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Sample records for joint alignment affect

  1. Fusion angle affects intervertebral adjacent spinal segment joint forces-Model-based analysis of patient specific alignment.

    PubMed

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Farshad, Mazda T; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that adjacent segment intervertebral joint loads are sensitive to the degree of lordosis that is surgically imposed during vertebral fusion. Adjacent segment degeneration is often observed after lumbar fusion, but a causative mechanism is not yet clearly evident. Altered kinematics of the adjacent segments and potentially nonphysiological mechanical joint loads have been implicated in this process. However, little is known of how altered alignment and kinematics influence loading of the adjacent intervertebral joints under consideration of active muscle forces. This study investigated these effects by simulating L4/5 fusions using kinematics-driven musculoskeletal models of one generic and eight sagittal alignment-specific models. Models featured different spinopelvic configurations but were normalized by body height, masses, and muscle properties. Fusion of the L4/5 segment was implemented in an in situ (22°), hyperlordotic (32°), and hypolordotic (8°) fashion and kinematic input parameters were changed accordingly based on findings of an in vitro investigation. Bending motion from upright standing to 45° forward flexion and back was simulated for all models in intact and fused conditions. Joint loads at adjacent levels and moment arms of spinal muscles experienced changes after all types of fusion. Hypolordotic configuration led to an increase of adjacent segment (L3/4) shear forces of 29% on average, whereas hyperlordotic fusion reduced shear by 39%. Overall, L4/5 in situ fusion resulted in intervertebral joint forces closest to intact loading conditions. An artificial decrease in lumbar lordosis (minus 14° on average) caused by an L4/5 fusion lead to adverse loading conditions, particularly at the cranial adjacent levels, and altered muscle moment arms, in particular for muscles in the vicinity of the fusion. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:131-139, 2017.

  2. Photosensors used to maintain welding electrode-to-joint alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, J. B.

    1965-01-01

    Photosensors maintain electrode-to-joint alignment in automatic precision arc welding. They detect the presence and relative position of a joint to be welded and actuate a servomechanism to guide the welding head accordingly thus permitting alignment for more than straight line or true circle joints.

  3. Determining knee joint alignment using digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Holger; Kappel, Hannes; Moser, Michael T; Cardenas-Montemayor, Eloy; Engelleiter, Karoly; Kuni, Benita; Clarius, Michael

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this work is to find out how reliably knee joint alignment can be measured from a standardized photograph and what influence changes in the standing position have on the angles measured. The interrater, intrarater, and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The influence of image-object distance, the distance between the legs and leg rotation on the measured angles was evaluated. In addition to the digital photographs, 10 full-length radiographs were obtained in an upright position to determine whether the measured angles represent the anatomic axis or mechanical axis. There was high correlation between the interrater (ICC 0.997), intrarater (ICC 0.989) and test-retest reliability (ICC 0.904). Only slight deviation was found with the changes in radiograph-object distance (0 degrees -1.8 degrees ). With feet together varus malalignment was greater. Leg rotation showed a strong influence on the measured results (ICC 0.658). The angle measured in the digital photographs reflects the mechanical axis with only slight deviation (0.12 degrees -1.9 degrees ). The measurement of the clinical axis using standardized radiography is highly reliable and can be used for individual follow-up of varus and valgus malalignments.

  4. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the

  5. Joint alignment of multispectral images via semidefinite programming

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanjie; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Wanzhen; Hou, Sujuan; Ren, Yanju; Qin, Maoling; Hou, Dewen; Luo, Chao; Wang, Hong; Gee, James; Zhao, Bojun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel feature-point-matching based framework for achieving an optimized joint-alignment of sequential images from multispectral imaging (MSI). It solves a low-rank and semidefinite matrix that stores all pairwise-image feature-mappings by minimizing the total amount of point-to-point matching cost via a convex optimization of a semidefinite programming formulation. This unique strategy takes a complete consideration of the information aggregated by all point-matching costs and enables the entire set of pairwise-image feature-mappings to be solved simultaneously and near-optimally. Our framework is capable of running in an automatic or interactive fashion, offering an effective tool for eliminating spatial misalignments introduced into sequential MSI images during the imaging process. Our experimental results obtained from a database of 28 sequences of MSI images of human eye demonstrate the superior performances of our approach to the state-of-the-art techniques. Our framework is potentially invaluable in a large variety of practical applications of MSI images. PMID:28270991

  6. Cell flexibility affects the alignment of model myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Janulevicius, Albertas; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Simone, Angelo; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2010-11-17

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that exhibit a complex life cycle culminating in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies. The alignment of rod-shaped myxobacteria cells within populations is crucial for development to proceed. It has been suggested that myxobacteria align due to mechanical interactions between gliding cells and that cell flexibility facilitates reorientation of cells upon mechanical contact. However, these suggestions have not been based on experimental or theoretical evidence. Here we created a computational mass-spring model of a flexible rod-shaped cell that glides on a substratum periodically reversing direction. The model was formulated in terms of experimentally measurable mechanical parameters, such as engine force, bending stiffness, and drag coefficient. We investigated how cell flexibility and motility engine type affected the pattern of cell gliding and the alignment of a population of 500 mechanically interacting cells. It was found that a flexible cell powered by engine force at the rear of the cell, as suggested by the slime extrusion hypothesis for myxobacteria motility engine, would not be able to glide in the direction of its long axis. A population of rigid reversing cells could indeed align due to mechanical interactions between cells, but cell flexibility impaired the alignment.

  7. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    PubMed

    Butz, Martin V; Kutter, Esther F; Lorenz, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  8. Multi-subject Manifold Alignment of Functional Network Structures via Joint Diagonalization.

    PubMed

    Nenning, Karl-Heinz; Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Schöpf, Veronika; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging group studies rely on the ability to establish correspondence across individuals. This enables location specific comparison of functional brain characteristics. Registration is often based on morphology and does not take variability of functional localization into account. This can lead to a loss of specificity, or confounds when studying diseases. In this paper we propose multi-subject functional registration by manifold alignment via coupled joint diagonalization. The functional network structure of each subject is encoded in a diffusion map, where functional relationships are decoupled from spatial position. Two-step manifold alignment estimates initial correspondences between functionally equivalent regions. Then, coupled joint diagonalization establishes common eigenbases across all individuals, and refines the functional correspondences. We evaluate our approach on fMRI data acquired during a language paradigm. Experiments demonstrate the benefits in matching accuracy achieved by coupled joint diagonalization compared to previously proposed functional alignment approaches, or alignment based on structural correspondences.

  9. PARTS: probabilistic alignment for RNA joinT secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, Arif Ozgun; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathews, David H

    2008-04-01

    A novel method is presented for joint prediction of alignment and common secondary structures of two RNA sequences. The joint consideration of common secondary structures and alignment is accomplished by structural alignment over a search space defined by the newly introduced motif called matched helical regions. The matched helical region formulation generalizes previously employed constraints for structural alignment and thereby better accommodates the structural variability within RNA families. A probabilistic model based on pseudo free energies obtained from precomputed base pairing and alignment probabilities is utilized for scoring structural alignments. Maximum a posteriori (MAP) common secondary structures, sequence alignment and joint posterior probabilities of base pairing are obtained from the model via a dynamic programming algorithm called PARTS. The advantage of the more general structural alignment of PARTS is seen in secondary structure predictions for the RNase P family. For this family, the PARTS MAP predictions of secondary structures and alignment perform significantly better than prior methods that utilize a more restrictive structural alignment model. For the tRNA and 5S rRNA families, the richer structural alignment model of PARTS does not offer a benefit and the method therefore performs comparably with existing alternatives. For all RNA families studied, the posterior probability estimates obtained from PARTS offer an improvement over posterior probability estimates from a single sequence prediction. When considering the base pairings predicted over a threshold value of confidence, the combination of sensitivity and positive predictive value is superior for PARTS than for the single sequence prediction. PARTS source code is available for download under the GNU public license at http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu.

  10. Apparatus for maintaining alignment of a shrinking weld joint in an electron-beam welding operation

    DOEpatents

    Trent, Jett B.; Murphy, Jimmy L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for automatically maintaining a shrinking weld joint in alignment with an electron beam during an electron-beam multipass-welding operation. The apparatus utilizes a biasing device for continually urging a workpiece-supporting face plate away from a carriage mounted base that rotatably supports the face plate. The extent of displacement of the face plate away from the base is indicative of the shrinkage occuring in the weld joint area. This displacement is measured and is used to move the base on the carriage a distance equal to one-half the displacement for aligning the weld joint with the electron beam during each welding pass.

  11. Influences of Alignment and Obesity on Knee Joint Loading in Osteoarthritic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Pater, Mackenzie; Beavers, Daniel P.; Legault, Claudine; Loeser, Richard F.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg·m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg·m−2; 69% female) with radiographic knee osteoarthritis that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. Results A higher BMI was associated with greater (p = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (p = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (p < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. Conclusion BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibio-femoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee osteoarthritis patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment). PMID:24857973

  12. Do ergogenic AIDS alter lower extremity joint alignment during a functional movement lunge prior to and following an exercise bout?

    PubMed

    Mills, Chris; Knight, James; Milligan, Gemma

    2015-03-29

    Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise.

  13. Do Ergogenic Aids Alter Lower Extremity Joint Alignment During a Functional Movement Lunge Prior to and Following an Exercise Bout?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Chris; Knight, James; Milligan, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Ergogenic aids have been used to alter joint kinematics in an attempt to minimise injury risk, yet the effectiveness of these aids may be compromised following a bout of exercise. This preliminary study aimed to measure the effect of compression garments and Kinesio Tape® on lower extremity joint alignment prior to and following an exercise bout. Eight male athletes (age = 24.1 ± 3.0 years, body height = 177.4 ± 5.2 cm, body mass = 72.3 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participant in this study. Joint kinematics were recorded whilst all participants performed three rotational lunges, in three conditions (control, compression garment, Kinesio Tape®), prior to and following a 10 minute exercise bout. Frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess ergogenic aid effectiveness during the lunge. Participants exhibited no significant differences in joint kinematics between ergogenic aid conditions prior to the exercise bout. Following exercise the only significant difference occurred within the Kinesio Tape® condition where maximum knee valgus angle significantly increased from 6.5° prior to exercise, to 7.7° following the exercise bout. The results of this study suggest joint kinematics are not affected by the ergogenic aids in this study prior to an exercise bout. However, there is evidence to suggest that the application of Kinesio Tape® may allow an increase in knee valgus angle following a bout of exercise, yet, compression garments are effective at maintaining joint alignment following a bout of exercise. PMID:25964805

  14. Sagittal alignment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint after arthrodesis for rheumatoid forefoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Akihiko; Majima, Tokifumi; Onodera, Tomohiro; Sawaguchi, Naohiro; Watanabe, Takuya; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the midterm results of reconstruction for rheumatoid forefoot deformity with arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, scarf osteotomy, resection arthroplasty of the metatarsal head of the lesser toes, and surgical repair of hammertoe deformity (arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint). Special focus was placed on the sagittal alignment of the first metatarsophalangeal joint after arthrodesis. We retrospectively evaluated the postoperative clinical outcomes and radiographic findings for 16 consecutive female patients (20 feet) with symptomatic rheumatoid forefoot deformities. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.9 (range 4 to 13) years. All first MTP joints and first metatarsal bones were fused successfully. The mean value of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Japanese Society for Foot Surgery clinical scores significantly improved overall, except for 2 patients (10%), who complained of first toe pain at the final follow-up visit owing to sagittal misalignment of the fused first MTP joint. Sagittal alignment of the first metatarsal varies greatly because of the rheumatoid midfoot and hindfoot deformities. Therefore, inclination of the first metatarsal should be considered when determining the first MTP joint sagittal fusion angle.

  15. Stereoradiogrammetric technique for estimating alignment of the joints in the hand and wrist.

    PubMed

    Runciman, R J; Bryant, J T; Small, C F; Fujita, N; Cooke, T D

    1993-03-01

    A method and apparatus for quantitative measurement of the alignment and motion of the joints of the hand in three dimensions has been developed using stereoradiogrammetric principles. Alignment in planes of flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation can be determined to within 2.5 degrees; rotation about the long axis of the metacarpals or phalanges is more difficult to determine, and can be measured to within 7 degrees. Stereo views subtending angles in the range of 40 degrees were found to optimize the total system accuracy.

  16. Diaphyseal aclasis affecting the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Welsh, G A; MacLeod, I

    1999-09-01

    Diaphyseal aclasis is a rare disorder of bone development in which multiple, cartilagenous exostoses develop and enlarge mainly on the ends of long bones. It has also been described in the vertebral column where it may give rise to spinal cord compression but has not previously been reported as occurring in the jaws. A case is reported in which a patient known to suffer from diaphyseal aclasis at many other anatomical sites displays temporomandibular joint changes which are highly suggestive of the disease now manifesting in the jaws. The presentation, investigations and treatment are described and the literature concerning previous cases of diaphyseal aclasis is reviewed.

  17. Effects of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on shear performance of laminated nanocomposite bonded joints

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Davood; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N

    2012-01-01

    The main objective is to improve the most commonly addressed weakness of the laminated composites (i.e. delamination due to poor interlaminar strength) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement between the laminae and in the transverse direction. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique has been used to grow dense vertically aligned arrays of CNTs over the surface of chemically treated two-dimensionally woven cloth and fiber tows. The nanoforest-like fabrics can be used to fabricate three-dimensionally reinforced laminated nanocomposites. The presence of CNTs aligned normal to the layers and in-between the layers of laminated composites is expected to considerably enhance the properties of the laminates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, composite single lap-joint specimens were fabricated for interlaminar shear strength testing. It was observed that the single lap-joints with through-the-thickness CNT reinforcement can carry considerably higher shear stresses and strains. Close examination of the test specimens showed that the failure of samples with CNT nanoforests was completely cohesive, while the samples without CNT reinforcement failed adhesively. This concludes that the adhesion of adjacent carbon fabric layers can be considerably improved owing to the presence of vertically aligned arrays of CNT nanoforests. PMID:27877502

  18. Knee osteoarthritis affects the distribution of joint moments during gait.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Joseph A; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in lower extremity kinetics have been shown to exist in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA), however few investigations have examined how the intersegmental coordination of the lower extremity kinetic chain varies in the presence of knee joint pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate how knee OA and walking speed affect total support moment and individual joint contributions to the total support moment. Fifteen healthy subjects and 30 persons with knee OA participated in 3D walking analysis at constrained (1.0 m/s), self-selected and fastest tolerable walking speeds. Individual joint contributions to total support moment were analyzed using separate ANOVAs with one repeated measure (walking speed). Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution. Persons with knee OA reduced the contribution of the knee joint when walking at constrained (p = 0.04) and self-selected walking speeds (p = 0.009). There was a significant increase in the ankle contribution and a significant decrease in the hip contribution when walking speed was increased (p < 0.004), however individual walking speeds were not significantly related to joint contributions. This suggests that the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution is dependent on the individual's control strategy and we cannot estimate the joint contribution solely based on walking speed. The slower gait speed observed in persons with knee OA is not responsible for the reduction in knee joint moments, rather this change is likely due to alterations in the neuromuscular strategy of the lower extremity kinetic chain in response to joint pain or muscle weakness.

  19. How Tibiofemoral Alignment and Contact Locations Affect Predictions of Medial and Lateral Tibiofemoral Contact Forces

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Zachary F.; DeMers, Matthew S.; Delp, Scott L.; Browning, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined via radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r2=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r2=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. PMID:25595425

  20. Effects of Patellofemoral Taping on Patellofemoral Joint Alignment and Contact Area During Weight Bearing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kai-Yu; Epstein, Ryan; Garcia, Ron; Riley, Nicole; Lee, Szu-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Although it has been theorized that patellofemoral joint (PFJ) taping can correct patellar malalignment, the effects of PFJ taping techniques on patellar alignment and contact area have not yet been studied during weight bearing. Objective To examine the effects of 2 taping approaches (Kinesio and McConnell) on PFJ alignment and contact area. Methods Fourteen female subjects with patellofemoral pain and PFJ malalignment participated. Each subject underwent a pretaping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan session and 2 MRI scan sessions after the application of the 2 taping techniques, which aimed to correct lateral patellar displacement. Subjects were asked to report their pain level prior to each scan session. During MRI assessment, subjects were loaded with 25% of body weight on their involved/more symptomatic leg at 0°, 20°, and 40° of knee flexion. The outcome measures included patellar lateral displacement (bisect-offset [BSO] index), mediolateral patellar tilt angle, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio), contact area, and pain. Patellofemoral joint alignment and contact area were compared among the 3 conditions (no tape, Kinesio, and McConnell) at 3 knee angles using a 2-factor, repeated-measures analysis of variance. Pain was compared among the 3 conditions using the Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Our data did not reveal any significant effects of either McConnell or Kinesio taping on the BSO index, patellar tilt angle, Insall-Salvati ratio, or contact area across the 3 knee angles, whereas knee angle had a significant effect on the BSO index and contact area. A reduction in pain was observed after the application of the Kinesio taping technique. Conclusion In a weight-bearing condition, this preliminary study did not support the use of PFJ taping as a medial correction technique to alter the PFJ contact area or alignment of the patella. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017

  1. A Novel Joint Power and Feedback Bit Allocation Interference Alignment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibao; He, Chang; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianhang; Huang, Tingpei

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the energy efficiency of batteries in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has become an important means to ameliorate WSNs, and interference management is the core of improving energy efficiency. A promising approach is interference alignment (IA), which effectively reduces the interference and improves the throughput of a system in the MIMO interference channels. However, the IA scheme requires perfect channel state information (CSI) at all transceivers in practice, which results in considerable feedback overhead. Thus, limited IA feedback has attracted much attention. In this paper, we analyze the throughput loss of the K-user MIMO interference channels when each transmitter delivers multiple streams in one slot, and derives the upper-bound of the system interference leakage and throughput loss. Then, to reduce the interference leakage and throughput loss for the MIMO interference alignment with limited feedback, a joint power and feedback bit allocation optimization scheme is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional schemes, the presented optimal scheme achieves less residual interference and better performance in the system throughput. PMID:28287434

  2. Modeling the stance leg in two-dimensional analyses of sprinting: inclusion of the MTP joint affects joint kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bezodis, Neil E; Salo A, I T; Trewartha, Grant

    2012-05-01

    Two-dimensional analyses of sprint kinetics are commonly undertaken but often ignore the metatarsalphalangeal (MTP) joint and model the foot as a single segment. Due to the linked-segment nature of inverse dynamics analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ignoring the MTP joint on the calculated joint kinetics at the other stance leg joints during sprinting. High-speed video and force platform data were collected from four to five trials for each of three international athletes. Resultant joint moments, powers, and net work at the stance leg joints during the first stance phase after block clearance were calculated using three different foot models. By ignoring the MTP joint, peak extensor moments at the ankle, knee, and hip were on average 35% higher (p < .05 for each athlete), 40% lower (p < .05), and 9% higher (p > .05), respectively, than those calculated with the MTP joint included. Peak ankle and knee joint powers and net work at all joints were also significantly (p < .05) different. By ignoring a genuine MTP joint plantar flexor moment, artificially high peak ankle joint moments are calculated, and these also affect the calculated joint kinetics at the knee.

  3. Perturbation of cytosolic calcium by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and caffeine affects zebrafish myofibril alignment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ju; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chen, Shen-Liang; Wei, Jen-Cheng; Wang, I-Jong; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Chen, Xing-Guang; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Hui-Min; Horng, Juin-Lin; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of Ca(2+) levels on myofibril alignment during zebrafish embryogenesis. To investigate how altered cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels affect myofibril alignment, we exposed zebrafish embryos to 2-aminothoxyldiphenyl borate (2-APB; an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor that reduces cytosolic Ca(2+) levels) and caffeine (a ryanodine receptor activator that enhances cytosolic Ca(2+) levels). The results demonstrated that the most evident changes in zebrafish embryos treated with 2-APB were shorter body length, curved trunk and malformed somite boundary. In contrast, such malformed phenotypes were evident neither in untreated controls nor in caffeine-treated embryos. Subtle morphological changes, including changes in muscle fibers, F-actin and ultrastructures were easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies (F59 and α-laminin), fluorescent probes (phalloidin) and by transmission electron microscopy. Our data suggested that: (1) the exposure to 2-APB and/or caffeine led to myofibril misalignment; (2) 2-APB-treated embryos displayed split and short myofibril phenotypes, whereas muscle fibers from caffeine-treated embryos were twisted and wavy; and (3) zebrafish embryos co-exposed to 2-APB and caffeine resulted in normal myofibril alignment. In conclusion, we proposed that cytosolic Ca(2+) is important for myogenesis, particularly for myofibril alignment.

  4. Systematic mapping of the subchondral bone 3D microarchitecture in the human tibial plateau: Variations with joint alignment.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Bryant C; Thewlis, Dominic; Solomon, Lucian B; Mercer, Graham; Reynolds, Karen J; Perilli, Egon

    2016-11-07

    Tibial subchondral bone plays an important role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Microarchitectural characterization of subchondral bone plate (SBP), underlying subchondral trabecular bone (STB) and relationships between these compartments, however, is limited. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of SBP thickness, SBP porosity and STB microarchitecture, and relationships among them, in OA tibiae of varying joint alignment. Twenty-five tibial plateaus from end-stage knee-OA patients, with varus (n = 17) or non-varus (n = 8) alignment were micro-CT scanned (17 μm/voxel). SBP and STB microarchitecture was quantified via a systematic mapping in 22 volumes of interest per knee (11 medial, 11 lateral). Significant within-condylar and between-condylar (medial vs. lateral) differences (p < 0.05) were found. In varus, STB bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was consistently high throughout the medial condyle, whereas in non-varus, medially, it was more heterogeneously distributed. Regions of high SBP thickness were co-located with regions of high STB BV/TV underneath. In varus, BV/TV was significantly higher medially than laterally, however, not so in non-varus. Moreover, region-specific significant associations between the SBP thickness and SBP porosity and the underlying STB microarchitecture were detected, which in general were not captured when considering the values averaged for each condyle. As subchondral bone changes reflect responses to local mechanical and biochemical factors within the joint, our results suggest that joint alignment influences both the medial-to-lateral and the within-condyle distribution of force across the tibia, generating corresponding local bony responses (adaptation) of both the subchondral bone plate and underlying subchondral trabecular bone microarchitecture. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  5. A comparative assessment of alternatives to the full-leg radiograph for determining knee joint alignment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of alternative measures of frontal plane knee alignment, namely the radiographic anatomic axis and two clinical measures in patients complaining of knee malalignment as compared with the mechanical axis on full-length radiograph of lower limbs. Methods The knee-alignment angle was measured in 100 knees of 50 subjects with the chief complaint of frontal knee malalignment according to the following methods: lower-limb mechanical axis on radiograph, lower-limb anatomic axis on radiograph, distance between medial femoral condyles or medial malleoli using a calliper and lower-limb alignment using a goniometer. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and simple linear regression. Results The anatomic axis best correlated with the mechanical axis (r = 0.93, P<0.001), followed closely by the intercondylar/intermalleolar distance measured by calliper (r = 0.89, P<0.001). Significant correlation was also found between the mechanical-axis angle and the lower limb axis measured by goniometer (r = 0.67, P<0.001). Conclusions The anatomic axis on radiograph, the calliper method and to a lesser extent the goniometer measurement appear to be valid alternatives to the mechanical axis on full-leg radiograph for determining frontal plane knee alignment. These alternative measures have the potential to provide useful information regarding knee alignment and may increase the assessment of this parameter by clinicians and researchers. PMID:23110745

  6. Effect of Stomatognathic Alignment Exercise on Temporomandibular Joint Function and Swallowing Function of Stroke Patients with Limited Mouth Opening

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Duck-Won; Kang, Tae-Woo; Kim, Sun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stomatognathic alignment exercise on temporomandibular joint function and swallowing function of stroke patients presenting limited mouth opening. [Subjects] Fourteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis presenting limited mouth opening were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 7 subjects in each group. [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in a stomatognathic alignment exercise program that consisted of mobility exercises of the TMJ and neck and postural correction. Main outcome measures were neck mobility, the active maximum range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index (CMI), and the Mann assessment of swallowing ability (MASA) score. [Results] The changes in the values of the range of mouth opening, CMI, MASA, and all the parameters of neck mobility were significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, post-test values appeared to be significantly different for the range of mouth opening, the craniomandibular index, and the MASA scores between the groups (p>0.05). [Conclusion] Stomatognathic alignment exercise may improve TMJ function and swallowing function of patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. PMID:24259786

  7. Factors affecting the shape of MBE-grown laterally aligned Fe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lok, Shu K.; Tian, Jia C.; Wang, Yuxing; Lai, Ying H.; Lortz, Rolf; Petrovic, Alexander; Panagopoulos, Christos; Wong, George K. L.; Wang, Gan; Sou, Iam K.

    2012-12-01

    Various microstructural and chemical analysis techniques were applied to study two types (type-A and B) of self-assembled laterally aligned Fe nanowires (NWs) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on a ZnS buffer layer. The formation of the three-dimensional shapes of these NWs was found to be driven by the principle of surface energy minimization. We have provided phenomenological models to address the factors affecting the observed topological shape of these NWs, including the role of the lattice relationship between the Fe NWs and the underlying buffer layer, growth temperature, Fe nominal coverage and substrate orientation. Magnetic hysteresis measurements were performed at different temperature, demonstrating the Fe NWs possess a coercivity about 30 times larger than that of a Fe thin film. The observed gradual magnetization reversal indicates the magnetization process is accomplished by the rotation of magnetic moments within a single domain.

  8. Factors affecting the shape of MBE-grown laterally aligned Fe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lok, Shu K; Tian, Jia C; Wang, Yuxing; Lai, Ying H; Lortz, Rolf; Petrovic, Alexander; Panagopoulos, Christos; Wong, George K L; Wang, Gan; Sou, Iam K

    2012-12-07

    Various microstructural and chemical analysis techniques were applied to study two types (type-A and B) of self-assembled laterally aligned Fe nanowires (NWs) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on a ZnS buffer layer. The formation of the three-dimensional shapes of these NWs was found to be driven by the principle of surface energy minimization. We have provided phenomenological models to address the factors affecting the observed topological shape of these NWs, including the role of the lattice relationship between the Fe NWs and the underlying buffer layer, growth temperature, Fe nominal coverage and substrate orientation. Magnetic hysteresis measurements were performed at different temperature, demonstrating the Fe NWs possess a coercivity about 30 times larger than that of a Fe thin film. The observed gradual magnetization reversal indicates the magnetization process is accomplished by the rotation of magnetic moments within a single domain.

  9. Factors Affecting Joint Cooperation During the Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    and agressiveness were to play a key role in the formulation and execution of naval planning. The lack of even a r.dimentary joint staff organization...convificed he had but little moral courage nor much self -reliance when in trouble. 18 Although the Stanton - Wehies relationship would eventually improve...country than to himself, that he never acts on any principle of self -sacrifice. 53 At least DuPont initially had the trust of the Secretary and only

  10. A robotic apparatus that dictates torque fields around joints without affecting inherent joint dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oytam, Yalchin; Lloyd, David; Reid, Campbell S; de Rugy, Aymar; Carson, Richard G

    2010-10-01

    This manuscript describes how motor behaviour researchers who are not at the same time expert roboticists may implement an experimental apparatus, which has the ability to dictate torque fields around a single joint on one limb or single joints on multiple limbs without otherwise interfering with the inherent dynamics of those joints. Such an apparatus expands the exploratory potential of the researcher wherever experimental distinction of factors may necessitate independent control of torque fields around multiple limbs, or the shaping of torque fields of a given joint independently of its plane of motion, or its directional phase within that plane. The apparatus utilizes torque motors. The challenge with torque motors is that they impose added inertia on limbs and thus attenuate joint dynamics. We eliminated this attenuation by establishing an accurate mathematical model of the robotic device using the Box-Jenkins method, and cancelling out its dynamics by employing the inverse of the model as a compensating controller. A direct measure of the remnant inertial torque as experienced by the hand during a 50 s period of wrist oscillations that increased gradually in frequency from 1.0 to 3.8 Hz confirmed that the removal of the inertial effect of the motor was effectively complete.

  11. Post-trial anatomical frame alignment procedure for comparison of 3D joint angle measurement from magnetic/inertial measurement units and camera-based systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingguo; Zhang, Jun-Tian

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMUs) have been widely used as an alternative to traditional camera-based motion capture systems for 3D joint kinematics measurement. Since these sensors do not directly measure position, a pre-trial anatomical calibration, either with the assistance of a special protocol/apparatus or with another motion capture system is required to establish the transformation matrices between the local sensor frame and the anatomical frame (AF) of each body segment on which the sensors are attached. Because the axes of AFs are often used as the rotational axes in the joint angle calculation, any difference in the AF determination will cause discrepancies in the calculated joint angles. Therefore, a direct comparison of joint angles between MIMU systems and camera-based systems is less meaningful because the calculated joint angles contain a systemic error due to the differences in the AF determination. To solve this problem a new post-trial AF alignment procedure is proposed. By correcting the AF misalignments, the joint angle differences caused by the difference in AF determination are eliminated and the remaining discrepancies are mainly from the measurement accuracy of the systems themselves. Lower limb joint angles from 30 walking trials were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed AF alignment procedure. This technique could serve as a new means for calibrating magnetic/inertial sensor-based motion capture systems and correcting for AF misalignment in scenarios where joint angles are compared directly.

  12. How geometric details can affect the strength of adhesive lap joints

    SciTech Connect

    Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The durability of adhesively bonded joints--when utilized as blade attachments--has a significant impact on the performance of wind turbines. Accordingly, there is interest in determining how geometric details affect the strength of these joints. Finite element analyses were performed to aid in the selection of three composite-to-metal joint geometries for compressive axial testing. Both monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted. Analysis and testing of these joints provide insight into the effects of adding extra adhesive to the end of the bond or tapering the metal adherend. The issue of whether the relative performance of different joints in monotonic tests can be used to predict the relative fatigue strength of these joints is also addressed.

  13. Footwear affects the gearing at the ankle and knee joints during running.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Bjoern; Arampatzis, Adamantios; Eysel, Peer; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2010-08-10

    The objective of the study was to investigate the adjustment of running mechanics by wearing five different types of running shoes on tartan compared to barefoot running on grass focusing on the gearing at the ankle and knee joints. The gear ratio, defined as the ratio of the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) to the moment arm of the counteracting muscle tendon unit, is considered to be an indicator of joint loading and mechanical efficiency. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics of 14 healthy volunteers were quantified three dimensionally and compared between running in shoes on tartan and barefoot on grass. Results showed no differences for the gear ratios and resultant joint moments for the ankle and knee joints across the five different shoes, but showed that wearing running shoes affects the gearing at the ankle and knee joints due to changes in the moment arm of the GRF. During barefoot running the ankle joint showed a higher gear ratio in early stance and a lower ratio in the late stance, while the gear ratio at the knee joint was lower during midstance compared to shod running. Because the moment arms of the counteracting muscle tendon units did not change, the determinants of the gear ratios were the moment arms of the GRF's. The results imply higher mechanical stress in shod running for the knee joint structures during midstance but also indicate an improved mechanical advantage in force generation for the ankle extensors during the push-off phase.

  14. Door Opening Affects Operating Room Pressure During Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mears, Simon C; Blanding, Renee; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Many resources are expended to ensure a sterile operating room environment. Efforts are made to prevent exposure of patients to personnel and to achieve positive room pressure to keep out airborne contaminants. Foot traffic into and out of the operating room during surgery can undermine these efforts. The authors investigated the number and duration of operating room door openings during hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and the effect of the door openings on room pressure. They tested the hypothesis that door openings defeat positive pressure, permitting air flow into the room. Room pressure and door status were monitored electronically during 191 hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. Operating room staff were unaware that data were being collected. The authors evaluated the data with regression analysis to determine whether the number and duration of door openings had an effect on room pressure. Significance was set at P<.05. Doors were open, on average, 9.5 minutes per case. In 77 of 191 cases, positive pressure was defeated, allowing air flow to reverse into the operating room. Total time with the door open significantly affected the minimum pressure recorded in the room (P<.02), but did not significantly affect average room pressure (P=.7). This finding suggested that the loss of positive pressure was a transient event from which the room recovered. The number and duration of door openings showed a significant association with length of surgery. Door openings threaten positive pressure, potentially jeopardizing operating room sterility. The causes of excessive operating room traffic must be evaluated to identify ways to reduce this traffic and the associated risks.

  15. A Novel Joint Spatial-Code Clustered Interference Alignment Scheme for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhilu; Jiang, Lihui; Ren, Guanghui; Zhao, Nan; Zhao, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    Interference alignment (IA) has been put forward as a promising technique which can mitigate interference and effectively increase the throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, the number of users is strictly restricted by the IA feasibility condition, and the interference leakage will become so strong that the quality of service will degrade significantly when there are more users than that IA can support. In this paper, a novel joint spatial-code clustered (JSCC)-IA scheme is proposed to solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the users are clustered into several groups so that feasible IA can be achieved within each group. In addition, each group is assigned a pseudo noise (PN) code in order to suppress the inter-group interference via the code dimension. The analytical bit error rate (BER) expressions of the proposed JSCC-IA scheme are formulated for the systems with identical and different propagation delays, respectively. To further improve the performance of the JSCC-IA scheme in asymmetric networks, a random grouping selection (RGS) algorithm is developed to search for better grouping combinations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed JSCC-IA scheme is capable of accommodating many more users to communicate simultaneously in the same frequency band with better performance. PMID:25602270

  16. Joint Attention Initiation with and without Positive Affect: Risk Group Differences and Associations with ASD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Devon N.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of…

  17. Bilateral and unilateral increases in calcaneal eversion affect pelvic alignment in standing position.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rafael Z A; Souza, Thales R; Trede, Renato G; Kirkwood, Renata N; Figueiredo, Elyonara M; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2008-12-01

    Excessive foot pronation has been associated with the occurrence of low back pain, possibly for generating changes in the lumbopelvic alignment. However, the influence of foot pronation (measured as calcaneal eversion) on pelvic alignment during standing has not been well established. Fourteen young healthy subjects participated in the study. A Motion Analysis System was used to obtain pelvic positions in sagittal and frontal planes and calcaneal position in the frontal plane. Volunteers were filmed in relaxed standing position during three trials, in three conditions: control; unilateral experimental with increased right calcaneal eversion and bilateral experimental with increased bilateral calcaneal eversion. Increased calcaneal eversion was obtained using wedges tilted 10 degrees medially, unilaterally and bilaterally. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Bonferroni corrections were used for statistical analysis. Unilateral and bilateral use of medially tilted wedges produced a significant increase of calcaneal eversion (Palignment and should be considered, associated with other relevant factors, when assessing pelvic misalignments.

  18. Classroom Has a Heart: Teachers and Students Affective Alignment in a Persian Heritage Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atoofi, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    This research study investigated how the teachers and students at a Persian heritage language class acknowledged and modified their affective behavior based on the affective feedback they received from one another. The notion that interactants can modify their affective output in such fashion is referred in the literature as affective alignment…

  19. Asymmetry of the leg alignment affects trunk bending in the coronal plane after unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Harato, Kengo; Yoshida, Hiroki; Otani, Toshiro

    2013-08-01

    Unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) would produce asymmetric changes of lower extremity in patients with bilateral varus deformity. Our purpose was to investigate whether asymmetry of the leg alignment would affect trunk bending in the coronal plane after unilateral TKA. Twenty patients (mean 76 years old) with bilateral end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) participated. Spine images during relaxed standing were obtained on pre- and postoperative day 21. As a result, the shoulder tilted more to the TKA side and the pelvis inclined more to the contralateral OA side. These results suggested that the trunk would bend away from the contralateral OA side after unilateral TKA in patients with bilateral end-stage knee OA and varus deformity. Asymmetry of the leg alignment led to asymmetric trunk bending.

  20. Gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and the incidence of sports injuries in Japanese university athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and history of lower limb sports injuries in Japanese university athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 224 Japanese university athletes (154 males and 70 females). The quadriceps angle (Q-angle), arch height index, and ranges of internal and external rotation of the hip joints were measured. History of lower limb sports injury was surveyed using a questionnaire. [Results] Females had a significantly higher Q-angle and hip joint internal rotation angle and a significantly lower arch height index than males. The survey revealed that a significantly higher proportion of females had a history of lower limb sports injuries, and that the proportion of those with a history of foot/ankle injuries was particularly high. [Conclusion] These results suggested that females experience more lower limb sports injuries than males, and that a large proportion of these injuries involve the foot/ankle. Reduced lower limb alignment and increased range of joint motion in females may be risk factors for injury because they lead to increased physical stress being exerted on the lower legs during sporting activities. PMID:28210029

  1. Modes of Presentation of Reactive Arthritis Based on the Affected Joints

    PubMed Central

    Lahu, Ali; Backa, Teuta; Ismaili, Jehona; Lahu, Vendenis; Saiti, Valton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive arthritis is an autoimmune condition that occurs as a reaction against an infection site elsewhere in the body. Reactive arthritis affects mostly young ages, mainly group age 20-40 y.o., mostly males with ratio 2:1 against females, sometimes 3:1, and even 14:1. The purpose of the study was to observe the mode of illness presentation based on the number of affected joints. Material and Methods: During the 01.03.2012 – 01.03.2014 in the Clinic for Rheumatology and O.S.I.R. “Vendenisi – AL” in Besiana have been examined, elaborated and hospitalized 100 patients with reactive arthritis, out of them 66 males and 34 females. Patients underwent necessary laboratory, hematological, biochemical, and immunological examinations. Subsequently each affected joint has been examined based on the propedeutics rules (inspection, palpation and assessment of the level of motility), as well as x ray examination. Results: From 100 examined patients 66% were males and 34% females respectively. 11% of them were in the 10-20y.o. group age, 30% belonged to group age 21-30 y.o., 24% of patients to 31-40 y.o. group age, 30% to 41-50 y.o. group age, and 5% of patients to the group age over the 51 year old. Regarding the affected articulations and modes of illness presentation, we‘ve obtained the following results: Knee was affected in 64.7% female and 52,12% male patients respectively, T/C joint in 50% female and 57.57% male patients, MTPH joint in 41.11% female and 48.48% male patients respectively, and R/C joint in 44.11% female and 48.48% male patients respectively. Oligoarticular type is seen in 73% male and 70% female patients. Monoarticular type is seen in 14% male and 13% female patients, and poliarticular type is seen in 10% male and 14% female patients respectively. Results from our study have revealed that: reactive arthritis is more frequent in males than females in ratio 2:1 in the infections of urogenital infection, 3:1 in nasopharyngeal

  2. Knee joint angle affects EMG-force relationship in the vastus intermedius muscle.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P < 0.05). Comparing the normalized EMG among the four QF synergists, a significantly lower normalized EMG was observed in the VI at 150° as compared with the other three QF muscles (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the EMG-force relationship of the four QF synergists shifted downward at an extended knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles.

  3. Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Almér, Alexander; Lindblad, Gustaf; Gander, Pierre; Michael, John; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an “extended common currency” perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action. PMID:27601989

  4. Segment-embedded frame definition affects the hip joint centre precision during walking.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Andy; Pain, Matthew T G; Thouzé, Arsène; Monnet, Tony; Begon, Mickaël

    2013-08-01

    Due to marker-specific soft tissue artefacts, the choice of the markers defining the segment-embedded frame affects the functional joint centre location, with subsequent error propagation to joint kinematics and kinetics in gait analysis. Our aim was to assess the effect of the number and placement of markers on the precision of the hip joint centre (HJC) location during walking. Twelve markers (2x6) were attached to the pelvis and left thigh of 15 young male subjects. Set-up movements were collected to locate an optimised functional HJC. For all permutations of three from six markers, a HJC was located and subsequently reconstructed in a static trial and during walking. Precision measures with two different definitions of the origin, namely a single maker or their mean-point, and using three, four, five and six were calculated. Finally, marker triads that reduced the variability of the HJC location were determined. Both the number of markers and method for defining the origin significantly affected the HJC precision during static and walking trials. For walking, precision of 39 mm using three markers improved to 5mm using redundant markers and the mean marker position as the segment origin. Markers placed close to the joint gave more consistent results.

  5. Intermodal attention affects the processing of the temporal alignment of audiovisual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Talsma, Durk; Senkowski, Daniel; Woldorff, Marty G

    2009-09-01

    The temporal asynchrony between inputs to different sensory modalities has been shown to be a critical factor influencing the interaction between such inputs. We used scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of attention on the processing of audiovisual multisensory stimuli as the temporal asynchrony between the auditory and visual inputs varied across the audiovisual integration window (i.e., up to 125 ms). Randomized streams of unisensory auditory stimuli, unisensory visual stimuli, and audiovisual stimuli (consisting of the temporally proximal presentation of the visual and auditory stimulus components) were presented centrally while participants attended to either the auditory or the visual modality to detect occasional target stimuli in that modality. ERPs elicited by each of the contributing sensory modalities were extracted by signal processing techniques from the combined ERP waveforms elicited by the multisensory stimuli. This was done for each of the five different 50-ms subranges of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA: e.g., V precedes A by 125-75 ms, by 75-25 ms, etc.). The extracted ERPs for the visual inputs of the multisensory stimuli were compared among each other and with the ERPs to the unisensory visual control stimuli, separately when attention was directed to the visual or to the auditory modality. The results showed that the attention effects on the right-hemisphere visual P1 was largest when auditory and visual stimuli were temporally aligned. In contrast, the N1 attention effect was smallest at this latency, suggesting that attention may play a role in the processing of the relative temporal alignment of the constituent parts of multisensory stimuli. At longer latencies an occipital selection negativity for the attended versus unattended visual stimuli was also observed, but this effect did not vary as a function of SOA, suggesting that by that latency a stable representation of the auditory and visual stimulus

  6. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weishi; Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints. Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Methods Ten symptomatic patients of DDD at L4–S1 were studied. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–S1) and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension. In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right torsion, the ROMs were similar between the DDD patients and the healthy participants. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4–L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants. During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4–L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level (L3–L4), in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the

  7. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.

    PubMed Central

    Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

    2000-01-01

    Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses had multiple bacterial organisms cultured from bone or synovial tissues; 2 horses had single isolates identified. After aggressive curettage, arthrodesis was accomplished with 3 parallel screws in 1 horse, 2 divergent narrow dynamic compression plates in 3 horses, and a single broad dynamic compression plate in 4 horses. Casts were applied to all horses for 1 to 6 weeks. Four horses survived to successful brood mare status. Four horses were euthanized during hospitalization because of continued discomfort or complications of sepsis. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis appears to be an acceptable alternative to euthanasia for some horses. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:10723597

  8. Factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive range of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:27313371

  9. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  10. Pelvic limb alignment in small breed dogs: a comparison between affected and free subjects from medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Olimpo, Matteo; Piras, Lisa Adele; Peirone, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Small breed dogs are 12 times more likely to develop medial patellar luxation (MPL) than large breed dogs and breed predisposition has been reported. Many surgical techniques are available for correction of patellar luxation in dogs. However, recent studies reported an 8% incidence of reluxation when traditional techniques are used. The relatively high frequency of major complications and patellar reluxation may be partially caused by inadequate appreciation of the underlying skeletal deformity and subsequent incorrect selection and application of traditional techniques. The aims of this study were to report the normal values of the anatomic and mechanical joint angles of the femur and tibia in small breed dogs and to compare these data to a population of small breed dogs affected by different degrees of MPL. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the femur are similar to the ones reported in literature in Pomeranian dogs. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the tibia have been described for the first time. Significant differences were found between normal population and dogs affected by grade 4 MPL in relation to anatomical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle (aLDFA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA).

  11. Optimizing femorotibial alignment in high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Rudan, John; Harrison, Mark; Simurda, Michael A

    Objective To study factors that affect femorotibial (F-T) alignment after valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Study design A review of standardized standing radiographs. Femorotibial alignment was measured 1 year postoperatively for over- and under-correction. Changes in F–T alignment and in tibial plateau angle were measured. Setting An urban hospital and orthopedic clinic. Patients Eighty-two patients with osteoarthritis and varus femorotibial alignment underwent valgus closing wedge tibial osteotomy. Patients having a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis or a prior osteotomy about the knee were excluded. Results A 1° wedge removed from the tibia resulted in an average correction of F–T alignment of 1.2°. A knee that had increased valgus orientation of the distal femur had a greater degree of correction, averaging 1.46° in F–T alignment per degree of tibial wedge. This resulted in excessive postoperative valgus alignment for some patients who had increased valgus tilt of the distal femur. Optimal F–T alignment of 6° to 14° of valgus occurred when the postoperative tibial inclination was 4° to 8° of valgus. Conclusions There was a trend for knees with increased valgus orientation of the distal femur to have greater correction in F–T alignment after tibial osteotomy, likely because of a greater opening up of the medial joint space during stance. Surgeons need to account for this in their preoperative planning. PMID:10526522

  12. Prediction of the Properties of Heat-Affected Zone of Welded Joints of Sheets from Aluminum Alloys with Structured Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. G.

    2016-05-01

    Welded joints of light structured sheets from aluminum alloy EN AW-6181-T4 (DIN EN 515) of the Al - Si - Mg system are studied. The welding is performed in an argon environment with a short arc by the method of cold metal transfer (CMT®). The results of the study are used in an amended Leblond model for describing the variation of the properties of the heat-affected zone of welded joints of structured sheets.

  13. Subject-specific hip geometry affects predicted hip joint contact forces during gait.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, G; De Groote, F; Demeulenaere, B; Mulier, M; Van der Perre, G; Spaepen, A; Jonkers, I

    2008-01-01

    Hip loading affects bone remodeling and implant fixation. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of subject-specific modeling of hip geometry on muscle activation patterns and hip contact forces during gait, using musculoskeletal modeling, inverse dynamic analysis and static optimization. We first used sensitivity analysis to analyze the effect of isolated changes in femoral neck-length (NL) and neck-shaft angle (NSA) on calculated muscle activations and hip contact force during the stance phase of gait. A deformable generic musculoskeletal model was adjusted incrementally to adopt a physiological range of NL and NSA. In a second similar analysis, we adjusted hip geometry to the measurements from digitized radiographs of 20 subjects with primary hip osteoarthrosis. Finally, we studied the effect of hip abductor weakness on muscle activation patterns and hip contact force. This analysis showed that differences in NL (41-74 mm) and NSA (113-140 degrees ) affect the muscle activation of the hip abductors during stance phase and hence hip contact force by up to three times body weight. In conclusion, the results from both the sensitivity and subject-specific analysis showed that at the moment of peak contact force, altered NSA has only a minor effect on the loading configuration of the hip. Increased NL, however, results in an increase of the three hip contact-force components and a reduced vertical loading. The results of these analyses are essential to understand modified hip joint loading, and for planning hip surgery for patients with osteoarthrosis.

  14. Group membership affects spontaneous mental representation: failure to represent the out-group in a joint action task.

    PubMed

    McClung, Jennifer Susan; Jentzsch, Ines; Reicher, Stephen David

    2013-01-01

    Predicting others' actions is crucial to successful social interaction. Previous research on joint action, based on a reaction-time paradigm called the Joint Simon Task, suggests that successful joint action stems from the simultaneous representation of the self with the other. Performance on this task provides a read-out of the degree of intrusion from a partner that participants experience from acting jointly compared to acting alone, which in turn is a measure of the degree to which participants mentally represent their co-actors during the task. To investigate the role of perceived group membership in this type of joint action and its influence on the representation of others, we first subjected participants to a minimal group paradigm while manipulating differences in social competition. We then asked participants to do the Joint Simon Task in pairs with an in-group or out-group member. Only participants who acted with an "in-group" partner on the joint task showed altered reaction times compared to when acting alone, presumably a change caused by the simultaneous and automatic representation of their in-group partner. In contrast, participants who acted with an out-group partner were unaffected in their reactions when doing the joint task, showing no evidence of representation of their out-group partner. This effect was present in both the high-competition and low-competition conditions, indicating that the differential effects of group membership on representation during joint action were driven by perceived group membership and independent of the effects of social competition. We concluded that participants failed to represent out-group members as socially relevant agents not based on any personality or situational characteristics, but in reaction only to their status as "other". In this way group membership appears to affect cognition on a very immediate and subconscious level.

  15. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

  16. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part III Affect of Mesh Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-08-15

    The previous studies used an underdriven detonation wave in 1-dimension (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale-invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a verification test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Since the SURF rate is a function of the lead shock pressure, the question arises as to the effect on accuracy of variations in the detected shock pressure due to the alignment of the shock front with the mesh. To study the effect of mesh alignment we simulate a cylindrically diverging detonation wave using a planar 2-D mesh. The leading issue is the magnitude of azimuthal asymmetries in the numerical solution. The 2-D test case does not have an exact analytic solution. To quantify the accuracy, the 2-D solution along rays through the origin are compared to a highly resolved 1-D simulation in cylindrical geometry.

  17. An Examination of the Joint Effects of Affective Experiences and Job Beliefs on Job Satisfaction and Variations in Affective Experiences over Time.

    PubMed

    Weiss; Nicholas; Daus

    1999-04-01

    This study investigated the joint influences of episodic levels of pleasant mood at work and beliefs about one's job on judgments of job satisfaction, as well as examining the prediction of the patterns of affective states over time. Twenty-four managerial workers completed a diary during work hours which required them to report their mood state at four different times during the workday. The diaries were completed for 16 workdays. At a separate time they completed a measure of overall satisfaction, a Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) measure of beliefs about the job and two dispositional variables, dispositional happiness and affect intensity. Results showed that average levels of pleasant mood over the 16 days and VIE beliefs about the job made significant and independent contributions to the prediction of overall job satisfaction and did so over and above the contribution of dispositional happiness. Results also indicated that individual differences in affective intensity predicted the variability of pleasant mood over time as well as mean levels of mood activation. Finally, spectral analyses applied to the series of mood observations showed that the variability over time in the series of mood observations showed two definite cycles, one corresponding to a daily cycle and one corresponding to a two-period oscillation in mood. Results are discussed in terms of the joint influences of affective experiences and job beliefs on job attitudes and the importance of studying affect over time independent of job satisfaction. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Impact orientation can significantly affect the outcome of a blunt impact to the rabbit patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Benjamin J; Weaver, Brian T; Haut, Roger C

    2002-12-01

    This laboratory has developed a subfracture, joint trauma model in rabbits. Using a dropped impact mass directed onto a slightly abducted joint, chronic softening of retropatellar cartilage and thickening of underlying subchondral bone are documented in studies to 1 year post-insult. It has been hypothesized that these tissue changes are initiated by stresses developed during impact loading. A previous analytical study by this laboratory suggests that tensile strains in retropatellar cartilage can be significantly lowered, without significantly changing the intensity of stresses in the underlying subchondral bone, by reorientation of patellar impact more centrally on the joint. In the current study comparative experiments were performed on groups of animals after either an impact directed on the slightly abducted limb or a more central impact. One-year post-trauma in animals subjected to the central-oriented impact no degradation of the shear modulus for the retropatellar cartilage was documented, but the thickness of the underlying subchondral bone was significantly increased. In contrast, alterations in cartilage and underlying bone following impact on the slightly abducted limb were consistent with previous studies. The current experimental investigation showed the sensitivity of post-trauma alterations in joint tissues to slight changes in the orientation of impact load on the joint. Interestingly, for this trauma model thickening of the underlying subchondral plate occurred without mechanical degradation of the overlying articular cartilage. This supports the current laboratory hypothesis that alterations in the subchondral bone and overlying cartilage occur independently in this animal model.

  19. Does aspiration of bones and joints affect results of later bone scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Canale, S.T.; Harkness, R.M.; Thomas, P.A.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect, if any, of needle aspiration on /sup 99m/Tc bone scanning, three different areas of 15 dogs were first aspirated and then imaged with technetium bone scintigraphy. The hip joint was aspirated, the distal femoral metaphysis was drilled and aspirated, and the tibial periosteum was scraped with an 18- or 20-gauge needle. Varying amounts of trauma were inflicted to simulate varying difficulties at aspiration. /sup 99m/Tc bone scans were obtained from 5 h to 10 days later. There was no evidence of focal technetium uptake after any hip joint aspiration. This was consistent regardless of the amount of trauma inflicted or the time from aspiration to bone scanning. Metaphyseal cortical drilling and tibial periosteal scraping occasionally caused some focal uptake when scanning was delayed greater than 2 days. When osteomyelitis or pyarthrosis is clinically suspected, joint aspiration can be performed without fear of producing a false- positive bone scan.

  20. Subject-specific hip geometry and hip joint centre location affects calculated contact forces at the hip during gait.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, G; Bartels, W; Gelaude, F; Mulier, M; Spaepen, A; Van der Perre, G; Jonkers, I

    2009-06-19

    Hip loading affects the development of hip osteoarthritis, bone remodelling and osseointegration of implants. In this study, we analyzed the effect of subject-specific modelling of hip geometry and hip joint centre (HJC) location on the quantification of hip joint moments, muscle moments and hip contact forces during gait, using musculoskeletal modelling, inverse dynamic analysis and static optimization. For 10 subjects, hip joint moments, muscle moments and hip loading in terms of magnitude and orientation were quantified using three different model types, each including a different amount of subject-specific detail: (1) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model, (2) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model with subject-specific hip geometry (femoral anteversion, neck-length and neck-shaft angle) and (3) a generic scaled musculoskeletal model with subject-specific hip geometry including HJC location. Subject-specific geometry and HJC location were derived from CT. Significant differences were found between the three model types in HJC location, hip flexion-extension moment and inclination angle of the total contact force in the frontal plane. No model agreement was found between the three model types for the calculation of contact forces in terms of magnitude and orientations, and muscle moments. Therefore, we suggest that personalized models with individualized hip joint geometry and HJC location should be used for the quantification of hip loading. For biomechanical analyses aiming to understand modified hip joint loading, and planning hip surgery in patients with osteoarthritis, the amount of subject-specific detail, related to bone geometry and joint centre location in the musculoskeletal models used, needs to be considered.

  1. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  2. Aligning Plasma-Arc Welding Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeff; Fairley, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Tool aids in alignment of oscillator probe on variable-polarity plasma-arc welding torch. Probe magnetically pulls arc from side to side as it moves along joint. Tensile strength of joint depends on alignment of weld bead and on alignment of probe. Operator installs new tool on front of torch body, levels it with built-in bubble glass, inserts probe in slot on tool, and locks probe in place. Procedure faster and easier and resulting alignment more accurate and repeatable.

  3. Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Bellin, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Primary aim of this study was to investigate peak joint torque angle (i.e. the angle of peak torque) changes recorded during an isokinetic test before and after a fatiguing soccer match simulation. Secondarily we want to investigate functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratio changes due to fatigue. Before and after a standardised soccer match simulation, twenty-two healthy male amateur soccer players performed maximal isokinetic strength tests both for hamstrings and for quadriceps muscles at 1.05 rad · s(‒1), 3.14 rad · s(‒1) and 5.24 rad · s(‒1). Peak joint torque angle, peak torque and both functional Hecc:Qconc and conventional Hconc:Qconc ratios were examined. Both dominant and non-dominant limbs were tested. Peak joint torque angle significantly increased only in knee flexors. Both eccentric and concentric contractions resulted in such increment, which occurred in both limbs. No changes were found in quadriceps peak joint torque angle. Participants experienced a significant decrease in torque both in hamstrings and in quadriceps. Functional Hecc:Qconc ratio was lower only in dominant limb at higher velocities, while Hconc:Qconc did not change. This study showed after specific fatiguing task changes in hamstrings only torque/angle relationship. Hamstrings injury risk could depend on altered torque when knee is close to extension, coupled with a greater peak torque decrement compared to quadriceps. These results suggest the use eccentric based training to prevent hamstrings shift towards shorter length.

  4. Motion coordination affects movement parameters in a joint pick-and-place task.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Cordula; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubo, Anna

    2009-12-01

    This study examined influences of social context on movement parameters in a pick-and-place task. Participants' motion trajectories were recorded while they performed sequences of natural movements either working side-by-side with a partner or alone. It was expected that movement parameters would be specifically adapted to the joint condition to overcome the difficulties arising from the requirement to coordinate with another person. To disentangle effects based on participants' effort to coordinate their movements from effects merely due to the other's presence, a condition was included where only one person performed the task while being observed by the partner. Results indicate that participants adapted their movements temporally and spatially to the joint action situation: Overall movement duration was shorter, and mean and maximum velocity was higher when actually working together than when working alone. Pick-to-place trajectories were also shifted away from the partner in spatial coordinates. The partner's presence as such did not have an impact on movement parameters. These findings are interpreted as evidence for the use of implicit strategies to facilitate movement coordination in joint action tasks.

  5. The Influence Of Component Alignment On The Life Of Total Knee Prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugariu, Delia; Bereteu, Liviu

    2012-12-01

    An arthritic knee affects the patient's life by causing pain and limiting movement. If the cartilage and the bone surfaces are severely affected, the natural joint is replaced with an artificial joint. The procedure is called total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Lately, the numbers of implanted total knee prostheses grow steadily. An important factor in TKA is the perfect alignment of the total knee prosthesis (TKP) components. Component misalignment can lead to the prosthesis loss by producing wear particles. The paper proposes a study on mechanical behaviors of a TKP based on numerical analysis, using ANSYS software. The numerical analysis is based on both the normal and the changed angle of the components alignment.

  6. Joint Measurements of Terahertz Wave Generation and High-Harmonic Generation from Aligned Nitrogen Molecules Reveal Angle-Resolved Molecular Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yindong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Xiaowei; Lü, Zhihui; Zhang, Dongwen; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Jing; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2015-09-01

    We report the synchronized measurements of terahertz wave generation and high-harmonic generation from aligned nitrogen molecules in dual-color laser fields. Both yields are found to be alignment dependent, showing the importance of molecular structures in the generation processes. By calibrating the angular ionization rates with the terahertz yields, we present a new way of retrieving the angular differential photoionization cross section (PICS) from the harmonic signals which avoids specific model calculations or separate measurements of the alignment-dependent ionization rates. The measured PICS is found to be consistent with theoretical predications, although some discrepancies exist. This all-optical method provides a new alternative for investigating molecular structures.

  7. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate. PMID:28066225

  8. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate.

  9. Stress analysis in human temporomandibular joint affected by anterior disc displacement during prolonged clenching.

    PubMed

    Abe, S; Kawano, F; Kohge, K; Kawaoka, T; Ueda, K; Hattori-Hara, E; Mori, H; Kuroda, S; Tanaka, E

    2013-04-01

    Parafunctional habits, such as prolonged clenching and bruxism, have been associated with dysfunctional overloading in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). In this study, stress distributions in the TMJ were analysed during prolonged clenching, using three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of the TMJ with and without disc displacement. The aim of this study was to investigate stress distribution of the cartilaginous tissues in the TMJ with and without disc displacement. Finite element models were developed on the basis of magnetic resonance images from two subjects with and without anterior disc displacement. Condylar movements recorded during a 5-min clenching were used as the loading condition for stress analysis. In the asymptomatic model, the highest von Mises stresses were located in the lateral area (4·91 MPa) of the disc surfaces, and after 5-min clenching, the higher stresses were still located at the lateral area (3·65 MPa). In all the cartilaginous tissues, 30-50% of stress reduction occurred during 5-min clenching. In contrast, the von Mises stress in the cartilaginous tissues of the symptomatic model with disc displacement was markedly lower, compared with the asymptomatic model. However, in the condylar cartilage, stress relaxation during clenching was not recognised. Furthermore, relatively high stresses were observed in the retrodiscal tissues throughout clenching. The present results indicate that disc position could be involved in the stress distribution of the TMJ components during prolonged clenching.

  10. Joint Trajectories of Behavioral, Affective, and Cognitive Engagement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archambault, Isabelle; Dupéré, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to model student trajectories of behavioral, affective, and cognitive engagement from Grade 3 to Grade 6. The authors also examined whether teachers perceptions could predict student trajectory membership. The authors collected data from a sample of 831 students and 152 teachers. Using multiple-process growth…

  11. Alignment as a Consequence of Expectation Adaptation: Syntactic Priming Is Affected by the Prime's Prediction Error Given both Prior and Recent Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Snider, Neal E.

    2013-01-01

    Speakers show a remarkable tendency to align their productions with their interlocutors'. Focusing on sentence production, we investigate the cognitive systems underlying such alignment (syntactic priming). Our guiding hypothesis is that syntactic priming is a consequence of a language processing system that is organized to achieve efficient…

  12. Factors affecting results of fluoroscopy-guided facet joint injection: Probable differences in the outcome of treatment between pure facet joint hypertrophy and concomitant diseases

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Akif; Ozkul, Baris; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Atici, Yunus; Gultekin, Muhammet Zeki; Albayrak, Merih Dilan

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Purpose: Facet joints are considered a common source of chronic low-back pain. To determine whether pathogens related to the facet joint arthritis have any effect on treatment failure. Materials and Methods: Facet joint injection was applied to 94 patients treated at our hospital between 2011 and 2012 (mean age 59.5 years; 80 women and 14 men). For the purpose of analysis, the patients were divided into two groups. Patients who only had facet hypertrophy were placed in group A (47 patients, 41 women and 6 men, mean age 55.3 years) and patients who had any additional major pathology to facet hypertrophy were placed in group B (47 patients, 39 women and 8 men, mean age 58.9 years). Injections were applied around the facet joint under surgical conditions utilizing fluoroscopy device guidance. A mixture of methylprednisolone and lidocaine was used as the injection ingredient. Results: In terms of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, no significant difference was found between preinjection and immediate postinjection values in both groups, and the scores of group A patients were significantly lower (P < 0.005) compared with that of group B patients at the end of the third, sixth, and twelfth month. Conclusion: For low-back pain caused by facet hypertrophy, steroid injection around the facet joint is an effective treatment, but if there is an existing major pathology, it is not as effective. PMID:27041884

  13. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  14. Some Ways in Which Neighborhoods, Nuclear Families, Friendship Groups, and Schools Jointly Affect Changes in Early Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas D.; Herman, Melissa R.; Phillips, Meredith; Settersten, Richard A., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed how schools, neighborhoods, nuclear families, and friendship groups jointly contribute to positive change during early adolescence. Analyses showed that the four context indices modestly intercorrelated at the individual student level, but clustered more tightly at the school and neighborhood levels. Joint influence of all four…

  15. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Daily, PNNL

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  16. Does early care affect joint attention in great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla)?

    PubMed

    Pitman, Caisie A; Shumaker, Robert W

    2009-08-01

    The ability to share attention with another is the foundation on which other theory of mind skills are formed. The quality of care received during infancy has been correlated with increased joint attention in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of care style (responsive or basic) and caregiver type (ape or human) during the first 6 months on joint attention in 4 great ape species (Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo spp., and Pan pansicus). Great apes engaged in joint attention with conspecifics and humans regardless of the style of early care they experienced from either a great ape mother or human caregiver. This finding suggests that joint attention is a robust ability in great apes that is resilient against at least some differences in early care. Future studies using additional measures of early care quality are recommended.

  17. ALIGNING JIG

    DOEpatents

    Culver, J.S.; Tunnell, W.C.

    1958-08-01

    A jig or device is described for setting or aligning an opening in one member relative to another member or structure, with a predetermined offset, or it may be used for measuring the amount of offset with which the parts have previously been sct. This jig comprises two blocks rabbeted to each other, with means for securing thc upper block to the lower block. The upper block has fingers for contacting one of the members to be a1igmed, the lower block is designed to ride in grooves within the reference member, and calibration marks are provided to determine the amount of offset. This jig is specially designed to align the collimating slits of a mass spectrometer.

  18. How does joint procurement affect the design, customisation and usability of a hospital ePrescribing system?

    PubMed

    Lee, Lisa; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the effect of the joint procurement model adopted during the English National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) on the customisation, design and usability of a hospital ePrescribing system. Drawing on qualitative data collected at two case study sites deploying an ePrescribing system jointly procured within one of the NPfIT's geographical clusters, we explain how procurement decisions, difficult relationships with the supplier and strict contractual arrangements contributed to usability issues and difficulties in the customisation process. While some limited change requests made by users were taken up by the developers, these were seen by users as insufficient to meet local clinical needs and practices. A joint procurement approach, such as the NPfIT, thus limited the opportunity and scope of the changes to the ePrescribing system, which impinged not only on the perceived success of the implementation but also on the system's usability.

  19. Image alignment

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  20. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  1. Alignment of Helical Membrane Protein Sequences Using AlignMe

    PubMed Central

    Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2013-01-01

    Few sequence alignment methods have been designed specifically for integral membrane proteins, even though these important proteins have distinct evolutionary and structural properties that might affect their alignments. Existing approaches typically consider membrane-related information either by using membrane-specific substitution matrices or by assigning distinct penalties for gap creation in transmembrane and non-transmembrane regions. Here, we ask whether favoring matching of predicted transmembrane segments within a standard dynamic programming algorithm can improve the accuracy of pairwise membrane protein sequence alignments. We tested various strategies using a specifically designed program called AlignMe. An updated set of homologous membrane protein structures, called HOMEP2, was used as a reference for optimizing the gap penalties. The best of the membrane-protein optimized approaches were then tested on an independent reference set of membrane protein sequence alignments from the BAliBASE collection. When secondary structure (S) matching was combined with evolutionary information (using a position-specific substitution matrix (P)), in an approach we called AlignMePS, the resultant pairwise alignments were typically among the most accurate over a broad range of sequence similarities when compared to available methods. Matching transmembrane predictions (T), in addition to evolutionary information, and secondary-structure predictions, in an approach called AlignMePST, generally reduces the accuracy of the alignments of closely-related proteins in the BAliBASE set relative to AlignMePS, but may be useful in cases of extremely distantly related proteins for which sequence information is less informative. The open source AlignMe code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/alignme/, and at http://www.forrestlab.org, along with an online server and the HOMEP2 data set. PMID:23469223

  2. How the neck affects the back: changes in regional cervical sagittal alignment correlate to HRQOL improvement in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Scheer, Justin K; Terran, Jamie S; Smith, Justin S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Greg M; Hart, Robert A; McCarthy, Ian M; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Regional cervical sagittal alignment (C2-7 sagittal vertical axis [SVA]) has been shown to correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study objective was to examine the relationship between cervical and thoracolumbar alignment parameters with HRQOL among patients with operative and nonoperative adult thoracolumbar deformity. METHODS This is a multicenter prospective data collection of consecutive patients with adult thoracolumbar spinal deformity. Clinical measures of disability included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22), and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Cervical radiographic parameters were correlated with global sagittal parameters within the nonoperative and operative cohorts. A partial correlation analysis was performed controlling for C-7 SVA. The operative group was subanalyzed by the magnitude of global deformity (C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm vs < 5 cm). RESULTS A total of 318 patients were included (186 operative and 132 nonoperative). The mean age was 55.4 ± 14.9 years. Operative patients had significantly worse baseline HRQOL and significantly larger C-7 SVA, pelvic tilt (PT), mismatch between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), and C2-7 SVA. The operative patients with baseline C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm had significantly larger C2-7 lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, C-7 SVA, PI-LL, and PT than patients with a normal C-7 SVA. For all patients, baseline C2-7 SVA and CL significantly correlated with baseline ODI, Physical Component Summary (PCS), SRS Activity domain, and SRS Appearance domain. Baseline C2-7 SVA also correlated with SRS Pain and SRS Total. For the operative patients with baseline C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm, the 2-year C2-7 SVA significantly correlated with 2-year Mental Component Summary, SRS Mental, SRS Satisfaction, and decreases in ODI. Decreases in C2-7 SVA at 2 years significantly correlated with lower ODI at 2 years. Using partial correlations while controlling for

  3. Neuroimaging and psychophysiological investigation of the link between anxiety, enhanced affective reactivity and interoception in people with joint hypermobility

    PubMed Central

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Engels, Miriam; Eccles, Jessica A.; Pailhez, Guillem; Bulbena, Antonio; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety is associated with increased physiological reactivity and also increased “interoceptive” sensitivity to such changes in internal bodily arousal. Joint hypermobility, an expression of a common variation in the connective tissue protein collagen, is increasingly recognized as a risk factor to anxiety and related disorders. This study explored the link between anxiety, interoceptive sensitivity and hypermobility in a sub-clinical population using neuroimaging and psychophysiological evaluation. Methods: Thirty-six healthy volunteers undertook interoceptive sensitivity tests, a clinical examination for hypermobility and completed validated questionnaire measures of state anxiety and body awareness tendency. Nineteen participants also performed an emotional processing paradigm during functional neuroimaging. Results: We confirmed a significant relationship between state anxiety score and joint hypermobility. Interoceptive sensitivity mediated the relationship between state anxiety and hypermobility. Hypermobile, compared to non-hypermobile, participants displayed heightened neural reactivity to sad and angry scenes within brain regions implicated in anxious feeling states, notably insular cortex. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the dependence of anxiety state on bodily context, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms through which vulnerability to anxiety disorders arises in people bearing a common variant of collagen. PMID:25352818

  4. Constituents and pH changes in protein rich hyaluronan solution affect the biotribological properties of artificial articular joints.

    PubMed

    Kitano, T; Ateshian, G A; Mow, V C; Kadoya, Y; Yamano, Y

    2001-08-01

    The relationship between the coefficient of friction and pH value or protein constituents of lubricating fluid, together with viscosity, were studied within a bearing surface model for artificial joint, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against stainless steel (SUS), using a mechanical spectrometer. Four lubricants were tested in this study: sodium hyaluronate (HA), HA with albumin, HA with gamma-globulin, and HA with (L)alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine ((L)alpha-DPPC). The coefficient of friction between UHMWPE and SUS in HA with albumin or HA with gamma-globulin varied from 0.035 to 0.070 depending on angular velocity and pH. The coefficient of friction in HA or HA with (L)alpha-DPPC varied from 0.023 to 0.045 depending on angular velocity and pH. The variation in pH for HA with albumin had a large effect on the coefficient of friction at low range of angular velocity with viscosity independence. The variation in pH for HA with gamma-globulin had a large effect on the coefficient of friction with viscosity dependence at high angular velocity. The addition of (L)alpha-DPPC showed a small effect on the coefficient of friction at low angular velocity. This study confirms that the presence of albumin in the lubricant promotes pH dependence and viscosity independence of the tribological properties at low speed while the presence of globulin promotes pH and viscosity independence at low speed and promotes pH and viscosity dependence at high speed in the lubrication of UHMWPE against SUS. This study supports the clinical hypothesis that the effect of constituents and pH changes in periprosthetic fluid for the lubrication is a clue toward resolving many complications after total joint replacement.

  5. Impact of the difference in the plantar flexor strength of the ankle joint in the affected side among hemiplegic patients on the plantar pressure and walking asymmetry.

    PubMed

    You, Young Youl; Chung, Sin Ho; Lee, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the changes in the gait lines and plantar pressures in static and dynamic circumstances, according to the differences in the strengths of the plantar flexors in the ankle joints on the affected sides of hemiplegic patients, and to determine their impacts on walking symmetry. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty hospitalized stroke patients suffering from hemiplegia were selected in this study. The subjects had ankylosing patterns in the ankle joints of the affected sides. Fifteen of the patients had plantar flexor manual muscle testing scores between poor and fair, while fifteen of the patients had zero and trace. [Results] The contact pattern of the plantar surface with the ground is a reliable method for walking analysis, which is an important index for understanding the ankle mechanism and the relationship between the plantar surface and the ground. [Conclusion] The functional improvement of patients with stroke could be supported through a verification of the analysis methods of the therapy strategy and walking pattern.

  6. Impact of the difference in the plantar flexor strength of the ankle joint in the affected side among hemiplegic patients on the plantar pressure and walking asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    You, Young Youl; Chung, Sin Ho; Lee, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the changes in the gait lines and plantar pressures in static and dynamic circumstances, according to the differences in the strengths of the plantar flexors in the ankle joints on the affected sides of hemiplegic patients, and to determine their impacts on walking symmetry. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty hospitalized stroke patients suffering from hemiplegia were selected in this study. The subjects had ankylosing patterns in the ankle joints of the affected sides. Fifteen of the patients had plantar flexor manual muscle testing scores between poor and fair, while fifteen of the patients had zero and trace. [Results] The contact pattern of the plantar surface with the ground is a reliable method for walking analysis, which is an important index for understanding the ankle mechanism and the relationship between the plantar surface and the ground. [Conclusion] The functional improvement of patients with stroke could be supported through a verification of the analysis methods of the therapy strategy and walking pattern. PMID:27942112

  7. Joint for deployable structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  8. Measuring Hole Elongation in Bolted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement does not affect joint parameters. Verification of analytical and strength-prediction methods for bolted composite joints based generally on data obtained experimentally from double-lap-joint specimens. In mechanically fastened joints, stresses maximal at fastener holes. Ability to measure accurately hole elongations without affecting joint parameters provides better understanding of elastic and plastic behavior of joint material leading to failure mechanisms in mechanically fastened joints required for design of more-efficient, lightweight composite joints.

  9. Provocative mechanical tests of the peripheral nervous system affect the joint torque-angle during passive knee motion.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Pezarat-Correia, P

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of the head, upper trunk, and foot position on the passive knee extension (PKE) torque-angle response. PKE tests were performed in 10 healthy subjects using an isokinetic dynamometer at 2°/s. Subjects lay in the supine position with their hips flexed to 90°. The knee angle, passive torque, surface electromyography (EMG) of the semitendinosus and quadriceps vastus medialis, and stretch discomfort were recorded in six body positions during PKE. The different maximal active positions of the cervical spine (neutral; flexion; extension), thoracic spine (neutral; flexion), and ankle (neutral; dorsiflexion) were passively combined for the tests. Visual analog scale scores and EMG were unaffected by body segment positioning. An effect of the ankle joint was verified on the peak torque and knee maximum angle when the ankle was in the dorsiflexion position (P < 0.05). Upper trunk positioning had an effect on the knee submaximal torque (P < 0.05), observed as an increase in the knee passive submaximal torque when the cervical and thoracic spines were flexed (P < 0.05). In conclusion, other apparently mechanical unrelated body segments influence torque-angle response since different positions of head, upper trunk, and foot induce dissimilar knee mechanical responses during passive extension.

  10. BAYESIAN PROTEIN STRUCTURE ALIGNMENT1

    PubMed Central

    RODRIGUEZ, ABEL; SCHMIDLER, SCOTT C.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the three-dimensional structure of proteins is an important topic in molecular biochemistry. Structure plays a critical role in defining the function of proteins and is more strongly conserved than amino acid sequence over evolutionary timescales. A key challenge is the identification and evaluation of structural similarity between proteins; such analysis can aid in understanding the role of newly discovered proteins and help elucidate evolutionary relationships between organisms. Computational biologists have developed many clever algorithmic techniques for comparing protein structures, however, all are based on heuristic optimization criteria, making statistical interpretation somewhat difficult. Here we present a fully probabilistic framework for pairwise structural alignment of proteins. Our approach has several advantages, including the ability to capture alignment uncertainty and to estimate key “gap” parameters which critically affect the quality of the alignment. We show that several existing alignment methods arise as maximum a posteriori estimates under specific choices of prior distributions and error models. Our probabilistic framework is also easily extended to incorporate additional information, which we demonstrate by including primary sequence information to generate simultaneous sequence–structure alignments that can resolve ambiguities obtained using structure alone. This combined model also provides a natural approach for the difficult task of estimating evolutionary distance based on structural alignments. The model is illustrated by comparison with well-established methods on several challenging protein alignment examples. PMID:26925188

  11. Effect of long-term aging on microstructure and local behavior in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming-Liang Wang, De-Qiang; Xuan, Fu-Zhen

    2014-01-15

    Evolution of microstructure, micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength behavior was investigated in the heat-affected zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel welded joint after the artificial aging at 350 °C for 3000 h. After detailed characterization of microstructures in optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, it is revealed that the change of martensite–bainite constituent promotes more homogeneous microstructure distribution. The aging treatment facilitates redistribution of carbon and chromium elements along the welded joint, and the micro-hardness is increased slightly through the welds due to enrichment of carbon. The types of precipitates in the weldment mainly include M{sub 3}C, MC, M{sub 2}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The carbides in base metal, weld metal and coarse-grained heat-affected zone are prone to change from ellipsoidal to platelet form whereas more uniform spherical carbides are observed in the fine-grained zone. Precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} near the fusion line, and formation of MC and M{sub 2}C, are responsible for the tensile strength decrease and its smooth distribution in the aged heat-affected zone. This implies that the thermal aging can relieve strength mismatch in the weldments. - Highlights: • Microstructure homogeneity improved in HAZ after long-term aging. • Tensile strength decreased in HAZ due to precipitation and coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Strength mismatch in NiCrMoV steel welds was relieved after aging at 350 °C × 3000 h.

  12. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. Discusses some methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment is not only a methodological requirement but also an ethical requirement.…

  13. Quick-connect threaded attachment joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.; Messick, W. R.; Vasquez, P.

    1979-01-01

    Joint is self-aligning and tightens with only sixty-five degrees of rotation for quick connects and disconnects. Made of injection-molded plastics or cast or machined aluminum, joint can carry wires, tubes, liquids, or gases. When two parts of joint are brought together, their shapes align them. Small projections on male section and slots on female section further aid alignment; slight rotation of male form engages projections in slots. At this point, threads engage and male section is rotated until joint is fully engaged.

  14. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Weld Metal and Heat-Affected Zone of Electron Beam-Welded Joints of HG785D Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Jianmin; Tan, Caiwang; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Junqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vacuum electron beam welding (EBW) process was employed to butt weld 10-mm-thick HG785D high-strength steels. The penetration into the steel was adjusted by beam current. Microstructures at weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ) regions were comparatively observed. Mechanical properties of the EBWed joints including Vickers hardness, tensile and Charpy impact tests were evaluated. The results indicated that microstructures at the weld metal consisted of coarse lath martensite and a small amount of acicular martensite, while that in the HAZ was tempered sorbite and martensite. The grain size in the weld metal was found to be larger than that in the HAZ, and its proportion in weld metal was higher. The hardness in the weld metal was higher than the HAZ and base metal. The tensile strength and impact toughness in the HAZ was higher than that in the weld metal. All the behaviors were related to microstructure evolution caused by higher cooling rates and state of base metal. The fracture surfaces of tensile and impact tests on the optimized joint were characterized by uniform and ductile dimples. The results differed significantly from that obtained using arc welding process.

  15. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  16. Investigating Conversational Dynamics: Interactive Alignment, Interpersonal Synergy, and Collective Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, "interactive alignment" and "interpersonal synergy", and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between interlocutors, the synergy…

  17. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint parameters

  18. Farm management, environment, and weather factors jointly affect the probability of spinach contamination by generic Escherichia coli at the preharvest stage.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination.

  19. Farm Management, Environment, and Weather Factors Jointly Affect the Probability of Spinach Contamination by Generic Escherichia coli at the Preharvest Stage

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Lawhon, Sara; Ivanek, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The National Resources Information (NRI) databases provide underutilized information on the local farm conditions that may predict microbial contamination of leafy greens at preharvest. Our objective was to identify NRI weather and landscape factors affecting spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli individually and jointly with farm management and environmental factors. For each of the 955 georeferenced spinach samples (including 63 positive samples) collected between 2010 and 2012 on 12 farms in Colorado and Texas, we extracted variables describing the local weather (ambient temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and landscape (soil characteristics and proximity to roads and water bodies) from NRI databases. Variables describing farm management and environment were obtained from a survey of the enrolled farms. The variables were evaluated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model with random effects for farm and date. The model identified precipitation as a single NRI predictor of spinach contamination with generic E. coli, indicating that the contamination probability increases with an increasing mean amount of rain (mm) in the past 29 days (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5). The model also identified the farm's hygiene practices as a protective factor (OR = 0.06) and manure application (OR = 52.2) and state (OR = 108.1) as risk factors. In cross-validation, the model showed a solid predictive performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 81%. Overall, the findings highlighted the utility of NRI precipitation data in predicting contamination and demonstrated that farm management, environment, and weather factors should be considered jointly in development of good agricultural practices and measures to reduce produce contamination. PMID:24509926

  20. Pre-injection of hyaluronic acid does not affect the systemic effects of intra-articular depot betamethasone injection at the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Habib, George; Khatib, Muhamad; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular injection (IAI) of both hyaluronic acid (HA) and depot-steroid preparations had the advantage of quick and prolonged favorable effects on pain relief among patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The effect of IAI of HA on the systemic effects of the intra-articular steroids had not been investigated. Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology clinic with symptomatic OAK who failed NSAIDS and physical therapy were offered an IAI of HA at the knee joint followed 20 min later by an IAI of 1 ml of Celestone Chronodose at the same joint (group 1). Morning serum levels of cortisol were obtained just prior to the IAI and 1, 2 and 8 days later. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were obtained also from all the patients. Age- and sex-matched group of patients from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (group 2). Mean baseline serum cortisol levels in group 1 was 381 ± 154 mmol/l vs. 376 ± 119 in group 2 (p = 0.954). Morning serum cortisol levels at day 1 and day 2 were 24 ± 6 and 22 ± 6 mmol/l, respectively, in group 1 patients vs. 27 ± 5.8 (p = 0.214) and 25 ± 5.6 mmol/l (p = 0.200), respectively, in group 2. These levels were significantly lower than baseline levels in each group. Morning serum cortisol levels at day 8 in group 1 and group 2 were 349 ± 128 and 314 ± 99 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.419). Pre-injection of HA at the knee joint did not affect the systemic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of IAI of Celestone Chronodose.

  1. Erasing Errors due to Alignment Ambiguity When Estimating Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Redelings, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Current estimates of diversifying positive selection rely on first having an accurate multiple sequence alignment. Simulation studies have shown that under biologically plausible conditions, relying on a single estimate of the alignment from commonly used alignment software can lead to unacceptably high false-positive rates in detecting diversifying positive selection. We present a novel statistical method that eliminates excess false positives resulting from alignment error by jointly estimating the degree of positive selection and the alignment under an evolutionary model. Our model treats both substitutions and insertions/deletions as sequence changes on a tree and allows site heterogeneity in the substitution process. We conduct inference starting from unaligned sequence data by integrating over all alignments. This approach naturally accounts for ambiguous alignments without requiring ambiguously aligned sites to be identified and removed prior to analysis. We take a Bayesian approach and conduct inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo to integrate over all alignments on a fixed evolutionary tree topology. We introduce a Bayesian version of the branch-site test and assess the evidence for positive selection using Bayes factors. We compare two models of differing dimensionality using a simple alternative to reversible-jump methods. We also describe a more accurate method of estimating the Bayes factor using Rao-Blackwellization. We then show using simulated data that jointly estimating the alignment and the presence of positive selection solves the problem with excessive false positives from erroneous alignments and has nearly the same power to detect positive selection as when the true alignment is known. We also show that samples taken from the posterior alignment distribution using the software BAli-Phy have substantially lower alignment error compared with MUSCLE, MAFFT, PRANK, and FSA alignments. PMID:24866534

  2. Adolescents after Pemberton's osteotomy for developmental dysplasia of the hip displayed greater joint loading than healthy controls in affected and unaffected limbs during gait.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chu-Fen; Wang, Ting-Ming; Wang, Jyh-Horng; Huang, Shier-Chieg; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2011-07-01

    Patients after reduced developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) are at higher than normal risk of developing avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head and degenerative hip osteoarthritis (OA) that are closely related to abnormal loadings. We aimed to determine the lower limb loadings in adolescents after Pemberton's osteotomy for unilateral DDH. Eleven females (age: 10.6 ± 1.0 years), who had received Pemberton's osteotomy for unilateral DDH at 1.6 ± 0.5 years of age, and 12 age-matched healthy controls were studied using gait analysis. Compared to the normal controls, the patients were displayed greater peak axial forces at the hip, knee, and ankle in both limbs, with greater loading rates in the ground reaction force (GRF) and at the hips (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The increased rates of repetitive loading around heel strike in both hips suggest that patients treated for unilateral DDH using Pemberton's osteotomy may be at higher risk of premature hip OA. The increased axial forces at the affected hip may be a contributing factor to the development of AVN of the femoral head in these patients, especially when incomplete coverage, insufficient congruency, and/or damaged articular surfaces remain after the osteotomy. Therefore, monitoring the loading condition at the hip is necessary for a more accurate assessment of the risk of developing joint pathology in patients after reduced DDH.

  3. MP-Align: alignment of metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparing the metabolic pathways of different species is useful for understanding metabolic functions and can help in studying diseases and engineering drugs. Several comparison techniques for metabolic pathways have been introduced in the literature as a first attempt in this direction. The approaches are based on some simplified representation of metabolic pathways and on a related definition of a similarity score (or distance measure) between two pathways. More recent comparative research focuses on alignment techniques that can identify similar parts between pathways. Results We propose a methodology for the pairwise comparison and alignment of metabolic pathways that aims at providing the largest conserved substructure of the pathways under consideration. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a tool called MP-Align, which has been used to perform several validation tests. The results showed that our similarity score makes it possible to discriminate between different domains and to reconstruct a meaningful phylogeny from metabolic data. The results further demonstrate that our alignment algorithm correctly identifies subpathways sharing a common biological function. Conclusion The results of the validation tests performed with MP-Align are encouraging. A comparison with another proposal in the literature showed that our alignment algorithm is particularly well-suited to finding the largest conserved subpathway of the pathways under examination. PMID:24886436

  4. Girder Alignment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zackary; Ruland, Robert; LeCocq, Catherine; Lundahl, Eric; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; Rago, Carl; Poling, Ben; Schafer, Donald; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Wienands, Uli; /SLAC

    2010-11-18

    The girders for the LCLS undulator system contain components which must be aligned with high accuracy relative to each other. The alignment is one of the last steps before the girders go into the tunnel, so the alignment must be done efficiently, on a tight schedule. This note documents the alignment plan which includes efficiency and high accuracy. The motivation for girder alignment involves the following considerations. Using beam based alignment, the girder position will be adjusted until the beam goes through the center of the quadrupole and beam finder wire. For the machine to work properly, the undulator axis must be on this line and the center of the undulator beam pipe must be on this line. The physics reasons for the undulator axis and undulator beam pipe axis to be centered on the beam are different, but the alignment tolerance for both are similar. In addition, the beam position monitor must be centered on the beam to preserve its calibration. Thus, the undulator, undulator beam pipe, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and beam position monitor axes must all be aligned to a common line. All relative alignments are equally important, not just, for example, between quadrupole and undulator. We begin by making the common axis the nominal beam axis in the girder coordinate system. All components will be initially aligned to this axis. A more accurate alignment will then position the components relative to each other, without incorporating the girder itself.

  5. Knee alignment in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2002-01-01

    This study determined lower-limb alignment and knee geometry in professional tennis players and compared the data with those from nonathletic individuals. Twenty-four radiographs from 12 asymptomatic players (mean age: 23.4+/-3.8 years) were prospectively studied. The three angles most useful for describing limb alignment and knee geometry in the coronal plane were measured: hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, and plateau-ankle. The condylar-plateau angle, frontal foot rotation angle, and the relationship between the mechanical axis and tibial plateau also were calculated. Varus limb alignment was predominant and the mechanical axis passed medially through the knee center; there was increased valgus inclination of the distal femur, varus angulation of the tibial plateau, near parallel alignment of the joint, and exaggerated external foot rotation. Hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, plateau-ankle, and frontal foot rotation angles were significantly different (P<.05, two-tailed t test) from previously reported angles of nonathletic individuals. Variations, probably due to repetitive dynamic demands imposed on lower limbs from an early age, seem to involve both femoral condyles and proximal tibial metaphyses, maintaining normal parallel joint alignment.

  6. An effortless procedure to align the local frame of an inertial measurement unit to the local frame of another motion capture system.

    PubMed

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-08-31

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) offer great opportunities to analyze segmental and joints kinematics. When combined with another motion capture system (MCS), for example, to validate new IMU-based applications or to develop mixed systems, it is necessary to align the local frame of the IMU sensors to the local frame of the MCS. Currently, all alignment methods use landmarks on the IMU's casing. Therefore, they can only be used with well-documented IMUs and they are prone to error when the IMU's casing is small. This study proposes an effortless procedure to align the local frame of any IMU to the local frame of any other MCS able to measure the orientation of its local frame. The general concept of this method is to derive the gyroscopic angles for both devices during an alignment movement, and then to use an optimization algorithm to calculate the alignment matrix between both local frames. The alignment movement consists of rotations around three more or less orthogonal axes and it can easily be performed by hands. To test the alignment procedure, an IMU and a magnetic marker were attached to a plate, and 20 alignment movements were recorded. The maximum errors of alignment (accuracy±precision) were 1.02°±0.32° and simulations showed that the method was robust against noise that typically affect IMUs. In conclusion, this study describes an efficient alignment procedure that is quick and easy to perform, and that does not require any alignment device or any knowledge about the IMU casing.

  7. The Influence of Component Alignment and Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Colin R.; Vignos, Michael F.; Lenhart, Rachel L.; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization technique was used to simultaneously predict muscle forces, secondary knee kinematics, ligament forces, and joint contact pressures from standard gait analysis data collected on the subject. The nominal knee model predictions of medial, lateral, and total contact forces during gait agreed well with TKR measures, with root-mean-square (rms) errors of 0.23, 0.22, and 0.33 body weight (BW), respectively. Coronal plane component alignment did not affect total knee contact loads, but did alter the medial–lateral load distribution, with 4 deg varus and 4 deg valgus rotations in component alignment inducing +17% and −23% changes in the first peak medial tibiofemoral contact forces, respectively. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that uncertainties in ligament stiffness and reference strains induce ±0.2 BW uncertainty in tibiofemoral force estimates over the gait cycle. Ligament properties had substantial influence on the TKR load distributions, with the medial collateral ligament and iliotibial band (ITB) properties having the largest effects on medial and lateral compartment loading, respectively. The computational framework provides a viable approach for virtually designing TKR components, considering parametric uncertainty and predicting the effects of joint alignment and soft tissue balancing procedures on TKR function during movement. PMID:26769446

  8. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  9. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used 'nonlinear alignment model,' finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the 'GI' term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  10. Soft-Capture Mechanism For Collet Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Soft-capture mechanism part of latching-and-rigidifying mechanism joining strut rigidly to node on truss. Latching-and-rigidifying mechanism of spreading-collet type, in which collet inserted into base that mates with collet to assure proper alignment, then collet spread to rigidify joint, fixing alignment. Designed to be operable by heavily gloved hand or by robot.

  11. Registration of knee joint surfaces for the in vivo study of joint injuries based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rita W. T.; Habib, Ayman F.; Frayne, Richard; Ronsky, Janet L.

    2006-03-01

    In-vivo quantitative assessments of joint conditions and health status can help to increase understanding of the pathology of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects a large population each year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive and accurate means to assess and monitor joint properties, and has become widely used for diagnosis and biomechanics studies. Quantitative analyses and comparisons of MR datasets require accurate alignment of anatomical structures, thus image registration becomes a necessary procedure for these applications. This research focuses on developing a registration technique for MR knee joint surfaces to allow quantitative study of joint injuries and health status. It introduces a novel idea of translating techniques originally developed for geographic data in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing to register 3D MR data. The proposed algorithm works with surfaces that are represented by randomly distributed points with no requirement of known correspondences. The algorithm performs matching locally by identifying corresponding surface elements, and solves for the transformation parameters relating the surfaces by minimizing normal distances between them. This technique was used in three applications to: 1) register temporal MR data to verify the feasibility of the algorithm to help monitor diseases, 2) quantify patellar movement with respect to the femur based on the transformation parameters, and 3) quantify changes in contact area locations between the patellar and femoral cartilage at different knee flexion angles. The results indicate accurate registration and the proposed algorithm can be applied for in-vivo study of joint injuries with MRI.

  12. Formation of tough composite joints

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coated fibers had a 0/90{degree} architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses.

  13. The radiology of joint disease. 3rd Ed

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a systematic radiographic approach to the arthritides. Part one deals with hand abnormalities ''to facilitate the teaching of basic principles and to dramatize the differences between radiographic features of various arthritides,'' as stated in the forward of the first edition. Part two, ''Arthritis from Head to Foot,'' illustrates the same diseases as they affect other joints. The ABCs (alignment, bone mineralization, cartilage space, soft tissue) approach is followed throughout the book. For example, reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is dealt with in six different locations, and metatarsal stress fractures are mentioned in a chapter on erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to contributions and expenditures intended to affect elections.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2013-06-18

    09/11/2014 Cloture on the joint resolution not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 54 - 42. Record Vote Number: 261. (consideration: CR S5543-5544; text: CR S5543-5544) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  16. Precision alignment device

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Nelson E.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam.

  17. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  18. Lower Limbs Alignment in Patients with a Unilateral Completely Dislocated Hip

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Shinsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Ide, Shuya; Nagamine, Satomi; Tajima, Tomonori; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Severe hip osteoarthritis is known to lead to secondary osteoarthritis of the knee joint. It is not clear whether contracture or a leg length discrepancy is more important in determining the knee alignment. Methods: In this study, 48 hips in 48 patients with a unilateral completely dislocated hip (Crowe IV) were recruited. The patients were divided into two groups (Crowe IVa and IVb). The Crowe IVa group had completely dislocation with psudo-articulation, and the Crowe IVb group had completely dislocation without psudo-articulation. The lower limb alignment was divided into three patterns according to the femorotibial angle; varus (≥176 degrees), neutral(170 to 175 degrees) and valgus(≤169 degrees). Results: The combination of valgus alignment on the affected side and varus alignment on the unaffected side, so-called “windswept deformity” was observed in 12.5% of the patients; this included 18.2% and 7.7%, in the Crowe IVa and Crowe IVb groups, respectively. The valgus alignment on the unaffected side, namely “long leg arthropathy,” was found to have occurred in 6.3% of the patients, including 13.6% of the patients in the Crowe IVa group; there were no cases of long “leg arthropathy” in the Crowe IVb group. Conclusion: The lower limb alignment on the unaffected side had a tendency to be varus in the Crowe IV patients. The “windswept deformity” was observed in each of the groups; however, “long leg arthropathy” was only found in the Crowe IVa group. PMID:27733883

  19. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  20. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…

  1. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator`s two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line.

  2. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be done include: CBC or blood differential C-reactive protein Joint x-ray Sedimentation rate ... chap 256. Schaible H-G. Joint pain: basic mechanisms. In: McMahon SB, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk ...

  3. Joint Interdiction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-09

    Purpose This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth joint doctrine to govern the...governmental and nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other interorganizational partners. It provides military guidance for the...exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other joint force commanders (JFCs), and prescribes joint doctrine for operations and training. It

  4. Simplified procedures for designing composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1988-01-01

    Simplified procedures are described to design and analyze single and multi-bolt composite joints. Numerical examples illustrate the use of these methods. Factors affecting composite bolted joints are summarized. References are cited where more detailed discussion is presented on specific aspects of composite bolted joints. Design variables associated with these joints are summarized in the appendix.

  5. Simplified procedures for designing composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified procedures are described to design and analyze single and multi-bolt composite joints. Numerical examples illustrate the use of these methods. Factors affecting composite bolted joints are summarized. References are cited where more detailed discussion is presented on specific aspects of composite bolted joints. Design variables associated with these joints are summarized in the appendix.

  6. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  7. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  8. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  10. 42 CFR 422.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 422.1040 Section 422.1040 Public....1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same or... the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If joint hearings are...

  11. Joint Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  12. Curriculum Alignment Research Suggests that Alignment Can Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum alignment research has developed showing the relationship among three alignment categories: the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum and the written curriculum. Each pair (for example, the taught and the written curriculum) shows a positive impact for aligning those results. Following this, alignment results from the Third…

  13. Metalized nanotube tips improve through thickness thermal conductivity in adhesive joints.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Sihn, Sangwook; Roy, Ajit K; Dai, Liming; Qu, Liangti

    2009-03-01

    The through-thickness thermal conductivity in conventional adhesive joints (of approximately 0.3 W/m-K) fails to meet the thermal load transfer requirement in numerous applications to enable lean manufacturing and improve system reliability to thermal load. Carbon nanotubes are known to possess extremely high thermal conductivity along the longitudinal axis. According to molecular dynamics simulations, the value can be as high as 3500 W/m-K at room temperature for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Meanwhile, the transverse thermal conductivity perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the MWCNTs is known to be relatively low, approximately 10-15 W/m-K. Existing studies of mixing the MWCNTs in polymers for adhesive joints only achieved minimal enhancement in the thermal conductivity and failed to satisfy the thermal property requirement for the adhesive joints. In order to properly utilize the superior axial thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs, vertically aligned MWCNTs have been used in this study and incorporated in the adhesive joint configuration. Analytical parametric study was conducted to identify critical parameters that affect the overall thermal conductivity of the joint and to provide guidelines for the process development. The process development involved growing the vertically aligned MWCNTs on silicon wafers. The aligned nanotube array was partially infused with epoxy adhesive. Selective reactive ion etching of the epoxy revealed the nanotube tips. In order to reduce the impedance mismatch and phonon scattering at the interface between the nanotube tips and the adherends, gold was thermally evaporated on the nanotube tips. The measured thermal conductivity of the adhesive joint device incorporating the MWCNTs was 262 W/m-K, which is significantly larger compared to that of less than 1 W/m-K without the MWCNTs.

  14. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    the joints can slide downslope; they can also buckle, resulting in a further breakdown of the rock. Understanding how sheeting joints evolve in three dimensions through time remains an outstanding challenge and would illuminate their affect on landscapes, slope stability, and fluid flow.

  15. Preliminary estimate of coal resources in the Gillette coalfield affected by the location of the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This publication, primarily in graphic form, presents a preliminary resource assessment related to a major, near-term restriction to mining in that portion of the Gillette coalfield, Wyoming, that is traversed by the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad. This assessment is part of a current Powder River Basin regional coal assessment, including both resources and reserves, being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The slides were used to illustrate a presentation of study results at a meeting of the Bureau of Land Management's Regional Coal Team in Casper, Wyoming on April 19, 2006 by the senior author.

  16. Magnetically Aligned Supramolecular Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Matthew; Cardoso, Andre Zamith; Frith, William J; Iggo, Jonathan A; Adams, Dave J

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic-field-induced alignment of the fibrillar structures present in an aqueous solution of a dipeptide gelator, and the subsequent retention of this alignment upon transformation to a hydrogel upon the addition of CaCl2 or upon a reduction in solution pH is reported. Utilising the switchable nature of the magnetic field coupled with the slow diffusion of CaCl2, it is possible to precisely control the extent of anisotropy across a hydrogel, something that is generally very difficult to do using alternative methods. The approach is readily extended to other compounds that form viscous solutions at high pH. It is expected that this work will greatly expand the utility of such low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWG) in areas where alignment is key. PMID:25345918

  17. Improved docking alignment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Improved techniques are provided for the alignment of two objects. The present invention is particularly suited for 3-D translation and 3-D rotational alignment of objects in outer space. A camera is affixed to one object, such as a remote manipulator arm of the spacecraft, while the planar reflective surface is affixed to the other object, such as a grapple fixture. A monitor displays in real-time images from the camera such that the monitor displays both the reflected image of the camera and visible marking on the planar reflective surface when the objects are in proper alignment. The monitor may thus be viewed by the operator and the arm manipulated so that the reflective surface is perpendicular to the optical axis of the camera, the roll of the reflective surface is at a selected angle with respect to the camera, and the camera is spaced a pre-selected distance from the reflective surface.

  18. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  19. PILOT optical alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.

    2016-07-01

    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  20. Aligned-or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Koppal, Mary

    2015-01-01

    When state leaders and national partners in the development of the Next Generation Science Standards met to consider implementation strategies, states and school districts wanted to know which materials were aligned to the new standards. The answer from the developers was short but not sweet: You won't find much now, and it's going to…

  1. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  2. Curriculum Alignment: Establishing Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Philippe; Dumont, Laurence; Brunet, Sabine; Boucher, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a step-by-step guide to implement a curricular alignment project, directed at professional development and student support, and developed in a higher education French as a second language department. We outline best practices and preliminary results from our experience and provide ways to adapt our experience to other…

  3. Conceptual Alignment: How Brains Achieve Mutual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    We share our thoughts with other minds, but we do not understand how. Having a common language certainly helps, but infants' and tourists' communicative success clearly illustrates that sharing thoughts does not require signals with a pre-assigned meaning. In fact, human communicators jointly build a fleeting conceptual space in which signals are a means to seek and provide evidence for mutual understanding. Recent work has started to capture the neural mechanisms supporting those fleeting conceptual alignments. The evidence suggests that communicators and addressees achieve mutual understanding by using the same computational procedures, implemented in the same neuronal substrate, and operating over temporal scales independent from the signals' occurrences.

  4. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards. The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the CCSS; each…

  5. Toolkit for Evaluating Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    In joint partnership, Achieve, The Council of Chief State School Officers, and Student Achievement Partners have developed a Toolkit for Evaluating the Alignment of Instructional and Assessment Materials to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The Toolkit is a set of interrelated, freely available instruments for evaluating alignment to the…

  6. MUSE alignment onto VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dupuy, Christophe; Jarno, Aurélien; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Migniau, Jean-Emmanuel; Nicklas, Harald; Piqueras, Laure

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It combines a 1' x 1' field of view sampled at 0.2 arcsec for its Wide Field Mode (WFM) and a 7.5"x7.5" field of view for its Narrow Field Mode (NFM). Both modes will operate with the improved spatial resolution provided by GALACSI (Ground Atmospheric Layer Adaptive Optics for Spectroscopic Imaging), that will use the VLT deformable secondary mirror and 4 Laser Guide Stars (LGS) foreseen in 2015. MUSE operates in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transported, fully aligned and without any optomechanical dismounting, onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame the 7th of February, 2014. This paper describes the alignment procedure of the whole MUSE instrument with respect to the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It describes how 6 tons could be move with accuracy better than 0.025mm and less than 0.25 arcmin in order to reach alignment requirements. The success

  7. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  8. Image Correlation Method for DNA Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Curilem Saldías, Millaray; Villarroel Sassarini, Felipe; Muñoz Poblete, Carlos; Vargas Vásquez, Asticio; Maureira Butler, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of searches and the volume of genomic data make sequence alignment one of bioinformatics most active research areas. New alignment approaches have incorporated digital signal processing techniques. Among these, correlation methods are highly sensitive. This paper proposes a novel sequence alignment method based on 2-dimensional images, where each nucleic acid base is represented as a fixed gray intensity pixel. Query and known database sequences are coded to their pixel representation and sequence alignment is handled as object recognition in a scene problem. Query and database become object and scene, respectively. An image correlation process is carried out in order to search for the best match between them. Given that this procedure can be implemented in an optical correlator, the correlation could eventually be accomplished at light speed. This paper shows an initial research stage where results were “digitally” obtained by simulating an optical correlation of DNA sequences represented as images. A total of 303 queries (variable lengths from 50 to 4500 base pairs) and 100 scenes represented by 100 x 100 images each (in total, one million base pair database) were considered for the image correlation analysis. The results showed that correlations reached very high sensitivity (99.01%), specificity (98.99%) and outperformed BLAST when mutation numbers increased. However, digital correlation processes were hundred times slower than BLAST. We are currently starting an initiative to evaluate the correlation speed process of a real experimental optical correlator. By doing this, we expect to fully exploit optical correlation light properties. As the optical correlator works jointly with the computer, digital algorithms should also be optimized. The results presented in this paper are encouraging and support the study of image correlation methods on sequence alignment. PMID:22761742

  9. Image correlation method for DNA sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Curilem Saldías, Millaray; Villarroel Sassarini, Felipe; Muñoz Poblete, Carlos; Vargas Vásquez, Asticio; Maureira Butler, Iván

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of searches and the volume of genomic data make sequence alignment one of bioinformatics most active research areas. New alignment approaches have incorporated digital signal processing techniques. Among these, correlation methods are highly sensitive. This paper proposes a novel sequence alignment method based on 2-dimensional images, where each nucleic acid base is represented as a fixed gray intensity pixel. Query and known database sequences are coded to their pixel representation and sequence alignment is handled as object recognition in a scene problem. Query and database become object and scene, respectively. An image correlation process is carried out in order to search for the best match between them. Given that this procedure can be implemented in an optical correlator, the correlation could eventually be accomplished at light speed. This paper shows an initial research stage where results were "digitally" obtained by simulating an optical correlation of DNA sequences represented as images. A total of 303 queries (variable lengths from 50 to 4500 base pairs) and 100 scenes represented by 100 x 100 images each (in total, one million base pair database) were considered for the image correlation analysis. The results showed that correlations reached very high sensitivity (99.01%), specificity (98.99%) and outperformed BLAST when mutation numbers increased. However, digital correlation processes were hundred times slower than BLAST. We are currently starting an initiative to evaluate the correlation speed process of a real experimental optical correlator. By doing this, we expect to fully exploit optical correlation light properties. As the optical correlator works jointly with the computer, digital algorithms should also be optimized. The results presented in this paper are encouraging and support the study of image correlation methods on sequence alignment.

  10. Inexact Local Alignment Search over Suffix Arrays.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Mohammadreza; Pop, Mihai

    2009-11-01

    We describe an algorithm for finding approximate seeds for DNA homology searches. In contrast to previous algorithms that use exact or spaced seeds, our approximate seeds may contain insertions and deletions. We present a generalized heuristic for finding such seeds efficiently and prove that the heuristic does not affect sensitivity. We show how to adapt this algorithm to work over the memory efficient suffix array with provably minimal overhead in running time.We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on two tasks: whole genome alignment of bacteria and alignment of the DNA sequences of 177 genes that are orthologous in human and mouse. We show our algorithm achieves better sensitivity and uses less memory than other commonly used local alignment tools.

  11. Inflation by alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.P.; Roest, Diederik

    2015-06-08

    Pseudo-Goldstone bosons (pGBs) can provide technically natural inflatons, as has been comparatively well-explored in the simplest axion examples. Although inflationary success requires trans-Planckian decay constants, f≳M{sub p}, several mechanisms have been proposed to obtain this, relying on (mis-)alignments between potential and kinetic energies in multiple-field models. We extend these mechanisms to a broader class of inflationary models, including in particular the exponential potentials that arise for pGB potentials based on noncompact groups (and so which might apply to moduli in an extra-dimensional setting). The resulting potentials provide natural large-field inflationary models and can predict a larger primordial tensor signal than is true for simpler single-field versions of these models. In so doing we provide a unified treatment of several alignment mechanisms, showing how each emerges as a limit of the more general setup.

  12. Automatic Word Alignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    strategy was evalu­ ated in the context of English -to-Pashto (E2P) and Pashto-to- English (P2E), a low-resource language pair. For E2P, the training and...improves the quality of automatic word alignment, for example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT...example for resource poor language pairs, thus improving Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  13. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  14. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  15. Multiple protein structure alignment.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

  16. Dynamic Alignment at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2003-04-23

    The relative alignment of components in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) is guaranteed by mechanical means. The magnets are rigidly fixed to 48 girders by means of alignment rails with tolerances of less than {+-}15 {micro}m. The bending magnets, supported by 3 point ball bearings, overlap adjacent girders and thus establish virtual train links between the girders, located near the bending magnet centres. Keeping the distortion of the storage ring geometry within a tolerance of {+-}100 {micro}m in order to guarantee sufficient dynamic apertures, requires continuous monitoring and correction of the girder locations. Two monitoring systems for the horizontal and the vertical direction will be installed to measure displacements of the train link between girders, which are due to ground settings and temperature effects: The hydrostatic levelling system (HLS) gives an absolute vertical reference, while the horizontal positioning system (HPS), which employs low cost linear encoders with sub-micron resolution, measures relative horizontal movements. The girder mover system based on five DC motors per girder allows a dynamic realignment of the storage ring within a working window of more than {+-}1 mm for girder translations and {+-}1 mrad for rotations. We will describe both monitoring systems (HLS and HPS) as well as the applied correction scheme based on the girder movers. We also show simulations indicating that beam based girder alignment takes care of most of the static closed orbit correction.

  17. Joint Attention in Autism: Teaching Smiling Coordinated with Gaze to Respond to Joint Attention Bids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krstovska-Guerrero, Ivana; Jones, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism demonstrate early deficits in joint attention and expressions of affect. Interventions to teach joint attention have addressed gaze behavior, gestures, and vocalizations, but have not specifically taught an expression of positive affect such as smiling that tends to occur during joint attention interactions. Intervention was…

  18. Method for alignment of microwires

    DOEpatents

    Beardslee, Joseph A.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Sadtler, Bryce

    2017-01-24

    A method of aligning microwires includes modifying the microwires so they are more responsive to a magnetic field. The method also includes using a magnetic field so as to magnetically align the microwires. The method can further include capturing the microwires in a solid support structure that retains the longitudinal alignment of the microwires when the magnetic field is not applied to the microwires.

  19. Alignment as a Teacher Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Smithson, John; Blank, Rolf; Zeidner, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of the procedures developed by Porter and colleagues (Porter, 2002), other methods of defining and measuring alignment are essentially limited to alignment between tests and standards. Porter's procedures have been generalized to investigating the alignment between content standards, tests, textbooks, and even classroom…

  20. Normalized entropy measure for multimodality image alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studholme, Colin; Hawkes, David J.; Hill, Derek L.

    1998-06-01

    Automated multi-modality 3D medical image alignment has been an active area of research for many years. There have been a number of recent papers proposing and investigating the use of entropy derived measures of brain image alignment. Any registration measure must allow us to choose between transformation estimates based on the similarity of images within their volume of overlap. Since 3D medical images often have a limited extent and overlap, the similarity measure for the two transformation estimates may be derived from two very different regions within the images. Direct measures of information such as the joint entropy and mutual information will therefore be a function of, not only image similarity in the region of overlap, but also of the local image content within the overlap. In this paper we present a new measure, normalized mutual information, which is simply the ratio of the sum of the marginal entropies and the joint entropy. The effect of changing overlap on current entropy measures and this normalized measure are compared using a simple image model and experiments on clinical MR-PET and MR-CT image data. Results indicate that the normalized entropy measure provides significantly improved behavior over a range of imaged fields of view.

  1. Sagittal alignment of the spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. J.; Liu, F.; Zhu, Y.W.; Sun, M.H.; Qiu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Normal sagittal spine-pelvis-lower extremity alignment is crucial in humans for maintaining an ergonomic upright standing posture, and pathogenesis in any segment leads to poor balance. The present study aimed to investigate how this sagittal alignment can be affected by severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and whether associated changes corresponded with symptoms of lower back pain (LBP) in this patient population. Methods Lateral radiograph films in an upright standing position were obtained from 59 patients with severe KOA and 58 asymptomatic controls free from KOA. Sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, hip and proximal femur was quantified by measuring several radiographic parameters. Global balance was accessed according to the relative position of the C7 plumb line to the sacrum and femoral heads. The presence of chronic LBP was documented. Comparisons between the two groups were carried by independent samples t-tests or chi-squared test. Results Patients with severe KOA showed significant backward femoral inclination (FI), hip flexion, forward spinal inclination, and higher prevalence of global imbalance (27.1% versus 3.4%, p < 0.001) compared with controls. In addition, patients with FI of 10° (n = 23) showed reduced lumbar lordosis and significant forward spinal inclination compared with controls, whereas those with FI > 10° (n = 36) presented with significant pelvic anteversion and hip flexion. A total of 39 patients with KOA (66.1%) suffered from LBP. There was no significant difference in sagittal alignment between KOA patients with and without LBP. Conclusions The sagittal alignment of spine-pelvis-lower extremity axis was significantly influenced by severe KOA. The lumbar spine served as the primary source of compensation, while hip flexion and pelvic anteversion increased for further compensation. Changes in sagittal alignment may not be involved in the pathogenesis of LBP in this patient population. Cite this article: W. J. Wang, F. Liu

  2. Scalable cell alignment on optical media substrates.

    PubMed

    Anene-Nzelu, Chukwuemeka G; Choudhury, Deepak; Li, Huipeng; Fraiszudeen, Azmall; Peh, Kah-Yim; Toh, Yi-Chin; Ng, Sum Huan; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2013-07-01

    Cell alignment by underlying topographical cues has been shown to affect important biological processes such as differentiation and functional maturation in vitro. However, the routine use of cell culture substrates with micro- or nano-topographies, such as grooves, is currently hampered by the high cost and specialized facilities required to produce these substrates. Here we present cost-effective commercially available optical media as substrates for aligning cells in culture. These optical media, including CD-R, DVD-R and optical grating, allow different cell types to attach and grow well on them. The physical dimension of the grooves in these optical media allowed cells to be aligned in confluent cell culture with maximal cell-cell interaction and these cell alignment affect the morphology and differentiation of cardiac (H9C2), skeletal muscle (C2C12) and neuronal (PC12) cell lines. The optical media is amenable to various chemical modifications with fibronectin, laminin and gelatin for culturing different cell types. These low-cost commercially available optical media can serve as scalable substrates for research or drug safety screening applications in industry scales.

  3. Effects of diatomic reagent alignment on the A + BC reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattengill, M. D.; Zare, R. N.; Jaffe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A computational study is reported on the A + BC - AB + C bimolecular exchange reaction in which BC is aligned with respect to the approach direction of atom A so that the initial rotational angular momentum vector of BC is either parallel (or equivalently antiparallel) or perpendicular to the initial velocity vector of A. The calculations employ a modification of the extended LEPS potential, which permits straightforward generation of noncollinear minimum energy reaction paths. The calculations clearly demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment can markedly affect the nature of reaction product early partitioning; they also demonstrate that diatomic reagent alignment affects reactive cross sections.

  4. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  5. Compliant joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Wayne D. (Inventor); Kerley, James J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A compliant joint is provided for prosthetic and robotic devices which permits rotation in three different planes. The joint provides for the controlled use of cable under motion. Perpendicular outer mounting frames are joined by swaged cables that interlock at a center block. Ball bearings allow for the free rotation of the second mounting frame relative to the first mounting frame within a predetermined angular rotation that is controlled by two stop devices. The cables allow for compliance at the stops and the cables allow for compliance in six degrees of freedom enabling the duplication or simulation of the rotational movement and flexibility of a natural hip or knee joint, as well as the simulation of a joint designed for a specific robotic component for predetermined design parameters.

  6. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content The Joint Commission Log In | Request Guest Access Forgot password? | Log In Help Contact Us | Careers | JCR Web Store | Press Room Search Home Accreditation Accreditation Ambulatory Health ...

  7. 38 CFR 4.66 - Sacroiliac joint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permit assumption of pure traumatic origin, objective evidence of damage to the joint, and history of... paralysis attributable to disease affecting the lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral disc....

  8. Engineering cell alignment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Huang, Guoyou; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Du, Yanan; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Cell alignment plays a critical role in various cell behaviors including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane protein relocation, nucleus gene expression, and ECM remodeling. Cell alignment is also known to exert significant effects on tissue regeneration (e.g., neuron) and modulate mechanical properties of tissues including skeleton, cardiac muscle and tendon. Therefore, it is essential to engineer cell alignment in vitro for biomechanics, cell biology, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. With advances in nano- and micro-scale technologies, a variety of approaches have been developed to engineer cell alignment in vitro, including mechanical loading, topographical patterning, and surface chemical treatment. In this review, we first present alignments of various cell types and their functionality in different tissues in vivo including muscle and nerve tissues. Then, we provide an overview of recent approaches for engineering cell alignment in vitro. Finally, concluding remarks and perspectives are addressed for future improvement of engineering cell alignment.

  9. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  10. Alignment and assembly tool for very large diameter cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehl, James H. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An alignment and assembly tool is disclosed for aligning the ends of two very large cylinders so that the ends may be welded with a cylindrical strengthening section inserted between the cylinders and aligned and welded into the joint. The tool has a U-shaped main body with a horizontal top section and two legs, which are attached to the ends of the top section and extend outward and downward. Horizontal bottom sections extend outward from the bottoms of two of the legs. The tool has one inner jackscrew and one outer jackscrew on each side of its center, extending downward from the top section. Each of the two bottom sections has an attached side clamp for clamping the alignment tool to two opposing skin stringers of two of the cylinders. The jackscrews are adjusted to bring the edges of a tee ring into precise alignment with the ends of the two large cylinders so that both joints may be welded around their circumference.

  11. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  12. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  13. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  14. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the proceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  15. 42 CFR 423.1040 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 423.1040 Section 423.1040 Public... Penalties § 423.1040 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and the same... and place for the prehearing conference or hearing and conduct all proceedings jointly. If...

  16. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  17. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the preceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  18. 42 CFR 498.54 - Joint hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Joint hearings. 498.54 Section 498.54 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.54 Joint hearings. When two or more affected parties have requested hearings and... joint hearings are held, a single record of the proceedings is made and a separate decision issued...

  19. Regional Alignment: Phase Zero Logistics Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    operations in OIF affected doctrinal language and organizational change in the shift from a regional aligned structure. 17John Sloan Brown, Kevlar ...26John Sloan Brown, Kevlar Legions: The Transformations of the United States Army 1989-2005 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2011), 139...it remains the preeminent information age Army. To do this Force XXI incorporates a holistic approach to change. The innovative approach that we

  20. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  1. Nova laser alignment control system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-03-29

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system.

  2. Nuclear reactor internals alignment configuration

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2009-11-10

    An alignment system that employs jacking block assemblies and alignment posts around the periphery of the top plate of a nuclear reactor lower internals core shroud to align an upper core plate with the lower internals and the core shroud with the core barrel. The distal ends of the alignment posts are chamfered and are closely received within notches machined in the upper core plate at spaced locations around the outer circumference of the upper core plate. The jacking block assemblies are used to center the core shroud in the core barrel and the alignment posts assure the proper orientation of the upper core plate. The alignment posts may alternately be formed in the upper core plate and the notches may be formed in top plate.

  3. Aligned Defrosting Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 August 2004 This July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of aligned barchan sand dunes in the martian north polar region. At the time, the dunes were covered with seasonal frost, but the frost had begun to sublime away, leaving dark spots and dark outlines around the dunes. The surrounding plains exhibit small, diffuse spots that are also the result of subliming seasonal frost. This northern spring image, acquired on a descending ground track (as MGS was moving north to south on the 'night' side of Mars) is located near 78.8oN, 34.8oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  4. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  5. The alignment strategy of HADES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenova, O.; Pechenov, V.; Galatyuk, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Kornakov, G.; Markert, J.; Müntz, C.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Stroth, J.

    2015-06-01

    The global as well as intrinsic alignment of any spectrometer impacts directly on its performance and the quality of the achievable physics results. An overview of the current alignment procedure of the DiElectron Spectrometer HADES is presented with an emphasis on its main features and its accuracy. The sequence of all steps and procedures is given, including details on photogrammetric and track-based alignment.

  6. A study of lubrication, processing conditions, and material combinations that affect the wear of micro-textured-carbide coated cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy surfaces used for artificial joints implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettienne-Modeste, Geriel A.

    Total joint replacement remains one of the most successful treatments for arthritis. The most common materials used for artificial joints are metals (e.g., cobalt-chrome alloys or titanium alloys), which articulate against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Wear related failures of artificial joints may be reduced with the use of novel micro-textured carbide surfaces. The micro-textured carbide surfaces were deposited on a CoCrMo alloy using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Wear tests were conducted to determine wear mechanisms and properties of the micro-textured surfaces. The research presented in this thesis addresses: (1) rheolgoical behavior of bovine calf serum with and without antibacterial agents to determine whether they can be used as appropriate models for synovial fluid, (2) the wear behavior of the micro-textured CoCrMo surface system, and (3) the mechanical and material properties of the micro-textured CoCrMo alloy surface relevant to wear performance. The rheological studies showed that the apparent viscosity of bovine calf serum increased with an increase in concentration before and after the serum was used for wear testing. The wear analysis showed that the processing conditions (2hr deposition vs. 4hr deposition times) affected the wear properties. The 2hr carbide-on-carbide lubricated in 50% BCS produced the lowest wear factor and rate for the five wear couple systems containing the carbide disk or plate material. Greater wear was produced in serum without penicillin/streptomycin (P/S) compared to the serum containing P/S. A greater carbide coating thickness 10 (micrometers) was produced during the 4hr deposition time than for the 2hr deposition (˜3mum). The nano-hardness value was higher than the micro-hardness for both the 4hr and 2hr carbide surfaces. The micro-hardness results of the worn carbide surfaces showed that an increase in BCS concentration from 0% to 100% increased the micro-hardness (HV) for carbide

  7. GS-align for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Park, Sang-Jun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Lee, Jooyoung; Im, Wonpil

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Glycans play critical roles in many biological processes, and their structural diversity is key for specific protein-glycan recognition. Comparative structural studies of biological molecules provide useful insight into their biological relationships. However, most computational tools are designed for protein structure, and despite their importance, there is no currently available tool for comparing glycan structures in a sequence order- and size-independent manner. Results: A novel method, GS-align, is developed for glycan structure alignment and similarity measurement. GS-align generates possible alignments between two glycan structures through iterative maximum clique search and fragment superposition. The optimal alignment is then determined by the maximum structural similarity score, GS-score, which is size-independent. Benchmark tests against the Protein Data Bank (PDB) N-linked glycan library and PDB homologous/non-homologous N-glycoprotein sets indicate that GS-align is a robust computational tool to align glycan structures and quantify their structural similarity. GS-align is also applied to template-based glycan structure prediction and monosaccharide substitution matrix generation to illustrate its utility. Availability and implementation: http://www.glycanstructure.org/gsalign. Contact: wonpil@ku.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25857669

  8. Alignments of galaxies within cosmic filaments from SDSS DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lei; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C. E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-12-20

    Using a sample of galaxy groups selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we examine the alignment between the orientation of galaxies and their surrounding large-scale structure in the context of the cosmic web. The latter is quantified using the large-scale tidal field, reconstructed from the data using galaxy groups above a certain mass threshold. We find that the major axes of galaxies in filaments tend to be preferentially aligned with the directions of the filaments, while galaxies in sheets have their major axes preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the sheets. The strength of this alignment signal is strongest for red, central galaxies, and in good agreement with that of dark matter halos in N-body simulations. This suggests that red, central galaxies are well aligned with their host halos, in quantitative agreement with previous studies based on the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies. There is a luminosity and mass dependence that brighter and more massive galaxies in filaments and sheets have stronger alignment signals. We also find that the orientation of galaxies is aligned with the eigenvector associated with the smallest eigenvalue of the tidal tensor. These observational results indicate that galaxy formation is affected by large-scale environments and strongly suggest that galaxies are aligned with each other over scales comparable to those of sheets and filaments in the cosmic web.

  9. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an ...

  10. A clinical study of the rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liangjia; Liu, Xiaomin; Liu, Changlu; Liu, Yingli

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The reasons for femorotibial rotational malalignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were analyzed to provide evidence for clinical knee joint surgery and to reduce complications. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety knees of 60 patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups (n=30). For one group, rotational alignment of the femoral component was determined by the transepicondylar axis and TKA was performed. For the other group, rotational alignment of the femoral component was conducted through 3° external rotation of the posterior femoral condyles. Knee joint specimens were operated with TKA and various biomechanical indices were measured. [Results] The femoral epicondylar axis was a constant, reliable reference for femoral component rotational alignment. When the femoral component was rotated by 0° versus the epicondylar axis, the peak contact pressure on the patellofemoral joint was optimal. When the femoral component was arranged in parallel with Whiteside’s line, the peak contact pressure on the patellofemoral joint varied largely. The patellofemoral contact areas of the two groups were similar. [Conclusion] Axial rotational alignment of the femoral component influenced the contact pressure of patellofemoral joints in TKA more significantly than external rotation of the femoral condyles. It is more reliable to use the femoral epicondylar axis as the reference for the rotational alignment of the femoral component. PMID:26311929

  11. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  12. Lexical alignment in triadic communication

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Anouschka; Gaspers, Judith; Thiele, Kristina; Stenneken, Prisca; Cimiano, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Lexical alignment refers to the adoption of one’s interlocutor’s lexical items. Accounts of the mechanisms underlying such lexical alignment differ (among other aspects) in the role assigned to addressee-centered behavior. In this study, we used a triadic communicative situation to test which factors may modulate the extent to which participants’ lexical alignment reflects addressee-centered behavior. Pairs of naïve participants played a picture matching game and received information about the order in which pictures were to be matched from a voice over headphones. On critical trials, participants did or did not hear a name for the picture to be matched next over headphones. Importantly, when the voice over headphones provided a name, it did not match the name that the interlocutor had previously used to describe the object. Participants overwhelmingly used the word that the voice over headphones provided. This result points to non-addressee-centered behavior and is discussed in terms of disrupting alignment with the interlocutor as well as in terms of establishing alignment with the voice over headphones. In addition, the type of picture (line drawing vs. tangram shape) independently modulated lexical alignment, such that participants showed more lexical alignment to their interlocutor for (more ambiguous) tangram shapes compared to line drawings. Overall, the results point to a rather large role for non-addressee-centered behavior during lexical alignment. PMID:25762955

  13. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  14. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow.

  15. Drive alignment pays maintenance dividends

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, R.

    2008-12-15

    Proper alignment of the motor and gear drive on conveying and processing equipment will result in longer bearing and coupling life, along with lower maintenance costs. Selecting an alignment free drive package instead of a traditional foot mounted drive and motor is a major advancement toward these goals. 4 photos.

  16. Joint Attention Revisited: Examining Heterogeneity among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention has long been considered absent or deviant in children with autism. Although this deficit is seen, there is variability in joint attention within the population and some children with autism employ it. Little is known about the profile of joint attention skills of these children or how joint attention use affects concurrent…

  17. Alignment of the MINOS FD

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, B.; Boehnlein, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    The results and procedure of the alignment of the MINOS Far Detector are presented. The far detector has independent alignments of SM1 and SM2. The misalignments have an estimated uncertainty of {approx}850 {micro}m for SM1 and {approx}750 {micro}m for SM2. The alignment has as inputs the average rotations of U and V as determined by optical survey and strip positions within modules measured from the module mapper. The output of this is a module-module correction for transverse mis-alignments. These results were verified by examining an independent set of data. These alignment constants on average contribute much less then 1% to the total uncertainty in the transverse strip position.

  18. The Effects of Fluid Absorption on the Mechanical Properties of Joint Prostheses Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarbrough, David; Viano, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the material playing the role of cartilage in human prosthetic joints. Wear debris from UHMWPE is a common reason for joint arthroplasty failure, and the exact mechanism responsible for wear remains an area of investigation. In this study, the microstructure of UHMWPE was examined as a function of fluid absorption. Samples with varying exposure to e-beam radiation (as part of the manufacturing process) were soaked for forty days in saline or artificial synovial fluid, under zero or 100 lbs load. Samples were then tensile-tested according to ASTM D-3895. The post-stressed material was then examined by transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the molecular response to stress, which correlates with macroscopic mechanical properties. Three parameters of the crystalline lamellae were measured: thickness, stacking ratio, and alignment to stress direction. Results indicate that fluid absorption does affect the mechanical properties of UHMWPE at both the microscopic and microscopic levels. )

  19. Magnetic alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, L. V.; Schenz, R. F.; Sommargren, G. E.

    1990-08-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This article begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100-μm accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The 100-μm accuracy is an error circle about an ideal axis for 300 m or more. The article describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axes of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development of a straight-line reference based on the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. The Poisson alignment reference system should be accurate to 25 μm over 300 m, which is believed to be a factor-of-4 improvement over earlier techniques. An error budget shows that only 25% of the total budgeted tolerance is used for the alignment reference system, so the remaining tolerances should fall within the allowable range for FEL alignment.

  20. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  1. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  2. Joint Warrior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-04

    hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the NWC or the Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT The way we fight wars has been...evolving over thousands of years. Today, the U.S. Navy, finds itself in the post- modern area of war fighting . Joint warfare is the latest

  3. Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-06-01

    Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p < or = .047 and p < or = .003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p < or = .011) and lateral (p < or = .004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p < .001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p < or = .022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats.

  4. Ultrasonic Probing Of Complexly Shaped Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1993-01-01

    Technique developed involves use of ultrasonics to inspect first bond surfaces of solid-rocket-motor joints. By fitting pieces of insulating materials to mate exactly with complicated shapes of affected parts of insulation, complicated shapes redefined into simpler ones probed more easily. When technique used to insonify from insulation side, one readily detects difference between disbond and good bond. Same technique applied to field tang joints, field clevis joints, and aft-dome-to-fixed-nozzle-housing attachment points. Although developed for inspecting joints in solid rocket motors, also applicable to nondestructive evaluation of other complicated joints.

  5. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  6. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  7. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  8. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, C.R.; Hammond, R.B.

    The disclosure related to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  9. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gruhn, Charles R.; Hammond, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  10. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  11. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  12. Stellar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Fortuitous stellar alignments can be fitted to structural orientations with relative ease by the unwary. Nonetheless, cautious approaches taking into account a broader range of cultural evidence, as well as paying due attention to potential methodological pitfalls, have been successful in identifying credible stellar alignments—and constructing plausible assessments of their cultural significance—in a variety of circumstances. These range from single instances of alignments upon particular asterisms where the corroborating historical or ethnographic evidence is strong to repeated instances of oriented structures with only limited independent cultural information but where systematic, data-driven approaches can be productive. In the majority of cases, the identification and interpretation of putative stellar alignments relates to groups of similar monuments or complex single sites and involves a balance between systematic studies of the alignments themselves, backed up by statistical analysis where appropriate, and the consideration of a range of contextual evidence, either derived from the archaeological record alone or from other relevant sources.

  13. RF Jitter Modulation Alignment Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, L. F.; Fulda, P.; Diaz-Ortiz, M.; Perez Sanchez, G.; Ciani, G.; Voss, D.; Mueller, G.; Tanner, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    We will present the numerical and experimental results of a new alignment sensing scheme which can reduce the complexity of alignment sensing systems currently used, while maintaining the same shot noise limited sensitivity. This scheme relies on the ability of electro-optic beam deflectors to create angular modulation sidebands in radio frequency, and needs only a single-element photodiode and IQ demodulation to generate error signals for tilt and translation degrees of freedom in one dimension. It distances itself from current techniques by eliminating the need for beam centering servo systems, quadrant photodetectors and Gouy phase telescopes. RF Jitter alignment sensing can be used to reduce the complexity in the alignment systems of many laser optical experiments, including LIGO and the ALPS experiment.

  14. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  15. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment, which is vital to highlight the...appeared to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind customer perceptions. Recommendations include employee training centered on goal alignment...through the strategic plan and CONOPS. However, the extent of goal accomplishment appears to be lacking in some areas when bearing in mind the

  16. National Ignition Facility system alignment.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S C; Bliss, E; Di Nicola, P; Kalantar, D; Lowe-Webb, R; McCarville, T; Nelson, D; Salmon, T; Schindler, T; Villanueva, J; Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-03-10

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is the world's largest optical instrument, comprising 192 37 cm square beams, each generating up to 9.6 kJ of 351 nm laser light in a 20 ns beam precisely tailored in time and spectrum. The Facility houses a massive (10 m diameter) target chamber within which the beams converge onto an ∼1 cm size target for the purpose of creating the conditions needed for deuterium/tritium nuclear fusion in a laboratory setting. A formidable challenge was building NIF to the precise requirements for beam propagation, commissioning the beam lines, and engineering systems to reliably and safely align 192 beams within the confines of a multihour shot cycle. Designing the facility to minimize drift and vibration, placing the optical components in their design locations, commissioning beam alignment, and performing precise system alignment are the key alignment accomplishments over the decade of work described herein. The design and positioning phases placed more than 3000 large (2.5 m×2 m×1 m) line-replaceable optics assemblies to within ±1 mm of design requirement. The commissioning and alignment phases validated clear apertures (no clipping) for all beam lines, and demonstrated automated laser alignment within 10 min and alignment to target chamber center within 44 min. Pointing validation system shots to flat gold-plated x-ray emitting targets showed NIF met its design requirement of ±50 μm rms beam pointing to target chamber. Finally, this paper describes the major alignment challenges faced by the NIF Project from inception to present, and how these challenges were met and solved by the NIF design and commissioning teams.

  17. Binocular collimation vs conditional alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, William J.

    2012-10-01

    As binocular enthusiasts share their passion, topics related to collimation abound. Typically, we find how observers, armed only with a jeweler's screwdriver, can "perfectly collimate" his or her binocular, make it "spot on," or other verbiage of similar connotation. Unfortunately, what most are addressing is a form of pseudo-collimation I have referred to since the mid-1970s as "Conditional Alignment." Ignoring the importance of the mechanical axis (hinge) in the alignment process, this "condition," while having the potential to make alignment serviceable, or even outstanding—within a small range of IPD (Interpupillary Distance) settings relative to the user's spatial accommodation (the ability to accept small errors in parallelism of the optical axes)—may take the instrument farther from the 3-axis collimation conscientious manufacturers seek to implement. Becoming more optically savvy—and especially with so many mechanically inferior binoculars entering the marketplace— the consumer contemplating self-repair and alignment has a need to understand the difference between clinical, 3-axis "collimation" (meaning both optical axes are parallel with the axis of the hinge) and "conditional alignment," as differentiated in this paper. Furthermore, I believe there has been a long-standing need for the term "Conditional Alignment," or some equivalent, to be accepted as part of the vernacular of those who use binoculars extensively, whether for professional or recreational activities. Achieving that acceptance is the aim of this paper.

  18. Projection-Based Volume Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingbo; Snapp, Robert R.; Ruiz, Teresa; Radermacher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    When heterogeneous samples of macromolecular assemblies are being examined by 3D electron microscopy (3DEM), often multiple reconstructions are obtained. For example, subtomograms of individual particles can be acquired from tomography, or volumes of multiple 2D classes can be obtained by random conical tilt reconstruction. Of these, similar volumes can be averaged to achieve higher resolution. Volume alignment is an essential step before 3D classification and averaging. Here we present a projection-based volume alignment (PBVA) algorithm. We select a set of projections to represent the reference volume and align them to a second volume. Projection alignment is achieved by maximizing the cross-correlation function with respect to rotation and translation parameters. If data are missing, the cross-correlation functions are normalized accordingly. Accurate alignments are obtained by averaging and quadratic interpolation of the cross-correlation maximum. Comparisons of the computation time between PBVA and traditional 3D cross-correlation methods demonstrate that PBVA outperforms the traditional methods. Performance tests were carried out with different signal-to-noise ratios using modeled noise and with different percentages of missing data using a cryo-EM dataset. All tests show that the algorithm is robust and highly accurate. PBVA was applied to align the reconstructions of a subcomplex of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, followed by classification and averaging. PMID:23410725

  19. Joint interaction with embedded concretions: joint loading configurations inferred from propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, David T.; Engelder, Terry

    1999-11-01

    postulated for the subsequent Alleghanian joints. The traces of the systematic ENE joints align on opposite sides of concretions, rather than curving toward the concretion as predicted by two-dimensional models of the fluid load. Co-planar traces are indicative of large, planar joints propagating in-plane around the concretion, making it energetically inefficient for the crack front to curve as it enters the local stress perturbation near the concretion. A fluid load for the systematic ENE joints came from high pore pressure during the pre-Alleghanian stages of burial of the Devonian Catskill delta complex.

  20. Joints in deployable space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the response of deployable structural concepts being considered for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) backup structure will be dominated by the response of joints, the joint characteristics are significant. An overview is given of the research activities at LaRC on the static behavior of joints for deployable space truss structures. Since a pin-clevis-type joint will be utilized in deployable structures, an experimental research program to characterize the joint parameters which affect stiffness was conducted. An experimental research program was conducted on a second type of joint, referred to as a near-center latch joint. It was used in the center of members on the deployable truss structure for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) flight experiment. The test results of the near-center latch joint and the member with the joints indicated that the stiffness of the near-center joint is linear and stiffer than the stiffness of the total member, and that non-linearities in the stiffness characteristics of the total member were due to bending introduced at the ends of the member. The resulting data indicates that stiff linear folding joints can be designed and that bending load paths should be avoided whenever possible. In summary, for deployable structures, special attention to the joint and the structure design is required to minimize the undesirable structural non-linearities.

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    MedlinePlus

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  2. Reduced oxygen cost of running is related to alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis vector: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moore, I S; Jones, A M; Dixon, S J

    2016-07-01

    This pilot study investigated whether a 10-week running program (10wkRP), which reduced the oxygen cost of running, affected resultant ground reaction force (GRF), leg axis alignment, joint moment characteristics, and gear ratios. Ten novice, female runners completed a 10wkRP. Running kinematics and kinetics, in addition to oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) during steady-state running, were recorded pre- and post-10wkRP. V ˙ O 2 decreased (8%) from pre-10wkRP to post-10wkRP. There was a better alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis at peak propulsion post-10wkRP compared with pre-10wkRP (10.8 ± 4.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.2°), as the resultant GRF vector was applied 7 ± 0.6° (P = 0.008) more horizontally. There were shorter external ankle moment arms (24%) and smaller knee extensor moments (23%) at peak braking post-10wkRP. The change in V ˙ O 2 was associated with the change in alignment of the resultant GRF and leg axis (rs  = 0.88, P = 0.003). As runners became more economical, they exhibited a more aligned resultant GRF vector and leg axis at peak propulsion. This appears to be a self-optimization strategy that may improve performance. Additionally, changes to external ankle moment arms indicated beneficial low gear ratios were achieved at the time of peak braking force.

  3. Cavity alignment using fringe scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkunaite, Laura Paulina; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael

    2017-01-01

    LIGO employs two 4-km long Fabry-Pérot arm cavities, which need to be aligned in order for an interferometer to be locked on a TEM00 mode. Once the cavity is locked, alignment signals can be derived from wave-front sensors which measure the TEM01 mode content. However, the alignment state is not always good enough for locking on TEM00. Even when this is the case, the alignment can be evaluated using a free swinging cavity, that shows flashes when higher-order modes become resonant. By moving test masses, small changes are made to the mirror orientation, and hence the TEM00 mode can be optimized iteratively. Currently, this is a manual procedure, and thus it is very time-consuming. Therefore, this project is aimed to study another possible way to lock the cavity on the TEM00 mode. Misalignment information can also be extracted from the power of the higher-order modes transmitted through the cavity. This talk will present an algorithm for this alternative and faster way to derive the alignment state of the arm cavities. Supported by APS FIP, NSF, and Caltech SFP.

  4. A Nonlinear Observer for Gyro Alignment Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, J.; Sanner, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear observer for gyro alignment estimation is presented. The observer is composed of two error terms, an attitude error and an alignment error. The observer is globally stable with exponential convergence of the attitude errors. The gyro alignment estimate converges to the true alignment when the system is completely observable.

  5. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders and Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansur; Schiffman, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) affect 5% to 12% of the United States population. This article discusses common conditions related to temporomandibular joints, including disc displacements, inflammatory disturbances, loose joint bodies, traumatic disturbances, and developmental conditions. Also addressed are the appropriate imaging modalities and diagnostic criteria for TMD.

  6. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  7. An introduction to the Lagan alignment toolkit.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Lagan Toolkit is a software package for comparison of genomic sequences. It includes the CHAOS local alignment program, LAGAN global alignment program for two, or more sequences and Shuffle-LAGAN, a "glocal" alignment method that handles genomic rearrangements in a global alignment framework. The alignment programs included in the Lagan Toolkit have been widely used to compare genomes of many organisms, from bacteria to large mammalian genomes. This chapter provides an overview of the algorithms used by the LAGAN programs to construct genomic alignments, explains how to build alignments using either the standalone program or the web server, and discusses some of the common pitfalls users encounter when using the toolkit.

  8. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a new tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.

  9. Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering.

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, F

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use on microcomputers. The approach is based on the conventional dynamic-programming method of pairwise alignment. Initially, a hierarchical clustering of the sequences is performed using the matrix of the pairwise alignment scores. The closest sequences are aligned creating groups of aligned sequences. Then close groups are aligned until all sequences are aligned in one group. The pairwise alignments included in the multiple alignment form a new matrix that is used to produce a hierarchical clustering. If it is different from the first one, iteration of the process can be performed. The method is illustrated by an example: a global alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c. PMID:2849754

  10. Mechanism of cell alignment in groups of Myxococcus xanthus bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgam, Rajesh; Igoshin, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a model for studying self-organization in bacteria. These flexible cylindrical bacteria move along. In groups, M. xanthus cells align themselves into dynamic cell clusters but the mechanism underlying their formation is unknown. It has been shown that steric interactions can cause alignment in self-propelled hard rods but it is not clear how flexibility and reversals affect the alignment and cluster formation. We have investigated cell alignment process using our biophysical model of M. xanthus cell in an agent-based simulation framework under realistic cell flexibility values. We observed that flexible model cells can form aligned cell clusters when reversals are suppressed but these clusters disappeared when reversals frequency becomes similar to the observed value. However, M. xanthus cells follow slime (polysaccharide gel like material) trails left by other cells and we show that implementing this into our model rescues cell clustering for reversing cells. Our results show that slime following along with periodic cell reversals act as positive feedback to reinforce existing slime trails and recruit more cells. Furthermore, we have observed that mechanical cell alignment combined with slime following is sufficient to explain the distinct clustering patterns of reversing and non-reversing cells as observed in recent experiments. This work is supported by NSF MCB 0845919 and 1411780.

  11. Identifying and aligning expectations in a mentoring relationship.

    PubMed

    Huskins, W Charles; Silet, Karin; Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Begg, Melissa D; Fowler, Vance G; Hamilton, John; Fleming, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The mentoring relationship between a scholar and their primary mentor is a core feature of research training. Anecdotal evidence suggests this relationship is adversely affected when scholar and mentor expectations are not aligned. We examined three questions: (1) What is the value in assuring that the expectations of scholars and mentors are mutually identified and aligned? (2) What types of programmatic interventions facilitate this process? (3) What types of expectations are important to identify and align? We addressed these questions through a systematic literature review, focus group interviews of mentors and scholars, a survey of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) KL2 program directors, and review of formal programmatic mechanisms used by KL2 programs. We found broad support for the importance of identifying and aligning the expectations of scholars and mentors and evidence that mentoring contracts, agreements, and training programs facilitate this process. These tools focus on aligning expectations with respect to the scholar's research, education, professional development and career advancement as well as support, communication, and personal conduct and interpersonal relations. Research is needed to assess test the efficacy of formal alignment activities.

  12. Fabrication of aligned poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofibers by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Chuangchote, Surawut; Supaphol, Pitt

    2006-01-01

    Electrospinning has become a versatile tool for fabricating nanofibers from materials of diverse origins. Normally, mats of randomly-aligned fibers were obtained. A number of techniques have been proposed to arrive at uniaxially-aligned fibers. This work reports a new technique, i.e., dual vertical wire technique, for fabrication of uniaxially-aligned fibers. This technique utilized two stainless steel wires that were vertically set in a parallel manner between a charged needle and a grounded collector plate. This technique allowed simultaneous collection of aligned fibers (between the parallel vertical wires) and a randomly-aligned fiber mat (on the collector plate). Application of the technique on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to prepare uniaxially-aligned fibers was found to be successful at short collection times. Unexpected formation of a large fiber tow consisting of individual as-spun nanofibers that were bound into a bundle was observed at long collection times. Morphological appearance and size of the fiber tow was affected by the change in the distance between the two vertical wire electrodes, while the average diameter of the individual fibers was not (i.e., about 340 to 350 nm). Lastly, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of the fiber tow were also investigated.

  13. Motor hysteresis in a sequential grasping and pointing task is absent in task-critical joints.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christoph; Weigelt, Matthias; Schack, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In a prior study (Schütz et al. in Exp Brain Res 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4608-6 ), we demonstrated that the cognitive cost of motor planning did not differ in a vertical pointing and grasping task. It was unclear whether the similar cost implied that both tasks required the same number of independent degrees of freedom (IDOFs) or that the number of IDOFs did not affect motor planning. To differentiate between both cases, a reanalysis of the prior data was conducted. The number of IDOFs in the pointing and grasping tasks was computed by factor analysis. In both tasks, two IDOFs were used, which was the minimum number required for position control. This indicates that hand alignment in the grasping task did not require an additional IDOF. No conclusions regarding the link between the cognitive cost of motor planning and the number of IDOFs could be drawn. A subset of task-critical joint angles was not affected by motor hysteresis. This indicates that a joint's susceptibility to motor hysteresis depends on its relevance to the task goal. In task-critical joints, planning cost minimization by motor plan reuse is suppressed in favor of the task goal.

  14. Leg and Joint Stiffness in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy during Level Walking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting-Ming; Huang, Hsing-Po; Li, Jia-Da; Hong, Shih-Wun; Lo, Wei-Ching; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Individual joint deviations are often identified in the analysis of cerebral palsy (CP) gait. However, knowledge is limited as to how these deviations affect the control of the locomotor system as a whole when striving to meet the demands of walking. The current study aimed to bridge the gap by describing the control of the locomotor system in children with diplegic CP in terms of their leg stiffness, both skeletal and muscular components, and associated joint stiffness during gait. Twelve children with spastic diplegia CP and 12 healthy controls walked at a self-selected pace in a gait laboratory while their kinematic and forceplate data were measured and analyzed during loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance and pre-swing. For calculating the leg stiffness, each of the lower limbs was modeled as a non-linear spring, connecting the hip joint center and the corresponding center of pressure, with varying stiffness that was calculated as the slope (gradient) of the axial force vs. the deformation curve. The leg stiffness was further decomposed into skeletal and muscular components considering the alignment of the lower limb. The ankle, knee and hip of the limb were modeled as revolute joints with torsional springs whose stiffness was calculated as the slope of the moment vs. the angle curve of the joint. Independent t-tests were performed for between-group comparisons of all the variables. The CP group significantly decreased the leg stiffness but increased the joint stiffness during stance phase, except during terminal stance where the leg stiffness was increased. They appeared to rely more on muscular contributions to achieve the required leg stiffness, increasing the muscular demands in maintaining the body posture against collapse. Leg stiffness plays a critical role in modulating the kinematics and kinetics of the locomotor system during gait in the diplegic CP. PMID:26629700

  15. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  16. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  17. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  18. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  19. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  20. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-11-06

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Enforcing Convexity for Improved Alignment with Constrained Local Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lucey, Simon; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2010-01-01

    Constrained local models (CLMs) have recently demonstrated good performance in non-rigid object alignment/tracking in comparison to leading holistic approaches (e.g., AAMs). A major problem hindering the development of CLMs further, for non-rigid object alignment/tracking, is how to jointly optimize the global warp update across all local search responses. Previous methods have either used general purpose optimizers (e.g., simplex methods) or graph based optimization techniques. Unfortunately, problems exist with both these approaches when applied to CLMs. In this paper, we propose a new approach for optimizing the global warp update in an efficient manner by enforcing convexity at each local patch response surface. Furthermore, we show that the classic Lucas-Kanade approach to gradient descent image alignment can be viewed as a special case of our proposed framework. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach receives improved performance for the task of non-rigid face alignment/tracking on the MultiPIE database and the UNBC-McMaster archive. PMID:20622926

  2. Modeling forest development after fire disturbance: Climate, soil organic layer, and nitrogen jointly affect forest canopy species and long-term ecosystem carbon accumulation in the North American boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Fenton, N.; Bergeron, Y.; Xu, X.; Welp, L.; Medvigy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic layer dynamics strongly affect boreal forest development after fire. Field studies show that soil organic layer thickness exerts a species-specific control on propagule establishment in the North American boreal forest. On organic soils thicker than a few centimeters, all propagules are less able to recruit, but broadleaf trees recruit less effectively than needleleaf trees. In turn, forest growth controls organic layer accumulation through modulating litter input and litter quality. These dynamics have not been fully incorporated into models, but may be essential for accurate projections of ecosystem carbon storage. Here, we develop a data-constrained model for understanding boreal forest development after fire. We update the ED2 model to include new aspen and black spruce species-types, species-specific propagule survivorship dependent on soil organic layer depth, species-specific litter decay rates, dynamically accumulating moss and soil organic layers, and nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria associated with moss. The model is validated against diverse observations ranging from monthly to centennial timescales and spanning a climate gradient in Alaska, central Canada, and Quebec. We then quantify differences in forest development that result from changes in organic layer accumulation, temperature, and nitrogen. We find that (1) the model accurately reproduces a range of observations throughout the North American boreal forest; (2) the presence of a thick organic layer results in decreased decomposition and decreased aboveground productivity, effects that can increase or decrease ecosystem carbon uptake depending on location-specific attributes; (3) with a mean warming of 4°C, some forests switch from undergoing succession to needleleaf forests to recruiting multiple cohorts of broadleaf trees, decreasing ecosystem accumulation by ~30% after 300 years; (4) the availability of nitrogen regulates successional dynamics such than broadleaf species are

  3. Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chuming; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to uncover how L2 writing is affected by alignment, a socio-cognitive process involving dynamic coordination and adaptation. For this, two studies were conducted. Study 1 required two groups of 24 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to continue in English two stories with their endings removed, both of which had a…

  4. ALIGN_MTX--an optimal pairwise textual sequence alignment program, adapted for using in sequence-structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Vishnepolsky, Boris; Pirtskhalava, Malak

    2009-06-01

    The presented program ALIGN_MTX makes alignment of two textual sequences with an opportunity to use any several characters for the designation of sequence elements and arbitrary user substitution matrices. It can be used not only for the alignment of amino acid and nucleotide sequences but also for sequence-structure alignment used in threading, amino acid sequence alignment, using preliminary known PSSM matrix, and in other cases when alignment of biological or non-biological textual sequences is required. This distinguishes it from the majority of similar alignment programs that make, as a rule, alignment only of amino acid or nucleotide sequences represented as a sequence of single alphabetic characters. ALIGN_MTX is presented as downloadable zip archive at http://www.imbbp.org/software/ALIGN_MTX/ and available for free use. As application of using the program, the results of comparison of different types of substitution matrix for alignment quality in distantly related protein pair sets were presented. Threading matrix SORDIS, based on side-chain orientation in relation to hydrophobic core centers with evolutionary change-based substitution matrix BLOSUM and using multiple sequence alignment information position-specific score matrices (PSSM) were taken for test alignment accuracy. The best performance shows PSSM matrix, but in the reduced set with lower sequence similarity threading matrix SORDIS shows the same performance and it was shown that combined potential with SORDIS and PSSM can improve alignment quality in evolutionary distantly related protein pairs.

  5. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  6. Spacesuit mobility joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Joints for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit which have low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are described. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics. Linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli are featured. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  7. Improving pairwise sequence alignment accuracy using near-optimal protein sequence alignments

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While the pairwise alignments produced by sequence similarity searches are a powerful tool for identifying homologous proteins - proteins that share a common ancestor and a similar structure; pairwise sequence alignments often fail to represent accurately the structural alignments inferred from three-dimensional coordinates. Since sequence alignment algorithms produce optimal alignments, the best structural alignments must reflect suboptimal sequence alignment scores. Thus, we have examined a range of suboptimal sequence alignments and a range of scoring parameters to understand better which sequence alignments are likely to be more structurally accurate. Results We compared near-optimal protein sequence alignments produced by the Zuker algorithm and a set of probabilistic alignments produced by the probA program with structural alignments produced by four different structure alignment algorithms. There is significant overlap between the solution spaces of structural alignments and both the near-optimal sequence alignments produced by commonly used scoring parameters for sequences that share significant sequence similarity (E-values < 10-5) and the ensemble of probA alignments. We constructed a logistic regression model incorporating three input variables derived from sets of near-optimal alignments: robustness, edge frequency, and maximum bits-per-position. A ROC analysis shows that this model more accurately classifies amino acid pairs (edges in the alignment path graph) according to the likelihood of appearance in structural alignments than the robustness score alone. We investigated various trimming protocols for removing incorrect edges from the optimal sequence alignment; the most effective protocol is to remove matches from the semi-global optimal alignment that are outside the boundaries of the local alignment, although trimming according to the model-generated probabilities achieves a similar level of improvement. The model can also be used to

  8. A statistical finite element model of the knee accounting for shape and alignment variability.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chandreshwar; Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Rullkoetter, Paul J; Maletsky, Lorin P; Kim, Raymond H; Laz, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    By characterizing anatomical differences in size and shape between subjects, statistical shape models enable population-based evaluations in biomechanics. Statistical models have largely focused on individual bones with application to implant sizing, bone fracture and osteoarthritis; however, in joint mechanics applications, the statistical models must consider the geometry of multiple structures of a joint and their relative position. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to develop a statistical shape and alignment modeling (SSAM) approach to characterize the intersubject variability in bone morphology and alignment for the structures of the knee, to demonstrate the statistical model's ability to describe variability in a training set and to generate realistic instances for use in finite element evaluation of joint mechanics. The statistical model included representations of the bone and cartilage for the femur, tibia and patella from magnetic resonance images and relative alignment of the structures at a known, loaded position in an experimental knee simulator for a training set of 20 specimens. The statistical model described relationships or modes of variation in shape and relative alignment of the knee structures. By generating new 'virtual subjects' with physiologically realistic knee anatomy, the modeling approach can efficiently perform investigations into joint mechanics and implant design which benefit from population-based considerations.

  9. Tonal Alignment in Irish Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Martha; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from…

  10. Alignment in Second Language Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

  11. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  12. Strategic Planning to Conduct Joint Force Network Operations: A Content Analysis of NETOPS Organizations Strategic Plans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    information dominance , Joint Network Operations (NETOPS) organizations need to be strategically aligned. As result, to enhance the capabilities-based effects of NETOPS and reduce our NETOP infrastructures susceptibility to compromise. Once the key organizations were identified, their strategic plans were analyzed using a structured content analysis framework. The results illustrated that the strategic plans were aligned with the community of interests tasking to conduct NETOPS. Further research is required into the strategic alignment beyond the strategic

  13. Laser-optic instruments improve machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-12

    Laser-optic alignment systems are fast becoming cost-effective devices that improve the accuracy and speed of machinery shaft alignment. Because of the difficulty, if not impossibility, of aligning operating machinery, cold alignment specifications must be determined to compensate for thermal growth so that the shaft alignment remains within tolerances when the machine reaches normal operating temperature. Some methods for accomplishing this are reviewed here. Three years' field experience with laser-optic alignment systems shows that many of these limitations can be eliminated, resulting in a more accurate alignment in less time. Some actual field alignments are given as examples of the improvement achieved by the use of laser equipment, and a procedure is given that shows how the laser-optic system may be used to determine running alignment changes caused by thermal growth.

  14. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    PubMed Central

    Kruspe, Matthias; Stadler, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mis)match scores. PMID:17631683

  15. Vacuum Phenomenon of the Sacroiliac Joint: Correlation with Sacropelvic Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Higashino, Kosaku; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Sakai, Toshinori; Yamashita, Kazuta; Abe, Mitusnobu; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A radiologic study of sacropelvic morphology and vacuum phenomenon of sacroiliac joint in subjects unrelated to low back pain. Purpose The aim of this study is to describe the relationship between sacropelvic morphology and vacuum phenomenon of the sacroiliac joint. Overview of Literature Lumbopelvic alignment and sacropelvic morphology are associated with the pathomechanisms of various spinal disorders. The vacuum phenomena of the sacroiliac joint (SJVP) are often observed in clinical practice, but the relationships between these phenomena and sacropelvic morphology have not been investigated. This study examined the prevalence of SJVP in computed tomography (CT) images and the relationship between sacropelvic morphology and SJVP. Methods We analyzed multiplanar CT images of 93 subjects (59 men, 34 women). Pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and lumbar lordosis (LL) were measured using the three-dimensional reconstruction method. The prevalence of SJVP in multiplanar CT images were reviewed. Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) scores and the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, which focuses on subjective symptoms and restriction of activities of daily living, were also obtained from all the subjects. Results Thirty-six of the 93 subjects had SJVP (39%), with marked female predominance (91% women, 8.5% men). Men with SJVP had significantly lower PI than men without SJVP (35.1° vs. 46.3°, p<0.05). There was no correlation between SJVP and the modified JOA or RDQ scores. Conclusions These data suggest that differences in sacropelvic morphology can influence the biomechanical environment and contribute to SJVP in men. Presence of SJVP did not affect JOA or RDQ scores. PMID:27559459

  16. Dynamic Alignment Models for Neural Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kollmorgen, Sepp; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there have been remarkable advances in modeling the relationships between the sensory environment, neuronal responses, and behavior. However, most models cannot encompass variable stimulus-response relationships such as varying response latencies and state or context dependence of the neural code. Here, we consider response modeling as a dynamic alignment problem and model stimulus and response jointly by a mixed pair hidden Markov model (MPH). In MPHs, multiple stimulus-response relationships (e.g., receptive fields) are represented by different states or groups of states in a Markov chain. Each stimulus-response relationship features temporal flexibility, allowing modeling of variable response latencies, including noisy ones. We derive algorithms for learning of MPH parameters and for inference of spike response probabilities. We show that some linear-nonlinear Poisson cascade (LNP) models are a special case of MPHs. We demonstrate the efficiency and usefulness of MPHs in simulations of both jittered and switching spike responses to white noise and natural stimuli. Furthermore, we apply MPHs to extracellular single and multi-unit data recorded in cortical brain areas of singing birds to showcase a novel method for estimating response lag distributions. MPHs allow simultaneous estimation of receptive fields, latency statistics, and hidden state dynamics and so can help to uncover complex stimulus response relationships that are subject to variable timing and involve diverse neural codes. PMID:24625448

  17. Synovial Lipomatosis of the Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Ori

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens) is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature. PMID:27563476

  18. Synovial Lipomatosis of the Glenohumeral Joint.

    PubMed

    Beyth, Shaul; Safran, Ori

    2016-01-01

    Synovial lipomatosis (also known as lipoma arborescens) is a rare and benign lesion affecting synovium-lined cavities. It is characterized by hyperplasia of mature fat tissue in the subsynovial layer. Although the most commonly affected site is the knee joint, rarely additional locations such as tendon sheath and other joints are involved. We present a case of synovial lipomatosis of the glenohumeral joint in a 44-year-old man. The clinical data radiological studies and histopathologic results are described, as well as a review of the current literature.

  19. An efficient method for multiple sequence alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Pramanik, S.

    1994-12-31

    Multiple sequence alignment has been a useful method in the study of molecular evolution and sequence-structure relationships. This paper presents a new method for multiple sequence alignment based on simulated annealing technique. Dynamic programming has been widely used to find an optimal alignment. However, dynamic programming has several limitations to obtain optimal alignment. It requires long computation time and cannot apply certain types of cost functions. We describe detail mechanisms of simulated annealing for multiple sequence alignment problem. It is shown that simulated annealing can be an effective approach to overcome the limitations of dynamic programming in multiple sequence alignment problem.

  20. Bokeh mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, S. A.; Adam, J.; Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Dmytriiev, A.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Linhoff, L.; Mannheim, K.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Walter, R.

    2016-08-01

    Segmented imaging reflectors are a great choice for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). However, the alignment of the individual mirror facets is challenging. We align a segmented reflector by observing and optimizing its Bokeh function. Bokeh alignment can already be done with very little resources and little preparation time. Further, Bokeh alignment can be done anytime, even during the day. We present a first usage of Bokeh alignment on FACT, a 4m IACT on Canary Island La Palma, Spain and further a first Bokeh alignment test on the CTA MST IACT prototype in Brelin Adlershof.

  1. The Poisson alignment reference system implementation at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Feier, I.

    1998-09-21

    The Poisson spot was established using a collimated laser beam from a 3-mW diode laser. It was monitored on a quadrant detector and found to be very sensitive to vibration and air disturbances. Therefore, for future work we strongly recommend a sealed vacuum tube in which the Poisson line may be propagated. A digital single-axis feedback system was employed to generate an straight line reference (SLR) on the X axis. Pointing accuracy was better than 8 {+-} 2 microns at a distance of 5 m. The digital system was found to be quite slow with a maximum bandwidth of 47 {+-} 9 Hz. Slow drifts were easily corrected but any vibration over 5 Hz was not. We recommend an analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for high bandwidth and smooth operation of the kinematic mirror. Although the Poisson alignment system (PAS) at the Advanced Photon Source is still in its infancy, it already shows great promise as a possible alignment system for the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL). Since components such as wigglers and quadruples will initially be aligned with respect to each other using conventional means and mounted on some kind of rigid rail, the goal would be to align six to ten such rails over a distance of about 30 m. The PAS could be used to align these rails by mounting a sphere at the joint between two rails. These spheres would need to be in a vacuum pipe to eliminate the refractive effects of air. Each sphere would not be attached to either rail but instead to a flange connecting the vacuum pipes of each rail. Thus the whole line would be made up of straight, rigid segments that could be aligned by moving the joints. Each sphere would have its own detector, allowing the operators to actively monitor the position of each joint and therefore the overall alignment of the system.

  2. Aligning carbon fibers in micro-extruded composite ink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Chaitanya G.

    Direct write processes include a wide range of additive manufacturing techniques with the ability to fabricate structures directly onto planar and non-planar surfaces. Most additive manufacturing techniques use unreinforced polymers to produce parts. By adding carbon fiber as a reinforcing material, properties such as mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity can be enhanced. Carbon fibers can be long and continuous, or short and discontinuous. The strength of carbon fiber composite parts is greatly increased when the fibers are preferentially aligned. This research focuses on increasing the strength of additively manufactured parts reinforced using discontinuous carbon fibers that have been aligned during the micro extrusion process. A design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to identify significant process parameters affecting fiber alignment. Factors such as the length of carbon fibers, nozzle diameter, fiber loading fraction, air pressure, translational speed and standoff distance were considered. A two dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D FFT) was used to quantify the degree of fiber alignment in the extruded composite inks. ImageJ software supported by an oval profile plugin was used with micrographs of printed samples to obtain the carbon fiber alignment values. The optimal value for the factors was derived by identifying the significant main and interaction effects. Based on the results of the DOE, tensile test samples were printed with fibers aligned parallel and perpendicular to the tensile axis. A standard test method for tensile properties of plastic revealed that the extruded parts with fibers aligned along the tensile axis were better in tensile strength and modulus.

  3. Optimized Bolted Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart-Smith, L. J.; Bunin, B. L.; Watts, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Computer technique aids joint optimization. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted composite joints computed by nonlinear-analysis computer program. Input to analysis was load-deflection data from 180 specimens tested as part of program to develop technology of structural joints for advanced transport aircraft. Bolt design optimization technique applicable to major joints in composite materials for primary and secondary structures and generally applicable for metal joints as well.

  4. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  5. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  6. Aligned mesoporous architectures and devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng

    2011-03-01

    This is the final report for the Presidential Early Career Award for Science and Engineering - PECASE (LDRD projects 93369 and 118841) awarded to Professor Yunfeng Lu (Tulane University and University of California-Los Angeles). During the last decade, mesoporous materials with tunable periodic pores have been synthesized using surfactant liquid crystalline as templates, opening a new avenue for a wide spectrum of applications. However, the applications are somewhat limited by the unfavorabe pore orientation of these materials. Although substantial effort has been devoted to align the pore channels, fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicular pore channels remains challenging. This project focused on fabrication of mesoporous materials with perpendicularly aligned pore channels. We demonstrated structures for use in water purification, separation, sensors, templated synthesis, microelectronics, optics, controlled release, and highly selective catalysts.

  7. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  8. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  9. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  10. Degenerative Joint Diseases and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Mariella; Skaper, Stephen D; Coaccioli, Stefano; Varrassi, Giustino; Paladini, Antonella

    2016-12-31

    Rheumatic and joint diseases, as exemplified by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are among the most widespread painful and disabling pathologies across the globe. Given the continuing rise in life expectancy, their prevalence is destined to grow. Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is, in particular, on its way to becoming the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020, with the rising incidence of obesity in addition to age being important factors. It is estimated that 25% of osteoarthritic individuals are unable to perform daily activities. Accompanying osteoarthritis is rheumatoid arthritis, which is a chronic systemic disease that often causes pain and deformity. At least 50% of those affected are unable to remain gainfully employed within 10 years of disease onset. A growing body of evidence now points to inflammation, locally and more systemically, as a promoter of damage to joints and bones, as well as joint-related functional deficits. The pathogenesis underlying joint diseases remains unclear; however, it is currently believed that cross-talk between cartilage and subchondral bone-and loss of balance between these two structures in joint diseases-is a critical element. This view is amplified by the presence of mast cells, whose dysregulation is associated with alterations of junction structures (cartilage, bone, synovia, matrix, nerve endings, and blood vessels). In addition, persistent activation of mast cells facilitates the development of spinal neuroinflammation mediated through their interaction with microglia. Unfortunately, current treatment strategies for rheumatic and articular disease are symptomatic and do little to limit disease progression. Research now should be directed at therapeutic modalities that target osteoarticular structural elements and thereby delaying disease progression and joint replacement.

  11. Threaded pilot insures cutting tool alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, R.; Schneider, W. E.

    1966-01-01

    Threaded pilot allows machining of a port component, or boss, after the reciprocating hole has been threaded. It is used to align cutting surfaces with the boss threads, thus insuring precision alignment.

  12. The radiology of joint disease. Volume 2. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, D.M.; Brown, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book explains the diagnostic criteria and radiologic appearance of joint disease - principally arthritis. It covers the soft tissues, alignment abnormalities, bony mineralization, and abnormalities of the cartilage space of the hand; arthritis from head to foot; and the differential diagnosis of arthritis.

  13. Selection of Partners for International Joint Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigates the selection of partner institutions for international joint degree programs at the graduate level utilizing Knight's (2008) challenges to the development of such partnerships which are: Academic Alignment, Mobility and Language concerns, and Recognition and Legitimacy concerns. This study focuses on the criteria used…

  14. Disorientation of Suprathermally Rotating Grains and the Grain Alignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the dynamics of dust grains subjected to torques arising from H2 formation. In particular, we discuss grain dynamics when a grain spins down and goes through a ``crossover'' event. As first pointed out by Spitzer & McGlynn, the grain angular momentum before and after a crossover event are correlated, and the degree of this correlation critically affects the alignment of dust grains by paramagnetic dissipation. We calculate the correlation including the important effects of thermal fluctuations within the grain material. These fluctuations limit the degree to which the grain angular momentum J is coupled with the grain principal axis a1 of maximal inertia. We show that this imperfect coupling of a1 with J plays a critical role during crossovers and can substantially increase the efficiency of paramagnetic alignment for grains larger than 0.1 μm. As a result, we show that for reasonable choices of parameters, the observed alignment of a >~ 0.1 μm grains could be achieved by paramagnetic dissipation in suprathermally rotating grains, if radiative torques caused by starlight were not present. We also show that the efficiency of mechanical alignment in the limit of long alignment times is not altered by the thermal fluctuations in the grain material. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Lyman Spitzer, Jr.

  15. Use laser-optics for machinery alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, H.P.

    1987-10-01

    Many sources attribute most bearing overload and destructive vibration in industrial machinery to shaft misalignment. There is considerable disagreement as to the alignment quality required. There is also little agreement on suitable calculation methods and achievable accuracy for anticipated thermal growth of machinery (necessary if running alignment is to remain acceptable). This article examines existing alignment quality guidelines for relevance and consistency, and reviews the application of laser-optic alignment systems based on three years of field experience.

  16. Tibiofemoral alignment in posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty: Static alignment does not predict dynamic tibial plateau loading.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Pagnano, Mark W; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2014-08-01

    For total knee arthroplasty (TKA), neutral mechanical alignment produces balanced static knee loading. Dynamically, knee loading is affected by more than limb static alignment. We compared static and dynamic knee loading following TKA. Fifteen TKA patients were evaluated pre-operatively and 2 months and 2 years post-operatively. Tibiofemoral angles and medial tibial plateau loading were calculated. Pre-operatively, static medial load was greater for varus than valgus knees. Post-operatively, no relationship existed between tibiofemoral angle and static medial plateau load. Pre-operatively and post-operatively, dynamic medial load was not dependent on tibiofemoral angle. While all patients achieved equal static plateau load distributions at 2 years, only 47% had dynamic medial load distributions of 50 ± 10%. Static tibiofemoral alignment alone does not predict dynamic tibial loading.

  17. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOEpatents

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  18. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  19. Development of a statistical shape model of the patellofemoral joint for investigating relationships between shape and function.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Baldwin, Mark A; Laz, Peter J; FitzPatrick, David P; Lerner, Amy L; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2011-09-02

    Patellofemoral (PF)-related pathologies, including joint laxity, patellar maltracking, cartilage degradation and anterior knee pain, affect nearly 25% of the population. Researchers have investigated the influence of articular geometry on kinematics and contact mechanics in order to gain insight into the etiology of these conditions. The purpose of the current study was to create a three-dimensional statistical shape model of the PF joint and to characterize relationships between PF shape and function (kinematics and contact mechanics). A statistical shape model of the patellar and femoral articular surfaces and their relative alignment was developed from magnetic resonance images. Using 15 shape parameters, the model characterized 97% of the variation in the training set. The first three shape modes primarily described variation in size, patella alta-baja and depth of the sulcus groove. A previously verified finite element model was used to predict kinematics and contact mechanics for each subject. Combining the shape and joint mechanics data, a statistical shape-function model was developed that established quantitative relations of how changes in the shape of the PF joint influence mechanics. The predictive capability of the shape-function model was evaluated by comparing statistical model and finite element predictions, resulting in kinematic root mean square errors of less than 3° and 2.5 mm. The key results of the study are dually in the implementation of a novel approach linking statistical shape and finite element models and the relationships elucidated between PF articular geometry and mechanics.

  20. Aligning Two Genomic Sequences That Contain Duplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Minmei; Riemer, Cathy; Berman, Piotr; Hardison, Ross C.; Miller, Webb

    It is difficult to properly align genomic sequences that contain intra-species duplications. With this goal in mind, we have developed a tool, called TOAST (two-way orthologous alignment selection tool), for predicting whether two aligned regions from different species are orthologous, i.e., separated by a speciation event, as opposed to a duplication event. The advantage of restricting alignment to orthologous pairs is that they constitute the aligning regions that are most likely to share the same biological function, and most easily analyzed for evidence of selection. We evaluate TOAST on 12 human/mouse gene clusters.

  1. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  3. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  4. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO/sub 2/ fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO/sub 2/ alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence.

  5. FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Angana; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra

    2013-04-01

    In this article we propose a Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm, FOGSAA, which aligns a pair of nucleotide/protein sequences faster than any optimal global alignment method including the widely used Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm. FOGSAA is applicable for all types of sequences, with any scoring scheme, and with or without affine gap penalty. Compared to NW, FOGSAA achieves a time gain of (70-90)% for highly similar nucleotide sequences (> 80% similarity), and (54-70)% for sequences having (30-80)% similarity. For other sequences, it terminates with an approximate score. For protein sequences, the average time gain is between (25-40)%. Compared to three heuristic global alignment methods, the quality of alignment is improved by about 23%-53%. FOGSAA is, in general, suitable for aligning any two sequences defined over a finite alphabet set, where the quality of the global alignment is of supreme importance.

  6. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  7. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  8. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  9. Aligned interactions in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kempa, J.

    2015-12-15

    The first clean Centauro was found in cosmic rays years many ago at Mt Chacaltaya experiment. Since that time, many people have tried to find this type of interaction, both in cosmic rays and at accelerators. But no one has found a clean cases of this type of interaction.It happened finally in the last exposure of emulsion at Mt Chacaltaya where the second clean Centauro has been found. The experimental data for both the Centauros and STRANA will be presented and discussed in this paper. We also present our comments to the intriguing question of the existence of a type of nuclear interactions at high energy with alignment.

  10. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOEpatents

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  11. Strategies for active alignment of lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langehanenberg, Patrik; Heinisch, Josef; Wilde, Chrisitan; Hahne, Felix; Lüerß, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Today's optical systems require up-to-date assembly and joining technology. The trend of keeping dimensions as small as possible while maintaining or increasing optical imaging performance leaves little to no room for mechanical lens adjustment equipment that may remain in the final product. In this context active alignment of optical elements opens up possibilities for the fast and cost-economic manufacturing of lenses and lens assemblies with highest optical performance. Active alignment for lens manufacturing is the precise alignment of the optical axis of a lens with respect to an optical or mechanical reference axis (e.g. housing) including subsequent fixation by glue. In this contribution we will describe different approaches for active alignment and outline strengths and limitations of the different methods. Using the SmartAlign principle, highest quality cemented lenses can be manufactured without the need for high precision prealignment, while the reduction to a single alignment step greatly reduces the cycle time. The same strategies can also be applied to bonding processes. Lenses and lens groups can be aligned to both mechanical and optical axes to maximize the optical performance of a given assembly. In hybrid assemblies using both mechanical tolerances and active alignment, SmartAlign can be used to align critical lens elements anywhere inside the system for optimized total performance. Since all geometrical parameters are re-measured before each alignment, this process is especially suited for complex and time-consuming production processes where the stability of the reference axis would otherwise be critical. For highest performance, lenses can be actively aligned using up to five degrees of freedom. In this way, SmartAlign enables the production of ultra-precise mounted lenses with an alignment precision below 1 μm.

  12. A theoretical estimate of intrinsic ellipticity bispectra induced by angular momenta alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsically aligned galaxy shapes are one of the most important systematics in cosmic shear measurements. So far, theoretical studies of intrinsic alignments almost exclusively focus on their statistics at the two-point level. Results from numerical simulations, however, suggest that third-order measures might be even stronger affected. We therefore investigate the (angular) bispectrum of intrinsic alignments. In our fully analytical study, we describe intrinsic galaxy ellipticities by a physical alignment model, which makes use of tidal torque theory. We derive expressions for the various combinations of intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticities, i.e. III-, GII- and GGI-alignments, and compare our results to the shear bispectrum, the GGG-term. The latter is computed using hyperextended perturbation theory. Considering equilateral and squeezed configurations, we find that for a Euclid-like survey intrinsic alignments (III-alignments) start to dominate on angular scales smaller than 20 and 13 arcmin, respectively. This sensitivity to the configuration-space geometry may allow us to exploit the cosmological information contained in both the intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticity field. On smallest scales (ℓ ˜ 3000), III-alignments exceed the lensing signal by at least one order of magnitude. The amplitude of the GGI-alignments is the weakest. It stays below that of the shear field on all angular scales irrespective of the wavevector configuration.

  13. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Living With Lupus Bones, Muscles, and Joints ...

  14. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  15. Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your jaw to the side of your head. When it works well, it enables you to ... For people with TMJ dysfunction, problems with the joint and muscles around it may cause Pain that ...

  16. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  17. Large displacement spherical joint

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Benavides, Gilbert L.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of spherical joints has a very large accessible full cone angle, a property which is beneficial for a wide range of applications. Despite the large cone angles, these joints move freely without singularities.

  18. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  19. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  20. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  1. Joint Enrollment Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Education collects information on joint enrollment in Iowa's 15 community colleges. Jointly enrolled students are high school students enrolled in community college credit coursework. Most jointly enrolled students enroll through Senior Year Plus (SYP) programs such as Postsecondary Enrollment Options (PSEO) and concurrent…

  2. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) Print A A A What's in ... español Aspiración articular (artrocentesis) What It Is A joint aspiration (arthrocentesis) is a test that involves withdrawing ( ...

  3. Imaging Approach to Temporomandibular Joint Disorders.

    PubMed

    Morales, H; Cornelius, R

    2016-03-01

    Internal derangement is the most common temporomandibular joint disorder. Degenerative osteoarthritis and trauma are next in frequency. Less common pathology includes rheumatoid arthritis, synovial chondromatosis, calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease, pigmented villonodular synovitis, tumors, infection, and osteonecrosis. We provide a systematic approach to facilitate interpretation based on major anatomic structures: disc-attachments, joint space, condyle, and lateral pterygoid muscle. Relevant graphic anatomy and state of the art imaging are discussed in correlation with current clinical and therapeutic highlights of pathologic entities affecting the joint.

  4. Joint Health Status of Hemophilia Patients in Jodhpur Region.

    PubMed

    Payal, Vikas; Sharma, Pramod; Chhangani, N P; Janu, Yojana; Singh, Yudhavir; Sharma, Akash

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which there is a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of the blood. Susceptibility to joint hemorrhage in persons with Hemophilia suggests that the routine assessment of joint health is an important aspect of clinical management and outcome studies assessing the efficacy of treatment. This prospective study was conducted to study joint health status in Hemophilia patients and draw their joint disability score by using Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Out of total 56 cases 51 (91.07 %) cases were diagnosed as hemophilia A while 5 cases (8.92 %) were diagnosed as hemophilia B. According to their factor level 44 % cases had severe 36 % had moderate and 20 % had mild disease. Knee joint was the predominant joint affected by hemarthrosis in 67.85 % cases followed by ankle joint (51.7 %) elbow joint (35.7 %), hip joint (12.5 %), shoulder joint (5.3 %) and proximal metacarpophalangeal joint (1.78 %).Out of total 37.5 % patients of hemophilia had developed target joint. Knee joint was the predominant target joint in 28.57 % cases and ankle joint was the target joint in 8.92 % cases. Maximum number of patients (40.47 %) had HJHS score of zero. The mean HJHS score was 6.78 ± 9.04. HJHS score showing significant positive correlation with age of patient (p < 0.0001). Most risky period and most aggravating development of hemophilic joint damage starts from 7 years of age. Therefore, treatment decisions, such as starting prophylaxis, should be tailored according to bleeding pattern and age of patients rather than based on the clotting factor activity levels.

  5. Stable, Thermally Conductive Fillers for Bolted Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVesque, Raymond J., II; Jones, Cherie A.; Babel, Henry W.

    2003-01-01

    A commercial structural epoxy [Super Koropon (or equivalent)] has been found to be a suitable filler material for bolted joints that are required to have large thermal conductances. The contact area of such a joint can be less than 1 percent of the apparent joint area, the exact value depending on the roughnesses of the mating surfaces. By occupying the valleys between contact peaks, the filler widens the effective cross section for thermal conduction. In comparison with prior thermal joint-filler materials, the present epoxy offers advantages of stability, ease of application, and -- as a byproduct of its stability -- lasting protection against corrosion. Moreover, unlike silicone greases that have been used previously, this epoxy does not migrate to contaminate adjacent surfaces. Because this epoxy in its uncured state wets metal joint surfaces and has low viscosity, it readily flows to fill the gaps between the mating surfaces: these characteristics affect the overall thermal conductance of the joint more than does the bulk thermal conductivity of the epoxy, which is not exceptional. The thermal conductances of metal-to-metal joints containing this epoxy were found to range between 5 and 8 times those of unfilled joints.

  6. [Fetal bone and joint disorders].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2008-12-21

    The article discusses the physiology and pathology of fetal bone and joint development and functions. The bones provide static support for the body. The skull and the bones of spinal column encase the central and part of the peripheral nervous system. The ribs and the sternum shield the heart and the lungs, while the bones of the pelvis protect the intraabdominal organs. Pathological changes of these bony structures may impair the functions of the respective systems or internal organs. Movements of the bones are brought about by muscles. The deriving motions are facilitated by joints. Bony anomalies of the extremities limit their effective functions. Apart from skeletal and joint abnormalities, akinesia may also be caused by neurological, muscular and skin diseases that secondarily affect the functions of bones and joints. Such pathological changes may lead to various degrees of physical disability and even to death. Some of the mentioned anomalies are recognizable in utero by ultrasound. The diagnosis may serve as medical indication for abortion in those instances when the identified abnormality is incompatible with independent life.

  7. [Ankle joint arthritis--etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Uri, Ofir; Haim, Amir

    2008-11-01

    Ankle joint arthritis causes functional limitation and affects the quality of life many patients. It follows traumatic injuries, inflammatory joint arthritis, primary osteoarthritis, hemochromatosis and infections. Understanding the unique anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle is important for diagnosis and treatment of ankle joint pathology. The treatment of ankle joint arthritis has advanced considerably in recent years and it is still a surgical challenge. Total ankle replacement seems to be a promising form of treatment, even though current data does not demonstrate advantages over ankle joint arthrodesis.

  8. Improved model for statistical alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Miklos, I.; Toroczkai, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The statistical approach to molecular sequence evolution involves the stochastic modeling of the substitution, insertion and deletion processes. Substitution has been modeled in a reliable way for more than three decades by using finite Markov-processes. Insertion and deletion, however, seem to be more difficult to model, and thc recent approaches cannot acceptably deal with multiple insertions and deletions. A new method based on a generating function approach is introduced to describe the multiple insertion process. The presented algorithm computes the approximate joint probability of two sequences in 0(13) running time where 1 is the geometric mean of the sequence lengths.

  9. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.

    1993-09-28

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aligning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront. 14 figures.

  10. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    PubMed

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain.

  11. The Alignment of Galaxy Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, M.; Panko, E.; Bajan, K.; Godłowski, W.; Flin, P.

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the orientation of the sample of ACO galaxy clusters. We examined the alignment in a subsample of 1056 galaxy structures taken from the Panko-Flin (2006) Catalog with known BM morphological types. We were looking for a correlation between the orientation of the cluster and the positions of neighboring clusters. The Binggeli effect (the excess of small values of the Δθ angles between the direction toward neighboring clusters and the cluster position angle) is observed, having a range up to about 45 h-1 Mpc. The strongest effect was found for elongated BM type I clusters. This is probably connected with the origins of the supergiant galaxy and with cluster formation along a long filament or plane in a supercluster.

  12. AIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIMFAST uses a large monitor or projections screen to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools. The software for the communicating computer is specific to the implementation and is not a part of AIMFAST.

  13. IAIMFAST: Alignment Implementation for Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, Charles E.

    2013-08-29

    AIMFAST is a software code used to align facets on a dish concentrator to a specific aimpoint strategy to minimize peak fluxes and maximize system optical performance. AIM FAST uses a large monitor to display fringe patterns, and a machine vision camera to image the reflection of these patterns in the subject dish mirrors. From these images, a detailed map of surface normals can be generated and compared to design or fitted mirror shapes. This fitted comparison is then used to develop a single vector representing the orientation of the facets relative to the design orientation, and provide near-real-time adjustment information to a communicating computer. The communicating computer can display adjustments or directly interface with adjustment tools.

  14. Tonal alignment in Irish dialects.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Martha; Chasaide, Ailbhe Ní

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the contour alignment of nuclear and initial prenuclear accents was carried out for the Irish dialects of Gaoth Dobhair in Ulster (GD-U) and Cois Fharraige in Connaught (CF-C). This was done across conditions where the number of unstressed syllables following the nuclear and preceding the initial prenuclear accents was varied from 2-0. This tests a variable peak hypothesis prompted by findings for other languages, that peak timing drifts as a function of the number of syllables preceding (the prenuclear) and following (the nuclear) accent. These data also test a second hypothesis that the L*+H dominant accent of GD-U might be viewed as being underlyingly the same as the dominant H* or H*+L accent of the CF-C dialect. According to this realignment hypothesis, the difference between these Ulster and Connaught dialects lies in the way that the melodic tier is aligned to the segmental tier: GD-U would be viewed as having a delayed realization of the peak relative to the Connaught dialect. Results do not support the variable peak hypothesis for Irish, as in either dialect, the peak appeared to be rather fixed across the three conditions examined (though not necessarily identical for prenuclear and nuclear positions). The results also militate against the realignment hypothesis, which rather than providing a more simple unifying account, would greatly complicate it. One reason is that there is a peak timing difference between the nuclear and prenuclear accents of CF-C, not mirrored in GD-U. Furthermore, even if one were to limit consideration to a single (e.g., prenuclear) context, a simple realignment of the accents in one dialect does not generate the appropriate contour in the other.

  15. Robotic Joints Support Horses and Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rehabilitative device first featured in Spinoff 2003 is not only helping human patients regain the ability to walk, but is now helping our four-legged friends as well. The late James Kerley, a prominent Goddard Space Flight Center researcher, developed cable-compliant mechanisms in the 1980s to enable sounding rocket assemblies and robots to grip or join objects. In cable-compliant joints (CCJs), short segments of cable connect structural elements, allowing for six directions of movement, twisting, alignment, and energy damping. Kerley later worked with Goddard s Wayne Eklund and Allen Crane to incorporate the cable-compliant mechanisms into a walker for human patients to support the pelvis and imitate hip joint movement.

  16. Hand-Eye Coordination Predicts Joint Attention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2017-02-10

    The present article shows that infant and dyad differences in hand-eye coordination predict dyad differences in joint attention (JA). In the study reported here, 51 toddlers ranging in age from 11 to 24 months and their parents wore head-mounted eye trackers as they played with objects together. We found that physically active toddlers aligned their looking behavior with their parent and achieved a substantial proportion of time spent jointly attending to the same object. However, JA did not arise through gaze following but rather through the coordination of gaze with manual actions on objects as both infants and parents attended to their partner's object manipulations. Moreover, dyad differences in JA were associated with dyad differences in hand following.

  17. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  18. Free-space optical communication alignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariola, M.; Petruccione, F.

    2016-10-01

    Optical communication systems in free space require a coarse and fine alignment system to align the receiver and transmitter. In general a coarse alignment is not entirely accurate to transmit the laser beacon in the exact direction of the visible field of the camera. During this process, some algorithms such as the raster, spiral and raster spiral scan algorithm can be used to find the spot of the laser beacon. Applications that require to transmit data in form of polarization signals, such as quantum cryptography, requires a polarisation bases alignment system to transmit and receive the photons. In this paper we present a fine alignment system using a polarised laser beacon. The system proposed was subdivided into a coarse and fine alignment system. The coarse alignment was implemented by using the GPS to acquire the geographical position of the transmitter, receiver and a reference point. The fine alignment was achieved by using a polarised laser beacon from the receiver to the transmitter and a camera located on the transmitter side. The algorithm presented was capable of excluding the background noise. Furthermore the polarisation of the laser beacon was used to align the polarisation bases of the transmitter and the receiver.

  19. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaponov, Yu. A.; Cerenius, Y.; Nygaard, J.; Ursby, T.; Larsson, K.

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  20. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  1. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, Shahin; Gleich, David F.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Grama, Ananth

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  2. The effects of alignment error and alignment filtering on the sitewise detection of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gregory; Goldman, Nick

    2012-04-01

    When detecting positive selection in proteins, the prevalence of errors resulting from misalignment and the ability of alignment filters to mitigate such errors are not well understood, but filters are commonly applied to try to avoid false positive results. Focusing on the sitewise detection of positive selection across a wide range of divergence levels and indel rates, we performed simulation experiments to quantify the false positives and false negatives introduced by alignment error and the ability of alignment filters to improve performance. We found that some aligners led to many false positives, whereas others resulted in very few. False negatives were a problem for all aligners, increasing with sequence divergence. Of the aligners tested, PRANK's codon-based alignments consistently performed the best and ClustalW performed the worst. Of the filters tested, GUIDANCE performed the best and Gblocks performed the worst. Although some filters showed good ability to reduce the error rates from ClustalW and MAFFT alignments, none were found to substantially improve the performance of PRANK alignments under most conditions. Our results revealed distinct trends in error rates and power levels for aligners and filters within a biologically plausible parameter space. With the best aligner, a low false positive rate was maintained even with extremely divergent indel-prone sequences. Controls using the true alignment and an optimal filtering method suggested that performance improvements could be gained by improving aligners or filters to reduce the prevalence of false negatives, especially at higher divergence levels and indel rates.

  3. Effect of prosthetic alignment changes on socket reaction moment impulse during walking in transtibial amputees

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S.; Arabian, Adam K.; Rosenbaum-Chou, Teri G.; Boone, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The alignment of a lower limb prosthesis affects the way load is transferred to the residual limb through the socket, and this load is critically important for the comfort and function of the prosthesis. Both magnitude and duration of the moment are important factors that may affect the residual limb health. Moment impulse is a well-accepted measurement that incorporates both factors via moment–time integrals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alignment changes on the socket reaction moment impulse in transtibial prostheses. Ten amputees with transtibial prostheses participated in this study. The socket reaction moment impulse was measured at a self-selected walking speed using a Smart Pyramid™ in 25 alignment conditions, including a nominal alignment (clinically aligned by a prosthetist), as well as angle malalignments of 2°, 4° and 6° (abduction, adduction, extension and flexion) and translation malalignments of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm (lateral, medial, anterior and posterior). The socket reaction moment impulse of the nominal alignment was compared for each condition. The relationship between the alignment and the socket reaction moment impulse was clearly observed in the coronal angle, coronal translation and sagittal translation alignment changes. However, this relationship was not evident in the sagittal angle alignment changes. The results of this study suggested that the socket reaction moment impulse could potentially serve as a valuable parameter to assist the alignment tuning process for transtibial prostheses. Further study is needed to investigate the influence of the socket reaction moment impulse on the residual limb health. PMID:24612718

  4. Effect of prosthetic alignment changes on socket reaction moment impulse during walking in transtibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S; Arabian, Adam K; Rosenbaum-Chou, Teri G; Boone, David A

    2014-04-11

    The alignment of a lower limb prosthesis affects the way load is transferred to the residual limb through the socket, and this load is critically important for the comfort and function of the prosthesis. Both magnitude and duration of the moment are important factors that may affect the residual limb health. Moment impulse is a well-accepted measurement that incorporates both factors via moment-time integrals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alignment changes on the socket reaction moment impulse in transtibial prostheses. Ten amputees with transtibial prostheses participated in this study. The socket reaction moment impulse was measured at a self-selected walking speed using a Smart Pyramid in 25 alignment conditions, including a nominal alignment (clinically aligned by a prosthetist), as well as angle malalignments of 2°, 4° and 6° (abduction, adduction, extension and flexion) and translation malalignments of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm (lateral, medial, anterior and posterior). The socket reaction moment impulse of the nominal alignment was compared for each condition. The relationship between the alignment and the socket reaction moment impulse was clearly observed in the coronal angle, coronal translation and sagittal translation alignment changes. However, this relationship was not evident in the sagittal angle alignment changes. The results of this study suggested that the socket reaction moment impulse could potentially serve as a valuable parameter to assist the alignment tuning process for transtibial prostheses. Further study is needed to investigate the influence of the socket reaction moment impulse on the residual limb health.

  5. Shear alignment of a disordered lamellar mesophase.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, V; Raman, D S S

    2011-03-01

    The shear alignment of an initially disordered lamellar phase is examined using lattice Boltzmann simulations of a mesoscopic model based on a free-energy functional for the concentration modulation. For a small shear cell of width 8λ, the qualitative features of the alignment process are strongly dependent on the Schmidt number Sc=ν/D (ratio of kinematic viscosity and mass diffusion coefficient). Here, λ is the wavelength of the concentration modulation. At low Schmidt number, it is found that there is a significant initial increase in the viscosity, coinciding with the alignment of layers along the extensional axis, followed by a decrease at long times due to the alignment along the flow direction. At high Schmidt number, alignment takes place due to the breakage and reformation of layers because diffusion is slow compared to shear deformation; this results in faster alignment. The system size has a strong effect on the alignment process; perfect alignment takes place for a small systems of width 8λ and 16λ, while a larger system of width 32λ does not align completely even at long times. In the larger system, there appears to be a dynamical steady state in which the layers are not perfectly aligned--where there is a balance between the annealing of defects due to shear and the creation due to an instability of the aligned lamellar phase under shear. We observe two types of defect creation mechanisms: the buckling instability under dilation, which was reported earlier, as well as a second mechanism due to layer compression.

  6. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Ros Mendoza, L H; Cañete Celestino, E; Velilla Marco, O

    2008-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a small joint with complex anatomy and function. Diverse pathologies with very different symptoms can affect the TMJ. While various imaging techniques such as plain-film radiography and computed tomography can be useful, magnetic resonance imaging's superior contrast resolution reveals additional structures like the articular disk, making this technique essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. We analyze the MRI signs of the different pathologies that can affect the TMJ from the structural and functional points of view.

  7. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D. J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100×10-6, specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000×10-6mm-1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons.

  8. Effect of Femoral Resection on Coronal Overall Alignment after Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min-Wei; Wang, Lu; Zeng, Lin; Hu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jin-Xin; Tian, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: A good postoperative alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the key to achieving satisfactory results. We assessed the effect of femoral and tibial resection on the overall alignment after conventional TKA. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 212 primary TKAs in 188 patients. Intramedullary (IM)-guided resection was applied on the femoral side while extramedullary (EM)-guided resection was used on the tibial side. Using full-length X-ray, the preoperative femoral valgus angle and lower extremity alignment, as well as 2-week postoperative femoral and tibial prosthetic coronal alignment and overall lower extremity alignment, were measured. Results: Postoperatively, good prosthetic alignment was achieved in 191 cases (90.1%) on the tibial side and in 144 cases (67.9%) on the femoral side (χ2 = 5.441, P = 0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the effect of different alignment sides on the overall alignment in the coronal plane. Data were divided into five subgroups based on the valgus or varus status of the prostheses. The standardized regression coefficients of the femoral and tibial prosthetic alignment on the overall alignment were 0.666 and 0.414, respectively; in varus on both sides were 0.658 and 0.377, respectively; in valgus, 0.555 and 0.030; femoral side varus and tibial side valgus, 0.702 and 0.211; femoral side valgus and tibial side varus, −0.416 and 0.287. The study showed that the overall low extremity alignment was statistically influenced by the prosthetic alignment, except for the tibial prosthetic alignment when femoral prosthesis was in valgus (P = 0.153). Conclusions: In conventional TKA, tibial side EM-guided resection may offer satisfactory postoperative alignment, and femoral resection relying on IM guide may lead to more undesirable results. Postoperative coronal alignment is mainly affected by the femoral resection. Therefore, femoral side operation should receive adequate attention

  9. Sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, Paul; Dreyer, Susan J; Cole, Andrew; Mayo, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a source of pain in the lower back and buttocks in approximately 15% of the population. Diagnosing sacroiliac joint-mediated pain is difficult because the presenting complaints are similar to those of other causes of back pain. Patients with sacroiliac joint-mediated pain rarely report pain above L5; most localize their pain to the area around the posterior superior iliac spine. Radiographic and laboratory tests primarily help exclude other sources of low back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and bone scans of the sacroiliac joint cannot reliably determine whether the joint is the source of the pain. Controlled analgesic injections of the sacroiliac joint are the most important tool in the diagnosis. Treatment modalities include medications, physical therapy, bracing, manual therapy, injections, radiofrequency denervation, and arthrodesis; however, no published prospective data compare the efficacy of these modalities.

  10. Implementation of two-state alignment system into CXrL aligner (Poster Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guan-Jye; Bodoh, D.; Wallace, John P.; Anderson, Paul D.; Reilly, Michael T.; Nachman, Ramez; Cerrina, Franco

    1992-07-01

    We describe the implementation of the two-state alignment system into the CXrL aligner, which is developed at our Center for X-ray Lithography. The CXrL aligner is designed to expose sub 0.25 μm feature size integrated circuits. The aligner consists of a three-axes two-state alignment system for alignment error detection and a piezo based precision mechanical stage for alignment error correction. The wafer is held by a precision vacuum chuck, while the mask is held by three vacuum suction cups located around the glass ring. In the prototype, the mask to wafer relative positioning is achieved by 3 motorized stages (for gap setting) and 3 piezo-actuators (for lateral alignment). Since the optical system is designed to be located outside of the synchrotron radiation path, alignment can be performed during exposure. We present the results of the alignment system performance, such as noise equivalent displacement and alignment signal response time. An alignment signal repeatibility of much better than 3σ = 0.07μm is achieved. We also briefly describe the future evaluation of the system, such as overlay measurement of the system using verniers and SEM inspection of some specially designed patterns.

  11. Optimal time alignment of tide-gauge tsunami waveforms in nonlinear inversions: Application to the 2015 Illapel (Chile) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Piatanesi, A.; Lorito, S.; Tolomei, C.; Atzori, S.; Murphy, S.

    2016-11-01

    Tsunami waveform inversion is often used to retrieve information about the causative seismic tsunami source. Tide gauges record tsunamis routinely; however, compared to deep-ocean sensor data, tide-gauge waveform modeling is more difficult due to coarse/inaccurate local bathymetric models resulting in a time mismatch between observed and predicted waveforms. This can affect the retrieved tsunami source model, thus limiting the use of tide-gauge data. A method for nonlinear inversion with an automatic optimal time alignment (OTA), calculated by including a time shift parameter in the cost function, is presented. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through a series of synthetic tests and is applied as part of a joint inversion with interferometric synthetic aperture radar data for the slip distribution of the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake. The results show that without OTA, the resolution on the slip model degrades significantly and that using this method for a real case strongly affects the retrieved slip pattern.

  12. Temporomandibular joint cytokine profiles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Gordon, John R; Allen, Andrew L

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that dental abnormalities lead to temporomandibular joint inflammation and pain that may be mitigated by regular dental care. There is considerable literature on the pathophysiology of equine joint disease including studies on cytokine profiles in diseased appendicular joints. This study examined the effects of age and dental malocclusions summarized as a dental pathology score on equine temporomandibular joint cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha and TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3) concentrations. TGF-beta3 was not detected in any joint sample. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha were not influenced by age. Foals had significantly lower concentrations of lL-8 and TGF-beta1, and higher levels of TGF-beta2 compared with older horses. Age did not effect cytokine concentration in older horses although there was a trend towards increasing 1L-8 with age. The dental pathology score increased with age in mature horses, however there was no effect of dental pathology score on cytokine concentration. There was no effect of incisor eruption, and presence or number of periodontal lesions on temporomandibular joint cytokine concentration. Our findings indicate that age but not dental pathology affected temporomandibular joint proinflammatory cytokine concentration in this population of horses.

  13. Phylogenetic Inference From Conserved sites Alignments

    SciTech Connect

    grundy, W.N.; Naylor, G.J.P.

    1999-08-15

    Molecular sequences provide a rich source of data for inferring the phylogenetic relationships among species. However, recent work indicates that even an accurate multiple alignment of a large sequence set may yield an incorrect phylogeny and that the quality of the phylogenetic tree improves when the input consists only of the highly conserved, motif regions of the alignment. This work introduces two methods of producing multiple alignments that include only the conserved regions of the initial alignment. The first method retains conserved motifs, whereas the second retains individual conserved sites in the initial alignment. Using parsimony analysis on a mitochondrial data set containing 19 species among which the phylogenetic relationships are widely accepted, both conserved alignment methods produce better phylogenetic trees than the complete alignment. Unlike any of the 19 inference methods used before to analyze this data, both methods produce trees that are completely consistent with the known phylogeny. The motif-based method employs far fewer alignment sites for comparable error rates. For a larger data set containing mitochondrial sequences from 39 species, the site-based method produces a phylogenetic tree that is largely consistent with known phylogenetic relationships and suggests several novel placements.

  14. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  15. Instructional Alignment under No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    The alignment of instruction with the content of standards and assessments is the key mediating variable separating the policy of standards-based reform (SBR) from the outcome of improved student achievement. Few studies have investigated SBR's effects on instructional alignment, and most have serious methodological limitations. This research uses…

  16. Probabilistic sequence alignment of stratigraphic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Luan; Khider, Deborah; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2014-10-01

    The assessment of age uncertainty in stratigraphically aligned records is a pressing need in paleoceanographic research. The alignment of ocean sediment cores is used to develop mutually consistent age models for climate proxies and is often based on the δ18O of calcite from benthic foraminifera, which records a global ice volume and deep water temperature signal. To date, δ18O alignment has been performed by manual, qualitative comparison or by deterministic algorithms. Here we present a hidden Markov model (HMM) probabilistic algorithm to find 95% confidence bands for δ18O alignment. This model considers the probability of every possible alignment based on its fit to the δ18O data and transition probabilities for sedimentation rate changes obtained from radiocarbon-based estimates for 37 cores. Uncertainty is assessed using a stochastic back trace recursion to sample alignments in exact proportion to their probability. We applied the algorithm to align 35 late Pleistocene records to a global benthic δ18O stack and found that the mean width of 95% confidence intervals varies between 3 and 23 kyr depending on the resolution and noisiness of the record's δ18O signal. Confidence bands within individual cores also vary greatly, ranging from ~0 to >40 kyr. These alignment uncertainty estimates will allow researchers to examine the robustness of their conclusions, including the statistical evaluation of lead-lag relationships between events observed in different cores.

  17. Galaxy Alignments: Observations and Impact on Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Donnacha; Brown, Michael L.; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kitching, Thomas D.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Cacciato, Marcello; Choi, Ami; Kiessling, Alina; Leonard, Adrienne; Rassat, Anais; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2015-11-01

    Galaxy shapes are not randomly oriented, rather they are statistically aligned in a way that can depend on formation environment, history and galaxy type. Studying the alignment of galaxies can therefore deliver important information about the physics of galaxy formation and evolution as well as the growth of structure in the Universe. In this review paper we summarise key measurements of galaxy alignments, divided by galaxy type, scale and environment. We also cover the statistics and formalism necessary to understand the observations in the literature. With the emergence of weak gravitational lensing as a precision probe of cosmology, galaxy alignments have taken on an added importance because they can mimic cosmic shear, the effect of gravitational lensing by large-scale structure on observed galaxy shapes. This makes galaxy alignments, commonly referred to as intrinsic alignments, an important systematic effect in weak lensing studies. We quantify the impact of intrinsic alignments on cosmic shear surveys and finish by reviewing practical mitigation techniques which attempt to remove contamination by intrinsic alignments.

  18. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D.; Paradiso, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J.

    1993-07-09

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ``Alignment Test Stand`` (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS.

  19. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  20. Overlay improvement by zone alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ai-Yi; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Yang, Richer; Yuan, Michael; Chen, Henry; Chang, Ray

    2008-03-01

    It is evident that DRAM ground rule continues to shrink down to 90nm and beyond, overlay performance has become more and more critical and important. Wafer edge shows different behavior from center by processes, e.g. a tremendous misalignment at wafer edge makes yield loss . When a conventional linear model is used for alignment correction, higher uncorrectable overlay residuals mostly happen at wafer edge. Therefore, it's obviously necessary to introduce an innovational alignment correction methdology to reduce unwanted wafer edge effect. In this study, we demonstrate the achievement of moderating poor overlay in wafer edge area by a novel zone-dependent alignment strategy, the so-called "Zone Alignment (ZA)". The main difference between the conventional linear model and zone alignment strategy is that the latter compensates an improper averaging effect from first modeling through weighting all surrounding marks with a nonlinear model. In addition, the effects of mark quantity and sampling distribution from "Zone Alignment" are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that ZA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual and improve wafer-to-wafer variation significantly. Furthermore, obvious yield improvement is verified by ZA strategy. In conclusion, Zone alignment is the noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, suitable alignment map and mark numbers should be taken into consideration carefully when ZA is applied for further technology node.

  1. Alignment of Developments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John; George, Judith W.; Pinheiro-Torres, Andreia

    2004-01-01

    This study builds upon the concept of alignment within the curriculum (due to Biggs) and suggests, in the context of two current examples, an integrated methodology for effectively aligned development activities within universities. Higher Education institutions face important challenges. Firstly, quality enhancement of the curriculum is now an…

  2. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  3. Optical alignment of a pupil imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horchem, Stephen D.; Kohrman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Sounder is a 19-channel discrete filter spectrometer with an additional channel for star sensing. This paper presents the GOES Sounder's instrument optics and compensations, alignment rationale, and alignment mechanism and sensitivities. The results of a line of sight tolerance analysis of the instrument are described, and the prealignment and instrument coregistration are addressed.

  4. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  5. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  6. Evaluating Content Alignment in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage; Webb, Norman L.

    2015-01-01

    The alignment between a test and the content domain it measures represents key evidence for the validation of test score inferences. Although procedures have been developed for evaluating the content alignment of linear tests, these procedures are not readily applicable to computerized adaptive tests (CATs), which require large item pools and do…

  7. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    non-surgical measures, high-grade inju- ries frequently warrant surgical intervention to minimize pain and maximize shoulder function. Factors such as...sports [1–3]. While most injuries can be managed non-operatively, high-grade separations may result in per- sistent pain or functional decline and...joint pathology (cross arm adduction and loading of the AC joint) can be helpful to localize shoulder pain to the AC joint. These tests are especial- ly

  8. Joint Program Management Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is...to review concept formulaton. Systems Engilneertn As with service programs, systems engineering in joint program management is an essential tool . I...MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK On=e wd Umawtaiutt As discussed in Chapter 7, systems analysis of relationships is a usef tool for joint program managers. The joint

  9. Strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings affecting standing balance on an inclined plane in spastic cerebral palsy. A study using a geometric model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Mita, K; Watakabe, M; Akataki, K; Okagawa, T; Kimizuka, M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an non-invasive method to determine whether strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings influences postural balance in spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Changes in alignment during standing posture with subjects positioned on a platform that was gradually inclined were measured in 10 normal children and 11 children with CP. The changes in postural alignment were plotted and geometric models used to determine the lines where the gastrocnemii and hamstrings were maximally stretched. In this way the relationship between postural alignment and the amount of strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings was investigated. On the inclined platform, which caused ankle joints to become dorsiflexed as the inclination angle increased, the gastrocnemii began to be strained and the hip joints began to be flexed (trunk bent forward) at the same time. In the children with CP, the gastrocnemii were more strained by smaller degrees of inclination. Furthermore, there was one child with CP whose hamstrings were also strained on the inclined platform. We confirmed that postural balance was affected by strain on the gastrocnemii and hamstrings.

  10. Aligning Arrays of Lenses and Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan

    2004-01-01

    A procedure now under development is intended to enable the precise alignment of sheet arrays of microscopic lenses with the end faces of a coherent bundle of as many as 1,000 single-mode optical fibers packed closely in a regular array (see Figure 1). In the original application that prompted this development, the precise assembly of lenses and optical fibers serves as a single-mode spatial filter for a visible-light nulling interferometer. The precision of alignment must be sufficient to limit any remaining wavefront error to a root-mean-square value of less than 1/10 of a wavelength of light. This wavefront-error limit translates to requirements to (1) ensure uniformity of both the lens and fiber arrays, (2) ensure that the lateral distance from the central axis of each lens and the corresponding optical fiber is no more than a fraction of a micron, (3) angularly align the lens-sheet planes and the fiber-bundle end faces to within a few arc seconds, and (4) axially align the lenses and the fiber-bundle end faces to within tens of microns of the focal distance. Figure 2 depicts the apparatus used in the alignment procedure. The beam of light from a Zygo (or equivalent) interferometer is first compressed by a ratio of 20:1 so that upon its return to the interferometer, the beam will be magnified enough to enable measurement of wavefront quality. The apparatus includes relay lenses that enable imaging of the arrays of microscopic lenses in a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that is part of the interferometer. One of the arrays of microscopic lenses is mounted on a 6-axis stage, in proximity to the front face of the bundle of optical fibers. The bundle is mounted on a separate stage. A mirror is attached to the back face of the bundle of optical fibers for retroreflection of light. When a microscopic lens and a fiber are aligned with each other, the affected portion of the light is reflected back by the mirror, recollimated by the microscopic lens, transmitted

  11. Rehabilitation services after total joint replacement in Ontario, Canada: can 'prehabilitation' programs mediate an increasing demand?

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Jaglal, Susan B; Wodchis, Walter P; Cooper, Nicole S; Cott, Cheryl A

    2007-12-01

    Total joint replacements (TJR) have emerged as a critical health policy issue. In particular, Canadian demand for these surgeries is forecast to grow annually by 8.7% in the next decade. Although the medical and surgical aspects of TJR have received considerable attention, very little research has explored the impact of increased TJR on the demand for rehabilitation services. In this study, we conducted seven focus group discussions across the province of Ontario (Canada) with multiple stakeholders (n=50) ranging from clinicians and administrators, to policy makers and researchers. Our results indicate that demand for rehabilitation following TJR is rising sharply and that there are three primary factors affecting such demand: (i) increase in the absolute number of TJR surgeries is increasing demand across the continuum of care; (ii) changing profile of clients whereby 'younger and active' groups are more willing to undergo surgery, and 'older and complex' groups are presenting with increased rates of medical complications and comorbidities; and (iii) widespread use of clinical pathways has increased requirements within the rehabilitation sector, but often without corresponding adjustments in levels of human resources. To align increasing demand with supply in the long term, participants offered strong support for health promotion and prevention programs, but they also highlighted the short-term benefits of implementing 'prehabilitation' programs for clients waiting for surgery. Overall, our results indicate that the demand for rehabilitation services after TJR is increasing and that innovative approaches to care delivery are required to align increasing demand with supply.

  12. [Chronic knee joint discomfort].

    PubMed

    Wittke, R

    2005-06-23

    Chronic pain in the knee joint is frequently a sign of arthrosis in adults. This must be clearly differentiated from other knee problems. Patellofemoral stress syndrome (occurs mostly in young people) and arthritis with effusion in the knee joint after long and mostly unusual stress also allow only a reduced function of the knee joint. However, even when the knee joint is still fully functional, chronic problems could already exist: For example, for joggers, iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee) or after high unphysiological stress, patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee). These must be differentiated from pes anserinus syndrome and a plica mediopatellaris.

  13. Alignment-free phylogenetics and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Haubold, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Phylogenetics and population genetics are central disciplines in evolutionary biology. Both are based on comparative data, today usually DNA sequences. These have become so plentiful that alignment-free sequence comparison is of growing importance in the race between scientists and sequencing machines. In phylogenetics, efficient distance computation is the major contribution of alignment-free methods. A distance measure should reflect the number of substitutions per site, which underlies classical alignment-based phylogeny reconstruction. Alignment-free distance measures are either based on word counts or on match lengths, and I apply examples of both approaches to simulated and real data to assess their accuracy and efficiency. While phylogeny reconstruction is based on the number of substitutions, in population genetics, the distribution of mutations along a sequence is also considered. This distribution can be explored by match lengths, thus opening the prospect of alignment-free population genomics.

  14. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOEpatents

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  15. Vane segment support and alignment device

    SciTech Connect

    McLaurin, Leroy Dixon; Sizemore, John Derek

    1999-01-01

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

  16. Aligning Greek-English parallel texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiotou, Eleni; Koronakis, George; Lazari, Vassiliki

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues concerning the alignment of parallel texts written in languages with different alphabets based on an experiment of aligning texts from the proceedings of the European Parliament in Greek and English. First, we describe our implementation of the k-vec algorithm and its application to the bilingual corpus. Then the output of the algorithm is used as a starting point for an alignment procedure at a sentence level which also takes into account mark-ups of meta-information. The results of the implementation are compared to those of the application of the Church and Gale alignment algorithm on the Europarl corpus. The conclusions of this comparison can give useful insights as for the efficiency of alignment algorithms when applied to the particular bilingual corpus.

  17. Automated interferometric alignment system for paraboloidal mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L. Curtis

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for a systematic method of interpreting interference fringes obtained by using a corner cube retroreflector as an alignment aid when aigning a paraboloid to a spherical wavefront. This is applicable to any general case where such alignment is required, but is specifically applicable in the case of aligning an autocollimating test using a diverging beam wavefront. In addition, the method provides information which can be systematically interpreted such that independent information about pitch, yaw and focus errors can be obtained. Thus, the system lends itself readily to automation. Finally, although the method is developed specifically for paraboloids, it can be seen to be applicable to a variety of other aspheric optics when applied in combination with a wavefront corrector that produces a wavefront which, when reflected from the correctly aligned aspheric surface will produce a collimated wavefront like that obtained from the paraboloid when it is correctly aligned to a spherical wavefront.

  18. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-12-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM) photogrammetry-based method has been implemented to measure the alignment of individual mirrors which can be characterized by the center of curvature. The mirror wall reflects a regular grid of retroreflective strips placed inside the detector vessel. Then, the position of each mirror is determined from the image of the grid reflection. The images are collected by four cameras. Any small mirror misalignment results in changes of the grid lines' positions in the image. The accuracy limits of the CLAM method were checked by laser interferometry and are below 0.1 mrad.

  19. Array tomography: semiautomated image alignment.

    PubMed

    Micheva, Kristina D; O'Rourke, Nancy; Busse, Brad; Smith, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Array tomography is a volumetric microscopy method based on physical serial sectioning. Ultrathin sections of a plastic-embedded tissue are cut using an ultramicrotome, bonded in an ordered array to a glass coverslip, stained as desired, and imaged. The resulting two-dimensional image tiles can then be reconstructed computationally into three-dimensional volume images for visualization and quantitative analysis. The minimal thickness of individual sections permits high-quality rapid staining and imaging, whereas the array format allows reliable and convenient section handling, staining, and automated imaging. Also, the physical stability of the arrays permits images to be acquired and registered from repeated cycles of staining, imaging, and stain elution, as well as from imaging using multiple modalities (e.g., fluorescence and electron microscopy). Array tomography makes it possible to visualize and quantify previously inaccessible features of tissue structure and molecular architecture. However, careful preparation of the tissue is essential for successful array tomography; these steps can be time-consuming and require some practice to perfect. Successful array tomography requires that the captured images be properly stacked and aligned, and the software to achieve these ends is freely available. This protocol describes the construction of volumetric image stacks from images of fluorescently labeled arrays for three-dimensional image visualization, analysis, and archiving.

  20. Recursions for statistical multiple alignment

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Jotun; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms are presented that allow the calculation of the probability of a set of sequences related by a binary tree that have evolved according to the Thorne–Kishino–Felsenstein model for a fixed set of parameters. The algorithms are based on a Markov chain generating sequences and their alignment at nodes in a tree. Depending on whether the complete realization of this Markov chain is decomposed into the first transition and the rest of the realization or the last transition and the first part of the realization, two kinds of recursions are obtained that are computationally similar but probabilistically different. The running time of the algorithms is \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}O({\\Pi}_{i}^{d}=1~L_{i})\\end{equation*}\\end{document}, where Li is the length of the ith observed sequences and d is the number of sequences. An alternative recursion is also formulated that uses only a Markov chain involving the inner nodes of a tree. PMID:14657378

  1. Cartilage Degeneration and Alignment in Severe Varus Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Shogo; Yabumoto, Hiromitsu; Tarumi, Eri; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cartilage, ligament, and meniscus degeneration and radiographic alignment in severe varus knee osteoarthritis in order to understand the development of varus knee osteoarthritis. Design Fifty-three patients (71 knees) with primary varus knee osteoarthritis and who underwent total knee arthroplasty were selected for this study. There were 6 men and 47 women, with 40 right knees and 31 left knees studied; their mean age at operation was 73.5 years. The ligament, meniscus, degeneration of joint cartilage, and radiographic alignments were examined visually. Results The tibial plateau–tibial shaft angle was larger if the condition of the cartilage in the lateral femoral condyle was worse. The femorotibial angle and tibial plateau–tibial shaft angle were larger if the conditions of the lateral meniscus or the cartilage in the lateral tibial plateau were worse. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, progression of varus knee osteoarthritis may occur in the following manner: medial knee osteoarthritis starts in the central portion of the medial tibial plateau, and accompanied by medial meniscal extrusion and anterior cruciate ligament rupture, cartilage degeneration expands from the anterior to the posterior in the medial tibial plateau. Bone attrition occurs in the medial tibial plateau, and the femoro-tibial angle and tibial plateau–tibial shaft angle increase. Therefore, the lateral intercondylar eminence injures the cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle in the longitudinal fissure type. Thereafter, the cartilage degeneration expands in the whole of the knee joints. PMID:26425258

  2. Dynamic Alignment Analysis in the Osteoarthritic Knee Using Computer Navigation.

    PubMed

    Larrainzar-Garijo, Ricardo; Murillo-Vizuete, David; Garcia-Bogalo, Raul; Escobar-Anton, David; Horna-Castiñeiras, Lissette; Peralta-Molero, Juan Vicente

    2017-02-13

    The lower limb alignment is influenced by the geometry of the joint surfaces and surrounding soft tissue tension. The mechanical behavior changes in a normal, osteoarthritic, and postoperative knee. The purpose of this study is to determine the dynamic coronal femoral tibial mechanical angle (FTMA) in osteoarthritic knees using computer navigation. The authors hypothesize that there are different varus-valgus patterns between flexion and extension in the osteoarthritic knee. We conducted a transversal observational study and included patients with osteoarthritis who underwent primary navigation TKA (Orthopilot version 4.2; B. Braun Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany). In total, 98 consecutive patients with 100 osteoarthritic knee joints, on which total knee arthroplasty was performed in our institution from 2009 to 2010, were enrolled in this prospective study. The FTMA was measured with the patient supine with maximum knee extension possible (considering the value as 0), 30, 60, and 90 degrees. All FMTA data obtained were segmented by hierarchic cluster measuring method. Through the clustering system, five segments were generated for varus patients and three for valgus patients: expected varus, expected valgus, severe varus, severe valgus, structured varus, structured valgus, concave varus, mixed varus-valgus, and mixed valgus-varus. The findings of the present study have demonstrated that there is a well-defined dynamic alignment in osteoarthritic knees, resulting in a wide kinematic variation in the coronal FTMA between flexion and full extension. Further studies will be necessary to determine whether this dynamic approach to FTMA has clinical utility in the surgeon's decision-making process.

  3. Algorithms for Automatic Alignment of Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Oliker, Leonid; Schreiber, Robert; Sheffler, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Aggregate data objects (such as arrays) are distributed across the processor memories when compiling a data-parallel language for a distributed-memory machine. The mapping determines the amount of communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. A common approach is to break the mapping into two stages: an alignment that maps all the objects to an abstract template, followed by a distribution that maps the template to the processors. This paper describes algorithms for solving the various facets of the alignment problem: axis and stride alignment, static and mobile offset alignment, and replication labeling. We show that optimal axis and stride alignment is NP-complete for general program graphs, and give a heuristic method that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. We also show how local graph contractions can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. We show how to model the static offset alignment problem using linear programming, and we show that loop-dependent mobile offset alignment is sometimes necessary for optimum performance. We describe an algorithm with for determining mobile alignments for objects within do loops. We also identify situations in which replicated alignment is either required by the program itself or can be used to improve performance. We describe an algorithm based on network flow that replicates objects so as to minimize the total amount of broadcast communication in replication.

  4. Joint Services Electronics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    compatible and are frequently overcoated with resist. Typical production alignment marK signals in the presence of resist coating have been studied...from tapered Si steps, including resist coating , has been com- pleted. Fundamental aspects of the electron scattering distribution in energy, space...Diego, ’A., October 21-22, 1982. Significant AccomDlishments A set of guidelines for designing e-beam alignment marks, including resist coating effects

  5. Beam and target alignment at the National Ignition Facility using the Target Alignment Sensor (TAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Nicola, P.; Kalantar, D.; McCarville, T.; Klingmann, J.; Alvarez, S.; Lowe-Webb, R.; Lawson, J.; Datte, P.; Danforth, P.; Schneider, M.; Di Nicola, J.-M.; Jackson, J.; Orth, C.; Azevedo, S.; Tommasini, R.; Manuel, A.; Wallace, R.

    2012-10-01

    The requirements for beam and target alignment for successful ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are stringent: the average of beams to the target must be within 25 μm. Beam and target alignment are achieved with the Target Alignment Sensor (TAS). The TAS is a precision optical device that is inserted into target chamber center to facilitate both beam and target alignment. It incorporates two camera views (upper/lower and side) mounted on each of two stage assemblies (jaws) to view and align the target. It also incorporates a large mirror on each of the two assemblies to reflect the alignment beams onto the upper/lower cameras for beam alignment. The TAS is located in the chamber using reference features by viewing it with two external telescope views. The two jaws are adjusted in elevation to match the desired beam and target alignment locations. For some shot setups, a sequence of TAS positions is required to achieve the full setup and alignment. In this paper we describe the TAS, the characterization of the TAS coordinates for beam and target alignment, and summarize pointing shots that demonstrate the accuracy of beam-target alignment.

  6. An Improved Inertial Frame Alignment Algorithm Based on Horizontal Alignment Information for Marine SINS.

    PubMed

    Che, Yanting; Wang, Qiuying; Gao, Wei; Yu, Fei

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, an improved inertial frame alignment algorithm for a marine SINS under mooring conditions is proposed, which significantly improves accuracy. Since the horizontal alignment is easy to complete, and a characteristic of gravity is that its component in the horizontal plane is zero, we use a clever method to improve the conventional inertial alignment algorithm. Firstly, a large misalignment angle model and a dimensionality reduction Gauss-Hermite filter are employed to establish the fine horizontal reference frame. Based on this, the projection of the gravity in the body inertial coordinate frame can be calculated easily. Then, the initial alignment algorithm is accomplished through an inertial frame alignment algorithm. The simulation and experiment results show that the improved initial alignment algorithm performs better than the conventional inertial alignment algorithm, and meets the accuracy requirements of a medium-accuracy marine SINS.

  7. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  8. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2005-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  9. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2004-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and non-standard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  10. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2004-10-29

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and non-standard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  11. Influence of Relict Joints on Permeability of Residual Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Z. A.; Kassim, A.; Yunusa, G. H.

    2016-07-01

    Weathering process of granitic material results in the formation of relict joint in lateritic layer of the weathering profile. The number and arrangements of the relict joints affects the permeability of the residual soil which invariably affects water flow and suction distribution in the residual soil. Although the permeability of residual soil without a relict joint can be determined using standard permeability test, it is difficult to be measured when a relict joint is incorporated due to limitation of size and area of the standard equipment. Hence, modified permeability test equipment is introduced in this study. Two arrangement of the relict joint in the equipment were considered. In the first arrangement one relict joint with various spacing were tested while the orientation and spacing of the relict joint were tested using two relict joints in the second arrangement. The results obtained shows that the permeability of the residual soil due to one and two relict joint varies by two orders of magnitude. Therefore, the number and spacing of relict joints modified the permeability of residual soil.

  12. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3.

  13. Daily Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals Daily Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Dong Lei Zhang Lifei; Wang He; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Mohan, Radhe

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of daily ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using daily bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for daily radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise daily alignments. Daily CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better daily alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with daily US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. Daily bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.

  14. Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valish, Dana J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.

  15. Joint Newspaper Operating Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Marie

    The number of competing daily newspapers in American cities has dwindled until only about 50 cities boast two papers. Of the newspapers in those cities, 23 now maintain separate editorial operations but have joint printing, advertising, and circulation departments. The concept of joint operation is 50 years old, dating from the Depression years…

  16. Jointness, A Selected Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    Joint warfare is team warfare. Joint Pub 1 purple- suiter -An officer assigned to duty on a staff where no particu- lar service predominates. This may...Force Quarterly, no. 5 (Summer 1994): 64-70. Winton, Harold R. "Partnership and Tension: The Army and Air Force Between Vietnam and Desert Shield

  17. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  18. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Valencia, Laura Susana; Elias, Arlindo; Rocon, Eduardo; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Frizera, Anselmo

    2016-12-10

    This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis.

  19. An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Valencia, Laura Susana; Elias, Arlindo; Rocon, Eduardo; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Frizera, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel calibration procedure as a simple, yet powerful, method to place and align inertial sensors with body segments. The calibration can be easily replicated without the need of any additional tools. The proposed method is validated in three different applications: a computer mathematical simulation; a simplified joint composed of two semi-spheres interconnected by a universal goniometer; and a real gait test with five able-bodied subjects. Simulation results demonstrate that, after the calibration method is applied, the joint angles are correctly measured independently of previous sensor placement on the joint, thus validating the proposed procedure. In the cases of a simplified joint and a real gait test with human volunteers, the method also performs correctly, although secondary plane errors appear when compared with the simulation results. We believe that such errors are caused by limitations of the current inertial measurement unit (IMU) technology and fusion algorithms. In conclusion, the presented calibration procedure is an interesting option to solve the alignment problem when using IMUs for gait analysis. PMID:27973406

  20. Alignment Cube with One Diffractive Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Sampler, Henry P.; Strojny, Carl R.; Hagopian, John G.; McMann, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    An enhanced alignment cube has been invented for use in a confined setting (e.g., a cryogenic chamber) in which optical access may be limited to a single line of sight. Whereas traditional alignment-cube practice entails the use of two theodolites aimed along two lines of sight, the enhanced alignment cube yields complete alignment information through use of a single theodolite aimed along a single line of sight. Typically, an alignment cube is placed in contact with a datum surface or other reference feature on a scientific instrument during assembly or testing of the instrument. The alignment cube is then used in measuring a small angular deviation of the feature from a precise required orientation. Commonly, the deviation is expressed in terms of rotations (Rx,Ry,Rz) of the cube about the corresponding Cartesian axes (x,y,z). In traditional practice, in order to measure all three rotations, it is necessary to use two theodolites aimed at two orthogonal faces of the alignment cube, as shown in the upper part of the figure. To be able to perform such a measurement, one needs optical access to these two faces. In the case of an alignment cube inside a cryogenic chamber or other enclosed space, the optical-access requirement translates to a requirement for two windows located along the corresponding two orthogonal lines of sight into the chamber. In a typical application, it is difficult or impossible to provide two windows. The present enhanced version of the alignment cube makes it possible to measure all three rotations by use of a single line of sight, thereby obviating a second window.

  1. Jointness for the Rest of Us: Reforming Joint Professional Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Vision 2020 (JV 2020 ) is the conceptual template established to guide the transformation of America’s Armed Forces. According to this template, the...of Staff. Joint Vision 2020 , (Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library, February 2001):1. 2 Ibid...Staffs of Staff, 2011. __________. Joint Vision 2020 .Washington DC. Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Electronic Library

  2. Predicting dynamic knee joint load with clinical measures in people with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Michael A; Bennell, Kim L

    2011-08-01

    Knee joint loading, as measured by the knee adduction moment (KAM), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Given that the KAM can only currently be accurately measured in the laboratory setting with sophisticated and expensive equipment, its utility in the clinical setting is limited. This study aimed to determine the ability of a combination of four clinical measures to predict KAM values. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to calculate the peak KAM at a self-selected walking speed in 47 consecutive individuals with medial compartment knee OA and varus malalignment. Clinical predictors included: body mass; tibial angle measured using an inclinometer; walking speed; and visually observed trunk lean toward the affected limb during the stance phase of walking. Multiple linear regression was performed to predict KAM magnitudes using the four clinical measures. A regression model including body mass (41% explained variance), tibial angle (17% explained variance), and walking speed (9% explained variance) explained a total of 67% of variance in the peak KAM. Our study demonstrates that a set of measures easily obtained in the clinical setting (body mass, tibial alignment, and walking speed) can help predict the KAM in people with medial knee OA. Identifying those patients who are more likely to experience high medial knee loads could assist clinicians in deciding whether load-modifying interventions may be appropriate for patients, whilst repeated assessment of joint load could provide a mechanism to monitor disease progression or success of treatment.

  3. Interactional leader-follower sensorimotor communication strategies during repetitive joint actions.

    PubMed

    Candidi, Matteo; Curioni, Arianna; Donnarumma, Francesco; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-09-06

    Non-verbal communication is the basis of animal interactions. In dyadic leader-follower interactions, leaders master the ability to carve their motor behaviour in order to 'signal' their future actions and internal plans while these signals influence the behaviour of follower partners, who automatically tend to imitate the leader even in complementary interactions. Despite their usefulness, signalling and imitation have a biomechanical cost, and it is unclear how this cost-benefits trade-off is managed during repetitive dyadic interactions that present learnable regularities. We studied signalling and imitation dynamics (indexed by movement kinematics) in pairs of leaders and followers during a repetitive, rule-based, joint action. Trial-by-trial Bayesian model comparison was used to evaluate the relation between signalling, imitation and pair performance. The different models incorporate different hypotheses concerning the factors (past interactions versus online movements) influencing the leader's signalling (or follower's imitation) kinematics. This approach showed that (i) leaders' signalling strategy improves future couple performance, (ii) leaders used the history of past interactions to shape their signalling, (iii) followers' imitative behaviour is more strongly affected by the online movement of the leader. This study elucidates the ways online sensorimotor communication help individuals align their task representations and ultimately improves joint action performance.

  4. Interactional leader–follower sensorimotor communication strategies during repetitive joint actions

    PubMed Central

    Candidi, Matteo; Curioni, Arianna; Donnarumma, Francesco; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is the basis of animal interactions. In dyadic leader–follower interactions, leaders master the ability to carve their motor behaviour in order to ‘signal’ their future actions and internal plans while these signals influence the behaviour of follower partners, who automatically tend to imitate the leader even in complementary interactions. Despite their usefulness, signalling and imitation have a biomechanical cost, and it is unclear how this cost–benefits trade-off is managed during repetitive dyadic interactions that present learnable regularities. We studied signalling and imitation dynamics (indexed by movement kinematics) in pairs of leaders and followers during a repetitive, rule-based, joint action. Trial-by-trial Bayesian model comparison was used to evaluate the relation between signalling, imitation and pair performance. The different models incorporate different hypotheses concerning the factors (past interactions versus online movements) influencing the leader's signalling (or follower's imitation) kinematics. This approach showed that (i) leaders' signalling strategy improves future couple performance, (ii) leaders used the history of past interactions to shape their signalling, (iii) followers' imitative behaviour is more strongly affected by the online movement of the leader. This study elucidates the ways online sensorimotor communication help individuals align their task representations and ultimately improves joint action performance. PMID:26333815

  5. Innovative informatics education: aligning theory and practice through strategic partnership.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Protti, D; Wright, I; Guerriere, M

    1998-01-01

    The University of Victoria School of Health Information Science (HINF) and The Toronto Hospital (TTH) have formed a strategic partnership to align current information management theory with practical experience. The fourth year undergraduate course in Information Management and Technology was redesigned to include a joint research project with TTH. Staff from TTH were paired with groups of 2-3 students to explore current information management issues. Technology such as electronic mail and conference calls enabled timely communication. Final results were presented via video conference at the end of the term and jointly graded by the professor and hospital staff. Over the three years, a variety of projects have been undertaken and the approach has been refined. Each year offered new insight to both students and staff. Findings include several key success factors: senior level support, early planning, timely communication, access to technology, and opportunity for staff and student feedback. This partnership offers strategic advantages to both organizations in innovation, mutual learning, recruiting, and partnership. Next steps include expansion of the project to a regional model and seminars on current information management topics for TTH staff.

  6. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  7. Coelostat and heliostat - Theory of alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demianski, M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1984-06-01

    For perfectly aligned heliostats and coelostats tracking at the solar rate and half the solar rate, respectively, the solar beam has no translational motion. But, particularly in the field at eclipses, it is not possible to align heliostats and coelostats with infinite precision. The authors derive the effect of small misalignments on the translational motion of the beam, and give tables to allow the calculation of the accuracy to which the instruments must be mounted and adjusted to attain a desired accuracy over a given duration. Further, it is shown how to derive the necessary adjustments to improve alignment, given measurements of the tracking error.

  8. Switchable Fresnel lens based on micropatterned alignment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2013-06-01

    In this Letter we disclose a method to fabricate a liquid crystal (LC) Fresnel zone lens (FZL) with higher efficiency. The LCFZL, based on alternate twisted nematic (TN) and planar aligned (PA) regions, has been prepared by means of a two-step photo-alignment process. The FZL profile for both optical regimes, i.e., in TN and PA alignment domains, generates the same focal length (f). Thus, the proposed LCFZL manifests double light intensity at the focal point and therefore offers double the efficiency of existing FZLs. Moreover, because of lower driving voltage and fast response, these elements could find application in many modern devices.

  9. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.; Lloyd, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  10. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  11. Energy band alignment at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuermeier, Jonas; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Klein, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The energy band alignments at interfaces often determine the electrical functionality of a device. Along with the size reduction into the nanoscale, functional coatings become thinner than a nanometer. With the traditional analysis of the energy band alignment by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy, a critical film thickness is needed to determine the valence band offset. By making use of the Auger parameter, it becomes possible to determine the energy band alignment to coatings, which are only a few Ångström thin. This is demonstrated with experimental data of Cu2O on different kinds of substrate materials.

  12. A method for small-animal PET/CT alignment calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascau, J.; Vaquero, J. J.; Chamorro-Servent, J.; Rodríguez-Ruano, A.; Desco, M.

    2012-06-01

    Small-animal positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners provide anatomical and molecular imaging, which enables the joint visualization and analysis of both types of data. A proper alignment calibration procedure is essential for small-animal imaging since resolution is much higher than that in human devices. This work presents an alignment phantom and two different calibration methods that provide a reliable and repeatable measurement of the spatial geometrical alignment between the PET and the CT subsystems of a hybrid scanner. The phantom can be built using laboratory materials, and it is meant to estimate the rigid spatial transformation that aligns both modalities. It consists of three glass capillaries filled with a positron-emitter solution and positioned in a non-coplanar triangular geometry inside the system field of view. The calibration methods proposed are both based on automatic line detection, but with different approaches to calculate the transformation of the lines between both modalities. Our results show an average accuracy of the alignment estimation of 0.39 mm over the whole field of view.

  13. Global multiple protein-protein interaction network alignment by combining pairwise network alignments

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A wealth of protein interaction data has become available in recent years, creating an urgent need for powerful analysis techniques. In this context, the problem of finding biologically meaningful correspondences between different protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) is of particular interest. The PPIN of a species can be compared with that of other species through the process of PPIN alignment. Such an alignment can provide insight into basic problems like species evolution and network component function determination, as well as translational problems such as target identification and elucidation of mechanisms of disease spread. Furthermore, multiple PPINs can be aligned simultaneously, expanding the analytical implications of the result. While there are several pairwise network alignment algorithms, few methods are capable of multiple network alignment. Results We propose SMAL, a MNA algorithm based on the philosophy of scaffold-based alignment. SMAL is capable of converting results from any global pairwise alignment algorithms into a MNA in linear time. Using this method, we have built multiple network alignments based on combining pairwise alignments from a number of publicly available (pairwise) network aligners. We tested SMAL using PPINs of eight species derived from the IntAct repository and employed a number of measures to evaluate performance. Additionally, as part of our experimental investigations, we compared the effectiveness of SMAL while aligning up to eight input PPINs, and examined the effect of scaffold network choice on the alignments. Conclusions A key advantage of SMAL lies in its ability to create MNAs through the use of pairwise network aligners for which native MNA implementations do not exist. Experiments indicate that the performance of SMAL was comparable to that of the native MNA implementation of established methods such as IsoRankN and SMETANA. However, in terms of computational time, SMAL was significantly faster

  14. Scale dependence of the alignment between strain rate and rotation in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiscaletti, D.; Elsinga, G. E.; Attili, A.; Bisetti, F.; Buxton, O. R. H.

    2016-10-01

    The scale dependence of the statistical alignment tendencies of the eigenvectors of the strain-rate tensor ei, with the vorticity vector ω , is examined in the self-preserving region of a planar turbulent mixing layer. Data from a direct numerical simulation are filtered at various length scales and the probability density functions of the magnitude of the alignment cosines between the two unit vectors | ei.ω ̂| are examined. It is observed that the alignment tendencies are insensitive to the concurrent large-scale velocity fluctuations, but are quantitatively affected by the nature of the concurrent large-scale velocity-gradient fluctuations. It is confirmed that the small-scale (local) vorticity vector is preferentially aligned in parallel with the large-scale (background) extensive strain-rate eigenvector e1, in contrast to the global tendency for ω to be aligned in parallel with the intermediate strain-rate eigenvector [Hamlington et al., Phys. Fluids 20, 111703 (2008), 10.1063/1.3021055]. When only data from regions of the flow that exhibit strong swirling are included, the so-called high-enstrophy worms, the alignment tendencies are exaggerated with respect to the global picture. These findings support the notion that the production of enstrophy, responsible for a net cascade of turbulent kinetic energy from large scales to small scales, is driven by vorticity stretching due to the preferential parallel alignment between ω and nonlocal e1 and that the strongly swirling worms are kinematically significant to this process.

  15. Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Suping; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuhei

    2013-05-01

    In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear.

  16. Effect of alignment of easy axes on dynamic magnetization of immobilized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Matsugi, Yuki; Tsujimura, Naotaka; Sasayama, Teruyoshi; Enpuku, Keiji; Viereck, Thilo; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2017-04-01

    In some biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), the particles are physically immobilized. In this study, we explore the effect of the alignment of the magnetic easy axes on the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs under an AC excitation field. We prepared three immobilized MNP samples: (1) a sample in which easy axes are randomly oriented, (2) a parallel-aligned sample in which easy axes are parallel to the AC field, and (3) an orthogonally aligned sample in which easy axes are perpendicular to the AC field. First, we show that the parallel-aligned sample has the largest hysteresis in the magnetization curve and the largest harmonic magnetization spectra, followed by the randomly oriented and orthogonally aligned samples. For example, 1.6-fold increase was observed in the area of the hysteresis loop of the parallel-aligned sample compared to that of the randomly oriented sample. To quantitatively discuss the experimental results, we perform a numerical simulation based on a Fokker-Planck equation, in which probability distributions for the directions of the easy axes are taken into account in simulating the prepared MNP samples. We obtained quantitative agreement between experiment and simulation. These results indicate that the dynamic magnetization of immobilized MNPs is significantly affected by the alignment of the easy axes.

  17. Computing posterior probabilities for score-based alignments using ppALIGN.

    PubMed

    Wolfsheimer, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander; Rabus, Ralf; Nuel, Gregory

    2012-05-16

    Score-based pairwise alignments are widely used in bioinformatics in particular with molecular database search tools, such as the BLAST family. Due to sophisticated heuristics, such algorithms are usually fast but the underlying scoring model unfortunately lacks a statistical description of the reliability of the reported alignments. In particular, close to gaps, in low-score or low-complexity regions, a huge number of alternative alignments arise which results in a decrease of the certainty of the alignment. ppALIGN is a software package that uses hidden Markov Model techniques to compute position-wise reliability of score-based pairwise alignments of DNA or protein sequences. The design of the model allows for a direct connection between the scoring function and the parameters of the probabilistic model. For this reason it is suitable to analyze the outcomes of popular score based aligners and search tools without having to choose a complicated set of parameters. By contrast, our program only requires the classical score parameters (the scoring function and gap costs). The package comes along with a library written in C++, a standalone program for user defined alignments (ppALIGN) and another program (ppBLAST) which can process a complete result set of BLAST. The main algorithms essentially exhibit a linear time complexity (in the alignment lengths), and they are hence suitable for on-line computations. We have also included alternative decoding algorithms to provide alternative alignments. ppALIGN is a fast program/library that helps detect and quantify questionable regions in pairwise alignments. Due to its structure, the input/output interface it can to be connected to other post-processing tools. Empirically, we illustrate its usefulness in terms of correctly predicted reliable regions for sequences generated using the ROSE model for sequence evolution, and identify sensor-specific regions in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

  18. Integration of marker and force data to compute three-dimensional joint moments of the thumb and index finger digits during pinch

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Li, Zong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study presents methodology to determine joint moments of the digits of the hand during pinch function. This methodology incorporates steps to identify marker-based kinematic data defining aligned coordinate systems for individual digit segments and joint center locations. The kinematic data are then transformed to a common reference frame along with the force data collected at pinch contact of a customized apparatus in three-dimensions (3-D). These methods were demonstrated with a pilot investigation to examine the static joint moments occurring during two-digit oppositional precision pinch at a particular endpoint force level applied at the digit pads. Notable abduction joint moments at the proximal joints of both digits were observed, which implicate the role of respective intrinsic and extrinsic muscles in maintaining pinch grasp. Examining differences in joint moment results when substituting select steps of this methodological approach suggested greater relative importance for joint center identification and segment coordinate system alignment. PMID:23947659

  19. Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.

    PubMed

    Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele

    2015-10-02

    Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes.

  20. On the Impact of Widening Vector Registers on Sequence Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, Jeffrey A.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Ren, Bin

    2016-09-22

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. In this paper, we demonstrate that the trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. We present a practically efficient SIMD implementation of a parallel scan based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units. We conduct comprehensive workload and use case analyses to characterize the relative behavior of the striped and scan approaches and identify the best choice of algorithm based on input length and SIMD width.

  1. PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURED ALIGNMENT ERRORS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT,F.; HEMMER,M.; PTITSIN,V.; TEPIKIAN,S.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    1999-03-29

    All elements of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have been installed in ideal survey locations, which are defined as the optimum locations of the fiducials with respect to the positions generated by the design. The alignment process included the presurvey of all elements which could affect the beams. During this procedure a special attention was paid to the precise determination of the quadrupole centers as well as the roll angles of the quadrupoles and dipoles. After installation the machine has been surveyed and the resulting as-built measured position of the fiducials have been stored and structured in the survey database. We describe how the alignment errors, inferred by comparison of ideal and as-built data, have been processed and analyzed by including them in the RHIC modeling software. The RHIC model, which also includes individual measured errors for all magnets in the machine and is automatically generated from databases, allows the study of the impact of the measured alignment errors on the machine.

  2. Collagen fibril diameter and alignment promote the quiescent keratocyte phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Muthusubramaniam, Lalitha; Peng, Lily; Zaitseva, Tatiana; Paukshto, Michael; Martin, George R.; Desai, Tejal

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how matrix nanotopography affects corneal fibroblast phenotype and matrix synthesis. To this end, corneal fibroblasts isolated from bovine corneas were grown on collagen nanofiber scaffolds of different diameters and alignment – 30 nm aligned fibrils (30A), 300 nm or larger aligned fibrils (300A), and 30 nm nonaligned fibrils (30NA) in comparison to collagen coated flat glass substrates (FC). Cell morphology was visualized using confocal microscopy. Quantitative PCR was used to measure expression levels of six target genes: the corneal crystallin - transketolase (TKT), the myofibroblast marker - α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and four matrix proteins - collagen 1 (COL1), collagen 3 (COL3), fibronectin (FN) and biglycan. It was found that SMA expression was down-regulated and TKT expression was increased on all three collagen nanofiber substrates, compared to the FC control substrates. However, COL3 and biglycan expression was also significantly increased on 300A, compared to the FC substrates. Thus matrix nanotopography down-regulates the fibrotic phenotype, promotes formation of the quiescent keratocyte phenotype and influences matrix synthesis. These results have significant implications for the engineering of corneal replacements and for promoting regenerative healing of the cornea after disease and/or injury. PMID:22213336

  3. Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

  4. Aligning parallel arrays to reduce communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, Thomas J.; Schreiber, Robert; Gilbert, John R.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha

    1994-01-01

    Axis and stride alignment is an important optimization in compiling data-parallel programs for distributed-memory machines. We previously developed an optimal algorithm for aligning array expressions. Here, we examine alignment for more general program graphs. We show that optimal alignment is NP-complete in this setting, so we study heuristic methods. This paper makes two contributions. First, we show how local graph transformations can reduce the size of the problem significantly without changing the best solution. This allows more complex and effective heuristics to be used. Second, we give a heuristic that can explore the space of possible solutions in a number of ways. We show that some of these strategies can give better solutions than a simple greedy approach proposed earlier. Our algorithms have been implemented; we present experimental results showing their effect on the performance of some example programs running on the CM-5.

  5. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  6. Synovial Osteochondromatosis at the Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Hiroyoshi; Nishimura, Takahiro; Amagai, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Mayu; Miyamoto, Osamu; Nakama, Sueo

    2017-01-01

    Synovial osteochondromatosis (SOC) is a benign tumor characterized by synovial connective tissue metaplasia. SOC commonly affects major joints including the knee followed by the hip, elbow, and wrist. SOC cases in the hand are not reported as often as SOC of major joints. Particularly SOC of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb is rare. We report on a 57-year-old female with primary SOC of the carpometacarpal joint of her left thumb. Surgical excision was performed and the patient had no symptoms with full range of motion of her left thumb. At 3 years of follow-up, there was no recurrence. PMID:28168072

  7. Fiber optics welder having movable aligning mirror

    DOEpatents

    Higgins, Robert W.; Robichaud, Roger E.

    1981-01-01

    A system for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45.degree. angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  8. Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Carlisle Compendia of Collaborative Research United States Army War College Student Publications Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and...Concept Viability and Implementation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...Carlisle Compendia of Collaborative Research United States Army War College Student Publications Regionally Aligned Forces: Concept Viability and

  9. Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Gregory V.; Alexander, Reginald A.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Alignment and Portfolio Prioritization (TAPP) is a method being developed by the Advanced Concepts Office, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The TAPP method expands on current technology assessment methods by incorporating the technological structure underlying technology development, e.g., organizational structures and resources, institutional policy and strategy, and the factors that motivate technological change. This paper discusses the methods ACO is currently developing to better perform technology assessments while taking into consideration Strategic Alignment, Technology Forecasting, and Long Term Planning.

  10. Control rod housing alignment and repair method

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for underwater welding of a control rod drive housing inserted through a stub tube to maintain requisite alignment and elevation of the top of the control rod drive housing to an overlying and corresponding aperture in a core plate as measured by an alignment device which determines the relative elevation and angularity with respect to the aperture. It comprises providing a welding cylinder dependent from the alignment device such that the elevation of the top of the welding cylinder is in a fixed relationship to the alignment device and is gas-proof; pressurizing the welding cylinder with inert welding gas sufficient to maintain the interior of the welding cylinder dry; lowering the welding cylinder through the aperture in the core plate by depending the cylinder with respect to the alignment device, the lowering including lowering through and adjusting the elevation relationship of the welding cylinder to the alignment device such that when the alignment device is in position to measure the elevation and angularity of the new control rod drive housing, the lower distal end of the welding cylinder extends below the upper periphery of the stub where welding is to occur; inserting a new control rod drive housing through the stub tube and positioning the control rod drive housing to a predetermined relationship to the anticipated final position of the control rod drive housing; providing welding implements transversely rotatably mounted interior of the welding cylinder relative to the alignment device such that the welding implements may be accurately positioned for dispensing weldment around the periphery of the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing; measuring the elevation and angularity of the control rod drive housing; and dispensing weldment along the top of the stub tube and at the side of the control rod drive housing.

  11. Molecular focusing and alignment with plasmon fields.

    PubMed

    Artamonov, Maxim; Seideman, Tamar

    2010-12-08

    We show the possibility of simultaneously aligning molecules and focusing their center-of-mass motion near a metal nanoparticle in the field intensity gradient created by the surface plasmon enhancement of incident light. The rotational motion is described quantum mechanically while the translation is treated classically. The effects of the nanoparticle shape on the alignment and focusing are explored. Our results carry interesting implications to the field of molecular nanoplasmonics and suggest several potential applications in nanochemistry.

  12. A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality Yohan Baillot and Simon J. Julier ITT Advanced Engineering & Sciences 2560 Huntington Ave...with as few as three measurements. 1. Introduction Almost all Augmented Reality (AR) systems use a track- ing system to capture motion of objects in...DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Tracker Alignment Framework for Augmented Reality 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. Differential Heating of Magnetically Aligned Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillancourt, John E.; Andersson, B.

    2013-01-01

    We use far-infrared photometric maps from IRAS and Herschel to search for the differential heating of asymmetric dust grains aligned with respect to an interstellar magnetic field and heated by a localized radiation source. The grains are known to be asymmetric and have a net alignment of their axes from observations of background starlight polarization. Modern theories on grain alignment suggest that photons from stars embedded in the foreground cloud are a key ingredient of the physical mechanism responsible for alignment (i.e., radiative torques). This theory predicts a relation between the grain alignment efficiency and the angle between the magnetic field and the direction to the aligning radiation source. This effect has been tentatively observed in a source with a very simple geometry (Andersson et al. 2011): the aligning photons are primarily from a single localized source (i.e., a single star) and the local magnetic field direction is known to be fairly uniform. Such a region also has consequences for the distribution of grain heating. For example, asymmetric grains whose largest cross-sections are normal to the incident stellar radiation will reach warmer equilibrium temperatures compared to grains whose largest cross-section is parallel to that direction. This should be observed as an azimuthal dependence of the dust color temperature. We present evidence of such a dependence using IRAS data at 60 and 100 micron. We expect this effect to be stronger using longer wavelength (i.e., 160 micron) data better coupled to the "big-grain" dust population, grains which are also more efficiently aligned with the local magnetic field. Here we also present the results of our on-going work to search for this signal using Herschel maps towards three candidate stars.

  14. Unconventional High Density Vertically Aligned Conducting Polymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    electrodes with unique and controlled nano-morphologies: highly aligned carbon nanotubes (A-CNT) and graphene. This program also developed the...highly aligned carbon nanotubes forests (A-CNTs) and graphene. As synthesized A- CNTs have low volume fraction of CNT (~ 1 %). Traditional method to... nanotubes (A-CNTs). In contract to the electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) which store charges on the surface of the electrodes, conducting

  15. Alignment of photoions far from threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Romith; Wu, Chuanyong; Mihill, A. G.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Wang, Kwanghsi; McKoy, V.

    1994-09-01

    We present results of measurements and calculations of the alignment for CO+(B 2Σ+) photoions over an extended energy range (0≤Ek≤210 eV). The polarization of CO+(B 2Σ+→X 2Σ+) fluorescence indicates that the photoions retain significant alignment even at high energies. Agreement between the measured and calculated polarization of the fluorescence is excellent.

  16. [Chronic diseases of the ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Rand, T; Trattnig, S; Breitenseher, M; Kreuzer, S; Wagesreither, S; Imhof, H

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of chronic diseases of the ankle joint comprises a wide spectrum including chronic inflammatory processes and chronic degenerative, tumorous and neuropathic processes, as well as some specific syndromes based on chronic changes of the ankle joint. Of the inflammatory processes, chronic juvenile arthritis (JVC) is the most common disease. However, also Reiter disease, psoriasis or chronic monoarthritid diseases such as gout, as well as granulomatous diseases (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and fungal infections, may affect the ankle joint in a chronic course. Chronic degenerative changes are usually secondary due to abnormal positioning of the joint constituents or repetitive trauma. Neuropathic changes, as frequently seen in the course of diabetes, present with massive osseous destruction and malposition of the articular constituents. Chronic osseous as well as cartilaginous and synovial changes are seen in hemophilic patients. Chronic traumatic changes are represented by pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), and chondromatosis, both with a predilection for the ankle joint. Due to the possibilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnosis of chronic ankle changes includes chronic ligamentous, tendinous and soft tissue changes. With the use of MRI, specific syndromes can be defined which particularly affect the ankle joint in a chronic way, such as the os trigonum syndrome, the anterolateral impingement syndrome and the sinus tarsi syndrome. Nevertheless, plain film radiographs are still the basic element of any investigation. MRI, however, can be potentially used as a second investigation, saving an unnecessary cascade of investigations with ultrasound and CT. The latter investigations are used only with very specific indications, for instance CT for subtle bone structures and sonography for a limited investigation of tendons or evaluation of fluid. Particularly due to the possibilities of MRI and the development of special gradient-echo imaging

  17. Compliant Joints For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Compliant joints devised to accommodate misalignments of tools and/or workpieces with respect to robotic manipulators. Has characteristics and appearance of both universal-joint and cable-spring-type flexible shaft coupling. Compliance derived from elastic properties of short pieces of cable. Compliance of joint determined by lengths, distances between, relative orientations, thickness of strands, number of strands, material, amount of pretwist, and number of short pieces of cable. Worm-drive mechanism used to adjust lengths to vary compliance as needed during operation.

  18. Joint Robotics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  19. Total ankle joint replacement.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  20. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    MedlinePlus

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Orthodontics print full article print this chapter email ...

  1. Uniaxially aligned nanofibrous cylinders by electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Jana, Soumen; Cooper, Ashleigh; Ohuchi, Fumio; Zhang, Miqin

    2012-09-26

    Aligned nanofibers have drawn increasing interest for applications in biomedical engineering, electronics, and energy storage systems owing to the unique physicochemical properties provided by their anisotropy and high surface-to-volume ratio. Nevertheless, direct fabrication or assembly of aligned nanofibers into a 3-dimensional standalone construct with practically applicable dimensions presents an enormous challenge. We report a facile method to fabricate aligned nanofibrous cylinders, a widely used geometric form, by electrospinning aligned nanofibers across the gap between a pair of pin electrodes placed apart uniaxially. With this approach, cylindrical nanofibrous constructs of several millimeters in diameter and several centimeters in length can be readily produced. The versatility of the approach was demonstrated with several commonly used polymeric and ceramic materials, including polycaprolactone (PCL), chitosan/PCL, polyvinylidene fluoride, and titania. For a model application in tissue engineering, skeletal muscle cells were cultured on nanofibrous cylinders, which effectively produced highly aligned and densely populated myotubes along the nanofiber orientation, favorable for muscle tissue regeneration. With high structural integrity and stability, these can be directly integrated into devices or implanted in vivo as a standalone construct without the support of a substrate, thus increasing the portability, efficiency, and applicability of aligned nanofibers.

  2. DALIX: optimal DALI protein structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Inken; Andonov, Rumen; Klau, Gunnar W

    2013-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and exact algorithm for optimally aligning protein structures using the DALI scoring model. This scoring model is based on comparing the interresidue distance matrices of proteins and is used in the popular DALI software tool, a heuristic method for protein structure alignment. Our model and algorithm extend an integer linear programming approach that has been previously applied for the related, but simpler, contact map overlap problem. To this end, we introduce a novel type of constraint that handles negative score values and relax it in a Lagrangian fashion. The new algorithm, which we call DALIX, is applicable to any distance matrix-based scoring scheme. We also review options that allow to consider fewer pairs of interresidue distances explicitly because their large number hinders the optimization process. Using four known data sets of varying structural similarity, we compute many provably score-optimal DALI alignments. This allowed, for the first time, to evaluate the DALI heuristic in sound mathematical terms. The results indicate that DALI usually computes optimal or close to optimal alignments. However, we detect a subset of small proteins for which DALI fails to generate any significant alignment, although such alignments do exist.

  3. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement. PMID:22928114

  4. Observational Evidence for Radiative Interstellar Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.; Potter, S. B.; Andersson, B.; Potter, S.

    2011-11-01

    The alignment mechanisms of interstellar dust grains is a long standing astrophysical problem. Interstellar polarization was first discovered in 1949 and soon thereafter attributed to dichroic extinction caused by asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. For a long time the alignment mechanism was thought to involve paramagnetic relaxation in rapidly spinning dust grains. Modern theory indicates that the classical alignment mechanisms are likely not efficient, but rather favor alignment through direct radiative torques. We have used multi-band polarimetry towards stars probing six nearby clouds to show that the wavelength of maximum polarization is linearly correlated with the visual extinction (Andersson & Potter 2007; AP07; where further details can be found). We find a universal relation with a common positive slope between the clouds and a DC offset correlated with the average of the total-to-selective extinction < RV > . These results provide strong observational support for radiatively driven grain alignment. Recent observations of an additional set of ≍60 sightlines in the Taurus cloud confirm and strengthen these results.

  5. Aligning Biomolecular Networks Using Modular Graph Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towfic, Fadi; Greenlee, M. Heather West; Honavar, Vasant

    Comparative analysis of biomolecular networks constructed using measurements from different conditions, tissues, and organisms offer a powerful approach to understanding the structure, function, dynamics, and evolution of complex biological systems. We explore a class of algorithms for aligning large biomolecular networks by breaking down such networks into subgraphs and computing the alignment of the networks based on the alignment of their subgraphs. The resulting subnetworks are compared using graph kernels as scoring functions. We provide implementations of the resulting algorithms as part of BiNA, an open source biomolecular network alignment toolkit. Our experiments using Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens protein-protein interaction networks extracted from the DIP repository of protein-protein interaction data demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithms (as measured by % GO term enrichment of subnetworks identified by the alignment) is competitive with some of the state-of-the-art algorithms for pair-wise alignment of large protein-protein interaction networks. Our results also show that the inter-species similarity scores computed based on graph kernels can be used to cluster the species into a species tree that is consistent with the known phylogenetic relationships among the species.

  6. Aligning Optical Fibers by Means of Actuated MEMS Wedges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Brian; Ghodssi, Reza

    2007-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) of a proposed type would be designed and fabricated to effect lateral and vertical alignment of optical fibers with respect to optical, electro-optical, optoelectronic, and/or photonic devices on integrated circuit chips and similar monolithic device structures. A MEMS device of this type would consist of a pair of oppositely sloped alignment wedges attached to linear actuators that would translate the wedges in the plane of a substrate, causing an optical fiber in contact with the sloping wedge surfaces to undergo various displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane. In making it possible to accurately align optical fibers individually during the packaging stages of fabrication of the affected devices, this MEMS device would also make it possible to relax tolerances in other stages of fabrication, thereby potentially reducing costs and increasing yields. In a typical system according to the proposal (see Figure 1), one or more pair(s) of alignment wedges would be positioned to create a V groove in which an optical fiber would rest. The fiber would be clamped at a suitable distance from the wedges to create a cantilever with a slight bend to push the free end of the fiber gently to the bottom of the V groove. The wedges would be translated in the substrate plane by amounts Dx1 and Dx2, respectively, which would be chosen to move the fiber parallel to the plane by a desired amount Dx and perpendicular to the plane by a desired amount Dy. The actuators used to translate the wedges could be variants of electrostatic or thermal actuators that are common in MEMS.

  7. Alignment-independent technique for 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Jon G; Stoyanova-Slavova, Iva B; Buzatu, Dan A

    2016-04-01

    Molecular biochemistry is controlled by 3D phenomena but structure-activity models based on 3D descriptors are infrequently used for large data sets because of the computational overhead for determining molecular conformations. A diverse dataset of 146 androgen receptor binders was used to investigate how different methods for defining molecular conformations affect the performance of 3D-quantitative spectral data activity relationship models. Molecular conformations tested: (1) global minimum of molecules' potential energy surface; (2) alignment-to-templates using equal electronic and steric force field contributions; (3) alignment using contributions "Best-for-Each" template; (4) non-energy optimized, non-aligned (2D > 3D). Aggregate predictions from models were compared. Highest average coefficients of determination ranged from R Test (2) = 0.56 to 0.61. The best model using 2D > 3D (imported directly from ChemSpider) produced R Test (2) = 0.61. It was superior to energy-minimized and conformation-aligned models and was achieved in only 3-7 % of the time required using the other conformation strategies. Predictions averaged from models built on different conformations achieved a consensus R Test (2) = 0.65. The best 2D > 3D model was analyzed for underlying structure-activity relationships. For the compound strongest binding to the androgen receptor, 10 substructural features contributing to binding were flagged. Utility of 2D > 3D was compared for two other activity endpoints, each modeling a medium sized data set. Results suggested that large scale, accurate predictions using 2D > 3D SDAR descriptors may be produced for interactions involving endocrine system nuclear receptors and other data sets in which strongest activities are produced by fairly inflexible substrates.

  8. Alignment-independent technique for 3D QSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Jon G.; Stoyanova-Slavova, Iva B.; Buzatu, Dan A.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular biochemistry is controlled by 3D phenomena but structure-activity models based on 3D descriptors are infrequently used for large data sets because of the computational overhead for determining molecular conformations. A diverse dataset of 146 androgen receptor binders was used to investigate how different methods for defining molecular conformations affect the performance of 3D-quantitative spectral data activity relationship models. Molecular conformations tested: (1) global minimum of molecules' potential energy surface; (2) alignment-to-templates using equal electronic and steric force field contributions; (3) alignment using contributions "Best-for-Each" template; (4) non-energy optimized, non-aligned (2D > 3D). Aggregate predictions from models were compared. Highest average coefficients of determination ranged from R Test 2 = 0.56 to 0.61. The best model using 2D > 3D (imported directly from ChemSpider) produced R Test 2 = 0.61. It was superior to energy-minimized and conformation-aligned models and was achieved in only 3-7 % of the time required using the other conformation strategies. Predictions averaged from models built on different conformations achieved a consensus R Test 2 = 0.65. The best 2D > 3D model was analyzed for underlying structure-activity relationships. For the compound strongest binding to the androgen receptor, 10 substructural features contributing to binding were flagged. Utility of 2D > 3D was compared for two other activity endpoints, each modeling a medium sized data set. Results suggested that large scale, accurate predictions using 2D > 3D SDAR descriptors may be produced for interactions involving endocrine system nuclear receptors and other data sets in which strongest activities are produced by fairly inflexible substrates.

  9. Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O

    2009-12-16

    Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the

  10. Does Syntactic Alignment Effectively Influence How Speakers Are Perceived by Their Conversation Partner?

    PubMed Central

    Schoot, Lotte; Heyselaar, Evelien; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The way we talk can influence how we are perceived by others. Whereas previous studies have started to explore the influence of social goals on syntactic alignment, in the current study, we additionally investigated whether syntactic alignment effectively influences conversation partners’ perception of the speaker. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which we can measure the effect of social goals on the strength of syntactic alignment for one participant (primed participant), while simultaneously obtaining usable social opinions about them from their conversation partner (the evaluator). In Study 1, participants’ desire to be rated favorably by their partner was manipulated by assigning pairs to a Control (i.e., primed participants did not know they were being evaluated) or Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated). Surprisingly, results showed no significant difference in the strength with which primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partners’ choices. In a follow-up study, we used a Directed Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated and were explicitly instructed to make a positive impression). However, again, there was no evidence supporting the hypothesis that participants’ desire to impress their partner influences syntactic alignment. With respect to the influence of syntactic alignment on perceived likeability by the evaluator, a negative relationship was reported in Study 1: the more primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partner, the more that partner decreased their likeability rating after the experiment. However, this effect was not replicated in the Directed Evaluation context of Study 2. In other words, our results do not support the conclusion that speakers’ desire to be liked affects how much they align their syntactic choices with their partner, nor is there convincing evidence that there is a reliable

  11. Active Metal Brazing and Characterization of Brazed Joints in Titanium to Carbon-Carbon Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Shpargel, T. P.; Morscher, G. N.; Asthana, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Ti-metal/C-C composite joints were formed by reactive brazing with three commercial brazes, namely, Cu-ABA, TiCuNi, and TiCuSiI. The joint microstructures were examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results of the microstructure analysis indicate solute redistribution across the joint and possible metallurgical bond formation via interdiffusion, which led to good wetting and spreading. A tube-on-plate tensile test was used to evaluate joint strength of Ti-tube/ C-C composite joints. The load-carrying ability was greatest for the Cu-ABA braze joint structures. This system appeared to have the best braze spreading which resulted in a larger braze/C-C composite bonded area compared to the other two braze materials. Also, joint loadcarrying ability was found to be higher for joint structures where the fiber tows in the outer ply of the C-C composite were aligned perpendicular to the tube axis when compared to the case where fiber tows were aligned parallel to the tube axis.

  12. Effect of Retrograde Reaming for Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis on Subtalar Joint Destruction: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Routh, Lucas K; Leary, Jeffrey T; Buzhardt, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Recent published data have suggested successful union of subtalar and tibiotalar joints without formal debridement during tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion procedures. Although previous studies have reported on the importance of the proper guidewire starting point and trajectory to obtain appropriate hindfoot alignment for successful fusion, to our knowledge, no studies have quantified the amount of articular damage to the subtalar joint with retrograde reaming. We hypothesized that reaming would destroy >50% of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint. The bilateral lower extremities of 5 cadavers were obtained and the subtalar joints exposed. Retrograde TTC nail guidewires were inserted, and a 12-mm reamer was passed through the subtalar and ankle joints. Pre- and postreaming images of the subtalar joint were obtained to compare the amount of joint destruction after reaming. We found an average of 5.89% articular destruction of the talar posterior facet and an average of 4.01% articular destruction of the posterior facet of the calcaneus. No damage to the middle facets of the subtalar joint was observed. TTC nailing is a successful procedure for ankle and subtalar joint fusion. Published studies have reported successful subtalar union using TTC nailing without formal open debridement of the subtalar joint, preserving the soft tissue envelope. TTC nail insertion using a 12-mm reamer will destroy 5.89% and 4.01% of the respective talar and calcaneal posterior facets of the subtalar joint.

  13. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... examination. This will assess shoulder motion, stability, and strength. joint. (Right) Osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Note the ... you can start moving sooner and get your strength back more quickly. Talk with your surgeon if ...

  14. Nonlinear dynamic characteristic analysis of jointed beam with clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Guo, Hong-Wei; Liu, Rong-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Kou, Zi-Ming; Deng, Zong-Quan

    2016-12-01

    The impact and elasticity of discontinuous beams with clearance frequently affect the dynamic response of structures used in space missions. This study investigates the dynamic response of jointed beams which are the periodic units of deployable structures. The vibration process of jointed beams includes free-play and impact stages. A method for the dynamic analysis of jointed beams with clearance is proposed based on mode superposition and instantaneous static deformation. Transfer matrix, which expresses the relationship of the responses before and after the impact of jointed beams, is derived to calculate the response of the jointed beams after a critical position. The dynamic responses of jointed beams are then simulated. The effects of various parameters on the displacement and velocity of beams are investigated.

  15. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  16. Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita: Multiple Congenital Joint Contractures

    PubMed Central

    Sucuoglu, Hamza; Ornek, Nurettin Irem; Caglar, Cagkan

    2015-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a syndrome characterized by nonprogressive multiple congenital joint contractures. The etiology of disease is multifactorial; it is most commonly suspected from absent fetal movements and genetic defects. AMC affects mainly limbs; also it might present with other organs involvement. It is crucial that the diagnosis of AMC should be kept in mind by musculoskeletal physicians in newborns with multiple joint contractures and patients must begin rehabilitation in early stage after accurate diagnosis in terms of functional independence. We present the diagnosis, types, clinical features, and treatment approaches of this disease in our case with literature reviews. PMID:26604929

  17. Distal interphalangeal joint implant arthroplasty in a musician.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D A; Peimer, C A

    1998-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease commonly affects the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, causing articular destruction and marginal bone formation. Treatment for pain relief and function is most often done through arthrodesis. The case of a 70-year-old concert violinist with left index finger DIP joint osteoarthritis is presented. Arthritis in the involved joint caused pain and deformity and interfered with the patient's ability to play music. Trial arthrodesis with K-wires proved impossible because of the patient's need for continued mobility. Swanson hinge implant arthroplasty was performed on the affected DIP joint. The patient eventually achieved an excellent result and was able to return to playing the violin professionally. Treatment and therapy guidelines are presented.

  18. Jointness: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    JOINTNESS A Selected Bibliography U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE LIBRARY December 2010 Report Documentation Page Form...Lenore Garder 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College...of the U.S. Army War College. A revised and updated version of our earlier bibliographies on jointness, it focuses on aspects of United States

  19. Successfully Developing Joint Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    least for the ROTC aspect of the Navy commissioning source, this is about to change at the University of South Florida (USF). In fact the “Joint...get their training over a six- month period at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. A Marine aviator will go through Pensacola Naval Air Station, Florida alongside...MCAS Beaufort, he served in Afghanistan as “Commanding Officer of Taskforce Panther , a joint coalition taskforce in support of OEF” (http

  20. Torque Limit for Bolted Joint For Composites. Part B; Experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostreva, Kristian M.

    2003-01-01

    Today, aerospace quality composite parts are generally made from either a unidirectional tape or a fabric prepreg form depending on the application. The matrix material, typically epoxy because of it dimensional stability, is pre-impregnated onto the fibers to ensure uniform distribution. Both of these composite forms are finding themselves used in applications where a joint is required. Two widely used joint methods are the classic mechanically fastened joint, and the contemporary bonded joint; however, the mechanically fastened joint is most commonly used by design engineers. A major portion of the research up-to-date about bolted composite joints has dealt with the inplane static load capacity. This work has helped to spawn standards dealing with filled-hole static joint strength. Other research has clearly shown that the clamp-up load in the mechanical fastener significantly affects the joint strength in a beneficial manner by reducing the bearing strength dependence of the composite laminate. One author reported a maximum increase in joint strength of 28%. This finding has helped to improve the reliability and efficiency of the joint in a composite structure.

  1. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  2. High pressure ceramic joint

    DOEpatents

    Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

    1993-11-30

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

  3. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  4. Laser alignment of rotating equipment at PNL

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    Lateral vibration in direct-drive equipment is usually caused by misalignment. Over the years, because of the need to improve on techniques and ways of working more efficiently, various types of alignment methods have evolved. In the beginning, craftsmen used a straight-edge scale across the coupling with a feeler gauge measuring the misalignment error. This is still preferred today for aligning small couplings. The industry has since decided that alignment of large direct-drive equipment needed a more accurate type of instrumentation. Rim and face is another of the first alignment methods and is used on all sizes of equipment. A disadvantage of the rim and face method is that in most cases the coupling has to be disassembled. This can cause alignment problems when the coupling is reassembled. Also, the rim and face method is not fast enough to work satisfactorily on alignment of thermally hot equipment. Another concern is that the coupling has to be manufactured accurately for correct rim and face readings. Reverse dial alignment is an improvement over the rim and face method, and depending on the operator`s experience, this method can be very accurate. A good training program along with field experience will bring the operator to a proper level of proficiency for a successful program. A hand-held computer with reverse dial calculations in memory is a must for job efficiency. An advantage over the rim and face method is that the coupling is not disassembled and remains locked together. Reverse dial instrumentation measures from both shaft center lines, rather than the coupling surface so the machining of the coupling during manufacture is not a major concern.

  5. Social and representational cues jointly influence spatial perspective-taking.

    PubMed

    Galati, Alexia; Avraamides, Marios N

    2015-05-01

    We examined how social cues (the conversational partner's viewpoint) and representational ones (the intrinsic structure of a spatial layout) jointly shape people's spatial memory representations and their subsequent descriptions. In 24 pairs, Directors studied an array with a symmetrical structure while either knowing their Matcher's subsequent viewpoint or not. During the subsequent description of the array, the array's intrinsic structure was aligned with the Director, the Matcher, or neither partner. According to memory tests preceding descriptions, Directors who had studied the array while aligned with its structure were more likely to use its orientation as an organizing direction. Directors who had studied the array while misaligned with its structure used its orientation more frequently as an organizing orientation when knowing that the Matcher would be aligned with it, but used their own viewpoint more frequently as an organizing direction when not knowing the Matcher's viewpoint. Directors also adapted their descriptions strategically, using more egocentric expressions when aligned with the intrinsic structure and more partner-centered expressions when their Matchers were the ones aligned with the structure, even when this information wasn't available in advance. These findings suggest that speakers are guided by converging social and representational cues to adapt flexibly the organization of their memories and the perspectives of their descriptions.

  6. Identification of inflammation sites in arthritic joints using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluchowski, Lukasz A.; Milanic, Matija; Bjorgan, Asgeir; Grandaunet, Berit; Dhainaut, Alvilde; Hoff, Mari; Randeberg, Lise L.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory arthritic diseases have prevalence between 2 and 3% and may lead to joint destruction and deformation resulting in a loss of function. Patient's quality of life is often severely affected as the disease attacks hands and finger joints. Pathology involved in arthritis includes angiogenesis, hyper-vascularization, hyper-metabolism and relative hypoxia. We have employed hyperspectral imaging to study the hemodynamics of affected- and non-affected joints and tissue. Two hyperspectral, push-broom cameras were used (VNIR-1600, SWIR-320i, Norsk Elektro Optikk AS, Norway). Optical spectra (400nm - 1700nm) of high spectral resolution were collected from 15 patients with visible symptoms of arthritic rheumatic diseases in at least one joint. The control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals. Concentrations of dominant chromophores were calculated based on analytical calculations of light transport in tissue. Image processing was used to analyze hyperspectral data and retrieve information, e.g. blood concentration and tissue oxygenation maps. The obtained results indicate that hyperspectral imaging can be used to quantify changes within affected joints and surrounding tissue. Further improvement of this method will have positive impact on diagnosis of arthritic joints at an early stage. Moreover it will enable development of fast, noninvasive and noncontact diagnostic tool of arthritic joints

  7. Using Quasi-Horizontal Alignment in the absence of the actual alignment.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mohamadreza

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal alignment is a major roadway characteristic used in safety and operational evaluations of many facility types. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) uses this characteristic in crash prediction models for rural two-lane highways, freeway segments, and freeway ramps/C-D roads. Traffic simulation models use this characteristic in their processes on almost all types of facilities. However, a good portion of roadway databases do not include horizontal alignment data; instead, many contain point coordinate data along the roadways. SHRP 2 Roadway Information Database (RID) is a good example of this type of data. Only about 5% of this geodatabase contains alignment information and for the rest, point data can easily be produced. Even though the point data can be used to extract actual horizontal alignment data but, extracting horizontal alignment is a cumbersome and costly process, especially for a database of miles and miles of highways. This research introduces a so called "Quasi-Horizontal Alignment" that can be produced easily and automatically from point coordinate data and can be used in the safety and operational evaluations of highways. SHRP 2 RID for rural two-lane highways in Washington State is used in this study. This paper presents a process through which Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are produced from point coordinates along highways by using spreadsheet software such as MS EXCEL. It is shown that the safety and operational evaluations of the highways with Quasi-Horizontal Alignments are almost identical to the ones with the actual alignments. In the absence of actual alignment the Quasi-Horizontal Alignment can easily be produced from any type of databases that contain highway coordinates such geodatabases and digital maps.

  8. Alignment-Free, Self-Calibrating Elbow Angles Measurement using Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Muller, Philipp; Begin, Marc-Andre; Schauer, Thomas; Seel, Thomas

    2016-12-14

    Due to their relative ease of handling and low cost, inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based joint angle measurements are used for a widespread range of applications. These include sports performance, gait analysis and rehabilitation (e.g. Parkinson's disease monitoring or post-stroke assessment). However, a major downside of current algorithms, recomposing human kinematics from IMU data, is that they require calibration motions and/or the careful alignment of the IMUs with respect to the body segments. In this article, we propose a new method, which is alignment-free and self-calibrating using arbitrary movements of the user and an initial zero reference arm pose. The proposed method utilizes real-time optimization to identify the two dominant axes of rotation of the elbow joint. The performance of the algorithm was assessed in an optical motion capture laboratory. The estimated IMU-based angles of a human subject were compared to the ones from a marker-based optical tracking system. The self-calibration converged in under 9.5 s on average and the RMS errors with respect to the optical reference system were 2.7° for the flexion/extension and 3.8° for the pronation/supination angle. Our method can be particularly useful in the field of rehabilitation, where precise manual sensorto- segment alignment as well as precise, predefined calibration movements are impractical.

  9. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  10. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    synchronizing, and deconflicting JEMSMO actions (p. IV-7) Doctrine Update for JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations...communications system directorate of a joint staff (J-6), to support joint planning, coordination, and control of the spectrum for assigned forces. Executive...in the respective Service or joint publications. Interference Resolution To ensure critical frequencies and spectrum-dependent systems are

  11. Pathology of articular cartilage and synovial membrane from elbow joints with and without degenerative joint disease in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Freire, M; Meuten, D; Lascelles, D

    2014-09-01

    The elbow joint is one of the feline appendicular joints most commonly and severely affected by degenerative joint disease. The macroscopic and histopathological lesions of the elbow joints of 30 adult cats were evaluated immediately after euthanasia. Macroscopic evidence of degenerative joint disease was found in 22 of 30 cats (39 elbow joints) (73.33% cats; 65% elbow joints), and macroscopic cartilage erosion ranged from mild fibrillation to complete ulceration of the hyaline cartilage with exposure of the subchondral bone. Distribution of the lesions in the cartilage indicated the presence of medial compartment joint disease (most severe lesions located in the medial coronoid process of the ulna and medial humeral epicondyle). Synovitis scores were mild overall and correlated only weakly with macroscopic cartilage damage. Intra-articular osteochondral fragments either free or attached to the synovium were found in 10 joints. Macroscopic or histologic evidence of a fragmented coronoid process was not found even in those cases with intra-articular osteochondral fragments. Lesions observed in these animals are most consistent with synovial osteochondromatosis secondary to degenerative joint disease. The pathogenesis for the medial compartmentalization of these lesions has not been established, but a fragmented medial coronoid process or osteochondritis dissecans does not appear to play a role.

  12. Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platen, Erwin; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly prolate, with axis ratios in the order of c:b:a ~ 0.5:0.7:1. Their orientations are strongly correlated with significant alignments spanning scales >30h-1Mpc. We also find an intimate link between the cosmic tidal field and the void orientations. Over a very wide range of scales we find a coherent and strong alignment of the voids with the tidal field computed from the smoothed density distribution. This orientation-tide alignment remains significant on scales exceeding twice the typical void size, which shows that the long-range external field is responsible for the alignment of the voids. This confirms the view that the large-scale tidal force field is the main agent for the large-scale spatial organization of the cosmic web.

  13. Multiple network alignment on quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskin, Anmer; Grama, Ananth; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Comparative analyses of graph-structured datasets underly diverse problems. Examples of these problems include identification of conserved functional components (biochemical interactions) across species, structural similarity of large biomolecules, and recurring patterns of interactions in social networks. A large class of such analyses methods quantify the topological similarity of nodes across networks. The resulting correspondence of nodes across networks, also called node alignment, can be used to identify invariant subgraphs across the input graphs. Given graphs as input, alignment algorithms use topological information to assign a similarity score to each -tuple of nodes, with elements (nodes) drawn from each of the input graphs. Nodes are considered similar if their neighbors are also similar. An alternate, equivalent view of these network alignment algorithms is to consider the Kronecker product of the input graphs and to identify high-ranked nodes in the Kronecker product graph. Conventional methods such as PageRank and HITS (Hypertext-Induced Topic Selection) can be used for this purpose. These methods typically require computation of the principal eigenvector of a suitably modified Kronecker product matrix of the input graphs. We adopt this alternate view of the problem to address the problem of multiple network alignment. Using the phase estimation algorithm, we show that the multiple network alignment problem can be efficiently solved on quantum computers. We characterize the accuracy and performance of our method and show that it can deliver exponential speedups over conventional (non-quantum) methods.

  14. LCLS Undulator Commissioning, Alignment, and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-10-30

    The LCLS x-ray FEL has recently achieved its 1.5-Angstrom lasing and saturation goals upon first trial. This was achieved as a result of a thorough pre-beam checkout, both traditional and beam-based component alignment techniques, and high electron beam brightness. The x-ray FEL process demands very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (<5 {micro}m) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight, but less stringent tolerances of {approx}100 {micro}m rms were met for the transverse placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through a beam-based alignment (BBA) method, which is implemented using large electron energy variations and sub-micron resolution cavity beam position monitors (BPM), with precise conventional alignment used to set the starting conditions. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders, and special beam-finder wires (BFW) at each girder have been used to meet these challenging alignment tolerances. Longer-term girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes are being monitored, continuously, by a unique stretched wire and hydrostatic level Alignment Diagnostics System (ADS).

  15. FRESCO: flexible alignment with rectangle scoring schemes.

    PubMed

    Dalca, A V; Brudno, M

    2008-01-01

    While the popular DNA sequence alignment tools incorporate powerful heuristics to allow for fast and accurate alignment of DNA, most of them still optimize the classical Needleman Wunsch scoring scheme. The development of novel scoring schemes is often hampered by the difficulty of finding an optimizing algorithm for each non-trivial scheme. In this paper we define the broad class of rectangle scoring schemes, and describe an algorithm and tool that can align two sequences with an arbitrary rectangle scoring scheme in polynomial time. Rectangle scoring schemes encompass some of the popular alignment scoring metrics currently in use, as well as many other functions. We investigate a novel scoring function based on minimizing the expected number of random diagonals observed with the given scores and show that it rivals the LAGAN and Clustal-W aligners, without using any biological or evolutionary parameters. The FRESCO program, freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/fresco, gives bioinformatics researchers the ability to quickly compare the performance of other complex scoring formulas without having to implement new algorithms to optimize them.

  16. Leveraging FPGAs for Accelerating Short Read Alignment.

    PubMed

    Arram, James; Kaplan, Thomas; Luk, Wayne; Jiang, Peiyong

    2016-02-29

    One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyse the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialised processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs. This architecture exploits the reconfigurability of FPGAs to allow the development of fast yet flexible alignment designs. We apply this architecture to develop an alignment design which supports exact and approximate alignment with up to 2 mismatches. Our design is based on the FM-index, with optimisations to improve the alignment performance. In particular, the n-step FM-index, index oversampling, a seedand- compare stage, and bi-directional backtracking are included. Our design is implemented and evaluated on a 1U Maxeler MPC-X2000 dataflow node with 8 Altera Stratix-V FPGAs. Measurements show that our design is 28 times faster than Bowtie2 running with 16 threads on dual Intel Xeon E5-2640 CPUs, and 9 times faster than Soap3-dp running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU.

  17. Multiple alignment tensors from a denatured protein.

    PubMed

    Gebel, Erika B; Ruan, Ke; Tolman, Joel R; Shortle, David

    2006-07-26

    The structural content of the denatured state has yet to be fully characterized. In recent years, large residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) from denatured proteins have been observed under alignment conditions produced by bicelles and strained polyacrylamide gels. In this report, we describe efforts to extend our picture of the residual structure in denatured nuclease by measuring RDCs with multiple alignment tensors. Backbone amide 15N-1H RDCs were collected from 4 M urea for a total of eight RDC data sets. The RDCs were analyzed by singular value decomposition (SVD) to determine the number of independent alignment tensors present in the data. On the basis of the resultant singular values and propagated error estimates, it is clear that there are at least three independent alignment tensors. These three independent RDC datasets can be reconstituted as orthogonal linear combinations, (OLC)-RDC datasets, of the eight actually recorded. The first, second, and third OLC-RDC datasets are highly robust to the removal of any single experimental RDC dataset, establishing the presence of three independent alignment tensors, sampled well above the level of experimental uncertainty. The observation that the RDC data span three or more dimensions of the five-dimensional parameter space demonstrates that the ensemble average structure of denatured nuclease must be asymmetric with respect to these three orthogonal principal axes, which is not inconsistent with earlier work demonstrating that it has a nativelike topology.

  18. Alignment and Integration of Lightweight Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler; Biskach, Michael; Mazzarella, Jim; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it difficult not to impart distortion at the sub-arc-second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, permanent bonding, and verification testing techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Improvements in alignment include new hardware and automation software. Improvements in bonding include two module new simulators to bond mirrors into, a glass housing for proving single pair bonding, and a Kovar module for bonding multiple pairs of mirrors. Three separate bonding trials were x-ray tested producing results meeting the requirement of sub ten arc-second alignment. This paper will highlight these recent advances in alignment, testing, and bonding techniques and the exciting developments in thin x-ray optic technology development.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hayt, M W; Abrahams, J J; Blair, J

    2000-04-01

    The spectrum of disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be varied. To differentiate among the diseases that cause pain and dysfunction, an intimate knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of this region is necessary. Due to the joint's complex anatomy and relationship to the skin, it has been difficult to image in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited for visualizing TMJ because of its superb contrast resolution when imaging soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging allows simultaneous bilateral visualization of both joints. The ability to noninvasively resolve anatomic detail can be performed easily and quickly using magnetic resonance imaging. The development of magnetic resonance imaging has greatly aided the diagnosis of TMJ disorders. An understanding of TMJ anatomy and pathogenesis of TMJ pain is crucial for interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent treatment.

  20. The functional anatomy of the cricothyroid joint.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Gunther; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Friedrich, Gerhard; Anderhuber, Friedrich

    2010-02-01

    Postoperative long-term treatment problems of male-to-female transsexuals can be caused by the underestimated mobility of the cricothyroid joint. One hundred cadaveric larynges were analysed to reveal the morphological and functional anatomy of the CTJ focusing on possible horizontal and vertical gliding movements. Furthermore, the distance of the cricothyroid space for rotational movements was measured. The articular surface of the cricothyroid joint showed three different possibilities: a well-defined facet (Type 1 61%), no definable facet (Type 2 22%) or a flat surface with or without a tiny protuberance (Type 3 17%). Side different statements and intraindividual differences between male and female specimens were included. These different types affect horizontal and vertical gliding movements, besides rotational movements. The mobility between Type 1 and the others was highly significant (P < 0.001). Regarding different motions in the cricothyroid joint, rotational movements caused significant elongation of the vocal folds, which should be taken into consideration for phonosurgical methods.

  1. [Rheumatic joint diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuya; Yokosawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Shunta; Sumida, Takayuki

    2014-10-01

    The most frequent rheumatic joint disease in the elderly is rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent advances in the treatment of RA improve prognosis, and gradually increase the elderly patients with RA. There are some differences in clinical features between the patients with elderly onset RA and young onset RA, such as systemic symptoms and distribution of affected joints. In addition, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate elderly onset RA from the other rheumatic diseases like polymyalgia rheumatica and RS3PE syndrome, pseudogout, and osteoarthritis. Since elderly patients tend to have more co-morbidity and co-existing diseases requiring treatment with other drugs, a risk/benefit profile must always be taken into consideration when choosing the treatment in elderly patients with rheumatic joint diseases.

  2. Business-IT Alignment: A Current-State Evaluation of Strategic Alignment within the Hospital Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years of research has shown that the practical value of business-IT alignment is significant and that its importance derives from strategic impact on business outcomes. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify the current-state of business-IT alignment maturity within the hospital organization. Data for this study was…

  3. TM-align: a protein structure alignment algorithm based on the TM-score

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    We have developed TM-align, a new algorithm to identify the best structural alignment between protein pairs that combines the TM-score rotation matrix and Dynamic Programming (DP). The algorithm is ∼4 times faster than CE and 20 times faster than DALI and SAL. On average, the resulting structure alignments have higher accuracy and coverage than those provided by these most often-used methods. TM-align is applied to an all-against-all structure comparison of 10 515 representative protein chains from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with a sequence identity cutoff <95%: 1996 distinct folds are found when a TM-score threshold of 0.5 is used. We also use TM-align to match the models predicted by TASSER for solved non-homologous proteins in PDB. For both folded and misfolded models, TM-align can almost always find close structural analogs, with an average root mean square deviation, RMSD, of 3 Å and 87% alignment coverage. Nevertheless, there exists a significant correlation between the correctness of the predicted structure and the structural similarity of the model to the other proteins in the PDB. This correlation could be used to assist in model selection in blind protein structure predictions. The TM-align program is freely downloadable at . PMID:15849316

  4. Alignment of Standards and Assessment: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Methods for Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasstrom, Gunilla; Henriksson, Widar

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In a standards-based school-system alignment of policy documents with standards and assessment is important. To be able to evaluate whether schools and students have reached the standards, the assessment should focus on the standards. Different models and methods can be used for measuring alignment, i.e. the correspondence between…

  5. Efficient pairwise RNA structure prediction and alignment using sequence alignment constraints

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    Background We are interested in the problem of predicting secondary structure for small sets of homologous RNAs, by incorporating limited comparative sequence information into an RNA folding model. The Sankoff algorithm for simultaneous RNA folding and alignment is a basis for approaches to this problem. There are two open problems in applying a Sankoff algorithm: development of a good unified scoring system for alignment and folding and development of practical heuristics for dealing with the computational complexity of the algorithm. Results We use probabilistic models (pair stochastic context-free grammars, pairSCFGs) as a unifying framework for scoring pairwise alignment and folding. A constrained version of the pairSCFG structural alignment algorithm was developed which assumes knowledge of a few confidently aligned positions (pins). These pins are selected based on the posterior probabilities of a probabilistic pairwise sequence alignment. Conclusion Pairwise RNA structural alignment improves on structure prediction accuracy relative to single sequence folding. Constraining on alignment is a straightforward method of reducing the runtime and memory requirements of the algorithm. Five practical implementations of the pairwise Sankoff algorithm – this work (Consan), David Mathews' Dynalign, Ian Holmes' Stemloc, Ivo Hofacker's PMcomp, and Jan Gorodkin's FOLDALIGN – have comparable overall performance with different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:16952317

  6. What Are We Aligning Tests to When We Report Test Alignment to the CEFR?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harsch, Claudia; Hartig, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the validity of judgments made when aligning tests to the "Common European Framework of Reference" (CEFR). Listening tests operationalizing pre-defined difficulty-determining characteristics were to be aligned to CEFR levels. We employed a modified version of the item-descriptor-matching-method. Ten…

  7. Modelling grain alignment by radiative torques and hydrogen formation torques in reflection nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2015-04-01

    Reflection nebulae - dense cores - illuminated by surrounding stars offer a unique opportunity to directly test our quantitative model of grain alignment based on radiative torques (RATs) and to explore new effects arising from additional torques. In this paper, we first perform detailed modelling of grain alignment by RATs for the IC 63 reflection nebula illuminated both by a nearby γ Cas star and the diffuse interstellar radiation field. We calculate linear polarization pλ of background stars by radiatively aligned grains and explore the variation of fractional polarization (pλ/AV) with visual extinction AV across the cloud. Our results show that the variation of pV/AV versus AV from the dayside of IC 63 to its centre can be represented by a power law (p_V/A_V∝ A_V^{η }) with different slopes depending on AV. We find a shallow slope η ˜ -0.1 for AV < 3 and a very steep slope η ˜ -2 for AV > 4. We then consider the effects of additional torques due to H2 formation and model grain alignment by joint action of RATs and H2 torques. We find that pV/AV tends to increase with an increasing magnitude of H2 torques. In particular, the theoretical predictions obtained for pV/AV and peak wavelength λmax in this case show an improved agreement with the observational data. Our results reinforce the predictive power of the RAT alignment mechanism in a broad range of environmental conditions and show the effect of pinwheel torques in environments with efficient H2 formation. Physical parameters involved in H2 formation may be constrained using detailed modelling of grain alignment combined with observational data. In addition, we discuss implications of our modelling for interpreting latest observational data by Planck and other ground-based instruments.

  8. Eccentricity Inferences in Multi-planet systems with Transit Timing: Degeneracies and Apsidal Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-05-01

    Hundreds of multi-transiting systems discovered by the Kepler mission show Transit Timing Variations (TTV). In cases where the TTVs are uniquely attributable to transiting planets, the TTVs enable precise measurements of planetary masses and orbital parameters. Of particular interest are the constraints on eccentricity vectors that can be inferred in systems of low-mass exoplanets.The TTVs in these systems are dominated by a signal caused by near-resonant mean motions. This causes the well-known near-degeneracy between planetary masses and orbital eccentricities. In addition, it causes a degeneracy between the eccentricities of interacting planet pairs.For many systems, the magnitude of individual eccentricities are weakly constrained, yet the data typically provide a tight constraint on the posterior joint distribution for the eccentricity vector components. This permits tight constraints on the relative eccentricity and degree of alignment of interacting planets.For a sample of two and three-planet systems with TTVs, we highlight the effects of these correlations. While the most eccentric orbital solutions for these systems show apsidal alignment, this is often due to the degeneracy that causes correlated constraints on the eccentricity vector components. We compare the likelihood of apsidal alignment for two choices of eccentricity prior: a wide prior using a Rayleigh distribution of scale length 0.1 and a narrower prior with scale length 0.02. In all cases the narrower prior decreased the fraction of samples that exhibited apsidal alignment. However, apsidal alignment persisted in the majority of cases with a narrower eccentricity prior. For a sample of our TTV solutions, we ran simulations of these systems over secular timescales, and decomposed their eccentricity eigenmodes over time, confirming that in most cases, the eccentricities were dominated by parallel eigenmodes which favor apsidal alignment.

  9. MAPPER alignment sensor evaluation on process wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeer, N.; Lattard, L.; de Boer, G.; Couweleers, F.; Dave, D.; Pradelles, J.; Bustos, J.

    2013-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing. In order to reduce costs and to minimize the footprint of this tool a new alignment sensor has been developed; based on technologies used for DVD optical heads. A wafer with an alignment mark is scanned with the sensor, resulting in an intensity pattern versus position. From this pattern the mark position can be calculated. Evaluations have been made over the performance of this type of sensor using different mark designs at several lithography process steps for FEOL and BEOL manufacturing. It has been shown that sub-nanometer reproducibility (3σ std) of alignment mark readings can be achieved while being robust against various process steps.

  10. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  11. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  12. Alignment method for spectrograms of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Anca; van Leeuwen, Jasper; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Mittal, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    DNA spectrograms express the periodicities of each of the four nucleotides A, T, C, and G in one or several genomic sequences to be analyzed. DNA spectral analysis can be applied to systematically investigate DNA patterns, which may correspond to relevant biological features. As opposed to looking at nucleotide sequences, spectrogram analysis may detect structural characteristics in very long sequences that are not identifiable by sequence alignment. Alignment of DNA spectrograms can be used to facilitate analysis of very long sequences or entire genomes at different resolutions. Standard clustering algorithms have been used in spectral analysis to find strong patterns in spectra. However, as they use a global distance metric, these algorithms can only detect strong patterns coexisting in several frequencies. In this paper, we propose a new method and several algorithms for aligning spectra suitable for efficient spectral analysis and allowing for the easy detection of strong patterns in both single frequencies and multiple frequencies.

  13. Making Macroscopic Assemblies of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Richard E.; Colbert, Daniel T.; Smith, Ken A.; Walters, Deron A.; Casavant, Michael J.; Qin, Xiaochuan; Yakobson, Boris; Hauge, Robert H.; Saini, Rajesh Kumar; Chiung, Wan-Ting; Huffman, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    A method of aligning and assembling single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to fabricate macroscopic structures has been invented. The method entails suspending SWNTs in a fluid, orienting the SWNTs by use of a magnetic and/or electric field, and then removing the aligned SWNTs from suspension in such a way as to assemble them while maintaining the alignment. SWNTs are essentially tubular extensions of fullerene molecules. It is desirable to assemble aligned SWNTs into macroscopic structures because the common alignment of the SWNTs in such a structure makes it possible to exploit, on a macroscopic scale, the unique mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties that individual oriented SWNTs exhibit at the molecular level. Because of their small size and high electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes, and especially SWNTs, are useful for making electrical connectors in integrated circuits. Carbon nanotubes can be used as antennas at optical frequencies, and as probes in scanning tunneling microscopes, atomic-force microscopes, and the like. Carbon nanotubes can be used with or instead of carbon black in tires. Carbon nanotubes are useful as supports for catalysts. Ropes of SWNTs are metallic and, as such, are potentially useful in some applications in which electrical conductors are needed - for example, they could be used as additives in formulating electrically conductive paints. Finally, macroscopic assemblies of aligned SWNTs can serve as templates for the growth of more and larger structures of the same type. The great variety of tubular fullerene molecules and of the structures that could be formed by assembling them in various ways precludes a complete description of the present method within the limits of this article. It must suffice to present a typical example of the use of one of many possible variants of the method to form a membrane comprising SWNTs aligned substantially parallel to each other in the membrane plane. The apparatus used in this variant

  14. High-harmonic spectroscopy of aligned molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Lee, Gae Hwang; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-01-01

    High harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses provide the opportunity to explore the structural information of molecules. The field-free molecular alignment technique is an expedient tool for investigating the structural characteristics of linear molecules. The underlying physics of field-free alignment, showing the characteristic revival structure specific to molecular species, is clearly explained from the quantum-phase analysis of molecular rotational states. The anisotropic nature of molecules is shown from the harmonic polarization measurement performed with spatial interferometry. The multi-orbital characteristics of molecules are investigated using high-harmonic spectroscopy, applied to molecules of N2 and CO2. In the latter case the two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy, implemented using a two-color laser field, is applied to distinguish harmonics from different orbitals. Molecular high-harmonic spectroscopy will open a new route to investigate ultrafast dynamics of molecules.

  15. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  16. Identifying subset errors in multiple sequence alignments.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aparna; Taddese, Bruck; Vohra, Shabana; Thimmaraju, Phani K; Illingworth, Christopher J R; Simpson, Lisa M; Mukherjee, Keya; Reynolds, Christopher A; Chintapalli, Sree V

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) accuracy is important, but there is no widely accepted method of judging the accuracy that different alignment algorithms give. We present a simple approach to detecting two types of error, namely block shifts and the misplacement of residues within a gap. Given a MSA, subsets of very similar sequences are generated through the use of a redundancy filter, typically using a 70-90% sequence identity cut-off. Subsets thus produced are typically small and degenerate, and errors can be easily detected even by manual examination. The errors, albeit minor, are inevitably associated with gaps in the alignment, and so the procedure is particularly relevant to homology modelling of protein loop regions. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated in the context of the universal but little known [K/R]KLH motif that occurs in intracellular loop 1 of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR); other issues relevant to GPCR modelling are also discussed.

  17. Purification process for vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Delziet, Lance; Matthews, Kristopher; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Individual, free-standing, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes or nanofibers are ideal for sensor and electrode applications. Our plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques for producing free-standing and vertically aligned carbon nanofibers use catalyst particles at the tip of the fiber. Here we present a simple purification process for the removal of iron catalyst particles at the tip of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers derived by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The first step involves thermal oxidation in air, at temperatures of 200-400 degrees C, resulting in the physical swelling of the iron particles from the formation of iron oxide. Subsequently, the complete removal of the iron oxide particles is achieved with diluted acid (12% HCl). The purification process appears to be very efficient at removing all of the iron catalyst particles. Electron microscopy images and Raman spectroscopy data indicate that the purification process does not damage the graphitic structure of the nanotubes.

  18. On the alignment for precession electron diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Precession electron diffraction has seen a fast increase in its adoption as a technique for solving crystallographic structures as well as an alternative to conventional selected-area and converged-beam diffraction methods. One of the key issues of precession is the pivot point alignment, as a stationary apparent beam does not guarantee a fixed pivot point. A large precession tilt angle, along with pre-field and post-field misalignment, induces shift in the image plane. We point out here that the beam should be aligned to the pre-field optic axis to keep the electron illumination stationary during the rocking process. A practical alignment procedure is suggested with the focus placed on minimizing the beam wandering on the specimen, and is demonstrated for a (110)-oriented silicon single crystal and for a carbide phase (~20 nm in size) within a cast cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy. PMID:22634134

  19. Prosody and alignment: a sequential perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepek Reed, Beatrice

    2010-12-01

    In their analysis of a corpus of classroom interactions in an inner city high school, Roth and Tobin describe how teachers and students accomplish interactional alignment by prosodically matching each other's turns. Prosodic matching, and specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as signs of, and contributions to successful interactional outcomes and positive emotions. Lack of prosodic matching, and other specific prosodic patterns are interpreted as features of unsuccessful interactions, and negative emotions. This forum focuses on the article's analysis of the relation between interpersonal alignment, emotion and prosody. It argues that prosodic matching, and other prosodic linking practices, play a primarily sequential role, i.e. one that displays the way in which participants place and design their turns in relation to other participants' turns. Prosodic matching, rather than being a conversational action in itself, is argued to be an interactional practice (Schegloff 1997), which is not always employed for the accomplishment of `positive', or aligning actions.

  20. System and method for 2D workpiece alignment

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, William T.; Carlson, Charles T.; Smith, Scott A.; Beck, Michael A.; Webb, Aaron P.; Strassner, James D.; Gravell, Lawrence R.; Simmons, Michael C.

    2015-07-14

    A carrier capable of holding one or more workpieces is disclosed. The carrier includes movable projections located along the sides of each cell in the carrier. This carrier, in conjunction with a separate alignment apparatus, aligns each workpiece within its respective cell against several alignment pins, using a multiple step alignment process to guarantee proper positioning of the workpiece in the cell. First, the workpieces are moved toward one side of the cell. Once the workpieces have been aligned against this side, the workpieces are then moved toward an adjacent orthogonal side such that the workpieces are aligned to two sides of the cell. Once aligned, the workpiece is held in place by the projections located along each side of each cell. In addition, the alignment pins are also used to align the associated mask, thereby guaranteeing that the mask is properly aligned to the workpiece.

  1. A Unified Model of Grain Alignment: Radiative Alignment of Interstellar Grains with Magnetic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2016-11-01

    The radiative torque (RAT) alignment of interstellar grains with ordinary paramagnetic susceptibilities has been supported by earlier studies. The alignment of such grains depends on the so-called RAT parameter q max, which is determined by the grain shape. In this paper, we elaborate on our model of RAT alignment for grains with enhanced magnetic susceptibility due to iron inclusions, such that RAT alignment is magnetically enhanced, which we term the MRAT mechanism. Such grains can be aligned with high angular momentum at the so-called high-J attractor points, achieving a high degree of alignment. Using our analytical model of RATs, we derive the critical value of the magnetic relaxation parameter δ m to produce high-J attractor points as functions of q max and the anisotropic radiation angle relative to the magnetic field ψ. We find that if about 10% of the total iron abundance present in silicate grains is forming iron clusters, this is sufficient to produce high-J attractor points for all reasonable values of q max. To calculate the degree of grain alignment, we carry out numerical simulations of MRAT alignment by including stochastic excitations from gas collisions and magnetic fluctuations. We show that large grains can achieve perfect alignment when the high-J attractor point is present, regardless of the values of q max. Our obtained results pave the way for the physical modeling of polarized thermal dust emission as well as magnetic dipole emission. We also find that millimeter-sized grains in accretion disks may be aligned with the magnetic field if they are incorporated with iron nanoparticles.

  2. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  3. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana Lucia L.; Oliveira, Priscila R.; Carvalho, Vladimir C.; Saconi, Eduardo S.; Cabrita, Henrique B.; Rodrigues, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases. PMID:24023542

  4. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Binu P; Sreekanth, Raveendran

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint, forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments. The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis. PMID:23162140

  5. 13. Sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Vanelderen, Pascal; Szadek, Karolina; Cohen, Steven P; De Witte, Jan; Lataster, Arno; Patijn, Jacob; Mekhail, Nagy; van Kleef, Maarten; Van Zundert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint accounts for approximately 16% to 30% of cases of chronic mechanical low back pain. Pain originating in the sacroiliac joint is predominantly perceived in the gluteal region, although pain is often referred into the lower and upper lumbar region, groin, abdomen, and/ or lower limb(s). Because sacroiliac joint pain is difficult to distinguish from other forms of low back pain based on history, different provocative maneuvers have been advocated. Individually, they have weak predictive value, but combined batteries of tests can help ascertain a diagnosis. Radiological imaging is important to exclude "red flags" but contributes little in the diagnosis. Diagnostic blocks are the diagnostic gold standard but must be interpreted with caution, because false-positive as well as false-negative results occur frequently. Treatment of sacroiliac joint pain is best performed in the context of a multidisciplinary approach. Conservative treatments address the underlying causes (posture and gait disturbances) and consist of exercise therapy and manipulation. Intra-articular sacroiliac joint infiltrations with local anesthetic and corticosteroids hold the highest evidence rating (1 B+). If the latter fail or produce only short-term effects, cooled radiofrequency treatment of the lateral branches of S1 to S3 (S4) is recommended (2 B+) if available. When this procedure cannot be used, (pulsed) radiofrequency procedures targeted at L5 dorsal ramus and lateral branches of S1 to S3 may be considered (2 C+).

  6. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  7. Dissimilar metals joint evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, M. E.; Apodaca, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Dissimilar metals tubular joints between 2219-T851 aluminum alloy and 304L stainless steel were fabricated and tested to evaluate bonding processes. Joints were fabricated by four processes: (1) inertia (friction) weldings, where the metals are spun and forced together to create the weld; (2) explosive welding, where the metals are impacted together at high velocity; (3) co-extrusion, where the metals are extruded in contact at high temperature to promote diffusion; and (4) swaging, where residual stresses in the metals after a stretching operation maintain forced contact in mutual shear areas. Fifteen joints of each type were prepared and evaluated in a 6.35 cm (2.50 in.) O.D. size, with 0.32 cm (0.13 in.) wall thickness, and 7.6 cm (3.0 in) total length. The joints were tested to evaluate their ability to withstand pressure cycle, thermal cycle, galvanic corrosion and burst tests. Leakage tests and other non-destructive test techniques were used to evaluate the behavior of the joints, and the microstructure of the bond areas was analyzed.

  8. Two Hybrid Algorithms for Multiple Sequence Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naznin, Farhana; Sarker, Ruhul; Essam, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    In order to design life saving drugs, such as cancer drugs, the design of Protein or DNA structures has to be accurate. These structures depend on Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA). MSA is used to find the accurate structure of Protein and DNA sequences from existing approximately correct sequences. To overcome the overly greedy nature of the well known global progressive alignment method for multiple sequence alignment, we have proposed two different algorithms in this paper; one is using an iterative approach with a progressive alignment method (PAMIM) and the second one is using a genetic algorithm with a progressive alignment method (PAMGA). Both of our methods started with a "kmer" distance table to generate single guide-tree. In the iterative approach, we have introduced two new techniques: the first technique is to generate Guide-trees with randomly selected sequences and the second is of shuffling the sequences inside that tree. The output of the tree is a multiple sequence alignment which has been evaluated by the Sum of Pairs Method (SPM) considering the real value data from PAM250. In our second GA approach, these two techniques are used to generate an initial population and also two different approaches of genetic operators are implemented in crossovers and mutation. To test the performance of our two algorithms, we have compared these with the existing well known methods: T-Coffee, MUSCEL, MAFFT and Probcon, using BAliBase benchmarks. The experimental results show that the first algorithm works well for some situations, where other existing methods face difficulties in obtaining better solutions. The proposed second method works well compared to the existing methods for all situations and it shows better performance over the first one.

  9. Program Calculates Forces in Bolted Structural Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buder, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    FORTRAN 77 computer program calculates forces in bolts in the joints of structures. This program is used in conjunction with the NASTRAN finite-element structural-analysis program. A mathematical model of a structure is first created by approximating its load-bearing members with representative finite elements, then NASTRAN calculates the forces and moments that each finite element contributes to grid points located throughout the structure. The user selects the finite elements that correspond to structural members that contribute loads to the joints of interest, and identifies the grid point nearest to each such joint. This program reads the pertinent NASTRAN output, combines the forces and moments from the contributing elements to determine the resultant force and moment acting at each proximate grid point, then transforms the forces and moments from these grid points to the centroids of the affected joints. Then the program uses these joint loads to obtain the axial and shear forces in the individual bolts. The program identifies which bolts bear the greatest axial and/or shear loads. The program also performs a fail-safe analysis in which the foregoing calculations are repeated for a sequence of cases in which each fastener, in turn, is assumed not to transmit an axial force.

  10. Pathogenesis of degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides.

    PubMed

    Milam, Stephen B

    2005-09-01

    Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the study of molecular mechanisms involved in degenerative temporomandibular joint arthritides. Based on recent findings, models of degenerative temporomandibular joint disease predict that mechanical loads trigger a cascade of molecular events leading to disease in susceptible individuals. These events involve the production or release of free radicals, cytokines, fatty acid catabolites, neuropeptides, and matrix-degrading enzymes. Under normal circumstances, these molecules may be involved in the remodeling of articular tissues in response to changing functional demands. However, if functional demands exceed the adaptive capacity of the temporomandibular joint or if the affected individual is susceptible to maladaptive responses, then a disease state will ensue. An individual's susceptibility to degenerative temporomandibular joint disease may be determined by several factors, including genetic backdrop, sex, age, and nutritional status. It is hoped that, by furthering our understanding of the molecular events that underlie degenerative temporomandibular joint diseases, improved diagnostics and effective therapies for these debilitating conditions will be developed.

  11. Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

    2011-09-08

    The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

  12. Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

  13. Drift Chamber Alignment using Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V.; Hays, Christopher P.

    2014-05-07

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is a general-purpose experimental apparatus with an inner tracking detector for measuring charged particles, surrounded by a calorimeter for measurements of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, and a muon detector system. We present a technique for, and results of, a precise relative alignment of the drift chamber wires of the CDF tracker. This alignment has been an important component of the track momentum calibration, which is the basis for the charged-lepton calibration for the measurement of the W boson mass at CDF.

  14. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  15. Electrospinning of continuous aligned polymer fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaray, Bibekananda; Subramanian, V.; Natarajan, T. S.; Xiang, Rong-Zheng; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Fann, Wun-Shain

    2004-02-01

    Electrospinning is a technique employed for preparing polymer fibers having diameters in the range of 10 μm-10 nm using high electrostatic field. In this letter, we report the formation of aligned polymer fibers, several centimeters in length, with separation between the fibers in the range of 5-100 μm. Achieving alignment is an important step toward the exploitation of these fibers in applications. We have employed about 4500 V and a separation distance of about 1-3 cm between the electrodes. Smaller distance between electrodes, we believe, provides better control on the formation of the fibers.

  16. Laboratory simulation of field-aligned currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Rostoker, Norman

    1993-01-01

    A summary of progress during the period Apr. 1992 to Mar. 1993 is provided. Objectives of the research are (1) to simulate, via laboratory experiments, the three terms of the field-aligned current equation; (2) to simulate auroral-arc formation processes by configuring the boundary conditions of the experimental chamber and plasma parameters to produce highly localized return currents at the end of a field-aligned current system; and (3) to extrapolate these results, using theoretical and computational techniques, to the problem of magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to compare them with published literature signatures of auroral-arc phenomena.

  17. The Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale: normal values and interrater reliability.

    PubMed

    Hacker, M R; Funk, S M; Manco-Johnson, M J

    2007-01-01

    Persons with haemophilia often experience their first joint haemorrhage in early childhood. Recurrent bleeding into a joint may lead to significant morbidity, specifically haemophilic arthropathy. Early identification of the onset and progression of joint damage is critical to preserving joint structure and function. Physical examination is the most feasible approach to monitor joint health. Our group developed the Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale to identify earlier signs of joint degeneration and incorporate developmentally appropriate tasks for assessing joint function in young children. This study's objectives were to establish normal ranges for this scale and assess interrater reliability. The ankles, knees and elbows of 72 healthy boys aged 1 through 7 years were evaluated by a physical therapist to establish normal ranges. Exactly 10 boys in each age category from 2 to 7 years were evaluated by a second physical therapist to determine interrater reliability. The original scale was modified to account for the finding that mild angulation in the weight-bearing joints is developmentally normal. The interrater reliability of the scale ranged from fair to good, underscoring the need for physical therapists to have specific training in the orthopaedic assessment of very young children and the measurement error inherent in the goniometer. Modifications to axial alignment scoring will allow the scale to distinguish healthy joints from those suffering frequent haemarthroses.

  18. Sensitivity of medial and lateral knee contact force predictions to frontal plane alignment and contact locations.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Christopher M; Brandon, Scott C E; Deluzio, Kevin J

    2017-03-12

    Musculoskeletal models are increasingly used to estimate medial and lateral knee contact forces, which are difficult to measure in vivo. The sensitivity of contact force predictions to modeling parameters is important to the interpretation and implication of results generated by the model. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sensitivity of knee contact force predictions to simultaneous errors in frontal plane knee alignment and contact locations under different dynamic conditions. We scaled a generic musculoskeletal model for N=23 subjects' stature and radiographic knee alignment, then perturbed frontal plane alignment and mediolateral contact locations within experimentally-possible ranges of 10° to -10° and 10 to -10mm, respectively. The sensitivity of first peak, second peak, and mean medial and lateral knee contact forces to knee adduction angle and contact locations was modeled using linear regression. Medial loads increased, and lateral loads decreased, by between 3% and 6% bodyweight for each degree of varus perturbation. Shifting the medial contact point medially increased medial loads and decreased lateral loads by between 1% and 4% bodyweight per millimeter. This study demonstrates that realistic measurement errors of 5mm (contact distance) or 5° (frontal plane alignment) could result in a combined 50% BW error in subject specific contact force estimates. We also show that model sensitivity varies between subjects as a result of differences in gait dynamics. These results demonstrate that predicted knee joint contact forces should be considered as a range of possible values determined by model uncertainty.

  19. Facet joint disturbance induced by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua; Li, Huibo; Wang, Beiyu; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan; Song, Yueming; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective cohort study. Plated cervical laminoplasty is an increasingly common technique. A unique facet joint disturbance induced by lateral mass miniscrews penetrating articular surface was noticed. Facet joints are important to maintain cervical spine stability and kinetic balance. Whether this facet joint disturbance could affect clinical and radiologic results is still unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of patients with facet joints disturbance induced by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty. A total of 105 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty with miniplate fixation between May 2010 and February 2014 were comprised. Postoperative CT images were used to identify whether facet joints destroyed by miniscrews. According to facet joints destroyed number, all the patients were divided into: group A (none facet joint destroyed), group B (1–2 facet joints destroyed), and group C (≥3 facet joints destroyed). Clinical data (JOA, VAS, and NDI scores), radiologic data (anteroposterior diameter and Palov ratio), and complications (axial symptoms and C5 palsy) were evaluated and compared among the groups. There were 38, 40, and 27 patients in group A, B, and C, respectively. The overall facet joints destroyed rate was 30.7%. All groups gained significant JOA and NDI scores improvement postoperatively. The preoperative JOA, VAS, NDI scores, and postoperative JOA scores did not differ significantly among the groups. The group C recorded significant higher postoperative VAS scores than group A (P = 0.002) and B (P = 0.014) and had significant higher postoperative NDI scores than group A (P = 0.002). The pre- and postoperative radiologic data were not significant different among the groups. The group C had a significant higher axial symptoms incidence than group A (12/27 vs 8/38, P = 0.041). Facet joints disturbance caused by miniscrews in plated cervical laminoplasty may not influence

  20. Orthognathic surgery and temporomandibular joint symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hwi-Dong; Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to review temporomandibular joint symptoms as well as the effects of orthognathic surgery(OGS) on temporomandibular joint(TMJ). The causes of temporomandibular joint disease(TMD) are multifactorial, and the symptoms of TMD manifest as a limited range of motion of mandible, pain in masticatory muscles and TMJ, Joint noise (clicking, popping, or crepitus), myofascial pain, and other functional limitations. Treatment must be started based on the proper diagnosis, and almost symptoms could be subsided by reversible options. Minimally invasive options and open arthroplasty are also available following reversible treatment when indicated. TMD manifesting in a variety of symptoms, also can apply abnormal stress to mandibular condyles and affect its growth pattern of mandible. Thus, adaptive developmental changes on mandibular condyles and post-developmental degenerative changes of mandibular condyles can create alteration on facial skeleton and occlusion. The changes of facial skeleton in DFD patients following OGS have an impact on TMJ, masticatory musculature, and surrounding soft tissues, and the changes of TMJ symptoms. Maxillofacial surgeons must remind that any surgical procedures involving mandibular osteotomy can directly affect TMJ symptoms, thus pre-existing TMJ symptoms and diagnoses should be considered prior to treatment planning and OGS.