liners.

  2. CLINICAL AND TREATMENT FEATURES OF OPEN INFECTED FRACTURES IN THE KNEE JOINT REGION IN CONJUNCTION WITH RADIATION SICKNESS (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)

    SciT

    Sakharov, B.V.

    1963-08-01

    Clinical aspects and the course of treatment of open infected fractures in the knee joint region against a background of moderate and severe radiation sickness are discussed. The experiment involved 35 healthy dogs of both sexes. In all, three experiments were involved: on open infected fractures in the knee joint region in conjunction with radiation sickness; open infected fractures in the knee joint region without radiation sickness; radiation sickness without trauma. Infected open injury to the knee joint against a radiation sickness background is a severe affection. The use of delayed surgical and drug treatment (antibiotics, vitamins, antihistamine preparations) affordedmore » survival of at least one-half of the animals. Oral use of phenoxymethyl-penicillin in large doses established in the blood and synovial fluid of the damaged knee joint a therapeutic concentration of antibiotic of long duration (not less than a day). In radiation damage to knee joint accompanied by fracture of the bone fragment, the best method of surgical treatment is osteosynthesis using metal parts. In open infection of a damaged knee joint against a radiation sickness background, even with proper treatment a tendency toward formation of deforming arthrosis was observed. (OTS)« less

  3. Successful management of multiple permanent pacemaker complications – infection, 13 year old silent lead perforation and exteriorisation following failed percutaneous extraction, superior vena cava obstruction, tricuspid valve endocarditis, pulmonary embolism and prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Pankaj; Adluri, Krishna; Javangula, Kalyana; Baig, Wasir

    2009-01-01

    A 59 year old man underwent mechanical tricuspid valve replacement and removal of pacemaker generator along with 4 pacemaker leads for pacemaker endocarditis and superior vena cava obstruction after an earlier percutaneous extraction had to be abandoned, 13 years ago, due to cardiac arrest, accompanied by silent, unsuspected right atrial perforation and exteriorisation of lead. Postoperative course was complicated by tricuspid valve thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism requiring TPA thrombolysis which was instantly successful. A review of literature of pacemaker endocarditis and tricuspid thrombosis along with the relevant management strategies is presented. We believe this case report is unusual on account of non operative management of right atrial lead perforation following an unsuccessful attempt at percutaneous removal of right sided infected pacemaker leads and the incidental discovery of the perforated lead 13 years later at sternotomy, presentation of pacemaker endocarditis with a massive load of vegetations along the entire pacemaker lead tract in superior vena cava, right atrial endocardium, tricuspid valve and right ventricular endocardium, leading to a functional and structural SVC obstruction, requirement of an unusually large dose of warfarin postoperatively occasioned, in all probability, by antibiotic drug interactions, presentation of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis uniquely as vasovagal syncope and isolated hypoxia and near instantaneous resolution of tricuspid prosthetic valve thrombosis with Alteplase thrombolysis. PMID:19239701

  4. Total hip replacement infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by Addison disease and psoas muscle abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Nardo, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Conte, Aristide; Gentilotti, Elisa; Narciso, Pasquale

    2012-01-10

    Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is occasionally encountered in clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complicated by psoas abscesses and secondary Addison disease. A 67-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian woman underwent total left hip arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis. After 18 months, she underwent arthroplasty revision for a possible prosthetic infection. Periprosthetic tissue specimens for bacteria were negative, and empirical antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful. She was then admitted to our department because of complications arising 22 months after arthroplasty. A physical examination revealed a sinus tract overlying her left hip and skin and mucosal pigmentation. Her levels of C-reactive protein, basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and sodium were out of normal range. Results of the tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold test were positive. Computed tomography revealed a periprosthetic abscess and the inclusion of the left psoas muscle. Results of microbiological tests were negative, but polymerase chain reaction of a specimen taken from the hip fistula was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our patient's condition was diagnosed as prosthetic joint infection and muscle psoas abscess due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secondary Addison disease. She underwent standard treatment with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide associated with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. At 15 months from the beginning of therapy, she was in good clinical condition and free of symptoms. Prosthetic joint infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. A differential diagnosis of tuberculosis should be considered when dealing with prosthetic joint infection, especially when repeated smears and histology examination from infected joints are negative. Clinical outcomes of prosthetic joint infection by

  5. [Clinical application of continuous douche and vacuum sealing drainage in refractory tissue, bone and joint infections after debridement].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping-lin; He, Xi-jing; Li, Hao-peng; Wang, Guo-yu; Zang, Quan-jin

    2010-01-01

    To explore effect and the application value of continuous douche and vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in refractory tissue, and joint infections after complete debridement. As retrospective analysis of treatment time and restoration or recurrence, from Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007, 61 cases of refractory tissue, bone and joint infections underwent continuous douche and VSD combined with the treatment of anti-inflammatory and rehabilitation training after debridement in our hospital. The 61 patients included 39 males and 22 females with age ranging from 10 to 58 years with an average of (35 +/- 12) years, among whom 61 identified to have ankle ulcers combined with infections,open fracture combined with infections, sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers combined with infections, infections after hip replacement, infections after open fracture, and infections after skin avulsion postoperation were 11, 15, 9, 3, 5 and 18 cases respectively. The course was from 2 weeks to 11 months with an average of 4 months. In all 61 patients,the mean healing time was 17, 36, 42, 24, 32, 29 and 28 days in ankle ulcers and infections, tibia and fibula open fracture and infections, femoral shaft fracture and infections, sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers and infections, infections after hip replacement, infections after open fracture, and infections after skin avulsion postoperation respectively. The replacement of VSD was 1, 2-4, 3-5, 1-3, 2-4, 2-3 and 1-3 times in each group respectively. There was no wound recurrence except for 2 cases with recurrent in 61 cases with external fixation nail hole semi-pathological fracture in 1 case of femoral shaft fracture and infection and 1 case of tibia and fibula fracture and infection after follow-up at least one year. Application of continuous douche and VSD can effectively decrease incidence of complications and promote the refractory tissue, bone and joint infections wound growth, healing and considerably shorten the healing time.

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated prior to dental procedures for prevention of periprosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Willem M H; Walenkamp, Geert H I M; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Hendriks, Johannes G E; Goedendorp, Theo A; Rozema, Frederik R

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - To minimize the risk of hematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (HPJI), international and Dutch guidelines recommended antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Unclear definitions and contradictory recommendations in these guidelines have led to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. To formulate new guidelines, a joint committee of the Dutch Orthopaedic and Dental Societies conducted a systematic literature review to answer the following question: can antibiotic prophylaxis be recommended for patients (with joint prostheses) undergoing dental procedures in order to prevent dental HPJI? Methods - The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reviews, and observational studies up to July 2015. Studies were included if they involved patients with joint implants undergoing dental procedures, and either considered HPJI as an outcome measure or described a correlation between HPJI and prophylactic antibiotics. A guideline was formulated using the GRADE method and AGREE II guidelines. Results - 9 studies were included in this systematic review. All were rated "very low quality of evidence". Additional literature was therefore consulted to address clinical questions that provide further insight into pathophysiology and risk factors. The 9 studies did not provide evidence that use of antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of dental HPJI, and the additional literature supported the conclusion that antibiotic prophylaxis should be discouraged in dental procedures. Interpretation - Prophylactic antibiotics in order to prevent dental HPJI should not be prescribed to patients with a normal or an impaired immune system function. Patients are recommended to maintain good oral hygiene and visit the dentist regularly.

  7. Financial Analysis of Treating Periprosthetic Joint Infections at a Tertiary Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Bradford S; Briski, David C; Meyer, Mark S; Ochsner, John L; Chimento, George F

    2016-05-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant challenge to the orthopedic surgeon, patient, hospital, and insurance provider. Our study compares the financial information of self-originating and referral 2-stage revision hip and knee surgeries at our tertiary referral center for hip or knee PJI over the last 4 years. We performed an in-house retrospective financial review of all patients who underwent 2-stage revision hip or knee arthroplasty for infection between January 2008 and August 2013, comparing self-originating and referral cases. We found an increasing number of referrals over the study period. There was an increased cost of treating hips over knees. All scenarios generated a positive net income; however, referral hip PJIs offered lower reimbursement and net income per case (although not statistically significant), whereas knee PJIs offered higher reimbursement and net income per case (although not statistically significant). With referral centers treating increased numbers of infected joints performed elsewhere, we show continued financial incentive in accepting referrals, although with less financial gain than when treating one's own hip PJI and an increased financial gain when treating referral knee PJIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial infective arthritis of the coxofemoral joint in dogs with hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Benzioni, H; Shahar, R; Yudelevitch, S; Milgram, J

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe seven cases of unilateral bacterial infective coxarthritis from a total of 19 cases of bacterial infective arthritis (BIA), presenting over a two year period. We recorded the history, clinical signs, diagnostic process, treatment and clinical outcome in these cases. The data were obtained from medical records, review of the radiographs, and telephone follow-up with the owners. All of the dogs in this study had severe chronic osteoarthritis secondary to hip dysplasia, which caused periodic hind limb lameness. They were all admitted with severe acute hind-limb lameness. Pelvic radiographs were performed under general anaesthesia shortly after presentation, followed immediately by arthrocentesis of the affected joint. The synovial fluid was evaluated microscopically by direct smear and a sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. An attempt was not made to drain or lavage the affected joint during the course of treatment. The initial choice of antibiotics was empiric and subsequently modified, as required, based on the sensitivity results. Four of the dogs showed a rapid return to weight-bearing after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, and all of the patients returned to their pre-BIA level of function. Neither recurrent infections nor any adverse sequela requiring further intervention were reported by the owners on telephone follow-up.

  9. Economic Analysis of 4221 Revisions Due to Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Babiak, Ireneusz; Pędzisz, Piotr; Janowicz, Jakub; Kulig, Mateusz; Małdyk, Paweł

    2017-01-26

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most severe complications of total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty. The aim of the study is to determine the number and type of hip and knee prosthesis revisions in Poland performed due to infection and reimbursement of the cost of septic revisions and to compare the costs of septic and aseptic revisions in Poland and other countries. The data published for the period 2009-2013 by the National Health Fund (NHF) were analysed and the average cost of septic and aseptic revisions was calculated. In the years 2009-2013, a total of 260,030 hip and knee arthroplasties including 23,027 revisions (incl. 4,221 septic) were performed in Poland. In 2013, septic revisions accounted for 1.38% of all hip replacement procedures, 2.56% of all knee replacement procedures and 14.67% of all hip revisions and 30.23% of all knee revisions. In 2013, the difference between the average cost incurred by the hospital and the NHF refund for septic revision due to PJI was at least €238 and the cost-refund gap for the entire year was €219198. 1. The system of reporting periprostheticjoint infections currently in use in Poland does not adequately reflect the current classification of PJI and reimbursement for septic revision of joint prosthesis does not match the actual costs. 2. The Polish DRG system does not distinguish between early and late PJI and fails to acknowledge basic guidelines for infection treatment currently followed in Poland and worldwide. 3. According to the DRG system, patients requiring different treatment are placed in one category. 4. Until the year 2013, the less expensive treatment of early infections had been reimbursed on the same basis as the more costly two-stage revision procedures.

  10. Negative pressure wound therapy for the treatment of infected wounds with exposed knee joint after patellar fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Miwa, Masahiko; Sakai, Yoshitada; Oe, Keisuke; Fukazawa, Takahiro; Kawakami, Yohei; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2011-06-14

    Treatment of soft tissue defects with exposed bones and joints, resulting from trauma, infection, and surgical complications, represents a major challenge. The introduction of negative pressure wound therapy has changed many wound management practices. Negative pressure wound therapy has recently been used in the orthopedic field for management of traumatic or open wounds with exposed bone, nerve, tendon, and orthopedic implants. This article describes a case of a patient with a large soft tissue defect and exposed knee joint, in which negative pressure wound therapy markedly improved wound healing. A 50-year-old man presented with an ulceration of his left knee with exposed joint, caused by severe wound infections after open reduction and internal fixation of a patellar fracture. After 20 days of negative pressure wound therapy, a granulated wound bed covered the exposed bones and joint.To our knowledge, this is the first report of negative pressure wound therapy used in a patient with a large soft tissue defect with exposed knee joint. Despite the chronic wound secondary to infection, healing was achieved through the use of the negative pressure wound therapy, thus promoting granulation tissue formation and closing the joint. We suggest negative pressure wound therapy as an alternative option for patients with lower limb wounds containing exposed bones and joints when free flap transfer is contraindicated. Our result added to the growing evidence that negative pressure wound therapy is a useful adjunctive treatment for open wounds around the knee joint. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Utility of percutaneous joint aspiration and synovial biopsy in identifying culture-positive infected hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cross, M Connor; Kransdorf, Mark J; Chivers, F Spencer; Lorans, Roxanne; Roberts, Catherine C; Schwartz, Adam J; Beauchamp, Christopher P

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous synovial biopsy has recently been reported to have a high diagnostic value in the preoperative identification of periprosthetic infection of the hip. We report our experience with this technique in the evaluation of patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty, comparing results of preoperative synovial biopsy with joint aspiration in identifying an infected hip arthroplasty by bacteriological analysis. We retrospectively reviewed the results of the 110 most recent revision hip arthroplasties in which preoperative synovial biopsy and joint aspiration were both performed. Revision surgery for these patients occurred during the period from September 2005 to March 2012. Using this study group, results from preoperative cultures were compared with preoperative laboratory studies and the results of intraoperative cultures. Synovial aspiration was done using an 18- or 20-gauge spinal needle. Synovial biopsy was done coaxially following aspiration using a 22-gauge Chiba needle or 21-gauge Sure-Cut needle. Standard microbiological analysis was performed on preoperative synovial fluid aspirate and synovial biopsy. Intraoperative tissue biopsy bacteriological analysis results at surgical revision were accepted as the "gold standard" for the presence or absence of infection. Seventeen of 110 (15 %) of patients had intraoperative culture-positive periprosthetic infection. Of these 17 cases, there were ten cases where either the synovial fluid aspiration and/or the synovial biopsy were true positive (sensitivity of 59 %, specificity of 100 %, positive predictive value of 100 % and accuracy of 94 %). There were seven cases where aspiration and biopsy results were both falsely negative, but no false-positive results. Similar results were found for synovial fluid aspiration alone. The results of synovial biopsy alone resulted in the identification of seven infected joints with no false-positive result (sensitivity of 41 %, specificity of 100 %, positive

  12. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  13. Leukocyte Esterase as a Biomarker in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Li, Rui; Wang, Qi; Duan, Jinyan; Wang, Chengbin

    2017-01-21

    BACKGROUND Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been one of the most rewarding interventions for treating patients suffering from joint disorders. However, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication that frequently accompanies TJA. Our study aimed to investigate the application of the leukocyte esterase (LE) strip in the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIAL AND METHODS From October 2014 to July 2015, 72 patients who had undergone joint puncture after arthroplasty in our hospital were enrolled in this trial. One drop of synovial fluid from each available patient was applied to the LE strip, and the results were observed after 1-3 min. If the color turned to dark purple, we recognized this as a positive result, while other colors were regarded as negative results. Centrifugation was used when the synovial fluid was mixed with blood. The Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) definition was used as the standard reference to identify whether PJI was found in patients or not. The results of diagnosis and LE strips test were compared, and indicators reflecting diagnostic value were calculated. Correlation of the LE data with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial white blood cell (WBC) counts, and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) percentage was calculated. RESULTS By MSIS criteria, 38 patients were diagnosed with PJI and 34 patients were not infected. Two types of LE strip presented the same results with sensitivity of 84.21% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.75~93.98%), specificity of 97.06% (95% CI: 84.67~99.93%), positive predictive value (PPV) of 96.97% (95% CI: 84.24~99.92%), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 84.62% (95% CI: 69.47~94.14%). There were one false-positive case and six false-negative cases in this trial. There is a strong correlation between LE strip and synovial fluid PMN percentage. CONCLUSIONS The sensitivity and specificity of the LE strip in the diagnosis of PJI are quite high, which means

  14. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P. G.; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Meyer, Urs; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Context: Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. Objective: To estimate the independent and joint effects of exposure to prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma on the risk of schizophrenia. Design: Danish nationwide registers were linked in this prospective cohort study. We used survival analysis to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were adjusted for age and calendar period and stratified by sex. Participants: A total of 979701 persons born between 1980 and 1998 were followed up from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2013, with 9656 having a hospital contact for schizophrenia. Results: Females exposed to prenatal infection had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.30–2.00), but not males (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77–1.28). Peripubertal trauma was associated with increased risk in both sexes. Males, however, had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia after exposure to both prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma (IRR: 2.85, 95% CI: 2.32–3.51), with significant interaction between infection and peripubertal trauma on the multiplicative scale (P = .007). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that prenatal infection and psychological trauma in peripubertal life can act in synergy to increase the risk of schizophrenia, with a potentially stronger susceptibility in males. PMID:27343007

  15. Comparison of air exhausts for surgical body suits (space suits) and the potential for periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Halabi, S; Jones, C

    2018-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection is a major complication of total joint replacement surgery and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial burden. Surgical body suits (space suits), originally designed to reduce the incidence of infection, have paradoxically been implicated in increased periprosthetic joint infection rates recently. Air exhausted from space suits may contribute to this increased rate of periprosthetic joint infection. To investigate the flow of air exhausted from space suits commonly used in modern operating theatres. The exhaust airflow patterns of four commercially available space suit systems were compared using a fog machine and serial still photographs. The space suit systems tested all air exhausted into the operating room. The single fan systems with a standard surgical gown exhausted air laterally from the posterior gown fold at approximately the level of the surgical field. The single fan system with a dedicated zippered suit exhausted air at a level below the surgical field. The dual fan system exhausted air out of the top of the helmet at a level above the surgical field. Space suit systems currently in use in joint replacement surgery differ significantly from traditional body exhaust systems; rather than removing contaminated air from the operating environment, modern systems exhaust this air into the operating room, in some cases potentially towards the sterile instrument tray and the surgical field. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cobotic architecture for prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Faulring, Eeic L; Colgate, J Edward; Peshkin, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    We envision cobotic infinitely-variable transmissions (IVTs) as an enabling technology for haptics and prosthetics that will allow for increases in the dynamic range of these devices while simultaneously permitting reductions in actuator size and power requirements. Use of cobotic IVTs eliminates the need to make compromises on output flow and effort, which are inherent to choosing a fixed transmission ratio drivetrain. The result is a mechanism with enhanced dynamic range that extends continuously from a completely clutched state to a highly backdrivable state. This high dynamic range allows cobotic devices to control impedance with a high level of fidelity. In this paper, we discuss these and other motivations for using parallel cobotic transmission architecture in prosthetic devices.

  17. Diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection: has the era of the biomarker arrived?

    PubMed

    Deirmengian, Carl; Kardos, Keith; Kilmartin, Patrick; Cameron, Alexander; Schiller, Kevin; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a serious clinical challenge. There is a pressing need for improved diagnostic testing methods; biomarkers offer one potentially promising approach. We evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of 16 promising synovial fluid biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI. Synovial fluid was collected from 95 patients meeting the inclusion criteria of this prospective diagnostic study. All patients were being evaluated for a revision hip or knee arthroplasty, including patients with systemic inflammatory disease and those already receiving antibiotic treatment. The Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) definition was used to classify 29 PJIs and 66 aseptic joints. Synovial fluid samples were tested by immunoassay for 16 biomarkers optimized for use in synovial fluid. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were performed to assess for diagnostic performance. Five biomarkers, including human α-defensin 1-3, neutrophil elastase 2, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and lactoferrin, correctly predicted the MSIS classification of all patients in this study, with 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of PJI. An additional eight biomarkers demonstrated excellent diagnostic strength, with an area under the curve of greater than 0.9. Synovial fluid biomarkers exhibit a high accuracy in diagnosing PJI, even when including patients with systemic inflammatory disease and those receiving antibiotic treatment. Considering that these biomarkers match the results of the more complex MSIS definition of PJI, we believe that synovial fluid biomarkers can be a valuable addition to the methods utilized for the diagnosis of infection. Level II, diagnostic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. [Arthrodesis of the infected ankle joint: results with the Ilizarov external fixator].

    PubMed

    Gessmann, J; Ozokyay, L; Fehmer, T; Muhr, G; Seybold, D

    2011-04-01

    The treatment of severe bacterial infections of the ankle joint is difficult and complex. In the case of a chronic infection with destruction of the ankle joint, a tibiotalar arthrodesis with external fixation is the treatment of choice. In this study the results of ankle arthrodesis due to bacterial infection using the Ilizarov external fixator are presented. Between 2001 and 2004 37 patients (10 female, 27 male, mean age 58 years) were treated with a tibiotalar arthrodesis using the Ilizarov fixator. All patients had a confirmed infection in the course of their disease. Active infection was present in 20 patients at the time of the operation. Most secondary ankle arthritides (81 %) were caused post-traumatically after various internal fixation procedures. Previous ankle arthrodeses were tried in 14 cases (12 cases with internal fixation, two cases with external monolateral fixation). Patients were treated with a four-ring Ilizarov frame (in two cases with a five-ring frame) and stainless steel wires. All patients could be included at a mean follow-up of 46 (12-49) months. A modified AOFAS score was used for the functional outcome. The operation took 141 minutes at an average ranging from 90 to 252 minutes. The inpatient treatment lasted between 10 and 63 days (mean 26 days). The time spent in the fixator was 116.7 (69-245) days. All patients were mobilised under full weight bearing with the external fixator. Surgical revision was necessary in 13 patients: four patients needed wound revisions due to ongoing infection, six patients needed wire exchange due to deep infection in three cases and wire breakage in three cases, one patient needed additional wires because of an initially instable frame configuration and two patients needed secondary skin grafting. Bony consolidation was achieved in 32 patients (86.5 %). With a re-arthrodesis performed in four patients using the Ilizarov fixator, the overall fusion rate was 94.6 %. Infection was persistent in two cases

  19. Sensitivity of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and C-reactive Protein in Childhood Bone and Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Markku J. T.; Kallio, Pentti E.; Peltola, Heikki

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the examination of clinical signs, several laboratory markers have been measured for diagnostics and monitoring of pediatric septic bone and joint infections. Traditionally erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and leukocyte cell count have been used, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) has gained in popularity. We monitored 265 children at ages 3 months to 15 years with culture-positive osteoarticular infections with a predetermined series of ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count measurements. On admission, ESR exceeded 20 mm/hour in 94% and CRP exceeded 20 mg/L in 95% of the cases, the mean (± standard error of the mean) being 51 ± 2 mm/hour and 87 ± 4 mg/L, respectively. ESR normalized in 24 days and CRP in 10 days. Elevated CRP gave a slightly better sensitivity in diagnostics than ESR, but best sensitivity was gained with the combined use of ESR and CRP (98%). Elevated ESR or CRP was seen in all cases during the first 3 days. Measuring ESR and CRP on admission can help the clinician rule out an acute osteoarticular infection. CRP normalizes faster than ESR, providing a clear advantage in monitoring recovery. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19533263

  20. Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool...October 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 20 Sep 2013 to 19 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training...produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities providing care

  1. Upper Extremity Amputations and Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of extremity length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper extremity amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104

  2. Design and evaluation of prosthetic shoulder controller

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Joseph E.; Sorkin, John D.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) shoulder position transducer (sensing shoulder protraction-retraction and elevation-depression) that can be used to control two of a powered prosthetic humerus' DOFs. We also developed an evaluation protocol based on Fitts' law to assess the performance of our device. The primary motivation for this work was to support development of powered prosthetic shoulder joints of a new generation of prosthetic arms for people with shoulder disarticulation and very high-level transhumeral amputation. We found that transducers that provided resistance to shoulder movement performed better than those providing no resistance. We also found that a position control scheme, where effector position is proportional to shoulder position, performed better than a velocity control scheme, where effector velocity is proportional to shoulder position. More generally, our transducer can be used to control motion along any two DOFs. It can also be used in a more general 4-DOF control scheme by sequentially controlling two DOFs at a time. The evaluation protocol has general applicability for researchers and practitioners. Researchers can employ it to compare different prosthesis designs and control schemes, while practitioners may find the evaluation protocol useful in evaluating and training people with amputation in the use of prostheses. PMID:25357185

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization Strategies in High-Risk Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Devin M; Miller, Andy O; Henry, Michael W; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K

    2017-09-01

    The risk of prosthetic joint infection increases with Staphylococcus aureus colonization. The cost-effectiveness of decolonization is controversial. We evaluated cost-effectiveness decolonization protocols in high-risk arthroplasty patients. An analytical model evaluated risk under 3 protocols: 4 swabs, 2 swabs, and nasal swab alone. These were compared to no-screening and universal decolonization strategies. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated from the hospital, patient, and societal perspective. Under base case conditions, universal decolonization and 4-swab strategies were most effective. The 2-swab and universal decolonization strategy were most cost-effective from patient and societal perspectives. From the hospital perspective, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy (much less costly and more effective). S aureus decolonization may be cost-effective for reducing prosthetic joint infections in high-risk patients. These results may have important implications for treatment of patients and for cost containment in a bundled payment system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting lower limb periprosthetic joint infections: A review of risk factors and their classification

    PubMed Central

    George, David A; Drago, Lorenzo; Scarponi, Sara; Gallazzi, Enrico; Haddad, Fares S; Romano, Carlo L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To undertook a systematic review to determine factors that increase a patient’s risk of developing lower limb periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). METHODS This systematic review included full-text studies that reviewed risk factors of developing either a hip or knee PJI following a primary arthroplasty published from January 1998 to November 2016. A variety of keywords were used to identify studies through international databases referencing hip arthroplasty, knee arthroplasty, infection, and risk factors. Studies were only included if they included greater than 20 patients in their study cohort, and there was clear documentation of the statistical parameter used; specifically P-value, hazard ratio, relative risk, or/and odds ratio (OR). Furthermore a quality assessment criteria for the individual studies was undertaken to evaluate the presence of record and reporting bias. RESULTS Twenty-seven original studies reviewing risk factors relating to primary total hip and knee arthroplasty infections were included. Four studies (14.8%) reviewed PJI of the hip, 3 (11.21%) of the knee, and 20 (74.1%) reviewed both joints. Nineteen studies (70.4%) were retrospective and 8 (29.6%) prospective. Record bias was identified in the majority of studies (66.7%). The definition of PJI varied amongst the studies but there was a general consensus to define infection by previously validated methods. The most significant risks were the use of preoperative high dose steroids (OR = 21.0, 95%CI: 3.5-127.2, P < 0.001), a BMI above 50 (OR = 18.3, P < 0.001), tobacco use (OR = 12.76, 95%CI: 2.47-66.16, P = 0.017), body mass index below 20 (OR = 6.00, 95%CI: 1.2-30.9, P = 0.033), diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95%CI: 1.77-16.97, P = 0.003), and coronary artery disease (OR = 5.10, 95%CI: 1.3-19.8, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION We have highlighted the need for the provider to optimise modifiable risk factors, and develop strategies to limit the impact of non-modifiable factors. PMID:28567344

  5. Infection Following Total Joint Arthroplasty Is the Main Cause of Litigation: Data From One Metropolitan Area.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Michael M; Rondon, Alexander J; Woolsey, Alexandra; Hansen, Heather; Tan, Timothy L; Parvizi, Javad

    2018-05-01

    A prior survey of members of the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons revealed that 78% of responding surgeons were named as a defendant in at least 1 lawsuit, and 69% of these lawsuits were dismissed or settled out of court. The most common sources of litigation were nerve injury, limb-length discrepancy, and infection. This study examined common reasons for lawsuits after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in a single metropolitan area. A retrospective review of lawsuits filed between 2009 and 2015 in a 5-county metropolitan area was performed, including 30 hospitals and 113 TJA surgeons. Complaints underwent a manual review to determine the number of lawsuits and the specific allegations filed against each surgeon. Thirty-one (27.4%) surgeons were named as a defendant in at least 1 lawsuit. Eighty-three total lawsuits were filed during the period, 50 of which were dismissed or settled outside of court. Top reasons for lawsuits were, in descending order, infection, nerve injury, chronic pain, vascular injury, periprosthetic fracture, retention of foreign body, dislocation, limb-length discrepancy, venous thromboembolism, loosening, compartment syndrome, and other medical complaints. Infection appears to be the basis of most lawsuits after TJA. Surgeons should be aware of the potential for a lawsuit for complications and should strive to better communicate with patients regarding preoperative informed consent and disclosure after adverse events. Surgeons should minimize performing surgery in patients at high risk of complications, such as patients with a higher likelihood of developing postoperative infection or patients on chronic pain medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  7. Concordance between the old and new diagnostic criteria for periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Honkanen, Meeri; Jämsen, Esa; Karppelin, Matti; Huttunen, Reetta; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2017-10-01

    There is no uniform definition for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). New diagnostic criteria were formulated in an international consensus meeting in 2013 and adopted by Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 2016. The purpose of this study is to compare the new diagnostic criteria with the old CDC criteria from the year 1992. Patients, who had been treated for PJI of hip or knee from 2002 to 2014, in a tertiary care hospital, were identified. Patient records were reviewed by a physician to identify PJI cases fulfilling the old or new CDC criteria and to record data concerning the diagnostic criteria. PJI frequencies were calculated for the two diagnostic criteria sets. Cross tables were formed to compare the concordance between the two sets of criteria in the whole material and in different clinical subgroups. Overall 405 cases fulfilling either or both sets of criteria for PJI were identified. 73 (18%) of the patients fulfilled only the old criteria, whereas only one (0.2%) fulfilled only the new criteria. Of the patients who did not fulfil the new criteria, in 39 (53%) the diagnosis was based solely on the clinician's opinion. The number of PJIs is notably lower when using the new, more objective, diagnostic criteria. A large portion of the cases diagnosed as infection by the treating clinician, did not fulfil the new diagnostic criteria.

  8. Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a serious pathogen in periprosthetic joint infections: comparison to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Lourtet-Hascoët, J; Bicart-See, A; Félicé, M P; Giordano, G; Bonnet, E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to compare these to the characteristics of PJI due to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A retrospective multicentre study including all consecutive cases of S. lugdunensis PJI (2000-2014) was performed. Eighty-eight cases of staphylococcal PJI were recorded: 28 due to S. lugdunensis, 30 to S. aureus, and 30 to S. epidermidis, as identified by Vitek 2 or API Staph (bioMérieux). Clinical symptoms were more often reported in the S. lugdunensis group, and the median delay between surgery and infection was shorter for the S. lugdunensis group than for the S. aureus and S. epidermidis groups. Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, the S. lugdunensis strains were susceptible to antibiotics and 61% of the patients could be treated with levofloxacin + rifampicin. The outcome of the PJI was favourable for 89% of patients with S. lugdunensis, 83% with S. aureus, and 97% with S. epidermidis. S. lugdunensis is an emerging pathogen with a pathogenicity quite similar to that of S. aureus. This coagulase-negative Staphylococcus must be identified precisely in PJI, in order to select the appropriate surgical treatment and antibiotics . Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  10. Cognitive Neural Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Richard A.; Hwang, Eun Jung; Mulliken, Grant H.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive neural prosthetic (CNP) is a very versatile method for assisting paralyzed patients and patients with amputations. The CNP records the cognitive state of the subject, rather than signals strictly related to motor execution or sensation. We review a number of high-level cortical signals and their application for CNPs, including intention, motor imagery, decision making, forward estimation, executive function, attention, learning, and multi-effector movement planning. CNPs are defined by the cognitive function they extract, not the cortical region from which the signals are recorded. However, some cortical areas may be better than others for particular applications. Signals can also be extracted in parallel from multiple cortical areas using multiple implants, which in many circumstances can increase the range of applications of CNPs. The CNP approach relies on scientific understanding of the neural processes involved in cognition, and many of the decoding algorithms it uses also have parallels to underlying neural circuit functions. PMID:19575625

  11. Mechanical design and performance specifications of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: a review.

    PubMed

    Belter, Joseph T; Segil, Jacob L; Dollar, Aaron M; Weir, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we set forth a detailed analysis of the mechanical characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. We report on an empirical study concerning the performance of several commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hands, including the Vincent, iLimb, iLimb Pulse, Bebionic, Bebionic v2, and Michelangelo hands. We investigated the finger design and kinematics, mechanical joint coupling, and actuation methods of these commercial prosthetic hands. The empirical findings are supplemented with a compilation of published data on both commercial and prototype research prosthetic hands. We discuss numerous mechanical design parameters by referencing examples in the literature. Crucial design trade-offs are highlighted, including number of actuators and hand complexity, hand weight, and grasp force. Finally, we offer a set of rules of thumb regarding the mechanical design of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

  12. Management and Prevention of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection in Patients After Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin E.; Greenough, William B.; Mears, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea in elderly patients, accounting for 15% to 25% of all cases of antibiotic-induced diarrhea in those patients. Virulent forms of this organism have developed, increasing the associated morbidity, mortality, and complication rates. The average patient undergoing total joint arthroplasty is at particular risk of CDI because of advanced age, the use of prophylactic antibiotic coverage in the perioperative period, multiple comorbid conditions, and length of hospital stay. In addition, patients who have had one CDI are at risk of another; the rate of recurrent CDI (RCDI) is 15% to 30%. To review the available information on RCDI, we conducted an extensive literature search, focusing on its epidemiology and the management strategies for its treatment and prevention. We found the management of RCDI is a controversial topic, with as yet no consensus regarding specific treatment guidelines. Several experienced clinicians have published suggested treatment algorithms, but they are based on anecdotal experience. With regard to the prevention of RCDI, the literature is scarce, and currently, the only effective strategies remain judicious use of perioperative antibiotics and appropriate implementation of infection control procedures. There are several vaccination medications that are currently being studied but are not yet ready for clinical use. We agree with the approach to management of RCDI that has been proposed in several articles, that is, on confirmation of a first recurrence of CDI by a stool toxin assay and clinical symptoms, a 14-day course of metronidazole or vancomycin; for a second recurrence, a tapered-pulsed course of vancomycin; and, for 3 or more recurrences, a repeat course of the tapered-pulsed vancomycin and adjunctive Saccharomyces boulardii or cholestyramine. PMID:23569710

  13. Tertiary care centre adherence to unified guidelines for management of periprosthetic joint infections: a gap analysis

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Mitchel D.; Carli, Alberto V.; Abdelbary, Hesham; Poitras, Stephane; Lapner, Peter; Beaulé, Paule E.

    2018-01-01

    Background The success rate of surgical treatment for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains inconsistent in the literature. Variability in PJI clinical guidelines and surgeon adherence to guidelines could affect treatment success. The objectives of this study were to appraise current recommendations for PJI management and develop a unified clinical standard of care, to perform a gap analysis of PJI cases in a tertiary institution to determine the rate of guideline adherence, and to determine if adherence to unified PJI guidelines affected 2-year treatment outcomes. Methods We appraised the PJI guidelines from 3 academic medical societies, and consistent statements were aggregated. We retrospectively reviewed all PJI cases in a tertiary care institution. We defined PJI based on Musculoskeletal Infection Society PJI criteria. Surgeon adherence to preoperative, intraoperative, surgical and medical management guidelines was calculated, and we evaluated the association between guideline adherence and 2-year treatment outcomes. Results The institutional rate of PJI was 1.13% (38 of 3368). Treatment success was 57.8% at 2 years. Unified guideline adherence percentages varied substantially: 92% of patients had preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, 97% had intraoperative tissue cultures, 42% had appropriate preoperative arthrocentesis, and 74% underwent guideline-appropriate surgery. Performing appropriate preoperative arthrocentesis significantly correlated with positive treatment outcomes at 2 years (p = 0.028). Conclusion Adherence to PJI guidelines varies considerably, indicating that clinicians are either unaware of them or do not recognize their value for PJI treatment. This study shows the need for institution-based PJI treatment pathways that are consistent with published guidelines and the need to monitor adherence. PMID:29368675

  14. Fungal Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Oliver; Schoof, Benjamin; Klatte, Till Orla; Schmidl, Stefan; Fensky, Florian; Guenther, Daniel; Frommelt, Lars; Gehrke, Thorsten; Gebauer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Fungal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare but devastating complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A standardized procedure regarding an accurate treatment of this serious complication of knee arthroplasty is lacking. In this systematic review, we collected data from 36 studies with a total of 45 reported cases of a TKA complicated by a fungal PJI. Subsequently, an analysis focusing on diagnostic, medicaments and surgical procedures in the pre-, intra- and postoperative period was performed. Candida spp. accounts for about 80% (36 out of 45 cases) of fungal PJIs and is therefore the most frequently reported pathogen. A systemic antifungal therapy was administered in all but one patient whereas a local antifungal therapy, e.g. the use of an impregnated spacer, is of inferior relevance. Resection arthroplasty with delayed re-implantation (two-stage revision) was the surgical treatment of choice. However, in 50% of all reported cases the surgical therapy was heterogeneous. The outcome under a combined therapy was moderate with recurrent fungal PJI in 11 patients and subsequent bacterial PJI as a main complication in 5 patients. In summary, this systematic review integrates data from up to date 45 reported cases of a fungal PJI of a TKA. On the basis of the current literature strategies for the treatment of this devastating complication after TKA are discussed. PMID:25874061

  15. Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria, Urinary Catheters and Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Joint Replacement: A Position Paper of the Expert Group 'Infection' of swissorthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Sendi, Parham; Borens, Olivier; Wahl, Peter; Clauss, Martin; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-01-01

    In this position paper, we review definitions related to this subject and the corresponding literature. Our recommendations include the following statements. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, asymptomatic leukocyturia, urine discolouration, odd smell or positive nitrite sediments are not an indication for antimicrobial treatment. Antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria does not prevent periprosthetic joint infection, but is associated with adverse events, costs and antibiotic resistance development. Urine analyses or urine cultures in asymptomatic patients undergoing orthopaedic implants should be avoided. Indwelling urinary catheters are the most frequent reason for healthcare-associated urinary tract infections and should be avoided or removed as soon as possible. PMID:28894690

  16. The ACS NSQIP Risk Calculator Is a Fair Predictor of Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Wingert, Nathaniel C; Gotoff, James; Parrilla, Edgardo; Gotoff, Robert; Hou, Laura; Ghanem, Elie

    2016-07-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication from the patient's perspective and an expensive one in a value-driven healthcare model. Risk stratification can help identify those patients who may have risk factors for complications that can be mitigated in advance of elective surgery. Although numerous surgical risk calculators have been created, their accuracy in predicting outcomes, specifically PJI, has not been tested. (1) How accurate is the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Surgical Site Infection Calculator in predicting 30-day postoperative infection? (2) How accurate is the calculator in predicting 90-day postoperative infection? We isolated 1536 patients who underwent 1620 primary THAs and TKAs at our institution during 2011 to 2013. Minimum followup was 90 days. The ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator was assessed in its ability to predict acute PJI within 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Patients who underwent a repeat surgical procedure within 90 days of the index arthroplasty and in whom at least one positive intraoperative culture was obtained at time of reoperation were considered to have PJI. A total of 19 cases of PJI were identified, including 11 at 30 days and an additional eight instances by 90 days postoperatively. Patient-specific risk probabilities for PJI based on demographics and comorbidities were recorded from the ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator website. The area under the curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was calculated to determine the predictability of the risk probability for PJI. The AUC is an effective method for quantifying the discriminatory capacity of a diagnostic test to correctly classify patients with and without infection in which it is defined as excellent (AUC 0.9-1), good (AUC 0.8-0.89), fair (AUC 0.7-0.79), poor (AUC 0.6-0.69), or fail/no discriminatory capacity (AUC 0.5-0.59). A p value of < 0.05 was considered to be

  17. Prosthetic helping hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  18. Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection in Medicare patients: multicriteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ledezma, Claudio; Lichstein, Paul M; Dolan, James G; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-11-01

    In the setting of finite healthcare resources, developing cost-efficient strategies for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis is paramount. The current levels of knowledge allow for PJI diagnostic recommendations based on scientific evidence but do not consider the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks of the different diagnostic alternatives. We determined the best diagnostic strategy for knee and hip PJI in the ambulatory setting for Medicare patients, utilizing benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks evaluation through multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). The PJI diagnostic definition supported by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society was employed for the MCDA. Using a preclinical model, we evaluated three diagnostic strategies that can be conducted in a Medicare patient seen in the outpatient clinical setting complaining of a painful TKA or THA. Strategies were (1) screening with serum markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]/C-reactive protein [CRP]) followed by arthrocentesis in positive cases, (2) immediate arthrocentesis, and (3) serum markers requested simultaneously with arthrocentesis. MCDA was conducted through the analytic hierarchy process, comparing the diagnostic strategies in terms of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks. Strategy 1 was the best alternative to diagnose knee PJI among Medicare patients (normalized value: 0.490), followed by Strategy 3 (normalized value: 0.403) and then Strategy 2 (normalized value: 0.106). The same ranking of alternatives was observed for the hip PJI model (normalized value: 0.487, 0.405, and 0.107, respectively). The sensitivity analysis found this sequence to be robust with respect to benefits, opportunities, and risks. However, if during the decision-making process, cost savings was given a priority of higher than 54%, the ranking for the preferred diagnostic strategy changed. After considering the benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks of the different available alternatives, our

  19. Topical Tranexamic Acid Use in Knee Periprosthetic Joint Infection Is Safe and Effective.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Bradford S; Zahoor, Talal; Meyer, Mark; Ochsner, Lock; Chimento, George

    2016-07-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease hemoglobin loss and reduce the need for transfusions in primary hip and knee arthroplasty. Our study evaluated the safety and efficacy of topical TXA in revision TKA for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent removal of hardware with antibiotic spacer placement (stage 1) and/or revision TKA (stage 2) for PJI at our institution between September 2007 and July 2013. During that time, 49 patients underwent stage-1 procedures (20 knees with TXA, 29 without TXA) and 47 patients underwent stage-2 revisions (28 with TXA, 19 without TXA). We evaluated hemoglobin loss, need for transfusion, reinfection rate, length of stay (LOS), complications, and mortality with and without the use of TXA in these patients. All data sets were analyzed with a two-sample t-test. Average follow-up was 3.15 years (range, 1-7 years). TXA use led to a significantly lower percentage drop in the postoperative lowest hemoglobin compared with the preoperative hemoglobin in stage-1 surgeries (19.8 vs. 30.05%, p = 0.0004) and stage-2 revisions (24.5 vs 32.01%, p = 0.01). In both groups, TXA use was associated with a significant reduction in transfusion rates (stage-1, 25 vs 51.7%, p = 0.04; stage-2, 25 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.05). There was a nonstatistical decreased LOS in both groups in which TXA was used (stage 1, 5.15 vs. 6.72 days, p = 0.055; stage 2, 5.21 vs. 6.84 days, p = 0.09). There was no difference in the reinfection rate (4 vs. 4, p = 0.56) or mortality rate between groups (0 vs. 2 non-TXA group). A single upper extremity deep vein thrombosis occurred in a stage-1 patient who received TXA, and no pulmonary embolism occurred. We show that topical TXA is safe and effective for use in both stages of revision TKA for PJI. Previous studies have shown TXA to aggravate a staphylococcal infection in mice; however, topical TXA doesn't appear to negatively effect on the

  20. Inflammatory disorders mimicking periprosthetic joint infections may result in false positive α-defensin.

    PubMed

    Plate, Andreas; Stadler, Laura; Sutter, Reto; Anagnostopoulos, Alexia; Frustaci, Dario; Zbinden, Reinhard; Fucentese, Sandro F; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Zingg, Patrick O; Achermann, Yvonne

    2018-02-26

    The antimicrobial peptide α-defensin has recently been introduced as potential "single" biomarker with a high sensitivity and specificity for the preoperative diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). However, most studies assessed the benefits of the test with exclusion of patients with rheumatic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the α-defensin test in a cohort study without exclusion of cases with inflammatory diseases. Between June 2016 and June 2017, we prospectively included cases with a suspected PJI and an available lateral flow test α-defensin (Synovasure®) in synovial fluid. We compared the test result to the diagnostic criteria for PJIs published by an International Consensus Group in 2013. We included 109 cases (49 hips, 60 knees) in which preoperative α-defensin tests had been performed. Thereof, 20 PJIs (16 hips, 4 knees) were diagnosed. Preoperative α-defensin tests were positive in 25 cases (22.9%) with a test sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 92.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.3 - 98.8% and 84.5 - 96.8%, respectively), and a high negative predictive value of 97.6% (95% CI, 91.7 - 99.4%). We interpreted seven α-defensin tests as false positive, mainly in cases with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, including crystal deposition diseases. A negative synovial α-defensin test can reliably rule out a PJI. However, the test can be false positive in conjunction with an underlying non-infectious inflammatory disease. We therefore propose to use the α-defensin test only in addition to MSIS criteria and assessment for crystals in synovial aspirates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Posttraumatic severe infection of the ankle joint - long term results of the treatment with resection arthrodesis in 133 cases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a clear trend toward internal fixation for ankle arthrodesis, there is general consensus that external fixation is required for cases of posttraumatic infection. We retrospectively evaluated the technique and clinical long term results of external fixation in a triangular frame for cases of posttraumatic infection of the ankle. From 1993 to 2006 a consecutive series of 155 patients with an infection of the ankle was included in our study. 133 cases of the advanced "Gächter" stage III and IV were treated with arthrodesis. We treated the patients with a two step treatment plan. After radical debridement and sequestrectomy the malleoli and the joint surfaces were resected. An AO fixator was applied with two Steinmann-nails inserted in the tibia and in the calcaneus and the gap was temporary filled with gentamicin beads as the first step. In the second step we performed an autologous bone graft after a period of four weeks. The case notes were evaluated regarding trauma history, medical complaints, further injuries and illnesses, walking and pain status and occupational issues. Mean age at the index procedure was 49.7 years (18-82), 104 patients were male (67,1%). Follow up examination after mean 4.5 years included a standardised questionnaire and a clinical examination including the criteria of the AO-FAS-Score and radiographs. 92,7% of the cases lead to a stable arthrodesis. In 5 patients the arthrodesis was found partly-stable. In six patients (4,5%) the infection was not controllable during the treatment process. These patients had to be treated with a below knee amputation. The mean AOFAS score at follow up was 63,7 (53-92). Overall there is a high degree of remaining disability. The complication rate and the reduced patient comfort reserve this method mainly for infection. Joint salvage is possible in the majority of cases with an earlier stage I and II infection. PMID:20452884

  2. Posttraumatic severe infection of the ankle joint - long term results of the treatment with resection arthrodesis in 133 cases.

    PubMed

    Kienast, Benjamin; Kiene, J; Gille, J; Thietje, R; Gerlach, U; Schulz, A P

    2010-02-26

    Although there is a clear trend toward internal fixation for ankle arthrodesis, there is general consensus that external fixation is required for cases of posttraumatic infection. We retrospectively evaluated the technique and clinical long term results of external fixation in a triangular frame for cases of posttraumatic infection of the ankle. From 1993 to 2006 a consecutive series of 155 patients with an infection of the ankle was included in our study. 133 cases of the advanced "Gächter" stage III and IV were treated with arthrodesis. We treated the patients with a two step treatment plan. After radical debridement and sequestrectomy the malleoli and the joint surfaces were resected. An AO fixator was applied with two Steinmann-nails inserted in the tibia and in the calcaneus and the gap was temporary filled with gentamicin beads as the first step. In the second step we performed an autologous bone graft after a period of four weeks. The case notes were evaluated regarding trauma history, medical complaints, further injuries and illnesses, walking and pain status and occupational issues. Mean age at the index procedure was 49.7 years (18-82), 104 patients were male (67.1%). Follow up examination after mean 4.5 years included a standardised questionnaire and a clinical examination including the criteria of the AOFAS-Score and radiographs. 92.7% of the cases lead to a stable arthrodesis. In 5 patients the arthrodesis was found partly-stable. In six patients (4,5%) the infection was not controllable during the treatment process. These patients had to be treated with a below knee amputation. The mean AOFAS score at follow up was 63.7 (53-92). Overall there is a high degree of remaining disability. The complication rate and the reduced patient comfort reserve this method mainly for infection. Joint salvage is possible in the majority of cases with an earlier stage I and II infection.

  3. Interleukin-6 in serum and in synovial fluid enhances the differentiation between periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening.

    PubMed

    Randau, Thomas M; Friedrich, Max J; Wimmer, Matthias D; Reichert, Ben; Kuberra, Dominik; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Limmer, Andreas; Wirtz, Dieter C; Gravius, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy and relies in part on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to assess synovial and serum levels of inflammatory proteins as diagnostic tool for periprosthetic joint infection and compare their accuracy with standard tests. 120 patients presenting with a painful knee or hip endoprosthesis for surgical revision were included in this prospective trial. Blood samples and samples of intraoperatively acquired joint fluid aspirate were collected. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 were determined. The joint aspirate was analyzed for total leukocyte count and IL-6. The definite diagnosis of PJI was determined on the basis of purulent synovial fluid, histopathology and microbiology. IL-6 in serum showed significantly higher values in the PJI group as compared to aseptic loosening and control, with specificity at 58.3% and a sensitivity of 79.5% at a cut-off value of 2.6 pg/ml. With a cut-off >6.6 pg/ml, the specificity increased to 88.3%. IL-6 in joint aspirate had, at a cut-off of >2100 pg/ml, a specificity of 85.7% and sensitivity of 59.4%. At levels >9000 pg/ml, specificity was almost at 100% with sensitivity just below 50%, so PJI could be considered proven with IL-6 levels above this threshold. Our data supports the published results on IL-6 as a biomarker in PJI. In our large prospective cohort of revision arthroplasty patients, the use of IL-6 in synovial fluid appears to be a more accurate marker than either the white blood cell count or the C-reactive protein level in serum for the detection of periprosthetic joint infection. On the basis of the results we recommend the use of the synovial fluid biomarker IL-6 for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty.

  4. Development of a Prototype Over-Actuated Biomimetic Prosthetic Hand

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Matthew R.; Walter, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results. PMID:25790306

  5. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. "Combined Diagnostic Tool" APPlication to a Retrospective Series of Patients Undergoing Total Joint Revision Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gallazzi, Enrico; Drago, Lorenzo; Baldini, Andrea; Stockley, Ian; George, David A; Scarponi, Sara; Romanò, Carlo L

    2017-01-01

    Background : Differentiating between septic and aseptic joint prosthesis may be challenging, since no single test is able to confirm or rule out infection. The choice and interpretation of the panel of tests performed in any case often relies on empirical evaluation and poorly validated scores. The "Combined Diagnostic Tool (CDT)" App, a smartphone application for iOS, was developed to allow to automatically calculate the probability of having a of periprosthetic joint infection, on the basis of the relative sensitivity and specificity of the positive and negative diagnostic tests performed in any given patient. Objective : The aim of the present study was to apply the CDT software to investigate the ability of the tests routinely performed in three high-volume European centers to diagnose a periprosthetic infection. Methods : This three-center retrospective study included 120 consecutive patients undergoing total hip or knee revision, and included 65 infected patients (Group A) and 55 patients without infection (Group B). The following parameters were evaluated: number and type of positive and negative diagnostic tests performed pre-, intra- and post-operatively and resultant probability calculated by the CDT App of having a peri-prosthetic joint infection, based on pre-, intra- and post-operative combined tests. Results : Serological tests were the most common performed, with an average 2.7 tests per patient for Group A and 2.2 for Group B, followed by joint aspiration (0.9 and 0.8 tests per patient, respectively) and imaging techniques (0.5 and 0.2 test per patient). Mean CDT App calculated probability of having an infection based on pre-operative tests was 79.4% for patients in Group A and 35.7 in Group B. Twenty-nine patients in Group A had > 10% chance of not having an infection, and 29 of Group B had > 10% chance of having an infection. Conclusion : This is the first retrospective study focused on investigating the number and type of tests commonly performed

  7. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Merad, Manelle; de Montalivet, Étienne; Touillet, Amélie; Martinet, Noël; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Jarrassé, Nathanaël

    2018-01-01

    Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals' coordination models can

  8. Combined measurement of synovial fluid α-Defensin and C-reactive protein levels: highly accurate for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Deirmengian, Carl; Kardos, Keith; Kilmartin, Patrick; Cameron, Alexander; Schiller, Kevin; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-09-03

    The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined measurement of the levels of two synovial fluid biomarkers, α-defensin and C-reactive protein (CRP), for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. One hundred and forty-nine synovial fluid aspirates, including 112 from patients with an aseptic diagnosis and thirty-seven from patients with periprosthetic joint infection, met the inclusion criteria for this prospective study. Synovial fluid aspirates were tested for α-defensin and CRP levels with use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) definition of periprosthetic joint infection was utilized for the classification of cases as aseptic or infected. Comorbidities, such as inflammatory conditions, that could confound a test for periprosthetic joint infection were documented, but the patients with such comorbidities were included in the study. The combination of synovial fluid α-defensin and CRP tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Synovial fluid α-defensin tests alone demonstrated a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 96% for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection. Synovial fluid CRP tests, with a low threshold of 3 mg/L, reversed all-false positive α-defensin results without affecting the sensitivity of the test. The diagnostic characteristics of these assays were achieved in a population of patients demonstrating a 23% rate of systemic inflammatory diseases (in the series as a whole) and a 27% rate of concurrent antibiotic treatment (in the infection group). The synovial fluid levels of α-defensin in the setting of periprosthetic joint infection were unchanged during concurrent antibiotic treatment. The combined measurement of synovial fluid α-defensin and CRP levels correctly diagnosed 99% of the cases in this study as aseptic or

  9. Pre-operative intra-articular deep tissue sampling with novel retrograde forceps improves the diagnostics in periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Matthias D; Ploeger, Milena M; Friedrich, Max J; Hügle, Thomas; Gravius, Sascha; Randau, Thomas M

    2017-07-01

    Histopathological tissue analysis is a key parameter within the diagnostic algorithm for suspected periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), conventionally acquired in open surgery. In 2014, Hügle and co-workers introduced novel retrograde forceps for retrograde synovial biopsy with simultaneous fluid aspiration of the knee joint. We hypothesised that tissue samples acquired by retrograde synovial biopsy are equal to intra-operatively acquired deep representative tissue samples regarding bacterial detection and differentiation of periprosthetic infectious membranes. Thirty patients (male n = 15, 50%; female n = 15, 50%) with 30 suspected PJIs in painful total hip arthroplasties (THAs) were included in this prospective, controlled, non-blinded trial. The results were compared with intra-operatively obtained representative deep tissue samples. In summary, 27 out of 30 patients were diagnosed correctly as infected (17/17) or non-infected (10/13). The sensitivity to predict a PJI using the Retroforce® sampling forceps in addition to standard diagnostics was 85%, the specificity 100%. Retrograde synovial biopsy is a new and rapid diagnostic procedure under local anaesthesia in patients with painful THAs with similar histological results compared to deep tissue sampling.

  10. Pinch-force-magnification mechanism of low degree of freedom EMG prosthetic hand for children.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hesong; Sakoda, Shintaro; Jiang, Yinlai; Morishita, Soichiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    EMG prosthetic hands are being extensively studied for the disabled who need them not only for cosmesis but also for the functions to help them with basic daily activities. However, most EMG prosthetic hands are developed for adults. Since the early use of prosthetic hands is important for the children to accept and adapt to them, we are developing low degrees of freedom (DoF) prosthetic hand that is suitable for children. Due to the limited size of a child's hand, the servo motor which drives the MP joint are small-sized and low-power. Hence, a pinch-force-magnification mechanism is required to improve the pinch force of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper we designed a wire-driven mechanism which can magnify pinch force by increasing the length of the MP joint's moment arm. Pinch force measurement experiment validated that the pinch force of the prosthetic hand with the mechanism is more than twice of that of the hand with direct drive.

  11. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  12. How accurate are orthopedic surgeons in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection after total knee arthroplasty?: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Koh, In Jun; Cho, Woo-Shin; Choi, Nam Yong; Parvizi, Javad; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-06-01

    The lack of standardized diagnostic criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a challenge to accurate diagnosis of PJI. Recently, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) proposed diagnostic criteria for PJI. However, it is not known how well these proposed criteria accommodate real clinical scenarios. We determined what proportion of patients satisfied the MSIS criteria, and if MSIS criteria were not met, what other rationales were used to diagnose PJI. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 303 patients who underwent two-stage exchange arthroplasty for treatment of PJI of the knee at 17 institutions. The rationale for making the diagnosis of PJI was also recorded, if the case did not meet the MSIS criteria. In addition, detailed information about isolated microorganisms were gathered. Among the 303 patients, 198 met the diagnostic criteria proposed by MSIS. Among the 105 patients who did not meet the MSIS criteria, 88% met two or three minor criteria; however joint fluid analysis or histologic analysis was not performed in 85% of these 105 patients. The most common rationale for the diagnosis of PJI was the presence of abnormal physical findings. Microorganisms were identified in only 52% of all patients; the most common organism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. The diagnosis of PJI was based on clinical suspicion in approximately one-third of cases. In this series, joint aspiration or histological analysis was not performed in a large number of patients. Thus, surgeons should perform joint fluid and histologic analysis to assure the accuracy of PJI diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Control method for prosthetic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  14. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  15. Methylene Blue-Guided Debridement as an Intraoperative Adjunct for the Surgical Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeremy D; Miller, Steve; Plourde, Anna; Shaw, Daniel L; Wustrack, Rosanna; Hansen, Erik N

    2017-12-01

    Current methods to identify infected tissue in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are inadequate. The purpose of this study was (1) to assess methylene blue-guided surgical debridement as a novel technique in PJI using quantitative microbiology and (2) to evaluate clinical success based on eradication of infection and infection-free survival. Sixteen total knee arthroplasty patients meeting Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for PJI undergoing the first stage of 2-stage exchange arthroplasty were included in this prospective study. Dilute methylene blue (0.1%) was instilled in the knee before debridement, residual dye was removed, and stained tissue was debrided. Paired tissue samples, stained and unstained, were collected from the femur, tibia, and capsule during debridement. Samples were analyzed by neutrophil count, semiquantitative culture, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical success was a secondary outcome. The mean age was 64.0 ± 6.0 years, and follow-up was 24.4 ± 3.5 months. More bacteria were found in methylene blue-stained vs unstained tissue-based on semiquantitative culture (P = .001). PCR for staphylococcal species showed 9-fold greater bioburden in methylene blue-stained vs unstained tissue (P = .02). Tissue pathology found 53 ± 46 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field in methylene blue-stained vs 4 ± 13 in unstained tissue (P = .0001). All subjects cleared their primary infection and underwent reimplantation. At mean 2-year follow-up, 25% of patients failed secondary to new infection with a different organism. These results suggest a role for methylene blue in providing a visual index of surgical debridement in the treatment of PJI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Periprosthetic joint infections in modular endoprostheses of the lower extremities: a retrospective observational study in 101 patients.

    PubMed

    Zajonz, Dirk; Zieme, Almut; Prietzel, Torsten; Moche, Michael; Tiepoldt, Solveig; Roth, Andreas; Josten, Christoph; von Salis-Soglio, Georg Freiherr; Heyde, Christoph-E; Ghanem, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    treatment strategy, the recurrence rate is very high. Unfortunately, the functional results are frequently unsatisfactory, with amputation often being the last resort. Therefore, the indication for implantation must be carefully considered and discussed in great detail, especially in the case of multimorbid patients with previous joint infections.

  17. [Pure trigeminal motor neuropathy presenting with temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction in a patient with HIV and HCV infections].

    PubMed

    Anheim, M; Echaniz-Laguna, A; Rey, D; Tranchant, C

    2006-01-01

    Pure trigeminal motor neuropathy (PTMN) is a rarely described condition. We report the case of a 41-year-old woman infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV1) and hepatitis C virus who presented with weakness of left temporalis and masseter muscles and painful left temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) a few months after cerebral toxoplasmosis revealing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe wasting and fat replacement of the left temporalis, pterygoid and masseter muscles and showed neither abnormalities in the left motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve nor compression of the left trigeminal nerve. Electromyographic examination gave evidence of denervation in the left temporalis, masseter and pterygoid muscles and blink reflex studies were normal, confirming the diagnosis of PTMN which was probably secondary to HIV and HCV co-infection.

  18. The Zeitgeist of Challenging the Evidence. A Perspective on the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, Hangama C; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2017-01-01

    The economic burden of the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is high and the treatment of PJI has a high degree of international controversy. Several papers have declared the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection (ICMPJI) to be the "flawless pledge of international academics" to overcome the challenges of musculoskeletal infections. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for the first time some essential insights into the key dilemmas that are associated with this international consensus process. The proceedings of the ICMPJI was reviewed, and the critical consensus agreements that were reached were communicated via e-mail to 48 leading orthopaedic surgeons, microbiologists and statisticians around the world. Of these, 30 responded, 8 did not, and 10 of respondents were not aware of the ICMPJI. A thorough review of the ICMPJI proceedings identified a clear need to resolve some of the dilemmas that we highlight in this paper. The Delphi procedure has been described as a survey technique that enables a group dynamic-based practice. Although there have been several published reports on this procedure, its scientific merit is still being debated. Several challenges and questions have been raised regarding the application of the Delphi technique, but there is no doubt that it is a vital approach for achieving consensus on subjects where none currently exists. Performing prospective clinical studies in this area is currently the best and only option to overcome this challenge. In the long term, this approach will not only incorporate the standard of clinical evidence but also adopt regional mores for treating infection, which include patient values, cultural differences and local financial resources.

  19. Pharmacokinetic variability of clindamycin and influence of rifampicin on clindamycin concentration in patients with bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Curis, Emmanuel; Pestre, Vincent; Jullien, Vincent; Eyrolle, Luc; Archambeau, Denis; Morand, Philippe; Gatin, Laure; Karoubi, Matthieu; Pinar, Nicolas; Dumaine, Valérie; Nguyen Van, Jean-Claude; Babinet, Antoine; Anract, Philippe; Salmon, Dominique

    2015-08-01

    Clindamycin, a lincosamide antibiotic with a good penetration into bone, is widely used for treating bone and joint infections by Gram-positive pathogens. To be active against Staphylococcus spp, its concentration at the infection site, C, must be higher than 2× the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aims of the work were to study the determinants of plasma clindamycin trough concentration, C min, especially the effect of co-treatment with rifampicin, and the consequences on clinical outcome. An observational study was performed, involving patients hospitalized for a bone and joint infection who received clindamycin as part of their antibiotic treatment. Target C min was 1.7 mg/L, to reach the desired bone concentration/MIC >2, assuming a 30% diffusion into bone and MIC = 2.5 mg/L. Sixty one patients (mean age: 56.8 years, 57.4% male) were included between 2007 and 2011. 72.1% underwent a surgery on a foreign material, and 91.1% were infected by at least a Gram-positive micro-organism. Median C min value was 1.39 mg/L, with 58% of the values below the threshold value of 1.7 mg/L. Median C min was significantly lower for patients taking rifampicin (0.46 vs 1.52 mg/L, p = 0.034). No patient with rifampicin co-administration reached the target concentration (maximal C min: 0.85 mg/L). After a median follow-up of 17 months (1.5-38 months), 4 patients relapsed, 2 died and 47 (88.7% of the patients with known outcome) were cured, independently of association with rifampicin. This study shows the high inter-variability of plasma clindamycin concentration and confirms that co-treatment with rifampicin significantly decreases clindamycin trough concentrations.

  20. The Zeitgeist of Challenging the Evidence. A Perspective on the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, Hangama C.; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The economic burden of the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is high and the treatment of PJI has a high degree of international controversy. Several papers have declared the International Consensus Meeting on Periprosthetic Joint Infection (ICMPJI) to be the “flawless pledge of international academics” to overcome the challenges of musculoskeletal infections. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for the first time some essential insights into the key dilemmas that are associated with this international consensus process. Methods: The proceedings of the ICMPJI was reviewed, and the critical consensus agreements that were reached were communicated via e-mail to 48 leading orthopaedic surgeons, microbiologists and statisticians around the world. Of these, 30 responded, 8 did not, and 10 of respondents were not aware of the ICMPJI. Results: A thorough review of the ICMPJI proceedings identified a clear need to resolve some of the dilemmas that we highlight in this paper. The Delphi procedure has been described as a survey technique that enables a group dynamic-based practice. Although there have been several published reports on this procedure, its scientific merit is still being debated. Several challenges and questions have been raised regarding the application of the Delphi technique, but there is no doubt that it is a vital approach for achieving consensus on subjects where none currently exists. Conclusion: Performing prospective clinical studies in this area is currently the best and only option to overcome this challenge. In the long term, this approach will not only incorporate the standard of clinical evidence but also adopt regional mores for treating infection, which include patient values, cultural differences and local financial resources. PMID:28271085

  1. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Paul D.; Hebert, Jacqueline S.; Sensinger, Jon W.; Shell, Courtney E.; Schofield, Jonathon S.; Thumser, Zachary C.; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T.; Dawson, Michael R.; Blustein, Dan H.; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D.; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D.; Carey, Jason P.; Orzell, Beth M.

    2018-01-01

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement’s progress. This largely non-conscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. Here we report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. PMID:29540617

  2. The Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Infection

    PubMed Central

    del Arco, Alfonso; Bertrand, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection (PJI) is the most serious joint replacement complication, occurring in 0.8-1.9% of knee arthroplasties and 0.3-1.7% of hip arthroplasties. A definition of PJI was proposed in the November 2011 issue of the journal Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. The presence of a fistula or of local inflammatory signs is indicative of PJI, but in many cases local pain is the only symptom. In the absence of underlying inflammatory conditions, C-reactive protein measurement is the most useful preoperative blood test for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. The most useful preoperative diagnostic test is the aspiration of synovial joint fluid to obtain a total and differential cell count and culture. Intraoperative frozen sections of periprosthetic tissues produce excellent accuracy in predicting a diagnosis of PJI but only moderate accuracy in ruling out the diagnosis. In this process, obtaining a quality sample is the first step, and determines the quality of microbiological results. Specimens for culture should be obtained prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment. Sonication of a removed implant may increase the culture yield. Plain radiography has low sensitivity and low specificity for detecting infection associated with a prosthetic joint. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in the evaluation of complex cases, but metal inserts interfere with these tests, and abnormalities may be non-specific. Labelled-leucocyte imaging (e.g., leucocytes labelled with indium-111) combined with bone marrow imaging with the use of technetium-99m–labelled sulphur colloid is considered the imaging test of choice when imaging is necessary. PMID:23898349

  3. Quick bacteriophage-mediated bioluminescence assay for detecting Staphylococcus spp. in sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Šuster, Katja; Podgornik, Aleš; Cör, Andrej

    2017-07-01

    Staphylococcus spp. accounts for up to two thirds of all microorganisms causing prosthetic joint infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis being the major cause. The present study describes a diagnostic model to detect staphylococci using a specific bacteriophage and bioluminescence detection, exploring the possibility of its use on sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints. Intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by bacteriophage mediated lysis of staphylococci was assessed to determine optimal parameters for detection. With the optimized method, a limit of detection of around 103 CFU/mL was obtained after incubation with bacteriophage for 2 h. Importantly, sonicate fluid did not prevent the ability of bacteriophage to infect bacteria and all simulated infected sonicate fluid as well as 6 clinical samples with microbiologically proven staphylococcal infection were detected as positive. The total assay took approximately 4 h. Collectively, the results indicate that the developed method promises a rapid, inexpensive and specific diagnostic detection of staphylococci in sonicate fluid of infected prosthetic joints. In addition, the unlimited pool of different existing bacteriophages, with different specificity for all kind of bacteria gives the opportunity for further investigations, improvements of the current model and implementation in other medical fields for the purpose of the establishment of a rapid diagnosis.

  4. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Katki, Hormuzd A.; Cheung, Li C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Summary New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interval-censored data by developing a novel joint model for time to clearance of HPV and time to precancer/cancer using shared random-effects, where the estimated mean duration of each woman’s HPV infection is a covariate in the submodel for time to precancer/cancer. The model was fit to data on 9,553 HPV-positive/Pap-negative women undergoing cervical cancer screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, data that were pivotal to the development of US screening guidelines. We compare the implications for screening intervals of this joint model to those from population-average marginal models of precancer/cancer risk. In particular, after 2 years the marginal population-average precancer/cancer risk was 5%, suggesting a 2-year interval to control population-average risk at 5%. In contrast, the joint model reveals that almost all women exceeding 5% individual risk in 2 years also exceeded 5% in 1 year, suggesting that a 1-year interval is better to control individual risk at 5%. The example suggests that sophisticated risk models capable of predicting individual risk may have different implications than population-average risk models that are currently used for informing medical guideline development. PMID:26556961

  5. A joint model of persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk: Implications for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2015-10-01

    New cervical cancer screening guidelines in the US and many European countries recommend that women get tested for human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform decisions about screening intervals, we calculate the increase in precancer/cancer risk per year of continued HPV infection. However, both time to onset of precancer/cancer and time to HPV clearance are interval-censored, and onset of precancer/cancer strongly informatively censors HPV clearance. We analyze this bivariate informatively interval-censored data by developing a novel joint model for time to clearance of HPV and time to precancer/cancer using shared random-effects, where the estimated mean duration of each woman's HPV infection is a covariate in the submodel for time to precancer/cancer. The model was fit to data on 9,553 HPV-positive/Pap-negative women undergoing cervical cancer screening at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, data that were pivotal to the development of US screening guidelines. We compare the implications for screening intervals of this joint model to those from population-average marginal models of precancer/cancer risk. In particular, after 2 years the marginal population-average precancer/cancer risk was 5%, suggesting a 2-year interval to control population-average risk at 5%. In contrast, the joint model reveals that almost all women exceeding 5% individual risk in 2 years also exceeded 5% in 1 year, suggesting that a 1-year interval is better to control individual risk at 5%. The example suggests that sophisticated risk models capable of predicting individual risk may have different implications than population-average risk models that are currently used for informing medical guideline development.

  6. Oral versus intravenous antibiotic treatment for bone and joint infections (OVIVA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Ho Kwong; Scarborough, Matthew; Zambellas, Rhea; Cooper, Cushla; Rombach, Ines; Walker, A Sarah; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Briggs, Andrew; Seaton, Andrew; Atkins, Bridget; Woodhouse, Andrew; Berendt, Anthony; Byren, Ivor; Angus, Brian; Pandit, Hemant; Stubbs, David; McNally, Martin; Thwaites, Guy; Bejon, Philip

    2015-12-21

    Bone and joint infection in adults arises most commonly as a complication of joint replacement surgery, fracture fixation and diabetic foot infection. The associated morbidity can be devastating to patients and costs the National Health Service an estimated £20,000 to £40,000 per patient. Current standard of care in most UK centres includes a prolonged course (4-6 weeks) of intravenous antibiotics supported, if available, by an outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy service. Intravenous therapy carries with it substantial risks and inconvenience to patients, and the antibiotic-related costs are approximately ten times that of oral therapy. Despite this, there is no evidence to suggest that oral therapy results in inferior outcomes. We hypothesise that, by selecting oral agents with high bioavailability, good tissue penetration and activity against the known or likely pathogens, key outcomes in patients managed primarily with oral therapy are non-inferior to those in patients treated by intravenous therapy. The OVIVA trial is a parallel group, randomised (1:1), un-blinded, non-inferiority trial conducted in thirty hospitals across the UK. Eligible participants are adults (>18 years) with a clinical syndrome consistent with a bone, joint or metalware-associated infection who have received ≤7 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy from the date of definitive surgery (or the start of planned curative therapy in patients treated without surgical intervention). Participants are randomised to receive either oral or intravenous antibiotics, selected by a specialist infection physician, for the first 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome measure is definite treatment failure within one year of randomisation, as assessed by a blinded endpoint committee, according to pre-defined microbiological, histological and clinical criteria. Enrolling 1,050 subjects will provide 90 % power to demonstrate non-inferiority, defined as less than 7.5 % absolute increase in treatment

  7. Evolution of penile prosthetic devices.

    PubMed

    Le, Brian; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-03-01

    Penile implant usage dates to the 16th century yet penile implants to treat erectile dysfunction did not occur until nearly four centuries later. The modern era of penile implants has progressed rapidly over the past 50 years as physicians' knowledge of effective materials for penile prostheses and surgical techniques has improved. Herein, we describe the history of penile prosthetics and the constant quest to improve the technology. Elements of the design from the first inflatable penile prosthesis by Scott and colleagues and the Small-Carrion malleable penile prosthesis are still found in present iterations of these devices. While there have been significant improvements in penile prosthesis design, the promise of an ideal prosthetic device remains elusive. As other erectile dysfunction therapies emerge, penile prostheses will have to continue to demonstrate a competitive advantage. A particular strength of penile prostheses is their efficacy regardless of etiology, thus allowing treatment of even the most refractory cases.

  8. Evolution of penile prosthetic devices

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Penile implant usage dates to the 16th century yet penile implants to treat erectile dysfunction did not occur until nearly four centuries later. The modern era of penile implants has progressed rapidly over the past 50 years as physicians' knowledge of effective materials for penile prostheses and surgical techniques has improved. Herein, we describe the history of penile prosthetics and the constant quest to improve the technology. Elements of the design from the first inflatable penile prosthesis by Scott and colleagues and the Small-Carrion malleable penile prosthesis are still found in present iterations of these devices. While there have been significant improvements in penile prosthesis design, the promise of an ideal prosthetic device remains elusive. As other erectile dysfunction therapies emerge, penile prostheses will have to continue to demonstrate a competitive advantage. A particular strength of penile prostheses is their efficacy regardless of etiology, thus allowing treatment of even the most refractory cases. PMID:25763121

  9. Prosthetic Mitral Valve Leaflet Escape

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won

    2013-01-01

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well. PMID:23837121

  10. Control System for Prosthetic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A control system and method for prosthetic devices is provided. The control system comprises a transducer for receiving movement from a body part for generating a sensing signal associated with that of movement. The sensing signal is processed by a linearizer for linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part. The linearized sensing signal is normalized to be a function of the entire range of body part movement from the no-shrug position of the moveable body part through the full-shrg position of the moveable body part. The normalized signal is divided into a plurality of discrete command signals. The discrete command signals are used by typical converter devices which are in operational association with the prosthetic device. The converter device uses the discrete command signals for driving the moveable portions of the prosthetic device and its sub-prosthesis. The method for controlling a prosthetic device associated with the present invention comprises the steps of receiving the movement from the body part, generating a sensing signal in association with the movement of the body part, linearizing the sensing signal to be a linear function of the magnitude of the distance moved by the body part, normalizing the linear signal to be a function of the entire range of the body part movement, dividing the normalized signal into a plurality of discrete command signals, and implementing the plurality of discrete command signals for driving the respective moveable prosthesis device and its sub-prosthesis.

  11. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  12. Unusual infections due to Listeria monocytogenes in the Southern California Desert.

    PubMed

    Cone, Lawrence A; Somero, Michael S; Qureshi, Farsana J; Kerkar, Shuba; Byrd, Richard G; Hirschberg, Joel M; Gauto, Anibal R

    2008-11-01

    During the past 22 years, 14 patients have been hospitalized with infection due to Listeria monocytogenes at the Eisenhower Medical Center, a regional 300-bed hospital in the desert southwest of Southern California. A large number of patients are retired, elderly, and have underlying and often systemic disease. Blood agar and routine media were inoculated with liquid from a sterile site such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or joint fluid and observed daily for growth. Appropriate biochemical studies were used to speciate the organism. While bacteremia and meningitis constitute 75% of infections in most studies, they made up only 36% of patients in the current study. Listeriosis occurred mostly in patients with infected aortic aneurysms and brain abscesses, and in prosthetic joint infections. While mortality is generally stated to be around 45% in patients with listeriosis, it was 35% in this study. However, there were no deaths in five patients with bacteremia or meningitis inferring that organ involvement poses a greater hazard for survival. Listeriosis usually presents as a bacteremia or meningitis due to a food-borne invasive infection. In the desert of Southern California most cases are seen in older patients with underlying disease and present with infected aortic aneurysms, prosthetic joints, and brain abscesses. They represent a greater threat to survival due to organ involvement.

  13. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    van Valen, Richard; de Lind van Wijngaarden, Robert A F; Verkaik, Nelianne J; Mokhles, Mostafa M; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2016-07-01

    To study the characteristics of patients with Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) who required surgery. A single-centre retrospective cohort study was conducted during a 7-year period. Patients with definite infective P. acnes endocarditis, according to the modified Duke criteria, were included. An extended culture protocol was applied. Information on medical health status, surgery, antibiotic treatment and mortality was obtained. Thirteen patients fulfilled the criteria for P. acnes endocarditis (0.53% of 2466 patients with valve replacement in a 7-year period). All patients were male and had a previous valve replacement. The health status of patients was poor at diagnosis of P. acnes PVE. Most patients (11 of 13, 85%) were admitted with signs of heart failure due to a significant paravalvular leak; 2 of 13 (15%) patients presented with septic emboli. Twelve patients needed redo surgery, whereas one could be treated with antibiotic therapy only. The time between the index surgery and presentation with P. acnes PVE varied between 5 and 135 months (median 26.5 months). Replacement and reconstruction of the dysfunctional valve and affected anatomical structures was mainly performed with a mechanical valve (n = 5, 42%) or a (bio-) Bentall prosthesis (n = 6, 50%). Antibiotic therapy consisted of penicillin with or without rifampicin for 6 weeks after surgery. The mortality in this series was low (n = 1, 8%) and no recurrent endocarditis was found during a median follow-up of 38 months. Propionibacterium acnes PVE is a rare complication after valve surgery. Redo surgery is often required. Treatment of the dysfunctional prosthetic aortic valve most often consists of root replacement, in combination with antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    PubMed

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  15. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  16. Fusidic acid for the treatment of bone and joint infections caused by meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Ling; Tang, Hung-Jen; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chang, Ming-Chau; Huang, Ching-Tai; Liu, Chang-Pan; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Chen-Ti; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Chien-Lin; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-08-01

    There is a lack of surveillance data on resistance to fusidic acid (FA) in Asia, and no reviews of FA usage for the treatment of orthopaedic infections have been conducted since the year 2000. In this study, we present a systemic literature review of FA resistance in Asia and the clinical use of FA for the treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs). The in vitro activity of FA against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates remains good, with low (<10%) resistance rates in most Asian countries. FA in Asia appears to be a better oral anti-MRSA agent than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin. More than 80 cases of FA use for BJI have been reported since 2000 and the recurrence or failure rate is <10%. There is much evidence supporting the use of FA in combination with other antibiotics (e.g. rifampicin) as an oral treatment following intravenous glycopeptide treatment for BJIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003742.htm Culture - joint fluid To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Joint fluid culture is a laboratory test to detect infection-causing ...

  18. Wireless Microstimulators for Neural Prosthetics

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Mesut; Pikov, Victor

    2016-01-01

    One of the roadblocks in the field of neural prosthetics is the lack of microelectronic devices for neural stimulation that can last a lifetime in the central nervous system. Wireless multi-electrode arrays are being developed to improve the longevity of implants by eliminating the wire interconnects as well as the chronic tissue reactions due to the tethering forces generated by these wires. An area of research that has not been sufficiently investigated is a simple single-channel passive microstimulator that can collect the stimulus energy that is transmitted wirelessly through the tissue and immediately convert it into the stimulus pulse. For example, many neural prosthetic approaches to intraspinal microstimulation require only a few channels of stimulation. Wired spinal cord implants are not practical for human subjects because of the extensive flexions and rotations that the spinal cord experiences. Thus, intraspinal microstimulation may be a pioneering application that can benefit from submillimetersize floating stimulators. Possible means of energizing such a floating microstimulator, such as optical, acoustic, and electromagnetic waves, are discussed. PMID:21488815

  19. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  20. Detection of occult infection following total joint arthroplasty using sequential technetium-99m HDP bone scintigraphy and indium-111 WBC imaging

    SciT

    Johnson, J.A.; Christie, M.J.; Sandler, M.P.

    1988-08-01

    Preoperative exclusion or confirmation of periprosthetic infection is essential for correct surgical management of patients with suspected infected joint prostheses. The sensitivity and specificity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging in the diagnosis of infected total joint prostheses was examined in 28 patients and compared with sequential (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC scintigraphy and aspiration arthrography. The sensitivity of preoperative aspiration cultures was 12%, with a specificity of 81% and an accuracy of 58%. The sensitivity of (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging alone was 100%, with a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 65%. When correlated with the bone scintigraphy and read as sequential (/supmore » 99m/Tc)HDP/(/sup 111/In)WBC imaging, the sensitivity was 88%, specificity 95%, and accuracy 93%. This study demonstrates that (/sup 111/In)WBC imaging is an extremely sensitive imaging modality for the detection of occult infection of joint prostheses. It also demonstrates the necessity of correlating (/sup 111/In)WBC images with (/sup 99m/Tc)HDP skeletal scintigraphy in the detection of occult periprosthetic infection.« less

  1. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of silicone...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of silicone...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3940 - Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. 872.3940... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3940 Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. (a) Identification. A total temporomandibular joint prosthesis is a device that is intended to be...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3940 - Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. 872.3940... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3940 Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. (a) Identification. A total temporomandibular joint prosthesis is a device that is intended to be...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of silicone...

  13. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of silicone...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  16. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of silicone...

  17. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device intended...

  18. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  19. Design of smart prosthetic knee utilizing magnetorheological damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Liu, Y. N.; Liao, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, based on human knee's kinetics, a smart prosthetic knee employing springs, DC motor and magnetorheological (MR) damper is designed. The MR damper is coupled in series with the springs that are mounted in parallel with the DC motor. The working principle of the prosthesis during level-ground walking is presented. During stance phase, the MR damper is powered on. The springs will store and release the negative mechanical energy for restoring the function of human knee joint. In swing phase, the MR damper is powered off for disengaging the springs. In this phase, the work of knee joint is negative. For improving the system energy efficiency, the DC motor will work as a power generator to supply required damping torque and harvest electrical energy. Finally, the design of MR damper is introduced.

  20. A review of extra-articular prosthetic stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle.

    PubMed

    Tonks, C A; Lewis, D D; Pozzi, A

    2011-01-01

    Extra-articular prosthetic stabilization techniques have been used as a method of stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle for decades. During extra-articular prosthetic stabilization, the prosthesis is anchored to the femur and tibia, and tensioned in the attempt to resolve femorotibial instability. The position of the anchor points of the prosthesis is crucial for restoring a normal range of joint motion and mitigating alterations in prosthesis tension during motion. Recently developed techniques offer several innovations with potential advantages such as bone-to-bone fixation, prosthetic materials with better mechanical properties, and improved isometry of the anchor points. Whether these innovations provide clinically superior results to the traditional techniques such as lateral circumfabellar-tibial suture techniques has yet to be determined.

  1. Performance of automated multiplex PCR using sonication fluid for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: a prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Renz, Nora; Feihl, Susanne; Cabric, Sabrina; Trampuz, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Sonication of explanted prostheses improved the microbiological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). We evaluated the performance of automated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using sonication fluid for the microbiological diagnosis of PJI. In a prospective cohort using uniform definition criteria for PJI, explanted joint prostheses were investigated by sonication and the resulting sonication fluid was analyzed by culture and multiplex PCR. McNemar's Chi-squared test was used to compare the performance of diagnostic tests. Among 111 patients, PJI was diagnosed in 78 (70%) and aseptic failure in 33 (30%). For the diagnosis of PJI, the sensitivity and specificity of periprosthetic tissue culture was 51 and 100%, of sonication fluid culture 58 and 100%, and of sonication fluid PCR 51 and 94%, respectively. Among 70 microorganisms, periprosthetic tissue culture grew 52 (74%), sonication fluid culture grew 50 (71%) and sonication fluid PCR detected 37 pathogens (53%). If only organisms are considered, for which primers are included in the test panel, PCR detected 37 of 58 pathogens (64%). The sonication fluid PCR missed 19 pathogens (predominantly oral streptococci and anaerobes), whereas 7 additional microorganisms were detected only by PCR (including Cutibacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci). The performance of multiplex PCR using sonication fluid is comparable to culture of periprosthetic tissue or sonication fluid. The advantages of PCR are short processing time (< 5 h) and fully automated procedure. However, culture technique is still needed due to the low sensitivity and the need of comprehensive susceptibility testing. Modification of primers or inclusion of additional ones may improve the performance of PCR, especially of low-virulent organisms.

  2. Standing on slopes - how current microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support transtibial and transfemoral amputees in an everyday task.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Michael; Altenburg, Björn; Bellmann, Malte; Schmalz, Thomas

    2017-11-16

    Conventional prosthetic feet like energy storage and return feet provide only a limited range of ankle motion compared to human ones. In order to overcome the poor rotational adaptability, prosthetic manufacturers developed different prosthetic feet with an additional rotational joint and implemented active control in different states. It was the aim of the study to investigate to what extent these commercially available microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support a natural posture while standing on inclines and which concept is most beneficial for lower limb amputees. Four unilateral transtibial and four unilateral transfemoral amputees participated in the study. Each of the subjects wore five different microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet in addition to their everyday feet. The subjects were asked to stand on slopes of different inclinations (level ground, upward slope of 10°, and downward slope of -10°). Vertical ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint angles in the sagittal plane were measured for both legs separately for the different situations and compared to a non-amputee reference group. Differences in the biomechanical parameters were observed between the different prosthetic feet and compared to the reference group for the investigated situations. They were most prominent while standing on a downward slope. For example, on the prosthetic side, the vertical ground reaction force is reduced by about 20%, and the torque about the knee acts to flex the joint for feet that are not capable of a full adaptation to the downward slope. In contrast, fully adaptable feet with an auto-adaptive dorsiflexion stop show no changes in vertical ground reaction forces and knee extending torques. A prosthetic foot that provides both, an auto-adaptive dorsiflexion stop and a sufficient range of motion for fully adapting to inclinations appears to be the key element in the prosthetic fitting for standing on inclinations in lower limb amputees. In such

  3. The effects of a controlled energy storage and return prototype prosthetic foot on transtibial amputee ambulation.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ava D; Zelik, Karl E; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2012-08-01

    The lack of functional ankle musculature in lower limb amputees contributes to the reduced prosthetic ankle push-off, compensations at other joints and more energetically costly gait commonly observed in comparison to non-amputees. A variety of energy storing and return prosthetic feet have been developed to address these issues but have not been shown to sufficiently improve amputee biomechanics and energetic cost, perhaps because the timing and magnitude of energy return is not controlled. The goal of this study was to examine how a prototype microprocessor-controlled prosthetic foot designed to store some of the energy during loading and return it during push-off affects amputee gait. Unilateral transtibial amputees wore the Controlled Energy Storage and Return prosthetic foot (CESR), a conventional foot (CONV), and their previously prescribed foot (PRES) in random order. Three-dimensional gait analysis and net oxygen consumption were collected as participants walked at constant speed. The CESR foot demonstrated increased energy storage during early stance, increased prosthetic foot peak push-off power and work, increased prosthetic limb center of mass (COM) push-off work and decreased intact limb COM collision work compared to CONV and PRES. The biological contribution of the positive COM work for CESR was reduced compared to CONV and PRES. However, the net metabolic cost for CESR did not change compared to CONV and increased compared to PRES, which may partially reflect the greater weight, lack of individualized size and stiffness and relatively less familiarity for CESR and CONV. Controlled energy storage and return enhanced prosthetic push-off, but requires further design modifications to improve amputee walking economy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The effects of a controlled energy storage and return prototype prosthetic foot on transtibial amputee ambulation

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ava D.; Zelik, Karl E.; Klute, Glenn K.; Morgenroth, David C.; Hahn, Michael E.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Adamczyk, Peter G.; Collins, Steven H.; Kuo, Arthur D.; Czerniecki, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of functional ankle musculature in lower limb amputees contributes to the reduced prosthetic ankle push-off, compensations at other joints and more energetically costly gait commonly observed in comparison to non-amputees. A variety of energy storing and return prosthetic feet have been developed to address these issues but have not been shown to sufficiently improve amputee biomechanics and energetic cost, perhaps because the timing and magnitude of energy return is not controlled. The goal of this study was to examine how a prototype microprocessor-controlled prosthetic foot designed to store some of the energy during loading and return it during push-off affects amputee gait. Unilateral transtibial amputees wore the Controlled Energy Storage and Return prosthetic foot (CESR), a conventional foot (CONV), and their previously prescribed foot (PRES) in random order. Three-dimensional gait analysis and net oxygen consumption were collected as participants walked at constant speed. The CESR foot demonstrated increased energy storage during early stance, increased prosthetic foot peak push-off power and work, increased prosthetic limb center of mass (COM) push-off work and decreased intact limb COM collision work compared to CONV and PRES. The biological contribution of the positive COM work for CESR was reduced compared to CONV and PRES. However, the net metabolic cost for CESR did not change compared to CONV and increased compared to PRES, which may partially reflect the greater weight, lack of individualized size and stiffness and relatively less familiarity for CESR and CONV. Controlled energy storage and return enhanced prosthetic push-off, but requires further design modifications to improve amputee walking economy. PMID:22100728

  5. CD15 focus score: Infection diagnosis and stratification into low-virulence and high-virulence microbial pathogens in periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Krenn, V T; Liebisch, M; Kölbel, B; Renz, N; Gehrke, T; Huber, M; Krukemeyer, M G; Trampuz, A; Resch, H; Krenn, V

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the work was to validate the CD15 focus score for the infection pathology of periprosthetic joint infection in a large group and to clarify whether a stratification into low-virulence and high-virulence microbial pathogens is possible by means of the CD15 focus score (quantification of CD15 positive granulocytes). The histopathology of 275 synovial tissue samples taken intraoperatively during revision operations (n=127 hip, n=141 knee, n=2 shoulder, n=5 ankle) was evaluated according to the SLIM consensus classification (SLIM=synovial-like interface membrane). Neutrophilic granulocytes (NG) were quantified by the CD15 focus score on the basis of the principle of focal maximum infiltration (focus) with evaluation of one field of vision (about 0.3mm 2 ). The quantification values were compared with the microbiological diagnoses taking into consideration the virulence groups of low-virulence and high-virulence microbial pathogens and mixed infection. The patients with positive microbiological findings (n=160) had significantly (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) higher CD15 focus score values than patients with negative microbiological findings (n=115), the cut-off value being 39 cells per high power field (HPF). The CD15 focus score values of low-virulence microbial pathogens (n=94) were significantly lower (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) than the values of high-virulence microbial pathogens (n=55), the cut-off value being 106 cells per HPF. Based on the microbiological diagnosis the sensitivity with respect to a microbial infection is 0.91, the specificity 0.92 (PPV=0.94; NPV=0.88; accuracy: 0.92; AUC=0.95). Based on the differentiation of the CD15 focus score values between low-virulence and high-virulence microbes the sensitivity is 0.70 and the specificity 0.77 (PPV=0.63; NPV=0.81; accuracy=0.74; AUC=0.74). As a result of the high sensitivity and specificity, the easy to use CD15 focus score is a diagnostically valid score for microbial periprosthetic

  6. Re-Infection Outcomes following One- and Two-Stage Surgical Revision of Infected Hip Prosthesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kunutsor, Setor K.; Whitehouse, Michael R.; Blom, Ashley W.; Beswick, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The two-stage revision strategy has been claimed as being the “gold standard” for treating prosthetic joint infection. The one-stage revision strategy remains an attractive alternative option; however, its effectiveness in comparison to the two-stage strategy remains uncertain. Objective To compare the effectiveness of one- and two-stage revision strategies in treating prosthetic hip infection, using re-infection as an outcome. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, manual search of bibliographies to March 2015, and email contact with investigators. Study Selection Cohort studies (prospective or retrospective) conducted in generally unselected patients with prosthetic hip infection treated exclusively by one- or two-stage revision and with re-infection outcomes reported within two years of revision. No clinical trials were identified. Review Methods Data were extracted by two independent investigators and a consensus was reached with involvement of a third. Rates of re-infection from 38 one-stage studies (2,536 participants) and 60 two-stage studies (3,288 participants) were aggregated using random-effect models after arcsine transformation, and were grouped by study and population level characteristics. Results In one-stage studies, the rate (95% confidence intervals) of re-infection was 8.2% (6.0–10.8). The corresponding re-infection rate after two-stage revision was 7.9% (6.2–9.7). Re-infection rates remained generally similar when grouped by several study and population level characteristics. There was no strong evidence of publication bias among contributing studies. Conclusion Evidence from aggregate published data suggest similar re-infection rates after one- or two-stage revision among unselected patients. More detailed analyses under a broader range of circumstances and exploration of other sources of heterogeneity will require collaborative pooling of individual

  7. Impact of Sequential Culture Results on Diagnosis and De-Escalation of the Antibiotic Regimen in Joint and Bone Infections.

    PubMed

    Kernéis, Solen; Leprince, Cécile; Archambeau, Denis; Eyrolle, Luc; Leclerc, Philippe; Poupet, Hélène; Loubinoux, Julien; Gauzit, Rémy; Salmon, Dominique; Launay, Odile; Poyart, Claire; Anract, Philippe; Morand, Philippe C

    According to existing guidelines, orthopedic specimens collected in joint and bone infections (JBI) in our institution are cultured on several media sets and incubated for two, seven, and 14 days. The optimal timing for de-escalation of the first-line antibiotic combination according to the culture results needs to be defined. Single-center, retrospective analysis of all adult patients with a first documented episode of JBI between May 2012 and April 2013. Ninety patients were included, 51 males (57%), median age 58 y (range 18-87 y), with prosthesis infection in 62 cases (69%). Rapidly growing pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus [n = 36] and Enterobacteriaceae [n = 12]) usually were diagnosed within two days, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 25) and Propionibacterium acnes (n = 13) generally were identified after seven days (p < 10 -5 ). Positive culture results at day 2 fit with definitive microbiological diagnosis in 95% of cases, and prolonged incubation led to the identification of additional micro-organisms in only four of 76 patients (5%) with day-2-positive cultures. Conversely, for those with negative two-day culture (n = 14), the seven-day culture allowed identification of less virulent pathogens in eight cases (57%). Our results suggest that, in JBI, de-escalation of the empirical antibiotic regimen can be based on micro-organisms identified on the two-day culture set. The impact of such a strategy on clinical outcomes, antibiotic consumption, and costs needs to be assessed in larger studies.

  8. Characterization of Staphylococcus caprae Clinical Isolates Involved in Human Bone and Joint Infections, Compared with Goat Mastitis Isolates.

    PubMed

    d'Ersu, J; Aubin, G G; Mercier, P; Nicollet, P; Bémer, P; Corvec, S

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus caprae is an emerging microorganism in human bone and joint infections (BJI). The aim of this study is to describe the features of S. caprae isolates involved in BJI (H for human) compared with those of isolates recovered in goat mastitis (A for animal). Fourteen isolates of each origin were included. Identifications were performed using a Vitek 2 GP ID card, tuf gene sequencing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS. Molecular typing was carried out using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab technology. The crystal violet method was used to determine biofilm-forming ability. Virulence factors were searched by PCR. Vitek MS technology provides an accurate identification for the two types of isolates compared to that of gold-standard sequencing (sensitivity, 96.4%), whereas the Vitek 2 GP ID card was more effective for H isolates. Molecular typing methods revealed two distinct lineages corresponding to the origin despite few overlaps: H and A. In our experimental conditions, no significant difference was observed in biofilm production ability between H and A isolates. Nine isolates (5 H isolates and 4 A isolates) behaved as weak producers while one A isolate was a strong producer. Concerning virulence factors, the autolysin atlC and the serine aspartate adhesin (sdrZ) genes were detected in 24 isolates (86%), whereas the lipase gene was always detected, except in one H isolate (96%). The ica operon was present in 23 isolates (82%). Fibrinogen-binding (fbe) or collagen-binding (cna) genes were not detected by using primers designed for Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis, even in low stringency conditions. Although S. caprae probably remains underestimated in human infections, further studies are needed to better understand the evolution and the adaptation of this species to its host. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 870.3945 - Prosthetic heart valve sizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve sizer. 870.3945 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3945 Prosthetic heart valve sizer. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve sizer is a device used to measure the size of the...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3945 - Prosthetic heart valve sizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve sizer. 870.3945 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3945 Prosthetic heart valve sizer. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve sizer is a device used to measure the size of the...

  11. 21 CFR 870.3945 - Prosthetic heart valve sizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve sizer. 870.3945 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3945 Prosthetic heart valve sizer. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve sizer is a device used to measure the size of the...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3945 - Prosthetic heart valve sizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve sizer. 870.3945 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3945 Prosthetic heart valve sizer. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve sizer is a device used to measure the size of the...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3945 - Prosthetic heart valve sizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic heart valve sizer. 870.3945 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3945 Prosthetic heart valve sizer. (a) Identification. A prosthetic heart valve sizer is a device used to measure the size of the...

  14. Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Screening and Decolonization to Reduce Surgical Site Infection in Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sporer, Scott M; Rogers, Thea; Abella, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Deep infection after elective total joint arthroplasty remains a devastating complication. Preoperative nasal swab screening for Staphylococcus aureus colonization and subsequent treatment of colonized patients is one proposed method to identify at-risk patients and decrease surgical site infections (SSIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a preoperative staphylococcus screening and treatment program would decrease the incidence of SSI in elective joint arthroplasty patients. Since January 2009, a total of 9690 patients having an elective joint arthroplasty were screened before surgery for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with nares swabs. All patients with positive nare colonization for MSSA and MRSA were treated with mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate showers for 5 days before surgery. MRSA patients received vancomycin preoperatively and were placed in contact isolation. All elective arthroplasty patients used chlorhexidine gluconate antiseptic cloths the evening prior and the day of surgery. Perioperative infection rates were compared from 1 year before implementation to 5 years after implementation of this screening protocol. SSI rates have decreased from 1.11% (prescreening) to 0.34% (nasal screening; P < .05) after initiation of the process. Staphylococcus was identified in 66.7% of the SSI infections before nasal screening and in 33.3% of the SSI after routine screening (P > .05). The addition of MRSA and/or MSSA nares screening along with a perioperative decolonization protocol has resulted in a decreased SSI rate by 69%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis with mycotic aneurysm: Case report.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Mariana; Almeida, Jorge; Ferraz, Rita; Santos, Lurdes; Pinho, Paulo; Casanova, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis is an extremely severe form of infective endocarditis, with poor prognosis and high mortality despite treatment. Candida albicans is the most common etiological agent for this rare but increasingly frequent condition. We present a case of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis due to C. albicans following aortic and pulmonary valve replacement in a 38-year-old woman with a history of surgically corrected tetralogy of Fallot, prior infective endocarditis and acute renal failure with need for catheter-based hemodialysis. Antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B was initiated prior to cardiac surgery, in which the bioprostheses were replaced by homografts, providing greater resistance to recurrent infection. During hospitalization, a mycotic aneurysm was diagnosed following an episode of acute arterial ischemia, requiring two vascular surgical interventions. Despite the complications, the patient's outcome was good and she was discharged on suppressive antifungal therapy with oral fluconazole for at least a year. The reported case illustrates multiple risk factors for fungal endocarditis, as well as complications and predictors of poor prognosis, demonstrating its complexity. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Prosthetic Aortic Valves: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Lucia; Jacques, Nicolas; Hego, Alexandre; Nchimi, Alain; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Oury, Cécile

    2018-01-01

    Aortic Valve Disease (AVD) is the most common Valvular Heart Disease (VHD), affecting millions of people worldwide. Severe AVD is treated in most cases with prosthetic aortic valve replacement, which involves the substitution of the native aortic valve with a prosthetic one. In this review we will discuss the different types of prosthetic aortic valves available for implantation and the challenges faced by patients, medical doctors, researchers and manufacturers, as well as the approaches that are taken to overcome them. PMID:29868612

  17. A new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masaki; Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Choe, Hyonmin; Tezuka, Taro; Kubota, So; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2017-11-01

    A new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) and to distinguish between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we validated the sensitivity and specificity of this assay with periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and evaluated the utility of PCR for culture-negative PJI. Forty-five samples from 23 infectious PJI cases and 106 samples from 64 non-infectious control cases were analyzed by real-time PCR using a LightCycler Nano ® system. Twenty-eight clinical samples, comprising bacteria of known species isolated consecutively in the microbiological laboratory of our hospital, were used to determine the spectrum of bacterial species that could be detected using the new multiplex primers and probes. The sensitivity and specificity of the MRS- and universal-PCR assays were 92% and 99%, and 91% and 88%, respectively. Twenty-eight species of clinically isolated bacteria were detected using this method and the concordance rate for the identification of gram-positive or gram-negative organisms was 96%. Eight samples were identified as PCR-positive despite a culture-negative result. This novel multiplex real-time PCR system has acceptable sensitivity and specificity and several advantages; therefore, it has potential use for the diagnosis of PJIs, particularly in culture-negative cases.

  18. Joint estimation of CD4+ cell progression and survival in untreated individuals with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Tara D

    2017-05-15

    We compiled the largest dataset of seroconverter cohorts to date from 25 countries across Africa, North America, Europe, and Southeast/East (SE/E) Asia to simultaneously estimate transition rates between CD4 cell stages and death, in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1-infected individuals. A hidden Markov model incorporating a misclassification matrix was used to represent natural short-term fluctuations and measurement errors in CD4 cell counts. Covariates were included to estimate the transition rates and survival probabilities for each subgroup. The median follow-up time for 16 373 eligible individuals was 4.1 years (interquartile range 1.7-7.1), and the mean age at seroconversion was 31.1 years (SD 8.8). A total of 14 525 individuals had recorded CD4 cell counts pre-ART, 1885 died, and 6947 initiated ART. Median (interquartile range) survival for men aged 20 years at seroconversion was 13.0 (12.4-13.4), 11.6 (10.9-12.3), and 8.3 years (7.9-8.9) in Europe/North America, Africa, and SE/E Asia, respectively. Mortality rates increase with age (hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.84-2.67 for >45 years compared with <25 years) and vary by region (hazard ratio 2.68, 1.75-4.12 for Africa and 1.88, 1.50-2.35 for Asia compared with Europe/North America). CD4 cell decline was significantly faster in Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America (hazard ratio 1.45, 1.36-1.54). Mortality and CD4 cell progression rates exhibited regional and age-specific differences, with decreased survival in African and SE/E Asian cohorts compared with Europe/North America and in older age groups. This extensive dataset reveals heterogeneities between regions and ages, which should be incorporated into future HIV models.

  19. Laboratory Tests for Diagnosis of Chronic Periprosthetic Joint Infection Can Help Predict Outcomes of Two-Stage Exchange.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Maureen K; Damsgaard, Christopher; Wadibia, Jason; Wong, Gordon; Lazar, Damien; Smith, Eric; Talmo, Carl; Bedair, Hany

    2018-06-20

    Although 2-stage exchange arthroplasty is the most effective treatment among available strategies for managing chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), rates of its success vary greatly. The purpose of our study was to examine whether objective measurements collected at the time of the diagnosis of PJI could be used to identify patients at risk of failure of 2-stage exchange. We identified 205 patients across 4 institutions who underwent 2-stage exchange arthroplasty for the treatment of PJI following total hip or total knee arthroplasty. Demographic, surgical, and laboratory data were obtained for each patient from their medical chart. Laboratory values included serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level, synovial fluid white blood-cell (WBC) count and neutrophil percentage, synovial fluid and/or tissue culture, and Gram stain. Patients who underwent revision surgery for recurrent infection were considered to have failed the 2-stage procedure. Demographic, surgical, and laboratory variables were compared between the 2 groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine threshold cutoffs for significant laboratory values. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Overall, 2-stage exchange was unsuccessful for 27.3% of the patients. Preoperative serum ESR (p = 0.035) and synovial fluid WBC count (p = 0.008) and neutrophil percentage (p = 0.041) were greater in patients with recurrent infection. ROC curve analysis revealed a threshold of >60,000 cells/μL for synovial fluid WBC count, >92% for synovial fluid WBC neutrophil percentage, and >99 mm/hr for serum ESR. Failure of 2-stage exchange was 2.5 times more likely for patients with an elevated preoperative synovial fluid WBC count, 2.0 times more likely for those with an elevated preoperative synovial fluid WBC neutrophil percentage, and 1.8 times more likely for those with an elevated preoperative serum ESR. Our results

  20. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved conduit

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved conduit and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the conduit, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable. PMID:24510692

  2. A rare case of prosthetic endocarditis and dehiscence in a mechanical valved conduit.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Arun; Smith, Cristy; Subramanian, Sreekumar; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2014-02-07

    A middle-aged adult patient with a history of aortic root replacement with a mechanical valved conduit and remote chest trauma was referred to our institution with prosthetic endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram at our institution confirmed a near-complete dehiscence of the prosthetic aortic valve from the conduit, with significant perivalvular flow forming a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent a high-risk re-operation, involving redo aortic root replacement with a homograft after extensive debridement of the infected tissue. The patient was discharged to an outside facility after an uncomplicated hospital course, and remains stable.

  3. Vancomycin-Loaded Polymethylmethacrylate Spacers Fail to Eradicate Periprosthetic Joint Infection in a Clinically Representative Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Carli, Alberto V; Bhimani, Samrath; Yang, Xu; de Mesy Bentley, Karen L; Ross, F Patrick; Bostrom, Mathias P G

    2018-06-06

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication following total joint arthroplasty. Current animal models of PJI do not effectively recreate the clinical condition and thus provide limited help in understanding why treatments fail. We developed a mouse model of the first-stage surgery of a 2-stage revision for PJI involving a 3-dimensionally printed Ti-6Al-4V implant and a mouse-sized cement spacer that elutes vancomycin. Vancomycin was mixed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and inserted into custom-made mouse-sized spacer molds. Twenty C57BL/6 mice received a proximal tibial implant and an intra-articular injection of 3 × 10 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus Xen36. At 2 weeks, 9 mice underwent irrigation and debridement of the leg with revision of the implant to an articulating vancomycin-loaded PMMA spacer. Postoperatively, mice underwent radiography and serum inflammatory-marker measurements. Following euthanasia of the mice at 6 weeks, bone and soft tissues were homogenized to quantify bacteria within periprosthetic tissues. Implants and articulating spacers were either sonicated to quantify adherent bacteria or examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize the biofilm. Vancomycin-loaded PMMA spacers eluted vancomycin for ≤144 hours and retained antimicrobial activity. Control mice had elevated levels of inflammatory markers, radiographic evidence of septic loosening of the implant, and osseous destruction. Mice treated with a vancomycin-loaded PMMA spacer had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers (p < 0.01), preserved tibial bone, and no intra-articular purulence. Retrieved vancomycin-loaded spacers exhibited significantly lower bacterial counts compared with implants (p < 0.001). However, bacterial counts in periprosthetic tissue did not significantly differ between the groups. SEM identified S. aureus encased within biofilm on control implants, while vancomycin-loaded spacers

  4. Risks and Challenges of Surgery for Aortic Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Grubitzsch, Herko; Tarar, Waharat; Claus, Benjamin; Gabbieri, Davide; Falk, Volkmar; Christ, Torsten

    2018-03-01

    Prosthetic valve endocarditis is the most severe form of infective endocarditis. This study assessed the risks and challenges of surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. In total, 116 consecutive patients (98 males, age 65.2±12.7years), who underwent redo-surgery for active aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis between 2000 and 2014, were reviewed. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors for aortic root destructions as well as for morbidity and mortality. Median follow-up was 3.8 years (0-13.9 years). Aortic root destructions (42 limited and 29 multiple lesions) were associated with early prosthetic valve endocarditis and delayed diagnosis (≥14 d), but not with mortality. There were 16 (13.8%) early (≤30 d) and 32 (27.6%) late (>30 days) deaths. Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 72±4.3%, 56±5.4%, and 46±6.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of death, reinfection, and reoperation was 19.0% at 30days and 36.2% at 1year. Delayed diagnosis, concomitant procedures, and EuroSCORE II >20% were predictors for early mortality and need for mechanical circulatory support, age >70years, and critical preoperative state were predictors for late mortality. In their absence, survival at 10 years was 70±8.4%. Reinfections and reoperations occurred more frequently if ≥1 risk factor for endocarditis and aortic root destructions were present. At 10 years, freedom from reinfection and reoperation was 89±4.2% and 91±4.0%. The risks of death, reinfection, and reoperation are significant within the first year after surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Early diagnosis and aortic root destructions are the most important challenges, but advanced age, critical preoperative state, and the need for mechanical circulatory support determine long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B

  5. Prosthetic Tool For Holding Small Ferromagnetic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, William E.; Carden, James R.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Tool attached to prosthetic hand or arm enables user to hold nails, screws, nuts, rivets, and other small ferromagnetic objects on small magnetic tip. Device adjusted to hold nail or screw at proper angle for hammering or for use of screwdriver, respectively. Includes base connector with threaded outer surface and lower male member inserted in standard spring-action, quick-connect/quick-disconnect wrist adapter on prosthetic hand or arm.

  6. Capnocytophaga canimorsus: a rare case of conservatively treated prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Jalava-Karvinen, Päivi; Grönroos, Juha O; Tuunanen, Helena; Kemppainen, Jukka; Oksi, Jarmo; Hohenthal, Ulla

    2018-05-01

    We describe a rare case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by the canine bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a male aged 73 years. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis was unequivocal, as it blood cultures were positive for C. canimorsus and vegetations were detected on transesophageal echocardiography; the modified Duke criteria were fulfilled. PET-CT showed intense 18 F-FDG uptake of the prosthetic valve area. The patient was treated with antibiotics alone (no surgery), and is now on life-long suppressive antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. canimorsus and the first one to have been treated conservatively. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis complicated with annular abscess, sub-aortic obstruction and valve dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Hassoulas, Joannis; Patrianakos, Alexandros P; Parthenakis, Fragiskos I; Vardas, Panos E

    2009-01-01

    We present a 76-year-old woman with infective endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve. The course of her illness started with an ischaemic stroke and she was admitted with prolonged fever and an episode of loss of consciousness. Echocardiography revealed acute aortic regurgitation and dehiscence of the prosthetic valve with excessive "rocking motion", aortic abscesses and left ventricular outflow obstruction caused by a semilunar shelf of tissue probably due to endocarditis vegetations. She underwent an urgent surgical procedure that confirmed the echocardiographic findings. Our case report reinforces the value of early diagnosis in the presence of a high clinical suspicion of prosthetic valve endocarditis. An extended workup, including transoesophageal echocardiography, in such a patient with a mechanical valve is mandatory.

  8. Decreased Hospital Costs and Surgical Site Infection Incidence With a Universal Decolonization Protocol in Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Stambough, Jeffrey B; Nam, Denis; Warren, David K; Keeney, James A; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L; Nunley, Ryan M

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization has been identified as a key modifiable risk factor in the reduction of surgical site infections (SSI) related to elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA). We investigated the incidence of SSIs and cost-effectiveness of a universal decolonization protocol without screening consisting of nasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine before elective TJA compared to a program in which all subjects were screened for S aureus and selectively treated if positive. We reviewed 4186 primary TJAs from March 2011 through July 2015. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts based on the decolonization regimen used. Before May 2013, 1981 TJA patients were treated under a "screen and treat" program while the subsequent 2205 patients were treated under the universal protocol. We excluded the 3 months around the transition to control for treatment bias. Outcomes of interest included SSI and total hospital costs. With a universal decolonization protocol, there was a significant decrease in both the overall SSI rate (5 vs 15 cases; 0.2% vs 0.8%; P = .013) and SSIs caused by S aureus organisms (2 vs 10; 0.09% vs 0.5%; P = .01). A cost analysis accounting for the cost to administer the universal regimen demonstrated an actual savings of $717,205.59. TJA complicated by SSI costs 4.6× more to treat than that of an uncomplicated primary TJA. Our universal decolonization paradigm for elective TJA is effective in reducing the overall rate of SSIs and promoting economic gains for the health system related to the downstream savings accrued from limiting future reoperations and hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection after Total Hip Arthroplasty and Total Knee Arthroplasty in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengxiang; Li, Huiwu; Mao, Yuanqing; Zhu, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this hospital-based case–control study was to evaluate the risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Chinese patients. Method From January 2000 to December 2012, 45 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed PJI were recruited for case subjects; controls were 252 without PJI, matched by year of index for surgery and type of surgery. Conditional logistic regressions were run to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with an increased adjusted risk of PJI (in decreasing order of significance) were diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95% CI: 1.77–16.97; p = 0.003), age (65–75 vs. 45–65 years) (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.30–8.69; p = 0.013), BMI (≥28 vs. 18.5–28 kg/m2) (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.20–6.40; p = 0.017), place of residence (rural) (OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.13–6.10; p = 0.025) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.06–8.23; p = 0.039). Conclusion Patients with diabetes, older age, BMI of ≥28 kg/m2 and alcohol abuse or living in rural areas, had increased PJI risk. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results. PMID:24748009

  10. [Bacteriuria and Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infections during Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Patients with Short-Term Urinary Catheters - Prospective Randomised Study in Patients after Joint Replacement Surgery].

    PubMed

    Dejmek, M; Kučera, T; Ryšková, L; Čermáková, E; Šponer, P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY A very serious complication following joint replacement surgery is periprosthetic joint infection that can be caused by a urinary tract infection. Insertion of an indwelling urinary catheter constitutes a risk factor that may result in urinary tract infections. The aim of this prospective randomised study was to compare the occurrence of significant bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of removal of an indwelling urinary catheter by cotrimoxazole in two doses and with no administration of antibiotics. We also monitored the incidence of potential periprosthetic infection following the endoprosthesis implantation. The findings of preoperative urine tests were compared with the declared negative preoperative examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included patients indicated for a total hip or knee replacement with a negative urine culture as a part of the preoperative testing. Where leukocyteria was detected, urine culture by mid-stream clean catch urine was obtained. The second part included patients, in whom an indwelling urinary catheter had to be inserted postoperatively for urine retention and/or monitoring of fluid balance and who were divided into two groups on a rota basis. No antibiotics were administered to the first group, whereas Cotrimoxazol 960 mg tablets p.o. was administered to the second group, 14 and 2 hours before the removal of the catheter. The urine culture test was performed 4 hours after the removal of the indwelling urinary catheter, in both the groups. The test was repeated after 14 days and a questionnaire was filled in to report urinary tract complications. Considered as significant bacteriuria by urinalysis was the laboratory finding of > 10x4 CFU/ml in case of a single pathogen or > 10x5 in case of multiple pathogens. The results were statistically processed by Fischer's exact test with the level of significance = 0.05. RESULTS In the first part of the

  11. Perceived self-efficacy and specific self-reported outcomes in persons with lower-limb amputation using a non-microprocessor-controlled versus a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee.

    PubMed

    Möller, Saffran; Hagberg, Kerstin; Samulesson, Kersti; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

    2018-04-01

    To measure self-efficacy in a group of individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputation and investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and prosthetic-specific outcomes including prosthetic use, mobility, amputation-related problems and global health. A second purpose was to examine if differences exist in outcomes based upon the type of prosthetic knee unit being used. Cross-sectional study using the General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale and the Questionnaire for Persons with a Transfemoral Amputation (Q-TFA). Forty-two individuals participated in the study. Twenty-three used a non-microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (non-MPK) and 19 used a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint (MPK). The study sample had quite high GSE scores (32/40). GSE scores were significantly correlated to the Q-TFA prosthetic use, mobility and problem scores. High GSE scores were related to higher levels of prosthetic use, mobility, global scores and negatively related to problem score. No significant difference was observed between individuals using a non-MPK versus MPK joints. Individuals with high self-efficacy used their prosthesis to a higher degree and high self-efficacy was related to higher level of mobility, global scores and fewer problems related to the amputation in individuals who have undergone a lower-limb amputation and were using a non-MPK or MPK knee. Implications for rehabilitation Perceived self-efficacy has has been shown to be related to quality of life, prosthetic mobility and capability as well as social activities in daily life. Prosthetic rehabilitation is primary focusing on physical improvement rather than psychological interventions. More attention should be directed towards the relationship between self-efficacy and prosthetic related outcomes during prosthetic rehabilitation after a lower-limb amputation.

  12. Illusory movement perception improves motor control for prosthetic hands.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Sensinger, Jon W; Shell, Courtney E; Schofield, Jonathon S; Thumser, Zachary C; Nataraj, Raviraj; Beckler, Dylan T; Dawson, Michael R; Blustein, Dan H; Gill, Satinder; Mensh, Brett D; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Newcomb, Madeline D; Carey, Jason P; Orzell, Beth M

    2018-03-14

    To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands. Vibrating the muscles used for prosthetic control via a neural-machine interface produced the illusory perception of complex grip movements. Within minutes, three amputees integrated this kinesthetic feedback and improved movement control. Combining intent, kinesthesia, and vision instilled participants with a sense of agency over the robotic movements. This feedback approach for closed-loop control opens a pathway to seamless integration of minds and machines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Cetacean Swimming with Prosthetic Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank

    2016-11-01

    During entanglement in fishing gear, dolphins can suffer abrasions and amputations of flukes and fins. As a result, if the dolphin survives the ordeal, swimming performance is altered. Current rehabilitation technques is the use of prosthesis to regain swimming ability. In this work, analyses are focused on two dolphins with locomotive impairment; Winter (currently living in Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Florida) and Fuji (lived in Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium in Japan). Fuji lost about 75% of its fluke surface to necrosis (death of cells) and Winter lost its tail due to amputation. Both dolphins are aided by prosthetic tails that mimic the shape of a real dolphin tail. Using 3D surface reconstruction techniques and a high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solver, we were able to elucidate the kinematics and hydrodynamics and fluke deformation of these swimmers to clarify the effectiveness of prostheses in helping the dolphins regain their swimming ability. Associated with the performance, we identified distinct features in the wake structures that can explain this gap in the performance compared to a healthy dolphin. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  14. Optimal Length of Cultivation Time for Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes in Suspected Bone and Joint Infections Is More than 7 Days.

    PubMed

    Bossard, Daniel A; Ledergerber, Bruno; Zingg, Patrick O; Gerber, Christian; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Zbinden, Reinhard; Achermann, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes bone and joint infection is challenging due to the long cultivation time of up to 14 days. We retrospectively studied whether reducing the cultivation time to 7 days allows accurate diagnosis without losing sensitivity. We identified patients with at least one positive P. acnes sample between 2005 and 2015 and grouped them into "infection" and "no infection." An infection was defined when at least two samples from the same case were positive. Clinical and microbiological data, including time to positivity for different cultivation methods, were recorded. We found 70 cases of proven P. acnes infection with a significant faster median time to positivity of 6 days (range, 2 to 11 days) compared to 9 days in 47 cases with P. acnes identified as a contamination (P < 0.0001). In 15 of 70 (21.4%) patients with an infection, tissue samples were positive after day 7 and in 6 patients (8.6%) after day 10 when a blind subculture of the thioglycolate broth was performed. The highest sensitivity was detected for thioglycolate broth (66.3%) and the best positive predictive values for anaerobic agar plates (96.5%). A prolonged transportation time from the operating theater to the microbiological laboratory did not influence time to positivity of P. acnes growth. By reducing the cultivation time to 7 days, false-negative diagnoses would increase by 21.4%; thus, we recommend that biopsy specimens from bone and joint infections be cultivated to detect P. acnes for 10 days with a blind subculture at the end. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A new rabbit model of implant-related biofilm infection: development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Cheng-Bing; Zeng, Hong; Shen, Ding-Xia; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ji-Fang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-03-01

    This study is to establish a rabbit model for human prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation. Thirty-two healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and implanted with stainless steel screws and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) washers in the non-articular surface of the femoral lateral condyle of the right hind knees. The rabbit knee joints were inoculated with 1 mL saline containing 0, 102, 103, 104 CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) isolated from the patient with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection, respectively. On the 14th postoperative day, the UHMWPE washers from the optimal 103 CFU group were further examined. The SEM examination showed a typical biofilm construction that circular S. epidermidis were embedded in a mucous-like matrix. In addition, the LCSM examination showed that the biofilm consisted of the polysaccharide stained bright green fluorescence and S. epidermidis radiating red fluorescence. Thus, we successfully create a rabbit model for prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation, which should be valuable for biofilm studies.

  16. Forced-air warming and ultra-clean ventilation do not mix: an investigation of theatre ventilation, patient warming and joint replacement infection in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    McGovern, P D; Albrecht, M; Belani, K G; Nachtsheim, C; Partington, P F; Carluke, I; Reed, M R

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the capacity of patient warming devices to disrupt the ultra-clean airflow system. We compared the effects of two patient warming technologies, forced-air and conductive fabric, on operating theatre ventilation during simulated hip replacement and lumbar spinal procedures using a mannequin as a patient. Infection data were reviewed to determine whether joint infection rates were associated with the type of patient warming device that was used. Neutral-buoyancy detergent bubbles were released adjacent to the mannequin's head and at floor level to assess the movement of non-sterile air into the clean airflow over the surgical site. During simulated hip replacement, bubble counts over the surgical site were greater for forced-air than for conductive fabric warming when the anaesthesia/surgery drape was laid down (p = 0.010) and at half-height (p < 0.001). For lumbar surgery, forced-air warming generated convection currents that mobilised floor air into the surgical site area. Conductive fabric warming had no such effect. A significant increase in deep joint infection, as demonstrated by an elevated infection odds ratio (3.8, p = 0.024), was identified during a period when forced-air warming was used compared to a period when conductive fabric warming was used. Air-free warming is, therefore, recommended over forced-air warming for orthopaedic procedures.

  17. Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Javad; Barnes, Sue; Shohat, Noam; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. In 2017, virtually all surgical disciplines are engaged in the implantation of selective biomedical devices, and these implants have been documented to be at high risk for intraoperative contamination. Approximately 1.2 million arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States, and that number is expected to increase to 3.8 million by the year 2030. The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection is perceived to be low (<2.5%); however, the personal and fiscal morbidity is significant. Although the pharmaceutic and computer industries enforce stringent air quality standards on their manufacturing processes, there is currently no U.S. standard for acceptable air quality within the OR environment. This review documents the contribution of air contamination to the etiology of periprosthetic joint infection, and evidence for selective innovative strategies to reduce the risk of intraoperative microbial aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-isolation of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii from blood, joint and subcutaneous seroma fluids from two naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Wood, Michael; Maggi, Ricardo G; Sontakke, Sushama; Stepnik, Matt; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2009-09-18

    This report describes the clinical presentation, isolation and treatment of two dogs naturally infected with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Chronic and progressive polyarthritis was the primary complaint for dog #1, from which B. henselae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were cultured on three independent occasions from blood and joint fluid samples, despite administration of nearly 4 months of non-consecutive antibiotic therapy. A clinically atypical and progressively severe trauma-associated seroma was the primary complaint for dog #2, from which B. henselae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii were isolated from serum, blood and seroma fluid. Dogs can be co-infected with two Bartonella spp. and infection with these organisms should not be ruled out if specific antibodies are not detected. Specialized culture techniques should be used for isolation and to assess antibiotic efficacy.

  19. MALDI-TOF MS performance compared to direct examination, culture, and 16S rDNA PCR for the rapid diagnosis of bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, E; Coiffier, G; Arvieux, C; Brillet, E; Guggenbuhl, P; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid identification of bacterial species involved in bone and joint infections (BJI) is an important element to optimize the diagnosis and care of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid diagnosis of bone infections, directly on synovial fluid (SF) or on crushed osteoarticular samples (CS). From January to October 2013, we prospectively analyzed 111 osteoarticular samples (bone and joint samples, BJS) from 78 patients in care at the University Hospital of Rennes, France. The diagnosis procedure leading to the sample collection was linked to a suspicion of infection, inflammatory disease, arthritis, or for any bone or joint abnormalities. Standard bacteriological diagnosis and molecular biology analysis [16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing] were conducted. In addition, analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was performed directly on the osteoarticular samples, as soon as the amount allowed. Culture, which remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BJI, has the highest sensitivity (85.9 %) and remains necessary to test antimicrobial susceptibility. The 16S rDNA PCR results were positive in the group with positive BJI (28.6 %) and negative in the group without infection. Direct examination remains insensitive (31.7 %) but more effective than MALDI-TOF MS directly on the sample (6.3 %). The specificity was 100 % in all cases, except for culture (74.5 %). Bacterial culture remains the gold standard, especially enrichment in blood bottles. Direct analysis of bone samples with MALDI-TOF MS is not useful, possibly due to the low inoculum of BJS.

  20. Fatigue testing of energy storing prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Toh, S L; Goh, J C; Tan, P H; Tay, T E

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes a simple approach to the fatigue testing of prosthetic feet. A fatigue testing machine for prosthetic feet was designed as part of the programme to develop an energy storing prosthetic foot (ESPF). The fatigue tester does not simulate the loading pattern on the foot during normal walking. However, cyclic vertical loads are applied to the heel and forefoot during heel-strike and toe-off respectively, for 500,000 cycles. The maximum load applied was chosen to be 1.5 times that applied by the bodyweight of the amputee and the test frequency was chosen to be 2 Hz to shorten the test duration. Four prosthetic feet were tested: two Lambda feet (a newly developed ESPF), a Kingsley SACH foot and a Proteor SACH foot. It was found that the Lambda feet have very good fatigue properties. The Kingsley SACH foot performed better than the Proteor model, with no signs of wear at the heel. The results obtained using the simple approach was found to be comparable to the results from more complex fatigue machines which simulate the load pattern during normal walking. This suggests that simple load simulating machines, which are less costly and require less maintenance, are useful substitutes in studying the fatigue properties of prosthetic feet.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of interleukin-6 and procalcitonin in patients with periprosthetic joint infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Yang, Se-Hyun; Shin, Young-Soo

    2018-06-01

    Many studies have found associations between laboratory biomarkers and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but it remains unclear whether these biomarkers are clinically useful in ruling out PJI. This meta-analysis compared the performance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) versus procalcitonin (PCT) for the diagnosis of PJI. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed studies that evaluated IL-6 or/and PCT as a diagnostic biomarker for PJI and provided sufficient data to permit sensitivity and specificity analyses for each test. The major databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS were searched for appropriate studies from the earliest available date of indexing through February 28, 2017. No restrictions were placed on language of publication. We identified 18 studies encompassing a total of 1,835 subjects; 16 studies reported on IL-6 and 6 studies reported on PCT. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.95) for IL-6 and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) for PCT. The pooled sensitivity was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.89) for IL-6 and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.31-0.81) for PCT. The pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95) for IL-6 and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63-1.00) for PCT. Both the IL-6 and PCT tests had a high positive likelihood ratio (LR); 9.3 (95% CI, 5.3-16.2) and 12.4 (95% CI, 1.7-89.8), respectively, making them excellent rule-in tests for the diagnosis of PJI. The pooled negative LR for IL-6 was 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.29), making it suitable as a rule-out test, whereas the pooled negative LR for PCT was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.78), making it unsuitable as a rule-out diagnostic tool. Based on the results of the present meta-analysis, IL-6 has higher diagnostic value than PCT for the diagnosis of PJI. Moreover, the specificity of the IL-6 test is higher than its sensitivity. Conversely, PCT is not recommended for use as a rule-out diagnostic tool.

  2. How Reliable Is the Alpha-defensin Immunoassay Test for Diagnosing Periprosthetic Joint Infection? A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Zahar, Akos; Dütsch, Michael; Lausmann, Christian; Kendoff, Daniel; Gehrke, Thorsten

    2017-02-01

    A key issue in the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the correct diagnosis. The main problem is lack of diagnostic tools able to diagnose a PJI with high accuracy. Alpha-defensin has been proposed as a possible solution, but in the current literature, there is a lack of independent validation. We performed a prospective study to determine (1) what is the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and the negative predictive values of the alpha-defensin immunoassay test in diagnosing PJI; and (2) which clinical features may be responsible for false-positive and false-negative results? Preoperative aspiration was performed in all patients presenting with a painful hip/knee arthroplasty, including both primary and revision implants. Metallosis, other inflammatory comorbidities, and previous/concomitant antibiotic therapy were not considered as exclusion criteria. An inadequate amount of synovial fluid for culture was an exclusion criterion. A total of 156 patients (65 knees, 91 hips) were included in this prospective study. At the time of revision, synovial fluid samples were taken to perform the alpha-defensin assay. During surgical débridement of tissue, samples for cultures and histologic evaluation were taken, and samples were cultured until positive or until negative at 14 days. A diagnosis of PJI was confirmed in 29 patients according to the International Consensus Group on PJI. The sensitivity of the alpha-defensin immunoassay was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-99%), the specificity was 97% (95% CI, 92%-99%), the positive predictive value was 88% (95% CI, 81%-92%), and the negative predictive value was 99% (95% CI, 96%-99%). Among four false-positive patients, two had metallosis and one had polyethylene wear. The false-negative case presented with a draining sinus, and intraoperative cultures were also negative. Alpha-defensin assay appears to be a reliable test, but followup evaluation is needed to estimate longer term performance of

  3. 21 CFR 872.3940 - Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Total temporomandibular joint prosthesis. 872.3940 Section 872.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3940 Total temporomandibular joint...

  4. Prosthetic knee design by simulation

    SciT

    Hollerbach, K; Hollister, A

    1999-07-30

    Although 150,000 total knee replacement surgeries are performed annually in North America, current designs of knee prostheses have mechanical problems that include a limited range of motion, abnormal gait patterns, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, implant loosening or subsidence, and excessive wear. These problems fall into three categories: failure to reproduce normal joint kinematics, which results in altered limb function; bone-implant interface failure; and material failure. Modern computer technology can be used to design, prototype, and test new total knee implants. The design team uses the full range of CAD-CAM to design and produce implant prototypes for mechanical and clinical testing. Closermore » approximation of natural knee kinematics and kinetics is essential for improved patient function and diminished implant loads. Current knee replacement designs are based on 19th Century theories that the knee moves about a variable axis of rotation. Recent research has shown, however, that knee motion occurs about two fixed, offset axes of rotation. These aces are not perpendicular to the long axes of the bones or to each other, and the axes do not intersect. Bearing surfaces of mechanisms that move about axes of rotation are surfaces of revolution of those axes which advanced CAD technology can produce. Solids with surfaces of revolution for the two axes of rotation for the knee have been made using an HP9000 workstation and Structural Ideas Master Series CAD software at ArthroMotion. The implant's CAD model should closely replicate movements of the normal knee. The knee model will have a range of flexion-extension (FE) from -5 to 120 degrees. Movements include varus, valgus, internal and external rotation, as well as flexion and extension. The patellofemoral joint is aligned perpendicular to the FE axis and replicates the natural joint more closely than those of existing prostheses. The bearing surfaces will be more congruent than current designs and should

  5. Design and characterization of a biologically inspired quasi-passive prosthetic ankle-foot.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Lai, Cara H; Rouse, Elliott J

    2014-01-01

    By design, commonly worn energy storage and release (ESR) prosthetic feet cannot provide biologically realistic ankle joint torque and angle profiles during walking. Additionally, their anthropomorphic, cantilever architecture causes their mechanical stiffness to decrease throughout the stance phase of walking, opposing the known trend of the biological ankle. In this study, the design of a quasi-passive pneumatic ankle-foot prosthesis is detailed that is able to replicate the biological ankle's torque and angle profiles during walking. The prosthetic ankle is comprised of a pneumatic piston, bending spring and solenoid valve. The mechanical properties of the pneumatic ankle prosthesis are characterized using a materials testing machine and the properties are compared to those from a common, passive ESR prosthetic foot. The characterization spanned a range of ankle equilibrium pressures and testing locations beneath the foot, analogous to the location of center of pressure within the stance phase of walking. The pneumatic ankle prosthesis was shown to provide biologically appropriate trends and magnitudes of torque, angle and stiffness behavior, when compared to the passive ESR prosthetic foot. Future work will focus on the development of a control system for the quasi-passive device and clinical testing of the pneumatic ankle to demonstrate efficacy.

  6. [Overlay prosthetic solution in subtotal edentation treatment].

    PubMed

    Tatarciuc, M; Ursache, M; Grădinaru, I

    2001-01-01

    The preservation of the natural dental roots represents a big advantage for the overdenture prosthetic appliances. The realization of an overdenture needs a perfect correlation of all the clinical and technological factors, in all the prosthetics steps. Another important aspect is represented by the possibility of a correct treatment of the remaining roots. The remaining roots will be correctly endodontically treated. The root section will be prepared with two inclines bucally and orally located. A metallic cup will cover the root section. On the inner surface of the overdenture the dental technician will realize specific preparations corresponding to this cups. This kind of prosthetic treatment is indicated only for patients with a very good oral hygiene and a good general health.

  7. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  9. A Prosthetic Foot Emulator to Optimize Prescription of Prosthetic Feet in Veterans and Service Members with Leg Amputations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0569 TITLE: A Prosthetic Foot Emulator to Optimize Prescription of Prosthetic Feet in Veterans and Service Members...Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302...GRANT NUMBER A Prosthetic Foot Emulator to Optimize Prescription of Prosthetic Feet in Veterans and Service Members with Leg Amputations 5c

  10. 21 CFR 888.3790 - Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3790 Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis is a...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3790 - Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3790 Wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint metal constrained cemented prosthesis is a...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3400 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3400 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metallic resurfacing prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip...