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Sample records for joint evolutionary histories

  1. Joint morphology in the insect leg: evolutionary history inferred from Notch loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Reiko; Misaki, Kazuyo; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2011-11-01

    Joints permit efficient locomotion, especially among animals with a rigid skeleton. Joint morphologies vary in the body of individual animals, and the shapes of homologous joints often differ across species. The diverse locomotive behaviors of animals are based, in part, on the developmental and evolutionary history of joint morphogenesis. We showed previously that strictly coordinated cell-differentiation and cell-movement events within the epidermis sculpt the interlocking ball-and-socket joints in the adult Drosophila tarsus (distal leg). Here, we show that the tarsal joints of various insect species can be classified into three types: ball-and-socket, side-by-side and uniform. The last two probably result from joint formation without the cell-differentiation step, the cell-movement step, or both. Similar morphological variations were observed in Drosophila legs when Notch function was temporarily blocked during joint formation, implying that the independent acquisition of cell differentiation and cell movement underlay the elaboration of tarsal joint morphologies during insect evolution. These results provide a framework for understanding how the seemingly complex morphology of the interlocking joint could have developed during evolution by the addition of simple developmental modules: cell differentiation and cell movement.

  2. The joint evolutionary histories of Wolbachia and mitochondria in Hypolimnas bolina

    PubMed Central

    Charlat, Sylvain; Duplouy, Anne; Hornett, Emily A; Dyson, Emily A; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K; Wedell, Nina; Hurst, Gregory DD

    2009-01-01

    Background The interaction between the Blue Moon butterfly, Hypolimnas bolina, and Wolbachia has attracted interest because of the high prevalence of male-killing achieved within the species, the ecological consequences of this high prevalence, the intensity of selection on the host to suppress the infection, and the presence of multiple Wolbachia infections inducing different phenotypes. We examined diversity in the co-inherited marker, mtDNA, and the partitioning of this between individuals of different infection status, as a means to investigate the population biology and evolutionary history of the Wolbachia infections. Results Part of the mitochondrial COI gene was sequenced from 298 individuals of known infection status revealing ten different haplotypes. Despite very strong biological evidence that the sample represents a single species, the ten haplotypes did not fall within a monophyletic clade within the Hypolimnas genus, with one haplotype differing by 5% from the other nine. There were strong associations between infection status and mtDNA haplotype. The presence of wBol1 infection in association with strongly divergent haplotypes prompted closer examination of wBol1 genetic variation. This revealed the existence of two cryptic subtypes, wBol1a and wBol1b. The wBol1a infection, by far the most common, was in strict association with the single divergent mtDNA haplotype. The wBol1b infection was found with two haplotypes that were also observed in uninfected specimens. Finally, the wBol2 infection was associated with a large diversity of mtDNA haplotypes, most often shared with uninfected sympatric butterflies. Conclusion This data overall supports the hypothesis that high prevalence of male-killing Wolbachia (wBol1) in H. bolina is associated with very high transmission efficiency rather than regular horizontal transmission. It also suggests this infection has undergone a recent selective sweep and was introduced in this species through introgression. In

  3. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  4. Evolutionary history of exon shuffling.

    PubMed

    França, Gustavo S; Cancherini, Douglas V; de Souza, Sandro J

    2012-06-01

    Exon shuffling has been characterized as one of the major evolutionary forces shaping both the genome and the proteome of eukaryotes. This mechanism was particularly important in the creation of multidomain proteins during animal evolution, bringing a number of functional genetic novelties. Here, genome information from a variety of eukaryotic species was used to address several issues related to the evolutionary history of exon shuffling. By comparing all protein sequences within each species, we were able to characterize exon shuffling signatures throughout metazoans. Intron phase (the position of the intron regarding the codon) and exon symmetry (the pattern of flanking introns for a given exon or block of adjacent exons) were features used to evaluate exon shuffling. We confirmed previous observations that exon shuffling mediated by phase 1 introns (1-1 exon shuffling) is the predominant kind in multicellular animals. Evidence is provided that such pattern was achieved since the early steps of animal evolution, supported by a detectable presence of 1-1 shuffling units in Trichoplax adhaerens and a considerable prevalence of them in Nematostella vectensis. In contrast, Monosiga brevicollis, one of the closest relatives of metazoans, and Arabidopsis thaliana, showed no evidence of 1-1 exon or domain shuffling above what it would be expected by chance. Instead, exon shuffling events are less abundant and predominantly mediated by phase 0 introns (0-0 exon shuffling) in those non-metazoan species. Moreover, an intermediate pattern of 1-1 and 0-0 exon shuffling was observed for the placozoan T. adhaerens, a primitive animal. Finally, characterization of flanking intron phases around domain borders allowed us to identify a common set of symmetric 1-1 domains that have been shuffled throughout the metazoan lineage.

  5. Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-22 MONOLITH JOINT REPAIRS: CASE HISTORVS.Z by James G ...Washington, DC 20314-1000 32307 S11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) May. James G ...Research Work Unit 32307, "Tech- niques for Joint Repair and Rehabilitation," for which MAJ James G . May, CE, is the Principal Investigator. This work unit

  6. Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J.; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships. PMID:25368173

  7. Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Dong, Jianrong; Liu, Kevin J; Nakhleh, Luay

    2014-11-18

    Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited applicability. We present a maximum likelihood method for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories while accounting simultaneously for incomplete lineage sorting. Additionally, we propose methods for assessing confidence in the amount of reticulation and the topology of the inferred evolutionary history. Our method obtains accurate estimates of reticulate evolutionary histories on simulated datasets. Furthermore, our method provides support for a hypothesis of a reticulate evolutionary history inferred from a set of house mouse (Mus musculus) genomes. As evidence of hybridization in eukaryotic groups accumulates, it is essential to have methods that infer reticulate evolutionary histories. The work we present here allows for such inference and provides a significant step toward putting phylogenetic networks on par with phylogenetic trees as a model of capturing evolutionary relationships.

  8. Extinction as the loss of evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Douglas H.

    2008-01-01

    Current plant and animal diversity preserves at most 1–2% of the species that have existed over the past 600 million years. But understanding the evolutionary impact of these extinctions requires a variety of metrics. The traditional measurement is loss of taxa (species or a higher category) but in the absence of phylogenetic information it is difficult to distinguish the evolutionary depth of different patterns of extinction: the same species loss can encompass very different losses of evolutionary history. Furthermore, both taxic and phylogenetic measures are poor metrics of morphologic disparity. Other measures of lost diversity include: functional diversity, architectural components, behavioral and social repertoires, and developmental strategies. The canonical five mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic reveals the loss of different, albeit sometimes overlapping, aspects of loss of evolutionary history. The end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) reduced all measures of diversity. The same was not true of other episodes, differences that may reflect their duration and structure. The construction of biodiversity reflects similarly uneven contributions to each of these metrics. Unraveling these contributions requires greater attention to feedbacks on biodiversity and the temporal variability in their contribution to evolutionary history. Taxic diversity increases after mass extinctions, but the response by other aspects of evolutionary history is less well studied. Earlier views of postextinction biotic recovery as the refilling of empty ecospace fail to capture the dynamics of this diversity increase. PMID:18695248

  9. Evolutionary History of the Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ralph S; Krogmann, Lars; Mayer, Christoph; Donath, Alexander; Gunkel, Simon; Meusemann, Karen; Kozlov, Alexey; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte; Lanfear, Robert; Diez, Patricia A; Heraty, John; Kjer, Karl M; Klopfstein, Seraina; Meier, Rudolf; Polidori, Carlo; Schmitt, Thomas; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Wappler, Torsten; Rust, Jes; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, and bees) are one of four mega-diverse insect orders, comprising more than 153,000 described and possibly up to one million undescribed extant species [1, 2]. As parasitoids, predators, and pollinators, Hymenoptera play a fundamental role in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems and are of substantial economic importance [1, 3]. To understand the diversification and key evolutionary transitions of Hymenoptera, most notably from phytophagy to parasitoidism and predation (and vice versa) and from solitary to eusocial life, we inferred the phylogeny and divergence times of all major lineages of Hymenoptera by analyzing 3,256 protein-coding genes in 173 insect species. Our analyses suggest that extant Hymenoptera started to diversify around 281 million years ago (mya). The primarily ectophytophagous sawflies are found to be monophyletic. The species-rich lineages of parasitoid wasps constitute a monophyletic group as well. The little-known, species-poor Trigonaloidea are identified as the sister group of the stinging wasps (Aculeata). Finally, we located the evolutionary root of bees within the apoid wasp family "Crabronidae." Our results reveal that the extant sawfly diversity is largely the result of a previously unrecognized major radiation of phytophagous Hymenoptera that did not lead to wood-dwelling and parasitoidism. They also confirm that all primarily parasitoid wasps are descendants of a single endophytic parasitoid ancestor that lived around 247 mya. Our findings provide the basis for a natural classification of Hymenoptera and allow for future comparative analyses of Hymenoptera, including their genomes, morphology, venoms, and parasitoid and eusocial life styles.

  10. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of natural languages

    SciTech Connect

    Warnow, T.; Ringe, D.; Taylor, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new methodology for determining the evolutionary history of related languages. Our methodology uses linguistic information encoded as qualitative characters, and provides much greater precision than previous methods. Our analysis of Indo-European (IE) languages resolves questions that have troubled scholars for over a century.

  11. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Christopher B.; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Peretti, Alberto; Geoghegan, Eileen M.; Tisza, Michael J.; An, Ping; Katz, Joshua P.; Pipas, James M.; McBride, Alison A.; Camus, Alvin C.; McDermott, Alexa J.; Dill, Jennifer A.; Delwart, Eric; Ng, Terry F. F.; Farkas, Kata; Austin, Charlotte; Kraberger, Simona; Davison, William; Pastrana, Diana V.; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae. PMID:27093155

  12. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christopher B; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Peretti, Alberto; Geoghegan, Eileen M; Tisza, Michael J; An, Ping; Katz, Joshua P; Pipas, James M; McBride, Alison A; Camus, Alvin C; McDermott, Alexa J; Dill, Jennifer A; Delwart, Eric; Ng, Terry F F; Farkas, Kata; Austin, Charlotte; Kraberger, Simona; Davison, William; Pastrana, Diana V; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  13. An evolutionary approach to financial history.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, N

    2009-01-01

    Financial history is not conventionally thought of in evolutionary terms, but it should be. Traditional ways of thinking about finance, dating back to Hilferding, emphasize the importance of concentration and economies of scale. But these approaches overlook the rich "biodiversity" that characterizes the financial world. They also overlook the role of natural selection. To be sure, natural selection in the financial world is not exactly analogous to the processes first described by Darwin and elaborated on by modern biologists. There is conscious adaptation as well as random mutation. Moreover, there is something resembling "intelligent design" in finance, whereby regulators and legislators act in a quasidivine capacity, putting dinosaurs on life support. The danger is that such interventions in the natural processes of the market may ultimately distort the evolutionary process, by getting in the way of Schumpeter's "creative destruction."

  14. Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M

    2012-03-01

    The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus.

  15. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent-due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer-it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such "process-agnostic" approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward's method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Loss and conservation of evolutionary history in the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Veron, S; Clergeau, P; Pavoine, S

    2016-10-07

    Phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness are highly valuable components of biodiversity, but they are rarely considered in conservation practices. Focusing on a biodiversity hotspot, the Mediterranean Basin, we aimed to identify those areas where evolutionary history is highly threatened and range-restricted in the region. Using null models, we first compared the spatial distributions of three indices: two measured threatened evolutionary history-Expected PDloss and Heightened Evolutionary distinctiveness and Global Endangerment-and one measured endemic evolutionary history-Biogeographically Evolutionary Distinctiveness. We focused on three vertebrate groups with high proportions of endemic, threatened species: amphibians, squamates and terrestrial mammals. Second, we estimated the spatial overlap of hotspots of threatened and endemic evolutionary history within the network of protected areas under several conservation scenarios. Areas that concentrate evolutionary history of conservation interest greatly differed among taxa and indices, although a large proportion of hotspots were identified in the Maghreb, in the East of the Mediterranean Basin as well as in islands. We found that, in a minimum conservation scenario, there was a significant proportion of hotspots for amphibians and squamates that were protected but not for terrestrial mammals. However, in a strong conservation scenario, only few hotspots overlapped with protected areas and they were significantly less protected than in a model where hotspots were chosen randomly. Some sites concentrate highly threatened and range-restricted evolutionary history of the Mediterranean basin and their conservation could be much improved. These sites are relevant for conservation studies aimed at designing new conservation actions to preserve evolutionary history and the option values it represents.

  17. The Evolutionary History of Protein Domains Viewed by Species Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Bourne, Philip E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein structural domains are evolutionary units whose relationships can be detected over long evolutionary distances. The evolutionary history of protein domains, including the origin of protein domains, the identification of domain loss, transfer, duplication and combination with other domains to form new proteins, and the formation of the entire protein domain repertoire, are of great interest. Methodology/Principal Findings A methodology is presented for providing a parsimonious domain history based on gain, loss, vertical and horizontal transfer derived from the complete genomic domain assignments of 1015 organisms across the tree of life. When mapped to species trees the evolutionary history of domains and domain combinations is revealed, and the general evolutionary trend of domain and combination is analyzed. Conclusions/Significance We show that this approach provides a powerful tool to study how new proteins and functions emerged and to study such processes as horizontal gene transfer among more distant species. PMID:20041107

  18. How Evolutionary Biologists Reconstruct History: Patterns & Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on specific modes of evolutionally inquiry is important for students to achieve a mature understanding about evolutionary biology. Presenting evolution as rhetoric of conclusions would only confuse the minds of students.

  19. How Evolutionary Biologists Reconstruct History: Patterns & Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Focusing on specific modes of evolutionally inquiry is important for students to achieve a mature understanding about evolutionary biology. Presenting evolution as rhetoric of conclusions would only confuse the minds of students.

  20. Predicting loss of evolutionary history: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Veron, Simon; Davies, T Jonathan; Cadotte, Marc W; Clergeau, Philippe; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's evolutionary history is threatened by species loss in the current sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history. Such extinction events not only eliminate species but also their unique evolutionary histories. Here we review the expected loss of Earth's evolutionary history quantified by phylogenetic diversity (PD) and evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) at risk. Due to the general paucity of data, global evolutionary history losses have been predicted for only a few groups, such as mammals, birds, amphibians, plants, corals and fishes. Among these groups, there is now empirical support that extinction threats are clustered on the phylogeny; however this is not always a sufficient condition to cause higher loss of phylogenetic diversity in comparison to a scenario of random extinctions. Extinctions of the most evolutionarily distinct species and the shape of phylogenetic trees are additional factors that can elevate losses of evolutionary history. Consequently, impacts of species extinctions differ among groups and regions, and even if global losses are low within large groups, losses can be high among subgroups or within some regions. Further, we show that PD and ED are poorly protected by current conservation practices. While evolutionary history can be indirectly protected by current conservation schemes, optimizing its preservation requires integrating phylogenetic indices with those that capture rarity and extinction risk. Measures based on PD and ED could bring solutions to conservation issues, however they are still rarely used in practice, probably because the reasons to protect evolutionary history are not clear for practitioners or due to a lack of data. However, important advances have been made in the availability of phylogenetic trees and methods for their construction, as well as assessments of extinction risk. Some challenges remain, and looking forward, research should prioritize the assessment of expected PD and ED loss for more taxonomic

  1. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  2. Teaching about Adaptation: Why Evolutionary History Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is one of the central concepts in evolutionary theory, which nonetheless has been given different definitions. Some scholars support a historical definition of adaptation, considering it as a trait that is the outcome of natural selection, whereas others support an ahistorical definition, considering it as a trait that contributes to…

  3. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  4. Colloquium paper: extinction as the loss of evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2008-08-12

    Current plant and animal diversity preserves at most 1-2% of the species that have existed over the past 600 million years. But understanding the evolutionary impact of these extinctions requires a variety of metrics. The traditional measurement is loss of taxa (species or a higher category) but in the absence of phylogenetic information it is difficult to distinguish the evolutionary depth of different patterns of extinction: the same species loss can encompass very different losses of evolutionary history. Furthermore, both taxic and phylogenetic measures are poor metrics of morphologic disparity. Other measures of lost diversity include: functional diversity, architectural components, behavioral and social repertoires, and developmental strategies. The canonical five mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic reveals the loss of different, albeit sometimes overlapping, aspects of loss of evolutionary history. The end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) reduced all measures of diversity. The same was not true of other episodes, differences that may reflect their duration and structure. The construction of biodiversity reflects similarly uneven contributions to each of these metrics. Unraveling these contributions requires greater attention to feedbacks on biodiversity and the temporal variability in their contribution to evolutionary history. Taxic diversity increases after mass extinctions, but the response by other aspects of evolutionary history is less well studied. Earlier views of postextinction biotic recovery as the refilling of empty ecospace fail to capture the dynamics of this diversity increase.

  5. Evolutionary history of African mongoose rabies.

    PubMed

    Van Zyl, N; Markotter, W; Nel, L H

    2010-06-01

    Two biotypes or variants of rabies virus (RABV) occur in southern Africa. These variants are respectively adapted to hosts belonging to the Canidae family (the canid variant) and hosts belonging to the Herpestidae family (the mongoose variant). Due to the distinct host adaptation and differences in epidemiology and pathogenesis, it has been hypothesized that the two variants were introduced into Africa at different times. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular phylogeny of representative RABV isolates of the mongoose variant towards a better understanding of the origins of this group. The study was based on an analysis of the full nucleoprotein and glycoprotein gene sequences of a panel of 27 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of this dataset confirmed extended evolutionary adaptation of isolates in specific geographic areas. The evolutionary dynamics of this virus variant was investigated using Bayesian methodology, allowing for rate variation among viral lineages. Molecular clock analysis estimated the age of the African mongoose RABV to be approximately 200 years old, which is in concurrence with literature describing rabies in mongooses since the early 1800 s.

  6. Exploring the evolutionary history of centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The centrosome is the main organizer of the microtubule cytoskeleton in animals, higher fungi and several other eukaryotic lineages. Centrosomes are usually located at the centre of cell in tight association with the nuclear envelope and duplicate at each cell cycle. Despite a great structural diversity between the different types of centrosomes, they are functionally equivalent and share at least some of their molecular components. In this paper, we explore the evolutionary origin of the different centrosomes, in an attempt to understand whether they are derived from an ancestral centrosome or evolved independently from the motile apparatus of distinct flagellated ancestors. We then discuss the evolution of centrosome structure and function within the animal lineage. PMID:25047607

  7. Evolutionary history and biotechnological future of carboxylases.

    PubMed

    Schada von Borzyskowski, Lennart; Rosenthal, Raoul G; Erb, Tobias J

    2013-11-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a potent greenhouse gas whose presence in the atmosphere is a critical factor for global warming. At the same time atmospheric CO2 is also a cheap and readily available carbon source that can in principle be used to synthesize value-added products. However, as uncatalyzed chemical CO2-fixation reactions usually require quite harsh conditions to functionalize the CO2 molecule, not many processes have been developed that make use of CO2. In contrast to synthetical chemistry, Nature provides a multitude of different carboxylating enzymes whose carboxylating principle(s) might be exploited in biotechnology. This review focuses on the biochemical features of carboxylases, highlights possible evolutionary scenarios for the emergence of their reactivity, and discusses current, as well as potential future applications of carboxylases in organic synthesis, biotechnology and synthetic biology.

  8. An Evolutionary History of Oriented Strandboard (OSB)

    Treesearch

    John I. Zerbe; Zhiyong Cai; George B. Harpole

    2015-01-01

    To improve wood utilization efficiency, oriented strandboard (OSB) was developed; 80% of the wood removed from the forest can now be processed into marketable products. This manuscript describes the history of developing this most profitable wood product, OSB, and the early FPL contribution in development.

  9. The evolutionary history of Melianthus (Melianthaceae).

    PubMed

    Linder, H Peter; Dlamini, Titus; Henning, Jack; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    The evolutionary origins of the morphological and taxonomic diversity of angiosperms is poorly known. We used the genus Melianthus to explore the diversification of the southern African flora. Melianthus comprises eight species, and a phylogeny based on one nuclear and two plastid genes, as well as a morphological data set, confirmed that the genus is monophyletic. The two earliest diverging lineages are found in relatively mesic habitats, whereas the two terminal clades (an eastern and a western clade), each with three species, favor more arid habitats. The eastern clade is largely restricted to the summer-rainfall parts of southern Africa, and the western clade is found in winter-rainfall region. Molecular dating indicates a mid-Tertiary origin of the genus, with diversification of the eastern and western clades coincident with the Late Miocene-Pliocene uplift of the Escarpment mountains and the establishment of summer aridity along the west coast. The remarkably complex flowers are indicative of sunbird pollination, but many smaller birds can also visit. Speciation may be the consequence of allopatric divergence into edaphic-climatic niches. Divergence in flower and inflorescence morphology might be in response to the divergent pressures for nectar conservation in arid regions coupled with the need for signaling to avian pollinators in generally shrubby vegetation.

  10. The evolutionary history of division of labour

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Functional specialization, or division of labour (DOL), of parts within organisms and colonies is common in most multi-cellular, colonial and social organisms, but it is far from ubiquitous. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origins of DOL; the basic feature common to all of them is that functional differences can arise easily. These mechanisms cannot explain the many groups of colonial and social animals that exhibit no DOL despite up to 500 million years of evolution. Here, I propose a new hypothesis, based on a multi-level selection theory, which predicts that a reproductive DOL is required to evolve prior to subsequent functional specialization. I test this hypothesis using a dataset consisting of the type of DOL for living and extinct colonial and social animals. The frequency distribution of DOL and the sequence of its acquisition confirm that reproductive specialization evolves prior to functional specialization. A corollary of this hypothesis is observed in colonial, social and also within multi-cellular organisms; those species without a reproductive DOL have a smaller range of internal variation, in terms of the number of polymorphs or cell types, than species with a reproductive DOL. PMID:21561969

  11. Individual heterogeneity in life histories and eco-evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    Individual heterogeneity in life history shapes eco-evolutionary processes, and unobserved heterogeneity can affect demographic outputs characterising life history and population dynamical properties. Demographic frameworks like matrix models or integral projection models represent powerful approaches to disentangle mechanisms linking individual life histories and population-level processes. Recent developments have provided important steps towards their application to study eco-evolutionary dynamics, but so far individual heterogeneity has largely been ignored. Here, we present a general demographic framework that incorporates individual heterogeneity in a flexible way, by separating static and dynamic traits (discrete or continuous). First, we apply the framework to derive the consequences of ignoring heterogeneity for a range of widely used demographic outputs. A general conclusion is that besides the long-term growth rate lambda, all parameters can be affected. Second, we discuss how the framework can help advance current demographic models of eco-evolutionary dynamics, by incorporating individual heterogeneity. For both applications numerical examples are provided, including an empirical example for pike. For instance, we demonstrate that predicted demographic responses to climate warming can be reversed by increased heritability. We discuss how applications of this demographic framework incorporating individual heterogeneity can help answer key biological questions that require a detailed understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. PMID:25807980

  12. Individual heterogeneity in life histories and eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-05-01

    Individual heterogeneity in life history shapes eco-evolutionary processes, and unobserved heterogeneity can affect demographic outputs characterising life history and population dynamical properties. Demographic frameworks like matrix models or integral projection models represent powerful approaches to disentangle mechanisms linking individual life histories and population-level processes. Recent developments have provided important steps towards their application to study eco-evolutionary dynamics, but so far individual heterogeneity has largely been ignored. Here, we present a general demographic framework that incorporates individual heterogeneity in a flexible way, by separating static and dynamic traits (discrete or continuous). First, we apply the framework to derive the consequences of ignoring heterogeneity for a range of widely used demographic outputs. A general conclusion is that besides the long-term growth rate lambda, all parameters can be affected. Second, we discuss how the framework can help advance current demographic models of eco-evolutionary dynamics, by incorporating individual heterogeneity. For both applications numerical examples are provided, including an empirical example for pike. For instance, we demonstrate that predicted demographic responses to climate warming can be reversed by increased heritability. We discuss how applications of this demographic framework incorporating individual heterogeneity can help answer key biological questions that require a detailed understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Cabbage family affairs: the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Franzke, Andreas; Lysak, Martin A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Koch, Marcus A; Mummenhoff, Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Life without the mustard family (Brassicaceae) would be a world without many crop species and the model organism Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that has revolutionized our knowledge in almost every field of modern plant biology. Despite this importance, research breakthroughs in understanding family-wide evolutionary patterns and processes within this flowering plant family were not achieved until the past few years. In this review, we examine recent outcomes from diverse botanical disciplines (taxonomy, systematics, genomics, paleobotany and other fields) to synthesize for the first time a holistic view on the evolutionary history of the mustard family.

  14. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations.

  15. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael W.; Hammond, Talisin T.; Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Walsh, Rachel E.; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A.; Martins, Felipe M.; Crawford, Jeremy C.; Mack, Katya L.; Bloch, Luke M.; Nachman, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics, and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the lab, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short time scales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. PMID:26757135

  16. Nme protein family evolutionary history, a vertebrate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Desvignes, Thomas; Pontarotti, Pierre; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Background The Nme family, previously known as Nm23 or NDPK, is involved in various molecular processes including tumor metastasis and some members of the family, but not all, exhibit a Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK) activity. Ten genes are known in humans, in which some members have been extensively studied. In non-mammalian species, the Nme protein family has received, in contrast, far less attention. The picture of the vertebrate Nme family remains thus incomplete and orthology relationships with mammalian counterparts were only partially characterized. The present study therefore aimed at characterizing the Nme gene repertoire in vertebrates with special interest for teleosts, and providing a comprehensive overview of the Nme gene family evolutionary history in vertebrates. Results In the present study, we present the evolutionary history of the Nme family in vertebrates and characterize the gene family repertoire for the first time in several non-mammalian species. Our observations show that vertebrate Nme genes can be separated in two evolutionary distinct groups. Nme1, Nme2, Nme3, and Nme4 belong to Group I while vertebrate Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, Nme8, and Nme9 belong to Group II. The position of Nme10 is in contrast more debatable due to its very specific evolutionary history. The present study clearly indicates that Nme5, Nme6, Nme7, and Nme8 originate from duplication events that occurred before the chordate radiation. In contrast, Nme genes of the Group I have a very different evolutionary history as our results suggest that they all arise from a common gene present in the chordate ancestor. In addition, expression patterns of all zebrafish nme transcripts were studied in a broad range of tissues by quantitative PCR and discussed in the light of the function of their mammalian counterparts. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework that will pave the way for future studies on vertebrate Nme proteins and provides a unified vertebrate Nme

  17. The evolutionary history of Cys-tRNACys formation.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Patrick; Sethi, Anurag; Woese, Carl R; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A

    2005-12-27

    The recent discovery of an alternate pathway for indirectly charging tRNA(Cys) has stimulated a re-examination of the evolutionary history of Cys-tRNA(Cys) formation. In the first step of the pathway, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase charges tRNA(Cys) with O-phosphoserine (Sep), a precursor of the cognate amino acid. In the following step, Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS) converts Sep to Cys in a tRNA-dependent reaction. The existence of such a pathway raises several evolutionary questions, including whether the indirect pathway is a recent evolutionary invention, as might be implied from its localization to the Euryarchaea, or, as evidence presented here indicates, whether this pathway is more ancient, perhaps already in existence at the time of the last universal common ancestral state. A comparative phylogenetic approach is used, combining evolutionary information from protein sequences and structures, that takes both the signature of horizontal gene transfer and the recurrence of the full canonical phylogenetic pattern into account, to document the complete evolutionary history of cysteine coding and understand the nature of this process in the last universal common ancestral state. Resulting from the historical study of tRNA(Cys) aminoacylation and the integrative perspective of sequence, structure, and function are 3D models of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase and SepCysS, which provide experimentally testable predictions regarding the identity and function of key active-site residues in these proteins. The model of SepCysS is used to suggest a sulfhydrylation reaction mechanism, which is predicted to occur at the interface of a SepCysS dimer.

  18. The evolutionary history of Cys-tRNACys formation

    PubMed Central

    O'Donoghue, Patrick; Sethi, Anurag; Woese, Carl R.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of an alternate pathway for indirectly charging tRNACys has stimulated a re-examination of the evolutionary history of Cys-tRNACys formation. In the first step of the pathway, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase charges tRNACys with O-phosphoserine (Sep), a precursor of the cognate amino acid. In the following step, Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS) converts Sep to Cys in a tRNA-dependent reaction. The existence of such a pathway raises several evolutionary questions, including whether the indirect pathway is a recent evolutionary invention, as might be implied from its localization to the Euryarchaea, or, as evidence presented here indicates, whether this pathway is more ancient, perhaps already in existence at the time of the last universal common ancestral state. A comparative phylogenetic approach is used, combining evolutionary information from protein sequences and structures, that takes both the signature of horizontal gene transfer and the recurrence of the full canonical phylogenetic pattern into account, to document the complete evolutionary history of cysteine coding and understand the nature of this process in the last universal common ancestral state. Resulting from the historical study of tRNACys aminoacylation and the integrative perspective of sequence, structure, and function are 3D models of O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase and SepCysS, which provide experimentally testable predictions regarding the identity and function of key active-site residues in these proteins. The model of SepCysS is used to suggest a sulfhydrylation reaction mechanism, which is predicted to occur at the interface of a SepCysS dimer. PMID:16380427

  19. Evolutionary History of the Photolyase/Cryptochrome Superfamily in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Qiming; Dvornyk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    Background Photolyases and cryptochromes are evolutionarily related flavoproteins, which however perform distinct physiological functions. Photolyases (PHR) are evolutionarily ancient enzymes. They are activated by light and repair DNA damage caused by UV radiation. Although cryptochromes share structural similarity with DNA photolyases, they lack DNA repair activity. Cryptochrome (CRY) is one of the key elements of the circadian system in animals. In plants, CRY acts as a blue light receptor to entrain circadian rhythms, and mediates a variety of light responses, such as the regulation of flowering and seedling growth. Results We performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the CRY/PHR superfamily. The superfamily consists of 7 major subfamilies: CPD class I and CPD class II photolyases, (6–4) photolyases, CRY-DASH, plant PHR2, plant CRY and animal CRY. Although the whole superfamily evolved primarily under strong purifying selection (average ω = 0.0168), some subfamilies did experience strong episodic positive selection during their evolution. Photolyases were lost in higher animals that suggests natural selection apparently became weaker in the late stage of evolutionary history. The evolutionary time estimates suggested that plant and animal CRYs evolved in the Neoproterozoic Era (~1000–541 Mya), which might be a result of adaptation to the major climate and global light regime changes occurred in that period of the Earth’s geological history. PMID:26352435

  20. Evolutionary history and metabolic insights of ancient mammalian uricases

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, James T.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Murphy, Michael N.; Cicerchi, Christina; Graves, Christina L.; Tipton, Peter A.; Ortlund, Eric A.; Johnson, Richard J.; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Uricase is an enzyme involved in purine catabolism and is found in all three domains of life. Curiously, uricase is not functional in some organisms despite its role in converting highly insoluble uric acid into 5-hydroxyisourate. Of particular interest is the observation that apes, including humans, cannot oxidize uric acid, and it appears that multiple, independent evolutionary events led to the silencing or pseudogenization of the uricase gene in ancestral apes. Various arguments have been made to suggest why natural selection would allow the accumulation of uric acid despite the physiological consequences of crystallized monosodium urate acutely causing liver/kidney damage or chronically causing gout. We have applied evolutionary models to understand the history of primate uricases by resurrecting ancestral mammalian intermediates before the pseudogenization events of this gene family. Resurrected proteins reveal that ancestral uricases have steadily decreased in activity since the last common ancestor of mammals gave rise to descendent primate lineages. We were also able to determine the 3D distribution of amino acid replacements as they accumulated during evolutionary history by crystallizing a mammalian uricase protein. Further, ancient and modern uricases were stably transfected into HepG2 liver cells to test one hypothesis that uricase pseudogenization allowed ancient frugivorous apes to rapidly convert fructose into fat. Finally, pharmacokinetics of an ancient uricase injected in rodents suggest that our integrated approach provides the foundation for an evolutionarily-engineered enzyme capable of treating gout and preventing tumor lysis syndrome in human patients. PMID:24550457

  1. The Dynamic Evolutionary History of Pancrustacean Eyes and Opsins.

    PubMed

    Henze, Miriam J; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-11-01

    Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) display an enormous diversity of eye designs, including multiple types of compound eyes and single-chambered eyes, often with color vision and/or polarization vision. Although the eyes of some pancrustaceans are well-studied, there is still much to learn about the evolutionary paths to this amazing visual diversity. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of eyes and opsins across the principle groups of Pancrustacea. First, we review the distribution of lateral and median eyes, which are found in all major pancrustacean clades (Oligostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida). At the same time, each of those three clades has taxa that lack lateral and/or median eyes. We then compile data on the expression of visual r-opsins (rhabdomeric opsins) in lateral and median eyes across Pancrustacea and find no evidence for ancient opsin clades expressed in only one type of eye. Instead, opsin clades with eye-specific expression are products of recent gene duplications, indicating a dynamic past, during which opsins often changed expression from one type of eye to another. We also investigate the evolutionary history of peropsins and r-opsins, which are both known to be expressed in eyes of arthropods. By searching published transcriptomes, we discover for the first time crustacean peropsins and suggest that previously reported odonate opsins may also be peropsins. Finally, from analyzing a reconciled, phylogenetic tree of arthropod r-opsins, we infer that the ancestral pancrustacean had four visual opsin genes, which we call LW2, MW1, MW2, and SW. These are the progenitors of opsin clades that later were variously duplicated or lost during pancrustacean evolution. Together, our results reveal a particularly dynamic history, with losses of eyes, duplication and loss of opsin genes, and changes in opsin expression between types of eyes.

  2. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis.

    PubMed

    Sazer, Shelley; Lynch, Michael; Needleman, Daniel

    2014-11-17

    The origin of the nucleus at the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition represents one of the most important events in the evolution of cellular organization. The nuclear envelope encircles the chromosomes in interphase and is a selectively permeable barrier between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and an organizational scaffold for the nucleus. It remains intact in the 'closed' mitosis of some yeasts, but loses its integrity in the 'open' mitosis of mammals. Instances of both types of mitosis within two evolutionary clades indicate multiple evolutionary transitions between open and closed mitosis, although the underlying genetic changes that influenced these transitions remain unknown. A survey of the diversity of mitotic nuclei that fall between these extremes is the starting point from which to determine the physiologically relevant characteristics distinguishing open from closed mitosis and to understand how they evolved and why they are retained in present-day organisms. The field is now poised to begin addressing these issues by defining and documenting patterns of mitotic nuclear variation within and among species and mapping them onto a phylogenic tree. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis will complement cell biological and genetic approaches aimed at deciphering the fundamental organizational principles of the nucleus.

  3. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Sazer, Shelley; Lynch, Michael; Needleman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The origin of the nucleus at the prokaryote to eukaryote transition represents one of the most important events in the evolution of cellular organization. The nuclear envelope encircles the chromosomes in interphase and is a selectively permeable barrier between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and an organizational scaffold for the nucleus. It remains intact in the "closed" mitosis of some yeast but loses its integrity in the "open" mitosis of mammals. Instances of both types of mitosis within two evolutionary clades indicate multiple evolutionary transitions between open and closed mitosis, although the underlying genetic changes that influenced these transitions remain unknown. A survey of the diversity of mitotic nuclei that fall between these extremes is the starting point from which to determine the physiologically relevant characteristics distinguishing open from closed mitosis and to understand how they evolved and why they are retained in present-day organisms. The field is now poised to begin addressing these issues by defining and document patterns of mitotic nuclear variation within and among species and map them onto a phylogenic tree. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis will complement cell biological and genetic approaches aimed at deciphering the fundamental organizational principles of the nucleus. PMID:25458223

  4. An insight into the evolutionary history of human MHC paralogon.

    PubMed

    Naz, Roheena; Tahir, Sadaf; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2017-02-27

    The vertebrate genome contains several closely spaced sets of paralogous genes from distinct gene families on typically two, three or four different chromosomes (paralogons). These four fold paralogy regions have been considered as historical remnants of whole genome duplication events (WGDs/2R hypothesis). To examine the 2R hypothesis, a robust phylogenetic analysis of 40 multigene families with triplicated or quadruplicated distribution on human MHC bearing chromosomes (1/6/9/19) was conducted. Topology comparison approach categorized the members of 40 families into six distinct co-duplicated groups. Genes belonging to a particular co-duplicated group are duplicated concurrently, whereas genes of two different co-duplicated groups do not share their evolutionary history and have not duplicated in harmony. Our results based on this large scale phylogenetic data set contradict the polyploidization model and are indicative of small-scale duplications and rearrangement events that cover the entire span of animal history.

  5. Comparative mitogenomics, phylogeny and evolutionary history of Leptogorgia (Gorgoniidae).

    PubMed

    Poliseno, Angelo; Feregrino, Christian; Sartoretto, Stéphane; Aurelle, Didier; Wörheide, Gert; McFadden, Catherine S; Vargas, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Molecular analyses of the ecologically important gorgonian octocoral genus Leptogorgia are scant and mostly deal with few species from restricted geographical regions. Here we explore the phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of Leptogorgia using the complete mitochondrial genomes of six Leptogorgia species from different localities in the Atlantic, Mediterranean and eastern Pacific as well as four other genera of Gorgoniidae and Plexauridae. Our mitogenomic analyses showed high inter-specific diversity, variable nucleotide substitution rates and, for some species, novel genomic features such as ORFs of unknown function. The phylogenetic analyses using complete mitogenomes and an extended mtMutS dataset recovered Leptogorgia as polyphyletic, and the species considered in the analyses were split into two defined groups corresponding to different geographic regions, namely the eastern Pacific and the Atlantic-Mediterranean. Our phylogenetic analysis based on mtMutS also showed a clear separation between the eastern Atlantic and South African Leptogorgia, suggesting the need of a taxonomic revision for these forms. A time-calibrated phylogeny showed that the separation of eastern Pacific and western Atlantic species started ca. 20Mya and suggested a recent divergence for eastern Pacific species and for L. sarmentosa-L. capverdensis. Our results also revealed high inter-specific diversity among eastern Atlantic and South African species, highlighting a potential role of the geographical diversification processes and geological events occurring during the last 30Ma in the Atlantic on the evolutionary history of these organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dispersal and vicariance: the complex evolutionary history of boid snakes.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Chippindale, Paul T

    2006-08-01

    Since the early 1970s, boine snakes (Boidae: Boinae) have served as a prime example of a group whose current distribution was shaped by vicariant events associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Gondwana. Early phylogenetic treatments of this group, and what were thought to be closely related groups (Erycinae and Pythoninae) based on morphological features, produced a relatively stable view of relationships that has strongly influenced subsequent molecular-based work. We examined 4307 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide sequence data obtained from five nuclear loci (c-mos, NT3, BDNF, RAG1, and ODC) and one mitochondrial locus (cyt b) for all genera of erycines and boines, plus representatives of other groups, including those previously thought to be closely allied with boines (Ungaliophiidae, Loxocemidae, Xenopeltidae, and Pythoninae). Our results suggest that the Boidae is not monophyletic, and its current division into three subfamilies (Erycinae, Boinae, and Pythoninae) does not accurately reflect evolutionary history. We find that the evolutionary relationships are better reflected by current geographic distributions and tectonic history than by the morphological characters that have long served as the foundation of boid phylogeny. Divergence time estimates suggest that this strong congruence between geography and phylogeny is the result of several vicariant and dispersal events in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene associated with the fragmentation of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Our results demonstrate the importance of both vicariance and dispersal in shaping the global distributions of terrestrial organisms.

  7. Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Pess, George R; Beechie, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history. PMID:25567626

  8. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3) plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4) (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4) plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4) plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids.

  9. Evolutionary History of Lagomorphs in Response to Global Environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Wen, Zhixin; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Erbajeva, Margarita; Huang, Chengming; Yang, Qisen

    2013-01-01

    Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C4 (31% species are from Poaceae). The ability of several leporid species to consume C4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called ‘nature’s green revolution’, induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major ‘ecological opportunities’, which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of leporids

  10. Joint Genome Institute's Automation Approach and History

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Simon

    2006-07-05

    Department of Energy/Joint Genome Institute (DOE/JGI) collaborates with DOE national laboratories and community users, to advance genome science in support of the DOE missions of clean bio-energy, carbon cycling, and bioremediation.

  11. Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships. Results This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families. Conclusions The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events

  12. Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura).

    PubMed

    Light, Jessica E; Smith, Vincent S; Allen, Julie M; Durden, Lance A; Reed, David L

    2010-09-22

    Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships. This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families. The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events early in the association between

  13. Climate constrains the evolutionary history and biodiversity of crocodylians.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Philip D; Benson, Roger B J; Carrano, Matthew T; Tennant, Jonathan P; Judd, Jack; Butler, Richard J

    2015-09-24

    The fossil record of crocodylians and their relatives (pseudosuchians) reveals a rich evolutionary history, prompting questions about causes of long-term decline to their present-day low biodiversity. We analyse climatic drivers of subsampled pseudosuchian biodiversity over their 250 million year history, using a comprehensive new data set. Biodiversity and environmental changes correlate strongly, with long-term decline of terrestrial taxa driven by decreasing temperatures in northern temperate regions, and biodiversity decreases at lower latitudes matching patterns of increasing aridification. However, there is no relationship between temperature and biodiversity for marine pseudosuchians, with sea-level change and post-extinction opportunism demonstrated to be more important drivers. A 'modern-type' latitudinal biodiversity gradient might have existed throughout pseudosuchian history, and range expansion towards the poles occurred during warm intervals. Although their fossil record suggests that current global warming might promote long-term increases in crocodylian biodiversity and geographic range, the 'balancing forces' of anthropogenic environmental degradation complicate future predictions.

  14. Climate constrains the evolutionary history and biodiversity of crocodylians

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Philip D.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Tennant, Jonathan P.; Judd, Jack; Butler, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of crocodylians and their relatives (pseudosuchians) reveals a rich evolutionary history, prompting questions about causes of long-term decline to their present-day low biodiversity. We analyse climatic drivers of subsampled pseudosuchian biodiversity over their 250 million year history, using a comprehensive new data set. Biodiversity and environmental changes correlate strongly, with long-term decline of terrestrial taxa driven by decreasing temperatures in northern temperate regions, and biodiversity decreases at lower latitudes matching patterns of increasing aridification. However, there is no relationship between temperature and biodiversity for marine pseudosuchians, with sea-level change and post-extinction opportunism demonstrated to be more important drivers. A ‘modern-type' latitudinal biodiversity gradient might have existed throughout pseudosuchian history, and range expansion towards the poles occurred during warm intervals. Although their fossil record suggests that current global warming might promote long-term increases in crocodylian biodiversity and geographic range, the 'balancing forces' of anthropogenic environmental degradation complicate future predictions. PMID:26399170

  15. The promiscuous evolutionary history of the family Bromoviridae.

    PubMed

    Codoñer, Francisco M; Elena, Santiago F

    2008-07-01

    Recombination and segment reassortment are important contributors to the standing genetic variation of RNA viruses and are often involved in the genesis of new, emerging viruses. This study explored the role played by these two processes in the evolutionary radiation of the plant virus family Bromoviridae. The evolutionary history of this family has been explored previously using standard molecular phylogenetic methods, but incongruences have been found among the trees inferred from different gene sequences. This would not be surprising if RNA exchange was a common event, as it is well known that recombination and reassortment of genomes are poorly described by standard phylogenetic methods. In an attempt to reconcile these discrepancies, this study first explored the extent of segment reassortment and found that it was common at the origin of the bromoviruses and cucumoviruses and at least at the origin of alfalfa mosaic virus, American plum line pattern virus and citrus leaf rugose virus. Secondly, recombination analyses were performed on each of the three genomic RNAs and it was found that recombination was very common in members of the genera Bromovirus, Cucumovirus and Ilarvirus. Several cases of recombination involving species from different genera were also identified. Finally, a phylogenetic network was constructed reflecting these genetic exchanges. The network confirmed the taxonomic status of the different genera within the family, despite the phylogenetic noise introduced by genetic exchange.

  16. The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phylogeny of the Apidae. We conclude that eusociality evolved once in the common ancestor of the corbiculate Apidae, advanced eusociality evolved independently in the honey and stingless bees, and that eusociality was lost in the orchid bees. Fossil-calibrated divergence time estimates reveal that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya) in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior. These results provide a robust new evolutionary framework for studies of the organization and genetic basis of social behavior in honey bees and their relatives. PMID:21695157

  17. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Ludovic; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Alberdi, Maria T.; Telles-Antunes, Miguel; Bonjean, Dominique; Otte, Marcel; Martin, Fabiana; Eisenmann, Véra; Mashkour, Marjan; Morello, Flavia; Prado, Jose L.; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Shockey, Bruce J.; Wrinn, Patrick J.; Vasil'ev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Cherry, Michael I.; Hopwood, Blair; Male, Dean; Austin, Jeremy J.; Hänni, Catherine; Cooper, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The rich fossil record of the family Equidae (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) over the past 55 MY has made it an icon for the patterns and processes of macroevolution. Despite this, many aspects of equid phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy remain unresolved. Recent genetic analyses of extinct equids have revealed unexpected evolutionary patterns and a need for major revisions at the generic, subgeneric, and species levels. To investigate this issue we examine 35 ancient equid specimens from four geographic regions (South America, Europe, Southwest Asia, and South Africa), of which 22 delivered 87–688 bp of reproducible aDNA mitochondrial sequence. Phylogenetic analyses support a major revision of the recent evolutionary history of equids and reveal two new species, a South American hippidion and a descendant of a basal lineage potentially related to Middle Pleistocene equids. Sequences from specimens assigned to the giant extinct Cape zebra, Equus capensis, formed a separate clade within the modern plain zebra species, a phenotypicically plastic group that also included the extinct quagga. In addition, we revise the currently recognized extinction times for two hemione-related equid groups. However, it is apparent that the current dataset cannot solve all of the taxonomic and phylogenetic questions relevant to the evolution of Equus. In light of these findings, we propose a rapid DNA barcoding approach to evaluate the taxonomic status of the many Late Pleistocene fossil Equidae species that have been described from purely morphological analyses. PMID:20007379

  18. The complex evolutionary history of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Chaliotis, Anargyros; Vlastaridis, Panayotis; Mossialos, Dimitris; Ibba, Michael; Becker, Hubert D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the faithful translation of the genetic code and have lately become a prominent target for synthetic biologists. Our large-scale analysis of >2500 prokaryotic genomes reveals the complex evolutionary history of these enzymes and their paralogs, in which horizontal gene transfer played an important role. These results show that a widespread belief in the evolutionary stability of this superfamily is misconceived. Although AlaRS, GlyRS, LeuRS, IleRS, ValRS are the most stable members of the family, GluRS, LysRS and CysRS often have paralogs, whereas AsnRS, GlnRS, PylRS and SepRS are often absent from many genomes. In the course of this analysis, highly conserved protein motifs and domains within each of the AARS loci were identified and used to build a web-based computational tool for the genome-wide detection of AARS coding sequences. This is based on hidden Markov models (HMMs) and is available together with a cognate database that may be used for specific analyses. The bioinformatics tools that we have developed may also help to identify new antibiotic agents and targets using these essential enzymes. These tools also may help to identify organisms with alternative pathways that are involved in maintaining the fidelity of the genetic code. PMID:28180287

  19. Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, Marc W; Cardinale, Bradley J; Oakley, Todd H

    2008-11-04

    Loss of biological diversity because of extinction is one of the most pronounced changes to the global environment. For several decades, researchers have tried to understand how changes in biodiversity might impact biomass production by examining how biomass correlates with a number of biodiversity metrics (especially the number of species and functional groups). This body of research has focused on species with the implicit assumption that they are independent entities. However, functional and ecological similarities are shaped by patterns of common ancestry, such that distantly related species might contribute more to production than close relatives, perhaps by increasing niche breadth. Here, we analyze 2 decades of experiments performed in grassland ecosystems throughout the world and examine whether the evolutionary relationships among the species comprising a community predict how biodiversity impacts plant biomass production. We show that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups. Our results reveal how evolutionary history can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve as an impetus for new biodiversity experiments.

  20. On the Origin and Evolutionary History of NANOG

    PubMed Central

    Vivien, Céline; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Demeneix, Barbara; Coen, Laurent; Girardot, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Though pluripotency is well characterized in mammals, many questions remain to be resolved regarding its evolutionary history. A necessary prerequisite for addressing this issue is to determine the phylogenetic distributions and orthology relationships of the transcription factor families sustaining or modulating this property. In mammals, the NANOG homeodomain transcription factor is one of the core players in the pluripotency network. However, its evolutionary history has not been thoroughly studied, hindering the interpretation of comparative studies. To date, the NANOG family was thought to be monogenic, with numerous pseudogenes described in mammals, including a tandem duplicate in Hominidae. By examining a wide-array of craniate genomes, we provide evidence that the NANOG family arose at the latest in the most recent common ancestor of osteichthyans and that NANOG genes are frequently found as tandem duplicates in sarcopterygians and as a single gene in actinopterygians. Their phylogenetic distribution is thus reminiscent of that recently shown for Class V POU paralogues, another key family of pluripotency-controlling factors. However, while a single ancestral duplication has been reported for the Class V POU family, we suggest that multiple independent duplication events took place during evolution of the NANOG family. These multiple duplications could have contributed to create a layer of complexity in the control of cell competence and pluripotency, which could explain the discrepancies relative to the functional evolution of this important gene family. Further, our analysis does not support the hypothesis that loss of NANOG and emergence of the preformation mode of primordial germ cell specification are causally linked. Our study therefore argues for the need of further functional comparisons between NANOG paralogues, notably regarding the novel duplicates identified in sauropsids and non-eutherian mammals. PMID:24465486

  1. Physalis and physaloids: A recent and complex evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Tavares, María Del Pilar; Martínez, Mahinda; Magallón, Susana; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura; Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia

    2016-07-01

    The complex evolutionary history of the subtribe Physalinae is reflected in the poor resolution of the relationships of Physalis and the physaloid genera. We hypothesize that this low resolution is caused by recent evolutionary history in a complex geographic setting. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) To determine the phylogenetic relationships of the current genera recognized in Physalinae in order to identify monophyletic groups and resolve the physaloid grade; and (2) to determine the probable causes of the recent divergence in Physalinae. We conducted phylogenetic analyses with maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference with 50 Physalinae species and 19 others as outgroups, using morphological and molecular data from five plastid and two nuclear regions. A relaxed molecular clock was obtained from the ML topology and ancestral area reconstruction was conducted using the DEC model. The genera Chamaesaracha, Leucophysalis, and Physalis subgenus Rydbergis were recovered as monophyletic. Three clades, Alkekengi-Calliphysalis, Schraderanthus-Tzeltalia, and Witheringia-Brachistus, also received good support. However, even with morphological data and that of the DNA of seven regions, the tree was not completely resolved and many clades remained unsupported. Physalinae diverged at the end of the Miocene (∼9.22Mya) with one trend indicating that the greatest diversification within the subtribe occurred during the last 5My. The Neotropical region presented the highest probability (45%) of being the ancestral area of Physalinae followed by the Mexican Transition Zone (35%). During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, the geographical areas where species were found experienced significant geological and climatic changes, giving rise to rapid and relatively recent diversification events in Physalinae. Thus, recent origin, high diversification, and morphological complexity have contributed, at least with the currently available methods, to the inability to completely

  2. Evolutionary history, immigration history, and the extent of diversification in community assembly.

    PubMed

    Knope, Matthew L; Forde, Samantha E; Fukami, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    During community assembly, species may accumulate not only by immigration, but also by in situ diversification. Diversification has intrigued biologists because its extent varies even among closely related lineages under similar ecological conditions. Recent research has suggested that some of this puzzling variation may be caused by stochastic differences in the history of immigration (relative timing and order of immigration by founding populations), indicating that immigration and diversification may affect community assembly interactively. However, the conditions under which immigration history affects diversification remain unclear. Here we propose the hypothesis that whether or not immigration history influences the extent of diversification depends on the founding populations' prior evolutionary history, using evidence from a bacterial experiment. To create genotypes with different evolutionary histories, replicate populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens were allowed to adapt to a novel environment for a short or long period of time (approximately 10 or 100 bacterial generations) with or without exploiters (viral parasites). Each evolved genotype was then introduced to a new habitat either before or after a standard competitor genotype. Most genotypes diversified to a greater extent when introduced before, rather than after, the competitor. However, introduction order did not affect the extent of diversification when the evolved genotype had previously adapted to the environment for a long period of time without exploiters. Diversification of these populations was low regardless of introduction order. These results suggest that the importance of immigration history in diversification can be predicted by the immigrants' evolutionary past. The hypothesis proposed here may be generally applicable in both micro- and macro-organisms.

  3. Maximum likelihood inference of the evolutionary history of a PPI network from the duplication history of its proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Choi, Kwok Pui; Wu, Taoyang; Zhang, Louxin

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary history of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks provides valuable insight into molecular mechanisms of network growth. In this paper, we study how to infer the evolutionary history of a PPI network from its protein duplication relationship. We show that for a plausible evolutionary history of a PPI network, its relative quality, measured by the so-called loss number, is independent of the growth parameters of the network and can be computed efficiently. This finding leads us to propose two fast maximum likelihood algorithms to infer the evolutionary history of a PPI network given the duplication history of its proteins. Simulation studies demonstrated that our approach, which takes advantage of protein duplication information, outperforms NetArch, the first maximum likelihood algorithm for PPI network history reconstruction. Using the proposed method, we studied the topological change of the PPI networks of the yeast, fruitfly, and worm.

  4. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Hill, Kim R; Flinn, Mark V; Ellsworth, Ryan M

    2011-04-27

    The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew) and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice). Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.

  5. Evolutionary History of Hunter-Gatherer Marriage Practices

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Hill, Kim R.; Flinn, Mark V.; Ellsworth, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. Methodology Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Results Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew) and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice). Discussion Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities. PMID:21556360

  6. The evolutionary history of kinetoplastids and their kinetoplasts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alastair G B; Lukes, Julius; Roger, Andrew J

    2002-12-01

    Despite extensive phylogenetic analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) genes, the deep-level relationships among kinetoplastids remain poorly understood, limiting our grasp of their evolutionary history, especially the origins of their bizarre mitochondrial genome organizations. In this study we examine the SSUrRNA data in the light of a new marker--cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) sequences. Our phylogenetic analyses divide kinetoplastids into four main clades. Clades 1-3 include the various bodonid kinetoplastids. Trypanosomatids comprise the fourth clade. SSUrRNA analyses give vastly different and poorly supported positions for the root of the kinetoplastid tree, depending on the out-group and analysis method. This is probably due to the extraordinary length of the branch between kinetoplastids and any out-group. In contrast, almost all hsp90 analyses place the root between clade 1 (including Dimastigella, Rhynchomonas, several Bodo spp., and probably Rhynchobodo) and all other kinetoplastids. Maximum likelihood and maximum likelihood distance analyses of hsp90 protein and second codon-position nucleotides place trypanosomatids adjacent to Bodo saltans and Bodo cf. uncinatus (clade 3), as (weakly) do SSUrRNA analyses. Hsp90 first codon- plus second codon-position nucleotide analyses return a slightly different topology. We show that this may be an artifact caused, in part, by the different evolutionary behavior of first- and second-codon positions. This study provides the most robust evidence to date that trypanosomatids are descended from within bodonids and that B. saltans is a close relative of trypanosomatids. A total reevaluation of the high-level systematics within kinetoplastids is needed. We confirm that the interlocking network organization of kinetoplast DNA seen in trypanosomatids is a derived condition within kinetoplastids but suggest that open-conformation minicircles may have arisen early in kinetoplastid evolution. Further

  7. An Intertwined Evolutionary History of Methanogenic Archaea and Sulfate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Susanti, Dwi; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs with group I features and a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster were proposed as evolutionary intermediates. Group III is the precursor of Fsr-C. The freestanding Fsr-N homologs serve as F420H2 dehydrogenase unit of a putative novel glutamate synthase, previously described membrane-bound electron transport system in methanogens and of assimilatory type sulfite reductases in certain haloarchaea. Among archaea, only methanogens carried Dsr-LPs. They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago) biologically produced sulfide deposit. PMID:23028926

  8. Evolutionary History of the Cancer Immunity Antigen MAGE Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Katsura, Yukako; Satta, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary mode of a multi-gene family can change over time, depending on the functional differentiation and local genomic environment of family members. In this study, we demonstrate such a change in the melanoma antigen (MAGE) gene family on the mammalian X chromosome. The MAGE gene family is composed of ten subfamilies that can be categorized into two types. Type I genes are of relatively recent origin, and they encode epitopes for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in cancer cells. Type II genes are relatively ancient and some of their products are known to be involved in apoptosis or cell proliferation. The evolutionary history of the MAGE gene family can be divided into four phases. In phase I, a single-copy state of an ancestral gene and the evolutionarily conserved mode had lasted until the emergence of eutherian mammals. In phase II, eight subfamily ancestors, with the exception for MAGE-C and MAGE-D subfamilies, were formed via retrotransposition independently. This would coincide with a transposition burst of LINE elements at the eutherian radiation. However, MAGE-C was generated by gene duplication of MAGE-A. Phase III is characterized by extensive gene duplication within each subfamily and in particular the formation of palindromes in the MAGE-A subfamily, which occurred in an ancestor of the Catarrhini. Phase IV is characterized by the decay of a palindrome in most Catarrhini, with the exception of humans. Although the palindrome is truncated by frequent deletions in apes and Old World monkeys, it is retained in humans. Here, we argue that this human-specific retention stems from negative selection acting on MAGE-A genes encoding epitopes of cancer cells, which preserves their ability to bind to highly divergent HLA molecules. These findings are interpreted with consideration of the biological factors shaping recent human MAGE-A genes. PMID:21695252

  9. Evolutionary History of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis

    PubMed Central

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes – geographical and ecological speciation – that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25 000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

  10. Evolutionary history and genome organization of DUF1220 protein domains.

    PubMed

    O'Bleness, Majesta S; Dickens, C Michael; Dumas, Laura J; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Sikela, James M

    2012-09-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the most extreme human lineage-specific (HLS) copy number increase of any protein coding region in the human genome and have recently been linked to evolutionary and pathological changes in brain size (e.g., 1q21-associated microcephaly). These findings lend support to the view that DUF1220 domain dosage is a key factor in the determination of primate (and human) brain size. Here we analyze 41 animal genomes and present the most complete account to date of the evolutionary history and genome organization of DUF1220 domains and the gene family that encodes them (NBPF). Included among the novel features identified by this analysis is a DUF1220 domain precursor in nonmammalian vertebrates, a unique predicted promoter common to all mammalian NBPF genes, six distinct clades into which DUF1220 sequences can be subdivided, and a previously unknown member of the NBPF gene family (NBPF25). Most importantly, we show that the exceptional HLS increase in DUF1220 copy number (from 102 in our last common ancestor with chimp to 272 in human; an average HLS increase of ~28 copies every million years since the Homo/Pan split) was driven by intragenic domain hyperamplification. This increase primarily involved a 4.7 kb, tandemly repeated three DUF1220 domain unit we have named the HLS DUF1220 triplet, a motif that is a likely candidate to underlie key properties unique to the Homo sapiens brain. Interestingly, all copies of the HLS DUF1220 triplet lie within a human-specific pericentric inversion that also includes the 1q12 C-band, a polymorphic heterochromatin expansion that is unique to the human genome. Both cytogenetic features likely played key roles in the rapid HLS DUF1220 triplet hyperamplification, which is among the most striking genomic changes specific to the human lineage.

  11. Evolutionary history of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis.

    PubMed

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Lemaire, Christophe; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes--geographical and ecological speciation--that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25,000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar.

  12. Diversity and Evolutionary History of Iron Metabolism Genes in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Groussman, Ryan D.; Parker, Micaela S.; Armbrust, E. Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Ferroproteins arose early in Earth’s history, prior to the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent reduction of bioavailable iron. Today, iron availability limits primary productivity in about 30% of the world’s oceans. Diatoms, responsible for nearly half of oceanic primary production, have evolved molecular strategies for coping with variable iron concentrations. Our understanding of the evolutionary breadth of these strategies has been restricted by the limited number of species for which molecular sequence data is available. To uncover the diversity of strategies marine diatoms employ to meet cellular iron demands, we analyzed 367 newly released marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptomes, which include 47 diatom species. We focused on genes encoding proteins previously identified as having a role in iron management: iron uptake (high-affinity ferric reductase, multi-copper oxidase, and Fe(III) permease); iron storage (ferritin); iron-induced protein substitutions (flavodoxin/ferredoxin, and plastocyanin/cytochrome c6) and defense against reactive oxygen species (superoxide dismutases). Homologs encoding the high-affinity iron uptake system components were detected across the four diatom Classes suggesting an ancient origin for this pathway. Ferritin transcripts were also detected in all Classes, revealing a more widespread utilization of ferritin throughout diatoms than previously recognized. Flavodoxin and plastocyanin transcripts indicate possible alternative redox metal strategies. Predicted localization signals for ferredoxin identify multiple examples of gene transfer from the plastid to the nuclear genome. Transcripts encoding four superoxide dismutase metalloforms were detected, including a putative nickel-coordinating isozyme. Taken together, our results suggest that the majority of iron metabolism genes in diatoms appear to be vertically inherited with functional diversity achieved via possible neofunctionalization of paralogs. This

  13. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  14. Diversity and Evolutionary History of Iron Metabolism Genes in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Groussman, Ryan D; Parker, Micaela S; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Ferroproteins arose early in Earth's history, prior to the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis and the subsequent reduction of bioavailable iron. Today, iron availability limits primary productivity in about 30% of the world's oceans. Diatoms, responsible for nearly half of oceanic primary production, have evolved molecular strategies for coping with variable iron concentrations. Our understanding of the evolutionary breadth of these strategies has been restricted by the limited number of species for which molecular sequence data is available. To uncover the diversity of strategies marine diatoms employ to meet cellular iron demands, we analyzed 367 newly released marine microbial eukaryotic transcriptomes, which include 47 diatom species. We focused on genes encoding proteins previously identified as having a role in iron management: iron uptake (high-affinity ferric reductase, multi-copper oxidase, and Fe(III) permease); iron storage (ferritin); iron-induced protein substitutions (flavodoxin/ferredoxin, and plastocyanin/cytochrome c6) and defense against reactive oxygen species (superoxide dismutases). Homologs encoding the high-affinity iron uptake system components were detected across the four diatom Classes suggesting an ancient origin for this pathway. Ferritin transcripts were also detected in all Classes, revealing a more widespread utilization of ferritin throughout diatoms than previously recognized. Flavodoxin and plastocyanin transcripts indicate possible alternative redox metal strategies. Predicted localization signals for ferredoxin identify multiple examples of gene transfer from the plastid to the nuclear genome. Transcripts encoding four superoxide dismutase metalloforms were detected, including a putative nickel-coordinating isozyme. Taken together, our results suggest that the majority of iron metabolism genes in diatoms appear to be vertically inherited with functional diversity achieved via possible neofunctionalization of paralogs. This

  15. Brain development and predation: plastic responses depend on evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Abigél; Välimäki, Kaisa; Herczeg, Gábor; Merilä, Juha

    2012-04-23

    Although the brain is known to be a very plastic organ, the effects of common ecological interactions like predation or competition on brain development have remained largely unexplored. We reared nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) from two coastal marine (predation-adapted) and two isolated pond (competition-adapted) populations in a factorial experiment, manipulating perceived predatory risk and food supply to see (i) if the treatments affected brain development and (ii) if there was population differentiation in the response to treatments. We detected differences in plasticity of the bulbus olfactorius (chemosensory centre) between habitats: marine fish were not plastic, whereas pond fish had larger bulbi olfactorii in the presence of perceived predation. Marine fish had larger bulbus olfactorius overall. Irrespective of population origin, the hypothalamus was smaller in the presence of perceived predatory risk. Our results demonstrate that perceived predation risk can influence brain development, and that the effect of an environmental factor on brain development may depend on the evolutionary history of a given population in respect to this environmental factor.

  16. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Carr, Thomas D.

    2016-02-01

    Tyrannosauroids—the group of carnivores including Tyrannosaurs rex—are some of the most familiar dinosaurs of all. A surge of recent discoveries has helped clarify some aspects of their evolution, but competing phylogenetic hypotheses raise questions about their relationships, biogeography, and fossil record quality. We present a new phylogenetic dataset, which merges published datasets and incorporates recently discovered taxa. We analyze it with parsimony and, for the first time for a tyrannosauroid dataset, Bayesian techniques. The parsimony and Bayesian results are highly congruent, and provide a framework for interpreting the biogeography and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroids. Our phylogenies illustrate that the body plan of the colossal species evolved piecemeal, imply no clear division between northern and southern species in western North America as had been argued, and suggest that T. rex may have been an Asian migrant to North America. Over-reliance on cranial shape characters may explain why published parsimony studies have diverged and filling three major gaps in the fossil record holds the most promise for future work.

  17. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Carr, Thomas D

    2016-02-02

    Tyrannosauroids--the group of carnivores including Tyrannosaurs rex--are some of the most familiar dinosaurs of all. A surge of recent discoveries has helped clarify some aspects of their evolution, but competing phylogenetic hypotheses raise questions about their relationships, biogeography, and fossil record quality. We present a new phylogenetic dataset, which merges published datasets and incorporates recently discovered taxa. We analyze it with parsimony and, for the first time for a tyrannosauroid dataset, Bayesian techniques. The parsimony and Bayesian results are highly congruent, and provide a framework for interpreting the biogeography and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroids. Our phylogenies illustrate that the body plan of the colossal species evolved piecemeal, imply no clear division between northern and southern species in western North America as had been argued, and suggest that T. rex may have been an Asian migrant to North America. Over-reliance on cranial shape characters may explain why published parsimony studies have diverged and filling three major gaps in the fossil record holds the most promise for future work.

  18. Evolutionary history and functional characterization of the amphibian xenosensor CAR.

    PubMed

    Mathäs, Marianne; Burk, Oliver; Qiu, Huan; Nusshag, Christian; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Baranyai, Dorothea; Deng, Shiwei; Römer, Kristin; Nem, Dieudonné; Windshügel, Björn; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The xenosensing constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is widely considered to have arisen in early mammals via duplication of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We report that CAR emerged together with PXR and the vitamin D receptor from an ancestral NR1I gene already in early vertebrates, as a result of whole-genome duplications. CAR genes were subsequently lost from the fish lineage, but they are conserved in all taxa of land vertebrates. This contrasts with PXR, which is found in most fish species, whereas it is lost from Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) and plays a role unrelated to xenosensing in Xenopus. This role is fulfilled in Xenopus by CAR, which exhibits low basal activity and pronounced responsiveness to activators such as drugs and steroids, altogether resembling mammalian PXR. The constitutive activity typical for mammalian CAR emerged first in Sauropsida, and it is thus common to all fully terrestrial land vertebrates (Amniota). The constitutive activity can be achieved by humanizing just two amino acids of the Xenopus CAR. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the NR1I subfamily of nuclear receptors. They identify CAR as the more conserved and remarkably plastic NR1I xenosensor in land vertebrates. Nonmammalian CAR should help to dissect the specific functions of PXR and CAR in the metabolism of xeno- and endobiotics in humans. Xenopus CAR is a first reported amphibian xenosensor, which opens the way to toxicogenomic and bioaugmentation studies in this critically endangered taxon of land vertebrates.

  19. Nonrandom extinction leads to elevated loss of angiosperm evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Jana C; Wilson, John R U

    2008-10-01

    The phylogenetic clustering of extinction may jeopardize the existence of entire families and genera, which can result in elevated reductions of evolutionary history (EH), trait diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Analyses of globally threatened birds and mammals suggest current extinction threats will result in a much higher loss of EH than random extinction scenarios, while the analyses of the taxonomical distribution of regionally rare plants find the opposite pattern. The disproportionately high number of rare plant species within species-rich families potentially suggests that lower losses of plant EH will be sustained than expected under random extinction. We show that at a global scale, this is not the case. Species-poor (especially monotypic) angiosperm families are more often at risk of extinction than expected. Because these high-risk species-poor families are as evolutionarily distinct as other families, the expected family-level EH plausibly lost in the next 100 years exceeds that predicted from random extinction by up to approximately 1165 million years.

  20. Incorporating evolutionary history into conservation planning in biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Buerki, Sven; Callmander, Martin W; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Labat, Jean-Noël; Forest, Félix

    2015-02-19

    There is increased evidence that incorporating evolutionary history directly in conservation actions is beneficial, particularly given the likelihood that extinction is not random and that phylogenetic diversity (PD) is lost at higher rates than species diversity. This evidence is even more compelling in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, where less than 10% of the original vegetation remains. Here, we use the Leguminosae, an ecologically and economically important plant family, and a combination of phylogenetics and species distribution modelling, to assess biodiversity patterns and identify regions, coevolutionary processes and ecological factors that are important in shaping this diversity, especially during the Quaternary. We show evidence that species distribution and community PD are predicted by watershed boundaries, which enable the identification of a network of refugia and dispersal corridors that were perhaps important for maintaining community integrity during past climate change. Phylogenetically clustered communities are found in the southwest of the island at low elevation and share a suite of morphological characters (especially fruit morphology) indicative of coevolution with their main dispersers, the extinct and extant lemurs. Phylogenetically over-dispersed communities are found along the eastern coast at sea level and may have resulted from many independent dispersal events from the drier and more seasonal regions of Madagascar. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionary history of a complex adaptation: tetrodotoxin resistance in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Hanifin, Charles T; Gilly, William F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes that generate novel adaptive phenotypes is central to evolutionary biology. We used comparative analyses to reveal the history of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in TTX-bearing salamanders. Resistance to TTX is a critical component of the ability to use TTX defensively but the origin of the TTX-bearing phenotype is unclear. Skeletal muscle of TTX-bearing salamanders (modern newts, family: Salamandridae) is unaffected by TTX at doses far in excess of those that block action potentials in muscle and nerve of other vertebrates. Skeletal muscle of non-TTX-bearing salamandrids is also resistant to TTX but at lower levels. Skeletal muscle TTX resistance in the Salamandridae results from the expression of TTX-resistant variants of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.4 (SCN4a). We identified four substitutions in the coding region of salSCN4a that are likely responsible for the TTX resistance measured in TTX-bearing salamanders and variation at one of these sites likely explains variation in TTX resistance among other lineages. Our results suggest that exaptation has played a role in the evolution of the TTX-bearing phenotype and provide empirical evidence that complex physiological adaptations can arise through the accumulation of beneficial mutations in the coding region of conserved proteins.

  2. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Bologna, Marco A; Oliverio, Marco; Pitzalis, Monica; Mariottini, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Meloid beetles are well characterised by both morphological and biological features. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological characters assumed the repeated parallel evolution of complex biological novelties. In this work relationships among several taxa of the four subfamilies and almost all tribes representing meloid diversity are examined by using mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequences, in 25 genera (using Anthicidae as outgroup). Secondary structure of 16S and ITS2 rRNAs were modelled. ITS2 structure represents a synapomorphic condition for the family and informative characters at the tribal level. Phylogenetic hypotheses based on separate and combined analysis of the 16S and ITS2 rDNA sequences, and morpho-biological characters were tested, and compared with previous morphological classifications. Molecular dating allowed an outline of the main steps of the evolutionary history of Meloidae, which evolved during Early Cretaceous and then radiated considerably with the adoption of hypermetaboly and parasitic behaviour, and with repeated, parallel evolution of larval phoresy on its hosts.

  3. Evolutionary history of the ABCB2 genomic region in teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palti, Y.; Rodriguez, M.F.; Gahr, S.A.; Hansen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Gene duplication, silencing and translocation have all been implicated in shaping the unique genomic architecture of the teleost MH regions. Previously, we demonstrated that trout possess five unlinked regions encoding MH genes. One of these regions harbors ABCB2 which in all other vertebrate classes is found in the MHC class II region. In this study, we sequenced a BAC contig for the trout ABCB2 region. Analysis of this region revealed the presence of genes homologous to those located in the human class II (ABCB2, BRD2, ??DAA), extended class II (RGL2, PHF1, SYGP1) and class III (PBX2, Notch-L) regions. The organization and syntenic relationships of this region were then compared to similar regions in humans, Tetraodon and zebrafish to learn more about the evolutionary history of this region. Our analysis indicates that this region was generated during the teleost-specific duplication event while also providing insight about potential MH paralogous regions in teleosts. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain development and predation: plastic responses depend on evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, Abigél; Välimäki, Kaisa; Herczeg, Gábor; Merilä, Juha

    2012-01-01

    Although the brain is known to be a very plastic organ, the effects of common ecological interactions like predation or competition on brain development have remained largely unexplored. We reared nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) from two coastal marine (predation-adapted) and two isolated pond (competition-adapted) populations in a factorial experiment, manipulating perceived predatory risk and food supply to see (i) if the treatments affected brain development and (ii) if there was population differentiation in the response to treatments. We detected differences in plasticity of the bulbus olfactorius (chemosensory centre) between habitats: marine fish were not plastic, whereas pond fish had larger bulbi olfactorii in the presence of perceived predation. Marine fish had larger bulbus olfactorius overall. Irrespective of population origin, the hypothalamus was smaller in the presence of perceived predatory risk. Our results demonstrate that perceived predation risk can influence brain development, and that the effect of an environmental factor on brain development may depend on the evolutionary history of a given population in respect to this environmental factor. PMID:21957092

  5. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Taylor, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Organisms that live in close association with other organisms make up a large part of the world's diversity. One driver of this diversity is the evolution of host-species specificity, which can occur via reproductive isolation following a host-switch or, given the correct circumstances, via cospeciation. In this study, we explored the diversity and evolutionary history of Acrostichus nematodes that are associated with halictid bees in North America. First, we conducted surveys of bees in Virginia, and found six halictid species that host Acrostichus. To test the hypothesis of cospeciation, we constructed phylogenetic hypotheses of Acrostichus based on three genes. We found Acrostichus puri and Acrostichus halicti to be species complexes comprising cryptic, host-specific species. Although several nodes in the host and symbiont phylogenies were congruent and tests for cospeciation were significant, the host's biogeography, the apparent patchiness of the association across the host's phylogeny, and the amount of evolution in the nematode sequence suggested a mixture of cospeciation, host switching, and extinction events instead of strict cospeciation. Cospeciation can explain the relationships between Ac. puri and its augochlorine hosts, but colonization of Halictus hosts is more likely than cospeciation. The nematodes are vertically transmitted, but sexual transmission is also likely. Both of these transmission modes may explain host-species specificity and congruent bee and nematode phylogenies. Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus.

  6. The evolutionary history of cetacean brain and body size.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen H; Geisler, Jonathan H; McGowen, Michael R; Fox, Charlotte; Marino, Lori; Gatesy, John

    2013-11-01

    Cetaceans rival primates in brain size relative to body size and include species with the largest brains and biggest bodies to have ever evolved. Cetaceans are remarkably diverse, varying in both phenotypes by several orders of magnitude, with notable differences between the two extant suborders, Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We analyzed the evolutionary history of brain and body mass, and relative brain size measured by the encephalization quotient (EQ), using a data set of extinct and extant taxa to capture temporal variation in the mode and direction of evolution. Our results suggest that cetacean brain and body mass evolved under strong directional trends to increase through time, but decreases in EQ were widespread. Mysticetes have significantly lower EQs than odontocetes due to a shift in brain:body allometry following the divergence of the suborders, caused by rapid increases in body mass in Mysticeti and a period of body mass reduction in Odontoceti. The pattern in Cetacea contrasts with that in primates, which experienced strong trends to increase brain mass and relative brain size, but not body mass. We discuss what these analyses reveal about the convergent evolution of large brains, and highlight that until recently the most encephalized mammals were odontocetes, not primates.

  7. Mannosylglycerate: structural analysis of biosynthesis and evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nuno; Jorge, Carla D; Gonçalves, Luís G; Gonçalves, Susana; Matias, Pedro M; Santos, Helena

    2014-09-01

    Halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms adapted to thrive in hot environments accumulate compatible solutes that usually have a negative charge either associated with a carboxylic group or a phosphodiester unit. Mannosylglycerate (MG) has been detected in several members of (hyper)thermophilic bacteria and archaea, in which it responds primarily to osmotic stress. The outstanding ability of MG to stabilize protein structure in vitro as well as in vivo has been convincingly demonstrated. These findings led to an increasingly supported link between MG and microbial adaptation to high temperature. However, the accumulation of MG in many red algae has been known for a long time, and the peculiar distribution of MG in such distant lineages was intriguing. Knowledge on the biosynthetic machinery together with the rapid expansion of genome databases allowed for structural and phylogenetic analyses and provided insight into the distribution of MG. The two pathways for MG synthesis have distinct evolutionary histories and physiological roles: in red algae MG is synthesised exclusively via the single-step pathway and most probably is unrelated with stress protection. In contrast, the two-step pathway is strongly associated with osmoadaptation in (hyper)thermophilic prokaryotes. The phylogenetic analysis of the two-step pathway also reveals a second cluster composed of fungi and mesophilic bacteria, but MG has not been demonstrated in members of this cluster; we propose that the synthase is part of a more complex pathway directed at the synthesis of yet unknown molecules containing the mannosyl-glyceryl unit.

  8. Evolutionary history of a complex adaptation: Tetrodotoxin resistance in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Hanifin, Charles T.; Gilly, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that generate novel adaptive phenotypes is central to evolutionary biology. We used comparative analyses to reveal the history of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in TTX-bearing salamanders. Resistance to TTX is a critical component of the ability to use TTX defensively but the origin of the TTX-bearing phenotype is unclear. Skeletal muscle of TTX-bearing salamanders (modern newts, family: Salamandridae) is unaffected by TTX at doses far in excess of those that block action potentials in muscle and nerve of other vertebrates. Skeletal muscle of non-TTX-bearing salamandrids is also resistant to TTX but at lower levels. Skeletal muscle TTX resistance in the Salamandridae results from the expression of TTX-resistant variants of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.4 (SCN4a). We identified four substitutions in the coding region of salSCN4a that are likely responsible for the TTX resistance measured in TTX-bearing salamanders and variation at one of these sites likely explains variation in TTX resistance among other lineages. Our results suggest that exaptation has played a role in the evolution of the TTX-bearing phenotype and provide empirical evidence that complex physiological adaptations can arise through the accumulation of beneficial mutations in the coding region of conserved proteins. PMID:25346116

  9. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Carr, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrannosauroids—the group of carnivores including Tyrannosaurs rex—are some of the most familiar dinosaurs of all. A surge of recent discoveries has helped clarify some aspects of their evolution, but competing phylogenetic hypotheses raise questions about their relationships, biogeography, and fossil record quality. We present a new phylogenetic dataset, which merges published datasets and incorporates recently discovered taxa. We analyze it with parsimony and, for the first time for a tyrannosauroid dataset, Bayesian techniques. The parsimony and Bayesian results are highly congruent, and provide a framework for interpreting the biogeography and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroids. Our phylogenies illustrate that the body plan of the colossal species evolved piecemeal, imply no clear division between northern and southern species in western North America as had been argued, and suggest that T. rex may have been an Asian migrant to North America. Over-reliance on cranial shape characters may explain why published parsimony studies have diverged and filling three major gaps in the fossil record holds the most promise for future work. PMID:26830019

  10. Joint Inference of Population Assignment and Demographic History

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Hey, Jody

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to assigning individuals to populations using genetic data is described. Most existing methods work by maximizing Hardy–Weinberg and linkage equilibrium within populations, neither of which will apply for many demographic histories. By including a demographic model, within a likelihood framework based on coalescent theory, we can jointly study demographic history and population assignment. Genealogies and population assignments are sampled from a posterior distribution using a general isolation-with-migration model for multiple populations. A measure of partition distance between assignments facilitates not only the summary of a posterior sample of assignments, but also the estimation of the posterior density for the demographic history. It is shown that joint estimates of assignment and demographic history are possible, including estimation of population phylogeny for samples from three populations. The new method is compared to results of a widely used assignment method, using simulated and published empirical data sets. PMID:21775468

  11. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers

  12. [The history of development of evolutionary methods in St. Petersburg school of computer simulation in biology].

    PubMed

    Menshutkin, V V; Kazanskiĭ, A B; Levchenko, V F

    2010-01-01

    The history of rise and development of evolutionary methods in Saint Petersburg school of biological modelling is traced and analyzed. Some pioneering works in simulation of ecological and evolutionary processes, performed in St.-Petersburg school became an exemplary ones for many followers in Russia and abroad. The individual-based approach became the crucial point in the history of the school as an adequate instrument for construction of models of biological evolution. This approach is natural for simulation of the evolution of life-history parameters and adaptive processes in populations and communities. In some cases simulated evolutionary process was used for solving a reverse problem, i. e., for estimation of uncertain life-history parameters of population. Evolutionary computations is one more aspect of this approach application in great many fields. The problems and vistas of ecological and evolutionary modelling in general are discussed.

  13. New insights into the evolutionary history of biological nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Eric S.; Peters, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogenase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), accounts for roughly half of the bioavailable nitrogen supporting extant life. The fundamental requirement for fixed forms of nitrogen for life on Earth, both at present and in the past, has led to broad and significant interest in the origin and evolution of biological N2 fixation. One key question is whether the limited availability of fixed nitrogen was a factor in life's origin or whether there were ample sources of fixed nitrogen produced by abiotic processes or delivered through the weathering of bolide impact materials to support this early life. If the latter, the key questions become what were the characteristics of the environment that precipitated the evolution of this oxygen sensitive process, when did this occur, and how was its subsequent evolutionary history impacted by the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis and the rise of oxygen in the Earth's biosphere. Since the availability of fixed sources of nitrogen capable of supporting early life is difficult to glean from the geologic record, there are limited means to get direct insights into these questions. Indirect insights, however, can be gained through phylogenetic studies of nitrogenase structural gene products and additional gene products involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal-containing prosthetic groups associated with this enzyme complex. Insights gained from such studies, as reviewed herein, challenge traditional models for the evolution of biological nitrogen fixation and provide the basis for the development of new conceptual models that explain the stepwise evolution of this highly complex life sustaining process. PMID:23935594

  14. The evolutionary origin and population history of the grauer gorilla.

    PubMed

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Dommain, René; McFarlin, Shannon C; Burnett, Scott E; Troy Case, D; Orr, Caley M; Roach, Neil T; Villmoare, Brian; Eriksen, Amandine B; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Senck, Sascha; Assefa, Zelalem; Groves, Colin P; Jungers, William L

    2016-01-01

    Gorillas living in western central Africa (Gorilla gorilla) are morphologically and genetically distinguishable from those living in eastern central Africa (Gorilla beringei). Genomic analyses show eastern gorillas experienced a significant reduction in population size during the Pleistocene subsequent to geographical isolation from their western counterparts. However, how these results relate more specifically to the recent biogeographical and evolutionary history of eastern gorillas remains poorly understood. Here we show that two rare morphological traits are present in the hands and feet of both eastern gorilla subspecies at strikingly high frequencies (>60% in G. b. graueri; ∼28% in G. b. beringei) in comparison with western gorillas (<1%). The intrageneric distribution of these rare traits suggests that they became common among eastern gorillas after diverging from their western relatives during the early to middle Pleistocene. The extremely high frequencies observed among grauer gorillas-which currently occupy a geographic range more than ten times the size of that of mountain gorillas-imply that grauers originated relatively recently from a small founding population of eastern gorillas. Current paleoenvironmental, geological, and biogeographical evidence supports the hypothesis that a small group of eastern gorillas likely dispersed westward from the Virungas into present-day grauer range in the highlands just north of Lake Kivu, either immediately before or directly after the Younger Dryas interval. We propose that as the lowland forests of central Africa expanded rapidly during the early Holocene, they became connected with the expanding highland forests along the Albertine Rift and enabled the descendants of this small group to widely disperse. The descendant populations significantly expanded their geographic range and population numbers relative to the gorillas of the Virunga Mountains and the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, ultimately resulting in the

  15. Evolutionary History of Chimpanzees Inferred from Complete Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, Adam; Liu, Weimin; Wertheim, Joel O.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Worobey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Investigations into the evolutionary history of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, have produced inconsistent results due to differences in the types of molecular data considered, the model assumptions employed, and the quantity and geographical range of samples used. We amplified and sequenced 24 complete P. troglodytes mitochondrial genomes from fecal samples collected at multiple study sites throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Using a “relaxed molecular clock,” fossil calibrations, and 12 additional complete primate mitochondrial genomes, we analyzed the pattern and timing of primate diversification in a Bayesian framework. Our results support the recognition of four chimpanzee subspecies. Within P. troglodytes, we report a mean (95% highest posterior density [HPD]) time since most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of 1.026 (0.811–1.263) Ma for the four proposed subspecies, with two major lineages. One of these lineages (tMRCA = 0.510 [0.387–0.650] Ma) contains P. t. verus (tMRCA = 0.155 [0.101–0.213] Ma) and P. t. ellioti (formerly P. t. vellerosus; tMRCA = 0.157 [0.102–0.215] Ma), both of which are monophyletic. The other major lineage contains P. t. schweinfurthii (tMRCA = 0.111 [0.077–0.146] Ma), a monophyletic clade nested within the P. t. troglodytes lineage (tMRCA = 0.380 [0.296–0.476] Ma). We utilized two analysis techniques that may be of widespread interest. First, we implemented a Yule speciation prior across the entire primate tree with separate coalescent priors on each of the chimpanzee subspecies. The validity of this approach was confirmed by estimates based on more traditional techniques. We also suggest that accurate tMRCA estimates from large computationally difficult sequence alignments may be obtained by implementing our novel method of bootstrapping smaller randomly subsampled alignments. PMID:20802239

  16. Evolutionary history of the non-specific lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Edstam, Monika M; Viitanen, Lenita; Salminen, Tiina A; Edqvist, Johan

    2011-11-01

    The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins characterized by a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity, capable of transferring various lipid molecules between lipid bilayers. Most nsLTPs are synthesized with an N-terminal signal peptide that localizes the protein to the apoplastic space. The nsLTPs have only been identified in seed plants, where they are encoded by large gene families. We have initiated an analysis of the evolutionary history of the nsLTP family using genomic and EST information from non-seed land plants and green algae to determine: (1) when the nsLTP family arose, (2) how often new nsLTP subfamilies have been created, and (3) how subfamilies differ in their patterns of expansion and loss in different plant lineages. In this study, we searched sequence databases and found that genes and transcripts encoding nsLTPs are abundant in liverworts, mosses, and all other investigated land plants, but not present in any algae. The tertiary structures of representative liverwort and moss nsLTPs were further studied with homology modeling. The results indicate that the nsLTP family has evolved after plants conquered land. Only two of the four major subfamilies of nsLTPs found in flowering plants are present in mosses and liverworts. The additional subfamilies have arisen later, during land plant evolution. In this report, we also introduce a modified nsLTP classification system. © The Author 2011. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  17. Life history determines genetic structure and evolutionary potential of host–parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Luke G.; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy J.; Linde, Celeste C.

    2009-01-01

    Measures of population genetic structure and diversity of disease-causing organisms are commonly used to draw inferences regarding their evolutionary history and potential to generate new variation in traits that determine interactions with their hosts. Parasite species exhibit a range of population structures and life-history strategies, including different transmission modes, life-cycle complexity, off-host survival mechanisms and dispersal ability. These are important determinants of the frequency and predictability of interactions with host species. Yet the complex causal relationships between spatial structure, life history and the evolutionary dynamics of parasite populations are not well understood. We demonstrate that a clear picture of the evolutionary potential of parasitic organisms and their demographic and evolutionary histories can only come from understanding the role of life history and spatial structure in influencing population dynamics and epidemiological patterns. PMID:18947899

  18. Joint phenotypes, evolutionary conflict and the fundamental theorem of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Queller, David C

    2014-05-19

    Multiple organisms can sometimes affect a common phenotype. For example, the portion of a leaf eaten by an insect is a joint phenotype of the plant and insect and the amount of food obtained by an offspring can be a joint trait with its mother. Here, I describe the evolution of joint phenotypes in quantitative genetic terms. A joint phenotype for multiple species evolves as the sum of additive genetic variances in each species, weighted by the selection on each species. Selective conflict between the interactants occurs when selection takes opposite signs on the joint phenotype. The mean fitness of a population changes not just through its own genetic variance but also through the genetic variance for its fitness that resides in other species, an update of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. Some similar results, using inclusive fitness, apply to within-species interactions. The models provide a framework for understanding evolutionary conflicts at all levels.

  19. The distribution and evolutionary history of the PRP8 intein

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Margaret I; Gray, Jeremy; Goodwin, Timothy JD; Poulter, Russell TM

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently described a mini-intein in the PRP8 gene of a strain of the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, an important fungal pathogen of humans. This was the second described intein in the nuclear genome of any eukaryote; the first nuclear encoded intein was found in the VMA gene of several saccharomycete yeasts. The evolution of eukaryote inteins is not well understood. In this report we describe additional PRP8 inteins (bringing the total of these to over 20). We compare and contrast the phylogenetic distribution and evolutionary history of the PRP8 intein and the saccharomycete VMA intein, in order to derive a broader understanding of eukaryote intein evolution. It has been suggested that eukaryote inteins undergo horizontal transfer and the present analysis explores this proposal. Results In total, 22 PRP8 inteins have been detected in species from three different orders of euascomycetes, including Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus (Eurotiales), Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, Uncinocarpus reesii and Histoplasma capsulatum (Onygales) and Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales). These inteins are all at the same site in the PRP8 sequence as the original Cryptococcus neoformans intein. Some of the PRP8 inteins contain apparently intact homing endonuclease domains and are thus potentially mobile, while some lack the region corresponding to the homing endonuclease and are thus mini-inteins. In contrast, no mini-inteins have been reported in the VMA gene of yeast. There are several examples of pairs of closely related species where one species carries the PRP8 intein while the intein is absent from the other species. Bio-informatic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that many of the ascomycete PRP8 homing endonucleases are active. This contrasts with the VMA homing endonucleases, most of which are inactive. Conclusion PRP8 inteins are widespread in the euascomycetes (Pezizomycota) and apparently their homing endonucleases are active. There is no

  20. Explanations for attractiveness-related positive biases in an evolutionary perspective of life history theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mating-related evolutionary explanation that Maestripieri et al. offer does not apply to (1) infants' positive biases toward attractive individuals and (2) adults' positive biases toward attractive infants and children. They are best understood when integrated into an evolutionary life history framework. I argue that the life history of positive biases toward attractive individuals is driven by fundamental trade-offs made throughout development.

  1. Two books in one: natural history and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Simms, E L

    1998-08-01

    Evolutionary Ecology across Three Trophic Levels: Goldenrods, Gallmakers and Natural Enemies by W.G. Abrahamson and A.E. Weis Princeton University Press, Monographs in Population Biology, 1997. $29.95/£24.95 hbk (xiii+456 pages) ISBN 0 691 01208 3.

  2. Sequence alignments and pair hidden Markov models using evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Bjarne; Miyamoto, Michael M

    2003-10-17

    This work presents a novel pairwise statistical alignment method based on an explicit evolutionary model of insertions and deletions (indels). Indel events of any length are possible according to a geometric distribution. The geometric distribution parameter, the indel rate, and the evolutionary time are all maximum likelihood estimated from the sequences being aligned. Probability calculations are done using a pair hidden Markov model (HMM) with transition probabilities calculated from the indel parameters. Equations for the transition probabilities make the pair HMM closely approximate the specified indel model. The method provides an optimal alignment, its likelihood, the likelihood of all possible alignments, and the reliability of individual alignment regions. Human alpha and beta-hemoglobin sequences are aligned, as an illustration of the potential utility of this pair HMM approach.

  3. Making evolutionary history count: biodiversity planning for coral reef fishes and the conservation of evolutionary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities are having devastating impacts on marine systems with numerous knock-on effects on trophic functioning, species interactions and an accelerated loss of biodiversity. Establishing conservation areas can not only protect biodiversity, but also confer resilience against changes to coral reefs and their inhabitants. Planning for protection and conservation in marine systems is complex, but usually focuses on maintaining levels of biodiversity and protecting special and unique landscape features while avoiding negative impacts to socio-economic benefits. Conversely, the integration of evolutionary processes that have shaped extant species assemblages is rarely taken into account. However, it is as important to protect processes as it is to protect patterns for maintaining the evolutionary trajectories of populations and species. This review focuses on different approaches for integrating genetic analyses, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogeography and the delineation of management units, temporal and spatial monitoring of genetic diversity and quantification of adaptive variation for protecting evolutionary resilience, into marine spatial planning, specifically for coral reef fishes. Many of these concepts are not yet readily applied to coral reef fish studies, but this synthesis highlights their potential and the importance of including historical processes into systematic biodiversity planning for conserving not only extant, but also future, biodiversity and its evolutionary potential.

  4. The Evolutionary Histories of Antiretroviral Proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 Do Not Support an Evolutionary Arms Race in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ben; Vollbrecht, Thomas; Guatelli, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Molecular evolutionary arms races between viruses and their hosts are important drivers of adaptation. These Red Queen dynamics have been frequently observed in primate retroviruses and their antagonists, host restriction factor genes, such as APOBEC3F/G, TRIM5-α, SAMHD1, and BST-2. Host restriction factors have experienced some of the most intense and pervasive adaptive evolution documented in primates. Recently, two novel host factors, SERINC3 and SERINC5, were identified as the targets of HIV-1 Nef, a protein crucial for the optimal infectivity of virus particles. Here, we compared the evolutionary fingerprints of SERINC3 and SERINC5 to those of other primate restriction factors and to a set of other genes with diverse functions. SERINC genes evolved in a manner distinct from the canonical arms race dynamics seen in the other restriction factors. Despite their antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses, SERINC3 and SERINC5 have a relatively uneventful evolutionary history in primates. IMPORTANCE Restriction factors are host proteins that block viral infection and replication. Many viruses, like HIV-1 and related retroviruses, evolved accessory proteins to counteract these restriction factors. The importance of these interactions is evidenced by the intense adaptive selection pressures that dominate the evolutionary histories of both the host and viral genes involved in this so-called arms race. The dynamics of these arms races can point to mechanisms by which these viral infections can be prevented. Two human genes, SERINC3 and SERINC5, were recently identified as targets of an HIV-1 accessory protein important for viral infectivity. Unexpectedly, we found that these SERINC genes, unlike other host restriction factor genes, show no evidence of a recent evolutionary arms race with viral pathogens. PMID:27356902

  5. The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes--I: cell type evolution.

    PubMed

    Patthey, Cedric; Schlosser, Gerhard; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Vertebrate cranial placodes are crucial contributors to the vertebrate cranial sensory apparatus. Their evolutionary origin has attracted much attention from evolutionary and developmental biologists, yielding speculation and hypotheses concerning their putative homologues in other lineages and the developmental and genetic innovations that might have underlain their origin and diversification. In this article we first briefly review our current understanding of placode development and the cell types and structures they form. We next summarise previous hypotheses of placode evolution, discussing their strengths and caveats, before considering the evolutionary history of the various cell types that develop from placodes. In an accompanying review, we also further consider the evolution of ectodermal patterning. Drawing on data from vertebrates, tunicates, amphioxus, other bilaterians and cnidarians, we build these strands into a scenario of placode evolutionary history and of the genes, cells and developmental processes that underlie placode evolution and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The evolutionary history of lethal metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Kremeyer, Barbara; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Tubio, Jose M C; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Brewer, Daniel S; Kallio, Heini M L; Högnäs, Gunilla; Annala, Matti; Kivinummi, Kati; Goody, Victoria; Latimer, Calli; O'Meara, Sarah; Dawson, Kevin J; Isaacs, William; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Nykter, Matti; Foster, Christopher; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas; Whitaker, Hayley C; Neal, David E; Cooper, Colin S; Eeles, Rosalind A; Visakorpi, Tapio; Campbell, Peter J; McDermott, Ultan; Wedge, David C; Bova, G Steven

    2015-04-16

    Cancers emerge from an ongoing Darwinian evolutionary process, often leading to multiple competing subclones within a single primary tumour. This evolutionary process culminates in the formation of metastases, which is the cause of 90% of cancer-related deaths. However, despite its clinical importance, little is known about the principles governing the dissemination of cancer cells to distant organs. Although the hypothesis that each metastasis originates from a single tumour cell is generally supported, recent studies using mouse models of cancer demonstrated the existence of polyclonal seeding from and interclonal cooperation between multiple subclones. Here we sought definitive evidence for the existence of polyclonal seeding in human malignancy and to establish the clonal relationship among different metastases in the context of androgen-deprived metastatic prostate cancer. Using whole-genome sequencing, we characterized multiple metastases arising from prostate tumours in ten patients. Integrated analyses of subclonal architecture revealed the patterns of metastatic spread in unprecedented detail. Metastasis-to-metastasis spread was found to be common, either through de novo monoclonal seeding of daughter metastases or, in five cases, through the transfer of multiple tumour clones between metastatic sites. Lesions affecting tumour suppressor genes usually occur as single events, whereas mutations in genes involved in androgen receptor signalling commonly involve multiple, convergent events in different metastases. Our results elucidate in detail the complex patterns of metastatic spread and further our understanding of the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy in prostate cancer.

  7. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, W M; Bello, G; Amarilla, A A; Alfonso, H L; Aquino, V H; Figueiredo, L T M

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus (Family Bunyaviridae) are mostly associated to rodents and transmitted to man by inhalation of aerosolized infected excreta of these animals. The human infection by hantaviruses can lead to severe diseases such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Asia and Europe, and pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas. To determine the origin, spreading and evolutionary dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses, 190 sequences of nucleoprotein (N) of hantaviruses identified in 30 countries, from 1985 to 2010, were retrieved from the GenBank and analyzed using the BEAST program. Our evolutionary analysis indicates that current genetic diversity of N gene of rodent-borne hantaviruses probably was originated around 2000 years ago. Hantavirus harbored by Murinae and Arvicolinae subfamilies, probably, were originated in Asia 500-700 years ago and later spread toward Siberia, Europe, Africa and North America. Hantavirus carried by Neotominae subfamily, probably, emerged 500-600 years ago in Central America and spread toward North America. Finally, hantaviruses associated to Sigmodontinae occurred in Brazil 400 years ago and were, probably, originated from Neotominae-associated virus from northern South America. These data offer subsidies to understand the time-scale and worldwide dissemination dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  8. Species concepts should not conflict with evolutionary history, but often do.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Joel D

    2008-12-01

    Many phylogenetic systematists have criticized the Biological Species Concept (BSC) because it distorts evolutionary history. While defences against this particular criticism have been attempted, I argue that these responses are unsuccessful. In addition, I argue that the source of this problem leads to previously unappreciated, and deeper, fatal objections. These objections to the BSC also straightforwardly apply to other species concepts that are not defined by genealogical history. What is missing from many previous discussions is the fact that the Tree of Life, which represents phylogenetic history, is independent of our choice of species concept. Some species concepts are consistent with species having unique positions on the Tree while others, including the BSC, are not. Since representing history is of primary importance in evolutionary biology, these problems lead to the conclusion that the BSC, along with many other species concepts, are unacceptable. If species are to be taxa used in phylogenetic inferences, we need a history-based species concept.

  9. Joint scaling laws in functional and evolutionary categories in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, J.; Bassetti, B.; Maslov, S.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose and study a class-expansion/innovation/loss model of genome evolution taking into account biological roles of genes and their constituent domains. In our model, numbers of genes in different functional categories are coupled to each other. For example, an increase in the number of metabolic enzymes in a genome is usually accompanied by addition of new transcription factors regulating these enzymes. Such coupling can be thought of as a proportional ‘recipe’ for genome composition of the type ‘a spoonful of sugar for each egg yolk’. The model jointly reproduces two known empirical laws: the distribution of family sizes and the non-linear scaling of the number of genes in certain functional categories (e.g. transcription factors) with genome size. In addition, it allows us to derive a novel relation between the exponents characterizing these two scaling laws, establishing a direct quantitative connection between evolutionary and functional categories. It predicts that functional categories that grow faster-than-linearly with genome size to be characterized by flatter-than-average family size distributions. This relation is confirmed by our bioinformatics analysis of prokaryotic genomes. This proves that the joint quantitative trends of functional and evolutionary classes can be understood in terms of evolutionary growth with proportional recipes. PMID:21937509

  10. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Evolutionary History of Lethal Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gundem, Gunes; Van Loo, Peter; Kremeyer, Barbara; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Brewer, Daniel S.; Kallio, Heini M.L.; Högnäs, Gunilla; Annala, Matti; Kivinummi, Kati; Goody, Victoria; Latimer, Calli; O’Meara, Sarah; Dawson, Kevin J.; Isaacs, William; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Nykter, Matti; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Whitaker, Hayley C.; Neal, David E.; Cooper, Colin S.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Visakorpi, Tapio; Campbell, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers emerge from an on-going Darwinian evolutionary process, often leading to multiple competing subclones within a single primary tumour1-4. This evolutionary process culminates in the formation of metastases, which is the cause of 90% of cancer-related deaths5. However, despite its clinical importance, little is known about the principles governing the dissemination of cancer cells to distant organs. Although the hypothesis that each metastasis originates from a single tumour cell is generally supported6-8, recent studies using mouse models of cancer demonstrated the existence of polyclonal seeding from and inter-clonal cooperation between multiple subclones9,10. In this study, we sought definitive evidence for the existence of polyclonal seeding in human malignancy and to establish the clonal relationship among different metastases in the context of androgen-deprived metastatic prostate cancer. Using whole genome sequencing, we characterised multiple metastases arising from prostate tumours in ten patients. Integrated analyses of subclonal architecture revealed the patterns of metastatic spread in unprecedented detail. Metastasis-to-metastasis spread was found to be common, either through de novo monoclonal seeding of daughter metastases or, in five cases, through the transfer of multiple tumour clones between metastatic sites. Lesions affecting tumour suppressor genes usually occur as single events, whereas mutations in genes involved in androgen receptor signalling commonly involve multiple, convergent events in different metastases. Our results elucidate in detail the complex patterns of metastatic spread and further our understanding of the development of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. PMID:25830880

  12. The evolutionary history of TLR4 polymorphisms in Europe.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Theo S; Ioana, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Izagirre, Neskuts; Hervella, Montserrat; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; de la Rúa, Concepcion; Netea, Mihai G

    2012-01-01

    Infections exert important evolutionary pressures shaping the human genome, especially on genes involved in host defense. A crucial step for host defense is recognition of pathogens by pattern recognition receptors on innate immune cells, among which Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the best known. Genetic variation in TLR4 (Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile) has been recently described. Haplotype frequencies of these polymorphisms differ among African, Asian and European populations, suggesting evolutionary pressures exerted by local infections. The TLR4 299Gly/399Ile haplotype, characteristic mainly of European populations, has relatively high frequency in the Iberian peninsula. This region is also described as refuge area during the last glacial maximum 20,000 years ago, from which repopulation of Europe took place. We speculate that a genetic bottleneck in the Iberian peninsula could have promoted the increased frequency of this haplotype by genetic drift. This hypothesis is supported by three arguments: (1) the West-East gradient of prevalence in the haplotype among European populations; (2) ancient DNA from Neolithic burials in the Iberian peninsula, dated 6,600-4,500 years before present, confirmed the relatively high frequency of this haplotype in the region, and (3) no functional differences between this haplotype and wild-type TLR4 have been found. In contrast, the disappearance of the 299Gly/399Thr haplotype in Europe is most likely due to negative selection due to sepsis. In conclusion, differences in distribution of TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile in European populations are most likely due to a combination of population migration events combined with selection due to sepsis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history.

    PubMed

    Kamilar, J M; Tecot, S R

    2015-11-01

    At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate the relationship between pituitary gland size and life history variation. Because pituitary gland size should be related to hormone production and action, we predicted that species with relatively large pituitaries should be associated with fast life histories, especially increased foetal and post-natal growth rates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that total pituitary size and the size of the anterior lobe of the pituitary significantly predicted a life history axis that was correlated with several traits including body mass, and foetal and post-natal growth rates. Additional models directly examining the association between relative pituitary size and growth rates produced concordant results. We also found that relative pituitary size variation across mammals was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution, suggesting an important role of stabilizing selection. Our results support the idea that the size of the pituitary is linked to life history variation through evolutionary time. This pattern is likely due to mediating hormone levels but additional work is needed. We suggest that future investigations incorporating endocrine gland size may be critical for understanding life history evolution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Blindsnake evolutionary tree reveals long history on Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Morini, Marina; Donnellan, Steve; Branch, William R.; Thomas, Richard; Vences, Miguel; Wynn, Addison; Cruaud, Corinne; Hedges, S. Blair

    2010-01-01

    Worm-like snakes (scolecophidians) are small, burrowing species with reduced vision. Although largely neglected in vertebrate research, knowledge of their biogeographical history is crucial for evaluating hypotheses of snake origins. We constructed a molecular dataset for scolecophidians with detailed sampling within the largest family, Typhlopidae (blindsnakes). Our results demonstrate that scolecophidians have had a long Gondwanan history, and that their initial diversification followed a vicariant event: the separation of East and West Gondwana approximately 150 Ma. We find that the earliest blindsnake lineages, representing two new families described here, were distributed on the palaeolandmass of India+Madagascar named here as Indigascar. Their later evolution out of Indigascar involved vicariance and several oceanic dispersal events, including a westward transatlantic one, unexpected for burrowing animals. The exceptional diversification of scolecophidians in the Cenozoic was probably linked to a parallel radiation of prey (ants and termites) as well as increased isolation of populations facilitated by their fossorial habits. PMID:20356885

  15. Evolutionary history of chloridoid grasses estimated from 122 nuclear loci.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amanda E; Hasenstab, Kristen M; Bell, Hester L; Blaine, Ellen; Ingram, Amanda L; Columbus, J Travis

    2016-12-01

    Chloridoideae (chloridoid grasses) are a subfamily of ca. 1700 species with high diversity in arid habitats. Until now, their evolutionary relationships have primarily been studied with DNA sequences from the chloroplast, a maternally inherited organelle. Next-generation sequencing is able to efficiently recover large numbers of nuclear loci that can then be used to estimate the species phylogeny based upon bi-parentally inherited data. We sought to test our chloroplast-based hypotheses of relationships among chloridoid species with 122 nuclear loci generated through targeted-enrichment next-generation sequencing, sometimes referred to as hyb-seq. We targeted putative single-copy housekeeping genes, as well as genes that have been implicated in traits characteristic of, or particularly labile in, chloridoids: e.g., drought and salt tolerance. We recovered ca. 70% of the targeted loci (122 of 177 loci) in all 47 species sequenced using hyb-seq. We then analyzed the nuclear loci with Bayesian and coalescent methods and the resulting phylogeny resolves relationships between the four chloridoid tribes. Several novel findings with this data were: the sister lineage to Chloridoideae is unresolved; Centropodia+Ellisochloa are excluded from Chloridoideae in phylogenetic estimates using a coalescent model; Sporobolus subtilis is more closely related to Eragrostis than to other species of Sporobolus; and Tragus is more closely related to Chloris and relatives than to a lineage of mainly New World species. Relationships in Cynodonteae in the nuclear phylogeny are quite different from chloroplast estimates, but were not robust to changes in the method of phylogenetic analysis. We tested the data signal with several partition schemes, a concatenation analysis, and tests of alternative hypotheses to assess our confidence in this new, nuclear estimate of evolutionary relationships. Our work provides markers and a framework for additional phylogenetic studies that sample more

  16. Structure and evolutionary history of the solar system. IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1974-01-01

    The chemical composition of planets and satellites, the origin of meteorites, and the location and structure of different secondary bodies are discussed in this concluding installment of the history of the Galaxy. Several traditional concepts are reviewed and rejected, and it is argued that with the empirical evidence now available it is possible to suggest a series of basic processes leading to the present structure of the planets and solar system.

  17. Fancy a gene? A surprisingly complex evolutionary history of peroxiredoxins.

    PubMed Central

    Zíková, Alena; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    While the phylum Apicomplexa includes “only” several thousand described species of obligatory parasites of animals, it may in fact be the most specious group of parasitic protists with over a million species 1. The best known representatives are Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp., which belong to the most important and widespread human parasites exacting an enormous disease burden. On the other hand, dinoflagellates and colpodellids, which are monophyletic with the apicomplexans, are ecologically highly significant, as they belong to the most abundant marine protists 2. As the common ancestor of these groups was most likely a free-living photosynthesizing protist, one wonders, which evolutionary forces contributed to the dramatic transition of some of its descendants into the arguably most successful intracellular parasites? Although a range of various processes and mechanisms contributed to this transition, most likely it also involved an acquisition of genes via horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which might have provided typical characteristics of a parasitic cell, such as immune escape, nutritional dependence and the capacity to invade other cells.

  18. Timing of the evolutionary history of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Rösler, Anja; Perfectti, Francisco; Peña, Viviana; Aguirre, Julio; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2017-06-01

    The temporal dimension of the most recent Corallinaceae (order Corallinales) phylogeny was presented here, based on first occurrence time estimates from the fossil record. Calibration of the molecular clock of the genetic marker SSU entailed a separation of Corallinales from Hapalidiales in the Albian (Early Cretaceous ~105 mya). Neither the calibration nor the fossil record resolved the succession of appearance of the first three emerging subfamilies: Mastophoroideae, Corallinoideae, and Neogoniolithoideae. The development of the tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roofs by filaments surrounding and interspersed among the sporangial initials was an evolutionary novelty emerging at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (~66 mya). This novelty was shared by the subfamilies Hydrolithoideae, Metagoniolithoideae, and Lithophylloideae, which diverged in the early Paleogene. Subclades within the Metagoniolithoideae and Lithophylloideae diversified in the late Oligocene-middle Miocene (~28-12 mya). The most common reef corallinaceans (Hydrolithon, Porolithon, Harveylithon, "Pneophyllum" conicum, and subclades within Lithophylloideae) appeared in this interval in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Evolutionary History and Attenuation of Myxoma Virus on Two Continents

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter J.; Ghedin, Elodie; DePasse, Jay V.; Fitch, Adam; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Hudson, Peter J.; Tscharke, David C.; Read, Andrew F.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    The attenuation of myxoma virus (MYXV) following its introduction as a biological control into the European rabbit populations of Australia and Europe is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence. However, the evolutionary genetics of this profound change in host-pathogen relationship is unknown. We describe the genome-scale evolution of MYXV covering a range of virulence grades sampled over 49 years from the parallel Australian and European epidemics, including the high-virulence progenitor strains released in the early 1950s. MYXV evolved rapidly over the sampling period, exhibiting one of the highest nucleotide substitution rates ever reported for a double-stranded DNA virus, and indicative of a relatively high mutation rate and/or a continually changing selective environment. Our comparative sequence data reveal that changes in virulence involved multiple genes, likely losses of gene function due to insertion-deletion events, and no mutations common to specific virulence grades. Hence, despite the similarity in selection pressures there are multiple genetic routes to attain either highly virulent or attenuated phenotypes in MYXV, resulting in convergence for phenotype but not genotype. PMID:23055928

  20. Evolutionary history and attenuation of myxoma virus on two continents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Ghedin, Elodie; DePasse, Jay V; Fitch, Adam; Cattadori, Isabella M; Hudson, Peter J; Tscharke, David C; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    The attenuation of myxoma virus (MYXV) following its introduction as a biological control into the European rabbit populations of Australia and Europe is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence. However, the evolutionary genetics of this profound change in host-pathogen relationship is unknown. We describe the genome-scale evolution of MYXV covering a range of virulence grades sampled over 49 years from the parallel Australian and European epidemics, including the high-virulence progenitor strains released in the early 1950s. MYXV evolved rapidly over the sampling period, exhibiting one of the highest nucleotide substitution rates ever reported for a double-stranded DNA virus, and indicative of a relatively high mutation rate and/or a continually changing selective environment. Our comparative sequence data reveal that changes in virulence involved multiple genes, likely losses of gene function due to insertion-deletion events, and no mutations common to specific virulence grades. Hence, despite the similarity in selection pressures there are multiple genetic routes to attain either highly virulent or attenuated phenotypes in MYXV, resulting in convergence for phenotype but not genotype.

  1. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of the centriole from protein components.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Matthew E; Scheumann, Nicole; Wickstead, Bill; Langdale, Jane A; Gull, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Centrioles are highly conserved structures that fulfil important cellular functions, such as nucleation of cilia and flagella (basal-body function) and organisation of pericentriolar material to form the centrosome. The evolution of these functions can be inferred from the distribution of the molecular components of extant centrioles and centrosomes. Here, we undertake an evolutionary analysis of 53 proteins known either for centriolar association or for involvement in cilia-associated pathologies. By linking protein distribution in 45 diverse eukaryotes with organism biology, we provide molecular evidence to show that basal-body function is ancestral, whereas the presence of the centrosome is specific to the Holozoa. We define an ancestral centriolar inventory of 14 core proteins, Polo-like-kinase, and proteins associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) and Meckel-Gruber syndrome. We show that the BBSome is absent from organisms that produce cilia only for motility, predicting a dominant and ancient role for this complex in sensory function. We also show that the unusual centriole of Caenorhabditis elegans is highly divergent in both protein composition and sequence. Finally, we demonstrate a correlation between the presence of specific centriolar proteins and eye evolution. This correlation is used to predict proteins with functions in the development of ciliary, but not rhabdomeric, eyes.

  2. Evolutionary history of a specialized P450 propane monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Fasan, Rudi; Meharenna, Yergalem T.; Snow, Christopher D.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The evolutionary pressures that shaped the specificity and catalytic efficiency of enzymes can only be speculated. While directed evolution experiments show that new functions can be acquired under positive selection with few mutations, the role of negative selection in eliminating undesired activities and achieving high specificity remains unclear. Here we examine intermediates along the ‘lineage’ from a naturally-occurring C12–C20 fatty acid hydroxylase (P450BM3) to a laboratory-evolved P450 propane monooxygenase (P450PMO) having 20 heme domain substitutions compared to P450BM3. Biochemical, crystallographic and computational analyses show that a minimal perturbation of the P450BM3 fold and substrate binding pocket accompanies a significant broadening of enzyme substrate range and the emergence of propane activity. In contrast, refinement of the enzyme catalytic efficiency for propane oxidation (~9,000-fold increase in kcat/Km) involves profound reshaping and partitioning of the substrate access pathway. Remodeling of the substrate recognition mechanisms ultimately results in remarkable narrowing of the substrate profile around propane and enables the acquisition of a basal iodomethane dehalogenase activity as yet unknown in natural alkane monooxygenases. A highly destabilizing L188P substitution in a region of the enzyme that undergoes a large conformational change during catalysis plays an important role in adaptation to the gaseous alkane. This work demonstrates that positive selection alone is sufficient to completely re-specialize the cytochrome P450 for function on a non-native substrate. PMID:18619466

  3. Solar Ultraviolet and the Evolutionary History of Cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.

    1998-06-01

    On the basis of photobiological, evolutionary, paleontological, paleoenvironmental and physiological arguments, a time course for the role of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, wavelengths below 400 nm) in the ecology and evolution of cyanobacteria is proposed in which three main periods can be distinguished. An initial stage, before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, when high environmental fluxes of UVC (wavelengths below 280 nm) and UVB (280-320 nm) may have depressed the ability of protocyanobacteria to develop large populations or restricted them to UVR refuges. A second stage lasting between 500 and 1500 Ma (million years), started with the appearance of true oxygen-evolving cyanobacteria and the concomitant formation of oxygenated (micro)environments under an oxygen free-atmosphere. In this second stage, the age of UV, the overall importance of UVR must have increased substantially, since the incident fluxes of UVC and UVB remained virtually unchanged, but additionally the UVA portion of the spectrum (320-400 nm) suddenly became biologically injurious and extremely reactive oxygen species must have formed wherever oxygen and UVR spatially coincided. The last period began with the gradual oxygenation of the atmosphere and the formation of the stratospheric ozone shield. The physiological stress due to UVC all but disappeared and the effects of UVB were reduced to a large extent. Evidence in support of this dynamics is drawn from the phylogenetic distribution of biochemical UV-defense mechanisms among cyanobacteria and other microorganisms. The specific physical characteristics of UVR and oxygen exposure in planktonic, sedimentary and terrestrial habitats are used to explore the plausible impact of UVR in each of the periods on the ecological distribution of cyanobacteria.

  4. Intertwined evolutionary histories of marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus marinus.

    PubMed

    Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Doolittle, W Ford; Papke, R Thane; Gogarten, J Peter

    2009-09-02

    Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria characterized by small cell and genome size, an evolutionary trend toward low GC content, the possession of chlorophyll b, and the absence of phycobilisomes. Whereas many shared derived characters define Prochlorococcus as a clade, many genome-based analyses recover them as paraphyletic, with some low-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. grouping with marine Synechococcus. Here, we use 18 Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus genomes to analyze gene flow within and between these taxa. We introduce embedded quartet scatter plots as a tool to screen for genes whose phylogeny agrees or conflicts with the plurality phylogenetic signal, with accepted taxonomy and naming, with GC content, and with the ecological adaptation to high and low light intensities. We find that most gene families support high-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. as a monophyletic clade and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus sp. as a paraphyletic group. But we also detect 16 gene families that were transferred between high-light adapted and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus sp. and 495 gene families, including 19 ribosomal proteins, that do not cluster designated Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains in the expected manner. To explain the observed data, we propose that frequent gene transfer between marine Synechococcus spp. and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. has created a "highway of gene sharing" (Beiko RG, Harlow TJ, Ragan MA. 2005. Highways of gene sharing in prokaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102:14332-14337) that tends to erode genus boundaries without erasing the Prochlorococcus-specific ecological adaptations.

  5. Intertwined Evolutionary Histories of Marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus marinus

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford; Papke, R. Thane; Gogarten, J. Peter

    2009-01-01

    Prochlorococcus is a genus of marine cyanobacteria characterized by small cell and genome size, an evolutionary trend toward low GC content, the possession of chlorophyll b, and the absence of phycobilisomes. Whereas many shared derived characters define Prochlorococcus as a clade, many genome-based analyses recover them as paraphyletic, with some low-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. grouping with marine Synechococcus. Here, we use 18 Prochlorococcus and marine Synechococcus genomes to analyze gene flow within and between these taxa. We introduce embedded quartet scatter plots as a tool to screen for genes whose phylogeny agrees or conflicts with the plurality phylogenetic signal, with accepted taxonomy and naming, with GC content, and with the ecological adaptation to high and low light intensities. We find that most gene families support high-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. as a monophyletic clade and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus sp. as a paraphyletic group. But we also detect 16 gene families that were transferred between high-light adapted and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus sp. and 495 gene families, including 19 ribosomal proteins, that do not cluster designated Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus strains in the expected manner. To explain the observed data, we propose that frequent gene transfer between marine Synechococcus spp. and low-light adapted Prochlorococcus spp. has created a “highway of gene sharing” (Beiko RG, Harlow TJ, Ragan MA. 2005. Highways of gene sharing in prokaryotes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102:14332–14337) that tends to erode genus boundaries without erasing the Prochlorococcus-specific ecological adaptations. PMID:20333202

  6. Evolutionary history of Podarcis tiliguerta on Corsica and Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, V; Buades, J M; Brown, R P; Terrasa, B; Pérez-Mellado, V; Corti, C; Delaugerre, M; Castro, J A; Picornell, A; Ramon, M M

    2017-01-19

    Podarcis tiliguerta is a wall lizard endemic to the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Previous findings of high mtDNA and morphological diversity have led to the suggestion that it may represent a species complex. Here, we analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers (mtDNA, 3110 bp; 6 nDNA loci, 3961 bp) in P. tiliguerta sampled from thirty-two localities across Corsica and Sardinia. We find much greater intraspecific genetic divergence than between sister species of other Mediterranean island Podarcis, i.e., between P. lilfordi and P. pityusensis. We detected three mtDNA clusters in Corsica (North, South-East and South-West) and either two or three in Sardinia (North vs. South) depending on the clustering method. Only one or two nDNA groups were identified within each main island (again, depending on the method). A Bayesian time-calibrated multispecies coalescent tree was obtained from mtDNA and provided statistical support for a Miocene origin of the species (13.87 Ma, 95% HPD: 18.30-10.77 Ma). The posterior mean divergence time for the Corsican and Sardinian lineages was 12.75 Ma ago (95% HPD: 16.94-9.04 Ma). The results support the evolutionary distinctiveness of Corsican and Sardinian populations and also indicate a lack of post-divergence migration despite periods of contact being possible. Further to this, species delimitation analyses of Corsican and Sardinian lineages provided statistical support for their recognition as distinct (sister) taxa. Our results provide new insights into the biogeography of the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot, and contribute important findings relevant to the systematics and evolution of this speciose lizard genus.

  7. Architecture of an antagonistic tree/fungus network: the asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Vacher, Corinne; Piou, Dominique; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2008-03-05

    Compartmentalization and nestedness are common patterns in ecological networks. The aim of this study was to elucidate some of the processes shaping these patterns in a well resolved network of host/pathogen interactions. Based on a long-term (1972-2005) survey of forest health at the regional scale (all French forests; 15 million ha), we uncovered an almost fully connected network of 51 tree taxa and 157 parasitic fungal species. Our analyses revealed that the compartmentalization of the network maps out the ancient evolutionary history of seed plants, but not the ancient evolutionary history of fungal species. The very early divergence of the major fungal phyla may account for this asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history. Unlike compartmentalization, nestedness did not reflect any consistent phylogenetic signal. Instead, it seemed to reflect the ecological features of the current species, such as the relative abundance of tree species and the life-history strategies of fungal pathogens. We discussed how the evolution of host range in fungal species may account for the observed nested patterns. Overall, our analyses emphasized how the current complexity of ecological networks results from the diversification of the species and their interactions over evolutionary times. They confirmed that the current architecture of ecological networks is not only dependent on recent ecological processes.

  8. Architecture of an Antagonistic Tree/Fungus Network: The Asymmetric Influence of Past Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Vacher, Corinne; Piou, Dominique; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure

    2008-01-01

    Background Compartmentalization and nestedness are common patterns in ecological networks. The aim of this study was to elucidate some of the processes shaping these patterns in a well resolved network of host/pathogen interactions. Methology/Principal Findings Based on a long-term (1972–2005) survey of forest health at the regional scale (all French forests; 15 million ha), we uncovered an almost fully connected network of 51 tree taxa and 157 parasitic fungal species. Our analyses revealed that the compartmentalization of the network maps out the ancient evolutionary history of seed plants, but not the ancient evolutionary history of fungal species. The very early divergence of the major fungal phyla may account for this asymmetric influence of past evolutionary history. Unlike compartmentalization, nestedness did not reflect any consistent phylogenetic signal. Instead, it seemed to reflect the ecological features of the current species, such as the relative abundance of tree species and the life-history strategies of fungal pathogens. We discussed how the evolution of host range in fungal species may account for the observed nested patterns. Conclusion/Significance Overall, our analyses emphasized how the current complexity of ecological networks results from the diversification of the species and their interactions over evolutionary times. They confirmed that the current architecture of ecological networks is not only dependant on recent ecological processes. PMID:18320058

  9. Carpological analysis of Phoenix (Arecaceae): contributions to the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyze the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. and relevant cultivars and to assess the taxonomic value of the information generated as a means of studying the systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Phoenix. We then analyzed seed morphologica...

  10. Evolutionary population history of early Paleoamerican cranial morphology

    PubMed Central

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Strauss, André; Hubbe, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The nature and timing of the peopling of the Americas is a subject of intense debate. In particular, it is unclear whether high levels of between-group craniometric diversity in South America result from multiple migrations or from local diversification processes. Previous attempts to explain this diversity have largely focused on testing alternative dispersal or gene flow models, reaching conflicting or inconclusive results. Here, a novel analytical framework is applied to three-dimensional geometric morphometric data to partition the effects of population divergence from geographically mediated gene flow to understand the ancestry of the early South Americans in the context of global human history. The results show that Paleoamericans share a last common ancestor with contemporary Native American groups outside, rather than inside, the Americas. Therefore, and in accordance with some recent genomic studies, craniometric data suggest that the New World was populated by multiple waves of dispersion from northeast Asia throughout the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:28261661

  11. Evolutionary population history of early Paleoamerican cranial morphology.

    PubMed

    von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Strauss, André; Hubbe, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The nature and timing of the peopling of the Americas is a subject of intense debate. In particular, it is unclear whether high levels of between-group craniometric diversity in South America result from multiple migrations or from local diversification processes. Previous attempts to explain this diversity have largely focused on testing alternative dispersal or gene flow models, reaching conflicting or inconclusive results. Here, a novel analytical framework is applied to three-dimensional geometric morphometric data to partition the effects of population divergence from geographically mediated gene flow to understand the ancestry of the early South Americans in the context of global human history. The results show that Paleoamericans share a last common ancestor with contemporary Native American groups outside, rather than inside, the Americas. Therefore, and in accordance with some recent genomic studies, craniometric data suggest that the New World was populated by multiple waves of dispersion from northeast Asia throughout the late Pleistocene and early Holocene.

  12. The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo

    PubMed Central

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Jacofsky, Marc C; Marzke, Mary W

    2008-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the last common ancestor of the genus Pan and the hominin clade existed between 8 and 4 million years ago (Ma). The current fossil record indicates the Pan-Homo last common ancestor existed at least 5 Ma and most likely between 6 and 7 Ma. Together, the molecular and fossil evidence has important consequences for interpreting the evolutionary history of the hand within the tribe Hominini (hominins). Firstly, parsimony supports the hypothesis that the hand of the last common ancestor most likely resembled that of an extant great ape overall (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo), and that of an African ape in particular. Second, it provides a context for interpreting the derived changes to the hand that have evolved in various hominins. For example, the Australopithecus afarensis hand is likely derived in comparison with that of the Pan–Homo last common ancestor in having shorter fingers relative to thumb length and more proximo-distally oriented joints between its capitate, second metacarpal, and trapezium. This evidence suggests that these derived features evolved prior to the intensification of stone tool-related hominin behaviors beginning around 2.5 Ma. However, a majority of primitive features most likely present in the Pan-Homo last common ancestor are retained in the hands of Australopithecus, Paranthropus/early Homo, and Homo floresiensis. This evidence suggests that further derived changes to the hands of other hominins such as modern humans and Neandertals did not evolve until after 2.5 Ma and possibly even later than 1.5 Ma, which is currently the earliest evidence of Acheulian technology. The derived hands of modern humans and Neandertals may indicate a morphological commitment to tool-related manipulative behaviors beyond that observed in other hominins, including those (e.g. H. floresiensis) which may be descended from earlier tool-making species. PMID:18380869

  13. Gene genealogies indicates abundant gene conversions and independent evolutionary histories of the mating-type chromosomes in the evolutionary history of Neurospora tetrasperma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The self-fertile filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma contains a large (~7 Mbp) and young (< 6 MYA) region of suppressed recombination within its mating-type (mat) chromosomes. The objective of the present study is to reveal the evolutionary history, including key genomic events, associated with the various regions of the mat chromosomes among ten strains representing all the nine known species (lineages) contained within the N. tetrasperma species complex. Results Comparative analysis of sequence divergence among alleles of 24 mat-linked genes (mat A and mat a) indicates that a large region of suppressed recombination exists within the mat chromosome for each of nine lineages of N. tetrasperma sensu latu. The recombinationally suppressed region varies in size and gene composition among lineages, and is flanked on both ends by normally recombining regions. Genealogical analyses among lineages reveals that eight gene conversion events have occurred between homologous mat A and mat a-linked alleles of genes located within the region of restricted recombination during the evolutionary history of N. tetrasperma. Conclusions We conclude that the region of suppressed recombination in the mat chromosomes has likely been subjected to independent contraction and/or expansion during the evolutionary history of the N. tetrasperma species complex. Furthermore, we infer that gene conversion events are likely a common phenomenon within this recombinationally suppressed genomic region. We argue that gene conversions might provide an efficient mechanism of adaptive editing of functional genes, including the removal of deleterious mutations, within the young recombinationally suppressed region of the mat chromosomes. PMID:20673371

  14. The life histories of American stepfathers in evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K G

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the characteristics of men who become stepfathers, and their subsequent fertility patterns and lifetime reproductive success. Because women who already have children are ranked lower in the marriage market than women without children, men who marry women with children (e.g., stepfathers) are likely to have lower rankings in the marriage market as well. Using retrospective fertility and marital histories from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), I show that men who become stepfathers have lower levels of education, less income, and are more likely to have been divorced before and to already have children, all characteristics that lower their rankings in the marriage market. Men with one or two stepchildren are just as likely to have children within a marriage as non-stepfathers, although men with three stepchildren show decreased fertility. Among men age 45 and older, stepfathers have lower lifetime fertility than non-stepfathers, although the difference disappears when men's age at first marriage is controlled for. Additionally, stepfathers have significantly higher fertility than men who never marry. The results suggest that some men become stepfathers to procure mates and fertility benefits that they would otherwise have been unlikely to obtain; for these men, raising other men's children serves as a form of mating effort.

  15. Potential for anthropogenic disturbances to influence evolutionary change in the life history of a threatened salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John G; Zabel, Richard W; Waples, Robin S; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Connor, William P

    2008-01-01

    Although evolutionary change within most species is thought to occur slowly, recent studies have identified cases where evolutionary change has apparently occurred over a few generations. Anthropogenically altered environments appear particularly open to rapid evolutionary change over comparatively short time scales. Here, we consider a Pacific salmon population that may have experienced life-history evolution, in response to habitat alteration, within a few generations. Historically, juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from the Snake River migrated as subyearlings to the ocean. With changed riverine conditions that resulted from hydropower dam construction, some juveniles now migrate as yearlings, but more interestingly, the yearling migration tactic has made a large contribution to adult returns over the last decade. Optimal life-history models suggest that yearling juvenile migrants currently have a higher fitness than subyearling migrants. Although phenotypic plasticity likely accounts for some of the change in migration tactics, we suggest that evolution also plays a significant role. Evolutionary change prompted by anthropogenic alterations to the environment has general implications for the recovery of endangered species. The case study we present herein illustrates the importance of integrating evolutionary considerations into conservation planning for species at risk. PMID:25567631

  16. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution.

  17. Mitochondrial Genome and Nuclear Markers Provide New Insight into the Evolutionary History of Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Juan; Yu, Jianqiu; Li, Jing; Li, Peng; Fan, Zhenxin; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Yue, Bisong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary history of macaques, genus Macaca, has been under debate due to the short times of divergence. In this study, maternal, paternal, and biparental genetic systems were applied to infer phylogenetic relationships among macaques and to trace ancient hybridization events in their evolutionary history. Using a PCR display method, 17 newly phylogenetically informative Alu insertions were identified from M. assamensis. We combined presence/absence analysis of 84 Alu elements with mitochondrial genomes as well as nuclear sequences (five autosomal genes, two Y chromosomal genes, and one X chromosomal fragment) to reconstruct a robust macaque phylogeny. Topologies generated from different inherited markers were similar supporting six well defined species groups and a close relationship of M. assamensis and M. thibetana, but differed in the placing of M. arctoides. Both Alu elements and nuclear genes supported that M. arctoides was close to the sinica group, whereas the mitochondrial data clustered it into the fascicularis/mulatta lineage. Our results reveal that a sex-biased hybridization most likely occurred in the evolutionary history of M. arctoides, and suggest an introgressive pattern of male-mediated gene flow from the ancestors of M. arctoides to the M. mulatta population followed by nuclear swamping. According to the estimation of divergence dates, the hybridization occurred around 0.88~1.77 mya (nuclear data) or 1.38~2.56 mya (mitochondrial data). In general, our study indicates that a combination of various molecular markers could help explain complicated evolutionary relationships. Our results have provided new insights into the evolutionary history of macaques and emphasize that hybridization might play an important role in macaque evolution. PMID:27135608

  18. An improved approximate-Bayesian model-choice method for estimating shared evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To understand biological diversification, it is important to account for large-scale processes that affect the evolutionary history of groups of co-distributed populations of organisms. Such events predict temporally clustered divergences times, a pattern that can be estimated using genetic data from co-distributed species. I introduce a new approximate-Bayesian method for comparative phylogeographical model-choice that estimates the temporal distribution of divergences across taxa from multi-locus DNA sequence data. The model is an extension of that implemented in msBayes. Results By reparameterizing the model, introducing more flexible priors on demographic and divergence-time parameters, and implementing a non-parametric Dirichlet-process prior over divergence models, I improved the robustness, accuracy, and power of the method for estimating shared evolutionary history across taxa. Conclusions The results demonstrate the improved performance of the new method is due to (1) more appropriate priors on divergence-time and demographic parameters that avoid prohibitively small marginal likelihoods for models with more divergence events, and (2) the Dirichlet-process providing a flexible prior on divergence histories that does not strongly disfavor models with intermediate numbers of divergence events. The new method yields more robust estimates of posterior uncertainty, and thus greatly reduces the tendency to incorrectly estimate models of shared evolutionary history with strong support. PMID:24992937

  19. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of multiple loci uncover new aspects in the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus (Triticeae; Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Sha, Li-Na; Fan, Xing; Li, Jun; Liao, Jin-Qiu; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Leymus Hochst. (Triticeae: Poaceae), a group of allopolyploid species with the NsXm genomes, is a perennial genus with diversity in morphology, cytology, ecology, and distribution in the Triticeae. To investigate the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus, three unlinked low-copy nuclear genes (Acc1, Pgk1, and GBSSI) and three chloroplast regions (trnL-F, matK, and rbcL) of 32 Leymus species were analyzed with those of 36 diploid species representing 18 basic genomes in the Triticeae. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony, and NeighborNet methods. A time-calibrated phylogeny was generated to estimate the evolutionary history of Leymus. The results suggest that reticulate evolution has occurred in Leymus species, with several distinct progenitors contributing to the Leymus. The molecular data in resolution of the Xm-genome lineage resulted in two apparently contradictory results, with one placing the Xm-genome lineage as closely related to the P/F genome and the other splitting the Xm-genome lineage as sister to the Ns-genome donor. Our results suggested that (1) the Ns genome of Leymus was donated by Psathyrostachys, and additional Ns-containing alleles may be introgressed into some Leymus polyploids by recurrent hybridization; (2) The phylogenetic incongruence regarding the resolution of the Xm-genome lineage suggested that the Xm genome of Leymus was closely related to the P genome of Agropyron; (3) Both Ns- and Xm-genome lineages served as the maternal donor during the speciation of Leymus species; (4) The Pseudoroegneria, Lophopyrum and Australopyrum genomes contributed to some Leymus species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating data-deficient species in analyses of evolutionary history loss.

    PubMed

    Veron, Simon; Penone, Caterina; Clergeau, Philippe; Costa, Gabriel C; Oliveira, Brunno F; São-Pedro, Vinícius A; Pavoine, Sandrine

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in measuring loss of phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness which together depict the evolutionary history of conservation interest. Those losses are assessed through the evolutionary relationships between species and species threat status or extinction probabilities. Yet, available information is not always sufficient to quantify the threat status of species that are then classified as data deficient. Data-deficient species are a crucial issue as they cause incomplete assessments of the loss of phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness. We aimed to explore the potential bias caused by data-deficient species in estimating four widely used indices: HEDGE, EDGE, PDloss, and Expected PDloss. Second, we tested four different widely applicable and multitaxa imputation methods and their potential to minimize the bias for those four indices. Two methods are based on a best- vs. worst-case extinction scenarios, one is based on the frequency distribution of threat status within a taxonomic group and one is based on correlates of extinction risks. We showed that data-deficient species led to important bias in predictions of evolutionary history loss (especially high underestimation when they were removed). This issue was particularly important when data-deficient species tended to be clustered in the tree of life. The imputation method based on correlates of extinction risks, especially geographic range size, had the best performance and enabled us to improve risk assessments. Solving threat status of DD species can fundamentally change our understanding of loss of phylogenetic diversity. We found that this loss could be substantially higher than previously found in amphibians, squamate reptiles, and carnivores. We also identified species that are of high priority for the conservation of evolutionary distinctiveness.

  1. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  2. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  3. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation—two major contrasting evolutionary processes—are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within-island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50 000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island—ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole. PMID:26041359

  4. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability.

  5. Evolutionary History of Cathepsin L (L-like) Family Genes in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yao-Yang; Li, Qing-Yun; Cai, Zhong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin L family, an important cysteine protease found in lysosomes, is categorized into cathepsins B, F, H, K, L, S, and W in vertebrates. This categorization is based on their sequence alignment and traditional functional classification, but the evolutionary relationship of family members is unclear. This study determined the evolutionary relationship of cathepsin L family genes in vertebrates through phylogenetic construction. Results showed that cathepsins F, H, S and K, and L and V were chronologically diverged. Tandem-repeat duplication was found to occur in the evolutionary history of cathepsin L family. Cathepsin L in zebrafish, cathepsins S and K in xenopus, and cathepsin L in mice and rats underwent evident tandem-repeat events. Positive selection was detected in cathepsin L-like members in mice and rats, and amino acid sites under positive selection pressure were calculated. Most of these sites appeared at the connection of secondary structures, suggesting that the sites may slightly change spatial structure. Severe positive selection was also observed in cathepsin V (L2) of primates, indicating that this enzyme had some special functions. Our work provided a brief evolutionary history of cathepsin L family and differentiated cathepsins S and K from cathepsin L based on vertebrate appearance. Positive selection was the specific cause of differentiation of cathepsin L family genes, confirming that gene function variation after expansion events was related to interactions with the environment and adaptability. PMID:26221069

  6. Differences in evolutionary history translate into differences in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Gere, Jephris; Daru, Barnabas H; van der Bank, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to investigate the drivers of invasion success are generally limited to the biological and evolutionary traits distinguishing native from introduced species. Although alien species introduced to the same recipient environment differ in their invasion intensity – for example, some are “strong invaders”; others are “weak invaders” – the factors underlying the variation in invasion success within alien communities are little explored. In this study, we ask what drives the variation in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa. First, we tested for taxonomic and phylogenetic signal in invasion intensity. Second, we reconstructed predictive models of the variation in invasion intensity among alien mammals using the generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the family Bovidae and the order Artiodactyla contained more “strong invaders” than expected by chance, and that such taxonomic signal did not translate into phylogenetic selectivity. In addition, our study indicates that latitude, gestation length, social group size, and human population density are only marginal determinant of the variation in invasion success. However, we found that evolutionary distinctiveness – a parameter characterising the uniqueness of each alien species – is the most important predictive variable. Our results indicate that the invasive behavior of alien mammals may have been “fingerprinted” in their evolutionary past, and that evolutionary history might capture beyond ecological, biological and life-history traits usually prioritized in predictive modeling of invasion success. These findings have applicability to the management of alien mammals in South Africa. PMID:25360253

  7. Differences in evolutionary history translate into differences in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Gere, Jephris; Daru, Barnabas H; van der Bank, Michelle

    2014-06-01

    Attempts to investigate the drivers of invasion success are generally limited to the biological and evolutionary traits distinguishing native from introduced species. Although alien species introduced to the same recipient environment differ in their invasion intensity - for example, some are "strong invaders"; others are "weak invaders" - the factors underlying the variation in invasion success within alien communities are little explored. In this study, we ask what drives the variation in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa. First, we tested for taxonomic and phylogenetic signal in invasion intensity. Second, we reconstructed predictive models of the variation in invasion intensity among alien mammals using the generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the family Bovidae and the order Artiodactyla contained more "strong invaders" than expected by chance, and that such taxonomic signal did not translate into phylogenetic selectivity. In addition, our study indicates that latitude, gestation length, social group size, and human population density are only marginal determinant of the variation in invasion success. However, we found that evolutionary distinctiveness - a parameter characterising the uniqueness of each alien species - is the most important predictive variable. Our results indicate that the invasive behavior of alien mammals may have been "fingerprinted" in their evolutionary past, and that evolutionary history might capture beyond ecological, biological and life-history traits usually prioritized in predictive modeling of invasion success. These findings have applicability to the management of alien mammals in South Africa.

  8. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on life-history

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Tom C; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Reynolds, Alan; Piertney, Stuart B; Benton, Tim G; Sorci, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of environmental change on ecological and evolutionary dynamics is inherently problematic because of the complex interplay between them. Using invertebrates in microcosms, we characterise phenotypic, population and evolutionary dynamics before, during and after exposure to a novel environment and harvesting over 20 generations. We demonstrate an evolved change in life-history traits (the age- and size-at-maturity, and survival to maturity) in response to selection caused by environmental change (wild to laboratory) and to harvesting (juvenile or adult). Life-history evolution, which drives changes in population growth rate and thus population dynamics, includes an increase in age-to-maturity of 76% (from 12.5 to 22 days) in the unharvested populations as they adapt to the new environment. Evolutionary responses to harvesting are outweighed by the response to environmental change (∼ 1.4 vs. 4% change in age-at-maturity per generation). The adaptive response to environmental change converts a negative population growth trajectory into a positive one: an example of evolutionary rescue. PMID:23565666

  9. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on life-history.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Tom C; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Reynolds, Alan; Piertney, Stuart B; Benton, Tim G

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the consequences of environmental change on ecological and evolutionary dynamics is inherently problematic because of the complex interplay between them. Using invertebrates in microcosms, we characterise phenotypic, population and evolutionary dynamics before, during and after exposure to a novel environment and harvesting over 20 generations. We demonstrate an evolved change in life-history traits (the age- and size-at-maturity, and survival to maturity) in response to selection caused by environmental change (wild to laboratory) and to harvesting (juvenile or adult). Life-history evolution, which drives changes in population growth rate and thus population dynamics, includes an increase in age-to-maturity of 76% (from 12.5 to 22 days) in the unharvested populations as they adapt to the new environment. Evolutionary responses to harvesting are outweighed by the response to environmental change (~ 1.4 vs. 4% change in age-at-maturity per generation). The adaptive response to environmental change converts a negative population growth trajectory into a positive one: an example of evolutionary rescue.

  10. Hybridization masks speciation in the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Amy; Rodríguez, Ariel; Vences, Miguel; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; García, Carolina; Trillmich, Fritz; Gentile, Gabriele; Caccone, Adalgisa; Quezada, Galo; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2015-06-22

    The effects of the direct interaction between hybridization and speciation-two major contrasting evolutionary processes--are poorly understood. We present here the evolutionary history of the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) and reveal a case of incipient within--island speciation, which is paralleled by between-island hybridization. In-depth genome-wide analyses suggest that Amblyrhynchus diverged from its sister group, the Galápagos land iguanas, around 4.5 million years ago (Ma), but divergence among extant populations is exceedingly young (less than 50,000 years). Despite Amblyrhynchus appearing as a single long-branch species phylogenetically, we find strong population structure between islands, and one case of incipient speciation of sister lineages within the same island--ostensibly initiated by volcanic events. Hybridization between both lineages is exceedingly rare, yet frequent hybridization with migrants from nearby islands is evident. The contemporary snapshot provided by highly variable markers indicates that speciation events may have occurred throughout the evolutionary history of marine iguanas, though these events are not visible in the deeper phylogenetic trees. We hypothesize that the observed interplay of speciation and hybridization might be a mechanism by which local adaptations, generated by incipient speciation, can be absorbed into a common gene pool, thereby enhancing the evolutionary potential of the species as a whole.

  11. Tumor evolutionary directed graphs and the history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiguang; Khiabanian, Hossein; Rossi, Davide; Fabbri, Giulia; Gattei, Valter; Forconi, Francesco; Laurenti, Luca; Marasca, Roberto; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Foà, Robin; Pasqualucci, Laura; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rabadan, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a clonal evolutionary process, caused by successive accumulation of genetic alterations providing milestones of tumor initiation, progression, dissemination, and/or resistance to certain therapeutic regimes. To unravel these milestones we propose a framework, tumor evolutionary directed graphs (TEDG), which is able to characterize the history of genetic alterations by integrating longitudinal and cross-sectional genomic data. We applied TEDG to a chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cohort of 70 patients spanning 12 years and show that: (a) the evolution of CLL follows a time-ordered process represented as a global flow in TEDG that proceeds from initiating events to late events; (b) there are two distinct and mutually exclusive evolutionary paths of CLL evolution; (c) higher fitness clones are present in later stages of the disease, indicating a progressive clonal replacement with more aggressive clones. Our results suggest that TEDG may constitute an effective framework to recapitulate the evolutionary history of tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02869.001 PMID:25496728

  12. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-02-25

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD.

  13. The evolutionary history of genes involved in spoken and written language: beyond FOXP2

    PubMed Central

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Mascheretti, Sara; Guerini, Franca R.; Riva, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Humans possess a communication system based on spoken and written language. Other animals can learn vocalization by imitation, but this is not equivalent to human language. Many genes were described to be implicated in language impairment (LI) and developmental dyslexia (DD), but their evolutionary history has not been thoroughly analyzed. Herein we analyzed the evolution of ten genes involved in DD and LI. Results show that the evolutionary history of LI genes for mammals and aves was comparable in vocal-learner species and non-learners. For the human lineage, several sites showing evidence of positive selection were identified in KIAA0319 and were already present in Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting that any phenotypic change they entailed was shared with archaic hominins. Conversely, in FOXP2, ROBO1, ROBO2, and CNTNAP2 non-coding changes rose to high frequency after the separation from archaic hominins. These variants are promising candidates for association studies in LI and DD. PMID:26912479

  14. Evolutionary History of the Marsupials and an Analysis of Osteological Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Frederick S.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to examine a variety of problems in the understanding of the evolutionary history of the marsupials. In his exposition, the author covers developmental and reproductive biology, the cranio-skeletal system (including dentition, skull, and postcranial morphology), and the ecologically related aspects of skeletal morphology. In reviewing the evidence from bones, he presents much new information on both living and fossil groups of marsupials. All groups of marsupials are treated in detail, and in the final chapter their history in space and time and their paleobiogeography are considered.

  15. Cyto-nuclear discordance suggests complex evolutionary history in the cave-dwelling salamander, Eurycea lucifuga.

    PubMed

    Edgington, Hilary A; Ingram, Colleen M; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecology of cave-associated species has been driven historically by studies of morphologically adapted cave-restricted species. Our understanding of the evolutionary history and ecology of nonrestricted cave species, troglophiles, is limited to a few studies, which present differing accounts of troglophiles' relationship with the cave habitat, and its impact on population dynamics. Here, we used phylogenetics, demographic statistics, and population genetic methods to study lineage divergence, dates of divergence, and population structure in the Cave Salamander, Eurycea lucifuga, across its range. In order to perform these analyses, we sampled 233 individuals from 49 populations, using sequence data from three gene loci as well as genotyping data from 19 newly designed microsatellite markers. We find, as in many other species studied in a phylogeographic context, discordance between patterns inferred from mitochondrial relationships and those inferred by nuclear markers indicating a complicated evolutionary history in this species. Our results suggest Pleistocene-based divergence among three main lineages within E. lucifuga corresponding to the western, central, and eastern regions of the range, similar to patterns seen in species separated in multiple refugia during climatic shifts. The conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear patterns is consistent with what we would expect from secondary contact between regional populations following expansion from multiple refugia.

  16. The evolutionary history of the extinct ratite moa and New Zealand Neogene paleogeography

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, M.; Worthy, T. H.; Phillips, M. J.; Holdaway, R. N.; Willerslev, E.; Haile, J.; Shapiro, B.; Scofield, R. P.; Drummond, A.; Kamp, P. J. J.; Cooper, A.

    2009-01-01

    The ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were a speciose group of massive graviportal avian herbivores that dominated the New Zealand (NZ) ecosystem until their extinction ≈600 years ago. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of this morphologically diverse order has remained controversial since their initial description in 1839. We synthesize mitochondrial phylogenetic information from 263 subfossil moa specimens from across NZ with morphological, ecological, and new geological data to create the first comprehensive phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolutionary timeframe for all of the species of an extinct order. We also present an important new geological/paleogeographical model of late Cenozoic NZ, which suggests that terrestrial biota on the North and South Island landmasses were isolated for most of the past 20–30 Ma. The data reveal that the patterns of genetic diversity within and between different moa clades reflect a complex history following a major marine transgression in the Oligocene, affected by marine barriers, tectonic activity, and glacial cycles. Surprisingly, the remarkable morphological radiation of moa appears to have occurred much more recently than previous early Miocene (ca. 15 Ma) estimates, and was coincident with the accelerated uplift of the Southern Alps just ca. 5–8.5 Ma. Together with recent fossil evidence, these data suggest that the recent evolutionary history of nearly all of the iconic NZ terrestrial biota occurred principally on just the South Island. PMID:19923428

  17. Different evolutionary histories of two cation/proton exchanger gene families in plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene duplication events have been proposed to be involved in the adaptation of plants to stress conditions; precisely how is unclear. To address this question, we studied the evolution of two families of antiporters. Cation/proton exchangers are important for normal cell function and in plants, Na+,K+/H+ antiporters have also been implicated in salt tolerance. Two well-known plant cation/proton antiporters are NHX1 and SOS1, which perform Na+ and K+ compartmentalization into the vacuole and Na+ efflux from the cell, respectively. However, our knowledge about the evolution of NHX and SOS1 stress responsive gene families is still limited. Results In this study we performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the NHX and SOS1 families. Using available sequences from a total of 33 plant species, we estimated gene family phylogenies and gene duplication histories, as well as examined heterogeneous selection pressure on amino acid sites. Our results show that, while the NHX family expanded and specialized, the SOS1 family remained a low copy gene family that appears to have undergone neofunctionalization during its evolutionary history. Additionally, we found that both families are under purifying selection although SOS1 is less constrained. Conclusions We propose that the different evolution histories are related with the proteins’ function and localization, and that the NHX and SOS1 families are examples of two different evolutionary paths through which duplication events may result in adaptive evolution of stress tolerance. PMID:23822194

  18. Protein contact prediction by integrating joint evolutionary coupling analysis and supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianzhu; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    Protein contact prediction is important for protein structure and functional study. Both evolutionary coupling (EC) analysis and supervised machine learning methods have been developed, making use of different information sources. However, contact prediction is still challenging especially for proteins without a large number of sequence homologs. This article presents a group graphical lasso (GGL) method for contact prediction that integrates joint multi-family EC analysis and supervised learning to improve accuracy on proteins without many sequence homologs. Different from existing single-family EC analysis that uses residue coevolution information in only the target protein family, our joint EC analysis uses residue coevolution in both the target family and its related families, which may have divergent sequences but similar folds. To implement this, we model a set of related protein families using Gaussian graphical models and then coestimate their parameters by maximum-likelihood, subject to the constraint that these parameters shall be similar to some degree. Our GGL method can also integrate supervised learning methods to further improve accuracy. Experiments show that our method outperforms existing methods on proteins without thousands of sequence homologs, and that our method performs better on both conserved and family-specific contacts. See http://raptorx.uchicago.edu/ContactMap/ for a web server implementing the method. j3xu@ttic.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. StatAlign: an extendable software package for joint Bayesian estimation of alignments and evolutionary trees.

    PubMed

    Novák, Adám; Miklós, István; Lyngsø, Rune; Hein, Jotun

    2008-10-15

    Bayesian analysis is one of the most popular methods in phylogenetic inference. The most commonly used methods fix a single multiple alignment and consider only substitutions as phylogenetically informative mutations, though alignments and phylogenies should be inferred jointly as insertions and deletions also carry informative signals. Methods addressing these issues have been developed only recently and there has not been so far a user-friendly program with a graphical interface that implements these methods. We have developed an extendable software package in the Java programming language that samples from the joint posterior distribution of phylogenies, alignments and evolutionary parameters by applying the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The package also offers tools for efficient on-the-fly summarization of the results. It has a graphical interface to configure, start and supervise the analysis, to track the status of the Markov chain and to save the results. The background model for insertions and deletions can be combined with any substitution model. It is easy to add new substitution models to the software package as plugins. The samples from the Markov chain can be summarized in several ways, and new postprocessing plugins may also be installed.

  20. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Powdery Mildew Lineages (Blumeria graminis) at Different Evolutionary Time Scales with NGS Data

    PubMed Central

    Menardo, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Blumeria graminis (Ascomycota) includes fungal pathogens that infect numerous grasses and cereals. Despite its economic impact on agriculture and its scientific importance in plant–pathogen interaction studies, the evolution of different lineages with different host ranges is poorly understood. Moreover, the taxonomy of grass powdery mildew is rather exceptional: there is only one described species (B. graminis) subdivided in different formae speciales (ff.spp.), which are defined by their host range. In this study we applied phylogenomic and population genomic methods to whole genome sequence data of 31 isolates of B. graminis belonging to different ff.spp. and reconstructed the evolutionary relationships between different lineages. The results of the phylogenomic analysis support a pattern of co-evolution between some of the ff.spp. and their host plant. In addition, we identified exceptions to this pattern, namely host jump events and the recent radiation of a clade less than 280,000 years ago. Furthermore, we found a high level of gene tree incongruence localized in the youngest clade. To distinguish between incomplete lineage sorting and lateral gene flow, we applied a coalescent-based method of demographic inference and found evidence of horizontal gene flow between recently diverged lineages. Overall we found that different processes shaped the diversification of B. graminis, co-evolution with the host species, host jump and fast radiation. Our study is an example of how genomic data can resolve complex evolutionary histories of cryptic lineages at different time scales, dealing with incomplete lineage sorting and lateral gene flow. PMID:28164219

  1. A Consensus Tree Approach for Reconstructing Human Evolutionary History and Detecting Population Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Blelloch, Guy; Ravi, R.; Schwartz, Russell

    The random accumulation of variations in the human genome over time implicitly encodes a history of how human populations have arisen, dispersed, and intermixed since we emerged as a species. Reconstructing that history is a challenging computational and statistical problem but has important applications both to basic research and to the discovery of genotype-phenotype correlations. In this study, we present a novel approach to inferring human evolutionary history from genetic variation data. Our approach uses the idea of consensus trees, a technique generally used to reconcile species trees from divergent gene trees, adapting it to the problem of finding the robust relationships within a set of intraspecies phylogenies derived from local regions of the genome. We assess the quality of the method on two large-scale genetic variation data sets: the HapMap Phase II and the Human Genome Diversity Project. Qualitative comparison to a consensus model of the evolution of modern human population groups shows that our inferences closely match our best current understanding of human evolutionary history. A further comparison with results of a leading method for the simpler problem of population substructure assignment verifies that our method provides comparable accuracy in identifying meaningful population subgroups in addition to inferring the relationships among them.

  2. Simultaneously estimating evolutionary history and repeated traits phylogenetic signal: applications to viral and host phenotypic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Vrancken, Bram; Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Bedford, Trevor; Longdon, Ben; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic signal quantifies the degree to which resemblance in continuously-valued traits reflects phylogenetic relatedness. Measures of phylogenetic signal are widely used in ecological and evolutionary research, and are recently gaining traction in viral evolutionary studies. Standard estimators of phylogenetic signal frequently condition on data summary statistics of the repeated trait observations and fixed phylogenetics trees, resulting in information loss and potential bias. To incorporate the observation process and phylogenetic uncertainty in a model-based approach, we develop a novel Bayesian inference method to simultaneously estimate the evolutionary history and phylogenetic signal from molecular sequence data and repeated multivariate traits. Our approach builds upon a phylogenetic diffusion framework that model continuous trait evolution as a Brownian motion process and incorporates Pagel’s λ transformation parameter to estimate dependence among traits. We provide a computationally efficient inference implementation in the BEAST software package. We evaluate the synthetic performance of the Bayesian estimator of phylogenetic signal against standard estimators, and demonstrate the use of our coherent framework to address several virus-host evolutionary questions, including virulence heritability for HIV, antigenic evolution in influenza and HIV, and Drosophila sensitivity to sigma virus infection. Finally, we discuss model extensions that will make useful contributions to our flexible framework for simultaneously studying sequence and trait evolution. PMID:25780554

  3. Evolutionary History of the Nesophontidae, the Last Unplaced Recent Mammal Family.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Thomas, Jessica A; Dalén, Love; Burger, Joachim; MacPhee, Ross D E; Barnes, Ian; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-12-01

    The mammalian evolutionary tree has lost several major clades through recent human-caused extinctions. This process of historical biodiversity loss has particularly affected tropical island regions such as the Caribbean, an area of great evolutionary diversification but poor molecular preservation. The most enigmatic of the recently extinct endemic Caribbean mammals are the Nesophontidae, a family of morphologically plesiomorphic lipotyphlan insectivores with no consensus on their evolutionary affinities, and which constitute the only major recent mammal clade to lack any molecular information on their phylogenetic placement. Here, we use a palaeogenomic approach to place Nesophontidae within the phylogeny of recent Lipotyphla. We recovered the near-complete mitochondrial genome and sequences for 17 nuclear genes from a ∼750-year-old Hispaniolan Nesophontes specimen, and identify a divergence from their closest living relatives, the Solenodontidae, more than 40 million years ago. Nesophontidae is thus an older distinct lineage than many extant mammalian orders, highlighting not only the role of island systems as "museums" of diversity that preserve ancient lineages, but also the major human-caused loss of evolutionary history.

  4. The evolutionary history of the development of the pelvic fin/hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K; Currie, Peter D; Cole, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    The arms and legs of man are evolutionarily derived from the paired fins of primitive jawed fish. Few evolutionary changes have attracted as much attention as the origin of tetrapod limbs from the paired fins of ancestral fish. The hindlimbs of tetrapods are derived from the pelvic fins of ancestral fish. These evolutionary origins can be seen in the examination of shared gene and protein expression patterns during the development of pelvic fins and tetrapod hindlimbs. The pelvic fins of fish express key limb positioning, limb bud induction and limb outgrowth genes in a similar manner to that seen in hindlimb development of higher vertebrates. We are now at a point where many of the key players in the development of pelvic fins and vertebrate hindlimbs have been identified and we can now readily examine and compare mechanisms between species. This is yielding fascinating insights into how the developmental programme has altered during evolution and how that relates to anatomical change. The role of pelvic fins has also drastically changed over evolutionary history, from playing a minor role during swimming to developing into robust weight-bearing limbs. In addition, the pelvic fins/hindlimbs have been lost repeatedly in diverse species over evolutionary time. Here we review the evolution of pelvic fins and hindlimbs within the context of the changes in anatomical structure and the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:22913749

  5. Simultaneous reconstruction of evolutionary history and epidemiological dynamics from viral sequences with the birth-death SIR model.

    PubMed

    Kühnert, Denise; Stadler, Tanja; Vaughan, Timothy G; Drummond, Alexei J

    2014-05-06

    The evolution of RNA viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus and influenza virus, occurs so rapidly that the viruses' genomes contain information on past ecological dynamics. Hence, we develop a phylodynamic method that enables the joint estimation of epidemiological parameters and phylogenetic history. Based on a compartmental susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model, this method provides separate information on incidence and prevalence of infections. Detailed information on the interaction of host population dynamics and evolutionary history can inform decisions on how to contain or entirely avoid disease outbreaks. We apply our birth-death SIR method to two viral datasets. First, five HIV type 1 clusters sampled in the UK between 1999 and 2003 are analysed. The estimated basic reproduction ratios range from 1.9 to 3.2 among the clusters. All clusters show a decline in the growth rate of the local epidemic in the middle or end of the 1990s. The analysis of a hepatitis C virus genotype 2c dataset shows that the local epidemic in the Córdoban city Cruz del Eje originated around 1906 (median), coinciding with an immigration wave from Europe to central Argentina that dates from 1880 to 1920. The estimated time of epidemic peak is around 1970.

  6. Neutral Nuclear Variation in Baboons (genus Papio) Provides Insights into their Evolutionary and Demographic Histories

    PubMed Central

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Alvarez, Lauren; Giraldo-Ramirez, Juliana; Tollis, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 non-coding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ~1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (~30,000 to 95,000 individuals). PMID:25234435

  7. Genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the Schizothorax species complex in the Lancang River (upper Mekong).

    PubMed

    Chen, Weitao; Shen, Yanjun; Gan, Xiaoni; Wang, Xuzhen; He, Shunping

    2016-09-01

    The genus Schizothorax (Cyprinidae), one of the most diverse genera of ichthyofauna of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), is a good candidate for investigating patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, sequences from the mitochondrial control region, the cytochrome b gene, and two nuclear genes were used to re-examine the genetic diversity and investigate the evolutionary history of the Schizothorax species complex inhabiting the Lancang River. Three maternal clades were detected in the Schizothorax species complex, but frequent nuclear allele sharing also occurred among the three maternal clades. A discrepancy between topologies of mitochondrial and nuclear loci might result from introgression or/and incomplete lineage sorting. The divergence of the clades of the Schizothorax species complex was closely related to the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene orogenesis of the QTP and Southwest Mountains of China. Demographic analyses indicated that the species complex subsequently persisted in situ with stable populations during Pleistocene glacial cycling, which suggested that Pleistocene climate changes did not exert a remarkable influence on the species complex. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of the Schizothorax species complex in the Lancang River.

  8. Neutral nuclear variation in Baboons (genus Papio) provides insights into their evolutionary and demographic histories.

    PubMed

    Boissinot, Stéphane; Alvarez, Lauren; Giraldo-Ramirez, Juliana; Tollis, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Baboons (genus Papio) are distributed over most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. Six distinct morphotypes, with clearly defined geographic distributions, are recognized (the olive, chacma, yellow, Guinea, Kinda, and hamadryas baboons). The evolutionary relationships among baboon forms have long been a controversial issue. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that the modern baboon morphotypes are mitochondrially paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The discordance between mitochondrial lineages and morphology is indicative of extensive introgressive hybridization between ancestral baboon populations. To gain insights into the evolutionary relationships among morphotypes and their demographic history, we performed an analysis of nuclear variation in baboons. We sequenced 13 noncoding, putatively neutral, nuclear regions, and scored the presence/absence of 18 polymorphic transposable elements in a sample of 45 baboons belonging to five of the six recognized baboon forms. We found that the chacma baboon is the sister-taxon to all other baboons and the yellow baboon is the sister-taxon to an unresolved northern clade containing the olive, Guinea, and hamadryas baboons. We estimated that the diversification of baboons occurred entirely in the Pleistocene, the earliest split dating ∼1.5 million years ago, and that baboons have experienced relatively large and constant effective population sizes for most of their evolutionary history (∼30,000 to 95,000 individuals).

  9. Evolutionary History of the Enzymes Involved in the Calvin-Benson Cycle in Euglenids.

    PubMed

    Markunas, Chelsea M; Triemer, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Euglenids are an ancient lineage that may have existed as early as 2 billion years ago. A mere 65 years ago, Melvin Calvin and Andrew A. Benson performed experiments on Euglena gracilis and elucidated the series of reactions by which carbon was fixed and reduced during photosynthesis. However, the evolutionary history of this pathway (Calvin-Benson cycle) in euglenids was more complex than Calvin and Benson could have imagined. The chloroplast present today in euglenophytes arose from a secondary endosymbiosis between a phagotrophic euglenid and a prasinophyte green alga. A long period of evolutionary time existed before this secondary endosymbiotic event took place, which allowed for other endosymbiotic events or gene transfers to occur prior to the establishment of the green chloroplast. This research revealed the evolutionary history of the major enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle throughout the euglenid lineage and showed that the majority of genes for Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes shared an ancestry with red algae and/or chromophytes suggesting they may have been transferred to the nucleus prior to the acquisition of the green chloroplast. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  10. Recent evolutionary history of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This work aimed to elucidate the distribution of Chrysoperla externa haplotypes and investigate whether it exhibits structure based on genetic composition as opposed to geographic location. The genetic diversity of C. externa, analyzed by AMOVA using the COI and 16S rRNA genes as mitochondrial markers, showed significant haplotype structure arising from genetic differences that was not associated with sampling location. This was reflected in the network grouping. Bayesian inference showed that haplotype distribution may have its origins in C. externa divergence into two distinct clades, which dispersed to various locations, and their subsequent diversification. The evolutionary history of C. externa may include multiple ancestral haplotypes differentiating within the same geographic area to generate the current broad genetic diversity, so that the earlier geographical history has been erased, and now we have highlighted its more recent genetic history. PMID:28510607

  11. Life history and evolutionary adaptation of Pacific salmon and its application in management

    SciTech Connect

    Wevers, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to understanding and managing anadromous salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) based on life history and evolutionary adaptive capacities of species and stocks is presented. Species, stocks, and local populations are viewed as systems that are continuously adapting to changing environmental conditions. They have the potential capacity to evolve in different ways in different environments through both life history and evolutionary adaptation. Habitat organization forms a template for genus, species, stock, and local population life history organization. Harvesting, habitat alteration resulting from land use practices and other human activities can alter the organization and adaptive capacities of species and stocks, and thus their long term persistence. The adaptive capacity of Oncorhynchus relative to its habitat and management environment is examined at the species, stock, and local population levels. Life history characteristics of representative stocks and local populations are analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA). Fresh water migration distance and latitude are used to [open quotes]explain[close quotes] ordination patterns of Oncorhynchus species in the North Pacific Basin. Fresh water migration difficulty and mean annual runoff as used to interpret life history patterns of Columbia Basin chinook salmon stocks. Upstream migration difficulty and fall water temperatures are used to explain the ordination patterns of local populations of Willamette spring chinook salmon. Fishery management practices are examined in terms of their impacts on the organization and adaptive capacity of species, stocks, and local populations of Oncorhynchus. Management generalizations and guidelines derived from the life history theory are applied to management of Willamette spring chinook salmon.

  12. Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2010-11-01

    Evolutionary theory has been likened to a "universal acid" (Dennett 1995) that eats its way into more and more areas of science. Recently, developmental biology has been infused by evolutionary concepts and perspectives, and a new field of research--evolutionary developmental biology--has been created and is often called EvoDevo for short. However, this is not the first attempt to make a synthesis between these two areas of biology. In contrast, beginning right after the publication of Darwin's Origin in 1859, Ernst Haeckel formulated his biogenetic law in 1872, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Haeckel was in his turn influenced by pre-Darwinian thinkers such as Karl Ernst von Baer, who had noted that earlier developmental stages show similarities not seen in the adults. In this review, written for an audience of non-specialists, we first give an overview of the history of EvoDevo, especially the tradition emanating from Haeckel and other comparative embryologists and morphologists, which has often been neglected in discussions about the history of EvoDevo and evolutionary biology. Here we emphasize contributions from Russian and German scientists to compensate for the Anglo-American bias in the literature. In Germany, the direct influence of Ernst Haeckel was felt particularly in Jena, where he spent his entire career as a professor, and we give an overview of the "Jena school" of evolutionary morphology, with protagonists such as Oscar Hertwig, Ludwig Plate, and Victor Franz, who all developed ideas that we would nowadays think of as belonging to EvoDevo. Franz ideas about "biometabolic modi" are similar to those of a Russian comparative morphologist that visited Jena repeatedly, A. N. Sewertzoff, who made important contributions to what we now call heterochrony research--heterochrony meaning changes in the relative timing of developmental events. His student I. I. Schmalhausen became an important contributor to the synthetic theory of

  13. Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Lennart; Levit, Georgy S.; Hoßfeld, Uwe

    2010-11-01

    Evolutionary theory has been likened to a “universal acid” (Dennett 1995) that eats its way into more and more areas of science. Recently, developmental biology has been infused by evolutionary concepts and perspectives, and a new field of research—evolutionary developmental biology—has been created and is often called EvoDevo for short. However, this is not the first attempt to make a synthesis between these two areas of biology. In contrast, beginning right after the publication of Darwin’s Origin in 1859, Ernst Haeckel formulated his biogenetic law in 1872, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. Haeckel was in his turn influenced by pre-Darwinian thinkers such as Karl Ernst von Baer, who had noted that earlier developmental stages show similarities not seen in the adults. In this review, written for an audience of non-specialists, we first give an overview of the history of EvoDevo, especially the tradition emanating from Haeckel and other comparative embryologists and morphologists, which has often been neglected in discussions about the history of EvoDevo and evolutionary biology. Here we emphasize contributions from Russian and German scientists to compensate for the Anglo-American bias in the literature. In Germany, the direct influence of Ernst Haeckel was felt particularly in Jena, where he spent his entire career as a professor, and we give an overview of the “Jena school” of evolutionary morphology, with protagonists such as Oscar Hertwig, Ludwig Plate, and Victor Franz, who all developed ideas that we would nowadays think of as belonging to EvoDevo. Franz ideas about “biometabolic modi” are similar to those of a Russian comparative morphologist that visited Jena repeatedly, A. N. Sewertzoff, who made important contributions to what we now call heterochrony research—heterochrony meaning changes in the relative timing of developmental events. His student I. I. Schmalhausen became an important contributor to the

  14. Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P

    2003-11-01

    Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids.

  15. Comparative Phylogeographic Analyses Illustrate the Complex Evolutionary History of Threatened Cloud Forests of Northern Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Sosa, Victoria; Soltis, Douglas E.; Daza, Juan M.; González, Clementina; Soltis, Pamela S.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; de los Monteros, Alejandro Espinosa; Castoe, Todd A.; Bell, Charles; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity and can identify patterns of co-vicariance among unrelated taxa that span the same geographic areas. Here we analyze temporal and spatial divergence patterns of cloud forest plant and animal species and relate them to the evolutionary history of naturally fragmented cloud forests–among the most threatened vegetation types in northern Mesoamerica. We used comparative phylogeographic analyses to identify patterns of co-vicariance in taxa that share geographic ranges across cloud forest habitats and to elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity. We document temporal and spatial genetic divergence of 15 species (including seed plants, birds and rodents), and relate them to the evolutionary history of the naturally fragmented cloud forests. We used fossil-calibrated genealogies, coalescent-based divergence time inference, and estimates of gene flow to assess the permeability of putative barriers to gene flow. We also used the hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (HABC) method implemented in the program msBayes to test simultaneous versus non-simultaneous divergence of the cloud forest lineages. Our results show shared phylogeographic breaks that correspond to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Los Tuxtlas, and the Chiapas Central Depression, with the Isthmus representing the most frequently shared break among taxa. However, dating analyses suggest that the phylogeographic breaks corresponding to the Isthmus occurred at different times in different taxa. Current divergence patterns are therefore consistent with the hypothesis of broad vicariance across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec derived from different mechanisms operating at different times. This study, coupled with existing data on divergence cloud forest species, indicates that the evolutionary history of contemporary cloud forest lineages is complex and often lineage

  16. Inferring the evolutionary histories of divergences in Hylobates and Nomascus gibbons through multilocus sequence data.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yi-Chiao; Roos, Christian; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Inoue, Eiji; Shih, Chih-Chin; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Vigilant, Linda

    2013-04-12

    Gibbons (Hylobatidae) are the most diverse group of living apes. They exist as geographically-contiguous species which diverged more rapidly than did their close relatives, the great apes (Hominidae). Of the four extant gibbon genera, the evolutionary histories of two polyspecific genera, Hylobates and Nomascus, have been the particular focus of research but the DNA sequence data used was largely derived from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus. To investigate the evolutionary relationships and divergence processes of gibbon species, particularly those of the Hylobates genus, we produced and analyzed a total of 11.5 kb DNA of sequence at 14 biparentally inherited autosomal loci. We find that on average gibbon genera have a high average sequence diversity but a lower degree of genetic differentiation as compared to great ape genera. Our multilocus species tree features H. pileatus in a basal position and a grouping of the four Sundaic island species (H. agilis, H. klossii, H. moloch and H. muelleri). We conducted pairwise comparisons based on an isolation-with-migration (IM) model and detect signals of asymmetric gene flow between H. lar and H. moloch, between H. agilis and H. muelleri, and between N. leucogenys and N. siki. Our multilocus analyses provide inferences of gibbon evolutionary histories complementary to those based on single gene data. The results of IM analyses suggest that the divergence processes of gibbons may be accompanied by gene flow. Future studies using analyses of multi-population model with samples of known provenance for Hylobates and Nomascus species would expand the understanding of histories of gene flow during divergences for these two gibbon genera.

  17. Inferring the evolutionary histories of divergences in Hylobates and Nomascus gibbons through multilocus sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gibbons (Hylobatidae) are the most diverse group of living apes. They exist as geographically-contiguous species which diverged more rapidly than did their close relatives, the great apes (Hominidae). Of the four extant gibbon genera, the evolutionary histories of two polyspecific genera, Hylobates and Nomascus, have been the particular focus of research but the DNA sequence data used was largely derived from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus. Results To investigate the evolutionary relationships and divergence processes of gibbon species, particularly those of the Hylobates genus, we produced and analyzed a total of 11.5 kb DNA of sequence at 14 biparentally inherited autosomal loci. We find that on average gibbon genera have a high average sequence diversity but a lower degree of genetic differentiation as compared to great ape genera. Our multilocus species tree features H. pileatus in a basal position and a grouping of the four Sundaic island species (H. agilis, H. klossii, H. moloch and H. muelleri). We conducted pairwise comparisons based on an isolation-with-migration (IM) model and detect signals of asymmetric gene flow between H. lar and H. moloch, between H. agilis and H. muelleri, and between N. leucogenys and N. siki. Conclusions Our multilocus analyses provide inferences of gibbon evolutionary histories complementary to those based on single gene data. The results of IM analyses suggest that the divergence processes of gibbons may be accompanied by gene flow. Future studies using analyses of multi-population model with samples of known provenance for Hylobates and Nomascus species would expand the understanding of histories of gene flow during divergences for these two gibbon genera. PMID:23586586

  18. Trait convergence and diversification arising from a complex evolutionary history in Hawaiian species of Scaevola.

    PubMed

    McKown, Athena D; Akamine, Michelle Elmore; Sack, Lawren

    2016-08-01

    Species variation in functional traits may reflect diversification relating to convergence and/or divergence depending on environmental pressures and phylogenetic history. We tested trait-environment relationships and their basis in finer-scale evolutionary processes among nine extant Hawaiian species of Scaevola L. (Goodeniaceae), a taxon with a complex history of three independent colonizations by different phylogenetic lineages, parallel ecological specialization, and homoploid hybridization events in Hawai'i. Using a wild population for each species, we evaluated traits related to plant function (morphology, leaf and wood anatomy, nutrient and carbon isotope composition). Hawaiian Scaevola species were distributed across coastal, dry forest and wet forest environments; multivariate environmental analysis using abiotic and biotic factors further showed that species from distantly related lineages inhabited similar environments. Many traits correlated with environment (based on the multivariate environmental analysis), considering both distantly related species and more closely related species. Scaevola species within shared habitats generally showed trait convergence across distantly related lineages, particularly among wet forest species. Furthermore, trait diversification through divergence was extensive among closely related Scaevola species that radiated into novel environments, especially in plant morphology and traits affecting water relations. Homoploid hybrid-origin species were "intermediate" compared to their ancestral parent species, and possessed trait combinations relevant for their current habitat. The diversity in functional traits reflected strong influences of both ecology and evolutionary history in native Hawaiian Scaevola species, and trait correspondence with environment was due to the combination of multiple processes within the taxon: trait pre-adaptation and filtering, evolutionary convergence, divergence, and hybridization.

  19. Comparative phylogeographic analyses illustrate the complex evolutionary history of threatened cloud forests of northern Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Sosa, Victoria; Soltis, Douglas E; Daza, Juan M; González, Clementina; Soltis, Pamela S; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; de los Monteros, Alejandro Espinosa; Castoe, Todd A; Bell, Charles; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity and can identify patterns of co-vicariance among unrelated taxa that span the same geographic areas. Here we analyze temporal and spatial divergence patterns of cloud forest plant and animal species and relate them to the evolutionary history of naturally fragmented cloud forests--among the most threatened vegetation types in northern Mesoamerica. We used comparative phylogeographic analyses to identify patterns of co-vicariance in taxa that share geographic ranges across cloud forest habitats and to elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity. We document temporal and spatial genetic divergence of 15 species (including seed plants, birds and rodents), and relate them to the evolutionary history of the naturally fragmented cloud forests. We used fossil-calibrated genealogies, coalescent-based divergence time inference, and estimates of gene flow to assess the permeability of putative barriers to gene flow. We also used the hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (HABC) method implemented in the program msBayes to test simultaneous versus non-simultaneous divergence of the cloud forest lineages. Our results show shared phylogeographic breaks that correspond to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Los Tuxtlas, and the Chiapas Central Depression, with the Isthmus representing the most frequently shared break among taxa. However, dating analyses suggest that the phylogeographic breaks corresponding to the Isthmus occurred at different times in different taxa. Current divergence patterns are therefore consistent with the hypothesis of broad vicariance across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec derived from different mechanisms operating at different times. This study, coupled with existing data on divergence cloud forest species, indicates that the evolutionary history of contemporary cloud forest lineages is complex and often lineage

  20. Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anieli G; Sterli, Juliana; Moreira, Filipe R R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2017-08-01

    Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity. Phylogenetic relationships and species divergence times were estimated using a thorough evaluation of fossil information as calibration priors. We then carried out the analysis of historical biogeography of Testudines in a fully statistical framework. Our study recovered the first large-scale phylogeny of turtles with well-supported relationships following the topology proposed by phylogenomic works. Our dating result consistently indicated that the origin of the main clades, Pleurodira and Cryptodira, occurred in the early Jurassic. The phylogenetic and historical biogeographical inferences permitted us to clarify how geological events affected the evolutionary dynamics of crown turtles. For instance, our analyses support the hypothesis that the breakup of Pangaea would have driven the divergence between the cryptodiran and pleurodiran lineages. The reticulated pattern in the ancestral distribution of the cryptodiran lineage suggests a complex biogeographic history for the clade, which was supposedly related to the complex paleogeographic history of Laurasia. On the other hand, the biogeographical history of Pleurodira indicated a tight correlation with the paleogeography of the Gondwanan landmasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. The evolutionary history of symbiotic associations among bacteria and their animal hosts: a model.

    PubMed

    Moya, A; Gil, R; Latorre, A

    2009-01-01

    A model to explain the evolutionary history of animal-bacteria obligatory mutualistic symbiosis is presented. Dispensability of genes and genetic isolation are key factors in the reduction process of these bacterial genomes. Major steps in such genome reductive evolution, leading towards primary endosimbiosis, and the possibility of complementation or replacement by a secondary symbiont are also indicated. Yet, we need to understand what happens at the beginning of the adaptative process towards an obligate mutualistic relationship. For this purpose, we propose to sequence the complete genome of SOPE, the primary endosymbiont of the rice weevil.

  2. Lower extremity joint position sense in runners with and without a history of knee overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Foch, Eric; Milner, Clare E

    2012-07-01

    Kinematic and kinetic analyses are routinely implemented to determine if gait differences exist between runners with and without a history of knee injury. Hip and knee kinematic differences have been reported between knee injured and non-injured runners. Yet, there is no consensus on whether these differences are the primary variables contributing to knee injury. Furthermore, there may be additional underlying factors that contribute to the development of injury that cannot be determined by gait analysis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if joint position sense differences exist in runners with and without a history of knee overuse injury. Sagittal plane knee and hip joint position sense was measured in 13 runners with a history of knee overuse injury and 13 runners with no history of knee overuse injury. Absolute joint position replication error was measured during both a weight bearing and a non-weight bearing condition. Joint position replication errors at each joint were compared among groups and task using a two-way ANOVA with joint task as the repeated measure. Knee and hip joint replication errors were similar between both groups. The weight bearing and non-weight bearing tasks resulted in similar joint position replication errors. There were no interaction effects. In conclusion, knee flexion and hip adduction joint position sense is similar in runners with and without a history of knee overuse injury. Therefore, joint position sense measured via weight bearing and non-weight bearing joint position replication tasks may not play an important role in the development of knee overuse injury.

  3. United States -- Mexican joint ventures: A case history approach

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.; Chidester, R.J.; Hughes, K.R.; Fowler, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Because the Mexican government has encouraged investment in Mexico by increasing the percentage of ownership of a Mexican business that a US company can hold, joint ventures are more attractive now than they had been in the past. This study provides preliminary information for US renewable energy companies who are interested in forming a joint venture with a Mexican company. This report is not intended to be a complete reference but does identifies a number of important factors that should be observed when forming a Mexican joint venture: (1)Successful joint ventures achieve the goals of each partner. (2)It is essential that all parties agree to the allocation of responsibilities. (3)Put everything in writing. (4)Research in depth the country or countries in which you are considering doing business.

  4. History of the Standing Joint Force Headquarters for Elimination (SJFHQ-E): No More Ad Hoc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited THE HISTORY OF THE STANDING JOINT FORCE HEADQUARTERS FOR ELIMINATION (SJFHQ-E): “NO MORE AD... Elimination (SJFHQ-E): “No More Ad Hoc” Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph Director Daniel G. Cox, Ph.D...THE HISTORY OF THE STANDING JOINT FORCE HEADQUARTERS FOR ELIMINATION (SJFHQ-E): “NO MORE AD HOC,” by LTC Kristofer D. Hopkins, U.S. Army, 54 pages

  5. Biodiversity and evolutionary history: useful extensions of the PD phylogenetic diversity assessment framework.

    PubMed

    Faith, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    Evolutionary biology is a core discipline in biodiversity science. Evolutionary history or phylogeny provides one natural measure of biodiversity through the popular phylogenetic diversity (PD) measure. The evolutionary model underlying PD means that it can be interpreted as quantifying the relative feature diversity of sets of species. Quantifying feature diversity measures possible future uses and benefits or option values. Interpretation of PD as counting-up features is the basis for an emerging broad family of PD calculations, of use to both biodiversity researchers and decision makers. Many of these calculations extend conventional species-level indices to the features level. Useful PD calculations include PD complementarity and endemism, Hill and Valley numbers incorporating abundance, and PD dissimilarities. A flexible analysis framework is provided by expected PD calculations, applied to either probabilities of extinction or presence-absence. Practical extensions include phylogenetic risk analysis and measures of distinctiveness and endemism. These support the integration of phylogenetic diversity into biodiversity conservation and monitoring programs. © 2013 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Reconciling extreme branch length differences: decoupling time and rate through the evolutionary history of filmy ferns.

    PubMed

    Schuettpelz, Eric; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2006-06-01

    The rate of molecular evolution is not constant across the Tree of Life. Characterizing rate discrepancies and evaluating the relative roles of time and rate along branches through the past are both critical to a full understanding of evolutionary history. In this study, we explore the interactions of time and rate in filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae), a lineage with extreme branch length differences between the two major clades. We test for the presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades, and we separate time and rate across the filmy fern phylogeny to simultaneously yield an evolutionary time scale of filmy fern diversification and reconstructions of ancestral rates of molecular evolution. Our results indicate that the branch length disparity observed between the major lineages of filmy ferns is indeed due to a significant difference in molecular evolutionary rate. The estimation of divergence times reveals that the timing of crown group diversification was not concurrent for the two lineages, and the reconstruction of ancestral rates of molecular evolution points to a substantial rate deceleration in one of the clades. Further analysis suggests that this may be due to a genome-wide deceleration in the rate of nucleotide substitution.

  7. The evolution of placental mammal body sizes: evolutionary history, form, and function.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Haines, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The unimodal, right-skewed distribution, most frequently identified in contemporary descriptions of placental mammal body size distributions, masks an underlying multidistribution structure; a long-term evolutionary process that has generated a concatenation of two or three frequency distributions specific to locomotory modes (plantigrade, digitigrade and unguligrade). The Afrotropical assemblages are bimodal, with a tendency towards trimodality, whereas the Nearctic assemblage is unimodal. However, mixtures of two and three normal distributions fitted the Nearctic data well, suggesting a multidistribution structure masked by disproportionate species numbers within locomotory modes. Differences in proportional species numbers within modes between assemblages may reflect the evolutionary history of form and function. However, common interassemblage predictions of such proportions in contemporary distributions may be disguised by the relative severity of the Pleistocene megafaunal extinction (patterns supported by the fossil record), geographical scale, and taxonomic composition. A species gap occurs at body sizes around 1 kg at the interface between the largest plantigrade mammals and the smallest digitigrade mammals, coincident with the minimum interspecific variance of basal metabolic rate. In terms of the evolution of the optimal body size in the trade-off between mortality and production, there may be good historical and evolutionary reasons why we should not expect optimization to produce the same results in different zoogeographical assemblages. Moreover, the evolution of diverse mammalian forms and functions, especially with respect to predator-prey interactions and diet, render a single body size optimum untenable in the search for an energetic definition of fitness.

  8. Whole-genome analysis of Alu repeat elements reveals complex evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Price, Alkes L; Eskin, Eleazar; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2004-11-01

    Alu repeats are the most abundant family of repeats in the human genome, with over 1 million copies comprising 10% of the genome. They have been implicated in human genetic disease and in the enrichment of gene-rich segmental duplications in the human genome, and they form a rich fossil record of primate and human history. Alu repeat elements are believed to have arisen from the replication of a small number of source elements, whose evolution over time gives rise to the 31 Alu subfamilies currently reported in Repbase Update. We apply a novel method to identify and statistically validate 213 Alu subfamilies. We build an evolutionary tree of these subfamilies and conclude that the history of Alu evolution is more complex than previous studies had indicated.

  9. Divergent evolutionary histories of DNA markers in a Hawaiian population of the coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Hollie M; Adams, Diane K; Zelzion, Ehud; Wagner, Nicole E; Qiu, Huan; Mass, Tali; Falkowski, Paul G; Gates, Ruth D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2017-01-01

    We investigated intra- and inter-colony sequence variation in a population of the dominant Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata by analyzing marker gene and genomic data. Ribosomal ITS1 regions showed evidence of a reticulate history among the colonies, suggesting incomplete rDNA repeat homogenization. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome identified a major (M. capitata) and a minor (M. flabellata) haplotype in single polyp-derived sperm bundle DNA with some colonies containing 2-3 different mtDNA haplotypes. In contrast, Pax-C and newly identified single-copy nuclear genes showed either no sequence differences or minor variations in SNP frequencies segregating among the colonies. Our data suggest past mitochondrial introgression in M. capitata, whereas nuclear single-copy loci show limited variation, highlighting the divergent evolutionary histories of these coral DNA markers.

  10. Individual experience and evolutionary history of predation affect expression of heritable variation in fish personality and morphology.

    PubMed

    Dingemanse, Niels J; Van der Plas, Fons; Wright, Jonathan; Réale, Denis; Schrama, Maarten; Roff, Derek A; Van der Zee, Els; Barber, Iain

    2009-04-07

    Predation plays a central role in evolutionary processes, but little is known about how predators affect the expression of heritable variation, restricting our ability to predict evolutionary effects of predation. We reared families of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from two populations-one with a history of fish predation (predator sympatric) and one without (predator naive)-and experimentally manipulated experience of predators during ontogeny. For a suite of ecologically relevant behavioural ('personality') and morphological traits, we then estimated two key variance components, additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR), that jointly shape narrow-sense heritability (h2=VA/(VA+VR)). Both population and treatment differentially affected VA versus VR, hence h2, but only for certain traits. The predator-naive population generally had lower VA and h2 values than the predator-sympatric population for personality behaviours, but not morphological traits. Values of VR and h2 were increased for some, but decreased for other personality traits in the predator-exposed treatment. For some personality traits, VA and h2 values were affected by treatment in the predator-naive population, but not in the predator-sympatric population, implying that the latter harboured less genetic variation for behavioural plasticity. Replication and experimental manipulation of predation regime are now needed to confirm that these population differences were related to variation in predator-induced selection. Cross-environment genetic correlations (rA) were tight for most traits, suggesting that predator-induced selection can affect the evolution of the same trait expressed in the absence of predators. The treatment effects on variance components imply that predators can affect evolution, not only by acting directly as selective agents, but also by influencing the expression of heritable variation.

  11. Evolutionary History of the Global Emergence of the Escherichia coli Epidemic Clone ST131.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Pankhurst, Louise; De Maio, Nicola; Moore, Catrin E; Sebra, Robert; Turner, Paul; Anson, Luke W; Kasarskis, Andrew; Batty, Elizabeth M; Kos, Veronica; Wilson, Daniel J; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Wyllie, David; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Manges, Amee R; Johnson, Timothy J; Price, Lance B; Peto, Timothy E A; Johnson, James R; Didelot, Xavier; Walker, A Sarah; Crook, Derrick W

    2016-03-22

    Escherichia colisequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged globally as the most predominant extraintestinal pathogenic lineage within this clinically important species, and its association with fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance impacts significantly on treatment. The evolutionary histories of this lineage, and of important antimicrobial resistance elements within it, remain unclearly defined. This study of the largest worldwide collection (n= 215) of sequenced ST131E. coliisolates to date demonstrates that the clonal expansion of two previously recognized antimicrobial-resistant clades, C1/H30R and C2/H30Rx, started around 25 years ago, consistent with the widespread introduction of fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in clinical medicine. These two clades appear to have emerged in the United States, with the expansion of the C2/H30Rx clade driven by the acquisition of ablaCTX-M-15-containing IncFII-like plasmid that has subsequently undergone extensive rearrangement. Several other evolutionary processes influencing the trajectory of this drug-resistant lineage are described, including sporadic acquisitions of CTX-M resistance plasmids and chromosomal integration ofblaCTX-Mwithin subclusters followed by vertical evolution. These processes are also occurring for another family of CTX-M gene variants more recently observed among ST131, theblaCTX-M-14/14-likegroup. The complexity of the evolutionary history of ST131 has important implications for antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiological analysis, and control of emerging clinical lineages ofE. coli These data also highlight the global imperative to reduce specific antibiotic selection pressures and demonstrate the important and varied roles played by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in the perpetuation of antimicrobial resistance within lineages. Escherichia coli, perennially a major bacterial pathogen, is becoming increasingly difficult to manage due to

  12. Mitochondrial DNA reveals distinct evolutionary histories for Jewish populations in Yemen and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Al-Meeri, Ali; Raaum, Ryan L; Sanchez, Luisa F; Mulligan, Connie J

    2011-01-01

    Southern Arabia and the Horn of Africa are important geographic centers for the study of human population history because a great deal of migration has characterized these regions since the first emergence of humans out of Africa. Analysis of Jewish groups provides a unique opportunity to investigate more recent population histories in this area. Mitochondrial DNA is used to investigate the maternal evolutionary history and can be combined with historical and linguistic data to test various population histories. In this study, we assay mitochondrial control region DNA sequence and diagnostic coding variants in Yemenite (n = 45) and Ethiopian (n = 41) Jewish populations, as well as in neighboring non-Jewish Yemeni (n = 50) and Ethiopian (previously published Semitic speakers) populations. We investigate their population histories through a comparison of haplogroup distributions and phylogenetic networks. A high frequency of sub-Saharan African L haplogroups was found in both Jewish populations, indicating a significant African maternal contribution unlike other Jewish Diaspora populations. However, no identical haplotypes were shared between the Yemenite and Ethiopian Jewish populations, suggesting very little gene flow between the populations and potentially distinct maternal population histories. These new data are also used to investigate alternate population histories in the context of historical and linguistic data. Specifically, Yemenite Jewish mitochondrial diversity reflects potential descent from ancient Israeli exiles and shared African and Middle Eastern ancestry with little evidence for large-scale conversion of local Yemeni. In contrast, the Ethiopian Jewish population appears to be a subset of the larger Ethiopian population suggesting descent primarily through conversion of local women.

  13. The Suitability of Using an Evolutionary Acquisition Strategy in Joint Acquisition Programs for Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    Missouri, 1978 Acceso • For M.S., Air Force Institute of Technology, 1981 rTIS , D•2 TVAB 0 6y I fivColes Fort Leavenworth, Kansas A j, -dlor 1989 .CIdI...external interfaces at multiple organizational levels, some of which may be inter-Service and multinational (15). Evolutionary Acquisition. This is...and intelligence which serve multiple services (30). The group concluded that the services have not made the necessary commitments to execute joint

  14. The evolutionary history of the E2F and DEL genes in Viridiplantae.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Rafael; Cabreira, Caroline; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2016-06-01

    The E2 promoter binding factor (E2F) proteins are present in almost all eukaryotic organisms and are essential to control several processes, such as the cell cycle progression, cell division, DNA replication, and apoptosis. The E2F family comprises two different types of proteins: the typical E2Fs and atypical E2Fs, which differ structurally and have specific functions. The E2F gene family was described for the first time in plants in 1999, and since then several studies have focused on the functional aspects, but the evolutionary history of this gene family is still unknown. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of the E2F gene family in plants. Our findings suggest that E2F proteins arose early after the emergence of the eukaryotic species, while DEL proteins appear to have arisen before the metazoan and plants origin probably through a partial duplication of an ancient E2F protein. Our data also suggest that E2Fs activators and repressors appeared twice during evolution, once in the metazoan lineage and again in the embryophyte lineage.

  15. Is plant evolutionary history impacting recruitment of diazotrophs and nifH expression in the rhizosphere?

    PubMed Central

    Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Renoud, Sébastien; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Plant evolutionary history influences the taxonomic composition of the root-associated bacterial community, but whether it can also modulate its functioning is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that crop diversification is a significant factor determining the ecology of the functional group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria the rhizosphere of Poaceae. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using a range of Poaceae, i.e. four Zea mays varieties (from two genetic groups) and teosinte (representing maize’s ancestor), sorghum (from the same Panicoideae subfamily), and wheat (from neighboring Pooideae subfamily), as well as the dicot tomato as external reference. Diazotroph rhizosphere community was characterized at 21 days in terms of size (quantitative PCR of nifH genes), composition (T-RFLP and partial sequencing of nifH alleles) and functioning (quantitative RT-PCR, T-RFLP and partial sequencing of nifH transcripts). Plant species and varieties had a significant effect on diazotroph community size and the number of nifH transcripts per root system. Contrarily to expectations, however, there was no relation between Poaceae evolutionary history and the size, diversity or expression of the rhizosphere diazotroph community. These results suggest a constant selection of this functional group through evolution for optimization of nitrogen fixation in the rhizosphere. PMID:26902960

  16. Diversification events and the effects of mass extinctions on Crocodyliformes evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Bronzati, Mario; Montefeltro, Felipe C; Langer, Max C

    2015-05-01

    The rich fossil record of Crocodyliformes shows a much greater diversity in the past than today in terms of morphological disparity and occupation of niches. We conducted topology-based analyses seeking diversification shifts along the evolutionary history of the group. Our results support previous studies, indicating an initial radiation of the group following the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction, here assumed to be related to the diversification of terrestrial protosuchians, marine thalattosuchians and semi-aquatic lineages within Neosuchia. During the Cretaceous, notosuchians embodied a second diversification event in terrestrial habitats and eusuchian lineages started diversifying before the end of the Mesozoic. Our results also support previous arguments for a minor impact of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction on the evolutionary history of the group. This argument is not only based on the information from the fossil record, which shows basal groups surviving the mass extinction and the decline of other Mesozoic lineages before the event, but also by the diversification event encompassing only the alligatoroids in the earliest period after the extinction. Our results also indicate that, instead of a continuous process through time, Crocodyliformes diversification was patchy, with events restricted to specific subgroups in particular environments and time intervals.

  17. Is evolutionary history repeatedly rewritten in light of new fossil discoveries?

    PubMed

    Tarver, J E; Donoghue, P C J; Benton, M J

    2011-02-22

    Mass media and popular science journals commonly report that new fossil discoveries have 'rewritten evolutionary history'. Is this merely journalistic hyperbole or is our sampling of systematic diversity so limited that attempts to derive evolutionary history from these datasets are premature? We use two exemplars-catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes) and non-avian dinosaurs-to investigate how the maturity of datasets can be assessed. Both groups have been intensively studied over the past 200 years and so should represent pinnacles in our knowledge of vertebrate systematic diversity. We test the maturity of these datasets by assessing the completeness of their fossil records, their susceptibility to changes in macroevolutionary hypotheses and the balance of their phylogenies through study time. Catarrhines have shown prolonged stability, with discoveries of new species being evenly distributed across the phylogeny, and thus have had little impact on our understanding of their fossil record, diversification and evolution. The reverse is true for dinosaurs, where the addition of new species has been non-random and, consequentially, their fossil record, tree shape and our understanding of their diversification is rapidly changing. The conclusions derived from these analyses are relevant more generally: the maturity of systematic datasets can and should be assessed before they are exploited to derive grand macroevolutionary hypotheses.

  18. Global phylogenomic analysis disentangles the complex evolutionary history of DNA replication in archaea.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Kasie; Forterre, Patrick; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2014-01-01

    The archaeal machinery responsible for DNA replication is largely homologous to that of eukaryotes and is clearly distinct from its bacterial counterpart. Moreover, it shows high diversity in the various archaeal lineages, including different sets of components, heterogeneous taxonomic distribution, and a large number of additional copies that are sometimes highly divergent. This has made the evolutionary history of this cellular system particularly challenging to dissect. Here, we have carried out an exhaustive identification of homologs of all major replication components in over 140 complete archaeal genomes. Phylogenomic analysis allowed assigning them to either a conserved and probably essential core of replication components that were mainly vertically inherited, or to a variable and highly divergent shell of extra copies that have likely arisen from integrative elements. This suggests that replication proteins are frequently exchanged between extrachromosomal elements and cellular genomes. Our study allowed clarifying the history that shaped this key cellular process (ancestral components, horizontal gene transfers, and gene losses), providing important evolutionary and functional information. Finally, our precise identification of core components permitted to show that the phylogenetic signal carried by DNA replication is highly consistent with that harbored by two other key informational machineries (translation and transcription), strengthening the existence of a robust organismal tree for the Archaea.

  19. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Paralogous APETALA1/FRUITFULL-Like Genes in Grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the generation of evolutionary novelty. Paralogous genes that are not silenced may evolve new functions (neofunctionalization) that will alter the developmental outcome of preexisting genetic pathways, partition ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) into divergent developmental modules, or function redundantly. Functional divergence can occur by changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression and/or by changes in the activities of their protein products. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of two paralogous monocot MADS-box transcription factors, FUL1 and FUL2, and determined the evolution of sequence and gene expression in grass AP1/FUL-like genes. Monocot AP1/FUL-like genes duplicated at the base of Poaceae and codon substitutions occurred under relaxed selection mostly along the branch leading to FUL2. Following the duplication, FUL1 was apparently lost from early diverging taxa, a pattern consistent with major changes in grass floral morphology. Overlapping gene expression patterns in leaves and spikelets indicate that FUL1 and FUL2 probably share some redundant functions, but that FUL2 may have become temporally restricted under partial subfunctionalization to particular stages of floret development. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the history of AP1/FUL-like genes in Poaceae and to hypothesize a role for this gene duplication in the evolution of the grass spikelet. PMID:16816429

  20. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of paralogous APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like genes in grasses (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Preston, Jill C; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the generation of evolutionary novelty. Paralogous genes that are not silenced may evolve new functions (neofunctionalization) that will alter the developmental outcome of preexisting genetic pathways, partition ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) into divergent developmental modules, or function redundantly. Functional divergence can occur by changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression and/or by changes in the activities of their protein products. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of two paralogous monocot MADS-box transcription factors, FUL1 and FUL2, and determined the evolution of sequence and gene expression in grass AP1/FUL-like genes. Monocot AP1/FUL-like genes duplicated at the base of Poaceae and codon substitutions occurred under relaxed selection mostly along the branch leading to FUL2. Following the duplication, FUL1 was apparently lost from early diverging taxa, a pattern consistent with major changes in grass floral morphology. Overlapping gene expression patterns in leaves and spikelets indicate that FUL1 and FUL2 probably share some redundant functions, but that FUL2 may have become temporally restricted under partial subfunctionalization to particular stages of floret development. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the history of AP1/FUL-like genes in Poaceae and to hypothesize a role for this gene duplication in the evolution of the grass spikelet.

  1. Contrasting evolutionary patterns in two reef-corals and their possible relationship to life history traits

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses have been used to redefine species within two genera of reef-corals (Porites and Montastraea) and to trace their evolutionary patterns through a continuous sequence from late Miocene to early Pliocene time. The material studied consists of populations sampled at regular intervals through four stratigraphic sections in the northern Dominican Republic. The results show that species in the first genus (Porites) have relatively short durations, morphologic stability, and narrow spatial distributions. Their overall evolutionary history is characterized by short periods of radiation and widespread extinction, separated by longer periods of stasis. In contrast, species in the second genus (Montastraea) exhibit various different durations and distributions and directional morphologic trends. These differences in patterns may be related to the dissimilar life histories of the two genera. Patterns in the first genus appear more common in organisms having high larval recruitment, high mortality, high genetic variation, and less morphologic distance between species. Patterns in the second genus occur more frequently in slower growing, phenotypically plastic organisms experiencing less recruitment and mortality and showing more morphologic distance between species.

  2. Diversification events and the effects of mass extinctions on Crocodyliformes evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    Bronzati, Mario; Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Langer, Max C.

    2015-01-01

    The rich fossil record of Crocodyliformes shows a much greater diversity in the past than today in terms of morphological disparity and occupation of niches. We conducted topology-based analyses seeking diversification shifts along the evolutionary history of the group. Our results support previous studies, indicating an initial radiation of the group following the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction, here assumed to be related to the diversification of terrestrial protosuchians, marine thalattosuchians and semi-aquatic lineages within Neosuchia. During the Cretaceous, notosuchians embodied a second diversification event in terrestrial habitats and eusuchian lineages started diversifying before the end of the Mesozoic. Our results also support previous arguments for a minor impact of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction on the evolutionary history of the group. This argument is not only based on the information from the fossil record, which shows basal groups surviving the mass extinction and the decline of other Mesozoic lineages before the event, but also by the diversification event encompassing only the alligatoroids in the earliest period after the extinction. Our results also indicate that, instead of a continuous process through time, Crocodyliformes diversification was patchy, with events restricted to specific subgroups in particular environments and time intervals. PMID:26064649

  3. Evolutionary history determines how plant productivity responds to phylogenetic diversity and species richness.

    PubMed

    Genung, Mark A; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function has received a great deal of attention in ecological research and recent results, from re-analyses, suggest that ecosystem function improves with increases in phylogenetic diversity. However, many of these results have been generalized across a range of different species and clades, and plants with different evolutionary histories could display different relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we manipulated species richness and phylogenetic diversity using 26 species from two subgenera of the genus Eucalyptus (subgenus Eucalyptus and subgenus Symphyomyrtus). We found that plant biomass (a measurement of ecosystem function) sometimes, but not always, responded to increases in species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Specifically, Symphyomyrtus plants showed a positive response while no comparable effect was observed for Eucalyptus plants, showing that responses to biodiversity can vary across different phylogenetic groups. Our results show that the impacts of evolutionary history may complicate the relationship between the diversity of plant communities and plant biomass.

  4. Different evolutionary histories of the coagulation factor VII gene in human populations?

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Esteban, Esther; Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moschonas, Nicholas; Chaabani, Hassen; Bissar-Tadmouri, Nisrine; Harich, Nourdin; Stoneking, Mark; Moral, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Immoderate blood clotting constitutes a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in modern industrialised societies, but is believed to have conferred a survival advantage, i.e. faster recovery from bleeding, on our ancestors. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of the Coagulation Factor VII gene (F7) by analysing five cardiovascular-risk-associated mutations from the F7 promoter and nine neutral polymorphisms (six SNPs and three microsatellites) from the flanking region in 16 populations from the broader Mediterranean region, South Saharan Africa and Bolivia (687 individuals in total). Population differentiation and selection tests were performed and linkage disequilibrium patterns were investigated. In all samples, no linkage disequilibrium between adjacent F7 promoter mutations -402 and -401 was observed. No selection signals were detected in any of the samples from the broader Mediterranean region and South Saharan Africa, while some of the data suggested a potential signal of positive selection for the F7 promoter in the Native American samples from Bolivia. In conclusion, our data suggest, although do not prove, different evolutionary histories in the F7 promoter region between Mediterraneans and Amerindians.

  5. Tracing the evolutionary history of the pandemic group A streptococcal M1T1 clone

    PubMed Central

    Maamary, Peter G.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Cole, Jason N.; Hollands, Andrew; Aziz, Ramy K.; Barnett, Timothy C.; Cork, Amanda J.; Henningham, Anna; Sanderson-Smith, Martina; McArthur, Jason D.; Venturini, Carola; Gillen, Christine M.; Kirk, Joshua K.; Johnson, Dwight R.; Taylor, William L.; Kaplan, Edward L.; Kotb, Malak; Nizet, Victor; Beatson, Scott A.; Walker, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The past 50 years has witnessed the emergence of new viral and bacterial pathogens with global effect on human health. The hyperinvasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) M1T1 clone, first detected in the mid-1980s in the United States, has since disseminated worldwide and remains a major cause of severe invasive human infections. Although much is understood regarding the capacity of this pathogen to cause disease, much less is known of the precise evolutionary events selecting for its emergence. We used high-throughput technologies to sequence a World Health Organization strain collection of serotype M1 GAS and reconstructed its phylogeny based on the analysis of core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We demonstrate that acquisition of a 36-kb genome segment from serotype M12 GAS and the bacteriophage-encoded DNase Sda1 led to increased virulence of the M1T1 precursor and occurred relatively early in the molecular evolutionary history of this strain. The more recent acquisition of the phage-encoded superantigen SpeA is likely to have provided selection advantage for the global dissemination of the M1T1 clone. This study provides an exemplar for the evolution and emergence of virulent clones from microbial populations existing commensally or causing only superficial infection.—Maamary, P. G., Ben Zakour, N. L., Cole, J. N., Hollands, A., Aziz, R. K., Barnett, T. C., Cork, A. J., Henningham, A., Sanderson-Smith, M., McArthur, J. D., Venturini, C., Gillen, C. M., Kirk, J. K., Johnson, D. R., Taylor, W. L., Kaplan, E. L., Kotb, M., Nizet, V., Beatson, S. A., Walker, M. J. Tracing the evolutionary history of the pandemic group A streptococcal M1T1 clone. PMID:22878963

  6. Evolutionary History of the Global Emergence of the Escherichia coli Epidemic Clone ST131

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Anna E.; Pankhurst, Louise; De Maio, Nicola; Moore, Catrin E.; Sebra, Robert; Turner, Paul; Anson, Luke W.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Batty, Elizabeth M.; Kos, Veronica; Wilson, Daniel J.; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Wyllie, David; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Manges, Amee R.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Price, Lance B.; Peto, Timothy E. A.; Johnson, James R.; Didelot, Xavier; Walker, A. Sarah; Crook, Derrick W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) has emerged globally as the most predominant extraintestinal pathogenic lineage within this clinically important species, and its association with fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance impacts significantly on treatment. The evolutionary histories of this lineage, and of important antimicrobial resistance elements within it, remain unclearly defined. This study of the largest worldwide collection (n = 215) of sequenced ST131 E. coli isolates to date demonstrates that the clonal expansion of two previously recognized antimicrobial-resistant clades, C1/H30R and C2/H30Rx, started around 25 years ago, consistent with the widespread introduction of fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in clinical medicine. These two clades appear to have emerged in the United States, with the expansion of the C2/H30Rx clade driven by the acquisition of a blaCTX-M-15-containing IncFII-like plasmid that has subsequently undergone extensive rearrangement. Several other evolutionary processes influencing the trajectory of this drug-resistant lineage are described, including sporadic acquisitions of CTX-M resistance plasmids and chromosomal integration of blaCTX-M within subclusters followed by vertical evolution. These processes are also occurring for another family of CTX-M gene variants more recently observed among ST131, the blaCTX-M-14/14-like group. The complexity of the evolutionary history of ST131 has important implications for antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiological analysis, and control of emerging clinical lineages of E. coli. These data also highlight the global imperative to reduce specific antibiotic selection pressures and demonstrate the important and varied roles played by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in the perpetuation of antimicrobial resistance within lineages. PMID:27006459

  7. Unravelling the evolutionary history and future prospects of endemic species restricted to former glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Razgour, Orly; Salicini, Irene; Ibáñez, Carlos; Randi, Ettore; Juste, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The contemporary distribution and genetic composition of biodiversity bear a signature of species' evolutionary histories and the effects of past climatic oscillations. For many European species, the Mediterranean peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and the Balkans acted as glacial refugia and the source of range recolonization, and as a result, they contain disproportionately high levels of diversity. As these areas are particularly threatened by future climate change, it is important to understand how past climatic changes affected their biodiversity. We use an integrated approach, combining markers with different evolutionary rates and combining phylogenetic analysis with approximate Bayesian computation and species distribution modelling across temporal scales. We relate phylogeographic processes to patterns of genetic variation in Myotis escalerai, a bat species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. We found a distinct population structure at the mitochondrial level with a strong geographic signature, indicating lineage divergence into separate glacial refugia within the Iberian refugium. However, microsatellite markers suggest higher levels of gene flow resulting in more limited structure at recent time frames. The evolutionary history of M. escalerai was shaped by the effects of climatic oscillations and changes in forest cover and composition, while its future is threatened by climatically induced range contractions and the role of ecological barriers due to competition interactions in restricting its distribution. This study warns that Mediterranean peninsulas, which provided refuge for European biodiversity during past glaciation events, may become a trap for limited dispersal and ecologically limited endemic species under future climate change, resulting in loss of entire lineages. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The evolutionary history of Antirrhinum in the Pyrenees inferred from phylogeographic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The origin and colonisation history after the Quaternary ice ages remain largely unresolved for many plant lineages, mainly owing to a lack of fine-scale studies. Here, we present a molecular phylogeny and a phylogeographic analysis of Antirrhinum, an important model system in plant biology, in the Pyrenees range. Our goal was to reconstruct the evolutionary and colonisation history of four taxa endemic to this region (A. majus subsp. majus, A. majus. subsp. striatum, A. molle, and A. sempervirens) by using a dense sampling strategy, with a total of 452 individuals from 99 populations whose collective distribution spans nearly the entirety of the Pyrenees and adjacent mountains. Results Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of the sequences of two plastid (trnS-trnG and trnK-matK) regions revealed the following: (i) historical relationship between the Pyrenees and Iberia (but not with the Alps); (ii) the long persistence of populations in the Pyrenees, at least since the Late Pleistocene; (iii) three different colonisation histories for populations from the Western, Central, and Eastern Pyrenees; (iv) the deep phylogeographic separation of the eastern and western populations; and (v) the colonisation of southern France from the Eastern Pyrenees. Conclusions The present study underlines the enormous influence of the glacial history of the mountain ranges on the current configuration of intra- and inter-specific genetic diversity in Antirrhinum, as well as the importance of periglacial areas for the survival of species during glacial periods of the Quaternary. PMID:24970688

  9. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

    PubMed

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  10. Comparative evolutionary histories of kisspeptins and kisspeptin receptors in vertebrates reveal both parallel and divergent features.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jérémy; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Tostivint, Hervé; Vaudry, Hubert; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, the kisspeptin system has been identified in various vertebrates, leading to the discovery of multiple genes encoding both peptides (Kiss) and receptors (Kissr). The investigation of recently published genomes from species of phylogenetic interest, such as a chondrichthyan, the elephant shark, an early sarcopterygian, the coelacanth, a non-teleost actinopterygian, the spotted gar, and an early teleost, the European eel, allowed us to get new insights into the molecular diversity and evolution of both Kiss and Kissr families. We identified four Kissr in the spotted gar and coelacanth genomes, providing the first evidence of four Kissr genes in vertebrates. We also found three Kiss in the coelacanth and elephant shark genomes revealing two new species, in addition to Xenopus, presenting three Kiss genes. Considering the increasing diversity of kisspeptin system, phylogenetic, and synteny analyses enabled us to clarify both Kiss and Kissr classifications. We also could trace back the evolution of both gene families from the early steps of vertebrate history. Four Kissr and four Kiss paralogs may have arisen via the two whole genome duplication rounds (1R and 2R) in early vertebrates. This would have been followed by multiple independent Kiss and Kissr gene losses in the sarcopterygian and actinopterygian lineages. In particular, no impact of the teleost-specific 3R could be recorded on the numbers of teleost Kissr or Kiss paralogs. The origin of their diversity via 1R and 2R, as well as the subsequent occurrence of multiple gene losses, represent common features of the evolutionary histories of Kiss and Kissr families in vertebrates. In contrast, comparisons also revealed un-matching numbers of Kiss and Kissr genes in some species, as well as a large variability of Kiss/Kissr couples according to species. These discrepancies support independent features of the Kiss and Kissr evolutionary histories across vertebrate radiation.

  11. The ancient function of RB-E2F pathway: insights from its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lihuan; Peng, Bo; Yao, Lei; Zhang, Xinming; Sun, Kuan; Yang, Xianmei; Yu, Long

    2010-09-20

    The RB-E2F pathway is conserved in most eukaryotic lineages, including animals and plants. E2F and RB family proteins perform crucial functions in cycle controlling, differentiation, development and apoptosis. However, there are two kinds of E2Fs (repressive E2Fs and active E2Fs) and three RB family members in human. Till now, the detail evolutionary history of these protein families and how RB-E2F pathway evolved in different organisms remain poorly explored. We performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of E2F, RB and DP (dimerization partners of E2Fs) protein family in representative eukaryotic organisms. Several interesting facts were revealed. First, orthologues of RB, E2F, and DP family are present in several representative unicellular organisms and all multicellular organisms we checked. Second, ancestral E2F, RB genes duplicated before placozoans and bilaterians diverged, thus E2F family was divided into E2F4/5 subgroup (including repressive E2Fs: E2F4 and E2F5) and E2F1/2/3 subgroup (including active E2Fs: E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3), RB family was divided into RB1 subgroup (including RB1) and RBL subgroup (including RBL1 and RBL2). Third, E2F4 and E2F5 share more sequence similarity with the predicted E2F ancestral sequence than E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3; E2F4 and E2F5 also possess lower evolutionary rates and higher purification selection pressures than E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3. Fourth, for RB family, the RBL subgroup proteins possess lower evolutionary rates and higher purification selection pressures compared with RB subgroup proteins in vertebrates, Protein evolutionary rates and purification selection pressures are usually linked with protein functions. We speculated that function conducted by E2F4/5 subgroup and RBL subgroup proteins might mainly represent the ancient function of RB-E2F pathway, and the E2F1/2/3 subgroup proteins and RB1 protein might contribute more to functional diversification in RB-E2F pathway. Our results will enhance the current

  12. A tree of geese: A phylogenomic perspective on the evolutionary history of True Geese.

    PubMed

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Kraus, Robert H S; Madsen, Ole; van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Groenen, Martien A M; Prins, Herbert H T

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic incongruence can be caused by analytical shortcomings or can be the result of biological processes, such as hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting and gene duplication. Differentiation between these causes of incongruence is essential to unravel complex speciation and diversification events. The phylogeny of the True Geese (tribe Anserini, Anatidae, Anseriformes) was, until now, contentious, i.e., the phylogenetic relationships and the timing of divergence between the different goose species could not be fully resolved. We sequenced nineteen goose genomes (representing seventeen species of which three subspecies of the Brent Goose, Branta bernicla) and used an exon-based phylogenomic approach (41,736 exons, representing 5887 genes) to unravel the evolutionary history of this bird group. We thereby provide general guidance on the combination of whole genome evolutionary analyses and analytical tools for such cases where previous attempts to resolve the phylogenetic history of several taxa could not be unravelled. Identical topologies were obtained using either a concatenation (based upon an alignment of 6,630,626 base pairs) or a coalescent-based consensus method. Two major lineages, corresponding to the genera Anser and Branta, were strongly supported. Within the Branta lineage, the White-cheeked Geese form a well-supported sub-lineage that is sister to the Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis). In addition, two main clades of Anser species could be identified, the White Geese and the Grey Geese. The results from the consensus method suggest that the diversification of the genus Anser is heavily influenced by rapid speciation and by hybridization, which may explain the failure of previous studies to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this genus. The majority of speciation events took place in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (between 4 and 2millionyears ago), conceivably driven by a global cooling trend that led to the

  13. Theory on the evolutionary history of lamprey metamorphosis: role of reproductive and thyroid axes.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Sower, S A

    2001-06-01

    Metamorphosis is a developmental strategy used by only a small number of extant fishes and little is known about its phylogenetic development during the evolution history of this large group of vertebrates. The present report provides a putative evolutionary history of metamorphosis in the lamprey, an extant agnathan with direct descendancy from some of the oldest known vertebrates. The study reviews recent data on the role of the thyroid gland and its hormones in metamorphosis, summarizes some recent views on the evolution of the endostyle/follicular thyroid in lampreys, and provides new data on the content of two gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH-I and -III) in brain during goitrogen-stimulated, precocious metamorphosis. These new data support an earlier viewpoint of a relationship between thyroid and reproductive axes during metamorphosis. It is proposed that the earliest lampreys were paedomorphic larvae and they lived in a marine environment; as such, they resembled in many ways the larvae from which the ancient protochordates, Larvacea, are derived. The iodide-concentrating efficiency of the endostyle was a critical factor in the evolution of metamorphosis and this gland was replaced by a follicular thyroid, for postmetamorphic animals needed to store iodine following their invasion of freshwater. Larval growth and postmetamorphic reproduction in freshwater became fixtures in the lamprey life cycle; a non-parasitic adult life-history type appeared later. The presence among extant lampreys of two different adult life-history types, and examples of the lability of the timing of sexual maturation in some species, imply that there has been a complex interplay between the thyroid and reproductive axes during the evolution of metamorphosis in lampreys. This proposal is consistent with what we know of interplay of these axes in extant adult lampreys and with the long-held viewpoint that thyroid function and sexual maturation are an association with an ancient

  14. Reconstruction of caribou evolutionary history in Western North America and its implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Weckworth, Byron V; Musiani, Marco; McDevitt, Allan D; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mariani, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The role of Beringia as a refugium and route for trans-continental exchange of fauna during glacial cycles of the past 2million years are well documented; less apparent is its contribution as a significant reservoir of genetic diversity. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences and 14 microsatellite loci, we investigate the phylogeographic history of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in western North America. Patterns of genetic diversity reveal two distinct groups of caribou. Caribou classified as a Northern group, of Beringian origin, exhibited greater number and variability in mtDNA haplotypes compared to a Southern group originating from refugia south of glacial ice. Results indicate that subspecies R. t. granti of Alaska and R. t. groenlandicus of northern Canada do not constitute distinguishable units at mtDNA or microsatellites, belying their current status as separate subspecies. Additionally, the Northern Mountain ecotype of woodland caribou (presently R. t. caribou) has closer kinship to caribou classified as granti or groenlandicus. Comparisons of mtDNA and microsatellite data suggest that behavioural and ecological specialization is a more recently derived life history characteristic. Notably, microsatellite differentiation among Southern herds is significantly greater, most likely as a result of human-induced landscape fragmentation and genetic drift due to smaller population sizes. These results not only provide important insight into the evolutionary history of northern species such as caribou, but also are important indicators for managers evaluating conservation measures for this threatened species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Hess, Barry D; Rood, Michael P; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2007-10-25

    A previous study suggested that the genomes of the arenaviruses native to North America are a product of genetic recombination between New World arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories. The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the principal host relationships and evolutionary history of the North American arenaviruses. The results of this study suggest that the large-eared woodrat (Neotoma macrotis) is a principal host of Bear Canyon virus and that the present-day association of Bear Canyon virus with the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) in southern California represents a successful host-jumping event from the large-eared woodrat to the California mouse. Together, the results of analyses of viral gene sequence data in this study and our knowledge of the phylogeography of the rodents that serve as principal hosts of the New World arenaviruses suggest that genetic recombination between arenaviruses with significantly different phylogenetic histories did not play a role in the evolution of the North American arenaviruses.

  16. History of antibiotic adaptation influences microbial evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Papin, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic regimens often include the sequential changing of drugs to limit the development and evolution of resistance of bacterial pathogens. It remains unclear how history of adaptation to one antibiotic can influence the resistance profiles when bacteria subsequently adapt to a different antibiotic. Here, we experimentally evolved Pseudomonas aeruginosa to six 2-drug sequences. We observed drug order–specific effects, whereby adaptation to the first drug can limit the rate of subsequent adaptation to the second drug, adaptation to the second drug can restore susceptibility to the first drug, or final resistance levels depend on the order of the 2-drug sequence. These findings demonstrate how resistance not only depends on the current drug regimen but also the history of past regimens. These order-specific effects may allow for rational forecasting of the evolutionary dynamics of bacteria given knowledge of past adaptations and provide support for the need to consider the history of past drug exposure when designing strategies to mitigate resistance and combat bacterial infections. PMID:28792497

  17. History of antibiotic adaptation influences microbial evolutionary dynamics during subsequent treatment.

    PubMed

    Yen, Phillip; Papin, Jason A

    2017-08-01

    Antibiotic regimens often include the sequential changing of drugs to limit the development and evolution of resistance of bacterial pathogens. It remains unclear how history of adaptation to one antibiotic can influence the resistance profiles when bacteria subsequently adapt to a different antibiotic. Here, we experimentally evolved Pseudomonas aeruginosa to six 2-drug sequences. We observed drug order-specific effects, whereby adaptation to the first drug can limit the rate of subsequent adaptation to the second drug, adaptation to the second drug can restore susceptibility to the first drug, or final resistance levels depend on the order of the 2-drug sequence. These findings demonstrate how resistance not only depends on the current drug regimen but also the history of past regimens. These order-specific effects may allow for rational forecasting of the evolutionary dynamics of bacteria given knowledge of past adaptations and provide support for the need to consider the history of past drug exposure when designing strategies to mitigate resistance and combat bacterial infections.

  18. Insights into the Evolutionary History of an Extinct South American Freshwater Snail Based on Historical DNA.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Roberto E; Beltramino, Ariel A; Strong, Ellen E; Rumi, Alejandra; Peso, Juana G

    2016-01-01

    Highly oxygenated freshwater habitats in the High Paraná River (Argentina-Paraguay) were home to highly endemic snails of the genus Aylacostoma, which face extinction owing to the impoundment of the Yacyretá Reservoir in the 1990s. Two species, A. chloroticum and A. brunneum, are currently included in an ongoing ex situ conservation programme, whereas A. guaraniticum and A. stigmaticum are presumed extinct. Consequently, the validity and affinities of the latter two have remained enigmatic. Here, we provide the first molecular data on the extinct A. stigmaticum by means of historical DNA analysis. We describe patterns of molecular evolution based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene from the extinct species and from those being bred within the ex situ programme. We further use this gene to derive a secondary structure model, to examine the specific status of A. stigmaticum and to explore the evolutionary history of these snails. The secondary structure model based on A. stigmaticum revealed that most polymorphic sites are located in unpaired regions. Our results support the view that the mitochondrial 12S region is an efficient marker for the discrimination of species, and the extinct A. stigmaticum is recognized here as a distinct evolutionary genetic species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a sister group relationship between A. chloroticum and A. brunneum, and estimated divergence times suggest that diversification of Aylacostoma in the High Paraná River might have started in the late Miocene via intra-basin speciation due to a past marine transgression. Finally, our findings reveal that DNA may be obtained from dried specimens at least 80 years after their collection, and confirms the feasibility of extracting historical DNA from museum collections for elucidating evolutionary patterns and processes in gastropods.

  19. A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Chet C; Subiaul, Francys; Zawidzki, Tadeusz W

    2008-01-01

    Since the last common ancestor shared by modern humans, chimpanzees and bonobos, the lineage leading to Homo sapiens has undergone a substantial change in brain size and organization. As a result, modern humans display striking differences from the living apes in the realm of cognition and linguistic expression. In this article, we review the evolutionary changes that occurred in the descent of Homo sapiens by reconstructing the neural and cognitive traits that would have characterized the last common ancestor and comparing these with the modern human condition. The last common ancestor can be reconstructed to have had a brain of approximately 300–400 g that displayed several unique phylogenetic specializations of development, anatomical organization, and biochemical function. These neuroanatomical substrates contributed to the enhancement of behavioral flexibility and social cognition. With this evolutionary history as precursor, the modern human mind may be conceived as a mosaic of traits inherited from a common ancestry with our close relatives, along with the addition of evolutionary specializations within particular domains. These modern human-specific cognitive and linguistic adaptations appear to be correlated with enlargement of the neocortex and related structures. Accompanying this general neocortical expansion, certain higher-order unimodal and multimodal cortical areas have grown disproportionately relative to primary cortical areas. Anatomical and molecular changes have also been identified that might relate to the greater metabolic demand and enhanced synaptic plasticity of modern human brain's. Finally, the unique brain growth trajectory of modern humans has made a significant contribution to our species’ cognitive and linguistic abilities. PMID:18380864

  20. A tale of two drug targets: the evolutionary history of BACE1 and BACE2

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Hancock, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The beta amyloid (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been a drug target for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) since 1999 with lead inhibitors now entering clinical trials. In 2011, the paralog, BACE2, became a new target for type II diabetes (T2DM) having been identified as a TMEM27 secretase regulating pancreatic β cell function. However, the normal roles of both enzymes are unclear. This study outlines their evolutionary history and new opportunities for functional genomics. We identified 30 homologs (UrBACEs) in basal phyla including Placozoans, Cnidarians, Choanoflagellates, Porifera, Echinoderms, Annelids, Mollusks and Ascidians (but not Ecdysozoans). UrBACEs are predominantly single copy, show 35–45% protein sequence identity with mammalian BACE1, are ~100 residues longer than cathepsin paralogs with an aspartyl protease domain flanked by a signal peptide and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. While multiple paralogs in Trichoplax and Monosiga pre-date the nervous system, duplication of the UrBACE in fish gave rise to BACE1 and BACE2 in the vertebrate lineage. The latter evolved more rapidly as the former maintained the emergent neuronal role. In mammals, Ka/Ks for BACE2 is higher than BACE1 but low ratios for both suggest purifying selection. The 5' exons show higher Ka/Ks than the catalytic section. Model organism genomes show the absence of certain BACE human substrates when the UrBACE is present. Experiments could thus reveal undiscovered substrates and roles. The human protease double-target status means that evolutionary trajectories and functional shifts associated with different substrates will have implications for the development of clinical candidates for both AD and T2DM. A rational basis for inhibition specificity ratios and assessing target-related side effects will be facilitated by a more complete picture of BACE1 and BACE2 functions informed by their evolutionary context. PMID:24381583

  1. Retroposed Elements as Archives for the Evolutionary History of Placental Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kiefmann, Martin; Jordan, Ursula; Brosius, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    the evolutionary history of organisms. PMID:16515367

  2. A tale of two drug targets: the evolutionary history of BACE1 and BACE2.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Hancock, John M

    2013-01-01

    The beta amyloid (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been a drug target for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) since 1999 with lead inhibitors now entering clinical trials. In 2011, the paralog, BACE2, became a new target for type II diabetes (T2DM) having been identified as a TMEM27 secretase regulating pancreatic β cell function. However, the normal roles of both enzymes are unclear. This study outlines their evolutionary history and new opportunities for functional genomics. We identified 30 homologs (UrBACEs) in basal phyla including Placozoans, Cnidarians, Choanoflagellates, Porifera, Echinoderms, Annelids, Mollusks and Ascidians (but not Ecdysozoans). UrBACEs are predominantly single copy, show 35-45% protein sequence identity with mammalian BACE1, are ~100 residues longer than cathepsin paralogs with an aspartyl protease domain flanked by a signal peptide and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. While multiple paralogs in Trichoplax and Monosiga pre-date the nervous system, duplication of the UrBACE in fish gave rise to BACE1 and BACE2 in the vertebrate lineage. The latter evolved more rapidly as the former maintained the emergent neuronal role. In mammals, Ka/Ks for BACE2 is higher than BACE1 but low ratios for both suggest purifying selection. The 5' exons show higher Ka/Ks than the catalytic section. Model organism genomes show the absence of certain BACE human substrates when the UrBACE is present. Experiments could thus reveal undiscovered substrates and roles. The human protease double-target status means that evolutionary trajectories and functional shifts associated with different substrates will have implications for the development of clinical candidates for both AD and T2DM. A rational basis for inhibition specificity ratios and assessing target-related side effects will be facilitated by a more complete picture of BACE1 and BACE2 functions informed by their evolutionary context.

  3. Insights into the Evolutionary History of an Extinct South American Freshwater Snail Based on Historical DNA

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Ellen E.; Rumi, Alejandra; Peso, Juana G.

    2016-01-01

    Highly oxygenated freshwater habitats in the High Paraná River (Argentina–Paraguay) were home to highly endemic snails of the genus Aylacostoma, which face extinction owing to the impoundment of the Yacyretá Reservoir in the 1990s. Two species, A. chloroticum and A. brunneum, are currently included in an ongoing ex situ conservation programme, whereas A. guaraniticum and A. stigmaticum are presumed extinct. Consequently, the validity and affinities of the latter two have remained enigmatic. Here, we provide the first molecular data on the extinct A. stigmaticum by means of historical DNA analysis. We describe patterns of molecular evolution based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene from the extinct species and from those being bred within the ex situ programme. We further use this gene to derive a secondary structure model, to examine the specific status of A. stigmaticum and to explore the evolutionary history of these snails. The secondary structure model based on A. stigmaticum revealed that most polymorphic sites are located in unpaired regions. Our results support the view that the mitochondrial 12S region is an efficient marker for the discrimination of species, and the extinct A. stigmaticum is recognized here as a distinct evolutionary genetic species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a sister group relationship between A. chloroticum and A. brunneum, and estimated divergence times suggest that diversification of Aylacostoma in the High Paraná River might have started in the late Miocene via intra-basin speciation due to a past marine transgression. Finally, our findings reveal that DNA may be obtained from dried specimens at least 80 years after their collection, and confirms the feasibility of extracting historical DNA from museum collections for elucidating evolutionary patterns and processes in gastropods. PMID:28033407

  4. Gene duplication is infrequent in the recent evolutionary history of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C

    2013-06-01

    Gene duplication generates genetic novelty and redundancy and is a major mechanism of evolutionary change in bacteria and eukaryotes. To date, however, gene duplication has been reported only rarely in RNA viruses. Using a conservative BLAST approach we systematically screened for the presence of duplicated (i.e., paralogous) proteins in all RNA viruses for which full genome sequences are publicly available. Strikingly, we found only nine significantly supported cases of gene duplication, two of which are newly described here--in the 25 and 26 kDa proteins of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (genus Benyvirus) and in the U1 and U2 proteins of Wongabel virus (family Rhabdoviridae). Hence, gene duplication has occurred at a far lower frequency in the recent evolutionary history of RNA viruses than in other organisms. Although the rapidity of RNA virus evolution means that older gene duplication events will be difficult to detect through sequence-based analyses alone, it is likely that specific features of RNA virus biology, and particularly intrinsic constraints on genome size, reduce the likelihood of the fixation and maintenance of duplicated genes.

  5. Evolutionary history shapes patterns of mutualistic benefit in Acacia-rhizobial interactions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke G; Zee, Peter C; Bever, James D; Miller, Joseph T; Thrall, Peter H

    2016-07-01

    The ecological and evolutionary factors that drive the emergence and maintenance of variation in mutualistic benefit (i.e., the benefits provided by one partner to another) in mutualistic symbioses are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role that host and symbiont phylogeny might play in determining patterns of mutualistic benefit for interactions among nine species of Acacia and 31 strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Using phylogenetic comparative methods we compared patterns of variation in mutualistic benefit (host response to inoculation) to rhizobial phylogenies constructed from housekeeping and symbiosis genes; and a multigene host phylogeny. We found widespread genotype-by-genotype variation in patterns of plant growth. A relatively large component of this variation (21-28%) was strongly influenced by the interacting evolutionary histories of both partners, such that phylogenetically similar host species had similar growth responses when inoculated with phylogenetically similar rhizobia. We also found a relatively large nonphylogenetic effect for the average mutualistic benefit provided by rhizobia to plants, such that phylogenetic relatedness did not predict the overall benefit provided by rhizobia across all hosts. We conclude that phylogenetic relatedness should frequently predict patterns of mutualistic benefit in acacia-rhizobial mutualistic interactions; but that some mutualistic traits also evolve independently of the phylogenies.

  6. TriLoNet: Piecing Together Small Networks to Reconstruct Reticulate Evolutionary Histories.

    PubMed

    Oldman, James; Wu, Taoyang; van Iersel, Leo; Moulton, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary trees that can be used to represent reticulate processes such as hybridization and recombination. Here, we introduce a new approach called TriLoNet (Trinet Level- one Network algorithm) to construct such networks directly from sequence alignments which works by piecing together smaller phylogenetic networks. More specifically, using a bottom up approach similar to Neighbor-Joining, TriLoNet constructs level-1 networks (networks that are somewhat more general than trees) from smaller level-1 networks on three taxa. In simulations, we show that TriLoNet compares well with Lev1athan, a method for reconstructing level-1 networks from three-leaved trees. In particular, in simulations we find that Lev1athan tends to generate networks that overestimate the number of reticulate events as compared with those generated by TriLoNet. We also illustrate TriLoNet's applicability using simulated and real sequence data involving recombination, demonstrating that it has the potential to reconstruct informative reticulate evolutionary histories. TriLoNet has been implemented in JAVA and is freely available at https://www.uea.ac.uk/computing/TriLoNet. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evolutionary history and gene flow of an endemic island oak: Quercus pacifica.

    PubMed

    Backs, Janet Rizner; Ashley, Mary V

    2016-12-01

    Understanding historical patterns of colonization and subsequent gene flow clarifies the evolutionary origins and history of endemic island species. Here we use DNA microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic structure of the island endemic species Quercus pacifica K. Nixon & C.H. Mull., found on three of the California Channel Islands, and to examine its relationship to two mainland oaks, Q. berberidifolia and Q. dumosa. We found that Q. pacifica is a genetically cohesive and differentiated evolutionary lineage, diverging from mainland scrub oaks in the Pleistocene with little subsequent introgression. Genetic differentiation of Q. pacifica among islands is small but significant. Both recent and historical gene flow were surprisingly high considering the disjunct distribution of Q. pacifica on islands separated by as much as 125 km of open ocean. Gene flow estimates were highest between the two northern islands and from the northern islands to Santa Catalina. While there is no evidence of recent bottlenecks, historical bottlenecks are indicated on each of the islands. The genetic cohesiveness of the Q. pacifica species suggests allopatric speciation on the islands with subsequent gene flow that has maintained genetic continuity over great distances. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  9. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-03

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity.

  10. Evolutionary history of vegetative reproduction in Porpidia s.L. (Lichen-forming ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Buschbom, Jutta; Barker, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The evolutionary history of gains and losses of vegetative reproductive propagules (soredia) in Porpidia s.l., a group of lichen-forming ascomycetes, was clarified using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches to monophyly tests and a combined MCMC and maximum likelihood approach to ancestral character state reconstructions. The MCMC framework provided confidence estimates for the reconstructions of relationships and ancestral character states, which formed the basis for tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Monophyly tests rejected all hypotheses that predicted any clustering of reproductive modes in extant taxa. In addition, a nearest-neighbor statistic could not reject the hypothesis that the vegetative reproductive mode is randomly distributed throughout the group. These results show that transitions between presence and absence of the vegetative reproductive mode within Porpidia s.l. occurred several times and independently of each other. Likelihood reconstructions of ancestral character states at selected nodes suggest that--contrary to previous thought--the ancestor to Porpidia s.l. already possessed the vegetative reproductive mode. Furthermore, transition rates are reconstructed asymmetrically with the vegetative reproductive mode being gained at a much lower rate than it is lost. A cautious note has to be added, because a simulation study showed that the ancestral character state reconstructions were highly dependent on taxon sampling. However, our central conclusions, particularly the higher rate of change from vegetative reproductive mode present to absent than vice versa within Porpidia s.l., were found to be broadly independent of taxon sampling.

  11. Molecular systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Carabus (Col. Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Deuve, Thierry; Cruaud, Astrid; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Rasplus, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-01

    Despite the number of evolutionary, ecological and conservation studies that are conducted on Carabus, the global evolutionary history of the genus remains poorly understood. Here, we analysed 7.5 kilobases of DNA sequence data (six mitochondrial and four nuclear genes) from a worldwide sample of 45% of the known subgenera (99 species and 14 subspecies). We compared the nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies obtained from Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses through topological tests of congruence and dating analyses. Our results mostly corroborate the monophyly of the morphological subgroups of Carabus. However, current morphological and molecular data appear unable to accurately infer the deep branchings within the genus. We show that Carabus originated ca. 16.7-25.1 Ma, approximately 25 Myr later than previously estimated. Major groups of Carabus are subdivided into clades that diverged from each other in a relatively short period of time around 10 Ma (6.6-14.8). This time frame suggests that the present-day distribution of Carabus subgroups may be explained by isolation resulting from Eurasian forest fragmentation brought on by Miocene climate changes and by mountain orogenesis. Finally, we highlight several conflicts between mitochondrial and nuclear topologies that may be explained by mitochondrial introgression.

  12. Investing in evolutionary history: implementing a phylogenetic approach for mammal conservation

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Turvey, Samuel T.; Waterman, Carly; Meredith, Helen M. R.; Kuhn, Tyler S.; Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Isaac, Nick J. B.

    2011-01-01

    Under the impact of human activity, global extinction rates have risen a thousand times higher than shown in the fossil record. The resources available for conservation are insufficient to prevent the loss of much of the world's threatened biodiversity during this crisis. Conservation planners have been forced to prioritize their protective activities, in the context of great uncertainty. This has become known as ‘the agony of choice’. A range of methods have been proposed for prioritizing species for conservation attention; one of the most strongly supported is prioritizing those species that maximize phylogenetic distinctiveness (PD). We evaluate how a composite measure of extinction risk and phylogenetic isolation (EDGE) has been used to prioritize species according to their degree of unique evolutionary history (evolutionary distinctiveness, ED) weighted by conservation urgency (global endangerment, GE). We review PD-based approaches and provide an updated list of EDGE mammals using the 2010 IUCN Red List. We evaluate how robust this method is to changes in phylogenetic uncertainty, knowledge of taxonomy and extinction risk, and examine how mammalian species that rank highly in EDGE score are representative of the collective from which they are drawn. PMID:21844040

  13. Arginine deiminase pathway enzymes: evolutionary history in metamonads and other eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Novák, Lukáš; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Karnkowska, Anna; Kolisko, Martin; Hroudová, Miluše; Stairs, Courtney W; Simpson, Alastair G B; Keeling, Patrick J; Roger, Andrew J; Čepička, Ivan; Hampl, Vladimír

    2016-10-06

    Multiple prokaryotic lineages use the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway for anaerobic energy production by arginine degradation. The distribution of this pathway among eukaryotes has been thought to be very limited, with only two specialized groups living in low oxygen environments (Parabasalia and Diplomonadida) known to possess the complete set of all three enzymes. We have performed an extensive survey of available sequence data in order to map the distribution of these enzymes among eukaryotes and to reconstruct their phylogenies. We have found genes for the complete pathway in almost all examined representatives of Metamonada, the anaerobic protist group that includes parabasalids and diplomonads. Phylogenetic analyses indicate the presence of the complete pathway in the last common ancestor of metamonads and heterologous transformation experiments suggest its cytosolic localization in the metamonad ancestor. Outside Metamonada, the complete pathway occurs rarely, nevertheless, it was found in representatives of most major eukaryotic clades. Phylogenetic relationships of complete pathways are consistent with the presence of the Archaea-derived ADI pathway in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes, although other evolutionary scenarios remain possible. The presence of the incomplete set of enzymes is relatively common among eukaryotes and it may be related to the fact that these enzymes are involved in other cellular processes, such as the ornithine-urea cycle. Single protein phylogenies suggest that the evolutionary history of all three enzymes has been shaped by frequent gene losses and horizontal transfers, which may sometimes be connected with their diverse roles in cellular metabolism.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations. PMID:27761309

  15. The evolutionary history of bears is characterized by gene flow across species

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Lammers, Fritjof; Bidon, Tobias; Pfenninger, Markus; Kolter, Lydia; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Bears are iconic mammals with a complex evolutionary history. Natural bear hybrids and studies of few nuclear genes indicate that gene flow among bears may be more common than expected and not limited to polar and brown bears. Here we present a genome analysis of the bear family with representatives of all living species. Phylogenomic analyses of 869 mega base pairs divided into 18,621 genome fragments yielded a well-resolved coalescent species tree despite signals for extensive gene flow across species. However, genome analyses using different statistical methods show that gene flow is not limited to closely related species pairs. Strong ancestral gene flow between the Asiatic black bear and the ancestor to polar, brown and American black bear explains uncertainties in reconstructing the bear phylogeny. Gene flow across the bear clade may be mediated by intermediate species such as the geographically wide-spread brown bears leading to large amounts of phylogenetic conflict. Genome-scale analyses lead to a more complete understanding of complex evolutionary processes. Evidence for extensive inter-specific gene flow, found also in other animal species, necessitates shifting the attention from speciation processes achieving genome-wide reproductive isolation to the selective processes that maintain species divergence in the face of gene flow. PMID:28422140

  16. Consensus between genes and stones in the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-García, Tania Anaid; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella

    2013-05-01

    Results from genetic and geologic studies can be combined to elucidate some general patterns of the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America (CA) and of its biota. Based on an ample review of geologic, biogeographic and genetic studies, our aim was to examine how common genetic patterns can be linked with geologic processes. Considering information about geologic and tectonic evolution of CA, we subdivided the region into four tectonic blocks: Maya, Chortis, Chorotega and Chocó. Species exchange between North/South America and CA encompasses three events: a first migration during the Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, a second through a terrestrial corridor preceding the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (IP), and the third involving a major dispersion through the IP. Such events caused similar genetic differentiation patterns and left a signature on the diversification of extant taxa, which we propose as three evolutionary groups: 1) Mayan, characterized by marked genetic structure and divergence, multiple refugia and formation of cryptic species; 2) Mid-CA, defined by high differentiation at the population level and between highland and lowlands, associated with intense volcanic activity; 3) Panamian, distinguished by migration from north to south and vice versa via de IP, with markedly high species divergence and speciation.

  17. Cultural and climatic changes shape the evolutionary history of the Uralic languages.

    PubMed

    Honkola, T; Vesakoski, O; Korhonen, K; Lehtinen, J; Syrjänen, K; Wahlberg, N

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used to study the evolutionary relationships and divergence times of biological species, and recently, these have also been applied to linguistic data to elucidate the evolutionary history of language families. In biology, the factors driving macroevolutionary processes are assumed to be either mainly biotic (the Red Queen model) or mainly abiotic (the Court Jester model) or a combination of both. The applicability of these models is assumed to depend on the temporal and spatial scale observed as biotic factors act on species divergence faster and in smaller spatial scale than the abiotic factors. Here, we used the Uralic language family to investigate whether both 'biotic' interactions (i.e. cultural interactions) and abiotic changes (i.e. climatic fluctuations) are also connected to language diversification. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian phylogenetics with a relaxed-clock method and related our results to climatic, historical and archaeological information. Our timing results paralleled the previous linguistic studies but suggested a later divergence of Finno-Ugric, Finnic and Saami languages. Some of the divergences co-occurred with climatic fluctuation and some with cultural interaction and migrations of populations. Thus, we suggest that both 'biotic' and abiotic factors contribute either directly or indirectly to the diversification of languages and that both models can be applied when studying language evolution.

  18. Investing in evolutionary history: implementing a phylogenetic approach for mammal conservation.

    PubMed

    Collen, Ben; Turvey, Samuel T; Waterman, Carly; Meredith, Helen M R; Kuhn, Tyler S; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Isaac, Nick J B

    2011-09-27

    Under the impact of human activity, global extinction rates have risen a thousand times higher than shown in the fossil record. The resources available for conservation are insufficient to prevent the loss of much of the world's threatened biodiversity during this crisis. Conservation planners have been forced to prioritize their protective activities, in the context of great uncertainty. This has become known as 'the agony of choice'. A range of methods have been proposed for prioritizing species for conservation attention; one of the most strongly supported is prioritizing those species that maximize phylogenetic distinctiveness (PD). We evaluate how a composite measure of extinction risk and phylogenetic isolation (EDGE) has been used to prioritize species according to their degree of unique evolutionary history (evolutionary distinctiveness, ED) weighted by conservation urgency (global endangerment, GE). We review PD-based approaches and provide an updated list of EDGE mammals using the 2010 IUCN Red List. We evaluate how robust this method is to changes in phylogenetic uncertainty, knowledge of taxonomy and extinction risk, and examine how mammalian species that rank highly in EDGE score are representative of the collective from which they are drawn.

  19. Using single cell sequencing data to model the evolutionary history of a tumor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has made it possible to detect genomic alterations within tumor cells on a large scale. However, most applications of NGS show the genetic content of mixtures of cells. Recently developed single cell sequencing technology can identify variation within a single cell. Characterization of multiple samples from a tumor using single cell sequencing can potentially provide information on the evolutionary history of that tumor. This may facilitate understanding how key mutations accumulate and evolve in lineages to form a heterogeneous tumor. Results We provide a computational method to infer an evolutionary mutation tree based on single cell sequencing data. Our approach differs from traditional phylogenetic tree approaches in that our mutation tree directly describes temporal order relationships among mutation sites. Our method also accommodates sequencing errors. Furthermore, we provide a method for estimating the proportion of time from the earliest mutation event of the sample to the most recent common ancestor of the sample of cells. Finally, we discuss current limitations on modeling with single cell sequencing data and possible improvements under those limitations. Conclusions Inferring the temporal ordering of mutational sites using current single cell sequencing data is a challenge. Our proposed method may help elucidate relationships among key mutations and their role in tumor progression. PMID:24460695

  20. Is evolutionary history repeatedly rewritten in light of new fossil discoveries?

    PubMed Central

    Tarver, J. E.; Donoghue, P. C. J.; Benton, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass media and popular science journals commonly report that new fossil discoveries have ‘rewritten evolutionary history’. Is this merely journalistic hyperbole or is our sampling of systematic diversity so limited that attempts to derive evolutionary history from these datasets are premature? We use two exemplars—catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes) and non-avian dinosaurs—to investigate how the maturity of datasets can be assessed. Both groups have been intensively studied over the past 200 years and so should represent pinnacles in our knowledge of vertebrate systematic diversity. We test the maturity of these datasets by assessing the completeness of their fossil records, their susceptibility to changes in macroevolutionary hypotheses and the balance of their phylogenies through study time. Catarrhines have shown prolonged stability, with discoveries of new species being evenly distributed across the phylogeny, and thus have had little impact on our understanding of their fossil record, diversification and evolution. The reverse is true for dinosaurs, where the addition of new species has been non-random and, consequentially, their fossil record, tree shape and our understanding of their diversification is rapidly changing. The conclusions derived from these analyses are relevant more generally: the maturity of systematic datasets can and should be assessed before they are exploited to derive grand macroevolutionary hypotheses. PMID:20810435

  1. Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Becklin, Katie M.; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Sale, Kayla R.; Ward, Joy K.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time. PMID:24636555

  2. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes.

    PubMed

    Mouillot, D; Parravicini, V; Bellwood, D R; Leprieur, F; Huang, D; Cowman, P F; Albouy, C; Hughes, T P; Thuiller, W; Guilhaumon, F

    2016-01-12

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs.

  3. Inferring the Evolutionary History of Vibrios by Means of Multilocus Sequence Analysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sawabe, Tomoo; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2007-01-01

    We performed the first broad study aiming at the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of vibrios by means of multilocus sequence analysis of nine genes. Overall, 14 distinct clades were recognized using the SplitsTree decomposition method. Some of these clades may correspond to families, e.g., the clades Salinivibrio and Photobacteria, while other clades, e.g., Splendidus and Harveyi, correspond to genera. The common ancestor of all vibrios was estimated to have been present 600 million years ago. We can define species of vibrios as groups of strains that share >95% gene sequence similarity and >99.4% amino acid identity based on the eight protein-coding housekeeping genes. The gene sequence data were used to refine the standard online electronic taxonomic scheme for vibrios (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br). PMID:17704223

  4. The Evolutionary History and Spatiotemporal Dynamics of the NC Lineage of Citrus Tristeza Virus.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Galeano, María José; Castells, Matías; Colina, Rodney

    2017-10-12

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen affecting citrus trees worldwide. However, few studies have focused on CTV's evolutionary history and geographic behavior. CTV is locally dispersed by an aphid vector and long distance dispersion due to transportation of contaminated material. With the aim to delve deeper into the CTV-NC (New Clade) genotype evolution, we estimated an evolution rate of 1.19 × 10(-3) subs/site/year and the most common recent ancestor in 1977. Furthermore, the place of origin of the genotype was in the United States, and a great expansion of the population was observed in Uruguay. This expansion phase could be a consequence of the increment in the number of naïve citrus trees in Uruguayan orchards encompassing citrus industry growth in the past years.

  5. A rapid loss of stripes: the evolutionary history of the extinct quagga

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Rohland, Nadin; Glaberman, Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Caccone, Adalgisa; Hofreiter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the field of ancient DNA was launched with the publication of two short mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences from a single quagga (Equus quagga) museum skin, an extinct South African equid (Higuchi et al. 1984 Nature 312, 282–284). This was the first extinct species from which genetic information was retrieved. The DNA sequences of the quagga showed that it was more closely related to zebras than to horses. However, quagga evolutionary history is far from clear. We have isolated DNA from eight quaggas and a plains zebra (subspecies or phenotype Equus burchelli burchelli). We show that the quagga displayed little genetic diversity and very recently diverged from the plains zebra, probably during the penultimate glacial maximum. This emphasizes the importance of Pleistocene climate changes for phylogeographic patterns in African as well as Holarctic fauna. PMID:17148190

  6. Fossils and phylogeny uncover the evolutionary history of a unique antipredator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clucas, B; Ord, T J; Owings, D H

    2010-10-01

    Recently, two squirrel species (Spermophilus spp.) were discovered to anoint their bodies with rattlesnake scent as a means of concealing their odour from these chemosensory predators. In this study, we tested multiple species with predator scents (rattlesnake and weasel) to determine the prevalence of scent application across the squirrel phylogeny. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of the behaviour using a phylogenetic analysis and fossil records of historic predator co-occurrence. Squirrels with historical and current rattlesnake co-occurrence all applied rattlesnake scent, whereas no relationship existed between weasel scent application and either weasel or rattlesnake co-occurrence. This was surprising because experimental tests confirmed rattlesnake and weasel scent were both effective at masking prey odour from hunting rattlesnakes (the primary predator of squirrels). Ancestral reconstructions and fossil data suggest predator scent application in squirrels is ancient in origin, arising before co-occurrences with rattlesnakes or weasels in response to some other, now extinct, chemosensory predator.

  7. A rapid loss of stripes: the evolutionary history of the extinct quagga.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Rohland, Nadin; Glaberman, Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Caccone, Adalgisa; Hofreiter, Michael

    2005-09-22

    Twenty years ago, the field of ancient DNA was launched with the publication of two short mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences from a single quagga (Equus quagga) museum skin, an extinct South African equid (Higuchi et al. 1984 Nature312, 282-284). This was the first extinct species from which genetic information was retrieved. The DNA sequences of the quagga showed that it was more closely related to zebras than to horses. However, quagga evolutionary history is far from clear. We have isolated DNA from eight quaggas and a plains zebra (subspecies or phenotype Equus burchelli burchelli). We show that the quagga displayed little genetic diversity and very recently diverged from the plains zebra, probably during the penultimate glacial maximum. This emphasizes the importance of Pleistocene climate changes for phylogeographic patterns in African as well as Holarctic fauna.

  8. Evolutionary history underlies plant physiological responses to global change since the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Medeiros, Juliana S; Sale, Kayla R; Ward, Joy K

    2014-06-01

    Assessing family- and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Here, we used stable carbon isotopes, leaf nitrogen content and stomatal measurements to assess changes in leaf-level physiology in a mixed conifer community that underwent significant changes in composition since the last glacial maximum (LGM) (21 kyr BP). Our results indicate that most plant taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or maximum photosynthetic capacity in response to changing conditions since the LGM. However, plant families and species differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses, and responses were more similar within families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time.

  9. Global marine protected areas do not secure the evolutionary history of tropical corals and fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mouillot, D.; Parravicini, V.; Bellwood, D. R.; Leprieur, F.; Huang, D.; Cowman, P. F.; Albouy, C.; Hughes, T. P.; Thuiller, W.; Guilhaumon, F.

    2016-01-01

    Although coral reefs support the largest concentrations of marine biodiversity worldwide, the extent to which the global system of marine-protected areas (MPAs) represents individual species and the breadth of evolutionary history across the Tree of Life has never been quantified. Here we show that only 5.7% of scleractinian coral species and 21.7% of labrid fish species reach the minimum protection target of 10% of their geographic ranges within MPAs. We also estimate that the current global MPA system secures only 1.7% of the Tree of Life for corals, and 17.6% for fishes. Regionally, the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific show the greatest deficit of protection for corals while for fishes this deficit is located primarily in the Western Indian Ocean and in the Central Pacific. Our results call for a global coordinated expansion of current conservation efforts to fully secure the Tree of Life on coral reefs. PMID:26756609

  10. The evolutionary history of calreticulin and calnexin genes in green plants.

    PubMed

    Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo V

    2011-02-01

    Calreticulin and calnexin are Ca(2+)-binding chaperones localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes acting in glycoprotein folding quality control and Ca(2+) homeostasis. The evolutionary histories of calreticulin and calnexin gene families were inferred by comprehensive phylogenetic analyses using 18 completed genomes and ESTs covering the major green plants groups, from green algae to angiosperms. Calreticulin and calnexin possibly share a common origin, and both proteins are present along all green plants lineages. The calreticulin founder gene within green plants duplicated in early tracheophytes leading to two possible groups of orthologs with specialized functions, followed by lineage-specific gene duplications in spermatophytes. Calnexin founder gene in land plants was inherited from basal green algae during evolution in a very conservative copy number. A comprehensive classification in possible groups of orthologs and a catalog of calreticulin and calnexin genes from green plants are provided.

  11. Linear versus branching depictions of evolutionary history: implications for diagram design.

    PubMed

    Novick, Laura R; Shade, Courtney K; Catley, Kefyn M

    2011-07-01

    This article reports the results of an experiment involving 108 college students with varying backgrounds in biology. Subjects answered questions about the evolutionary history of sets of hominid and equine taxa. Each set of taxa was presented in one of three diagrammatic formats: a noncladogenic diagram found in a contemporary biology textbook or a cladogram in either the ladder or tree format. As predicted, the textbook diagrams, which contained linear components, were more likely than the cladogram formats to yield explanations of speciation as an anagenic process, a common misconception among students. In contrast, the branching cladogram formats yielded more appropriate explanations concerning levels of ancestry than did the textbook diagrams. Although students with stronger backgrounds in biology did better than those with weaker biology backgrounds, they generally showed the same effects of diagrammatic format. Implications of these results for evolution education and for diagram design more generally are discussed.

  12. The evolutionary diversification of the Centropagidae (Crustacea, Calanoida): A history of habitat shifts.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Sarah J; Menu-Marque, Silvina; Halse, Stuart A; Topan, Janet C; Zemlak, Tyler S; Hebert, Paul D N; Witt, Jonathan D S

    2010-05-01

    The copepod family Centropagidae is widely distributed and occurs in marine, estuarine, freshwater, and inland saline settings. Molecular phylogenies based upon the 16S and 28S genes demonstrate a complex biogeographic history, involving at least five independent invasions of continental waters from the sea. The first colonization was ancient, likely into part of Gondwanaland, and resulted in an inland radiation in southern genera via both vicariance and subsequent habitat shifting among different types of continental waters. Species occupying saline lakes are nested within freshwater clades, indicating invasion of these habitats via fresh waters rather than directly from the ocean or from epicontinental seas. In contrast with the great southern clade, all of the remaining continental invasions are northern, species poor, and quite recent, perhaps even Pleistocene. Long-lived evolutionary euryhalinity, a high propensity for inland invasion, continental vicariance, and in situ radiation within single continents have all played major roles in the diversification of the centropagids.

  13. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    PubMed

    Merker, Matthias; Blin, Camille; Mona, Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Lecher, Sophie; Willery, Eve; Blum, Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Mokrousov, Igor; Aleksic, Eman; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Antierens, Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Ballif, Marie; Barletta, Francesca; Beck, Hans Peter; Barry, Clifton E; Bonnet, Maryline; Borroni, Emanuele; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Cirillo, Daniela; Cox, Helen; Crowe, Suzanne; Crudu, Valeriu; Diel, Roland; Drobniewski, Francis; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Gagneux, Sébastien; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hanekom, Madeleine; Hoffner, Sven; Jiao, Wei-wei; Kalon, Stobdan; Kohl, Thomas A; Kontsevaya, Irina; Lillebæk, Troels; Maeda, Shinji; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Rasmussen, Michael; Rastogi, Nalin; Samper, Sofia; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Savic, Branislava; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Shen, Adong; Sng, Li-Hwei; Stakenas, Petras; Toit, Kadri; Varaine, Francis; Vukovic, Dragana; Wahl, Céline; Warren, Robin; Supply, Philip; Niemann, Stefan; Wirth, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.

  14. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes.

    PubMed

    Rheindt, Frank E; Christidis, Les; Norman, Janette A

    2008-07-07

    Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have played an important role in facilitating habitat shifts by

  15. Evolutionary History of Chemosensory-Related Gene Families across the Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Eyun, Seong-Il; Soh, Ho Young; Posavi, Marijan; Munro, James B; Hughes, Daniel S T; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Park, Eun-Ok; Silva, Joana C; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2017-08-01

    Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also examine hypotheses on which arthropod CRG family is most ancient. Thus, we reconstructed phylogenies of CRGs, including those from new arthropod genomes and transcriptomes, and mapped CRG gains and losses across arthropod lineages. Our analysis was strengthened by including crustaceans, especially copepods, which reside outside the hexapod/branchiopod clade within the subphylum Pancrustacea. We generated the first high-resolution genome sequence of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and annotated its CRGs. We found odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins present only in hexapods (insects) and absent from all other arthropod lineages, indicating that they are not universal adaptations to land. Gustatory receptors likely represent the oldest chemosensory receptors among CRGs, dating back to the Placozoa. We also clarified and confirmed the evolutionary history of antennal ionotropic receptors across the Arthropoda. All antennal ionotropic receptors in E. affinis were expressed more highly in males than in females, suggestive of an association with male mate-recognition behavior. This study is the most comprehensive comparative analysis to date of CRG family evolution across the largest and most speciose metazoan phylum Arthropoda. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Exploring the Phenotypic Space and the Evolutionary History of a Natural Mutation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ullastres, Anna; Petit, Natalia; González, Josefa

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge of modern Biology is elucidating the functional consequences of natural mutations. Although we have a good understanding of the effects of laboratory-induced mutations on the molecular- and organismal-level phenotypes, the study of natural mutations has lagged behind. In this work, we explore the phenotypic space and the evolutionary history of a previously identified adaptive transposable element insertion. We first combined several tests that capture different signatures of selection to show that there is evidence of positive selection in the regions flanking FBti0019386 insertion. We then explored several phenotypes related to known phenotypic effects of nearby genes, and having plausible connections to fitness variation in nature. We found that flies with FBti0019386 insertion had a shorter developmental time and were more sensitive to stress, which are likely to be the adaptive effect and the cost of selection of this mutation, respectively. Interestingly, these phenotypic effects are not consistent with a role of FBti0019386 in temperate adaptation as has been previously suggested. Indeed, a global analysis of the population frequency of FBti0019386 showed that climatic variables explain well the FBti0019386 frequency patterns only in Australia. Finally, although FBti0019386 insertion could be inducing the formation of heterochromatin by recruiting HP1a (Heterochromatin Protein 1a) protein, the insertion is associated with upregulation of sra in adult females. Overall, our integrative approach allowed us to shed light on the evolutionary history, the relevant fitness effects, and the likely molecular mechanisms of an adaptive mutation and highlights the complexity of natural genetic variants.

  17. Complex evolutionary history of the Aeromonas veronii group revealed by host interaction and DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Silver, Adam C; Williams, David; Faucher, Joshua; Horneman, Amy J; Gogarten, J Peter; Graf, Joerg

    2011-02-16

    Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, and Aeromonas allosaccharophila are a closely related group of organisms, the Aeromonas veronii Group, that inhabit a wide range of host animals as a symbiont or pathogen. In this study, the ability of various strains to colonize the medicinal leech as a model for beneficial symbiosis and to kill wax worm larvae as a model for virulence was determined. Isolates cultured from the leech out-competed other strains in the leech model, while most strains were virulent in the wax worms. Three housekeeping genes, recA, dnaJ and gyrB, the gene encoding chitinase, chiA, and four loci associated with the type three secretion system, ascV, ascFG, aexT, and aexU were sequenced. The phylogenetic reconstruction failed to produce one consensus tree that was compatible with most of the individual genes. The Approximately Unbiased test and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection both provided further support for differing evolutionary histories among this group of genes. Two contrasting tests detected recombination within aexU, ascFG, ascV, dnaJ, and gyrB but not in aexT or chiA. Quartet decomposition analysis indicated a complex recent evolutionary history for these strains with a high frequency of horizontal gene transfer between several but not among all strains. In this study we demonstrate that at least for some strains, horizontal gene transfer occurs at a sufficient frequency to blur the signal from vertically inherited genes, despite strains being adapted to distinct niches. Simply increasing the number of genes included in the analysis is unlikely to overcome this challenge in organisms that occupy multiple niches and can exchange DNA between strains specialized to different niches. Instead, the detection of genes critical in the adaptation to specific niches may help to reveal the physiological specialization of these strains.

  18. Complex Evolutionary History of the Aeromonas veronii Group Revealed by Host Interaction and DNA Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Faucher, Joshua; Horneman, Amy J.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Graf, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, and Aeromonas allosaccharophila are a closely related group of organisms, the Aeromonas veronii Group, that inhabit a wide range of host animals as a symbiont or pathogen. In this study, the ability of various strains to colonize the medicinal leech as a model for beneficial symbiosis and to kill wax worm larvae as a model for virulence was determined. Isolates cultured from the leech out-competed other strains in the leech model, while most strains were virulent in the wax worms. Three housekeeping genes, recA, dnaJ and gyrB, the gene encoding chitinase, chiA, and four loci associated with the type three secretion system, ascV, ascFG, aexT, and aexU were sequenced. The phylogenetic reconstruction failed to produce one consensus tree that was compatible with most of the individual genes. The Approximately Unbiased test and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection both provided further support for differing evolutionary histories among this group of genes. Two contrasting tests detected recombination within aexU, ascFG, ascV, dnaJ, and gyrB but not in aexT or chiA. Quartet decomposition analysis indicated a complex recent evolutionary history for these strains with a high frequency of horizontal gene transfer between several but not among all strains. In this study we demonstrate that at least for some strains, horizontal gene transfer occurs at a sufficient frequency to blur the signal from vertically inherited genes, despite strains being adapted to distinct niches. Simply increasing the number of genes included in the analysis is unlikely to overcome this challenge in organisms that occupy multiple niches and can exchange DNA between strains specialized to different niches. Instead, the detection of genes critical in the adaptation to specific niches may help to reveal the physiological specialization of these strains. PMID:21359176

  19. The phylogeny and evolutionary history of the Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) gene family in Viridiplantae.

    PubMed

    Cabreira, Caroline; Cagliari, Alexandro; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; de Freitas, Loreta B; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    The Lesion Simulating Disease (LSD) genes encode a family of zinc finger proteins that play a role in programmed cell death (PCD) and other biological processes, such as plant growth and photosynthesis. In the present study, we report the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the LSD gene family in Viridiplantae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the monocot and eudicot genes were distributed along the phylogeny, indicating that the expansion of the family occurred prior to the diversification between these clades. Sequences encoding proteins that present one, two, or three LSD domains formed separate groups. The secondary structure of these different LSD proteins presented a similar composition, with the β-sheets being their main component. The evolution by gene duplication was identified only to the genes that contain three LSD domains, which generated proteins with equal structure. Moreover, genes encoding proteins with one or two LSD domains evolved as single-copy genes and did not result from loss or gain in LSD domains. These results were corroborated by synteny analysis among regions containing paralogous/orthologous genes in Glycine max and Populus trichocarpa. The Ka/Ks ratio between paralogous/orthologous genes revealed that a subfunctionalization process possibly could be occurring with the LSD genes, explaining the involvement of LSD members in different biological processes, in addition to the negative regulation of PCD. This study presents important novelty in the evolutionary history of the LSD family and provides a basis for future research on individual LSD genes and their involvement in important pathway networks in plants.

  20. Habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of a Neotropical flycatcher lineage from forest and open landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role ecological shifts play in the evolution of Neotropical radiations that have colonized a variety of environments. We here examine habitat shifts in the evolutionary history of Elaenia flycatchers, a Neotropical bird lineage that lives in a range of forest and open habitats. We evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, and then employ parsimony-based and Bayesian methods to reconstruct preferences for a number of habitat types and migratory behaviour throughout the evolutionary history of the genus. Using a molecular clock approach, we date the most important habitat shifts. Results Our analyses resolve phylogenetic relationships among Elaenia species and confirm several species associations predicted by morphology while furnishing support for other taxon placements that are in conflict with traditional classification, such as the elevation of various Elaenia taxa to species level. While savannah specialism is restricted to one basal clade within the genus, montane forest was invaded from open habitat only on a limited number of occasions. Riparian growth may have been favoured early on in the evolution of the main Elaenia clade and subsequently been deserted on several occasions. Austral long-distance migratory behaviour evolved on several occasions. Conclusion Ancestral reconstructions of habitat preferences reveal pronounced differences not only in the timing of the emergence of certain habitat preferences, but also in the frequency of habitat shifts. The early origin of savannah specialism in Elaenia highlights the importance of this habitat in Neotropical Pliocene and late Miocene biogeography. While forest in old mountain ranges such as the Tepuis and the Brazilian Shield was colonized early on, the most important colonization event of montane forest was in conjunction with Pliocene Andean uplift. Riparian habitats may have played an important role in

  1. Do potatoes and tomatoes have a single evolutionary history, and what proportion of the genome supports this history?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Flor; Wu, Feinan; Ané, Cécile; Tanksley, Steve; Spooner, David M

    2009-08-07

    Phylogenies reconstructed with only one or a few independently inherited loci may be unresolved or incongruent due to taxon and gene sampling, horizontal gene transfer, or differential selection and lineage sorting at individual loci. In an effort to remedy this situation, we examined the utility of conserved orthologous set (COSII) nuclear loci to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among 29 diploid Solanum species in the sister clades that include tomato and potato, and in Datura inoxia as a far outgroup. We screened 40 COSII markers with intron content over 60% that are mapped in different chromosomes; selected a subset of 19 by the presence of single band amplification of size mostly between 600 and 1200 bp; sequenced these 19 COSII markers, and performed phylogenetic analyses with individual and concatenated datasets. The present study attempts to provide a fully resolved phylogeny among the main clades in potato and tomato that can help to identify the appropriate markers for future studies using additional species. Among potatoes, when total evidence is invoked, one single predominant history is highlighted with complete resolution within and among the three main clades. It also supports the hypothesis of the North and Central American B-genome origin of the tuber-bearing members of Solanum sect. Petota and shows a clear division between A genomes in clades 3 and 4, and B genomes in clade 1+2. On the other hand, when a prior agreement approach is invoked other potato evolutionary histories are revealed but with less support. These alternative histories could be explained by past hybridization, or fast rates of speciation. In the case of tomato, the analyses with all sequence data completely resolved 19 of 21 clades, for the first time revealed the monophyly of five clades, and gave further support for the recent segregation of new species from the former Solanum peruvianum. Concordance analyses revealed and summarized the extensive discordance among

  2. Do potatoes and tomatoes have a single evolutionary history, and what proportion of the genome supports this history?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogenies reconstructed with only one or a few independently inherited loci may be unresolved or incongruent due to taxon and gene sampling, horizontal gene transfer, or differential selection and lineage sorting at individual loci. In an effort to remedy this situation, we examined the utility of conserved orthologous set (COSII) nuclear loci to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among 29 diploid Solanum species in the sister clades that include tomato and potato, and in Datura inoxia as a far outgroup. We screened 40 COSII markers with intron content over 60% that are mapped in different chromosomes; selected a subset of 19 by the presence of single band amplification of size mostly between 600 and 1200 bp; sequenced these 19 COSII markers, and performed phylogenetic analyses with individual and concatenated datasets. The present study attempts to provide a fully resolved phylogeny among the main clades in potato and tomato that can help to identify the appropriate markers for future studies using additional species. Results Among potatoes, when total evidence is invoked, one single predominant history is highlighted with complete resolution within and among the three main clades. It also supports the hypothesis of the North and Central American B-genome origin of the tuber-bearing members of Solanum sect. Petota and shows a clear division between A genomes in clades 3 and 4, and B genomes in clade 1+2. On the other hand, when a prior agreement approach is invoked other potato evolutionary histories are revealed but with less support. These alternative histories could be explained by past hybridization, or fast rates of speciation. In the case of tomato, the analyses with all sequence data completely resolved 19 of 21 clades, for the first time revealed the monophyly of five clades, and gave further support for the recent segregation of new species from the former Solanum peruvianum. Concordance analyses revealed and summarized the extensive

  3. Core collapse supernovae from blue supergiant progenitors : The evolutionary history of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Athira

    2015-08-01

    SN 1987A is historically one of the most remarkable supernova explosions to be seen from Earth. Due to the proximity of its location in the LMC, it remains the most well-studied object outside the solar system. It was also the only supernova whose progenitor was observed prior to its explosion.SN 1987A however, was a unique and enigmatic core collapse supernova. It was the first Type II supernova to have been observed to have exploded while its progenitor was a blue supergiant (BSG). Until then Type II supernovae were expected to originate from explosions of red supergiants (RSGs). A spectacular triple-ring nebula structure, rich in helium and nitrogen, was observed around the remnant, indicating a recent RSG phase before becoming a BSG. Even today it is not entirely understood what the evolutionary history may have been to cause a BSG to explode. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for its origin is the merger of a massive binary star system.An evolutionary scenario for such a binary system, was proposed by Podsiadlowski (1992) (P92). Through SPH simulations of the merger and the stellar evolution of the post-merger remnant, Ivanova & Podsiadlowski (2002) and (2003) (I&M) could successfully obtain the RSG to BSG transition of the progenitor.The aim of the present work is to produce the evolutionary history of the progenitor of SN 1987A and its explosion. We construct our models based on the results of P92 and I&M. Here, the secondary (less massive) star is accreted on the primary, while being simultaneously mixed in its envelope over a period of 100 years. The merged star is evolved until the onset of core collapse. For this work we use the 1-dimensional, implicit, hydrodynamical stellar evolution code, KEPLER. A large parameter space is explored, consisting of primary (16-20 Ms) and secondary masses (5-8 Ms), mixing boundaries, and accreting timescales. Those models whose end states match the observed properties of the progenitor of SN 1987A are exploded. The

  4. Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) have genomes consisting of either one or two genomic components. The component of bipartite begomoviruses known as DNA-A is homologous to the genomes of all geminiviruses and encodes proteins required for replication, control of gene expression, overcoming host defenses, encapsidation and insect transmission. The second component, referred to as DNA-B, encodes two proteins with functions in intra- and intercellular movement in host plants. The origin of the DNA-B component remains unclear. The study described here was initiated to investigate the relationship between the DNA-A and DNA-B components of bipartite begomoviruses with a view to unraveling their evolutionary histories and providing information on the possible origin of the DNA-B component. Results Comparative phylogenetic and exhaustive pairwise sequence comparison of all DNA-A and DNA-B components of begomoviruses demonstrates that the two molecules have very distinct molecular evolutionary histories and likely are under very different evolutionary pressures. The analysis highlights that component exchange has played a far greater role in diversification of begomoviruses than previously suspected, although there are distinct differences in the apparent ability of different groups of viruses to utilize this "sexual" mechanism of genetic exchange. Additionally we explore the hypothesis that DNA-B originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite begomoviruses and subsequently evolved to become the integral (essential) genome component that we recognize today. The situation with present-day satellites associated with begomoviruses provides some clues to the processes and selection pressures that may have led to the "domestication" of a wild progenitor of the DNA-B component. Conclusions The analysis has highlighted the greater genetic variation of DNA-B components, in comparison to the DNA

  5. The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs) are key enzymes involved in de novo monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. They catalyze the desaturation of saturated fatty acyl-CoA substrates at the delta-9 position, generating essential components of phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters and wax esters. Despite being crucial for interpreting SCDs roles across species, the evolutionary history of the SCD gene family in vertebrates has yet to be elucidated, in particular their isoform diversity, origin and function. This work aims to contribute to this fundamental effort. Results We show here, through comparative genomics and phylogenetics that the SCD gene family underwent an unexpectedly complex history of duplication and loss events. Paralogy analysis hints that SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the whole genome duplications (2R) that occurred at the stem of the vertebrate lineage. The SCD1 gene family expanded in rodents with the parallel loss of SCD5 in the Muridae family. The SCD1 gene expansion is also observed in the Lagomorpha although without the SCD5 loss. In the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis we find a single SCD1 gene but not SCD5, though this could be due to genome incompleteness. In the analysed teleost species no SCD5 is found, while the surrounding SCD5-less locus is conserved in comparison to tetrapods. In addition, the teleost SCD1 gene repertoire expanded to two copies as a result of the teleost specific genome duplication (3R). Finally, we describe clear orthologues of SCD1 and SCD5 in the chondrichthian, Scyliorhinus canicula, a representative of the oldest extant jawed vertebrate clade. Expression analysis in S. canicula shows that whilst SCD1 is ubiquitous, SCD5 is mainly expressed in the brain, a pattern which might indicate an evolutionary conserved function. Conclusion We conclude that the SCD1 and SCD5 genes emerged as part of the 2R genome duplications. We propose that the evolutionary conserved gene expression between distinct

  6. Fossils, phylogenies, and the challenge of preserving evolutionary history in the face of anthropogenic extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Danwei; Goldberg, Emma E.; Roy, Kaustuv

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are endangering many long-lived species and lineages, possibly leading to a disproportionate loss of existing evolutionary history (EH) in the future. However, surprisingly little is known about the loss of EH during major extinctions in the geological past, and thus we do not know whether human impacts are pruning the tree of life in a manner that is unique in the history of life. A major impediment to comparing the loss of EH during past and current extinctions is the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from paleontological data versus molecular phylogenies. In the former case the age of a taxon is its entire stratigraphic range, regardless of how many daughter taxa it may have produced; for the latter it is the time to the most recent common ancestor shared with another extant taxon. To explore this issue, we use simulations to understand how the loss of EH is manifested in the two data types. We also present empirical analyses of the marine bivalve clade Pectinidae (scallops) during a major Plio-Pleistocene extinction in California that involved a preferential loss of younger species. Overall, our results show that the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from the stratigraphic record versus molecular phylogenies does not preclude comparisons of age selectivities of past and present extinctions. Such comparisons not only provide fundamental insights into the nature of the extinction process but should also help improve evolutionarily informed models of conservation prioritization.

  7. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Pollinger, John P; Earl, Dent A; Knowles, James C; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection.

  8. Tools for opening new chapters in the book of Treponema pallidum evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Gogarten, J F; Düx, A; Schuenemann, V J; Nowak, K; Boesch, C; Wittig, R M; Krause, J; Calvignac-Spencer, S; Leendertz, F H

    2016-11-01

    Treponema pallidum infections causing yaws disease and venereal syphilis are globally widespread in human populations, infecting hundreds of thousands and millions annually respectively; endemic syphilis is much less common, and pinta has not been observed in decades. We discuss controversy surrounding the origin, evolution and history of these pathogens in light of available molecular and anthropological evidence. These bacteria (or close relatives) seem to affect many wild African nonhuman primate (NHP) species, though to date only a single NHP Treponema pallidum genome has been published, hindering detection of spillover events and our understanding of potential wildlife reservoirs. Similarly, only ten genomes of Treponema pallidum infecting humans have been published, impeding a full understanding of their diversity and evolutionary history. Research efforts have been hampered by the difficulty of culturing and propagating Treponema pallidum. Here we highlight avenues of research recently opened by the coupling of hybridization capture and next-generation sequencing. We present data generated with such an approach suggesting that asymptomatic bones from NHP occasionally contain enough treponemal DNA to recover large fractions of their genomes. We expect that these methods, which naturally can be applied to modern biopsy samples and ancient human bones, will soon considerably improve our understanding of these enigmatic pathogens and lay rest to old yet unresolved controversies. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF ALEXANDRIUM TAMARENSE (DINOPHYCEAE) GENES REVEALS THE COMPLEX EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF A MICROBIAL EUKARYOTE1

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Soares, Marcelo B.; Bonaldo, Maria F.; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Anderson, Donald M.; Erdner, Deana L.; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes may extinguish much of their nuclear phylogenetic history due to endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT). We studied E/HGT in 32,110 contigs of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Dinophyceae) using a conservative phylogenomic approach. The vast majority of predicted proteins (86.4%) in this alga are novel or dinoflagellate-specific. We searched for putative homologs of these predicted proteins against a taxonomically broadly sampled protein database that includes all currently available data from algae and protists and reconstructed a phylogeny from each of the putative homologous protein sets. Of the 2,523 resulting phylogenies, 14-17% are potentially impacted by E/HGT involving both prokaryote and eukaryote lineages, with 2-4% showing clear evidence of reticulate evolution. The complex evolutionary histories of the remaining proteins, many of which may also have been affected by E/HGT, cannot be interpreted using our approach with currently available gene data. We present empirical evidence of reticulate genome evolution that combined with inadequate or highly complex phylogenetic signal in many proteins may impede genome-wide approaches to infer the tree of microbial eukaryotes. PMID:23066170

  10. The Evolutionary History, Demography, and Spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Maxime; Wirth, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, the genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains went through a major breakup that dramatically improved the field of molecular epidemiology but also revolutionized our deep understanding of the M. tuberculosis complex evolutionary history. The intricate paths of the pathogen and its human host are reflected by a common geographical origin in Africa and strong biogeographical associations that largely reflect the past migration waves out of Africa. This long coevolutionary history is cardinal for our understanding of the host-pathogen dynamic, including past and ongoing demographic components, strains' genetic background, as well as the immune system genetic architecture of the host. Coalescent- and Bayesian-based analyses allowed us to reconstruct population size changes of M. tuberculosis through time, to date the most recent common ancestor and the several phylogenetic lineages. This information will ultimately help us to understand the spread of the Beijing lineage, the rise of multidrug-resistant sublineages, or the fall of others in the light of socioeconomic events, antibiotic programs, or host population densities. If we leave the present and go through the looking glass, thanks to our ability to handle small degraded molecules combined with targeted capture, paleomicrobiology covering the Pleistocene era will possibly unravel lineage replacements, dig out extinct ones, and eventually ask for major revisions of the current model.

  11. Phylogeographic analyses and genetic structure illustrate the complex evolutionary history of Phragmites australis in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colin, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-05-01

    Genetic data suggest that three lineages of Phragmites australis are found in North America: the Native North American lineage, the Gulf Coast lineage, and the Invasive lineage. In Mexico, P. australis is a common species, but nothing is known about the distribution or ecology of these lineages. We examined the phylogeography of P. australis to analyze the current geographic distribution of genetic variation, demographic history, and dispersal patterns to better understand its evolutionary history in Mexico. We sampled 427 individuals from 28 populations. We used two noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA to estimate the levels of genetic variation and identified the genetic groups across the species' geographical range in Mexico. We compared the genealogical relationships among haplotypes with those previously reported. A hypothesis of demographic expansion was also tested for the Mexican P. australis lineages. We found 13 new haplotypes native to Mexico that might be undergoing an active process of expansion and diversification. Genealogical analyses provided evidence that two independent lineages of P. australis are present in Mexico. The invasive lineage was not detected with our sampling. Our estimates of population expansions in Mexico ranged from 0.202 to 0.726 mya. Phragmites australis is a native species that has been in Mexico for thousands of years. Genetic data suggest that climatic changes during the Pleistocene played an important role in the demographic expansion of the populations that constitute the different genetic groups of P. australis in Mexico. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. The genetic diversity and evolutionary history of hepatitis C virus in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Yuan, Manqiong; Lu, Ling; Lu, Teng; Xia, Wenjie; Pham, Van H.; Vo, An X.D.; Nguyen, Mindie H.; Abe, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has a unique history in association with foreign countries, which may have resulted in multiple introductions of the alien HCV strains to mix with those indigenous ones. In this study, we characterized the HCV sequences in Core-E1 and NS5B regions from 236 Vietnamese individuals. We identified multiple HCV lineages; 6a, 6e, 6h, 6k, 6l, 6o, 6p, and two novel variants may represent the indigenous strains; 1a was probably introduced from the US; 1b and 2a possibly originated in East Asia; while 2i, 2j, and 2m were likely brought by French explorers. We inferred the evolutionary history for four major subtypes: 1a, 1b, 6a, and 6e. The obtained Bayesian Skyline Plots (BSPs) consistently showed the rapid HCV population growth from 1955-1963 until 1984 or after, corresponding to the era of the Vietnam War. We also estimated HCV growth rates and reconstructed phylogeographic trees for comparing subtypes 1a, 1b, and HCV-2. PMID:25193655

  13. A genome-wide perspective on the evolutionary history of enigmatic wolf-like canids

    PubMed Central

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Earl, Dent A.; Knowles, James C.; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Jedrzejewska, Bogumila; Sidorovich, Vadim; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Musiani, Marco; Kays, Roland; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput genotyping technologies developed for model species can potentially increase the resolution of demographic history and ancestry in wild relatives. We use a SNP genotyping microarray developed for the domestic dog to assay variation in over 48K loci in wolf-like species worldwide. Despite the high mobility of these large carnivores, we find distinct hierarchical population units within gray wolves and coyotes that correspond with geographic and ecologic differences among populations. Further, we test controversial theories about the ancestry of the Great Lakes wolf and red wolf using an analysis of haplotype blocks across all 38 canid autosomes. We find that these enigmatic canids are highly admixed varieties derived from gray wolves and coyotes, respectively. This divergent genomic history suggests that they do not have a shared recent ancestry as proposed by previous researchers. Interspecific hybridization, as well as the process of evolutionary divergence, may be responsible for the observed phenotypic distinction of both forms. Such admixture complicates decisions regarding endangered species restoration and protection. PMID:21566151

  14. Ancient DNA forces reconsideration of evolutionary history of Mediterranean pygmy elephantids

    PubMed Central

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Parmakelis, Aris; Lymberakis, Petros; Mylonas, Moysis; Zouros, Eleftherios; Reese, David S; Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2006-01-01

    During the Pleistocene pygmy elephantids, some only a quarter of their ancestors' size, were present on Mediterranean islands until about 10 000 years ago (y.a.). Using a new methodology for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, the whole genomic multiple displacement amplification method, we were able to retrieve cytochrome b (cytb) DNA fragments from 4200 to 800 000 y.a. specimens from island and mainland samples, including pygmy and normal-sized forms. The short DNA sequence (43 bp) retrieved from the 800 000 y.a. sample is one of the oldest DNA fragment ever retrieved. Duplication of the experiments in two laboratories, the occurrence of three diagnostic sites and the results of the phylogenetic analyses strongly support its authenticity. Our results challenge the prevailing view that pygmy elephantids of the eastern Mediterranean originated exclusively from Elephas, suggesting independent histories of dwarfism and the presence of both pygmy mammoths and elephant-like taxa on these islands. Based on our molecular data, the origin of the Tilos and Cyprus elephantids from a lineage within the genus Elephas is confirmed, while the DNA sequence from the Cretan sample falls clearly within the mammoth clade. Thus, the name Mammuthus creticus rather than Elephas creticus, seems to be justified for this form. Our findings also suggest a need to re-evaluate the evolutionary history of the Sicilian/Maltese species, traditionally included in the genus Elephas. PMID:17148428

  15. The genetic diversity and evolutionary history of hepatitis C virus in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhua; Yuan, Manqiong; Lu, Ling; Lu, Teng; Xia, Wenjie; Pham, Van H; Vo, An X D; Nguyen, Mindie H; Abe, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    Vietnam has a unique history in association with foreign countries, which may have resulted in multiple introductions of the alien HCV strains to mix with those indigenous ones. In this study, we characterized the HCV sequences in Core-E1 and NS5B regions from 236 Vietnamese individuals. We identified multiple HCV lineages; 6a, 6 e, 6h, 6k, 6l, 6 o, 6p, and two novel variants may represent the indigenous strains; 1a was probably introduced from the US; 1b and 2a possibly originated in East Asia; while 2i, 2j, and 2m were likely brought by French explorers. We inferred the evolutionary history for four major subtypes: 1a, 1b, 6a, and 6 e. The obtained Bayesian Skyline Plots (BSPs) consistently showed the rapid HCV population growth from 1955 to 1963 until 1984 or after, corresponding to the era of the Vietnam War. We also estimated HCV growth rates and reconstructed phylogeographic trees for comparing subtypes 1a, 1b, and HCV-2.

  16. Fossils, phylogenies, and the challenge of preserving evolutionary history in the face of anthropogenic extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Danwei; Goldberg, Emma E.; Roy, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are endangering many long-lived species and lineages, possibly leading to a disproportionate loss of existing evolutionary history (EH) in the future. However, surprisingly little is known about the loss of EH during major extinctions in the geological past, and thus we do not know whether human impacts are pruning the tree of life in a manner that is unique in the history of life. A major impediment to comparing the loss of EH during past and current extinctions is the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from paleontological data versus molecular phylogenies. In the former case the age of a taxon is its entire stratigraphic range, regardless of how many daughter taxa it may have produced; for the latter it is the time to the most recent common ancestor shared with another extant taxon. To explore this issue, we use simulations to understand how the loss of EH is manifested in the two data types. We also present empirical analyses of the marine bivalve clade Pectinidae (scallops) during a major Plio–Pleistocene extinction in California that involved a preferential loss of younger species. Overall, our results show that the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from the stratigraphic record versus molecular phylogenies does not preclude comparisons of age selectivities of past and present extinctions. Such comparisons not only provide fundamental insights into the nature of the extinction process but should also help improve evolutionarily informed models of conservation prioritization. PMID:25901313

  17. Reticulation, data combination, and inferring evolutionary history: an example from Danthonioideae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Pirie, Michael D; Humphreys, Aelys M; Barker, Nigel P; Linder, H Peter

    2009-12-01

    We explore the potential impact of conflicting gene trees on inferences of evolutionary history above the species level. When conflict between gene trees is discovered, it is common practice either to analyze the data separately or to combine the data having excluded the conflicting taxa or data partitions for those taxa (which are then recoded as missing). We demonstrate an alternative approach, which involves duplicating conflicting taxa in the matrix, such that each duplicate is represented by one partition only. This allows the combination of all available data in standard phylogenetic analyses, despite reticulations. We show how interpretation of contradictory gene trees can lead to conflicting inferences of both morphological evolution and biogeographic history, using the example of the pampas grasses, Cortaderia. The characteristic morphological syndrome of Cortaderia can be inferred as having arisen multiple times (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA]) or just once (nuclear ribosomal DNA [nrDNA]). The distributions of species of Cortaderia and related genera in Australia/New Guinea, New Zealand, and South America can be explained by few (nrDNA) or several (cpDNA) dispersals between the southern continents. These contradictions can be explained by past hybridization events, which have linked gains of complex morphologies with unrelated chloroplast lineages and have erased evidence of dispersals from the nuclear genome. Given the discrepancies between inferences based on the gene trees individually, we urge the use of approaches such as ours that take multiple gene trees into account.

  18. Fossils, phylogenies, and the challenge of preserving evolutionary history in the face of anthropogenic extinctions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danwei; Goldberg, Emma E; Roy, Kaustuv

    2015-04-21

    Anthropogenic impacts are endangering many long-lived species and lineages, possibly leading to a disproportionate loss of existing evolutionary history (EH) in the future. However, surprisingly little is known about the loss of EH during major extinctions in the geological past, and thus we do not know whether human impacts are pruning the tree of life in a manner that is unique in the history of life. A major impediment to comparing the loss of EH during past and current extinctions is the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from paleontological data versus molecular phylogenies. In the former case the age of a taxon is its entire stratigraphic range, regardless of how many daughter taxa it may have produced; for the latter it is the time to the most recent common ancestor shared with another extant taxon. To explore this issue, we use simulations to understand how the loss of EH is manifested in the two data types. We also present empirical analyses of the marine bivalve clade Pectinidae (scallops) during a major Plio-Pleistocene extinction in California that involved a preferential loss of younger species. Overall, our results show that the conceptual difference in how ages are estimated from the stratigraphic record versus molecular phylogenies does not preclude comparisons of age selectivities of past and present extinctions. Such comparisons not only provide fundamental insights into the nature of the extinction process but should also help improve evolutionarily informed models of conservation prioritization.

  19. Influences of Shear History and Infilling on the Mechanical Characteristics and Acoustic Emissions of Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanzhen; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Zaiquan; Zhang, Liming; Kong, Liang; Li, Shaojun; Zhang, Chuanqing

    2017-08-01

    Filled joints, which are characterized by high deformability and low shear strength, are among the most critical discontinuities in rock mass and may be sheared repeatedly when subject to cyclic loading. Shear tests were carried out on tension splitting joints, with soil and granular cement mortar particles used as infillings, and the effects of the shear history on the mechanical behavior and acoustic emission (AE) of clean and filled joints were studied. The maximum strength in the subsequent shears was approximately 60% of the peak strength of the first shear for a clean joint, and the friction angle degraded from 63° to 45° after the first shear. The maximum shear strength of the filled joints was lower than 35% of the peak strength of the clean joint under the same normal stress. The change in the shear strength of filled joints with the number of shearing cycles was closely related to the transformation of the shear medium. Rolling friction occurred and the shear strength was low for the granular particle-filled joint, but the strength was elevated when the particles were crushed and sliding friction occurred. The AEs were significantly reduced during the second shear for the clean joint, and the peak AEs were mainly obtained at or near the turning point of the shear stress curve for the filled joint. The AEs were the highest for the cement particle-filled joint and lowest for the dry soil-filled joint; when subjected to repeated shears, the AEs were more complex because of the continuous changes to the shear medium. The evolution of the AEs with the shear displacement can accurately reflect the shear failure mechanism during a single shear process.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Mary F. Mahalovich; Robert E. Means

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic...

  1. Lower limb joint replacement in patients with a history of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Allen, D; Sale, G

    2014-11-01

    Although patients with a history of venous thromboembolism (VTE) who undergo lower limb joint replacement are thought to be at high risk of further VTE, the actual rate of recurrence has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify the recurrence rate of VTE in patients who had undergone lower limb joint replacement, and to compare it with that of patients who had undergone a joint replacement without a history of VTE. From a pool of 6646 arthroplasty procedures (3344 TKR, 2907 THR, 243 revision THR, 152 revision TKR) in 5967 patients (68% female, mean age 67.7; 21 to 96) carried out between 2009 and 2011, we retrospectively identified 118 consecutive treatment episodes in 106 patients (65% female, mean age 70; 51 to 88,) who had suffered a previous VTE. Despite mechanical prophylaxis and anticoagulation with warfarin, we had four recurrences by three months (3.4% of 118) and six by one year (5.1% of 118). In comparison, in all our other joint replacements the rate of VTE was 0.54% (35/6528). The relative risk of a VTE by 90 days in patients who had undergone a joint replacement with a history of VTE compared with those with a joint replacement and no history of VTE was 6.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.3 to 17.5). There were five complications in the previous VTE group related to bleeding or over-anticoagulation. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Two evolutionary histories in the genome of rice: the roles of domestication genes.

    PubMed

    He, Ziwen; Zhai, Weiwei; Wen, Haijun; Tang, Tian; Wang, Yu; Lu, Xuemei; Greenberg, Anthony J; Hudson, Richard R; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua

    2011-06-01

    Genealogical patterns in different genomic regions may be different due to the joint influence of gene flow and selection. The existence of two subspecies of cultivated rice provides a unique opportunity for analyzing these effects during domestication. We chose 66 accessions from the three rice taxa (about 22 each from Oryza sativa indica, O. sativa japonica, and O. rufipogon) for whole-genome sequencing. In the search for the signature of selection, we focus on low diversity regions (LDRs) shared by both cultivars. We found that the genealogical histories of these overlapping LDRs are distinct from the genomic background. While indica and japonica genomes generally appear to be of independent origin, many overlapping LDRs may have originated only once, as a result of selection and subsequent introgression. Interestingly, many such LDRs contain only one candidate gene of rice domestication, and several known domestication genes have indeed been "rediscovered" by this approach. In summary, we identified 13 additional candidate genes of domestication.

  3. The Origin and Evolutionary History of HIV-1 Subtype C in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Matthieu; Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Fargette, Denis; Diop, Halimatou; Toure Kane, Coumba; Gascuel, Olivier; Peeters, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background The classification of HIV-1 strains in subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) has helped in tracking the course of the HIV pandemic. In Senegal, which is located at the tip of West Africa, CRF02_AG predominates in the general population and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). In contrast, 40% of Men having Sex with Men (MSM) in Senegal are infected with subtype C. In this study we analyzed the geographical origins and introduction dates of HIV-1 C in Senegal in order to better understand the evolutionary history of this subtype, which predominates today in the MSM population Methodology/Principal Findings We used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and a Bayesian coalescent-based approach, to study the phylogenetic relationships in pol of 56 subtype C isolates from Senegal with 3,025 subtype C strains that were sampled worldwide. Our analysis shows a significantly well supported cluster which contains all subtype C strains that circulate among MSM in Senegal. The MSM cluster and other strains from Senegal are widely dispersed among the different subclusters of African HIV-1 C strains, suggesting multiple introductions of subtype C in Senegal from many different southern and east African countries. More detailed analyses show that HIV-1 C strains from MSM are more closely related to those from southern Africa. The estimated date of the MRCA of subtype C in the MSM population in Senegal is estimated to be in the early 80's. Conclusions/Significance Our evolutionary reconstructions suggest that multiple subtype C viruses with a common ancestor originating in the early 1970s entered Senegal. There was only one efficient spread in the MSM population, which most likely resulted from a single introduction, underlining the importance of high-risk behavior in spread of viruses. PMID:22470456

  4. Evolutionary history of the GABA transporter (GAT) group revealed by marine invertebrate GAT-1.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Azusa; Koito, Tomoko; Kawaguchi, So; Inoue, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The GABA transporter (GAT) group is one of the major subgroups in the solute career 6 (SLC6) family of transmembrane proteins. The GAT group, which has been well studied in mammals, has 6 known members, i.e., a taurine transporter (TAUT), four GABA transporters (GAT-1, -2, -3, - 4), and a creatine transporter (CT1), which have important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the GAT group has not been extensively investigated in invertebrates; only TAUT has been reported in marine invertebrates such as bivalves and krills, and GAT-1 has been reported in several insect species and nematodes. Thus, it is unknown how transporters in the GAT group arose during the course of animal evolution. In this study, we cloned GAT-1 cDNAs from the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, whose TAUT cDNA has already been cloned. To understand the evolutionary history of the GAT group, we conducted phylogenetic and synteny analyses on the GAT group transporters of vertebrates and invertebrates. Our findings suggest that transporters of the GAT group evolved through the following processes. First, GAT-1 and CT1 arose by tandem duplication of an ancestral transporter gene before the divergence of Deuterostomia and Protostomia; next, the TAUT gene arose and GAT-3 was formed by the tandem duplication of the TAUT gene; and finally, GAT-2 and GAT-4 evolved from a GAT-3 gene by chromosomal duplication in the ancestral vertebrates. Based on synteny and phylogenetic evidence, the present naming of the GAT group members does not accurately reflect the evolutionary relationships.

  5. The evolutionary history of vertebrate cranial placodes II. Evolution of ectodermal patterning.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Gerhard; Patthey, Cedric; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2014-05-01

    Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. Since both siphon primordia in tunicates give rise to sparse populations of sensory cells, both proto-placodal domains probably also gave rise to some sensory receptors in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. However, proper cranial placodes, which give rise to high density arrays of specialised sensory receptors and neurons, evolved from these domains only in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that this may have involved rewiring of the regulatory network upstream and downstream of Six1/2 and Six4/5 transcription factors and their Eya family cofactors. These proteins, which play ancient roles in neuronal differentiation were first recruited to the dorsal non-neural ectoderm in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor but subsequently probably acquired new target genes in the vertebrate lineage, allowing them to adopt new functions in regulating proliferation and patterning of neuronal progenitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Chloroplast FBPase and SBPase are thioredoxin-linked enzymes with similar architecture but different evolutionary histories

    PubMed Central

    Gütle, Desirée D.; Roret, Thomas; Müller, Stefanie J.; Couturier, Jérémy; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Hecker, Arnaud; Dhalleine, Tiphaine; Buchanan, Bob B.; Reski, Ralf; Einsle, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The Calvin–Benson cycle of carbon dioxide fixation in chloroplasts is controlled by light-dependent redox reactions that target specific enzymes. Of the regulatory members of the cycle, our knowledge of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) is particularly scanty, despite growing evidence for its importance and link to plant productivity. To help fill this gap, we have purified, crystallized, and characterized the recombinant form of the enzyme together with the better studied fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), in both cases from the moss Physcomitrella patens (Pp). Overall, the moss enzymes resembled their counterparts from seed plants, including oligomeric organization—PpSBPase is a dimer, and PpFBPase is a tetramer. The two phosphatases showed striking structural homology to each other, differing primarily in their solvent-exposed surface areas in a manner accounting for their specificity for seven-carbon (sedoheptulose) and six-carbon (fructose) sugar bisphosphate substrates. The two enzymes had a similar redox potential for their regulatory redox-active disulfides (−310 mV for PpSBPase vs. −290 mV for PpFBPase), requirement for Mg2+ and thioredoxin (TRX) specificity (TRX f > TRX m). Previously known to differ in the position and sequence of their regulatory cysteines, the enzymes unexpectedly showed unique evolutionary histories. The FBPase gene originated in bacteria in conjunction with the endosymbiotic event giving rise to mitochondria, whereas SBPase arose from an archaeal gene resident in the eukaryotic host. These findings raise the question of how enzymes with such different evolutionary origins achieved structural similarity and adapted to control by the same light-dependent photosynthetic mechanism—namely ferredoxin, ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase, and thioredoxin. PMID:27226308

  7. The evolutionary history of YAP and the hippo/YAP pathway.

    PubMed

    Hilman, Dror; Gat, Uri

    2011-08-01

    The Hippo/YAP pathway plays an important role in animal organ size control, which it exerts by regulating tissue proliferation and apoptosis rates as a response to developmental cues, cell contact, and density. With the ever increasing advance in genome sequencing and analysis tools, our understanding of the animal world and its evolution has greatly increased in the recent years. We used bioinformatic tools to study the evolution of the Hippo/YAP pathway focusing on the transcriptional coactivator YAP, which is a pivotal effector of the pathway. The aim was to establish the origin and mode of development of YAP and its pathway in the animal world. Some pathway members can be already identified in single-celled eukaryotes like the yeast that have preceded multicellular animals. Interestingly, we can find most of the components that are present in human in the sea-anemone Nematostella, which belongs to a very basal group of metazoans, the cnidarians. All the major domains of YAP have been conserved between cnidarians and mammals, and YAP can be identified even in the more basal placozoan clade. We show a very high degree of conservation in regions such as the WW and the TEAD-binding domains, TEAD being the major DNA-binding partner of YAP. Remarkably, we found that the location of an intron in the WW1 genomic region has been invariant along an evolutionary span of over 700 My. We have followed the evolutionary changes in YAP and in other main components of the pathway from the first metazoans such as sponges, described the phylogenetic relationships between the YAP genes and indicated where YAP and other components have been secondarily lost. Evidence is provided that YAP and its binding partner TEAD demonstrate strong coevolution. This gives further support for the importance of the TEAD-YAP association. Beyond contributing to an understanding of the evolutionary history of this pathway, we have provided insights into the "birth" of this pathway, its functions and

  8. Major Aspects of the Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Evolutionary History of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Stephanie C.

    2005-12-01

    This thesis was conducted in the framework of the German Research Foundation's priority program "Mars and the Terrestrial Planets". The aim was to improve and/or verify the existing chronostratigraphic system of Mars and to understand globally the geologic evolutionary history of Mars focusing on the volcanic, fluvial, and possible glacial processes. This implies the photogeologic analysis of all available types of Martian imagery in order to cover the diversity of Martian landforms in time and space. Therefore, crater frequencies are determined for appropriate geologically mapped units and absolute ages derived. The lunar crater production function and the chronology model was confirmed for the Martian case, e.g. the theoretical crater production function was proven over the entire (50 meters to 500 kilometers). Any deviation from the confirmed Martian standard crater production function indicate resurfacing events. In such cases the method of age determination has been improved. The influence of secondary cratering on a measurement is at most 10 percent. Type areas of the Martian epochs (Noachian, Hesperian and Amazonian) such as Noachis Terra, Hesperia Planum, northern lowland regions, Amazonis and Elysium Planitia, have been examined, to understanding the role of water during the Martian geologic evolution. The younger fluvial erosion is closely related to volcanic activity and occurred in episodes over the last 2 billion years. Extensive measurements in volcanic units allowed for the interpretation of the evolutionary history of Martian volcanic activity. An interplay of volcanic processes with ancient and more recent fluvial and glacial activity is confirmed. Globally, the volcanic activity started very early in the Martian evolution. Most of the volcanoes achieved their present dimensions at least until 3.5 Ga ago. Later volcanic resurfacing indicates a weakening of the volcanic activity after the construct-forming period. Another major finding is that the

  9. The environmental context of human evolutionary history in Eurasia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This review has three main aims: (1) to make specific predictions about the habitat of the hypothetical last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo–human clade; (2) to outline the major trends in environments between 8–6 Ma and the late Pleistocene; and (3) to pinpoint when, and in some cases where, human ancestors evolved to cope with the wide range of habitats they presently tolerate. Several lines of evidence indicate that arboreal environments, particularly woodlands, were important habitats for late Miocene hominids and hominins, and therefore possibly for the last common ancestor of the chimpanzee/bonobo–human clade. However, as there is no clear candidate for this last common ancestor, and because the sampling of fossils and past environments is inevitably patchy, this prediction remains a working hypothesis at best. Nonetheless, as a primate, it is expected that the last common ancestor was ecologically dependent on trees in some form. Understanding past environments is important, as palaeoenvironmental reconstructions provide the context for human morphological and behavioural evolution. Indeed, the impact of climate on the evolutionary history of our species has long been debated. Since the mid-Miocene, the Earth has been experiencing a general cooling trend accompanied by aridification, which intensified during the later Pliocene and Pleistocene. Numerous climatic fluctuations, as well as local, regional and continental geography that influenced weather patterns and vegetation, created hominin environments that were dynamic in space and time. Behavioural flexibility and cultural complexity were crucial aspects of hominin expansion into diverse environments during the Pleistocene, but the ability to exploit varied and varying habitats was established much earlier in human evolutionary history. The development of increasingly complex tool technology facilitated re-expansion into tropical forests. These environments are difficult for obligate bipeds

  10. Evolutionary history of phosphatidylinositol- 3-kinases: ancestral origin in eukaryotes and complex duplication patterns.

    PubMed

    Philippon, Héloïse; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Perrière, Guy

    2015-10-19

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of eukaryotic enzymes modifying phosphoinositides in phosphatidylinositols-3-phosphate. Located upstream of the AKT/mTOR signalling pathway, PI3Ks activate secondary messengers of extracellular signals. They are involved in many critical cellular processes such as cell survival, angiogenesis and autophagy. PI3K family is divided into three classes, including 14 human homologs. While class II enzymes are composed of a single catalytic subunit, class I and III also contain regulatory subunits. Here we present an in-depth phylogenetic analysis of all PI3K proteins. We confirmed that PI3K catalytic subunits form a monophyletic group, whereas regulatory subunits form three distinct groups. The phylogeny of the catalytic subunits indicates that they underwent two major duplications during their evolutionary history: the most ancient arose in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) and led to the emergence of class III and class I/II, while the second - that led to the separation between class I and II - occurred later, in the ancestor of Unikonta (i.e., the clade grouping Amoebozoa, Fungi, and Metazoa). These two major events were followed by many lineage specific duplications in particular in vertebrates, but also in various protist lineages. Major loss events were also detected in Vidiriplantae and Fungi. For the regulatory subunits, we identified homologs of class III in all eukaryotic groups indicating that, for this class, both the catalytic and the regulatory subunits were presents in LECA. In contrast, homologs of the regulatory class I have a more recent origin. The phylogenetic analysis of the PI3K shed a new light on the evolutionary history of these enzymes. We found that LECA already contained a PI3K class III composed of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. Absence of class II regulatory subunits and the recent origin of class I regulatory subunits is puzzling given that the class I/II catalytic subunit

  11. A molecular phylogeny of nephilid spiders: evolutionary history of a model lineage.

    PubMed

    Kuntner, Matjaž; Arnedo, Miquel A; Trontelj, Peter; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2013-12-01

    we set the minimum bound for the stems of Nephilidae at 40 Ma and of Nephila at 16 Ma to accommodate Palaeonephila from Baltic amber and Dominican Nephila species, respectively. We also calibrated and dated the phylogeny under three different interpretations of the enigmatic 165 Ma fossil Nephila jurassica, which we suspected based on morphology to be misplaced. We found that by treating N. jurassica as stem Nephila or nephilid the inferred clade ages were vastly older, and the mitochondrial substitution rates much slower than expected from other empirical spider data. This suggests that N. jurassica is not a Nephila nor a nephilid, but possibly a stem orbicularian. The estimated nephilid ancestral age (40-60 Ma) rejects a Gondwanan origin of the family as most of the southern continents were already split at that time. The origin of the family is equally likely to be African, Asian, or Australasian, with a global biogeographic history dominated by dispersal events. A reinterpretation of web architecture evolution suggests that a partially arboricolous, asymmetric orb web with a retreat, as exemplified by both groups of "Nephilengys", is plesiomorphic in Nephilidae, that this architecture was modified into specialized arboricolous webs in Herennia and independently in Clitaetra, and that the web became aerial, gigantic, and golden independently in both "Nephila" groups. The new topology questions previously hypothesized gradual evolution of female size from small to large, and rather suggests a more mosaic evolutionary pattern with independent female size increases from medium to giant in both "Nephila" clades, and two reversals back to medium and small; combined with male size evolution, this pattern will help detect gross evolutionary events leading to extreme sexual size dimorphism, and its morphological and behavioral correlates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  13. Five major shifts of diversification through the long evolutionary history of Magnoliidae (angiosperms).

    PubMed

    Massoni, Julien; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-03-18

    With 10,000 species, Magnoliidae are the largest clade of flowering plants outside monocots and eudicots. Despite an ancient and rich fossil history, the tempo and mode of diversification of Magnoliidae remain poorly known. Using a molecular data set of 12 markers and 220 species (representing >75% of genera in Magnoliidae) and six robust, internal fossil age constraints, we estimate divergence times and significant shifts of diversification across the clade. In addition, we test the sensitivity of magnoliid divergence times to the choice of relaxed clock model and various maximum age constraints for the angiosperms. Compared with previous work, our study tends to push back in time the age of the crown node of Magnoliidae (178.78-126.82 million years, Myr), and of the four orders, Canellales (143.18-125.90 Myr), Piperales (158.11-88.15 Myr), Laurales (165.62-112.05 Myr), and Magnoliales (164.09-114.75 Myr). Although families vary in crown ages, Magnoliidae appear to have diversified into most extant families by the end of the Cretaceous. The strongly imbalanced distribution of extant diversity within Magnoliidae appears to be best explained by models of diversification with 6 to 13 shifts in net diversification rates. Significant increases are inferred within Piperaceae and Annonaceae, while the low species richness of Calycanthaceae, Degeneriaceae, and Himantandraceae appears to be the result of decreases in both speciation and extinction rates. This study provides a new time scale for the evolutionary history of an important, but underexplored, part of the tree of angiosperms. The ages of the main clades of Magnoliidae (above the family level) are older than previously thought, and in several lineages, there were significant increases and decreases in net diversification rates. This study is a new robust framework for future investigations of trait evolution and of factors influencing diversification in this group as well as angiosperms as a whole.

  14. Delayed life history effects, multilevel selection, and evolutionary trade-offs in the California tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Christopher A; Gray, Levi N; Trenham, Peter C; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Delayed life history effects (DLHEs) occur when fitness in one life stage affects fitness in subsequent life stages. Given their biphasic life cycle, pond-breeding amphibians provide a natural system for studying DLHEs, although these effects are not restricted to species with biphasic life histories. In this study, we used multiple mark-recapture techniques enabled by a large trapping array to monitor components of fitness and resulting DLHEs in a population of the endangered California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). We found that DLHEs are prominent across all life stage transitions and that there is variation in whether selection acts primarily at the individual or cohort level. We also demonstrated that there is more than an order of magnitude variation in mean cohort fitness, providing tremendous variation for DLHEs to act upon. We documented an evolutionary trade-off between mass at emergence and date of emergence, which may play a role in maintaining the variation in mass (fitness) at emergence. A literature review revealed that such high levels of intercohort variation occur in many other pond-breeding amphibians, and that appropriately documenting the magnitude of intercohort variation requires long-term studies (roughly two population turnovers). Given the profound effect that DLHEs can have on population dynamics, quantifying intercohort variation in mean fitness and the level(s) at which selection acts will be very important for developing accurate models of population dynamics. In general, when developing models of population dynamics, more attention should be paid to variation in mean fitness and not just variation in total numbers.

  15. Divergent evolutionary histories of C4 grasses shape global grassland ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C.; Griffith, D.; Osborne, C.

    2014-12-01

    C4 photosynthesis has evolved in more than 23 independent lineages of grasses as an adaptation to hot, sunny conditions. Geological records demonstrate that C4 grasses abruptly became ecologically dominant during the late Cenozoic across the tropical and temperate regions, transforming the Earth System and facilitating major faunal and floral radiations. However, although each C4 grass lineage originated and specialised in different environments, the importance of these divergent evolutionary histories for global ecology remains largely unknown. Here, we address this problem by compiling the first global map of grassy biomes based entirely upon ground-based vegetation surveys of dominant species. Our analysis shows that grasses dominate the ground layer across 40% of the vegetated land surface, with C4 grasses accounting for 60% of this area, and grassy biomes occurring under almost all climatic conditions. More than 98% of C3 grassy vegetation is dominated by the cold tolerant Pooideae lineage, which is replaced by C4 lineages at mean annual temperatures exceeding 15oC. The world's C4 grassy vegetation is largely dominated by only four of the 23 independent C4 grass lineages, and these segregate strongly along global environmental gradients and across continents. The Chloridoideae lineage is globally important in dominating semi-arid environments with a long fire return interval. In contrast, although the Andropogoneae lineage dominates extremely wet regions with frequent fire in the Paleotropics and North America, the same niche space is dominated by Paspaleae in South America. Sorting of lineages along precipitation and fire gradients is strongly predicted by plant height. Our results demonstrate that the divergent histories of independent C4 grass lineages have constrained the assembly and functional traits of grassy biomes, with important implications for understanding how biome boundaries may shift in past and future environments.

  16. The dynamic evolutionary history of the bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) in the Caribbean revealed by a multigene analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) is a small nectivorous and frugivorous emberizine bird (order Passeriformes) that is an abundant resident throughout the Caribbean region. We used multi-gene analyses to investigate the evolutionary history of this species throughout its distribution in the West Indies and in South and Middle America. We sequenced six mitochondrial genes (3744 base pairs) and three nuclear genes (2049 base pairs) for forty-four bananaquits and three outgroup species. We infer the ancestral area of the present-day bananaquit populations, report on the species' phylogenetic, biogeographic and evolutionary history, and propose scenarios for its diversification and range expansion. Results Phylogenetic concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genes at the base of the bananaquit phylogeny supported a West Indian origin for continental populations. Multi-gene analysis showing genetic remnants of successive colonization events in the Lesser Antilles reinforced earlier research demonstrating that bananaquits alternate periods of invasiveness and colonization with biogeographic quiescence. Although nuclear genes provided insufficient information at the tips of the tree to further evaluate relationships of closely allied but strongly supported mitochondrial DNA clades, the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the population of Dominican Republic suggested that the mitochondrial genome was recently acquired by introgression from Jamaica. Conclusion This study represents one of the most complete phylogeographic analyses of its kind and reveals three patterns that are not commonly appreciated in birds: (1) island to mainland colonization, (2) multiple expansion phases, and (3) mitochondrial genome replacement. The detail revealed by this analysis will guide evolutionary analyses of populations in archipelagos such as the West Indies, which include islands varying in size, age, and geological history. Our results suggest that

  17. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of Southeast Asian macaques forming the M. silenus group.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Thomas; Abegg, Christophe; Meijaard, Erik; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Walter, Lutz; Hodges, J Keith; Roos, Christian

    2007-03-01

    The 12 presently recognized taxa forming the Macaca silenus group represent the most diverse lineage within the genus Macaca. The present study was set up to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the extant members of the M. silenus group and to explain their geographical distribution patterns seen today. A combined approach involving the analysis of one paternal (TSPY) and two maternal (cyt b and 12S-16S rRNA) molecular markers enabled us to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this lineage. Our Y chromosomal marker is not informative enough to allow detailed conclusion. Based on our mitochondrial data, however, M. pagensis, endemic to the three southern Mentawai islands (Sipora, North- and South Pagai), split off early (2.4-2.6 mya) and represents a sister clade to the macaques from the northern Mentawai island of Siberut and from those of the Southeast Asian mainland, which diverged in a radiation-like splitting event about 1.5-1.7 mya. By combining our new results with available data on behavioural as well as climate and sea level changes in Southeast Asia during the Plio- and Pleistocene, we have developed two scenarios for the evolutionary history of this primate group, which may help explain the current geographical distribution of its members.

  18. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Martín O.; Womack, Molly C.; Barrionuevo, J. Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L.; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Coloma, Luis A.; Hoke, Kim L.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. PMID:27677839

  19. Weak Genetic Structure in Northern African Dromedary Camels Reflects Their Unique Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Cherifi, Youcef Amine; Gaouar, Suheil Bechir Semir; Guastamacchia, Rosangela; El-Bahrawy, Khalid Ahmed; Abushady, Asmaa Mohammed Aly; Sharaf, Abdoallah Aboelnasr; Harek, Derradji; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Saïdi-Mehtar, Nadhira; Ciani, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on genetic diversity and structure of camel populations is fundamental for sustainable herd management and breeding program implementation in this species. Here we characterized a total of 331 camels from Northern Africa, representative of six populations and thirteen Algerian and Egyptian geographic regions, using 20 STR markers. The nineteen polymorphic loci displayed an average of 9.79 ± 5.31 alleles, ranging from 2 (CVRL8) to 24 (CVRL1D). Average He was 0.647 ± 0.173. Eleven loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P<0.05), due to excess of homozygous genotypes in all cases except one (CMS18). Distribution of genetic diversity along a weak geographic gradient as suggested by network analysis was not supported by either unsupervised and supervised Bayesian clustering. Traditional extensive/nomadic herding practices, together with the historical use as a long-range beast of burden and its peculiar evolutionary history, with domestication likely occurring from a bottlenecked and geographically confined wild progenitor, may explain the observed genetic patterns.

  20. Evolutionary history of redox metal-binding domains across the tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Arye; Bromberg, Yana; Falkowski, Paul G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Oxidoreductases mediate electron transfer (i.e., redox) reactions across the tree of life and ultimately facilitate the biologically driven fluxes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur on Earth. The core enzymes responsible for these reactions are ancient, often small in size, and highly diverse in amino acid sequence, and many require specific transition metals in their active sites. Here we reconstruct the evolution of metal-binding domains in extant oxidoreductases using a flexible network approach and permissive profile alignments based on available microbial genome data. Our results suggest there were at least 10 independent origins of redox domain families. However, we also identified multiple ancient connections between Fe2S2- (adrenodoxin-like) and heme- (cytochrome c) binding domains. Our results suggest that these two iron-containing redox families had a single common ancestor that underwent duplication and divergence. The iron-containing protein family constitutes ∼50% of all metal-containing oxidoreductases and potentially catalyzed redox reactions in the Archean oceans. Heme-binding domains seem to be derived via modular evolutionary processes that ultimately form the backbone of redox reactions in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. The empirically discovered network allows us to peer into the ancient history of microbial metabolism on our planet. PMID:24778258

  1. Weak Genetic Structure in Northern African Dromedary Camels Reflects Their Unique Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Cherifi, Youcef Amine; Gaouar, Suheil Bechir Semir; Guastamacchia, Rosangela; El-Bahrawy, Khalid Ahmed; Abushady, Asmaa Mohammed Aly; Sharaf, Abdoallah Aboelnasr; Harek, Derradji; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Saïdi-Mehtar, Nadhira

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on genetic diversity and structure of camel populations is fundamental for sustainable herd management and breeding program implementation in this species. Here we characterized a total of 331 camels from Northern Africa, representative of six populations and thirteen Algerian and Egyptian geographic regions, using 20 STR markers. The nineteen polymorphic loci displayed an average of 9.79 ± 5.31 alleles, ranging from 2 (CVRL8) to 24 (CVRL1D). Average He was 0.647 ± 0.173. Eleven loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P<0.05), due to excess of homozygous genotypes in all cases except one (CMS18). Distribution of genetic diversity along a weak geographic gradient as suggested by network analysis was not supported by either unsupervised and supervised Bayesian clustering. Traditional extensive/nomadic herding practices, together with the historical use as a long-range beast of burden and its peculiar evolutionary history, with domestication likely occurring from a bottlenecked and geographically confined wild progenitor, may explain the observed genetic patterns. PMID:28103238

  2. Transcriptome analysis reveals pathogenicity and evolutionary history of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Krajaejun, Theerapong; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Garg, Gagan; Lowhnoo, Tassanee; Yingyong, Wanta; Khositnithikul, Rommanee; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sullivan, Thomas D

    2014-07-01

    Oomycetes form a unique group of microorganisms that share hyphal morphology with fungi. Most of pathogenic oomycetes infect plants, while some species are capable of infecting animals. Pythium insidiosum is the only oomycete that can infect both humans and animals, and causes a life-threatening infectious disease, called 'pythiosis'. Controlling an infection caused by P. insidiosum is problematic because effective antimicrobial drugs are not available. Information on the biology and pathogenesis of P. insidiosum is limited. We generated a P. insidiosum transcriptome of 26 735 unigenes, using the 454 sequencing platform. As adaptations to increased temperature inside human hosts are required for a successful pathogen, we generated P. insidiosum transcriptomes at 28 °C and 37 °C and identified 625 up-regulated and 449 down-regulated genes at 37 °C. Comparing the proteomes of oomycetes, fungi, and parasites provided clues on the evolutionary history of P. insidiosum. Potential virulence factors of P. insidiosum, including putative effectors, were identified. Pythium insidiosum harbored an extensive repertoire of ∼ 300 elicitin domain-containing proteins. The transcriptome, presented herein, provides an invaluable resource for exploring P. insidiosum's biology, pathogenesis, and evolution.

  3. Species delineation and evolutionary history of the globally distributed spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari).

    PubMed

    Richards, Vincent P; Henning, Marcy; Witzell, Wayne; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2009-01-01

    The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), a large coral reef-associated batoid of conservation concern, is currently described as a single, circumglobally distributed species. However, geographic differences in its morphology and parasite diversity have raised unconfirmed suspicions that A. narinari may constitute a species complex. We used 1570 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data (cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, and internal transcribed spacer 2) to assess the validity of A. narinari as a single cosmopolitan species and infer its evolutionary history. Specimens from 4 major geographic regions were examined: the Central Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, Western Pacific, and Central Pacific. Phylogenies described 3 distinct, reciprocally monophyletic lineages with no genetic exchange among regions. Based on combined genealogical concordance and genetic distance criteria, we recommend that the Western/Central Pacific lineage be recognized as a distinct species from lineages in the Central Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. The latter 2 lineages, separated by the Isthmus of Panama, are proposed as subspecies. A basal position in phylogenetic analyses and statistical parsimony results support an Indo-West Pacific origin for the A. narinari species complex, with subsequent westerly dispersal around the southern tip of Africa into the Atlantic and then into the Eastern Pacific.

  4. Old fossils–young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600 000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift. PMID:19439440

  5. The evolutionary history and biogeography of Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): an emphasis on African acacias.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Maurin, Olivier; Hurter, Johan; van der Bank, Michelle

    2010-11-01

    The systematics of Mimosoideae has been in a state of flux, which reflects overall poor knowledge of the evolution and biogeography of this group. Preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest the tribal system of Mimosoideae needs a complete revision. This has led to the use of new generic names for Acacia sensu lato (s.l. hereafter) following the re-typification of Acacia with an Australian type: (i) Acacia sensu stricto (s.s. hereafter), Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa. This study reconstructs the evolutionary history of Mimosoideae, using the most comprehensive sampling to date, with an emphasis on African species. It aims to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the five recognized genera within Acacieae as the precursor to elucidate the paleo-biogeography of mimosoids and their adaptation to open habitats in the Cenozoic. The basal position of Mimoseae lineages with regards to Vachellia and Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clades is a novel finding. Vachellia (formerly Acacia subgenus Acacia) is found monophyletic. A grade including the remaining Mimoseae lineages is found sister to the Senegalia+Mariosousa+Acaciella+Ingeae+Acacia s.s. clade. The major clades originated in the late Oligocene-early Miocene (∼25mya). The transitions from close to open habitats occurred during the Miocene for at least four mimosoid lineages. These are interpreted as responses to increased seasonality leading to fire climates and drying trends in the Miocene, which allowed the expansion of open habitats, such as savannas, worldwide.

  6. Prasinoviruses reveal a complex evolutionary history and a patchy environmental distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, J. F.; Suttle, C.

    2016-02-01

    Prasinophytes constitute a group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that has a global distribution and is a major component of coastal and oceanic communities. Members of this group are infected by large double-stranded DNA viruses that can be significant agents of mortality, and which show evidence of substantial horizontal transfer of genes from their hosts and other organisms. However, information on the genetic diversity of these viruses and their environmental distribution is limited. This study examines the genetic repertoire, phylogeny and environmental distribution of large double-stranded DNA viruses infecting Micromonas pusilla and other prasinophytes. The genomes of viruses infecting M. pusilla were sequenced and compared to those of viruses infecting other prasinophytes, revealing a relatively small set of core genes and a larger flexible pan genome. Comparing genomes among prasinoviruses highlights their variable genetic content and complex evolutionary history. While some of the pan genome is clearly host derived, many open reading frames are most similar to those found in other eukaryotes and bacteria. Gene content of the viruses is is congruent with phylogenetic analysis of viral DNA polymerase sequences and indicates that two clades of M. pusilla viruses are less related to each other than to other prasinoviruses. Moreover, the environmental distribution of prasinovirus DNA polymerase sequences indicates a complex pattern of virus-host interactions in nature. Ultimately, these patterns are influenced by the genetic repertoire encoded by prasinoviruses, and the distribution of the hosts they infect.

  7. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Martín O; Womack, Molly C; Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-09-28

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures.

  8. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to −3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and −3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and −3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:27489352

  9. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal a complex evolutionary history in the Australasian robins (Passeriformes: Petroicidae).

    PubMed

    Christidis, Les; Irestedt, Martin; Rowe, Dianne; Boles, Walter E; Norman, Janette A

    2011-12-01

    The Australasian robins (Petroicidae) comprise a relatively homogeneous group of small to medium-sized insectivorous birds. Their center of diversity is Australia and New Guinea (40 species) but seven species have managed to colonize geographically distant islands such as Tanimbar, New Britain, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji and Samoa. To resolve the evolutionary relationships within the Petroicidae, we here present the results of a phylogenetic analysis of sequence data from two mitochondrial genes (ND2, CO1) and one nuclear intron (β-Fibrinogen intron 5) for all 14 genera and 40 of the 46 currently recognized species. All phylogenetic analyses identified six primary lineages, treated here as subfamilies, within the Petroicidae: (1) Eopsaltriinae comprising Eopsaltria (excluding E. flaviventris), Tregellasia, Peneothello, Melanodryas, Poecilodryas and Heteromyias; (2) Drymodinae comprising Drymodes; (3) Microecinae comprising Microeca, Monachella and Eopsaltria flaviventris; (4) Petroicinae comprising Petroica and Eugerygone; (5) Pachycephalopsinae comprising Pachycephalopsis; and (6) Amalocichlinae comprising Amalocichla. The genera Eopsaltria, Microeca, Peneothello and Poecilodryas were found to be paraphyletic. Based on assessments of phylogenetic branching patterns and/or DNA divergence it also was apparent that Eopsaltriaaustralis, Tregellasialeucops, Melanodryascucullata, Heteromyiasalbispecularis, Drymodessupercilious and Microecaflavigaster may each comprise more than one species. The Petroicidae display a complex biogeographical history involving repeated radiations both within, and across Australia and New Guinea. It appears that dispersal into smaller islands such as New Britain, Tanimbar and the South Pacific has only been undertaken by species with a "flycatcher" body form.

  10. Evolutionary history of redox metal-binding domains across the tree of life.

    PubMed

    Harel, Arye; Bromberg, Yana; Falkowski, Paul G; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2014-05-13

    Oxidoreductases mediate electron transfer (i.e., redox) reactions across the tree of life and ultimately facilitate the biologically driven fluxes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur on Earth. The core enzymes responsible for these reactions are ancient, often small in size, and highly diverse in amino acid sequence, and many require specific transition metals in their active sites. Here we reconstruct the evolution of metal-binding domains in extant oxidoreductases using a flexible network approach and permissive profile alignments based on available microbial genome data. Our results suggest there were at least 10 independent origins of redox domain families. However, we also identified multiple ancient connections between Fe2S2- (adrenodoxin-like) and heme- (cytochrome c) binding domains. Our results suggest that these two iron-containing redox families had a single common ancestor that underwent duplication and divergence. The iron-containing protein family constitutes ∼50% of all metal-containing oxidoreductases and potentially catalyzed redox reactions in the Archean oceans. Heme-binding domains seem to be derived via modular evolutionary processes that ultimately form the backbone of redox reactions in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. The empirically discovered network allows us to peer into the ancient history of microbial metabolism on our planet.

  11. S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins: evolutionary history and Gly132 polymorphism in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Ali, Raja Hashim; Kashuba, Vladimir; Klein, George; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-08-23

    S18 family of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPS18, S18) consists of three members, S18-1 to -3. Earlier, we found that overexpression of S18-2 protein resulted in immortalization and eventual transformation of primary rat fibroblasts. The S18-1 and -3 have not exhibited such abilities. To understand the differences in protein properties, the evolutionary history of S18 family was analyzed. The S18-3, followed by S18-1 and S18-2 emerged as a result of ancient gene duplication in the root of eukaryotic species tree, followed by two metazoan-specific gene duplications. However, the most conserved metazoan S18 homolog is the S18-1; it shares the most sequence similarity with S18 proteins of bacteria and of other eukaryotic clades. Evolutionarily conserved residues of S18 proteins were analyzed in various cancers. S18-2 is mutated at a higher rate, compared with S18-1 and -3 proteins. Moreover, the evolutionarily conserved residue, Gly132 of S18-2, shows genetic polymorphism in colon adenocarcinomas that was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing.Concluding, S18 family represents the yet unexplored important mitochondrial ribosomal proteins.

  12. Chromosomal organization and evolutionary history of Mariner transposable elements in Scarabaeinae coleopterans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the aim to increase the knowledge on the evolution of coleopteran genomes, we investigated through cytogenetics and nucleotide sequence analysis Mariner transposons in three Scarabaeinae species (Coprophanaeus cyanescens, C. ensifer and Diabroctis mimas). Results The cytogenetic mapping revealed an accumulation of Mariner transposon in the pericentromeric repetitive regions characterized as rich in heterochromatin and C 0 t-1 DNA fraction (DNA enriched with high and moderately repeated sequences). Nucleotide sequence analysis of Mariner revealed the presence of two major groups of Mariner copies in the three investigated coleoptera species. Conclusions The Mariner is accumulated in the centromeric area of the coleopteran chromosomes probably as a consequence of the absence of recombination in the heterochromatic regions. Our analysis detected high diversification of Mariner sequences during the evolutionary history of the group. Furthermore, comparisons between the coleopterans sequences with other insects and mammals, suggest that the horizontal transfer (HT) could have acted in the spreading of the Mariner in diverse non-related animal groups. PMID:24286129

  13. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    PubMed

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  14. New perspectives on the evolutionary history of hepatitis B virus genotype F.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina; Piñeiro y Leone, Flavia Guadalupe; Pezzano, Silvana Claudia; Mbayed, Viviana Andrea; Campos, Rodolfo Héctor

    2011-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a globally distributed human pathogen. The aim of this work was to analyze the evolutionary history of HBV genotype F, emphasizing on the study of subgenotypes prevalent in the Southern area of South America. Complete genomes of HBV genotype F from 36 samples from Argentina and Chile were sequenced and analyzed by phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods along with sequences obtained from GenBank database. The phylogeography separated not only Central American from South American isolates but also revealed that different subgenotypes are distributed in constrained although not exclusive areas of the continent. The result obtained with time-stamped complete genomes failed to explain the wide geographical distribution and the clustering observed in this genotype. Conversely, the use of Bayesian coalescent analyses with substitution rates as priors, instead of the co-estimation of tMRCA and substitution rate, allowed us to propose a far origin for the HBV genotype F based on the phylogeographical and epidemiological data.

  15. The dynamic evolutionary history of genome size in North American woodland salamanders.

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Gregory, T Ryan; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-04-01

    The genus Plethodon is the most species-rich salamander genus in North America, and nearly half of its species face an uncertain future. It is also one of the most diverse families in terms of genome sizes, which range from 1C = 18.2 to 69.3 pg, or 5-20 times larger than the human genome. Large genome size in salamanders results in part from accumulation of transposable elements and is associated with various developmental and physiological traits. However, genome sizes have been reported for only 25% of the species of Plethodon (14 of 55). We collected genome size data for Plethodon serratus to supplement an ongoing phylogeographic study, reconstructed the evolutionary history of genome size in Plethodontidae, and inferred probable genome sizes for the 41 species missing empirical data. Results revealed multiple genome size changes in Plethodon: genomes of western Plethodon increased, whereas genomes of eastern Plethodon decreased, followed by additional decreases or subsequent increases. The estimated genome size of P. serratus was 21 pg. New understanding of variation in genome size evolution, along with genome size inferences for previously unstudied taxa, provide a foundation for future studies on the biology of plethodontid salamanders.

  16. Reconstructing the complex evolutionary history of mobile plasmids in red algal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JunMo; Kim, Kyeong Mi; Yang, Eun Chan; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2016-01-01

    The integration of foreign DNA into algal and plant plastid genomes is a rare event, with only a few known examples of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Plasmids, which are well-studied drivers of HGT in prokaryotes, have been reported previously in red algae (Rhodophyta). However, the distribution of these mobile DNA elements and their sites of integration into the plastid (ptDNA), mitochondrial (mtDNA), and nuclear genomes of Rhodophyta remain unknown. Here we reconstructed the complex evolutionary history of plasmid-derived DNAs in red algae. Comparative analysis of 21 rhodophyte ptDNAs, including new genome data for 5 species, turned up 22 plasmid-derived open reading frames (ORFs) that showed syntenic and copy number variation among species, but were conserved within different individuals in three lineages. Several plasmid-derived homologs were found not only in ptDNA but also in mtDNA and in the nuclear genome of green plants, stramenopiles, and rhizarians. Phylogenetic and plasmid-derived ORF analyses showed that the majority of plasmid DNAs originated within red algae, whereas others were derived from cyanobacteria, other bacteria, and viruses. Our results elucidate the evolution of plasmid DNAs in red algae and suggest that they spread as parasitic genetic elements. This hypothesis is consistent with their sporadic distribution within Rhodophyta. PMID:27030297

  17. Dissimilar evolutionary histories of two resistance gene families in the genus Solanum.

    PubMed

    Segura, Diana María; Masuelli, Ricardo Williams; Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Genomic analyses have shown that most genes in eukaryotic lineages belong to families. Gene families vary in terms of number of members, nucleotide similarity, gene integrity, expression, and function. Often, the members of gene families are arranged in clusters, which contribute to maintaining similarity among gene copies and also to generate duplicates through replication errors. Gene families offer us an opportunity to examine the forces involved in the evolution of the genomes and to study recombination events and genomic rearrangements. In this work, we focused on the evolution of two plant resistance gene families, Sw5 and Mi-1, and analyzed the completely sequenced nuclear genomes of potato and tomato. We first noticed that the potato genome carries larger resistance gene families than tomato, but all gene copies are pseudogenes. Second, phylogenetic analyses indicated that Sw5 and Mi-1 gene families had dissimilar evolutionary histories. In contrast to Sw5, Mi-1 homologues suffered repeated gene conversion events among the gene copies, particularly in the tomato genome.

  18. Substrate adaptabilities of Thermotogae mannan binding proteins as a function of their evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M

    2016-09-01

    The Thermotogae possess a large number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including two mannan binding proteins, ManD and CelE (previously called ManE). We show that a gene encoding an ancestor of these was acquired by the Thermotogae from the archaea followed by gene duplication. To address the functional evolution of these proteins as a consequence of their evolutionary histories, we measured the binding affinities of ManD and CelE orthologs from representative Thermotogae. Both proteins bind cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, β-1,4-mannotriose, and β-1,4-mannotetraose. The CelE orthologs additionally bind β-1,4-mannobiose, laminaribiose, laminaritriose and sophorose while the ManD orthologs additionally only weakly bind β-1,4-mannobiose. The CelE orthologs have higher unfolding temperatures than the ManD orthologs. An examination of codon sites under positive selection revealed that many of these encode residues located near or in the binding site, suggesting that the proteins experienced selective pressures in regions that might have changed their functions. The gene arrangement, phylogeny, binding properties, and putative regulatory networks suggest that the ancestral mannan binding protein was a CelE ortholog which gave rise to the ManD orthologs. This study provides a window on how one class of proteins adapted to new functions and temperatures to fit the physiologies of their new hosts.

  19. On the evolutionary history of Ephedra: Cretaceous fossils and extant molecules.

    PubMed

    Rydin, Catarina; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Friis, Else Marie

    2004-11-23

    Gnetales comprise three unusual genera of seed plants, Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. Their extraordinary morphological diversity suggests that they are survivors of an ancient, more diverse group. Gnetalean antiquity is also supported by fossil data. Dispersed "ephedroid" (polyplicate) pollen first appeared in the Permian >250 million years ago (Myr), and a few megafossils document the presence of gnetalean features in the early Cretaceous. The Cretaceous welwitschioid seedling Cratonia cotyledon dates the split between Gnetum and Welwitschia to before 110 Myr. Ages and character evolution of modern diversity are, however, controversial, and, based on molecular data, it has recently been suggested that Ephedra is very young, only 8-32 Myr. Here, we present data on the evolutionary history of Ephedra. Fossil seeds from Buarcos, Portugal, unequivocally link one type of Cretaceous polyplicate pollen to Ephedra and document that plants with unique characters, including the peculiar naked male gametophyte, were established already in the Early Cretaceous. Clades in our molecular phylogeny of extant species correspond to geographical regions, with African species in a basal grade/clade. The study demonstrates extremely low divergence in both molecular and morphological characters in Ephedra. Features observed in the fossils are present in all major extant clades, showing that modern species have retained unique reproductive characters for >110 million years. A recent origin of modern species of Ephedra would imply that the Cretaceous Ephedra fossils discussed here were members of widespread, now extinct sister lineage(s), and that no morphological innovations characterized the second diversification.

  20. On the evolutionary history of Ephedra: Cretaceous fossils and extant molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rydin, Catarina; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Friis, Else Marie

    2004-01-01

    Gnetales comprise three unusual genera of seed plants, Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. Their extraordinary morphological diversity suggests that they are survivors of an ancient, more diverse group. Gnetalean antiquity is also supported by fossil data. Dispersed “ephedroid” (polyplicate) pollen first appeared in the Permian >250 million years ago (Myr), and a few megafossils document the presence of gnetalean features in the early Cretaceous. The Cretaceous welwitschioid seedling Cratonia cotyledon dates the split between Gnetum and Welwitschia to before 110 Myr. Ages and character evolution of modern diversity are, however, controversial, and, based on molecular data, it has recently been suggested that Ephedra is very young, only 8–32 Myr. Here, we present data on the evolutionary history of Ephedra. Fossil seeds from Buarcos, Portugal, unequivocally link one type of Cretaceous polyplicate pollen to Ephedra and document that plants with unique characters, including the peculiar naked male gametophyte, were established already in the Early Cretaceous. Clades in our molecular phylogeny of extant species correspond to geographical regions, with African species in a basal grade/clade. The study demonstrates extremely low divergence in both molecular and morphological characters in Ephedra. Features observed in the fossils are present in all major extant clades, showing that modern species have retained unique reproductive characters for >110 million years. A recent origin of modern species of Ephedra would imply that the Cretaceous Ephedra fossils discussed here were members of widespread, now extinct sister lineage(s), and that no morphological innovations characterized the second diversification. PMID:15545612

  1. Conservatism of lizard thermal tolerances and body temperatures across evolutionary history and geography.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Joseph W; Buckley, Lauren B

    2013-04-23

    Species may exhibit similar thermal tolerances via either common ancestry or environmental filtering and local adaptation, if the species inhabit similar environments. We ask whether upper and lower thermal limits (critical thermal maxima and minima) and body temperatures are more strongly conserved across evolutionary history or geography for lizard populations distributed globally. We find that critical thermal maxima are highly conserved with location accounting for a higher proportion of the variation than phylogeny. Notably, thermal tolerance breadth is conserved across the phylogeny despite critical thermal minima showing little niche conservatism. Body temperatures observed during activity in the field show the greatest degree of conservatism, with phylogeny accounting for most of the variation. This suggests that propensities for thermoregulatory behaviour, which can buffer body temperatures from environmental variation, are similar within lineages. Phylogeny and geography constrain thermal tolerances similarly within continents, but variably within clades. Conservatism of thermal tolerances across lineages suggests that the potential for local adaptation to alleviate the impacts of climate change on lizards may be limited.

  2. The evolutionary history of the embiotocid surfperch radiation based on genome-wide RAD sequence data.

    PubMed

    Longo, Gary; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2015-07-01

    The radiation of surfperches (Embiotocidae) in the temperate North Pacific has been suggested to be the product of ecological competition and niche partitioning. Surfperches are a family of viviparous marine fishes, which have been used to study multiple paternity, sperm competition, and population genetics. Phylogenetic inference is essential for interpreting the evolutionary context of embiotocid life history traits and testing alternative scenarios, yet previous studies have yielded phylogenies with low support and incongruent topologies. Here we constructed reduced representation genomic libraries using restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequence markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among all genera and 22 out of 24 embiotocid species. Orthologous markers retained across 91% of sampled species, corresponding to 523 loci, yielded trees with the highest support values. Our results support a scenario where embiotocids first diverged into clades associated with sandy and reef habitats during the middle Miocene (13-18Mya) with subsequent invasions of novel habitats in the reef associated clade, and northern range expansion in the Northwest Pacific. The appearance of California kelp forests (Laminariales) in the late Miocene (8-15Mya) correlates with further proliferation in the reef associated clade. In all cases, radiations occurred within specific habitats, a pattern consistent with niche partitioning. We infer fine scale species relationships among surfperches with confidence and corroborate the utility of RAD data for phylogenetic inference in young lineages.

  3. Geologic framework, evolutionary history, and distribution of hydrocarbon in Jizhong depression

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Q.

    1983-03-01

    North China basin is a large Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary basin in eastern China. A result of strong block-faulting activities, the inner part of the basin reveals the characteristics of multiple uplifts and depressions. Each depression is generally an independent exploration unit. The practice of exploration in recent years has proved the following: taking each depression as an individual unit, the basic geologic framework and evolutionary history are quickly determined. This is very important in order to achieve the best effects in petroleum exploration. Jizhong depression is located at the western part of the North China basin. This area is about 25,000 km/sup 2/ (9650 mi/sup 2/). Extensive seismic surveys and several hundred exploration wells have been completed during the past few years, resulting in the discovery of Renqiu and other oil fields. Taking the Jizhong depression as an example, the writer has considered the four following problems: Pre-Tertiary fault blocks and their distributional form, Some characteristics of block-faulting activities; Block-faulting in relation to the controlling of Tertiary sediments and structures; and the types of oil and/or gas pools. In the future, the exploration of the buried-hill gas or oil pools will continue. This should expedite the exploration for the other two types of oil or gas pools. In addition, we should pay much attention to exploration for Tertiary stratigraphic-lithologic oil or gas pools.

  4. Evolutionary History and Conservation Status of Cave Crayfishes Along the Cumberland Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhay, J. E.; Crandall, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    Obligate cave-dwelling crayfish species are found only in southeastern United States, Mexico, and Cuba. Most species are considered to be endangered because of surface pollution threats to groundwater and small geographic distributions. There are currently three subterranean species of the genus Orconectes found along the Cumberland Plateau, a worldwide hotspot of cave biodiversity. The objectives of my dissertation research are to: 1) delineate species' boundaries using molecular genetic data in a phylogenetic framework, 2) examine evolutionary history of each species using Nested Clade Analysis, and 3) assess conservation status of each species using measures of effective population size and genetic diversity. This research project has uncovered a new species of cave crayfish along the border of Tennessee and Kentucky, an area previously thought to have "intergrades" between two subspecies of O. australis. It appears that Cambarus gentryi, a surface-dwelling burrowing species, is the closest living ancestor to the cave Orconectes assemblage on the Plateau. The origin appears to be Eastern Kentucky, with range expansions occuring southward down the Plateau. Although controversial, these cave species exhibit high levels of genetic diversity, especially in comparison to surface-dwellers. Conservation efforts should focus on protecting `high-traffic' areas to maintain gene flow and prevent isolation.

  5. Evolutionary history influences the salinity preference of bacterial taxa in wetland soils

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Ember M.; Franklin, Rima B.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is a major driver of bacterial community composition across the globe. Despite growing recognition that different bacterial species are present or active at different salinities, the mechanisms by which salinity structures community composition remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these patterns reflect ecological coherence in the salinity preferences of phylogenetic groups using a reciprocal transplant experiment of fresh- and saltwater wetland soils. The salinity of both the origin and host environments affected community composition (16S rRNA gene sequences) and activity (CO2 and CH4 production, and extracellular enzyme activity). These changes in community composition and activity rates were strongly correlated, which suggests the effect of environment on function could be mediated, at least in part, by microbial community composition. Based on their distribution across treatments, each phylotype was categorized as having a salinity preference (freshwater, saltwater, or none) and phylogenetic analyses revealed a significant influence of evolutionary history on these groupings. This finding was corroborated by examining the salinity preferences of high-level taxonomic groups. For instance, we found that the majority of α- and γ-proteobacteria in these wetland soils preferred saltwater, while many β-proteobacteria prefer freshwater. Overall, our results indicate the effect of salinity on bacterial community composition results from phylogenetically-clustered salinity preferences. PMID:26483764

  6. The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dan; Knapp, Michael; Enk, Jacob; Lippold, Sebastian; Kircher, Martin; Lister, Adrian; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Widga, Christopher; Czechowski, Paul; Sommer, Robert; Hodges, Emily; Stümpel, Nikolaus; Barnes, Ian; Dalén, Love; Derevianko, Anatoly; Germonpré, Mietje; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra; Constantin, Silviu; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Mol, Dick; Rathgeber, Thomas; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Tikhonov, Alexey N.; Willerslev, Eske; Hannon, Greg; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Joger, Ulrich; Poinar, Hendrik; Hofreiter, Michael; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, populations of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) were distributed across parts of three continents, from western Europe and northern Asia through Beringia to the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nonetheless, questions about the connectivity and temporal continuity of mammoth populations and species remain unanswered. We use a combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to assemble and interpret a data set of 143 mammoth mitochondrial genomes, sampled from fossils recovered from across their Holarctic range. Our dataset includes 54 previously unpublished mitochondrial genomes and significantly increases the coverage of the Eurasian range of the species. The resulting global phylogeny confirms that the Late Pleistocene mammoth population comprised three distinct mitochondrial lineages that began to diverge ~1.0–2.0 million years ago (Ma). We also find that mammoth mitochondrial lineages were strongly geographically partitioned throughout the Pleistocene. In combination, our genetic results and the pattern of morphological variation in time and space suggest that male-mediated gene flow, rather than large-scale dispersals, was important in the Pleistocene evolutionary history of mammoths. PMID:28327635

  7. The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dan; Knapp, Michael; Enk, Jacob; Lippold, Sebastian; Kircher, Martin; Lister, Adrian; MacPhee, Ross D E; Widga, Christopher; Czechowski, Paul; Sommer, Robert; Hodges, Emily; Stümpel, Nikolaus; Barnes, Ian; Dalén, Love; Derevianko, Anatoly; Germonpré, Mietje; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra; Constantin, Silviu; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Mol, Dick; Rathgeber, Thomas; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Tikhonov, Alexey N; Willerslev, Eske; Hannon, Greg; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Joger, Ulrich; Poinar, Hendrik; Hofreiter, Michael; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-03-22

    Near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, populations of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) were distributed across parts of three continents, from western Europe and northern Asia through Beringia to the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nonetheless, questions about the connectivity and temporal continuity of mammoth populations and species remain unanswered. We use a combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to assemble and interpret a data set of 143 mammoth mitochondrial genomes, sampled from fossils recovered from across their Holarctic range. Our dataset includes 54 previously unpublished mitochondrial genomes and significantly increases the coverage of the Eurasian range of the species. The resulting global phylogeny confirms that the Late Pleistocene mammoth population comprised three distinct mitochondrial lineages that began to diverge ~1.0-2.0 million years ago (Ma). We also find that mammoth mitochondrial lineages were strongly geographically partitioned throughout the Pleistocene. In combination, our genetic results and the pattern of morphological variation in time and space suggest that male-mediated gene flow, rather than large-scale dispersals, was important in the Pleistocene evolutionary history of mammoths.

  8. Reassessing the Evolutionary History of the 17q21 Inversion Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joao M; Lima, Ana C; Pais, Isa A; Amir, Nadir; Celestino, Ricardo; Piras, Giovanna; Monne, Maria; Comas, David; Heutink, Peter; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M

    2015-11-11

    A polymorphic inversion that lies on chromosome 17q21 comprises two major haplotype families (H1 and H2) that not only differ in orientation but also in copy-number. Although the processes driving the spread of the inversion-associated lineage (H2) in humans remain unclear, a selective advantage has been proposed for one of its subtypes. Here, we genotyped a large panel of individuals from previously overlooked populations using a custom array with a unique panel of H2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms and found a patchy distribution of H2 haplotypes in Africa, with North Africans displaying a higher frequency of inverted subtypes, when compared with Sub-Saharan groups. Interestingly, North African H2s were found to be closer to "non-African" chromosomes further supporting that these populations may have diverged more recently from groups outside Africa. Our results uncovered higher diversity within the H2 family than previously described, weakening the hypothesis of a strong selective sweep on all inverted chromosomes and suggesting a rather complex evolutionary history at this locus.

  9. Old fossils-young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-08-07

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600,000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift.

  10. Evolutionary History of Subtilases in Land Plants and Their Involvement in Symbiotic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexander; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2017-03-29

    Subtilases, a family of proteases involved in a variety of developmental processes in land plants, are also involved in both mutualistic symbiosis and host-pathogen interactions in different angiosperm lineages. We examined the evolutionary history of subtilase genes across land plants through a phylogenetic analysis integrating amino acid sequence data from full genomes, transcriptomes, and characterized subtilases of 341 species of diverse green algae and land plants, along with subtilases from 12 species of other eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria. Our analysis reconstructs the subtilase gene phylogeny, and identifies eleven new gene lineages, six of which have no previously characterized members. Two large, previously unnamed subtilase gene lineages that diverged before the origin of angiosperms accounted for the majority of subtilases shown to be associated with symbiotic interactions. These lineages expanded through both whole genome and tandem duplication, with differential neofunctionalization and subfunctionalization creating paralogs associated with different symbioses, including nodulation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizae, and pathogenesis, in different plant clades. This study for the first time demonstrates that a key gene family involved in plant-microbe interactions proliferated in size and functional diversity before the explosive radiation of angiosperms.

  11. Multilocus phylogeny reconstruction: new insights into the evolutionary history of the genus Petunia.

    PubMed

    Reck-Kortmann, Maikel; Silva-Arias, Gustavo Adolfo; Segatto, Ana Lúcia Anversa; Mäder, Geraldo; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2014-12-01

    The phylogeny of Petunia species has been difficult to resolve, primarily due to the recent diversification of the genus. Several studies have included molecular data in phylogenetic reconstructions of this genus, but all of them have failed to include all taxa and/or analyzed few genetic markers. In the present study, we employed the most inclusive genetic and taxonomic datasets for the genus, aiming to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Petunia based on molecular phylogeny, biogeographic distribution, and character evolution. We included all 20 Petunia morphological species or subspecies in these analyses. Based on nine nuclear and five plastid DNA markers, our phylogenetic analysis reinforces the monophyly of the genus Petunia and supports the hypothesis that the basal divergence is more related to the differentiation of corolla tube length, whereas the geographic distribution of species is more related to divergences within these main clades. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest the Pampas region as the area of origin and earliest divergence in Petunia. The state reconstructions suggest that the ancestor of Petunia might have had a short corolla tube and a bee pollination floral syndrome.

  12. Evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamics of dengue virus type 1 in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Meng, Shengli

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies showed that DENV-1 transmitted from monkeys to humans approximately 125 years ago. However, there is no comprehensive analysis about phylogeography and population dynamics of Asian DENV-1. Here, we adopt a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the evolutionary history and phylogeography of Asian DENV-1 using envelope (E) protein gene sequences of 450 viruses isolated from 1954 to 2010 throughout 18 Asian countries and regions. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicate that the high rates of viral migration possibly follows long-distance travel for humans in Southeast Asia. Our study highlights that Southeast Asian countries have acted as the main viral sources of the dengue epidemics in East Asia. The results reveal that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Asian DENV-1 is 1906 (95% HPD, years 1897-1915). We show that the spatial dissemination of virus is the major source of DENV-1 outbreaks in the different localities and leads to subsequent establishment and expansion of the virus in these areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variation reveals recent evolutionary history of main Boa constrictor clades.

    PubMed

    Hynková, Ivana; Starostová, Zuzana; Frynta, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    We sequenced a 1114-bp fragment of cytochrome b gene in six subspecies (115 samples) of Boa constrictor and detected 67 haplotypes. Our analyses revealed the presence of two distinct clades, one from Central America (CA) including the neighboring part of South America west of the Andes, and the other covering the rest of South America (SA). Sequence divergence between CA and SA clades is about 5-7%, which roughly corresponds to a separation at the time of uplift of the Colombian Andes following formation of the Panama Isthmus before 3.5 Myr Sequence divergence within the SA and CA clades is only 2-3%, suggesting a fairly recent spread of these clades Into their current geographic ranges. Thus, we may not be dealing with taxa with a markedly old evolutionary history. Because juveniles of B. constrictor feed mostly on small rodents, we hypothesized that spread of this species was allowed by a new food source represented by murold rodents that appeared after closure of the Panama portal. With respect to the taxonomy, B. c. imperator may be elevated to full species rank. Within the SA clade, a haplotype of Argentinian B. c. occidentalis is markedly distinct, while the remaining haplotype groups analyzed are distributed throughout large ranges and may all belong to a single nominotypic subspecies.

  14. Skipping across the tropics: the evolutionary history of sawtail surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae: Prionurus).

    PubMed

    Ludt, William B; Rocha, Luiz A; Erdmann, Mark V; Chakrabarty, Prosanta

    2015-03-01

    Fishes described as "anti-equatorial" have disjunct distributions, inhabiting temperate habitat patches on both sides of the tropics. Several alternative hypotheses suggest how and when species with disjunct distributions crossed uninhabitable areas, including: ancient vicariant events, competitive exclusion from the tropics, and more recent dispersal during Pliocene and Pleistocene glacial periods. Surgeonfishes in the genus Prionurus can provide novel insight into this pattern as its member species have disjunct distributions inhabiting either temperate latitudes, cold-water upwellings in the tropics, or low diversity tropical reef ecosystems. Here the evolutionary history and historical biogeography of Prionurus is examined using a dataset containing both mitochondrial and nuclear data for all seven extant species. Our results indicate that Prionurus is monophyletic and Miocene in origin. Several relationships remain problematic, including the placement of the Australian P. microlepidotus, and the relationship between P. laticlavius and P. punctatus. Equatorial divergence events between temperate western Pacific habitats occurred at least twice in Prionurus: once in the Miocene and again in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. Three species with tropical affinities, P. laticlavius, P. punctatus, and P. biafraensis, form a clade that originated in the Pliocene. These results suggest that a variety of mechanisms may regulate the disjunct distribution of temperate fishes, and provide support for both older and younger equatorial crossing events. They also suggest that interspecific competitive exclusion may be influential in fishes with "anti-equatorial" distributions.

  15. Evolutionary History Underlies Plant Physiological Responses to Global Change Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, K. M.; Medeiros, J. S.; Sale, K. R.; Ward, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing family and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens are invaluable in this context since they allow for comparisons between co-occurring plant lineages. Here we used modern and ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens from the Snake Range, NV to investigate the physiological responses of a mixed montane conifer community to global change since the last glacial maximum. We used a conceptual model to infer relative changes in stomatal conductance and maximum photosynthetic capacity from measures of leaf carbon isotopes, stomatal characteristics, and leaf nitrogen content. Our results indicate that most of the sampled taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or photosynthetic capacity from glacial to modern times. However, plant families differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses. Additionally, leaf-level responses were more similar within plant families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time.

  16. Resolving the Evolutionary History of Campanula (Campanulaceae) in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Barry M.; Galbreath, Kurt E.; DeChaine, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic works have begun to address long-standing questions regarding the systematics of Campanula (Campanulaceae). Yet, aspects of the evolutionary history, particularly in northwestern North America, remain unresolved. Thus, our primary goal in this study was to infer the phylogenetic positions of northwestern Campanula species within the greater Campanuloideae tree. We combined new sequence data from 5 markers (atpB, rbcL, matK, and trnL-F regions of the chloroplast and the nuclear ITS) representing 12 species of Campanula with previously published datasets for worldwide campanuloids, allowing us to include approximately 75% of North American Campanuleae in a phylogenetic analysis of the Campanuloideae. Because all but one of North American Campanula species are nested within a single campanuloid subclade (the Rapunculus clade), we conducted a separate set of analyses focused specifically on this group. Our findings show that i) the campanuloids have colonized North America at least 6 times, 4 of which led to radiations, ii) all but one North American campanuloid are nested within the Rapunculus clade, iii) in northwestern North America, a C. piperi – C. lasiocarpa ancestor gave rise to a monophyletic Cordilleran clade that is sister to a clade containing C. rotundifolia, iv) within the Cordilleran clade, C. parryi var. parryi and C. parryi var. idahoensis exhibit a deep, species-level genetic divergence, and v) C. rotundifolia is genetically diverse across its range and polyphyletic. Potential causes of diversification and endemism in northwestern North America are discussed. PMID:21931605

  17. Reassessing the Evolutionary History of the 17q21 Inversion Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joao M.; Lima, Ana C.; Pais, Isa A.; Amir, Nadir; Celestino, Ricardo; Piras, Giovanna; Monne, Maria; Comas, David; Heutink, Peter; Chikhi, Lounès; Amorim, António; Lopes, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    A polymorphic inversion that lies on chromosome 17q21 comprises two major haplotype families (H1 and H2) that not only differ in orientation but also in copy-number. Although the processes driving the spread of the inversion-associated lineage (H2) in humans remain unclear, a selective advantage has been proposed for one of its subtypes. Here, we genotyped a large panel of individuals from previously overlooked populations using a custom array with a unique panel of H2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms and found a patchy distribution of H2 haplotypes in Africa, with North Africans displaying a higher frequency of inverted subtypes, when compared with Sub-Saharan groups. Interestingly, North African H2s were found to be closer to “non-African” chromosomes further supporting that these populations may have diverged more recently from groups outside Africa. Our results uncovered higher diversity within the H2 family than previously described, weakening the hypothesis of a strong selective sweep on all inverted chromosomes and suggesting a rather complex evolutionary history at this locus. PMID:26560338

  18. The Evolutionary History of Daphniid α-Carbonic Anhydrase within Animalia

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Billy W.; Morton, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive acid-base regulation in organisms is important, especially for organisms in aquatic habitats that experience rapidly fluctuating pH conditions. Previous studies have shown that carbonic anhydrases (CAs), a family of zinc metalloenzymes, are responsible for acid-base regulation in many organisms. Through the use of phylogenetic tools, this present study attempts to elucidate the evolutionary history of the α-CA superfamily, with particular interest in the emerging model aquatic organism Daphnia pulex. We provide one of the most extensive phylogenies of the evolution of α-CAs, with the inclusion of 261 amino acid sequences across taxa ranging from Cnidarians to Homo sapiens. While the phylogeny supports most of our previous understanding on the relationship of how α-CAs have evolved, we find that, contrary to expectations, amino acid conservation with bacterial α-CAs supports the supposition that extracellular α-CAs are the ancestral state of animal α-CAs. Furthermore, we show that two cytosolic and one GPI-anchored α-CA in Daphnia genus have homologs in sister taxa that are possible candidate genes to study for acid-base regulation. In addition, we provide further support for previous findings of a high rate of gene duplication within Daphnia genus, as compared with other organisms. PMID:25893130

  19. The Complex Demographic History and Evolutionary Origin of the Western Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Neil D.; Ramírez, Santiago R.

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides critical pollination services to agricultural crops worldwide. However, despite substantial interest and prior investigation, the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this important pollinator remain uncertain. The primary hypotheses place the origin of A. mellifera in either Asia or Africa, with subsequent radiations proceeding from one of these regions. Here, we use two publicly available whole-genome data sets plus newly sequenced genomes and apply multiple population genetic analysis methods to investigate the patterns of ancestry and admixture in native honey bee populations from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The combination of these data sets is critical to the analyses, as each contributes samples from geographic locations lacking in the other, thereby producing the most complete set of honey bee populations available to date. We find evidence supporting an origin of A. mellifera in the Middle East or North Eastern Africa, with the A and Y lineages representing the earliest branching lineages. This finding has similarities with multiple contradictory hypotheses and represents a disentangling of genetic relationships, geographic proximity, and secondary contact to produce a more accurate picture of the origins of A. mellifera. We also investigate how previous studies came to their various conclusions based on incomplete sampling of populations, and illustrate the importance of complete sampling in understanding evolutionary processes. These results provide fundamental knowledge about genetic diversity within Old World honey bee populations and offer insight into the complex history of an important pollinator. PMID:28164223

  20. Evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants: Implications for the evolution of CAM in orchids.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene is the key enzyme in CAM and C4 photosynthesis. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the PEPC family was performed using sequences from 60 available published plant genomes, the Phalaenopsis equestris genome and RNA-Seq of 15 additional orchid species. The PEPC family consists of three distinct subfamilies, PPC-1, PPC-2, and PPC-3, all of which share a recent common ancestor in chlorophyte algae. The eudicot PPC-1 lineage separated into two clades due to whole genome duplication (WGD). Similarly, the monocot PPC-1 lineage also divided into PPC-1M1 and PPC-1M2 through an ancient duplication event. The monocot CAM- or C4-related PEPC originated from the clade PPC-1M1. WGD may not be the major driver for the performance of CAM function by PEPC, although it increased the number of copies of the PEPC gene. CAM may have evolved early in monocots, as the CAM-related PEPC of orchids originated from the monocot ancient duplication, and the earliest CAM-related PEPC may have evolved immediately after the diversification of monocots, with CAM developing prior to C4. Our results represent the most complete evolutionary history of PEPC genes in green plants to date and particularly elucidate the origin of PEPC in orchids. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vertebral development of modern salamanders provides insights into a unique event of their evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Catherine Anne

    2009-01-15

    The origin of salamanders and their interrelationships to the two other modern amphibian orders (frogs and caecilians) are problematic owing to an 80-100 million year gap in the fossil record between the Carboniferous to the Lower Jurassic. This is compounded by a scarcity of adult skeletal characters linking the early representatives of the modern orders to their stem-group in the Paleozoic. The use of ontogenetic characters can be of great use in the resolution of these questions. Growth series of all ten modern salamander families (a 120 cleared and stained larvae) were examined for pattern and timing of vertebral elements chondrification and ossification. The primitive pattern is that of the neural arches developing before the centra, while the reverse represents the derived condition. Both the primitive and derived conditions are observed within the family Hynobiidae, whereas only the derived condition is observed in all other salamanders. This provides support to the claims that Hynobiidae is both the most basal of modern families and potentially polyphyletic (with Ranodon and Hybobius forming the most basal clade and Salamandrella being a part of the most derived clade). This provides insight into a unique event in salamander evolutionary history and suggests that the developmental pattern switch occurred between the Triassic and the mid-Jurassic before the last major radiation.

  2. Globular cluster systems as tracers of the evolutionary history in NGC 3258 and NGC 3268

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caso, Juan Pablo; Bassino, Lilia P.; Gómez, Matías

    2017-09-01

    We present a new photometric study of NGC 3258 and NGC 3268 globular cluster systems (GCSs), using images in filters B, C, V, R, I and z΄, obtained from four different telescopes. The wide spatial coverage allows us to estimate the whole extension of both GCSs more precisely than in previous works, and new values for the richness of GC subpopulations. We find differences in the azimuthal distribution between blue (metal-poor) and red (metal-rich) globular clusters (GCs), and confirm that radial profiles flatten towards the centre of the galaxies. In both cases we detected a radial gradient in the colour peak of blue GCs which might be related to the construction of the GCSs. We analyse the similarities and differences in both GCSs, in the context of the possible evolutionary histories of the host galaxies. We also obtain photometric metallicities for a large number of GC candidates around NGC 3258, by applying multicolour-metallicity relations. These results confirm the bimodal metallicity distribution.

  3. Evolutionary history of the Azteca-like mariner transposons and their host ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeque, Teresa; Sanllorente, Olivia; Maside, Xulio; Vela, Jesús; Mora, Pablo; Torres, María I.; Periquet, Georges; Lorite, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Three different complete mariner elements were found in the genome of the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum. One ( Tnigmar-Mr) was interrupted by a 900-bp insertion that corresponded to an incomplete member of a fourth mariner element, called Azteca. In this work, we isolate and characterize full-length Tnigmar-Az elements in T. nigerrimum. The purpose of this study is to clarify the evolutionary history of Azteca elements and their hosts as well as the possible existence of horizontal transfer processes. For this, Azteca-like elements were also retrieved from the available sequences of various ant genomes, representing four different ant subfamilies: Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, and Ponerinae. The tree topology resulting for the Azteca-like elements bore very little resemblance to that of their respective hosts. The pervasive presence of Azteca-like elements in all ant genomes, together with the observation that extant copies are usually younger than the genomes that host them, could be explained either by lineage sorting or by recent horizontal transfer of active elements. However, the finding of closer genetic relationships between elements than between the ants that host them is consistent with the latter scenario. This is clearly observed in Sinvmar-Az, Tnigmar-Az, Acepmar-Az, and Cflomar-Az elements, suggesting the existence of horizontal transfer processes. On the contrary, some elements displayed more divergence than did the hosts harboring them. This may reflect either further horizontal transfer events or random lineage sorting.

  4. Evolutionary history of the Azteca-like mariner transposons and their host ants.

    PubMed

    Palomeque, Teresa; Sanllorente, Olivia; Maside, Xulio; Vela, Jesús; Mora, Pablo; Torres, María I; Periquet, Georges; Lorite, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Three different complete mariner elements were found in the genome of the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum. One (Tnigmar-Mr) was interrupted by a 900-bp insertion that corresponded to an incomplete member of a fourth mariner element, called Azteca. In this work, we isolate and characterize full-length Tnigmar-Az elements in T. nigerrimum. The purpose of this study is to clarify the evolutionary history of Azteca elements and their hosts as well as the possible existence of horizontal transfer processes. For this, Azteca-like elements were also retrieved from the available sequences of various ant genomes, representing four different ant subfamilies: Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, and Ponerinae. The tree topology resulting for the Azteca-like elements bore very little resemblance to that of their respective hosts. The pervasive presence of Azteca-like elements in all ant genomes, together with the observation that extant copies are usually younger than the genomes that host them, could be explained either by lineage sorting or by recent horizontal transfer of active elements. However, the finding of closer genetic relationships between elements than between the ants that host them is consistent with the latter scenario. This is clearly observed in Sinvmar-Az, Tnigmar-Az, Acepmar-Az, and Cflomar-Az elements, suggesting the existence of horizontal transfer processes. On the contrary, some elements displayed more divergence than did the hosts harboring them. This may reflect either further horizontal transfer events or random lineage sorting.

  5. Tracking the evolutionary history of Cortinarius species in section Calochroi, with transoceanic disjunct distributions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cortinarius species in section Calochroi display local, clinal and circumboreal patterns of distribution across the Northern Hemisphere where these ectomycorrhizal fungi occur with host trees throughout their geographical range within a continent, or have disjunct intercontinental distributions, the origins of which are not understood. We inferred evolutionary histories of four species, 1) C. arcuatorum, 2) C. aureofulvus, 3) C. elegantior and 4) C. napus, from populations distributed throughout the Old World, and portions of the New World (Central- and North America) based on genetic variation of 154 haplotype internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 83 population samples. By describing the population structure of these species across their geographical distribution, we attempt to identify their historical migration and patterns of diversification. Results Models of population structure from nested clade, demographic and coalescent-based analyses revealed genetically differentiated and geographically structured haplotypes in C. arcuatorum and C. elegantior, while C. aureofulvus showed considerably less population structure and C. napus lacked sufficient genetic differentiation to resolve any population structure. Disjunct populations within C. arcuatorum, C. aureofulvus and C. elegantior show little or no morphological differentiation, whereas in C. napus there is a high level of homoplasy and phenotypic plasticity for veil and lamellae colour. The ITS sequences of the type specimens of C. albobrunnoides and C. albobrunnoides var. violaceovelatus were identical to one another and are treated as one species with a wider range of geographic distribution under C. napus. Conclusions Our results indicate that each of the Calochroi species has undergone a relatively independent evolutionary history, hypothesised as follows: 1) a widely distributed ancestral population of C. arcuatorum diverged into distinctive sympatric populations in the New World; 2

  6. Major Aspects of the Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Evolutionary History of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Stephanie C.

    2005-12-01

    This thesis was conducted in the framework of the German Research Foundation's priority program "Mars and the Terrestrial Planets". The aim was to improve and/or verify the existing chronostratigraphic system of Mars and to understand globally the geologic evolutionary history of Mars focusing on the volcanic, fluvial, and possible glacial processes. This implies the photogeologic analysis of all available types of Martian imagery in order to cover the diversity of Martian landforms in time and space. Therefore, crater frequencies are determined for appropriate geologically mapped units and absolute ages derived. The lunar crater production function and the chronology model was confirmed for the Martian case, e.g. the theoretical crater production function was proven over the entire (50 meters to 500 kilometers). Any deviation from the confirmed Martian standard crater production function indicate resurfacing events. In such cases the method of age determination has been improved. The influence of secondary cratering on a measurement is at most 10 percent. Type areas of the Martian epochs (Noachian, Hesperian and Amazonian) such as Noachis Terra, Hesperia Planum, northern lowland regions, Amazonis and Elysium Planitia, have been examined, to understanding the role of water during the Martian geologic evolution. The younger fluvial erosion is closely related to volcanic activity and occurred in episodes over the last 2 billion years. Extensive measurements in volcanic units allowed for the interpretation of the evolution ary history of Martian volcanic activity. An interplay of volcanic processes with ancient and more recent fluvial and glacial activity is confirmed. Globally, the volcanic activity started very early in the Martian evolution. Most of the volcanoes achieved their present dimensions at least until 3.5 Ga ago. Later volcanic resurfacing indicates a weakening of the volcanic activity after the construct-forming period. Another major finding is that the

  7. Effects of tectonics and large scale climatic changes on the evolutionary history of Hyalomma ticks.

    PubMed

    Sands, Arthur F; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Matthee, Sonja; Horak, Ivan G; Harrison, Alan; Karim, Shahid; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Santos-Silva, Maria M; Matthee, Conrad A

    2017-09-01

    Hyalomma Koch, 1844 are ixodid ticks that infest mammals, birds and reptiles, to which 27 recognized species occur across the Afrotropical, Palearctic and Oriental regions. Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the evolutionary history of the group is enigmatic. To investigate various taxonomic hypotheses based on morphology, and also some of the mechanisms involved in the diversification of the genus, we sequenced and analysed data derived from two mtDNA fragments, three nuclear DNA genes and 47 morphological characters. Bayesian and Parsimony analyses based on the combined data (2242 characters for 84 taxa) provided maximum resolution and strongly supported the monophyly of Hyalomma and the subgenus Euhyalomma Filippova, 1984 (including H. punt Hoogstraal, Kaiser and Pedersen, 1969). A predicted close evolutionary association was found between morphologically similar H. dromedarii Koch, 1844, H. somalicum Tonelli Rondelli, 1935, H. impeltatum Schulze and Schlottke, 1929 and H. punt, and together they form a sister lineage to H. asiaticum Schulze and Schlottke, 1929, H. schulzei Olenev, 1931 and H. scupense Schulze, 1919. Congruent with morphological suggestions, H. anatolicum Koch, 1844, H. excavatum Koch, 1844 and H. lusitanicum Koch, 1844 form a clade and so also H. glabrum Delpy, 1949, H. marginatum Koch, 1844, H. turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946 and H. rufipes Koch, 1844. Wide scale continental sampling revealed cryptic divergences within African H. truncatum Koch, 1844 and H. rufipes and suggested that the taxonomy of these lineages is in need of a revision. The most basal lineages in Hyalomma represent taxa currently confined to Eurasia and molecular clock estimates suggest that members of the genus started to diverge approximately 36.25 million years ago (Mya). The early diversification event coincides well with the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, an event that was also characterized by large scale faunal turnover in the region. Using S

  8. The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ralph S; Meusemann, Karen; Petersen, Malte; Mayer, Christoph; Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Ziesmann, Tanja; Donath, Alexander; Kjer, Karl M; Aspöck, Ulrike; Aspöck, Horst; Aberer, Andre; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Friedrich, Frank; Hünefeld, Frank; Niehuis, Oliver; Beutel, Rolf G; Misof, Bernhard

    2014-03-20

    fungi. Ancestral larvae of Aparaglossata were prognathous, equipped with single larval eyes (stemmata), and possibly agile and predacious. Ancestral holometabolan adults likely resembled in their morphology the groundplan of adult neopteran insects. Within Aparaglossata, the adult's flight apparatus and ovipositor underwent strong modifications. We show that the combination of well-resolved phylogenies obtained by phylogenomic analyses and well-documented extensive morphological datasets is an appropriate basis for reconstructing complex morphological transformations and for the inference of evolutionary histories.

  9. The evolutionary history of holometabolous insects inferred from transcriptome-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    , externally feeding on plants or fungi. Ancestral larvae of Aparaglossata were prognathous, equipped with single larval eyes (stemmata), and possibly agile and predacious. Ancestral holometabolan adults likely resembled in their morphology the groundplan of adult neopteran insects. Within Aparaglossata, the adult’s flight apparatus and ovipositor underwent strong modifications. We show that the combination of well-resolved phylogenies obtained by phylogenomic analyses and well-documented extensive morphological datasets is an appropriate basis for reconstructing complex morphological transformations and for the inference of evolutionary histories. PMID:24646345

  10. Evolutionary history of novel genes on the tammar wallaby Y chromosome: Implications for sex chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, Veronica J.; O'Meally, Denis; Sankovic, Natasha; Delbridge, Margaret L.; Kuroki, Yoko; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Toyoda, Atsushi; Jordan, Kristen S.; Pask, Andrew J.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Fujiyama, Asao; Graves, Jennifer A. Marshall; Waters, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We report here the isolation and sequencing of 10 Y-specific tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) BAC clones, revealing five hitherto undescribed tammar wallaby Y genes (in addition to the five genes already described) and several pseudogenes. Some genes on the wallaby Y display testis-specific expression, but most have low widespread expression. All have partners on the tammar X, along with homologs on the human X. Nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution ratios for nine of the tammar XY gene pairs indicate that they are each under purifying selection. All 10 were also identified as being on the Y in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii; a distantly related Australian marsupial); however, seven have been lost from the human Y. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the wallaby YX genes, with respective homologs from other vertebrate representatives, revealed that three marsupial Y genes (HCFC1X/Y, MECP2X/Y, and HUWE1X/Y) were members of the ancestral therian pseudoautosomal region (PAR) at the time of the marsupial/eutherian split; three XY pairs (SOX3/SRY, RBMX/Y, and ATRX/Y) were isolated from each other before the marsupial/eutherian split, and the remaining three (RPL10X/Y, PHF6X/Y, and UBA1/UBE1Y) have a more complex evolutionary history. Thus, the small marsupial Y chromosome is surprisingly rich in ancient genes that are retained in at least Australian marsupials and evolved from testis–brain expressed genes on the X. PMID:22128133

  11. The evolutionary history of chromosomal super-integrons provides an ancestry for multiresistant integrons

    PubMed Central

    Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Ploncard, Pascaline; Dychinco, Broderick; Davies, Julian; Mazel, Didier

    2001-01-01

    Integrons are genetic elements that acquire and exchange exogenous DNA, known as gene cassettes, by a site-specific recombination mechanism. Characterized gene cassettes consist of a target recombination sequence (attC site) usually associated with a single open reading frame coding for an antibiotic resistance determinant. The affiliation of multiresistant integrons (MRIs), which contain various combinations of antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, with transferable elements underlies the rapid evolution of multidrug resistance among diverse Gram-negative bacteria. Yet the origin of MRIs remains unknown. Recently, a chromosomal super-integron (SI) harboring hundreds of cassettes was identified in the Vibrio cholerae genome. Here, we demonstrate that the activity of its associated integrase is identical to that of the MRI integrase, IntI1. We have also identified equivalent integron superstructures in nine distinct genera throughout the γ-proteobacterial radiation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the evolutionary history of the system paralleled that of the radiation, indicating that integrons are ancient structures. The attC sites of the 63 antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes identified thus far in MRIs are highly variable. Strikingly, one-fifth of these were virtually identical to the highly related yet species-specific attC sites of the SIs described here. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance homologues were identified among the thousands of genes entrapped by these SIs. Because the gene cassettes of SIs are substrates for MRIs, these data identify SIs as the source of contemporary MRIs and their cassettes. However, our demonstration of the metabolic functions, beyond antibiotic resistance and virulence, of three distinct SI gene cassettes indicates that integrons function as a general gene-capture system for bacterial innovation. PMID:11209061

  12. Lineage-Specific Evolutionary Histories and Regulation of Major Starch Metabolism Genes during Banana Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo Toro, Andrès; Ricci, Julien; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). Using comparative genomics and phylogenetic approaches, these genes were classified into families and sub-families and orthology relationships with functional genes in Eudicots and in grasses were identified. In addition to known ancestral duplications shaping starch metabolism gene families, independent evolution in banana and grasses also occurred through lineage-specific whole genome duplications for specific sub-families of AGPase, SS, SBE, and BAM genes; and through gene-scale duplications for AMY genes. In particular, banana lineage duplications yielded a set of AGPase, SBE and BAM genes that were highly or specifically expressed in banana fruits. Gene expression analysis highlighted a complex transcriptional reprogramming of starch metabolism genes during ripening of banana fruits. A differential regulation of expression between banana gene duplicates was identified for SBE and BAM genes, suggesting that part of starch metabolism regulation in the fruit evolved in the banana lineage. PMID:27994606

  13. Lineage-Specific Evolutionary Histories and Regulation of Major Starch Metabolism Genes during Banana Ripening.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Gibert, Olivier; Giraldo Toro, Andrès; Ricci, Julien; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. It is also a major feature of cultivated bananas as it accumulates to large amounts during banana fruit development before almost complete conversion to soluble sugars during ripening. Little is known about the structure of major gene families involved in banana starch metabolism and their evolution compared to other species. To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). Using comparative genomics and phylogenetic approaches, these genes were classified into families and sub-families and orthology relationships with functional genes in Eudicots and in grasses were identified. In addition to known ancestral duplications shaping starch metabolism gene families, independent evolution in banana and grasses also occurred through lineage-specific whole genome duplications for specific sub-families of AGPase, SS, SBE, and BAM genes; and through gene-scale duplications for AMY genes. In particular, banana lineage duplications yielded a set of AGPase, SBE and BAM genes that were highly or specifically expressed in banana fruits. Gene expression analysis highlighted a complex transcriptional reprogramming of starch metabolism genes during ripening of banana fruits. A differential regulation of expression between banana gene duplicates was identified for SBE and BAM genes, suggesting that part of starch metabolism regulation in the fruit evolved in the banana lineage.

  14. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  15. Evolutionary History and Novel Biotic Interactions Determine Plant Responses to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Wooliver, Rachel; Senior, John K.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Langley, J. Adam; Chapman, Samantha K.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    evolutionary history and introduced species will shape community productivity in a changing world. PMID:25479056

  16. Taxonomic affinities and evolutionary history of the Early Pleistocene hominids of Java: dentognathic evidence.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Aziz, Fachroel; Indriati, Etty; Schrenk, Friedemann; Jacob, Teuku

    2005-12-01

    Temporal changes, within-group variation, and phylogenetic positions of the Early Pleistocene Javanese hominids remain unclear. Recent debate focused on the age of the oldest Javanese hominids, but the argument so far includes little morphological basis for the fossils. To approach these questions, we analyzed a comprehensive dentognathic sample from Sangiran, which includes most of the existing hominid mandibles and teeth from the Early Pleistocene of Java. The sample was divided into chronologically younger and older groups. We examined morphological differences between these chronological groups, and investigated their affinities with other hominid groups from Africa and Eurasia. The results indicated that 1) there are remarkable morphological differences between the chronologically younger and older groups of Java, 2) the chronologically younger group is morphologically advanced, showing a similar degree of dentognathic reduction to that of Middle Pleistocene Chinese H. erectus, and 3) the chronologically older group exhibits some features that are equally primitive as or more primitive than early H. erectus of Africa. These findings suggest that the evolutionary history of early Javanese H. erectus was more dynamic than previously thought. Coupled with recent discoveries of the earliest form of H. erectus from Dmanisi, Georgia, the primitive aspects of the oldest Javanese hominid remains suggest that hominid groups prior to the grade of ca. 1.8-1.5 Ma African early H. erectus dispersed into eastern Eurasia during the earlier Early Pleistocene, although the age of the Javanese hominids themselves is yet to be resolved. Subsequent periods of the Early Pleistocene witnessed remarkable changes in the Javanese hominid record, which are ascribed either to significant in situ evolution or replacement of populations. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. X-linked MTMR8 diversity and evolutionary history of sub-Saharan populations.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Damian; Yotova, Vania; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Moreau, Claudia; Utermann, Gerd; Williams, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity within an 11 kb segment of the MTMR8 gene in a sample of 111 sub-Saharan and 49 non-African X chromosomes was investigated to assess the early evolutionary history of sub-Saharan Africans and the out-of-Africa expansion. The analyses revealed a complex genetic structure of the Africans that contributed to the emergence of modern humans. We observed partitioning of two thirds of old lineages among southern, west/central and east African populations indicating ancient population stratification predating the out of Africa migration. Age estimates of these lineages, older than coalescence times of uniparentally inherited markers, raise the question whether contemporary humans originated from a single population or as an amalgamation of different populations separated by years of independent evolution, thus suggesting a greater antiquity of our species than generally assumed. While the oldest sub-Saharan lineages, ~500 thousand years, are found among Khoe-San from southern-Africa, a distinct haplotype found among Biaka is likely due to admixture from an even older population. An East African population that gave rise to non-Africans underwent a selective sweep affecting the subcentromeric region where MTMR8 is located. This and similar sweeps in four other regions of the X chromosome, documented in the literature, effectively reduced genetic diversity of non-African chromosomes and therefore may have exacerbated the effect of the demographic bottleneck usually ascribed to the out of Africa migration. Our data is suggestive, however, that a bottleneck, occurred in Africa before range expansion.

  18. The evolutionary history of the catenin gene family during metazoan evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Catenin is a gene family composed of three subfamilies; p120, beta and alpha. Beta and p120 are homologous subfamilies based on sequence and structural comparisons, and are members of the armadillo repeat protein superfamily. Alpha does not appear to be homologous to either beta or p120 based on the lack of sequence and structural similarity, and the alpha subfamily belongs to the vinculin superfamily. Catenins link the transmembrane protein cadherin to the cytoskeleton and thus function in cell-cell adhesion. To date, only the beta subfamily has been evolutionarily analyzed and experimentally studied for its functions in signaling pathways, development and human diseases such as cancer. We present a detailed evolutionary study of the whole catenin family to provide a better understanding of how this family has evolved in metazoans, and by extension, the evolution of cell-cell adhesion. Results All three catenin subfamilies have been detected in metazoans used in the present study by searching public databases and applying species-specific BLAST searches. Two monophyletic clades are formed between beta and p120 subfamilies using Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Phylogenetic analyses also reveal an array of duplication events throughout metazoan history. Furthermore, numerous annotation issues for the catenin family have been detected by our computational analyses. Conclusions Delta2/ARVCF catenin in the p120 subfamily, beta catenin in the beta subfamily, and alpha2 catenin in the alpha subfamily are present in all metazoans analyzed. This implies that the last common ancestor of metazoans had these three catenin subfamilies. However, not all members within each subfamily were detected in all metazoan species. Each subfamily has undergone duplications at different levels (species-specific, subphylum-specific or phylum-specific) and to different extents (in the case of the number of homologs). Extensive annotation problems have been resolved in each of the

  19. A comparative phylogeographic study reveals discordant evolutionary histories of alpine ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with three major mountain ranges, provides an ideal topography to study mountain-island effect on organisms that would be diversified in the isolation areas. Glaciations, however, might drive these organisms to lower elevations, causing gene flow among previously isolated populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to depict the possible refugia for alpine organisms during glaciations. Nunatak hypothesis suggests that alpine species might have stayed in situ in high mountain areas during glaciations. Massif de refuge, on the other hand, proposes that alpine species might have migrated to lower ice-free areas. By sampling five sympatric carabid species of Nebria and Leistus, and using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes, we evaluated the mountain-island effect on alpine carabids and tested the two proposed hypotheses with comparative phylogeographic method. Results from the phylogenetic relationships, network analysis, lineage calibration, and genetic structure indicate that the deep divergence among populations in all L. smetanai, N. formosana, and N. niitakana was subjected to long-term isolation, a phenomenon in agreement with the nunatak hypothesis. However, genetic admixture among populations of N. uenoiana and some populations of L. nokoensis complex suggests that gene flow occurred during glaciations, as a massif de refuge depicts. The speciation event in N. niitakana is estimated to have occurred before 1.89 million years ago (Mya), while differentiation among isolated populations in N. niitakana, N. formosana, L. smetanai, and L. nokoensis complex might have taken place during 0.65-1.65 Mya. While each of the alpine carabids arriving in Taiwan during different glaciation events acquired its evolutionary history, all of them had confronted the existing mountain ranges.

  20. Evolutionary history of selenocysteine incorporation from the perspective of SECIS binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Jesse; Copeland, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    Background The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine into nascent polypeptides by recoding the UGA stop codon occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, this event requires at least three specific factors: SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec), selenocysteinyl tRNA, and a cis-acting selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in selenoprotein mRNAs. While the phylogenetic relationships of selenoprotein families and the evolution of selenocysteine usage are well documented, the evolutionary history of SECIS binding proteins has not been explored. Results In this report we present a phylogeny of the eukaryotic SECIS binding protein family which includes SBP2 and a related protein we herein term SBP2L. Here we show that SBP2L is an SBP2 paralogue in vertebrates and is the only form of SECIS binding protein in invertebrate deuterostomes, suggesting a key role in Sec incorporation in these organisms, but an SBP2/SBP2L fusion protein is unable to support Sec incorporation in vitro. An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the conserved L7Ae RNA binding domain suggests an ancestral relationship with ribosomal protein L30. In addition, we describe the emergence of a motif upstream of the SBP2 RNA binding domain that shares significant similarity with a motif within the pseudouridine synthase Cbf5. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that SECIS binding proteins arose once in evolution but diverged significantly in multiple lineages. In addition, likely due to a gene duplication event in the early vertebrate lineage, SBP2 and SBP2L are paralogous in vertebrates. PMID:19744324

  1. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Arriba-Barredo, Miren; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175) and in Argentina (n = 194). The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies.

  2. The evolutionary history of plant T2/S-type ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskas, Karolis; Igić, Boris

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of T2/S-RNases are being discovered in plant genomes. Members of this protein family have a variety of known functions, but the vast majority are still uncharacterized. We present data and analyses of phylogenetic relationships among T2/S-RNases, and pay special attention to the group that contains the female component of the most widespread system of self-incompatibility in flowering plants. The returned emphasis on the initially identified component of this mechanism yields important conjectures about its evolutionary context. First, we find that the clade involved in self-rejection (class III) is found exclusively in core eudicots, while the remaining clades contain members from other vascular plants. Second, certain features, such as intron patterns, isoelectric point, and conserved amino acid regions, help differentiate S-RNases, which are necessary for expression of self-incompatibility, from other T2/S-RNase family members. Third, we devise and present a set of approaches to clarify new S-RNase candidates from existing genome assemblies. We use genomic features to identify putative functional and relictual S-loci in genomes of plants with unknown mechanisms of self-incompatibility. The widespread occurrence of possible relicts suggests that the loss of functional self-incompatibility may leave traces long after the fact, and that this manner of molecular fossil-like data could be an important source of information about the history and distribution of both RNase-based and other mechanisms of self-incompatibility. Finally, we release a public resource intended to aid the search for S-locus RNases, and help provide increasingly detailed information about their taxonomic distribution.

  3. One Species, Three Pleistocene Evolutionary Histories: Phylogeography of the Italian Crested Newt, Triturus carnifex

    PubMed Central

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Salvi, Daniele; Maura, Michela; Bologna, Marco A.; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns of temperate species from the Mediterranean peninsulas have been investigated intensively. Nevertheless, as more phylogeographies become available, either unique patterns or new lines of concordance continue to emerge, providing new insights on the evolution of regional biotas. Here, we investigated the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the Italian crested newt, Triturus carnifex, through phylogenetic, molecular dating and population structure analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and ND4; overall 1273 bp). We found three main mtDNA lineages having parapatric distribution and estimated divergence times between Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. One lineage (S) was widespread south of the northern Apennine chain and was further geographically structured into five sublineages, likely of Middle Pleistocene origin. The second lineage (C) was widespread throughout the Padano–Venetian plain and did not show a clear phylogeographic structure. The third lineage (N) was observed in only two populations located on western Croatia/Slovenia. Results of analysis of molecular variance suggested that partitioning populations according to the geographic distribution of these lineages and sublineages explains 76% of the observed genetic variation. The phylogeographic structure observed within T. carnifex and divergence time estimates among its lineages, suggest that responses to Pleistocene environmental changes in this single species have been as diverse as those found previously among several codistributed temperate species combined. Consistent with the landscape heterogeneity, physiographic features, and palaeogeographical evolution of its distribution range, these responses encompass multiple refugia along the Apennine chain, lowland refugia in large peri-coastal plains, and a ‘cryptic’ northern refugium. PMID:22848590

  4. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of ariid catfishes revisited: a comprehensive sampling.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2009-07-23

    Ariids or sea catfishes are one of the two otophysan fish families (out of about 67 families in four orders) that inhabit mainly marine and brackish waters (although some species occur strictly in fresh waters). The group includes over 150 species placed in approximately 29 genera and two subfamilies (Galeichthyinae and Ariinae). Despite their global distribution, ariids are largely restricted to the continental shelves due in part to their specialized reproductive behavior (i.e., oral incubation). Thus, among marine fishes, ariids offer an excellent opportunity for inferring historical biogeographic scenarios. Phylogenetic hypotheses available for ariids have focused on restricted geographic areas and comprehensive phylogenies are still missing. This study inferred phylogenetic hypotheses for 123 ariid species in 28 genera from different biogeographic provinces using both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences (up to approximately 4 kb). While the topologies obtained support the monophyly of basal groups, up to ten genera validated in previous morphological studies were incongruent with the molecular topologies. New World ariines were recovered as paraphyletic and Old World ariines were grouped into a well-supported clade that was further divided into subclades mainly restricted to major Gondwanan landmasses. A general area cladogram derived from the area cladograms of ariines and three other fish groups was largely congruent with the geological area cladogram of Gondwana. Nonetheless, molecular clock estimations provided variable results on the timing of ariine diversification (approximately 105-41 mya). This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of sea catfishes to date and highlights the need for re-assessment of their classification. While from a topological standpoint the evolutionary history of ariines is mostly congruent with vicariance associated with the sequence of events during Gondwanan fragmentation, ambiguous divergence time estimations

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of ariid catfishes revisited: a comprehensive sampling

    PubMed Central

    Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Ariids or sea catfishes are one of the two otophysan fish families (out of about 67 families in four orders) that inhabit mainly marine and brackish waters (although some species occur strictly in fresh waters). The group includes over 150 species placed in ~29 genera and two subfamilies (Galeichthyinae and Ariinae). Despite their global distribution, ariids are largely restricted to the continental shelves due in part to their specialized reproductive behavior (i.e., oral incubation). Thus, among marine fishes, ariids offer an excellent opportunity for inferring historical biogeographic scenarios. Phylogenetic hypotheses available for ariids have focused on restricted geographic areas and comprehensive phylogenies are still missing. This study inferred phylogenetic hypotheses for 123 ariid species in 28 genera from different biogeographic provinces using both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences (up to ~4 kb). Results While the topologies obtained support the monophyly of basal groups, up to ten genera validated in previous morphological studies were incongruent with the molecular topologies. New World ariines were recovered as paraphyletic and Old World ariines were grouped into a well-supported clade that was further divided into subclades mainly restricted to major Gondwanan landmasses. A general area cladogram derived from the area cladograms of ariines and three other fish groups was largely congruent with the geological area cladogram of Gondwana. Nonetheless, molecular clock estimations provided variable results on the timing of ariine diversification (~105-41 mya). Conclusion This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of sea catfishes to date and highlights the need for re-assessment of their classification. While from a topological standpoint the evolutionary history of ariines is mostly congruent with vicariance associated with the sequence of events during Gondwanan fragmentation, ambiguous divergence time estimations hinders

  6. Characterization and depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Gose, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    With a depth resolution of about 0.5 cm, the stratigraphy of the approximately 3 m Apollo 17 deep drill core by measurement of the total FeO concentration is characterized along with the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index Is/FeO, the metallic iron concentration Fe-vsm, and the FMR linewidth delta-H. For stratigraphic characterization, the first two parameters are the most important. Most of the core is characterized by a FeO concentration of approximately 15.5 wt. %; there is a more mafic zone in the upper approximately 75 cm where the maximum FeO concentration is approximately 18.5 wt. %, and a more felsic zone between approximately 225 and 260 cm where the minimum FeO concentration is approximately 14.0%. As indicated by Is/FeO, most of the soil in the core is submature to mature; the only immature zone is located between approximately 20 and 60 cm and is one of the most distinctive features in the core. A two stage model for the depositional and evolutionary history of the Apollo 17 deep drill core is proposed: (1) deposition by one event approximately 110 m.y. ago or deposition by a sequence of closely spaced events initating a maximum of approximately 200 m.y. ago and terminating approximately 110 m.y. ago, (2) in situ reworking (gardening) to a depth of approximately 26 cm in the period between approximately 110 m.y. ago and the present day.

  7. The evolutionary history of the allopolyploid Squalius alburnoides (Cyprinidae) complex in the northern Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, C; Doadrio, I; Abrantes, J; Coelho, M M

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the population structure, population dynamics and processes that give rise to polyploidy and helps to maintain it is central to our knowledge of the evolution of asexual vertebrates. Previous studies revealed high genetic diversity and several reproductive pathways in the southern populations of the Squalius alburnoides hybrid complex. In contrast, lower genetic variability and the associated limited chance of introducing new genetic combinations may threaten the survival of the northern Mondego populations. We analysed the genetic diversity and structure of nine populations of S. alburnoides in the Iberian Peninsula using microsatellite loci to provide further insights on the evolutionary history of this complex. Special attention was given to the less-studied northern populations (Mondego and Douro basins). Marked population structure, a high frequency of private alleles and a high diversity of some biotypes in the Douro basin indicate that some northern populations may not be at high risk of extinction, contrary to what was expected. The genetic diversity found in the northern Douro populations contradicts the general trend of remarkable genetic impoverishment northwards that occurs in other species and regions. The results indicate the possible existence of a glacial refugium in the Rabaçal River, corroborating findings in other species of this region. Historical events seem to have affected the geographical patterns of genetic variability found among and within the northern and southern populations of this complex and contributed to different patterns of genome composition. Therefore, historical events might have a major role in the long-term persistence of some polyploid hybrid taxa. PMID:20531449

  8. X-Linked MTMR8 Diversity and Evolutionary History of Sub-Saharan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, Damian; Yotova, Vania; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Moreau, Claudia; Utermann, Gerd; Williams, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity within an 11 kb segment of the MTMR8 gene in a sample of 111 sub-Saharan and 49 non-African X chromosomes was investigated to assess the early evolutionary history of sub-Saharan Africans and the out-of-Africa expansion. The analyses revealed a complex genetic structure of the Africans that contributed to the emergence of modern humans. We observed partitioning of two thirds of old lineages among southern, west/central and east African populations indicating ancient population stratification predating the out of Africa migration. Age estimates of these lineages, older than coalescence times of uniparentally inherited markers, raise the question whether contemporary humans originated from a single population or as an amalgamation of different populations separated by years of independent evolution, thus suggesting a greater antiquity of our species than generally assumed. While the oldest sub-Saharan lineages, ∼500 thousand years, are found among Khoe-San from southern-Africa, a distinct haplotype found among Biaka is likely due to admixture from an even older population. An East African population that gave rise to non-Africans underwent a selective sweep affecting the subcentromeric region where MTMR8 is located. This and similar sweeps in four other regions of the X chromosome, documented in the literature, effectively reduced genetic diversity of non-African chromosomes and therefore may have exacerbated the effect of the demographic bottleneck usually ascribed to the out of Africa migration. Our data is suggestive, however, that a bottleneck, occurred in Africa before range expansion. PMID:24282552

  9. The evolutionary history of human DNA transposons: evidence for intense activity in the primate lineage.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Feschotte, Cédric

    2007-04-01

    Class 2, or DNA transposons, make up approximately 3% of the human genome, yet the evolutionary history of these elements has been largely overlooked and remains poorly understood. Here we carried out the first comprehensive analysis of the activity of human DNA transposons over the course of primate evolution using three independent computational methods. First, we conducted an exhaustive search for human DNA transposons nested within L1 and Alu elements known to be primate specific. Second, we assessed the presence/absence of 794 human DNA transposons at orthologous positions in 10 mammalian species using sequence data generated by The ENCODE Project. These two approaches, which do not rely upon sequence divergence, allowed us to classify DNA transposons into three different categories: anthropoid specific (40-63 My), primate specific (64-80 My), and eutherian wide (81-150 My). Finally, we used this data to calculate the substitution rates of DNA transposons for each category and refine the age of each family based on the average percent divergence of individual copies to their consensus. Based on these combined methods, we can confidently estimate that at least 40 human DNA transposon families, representing approximately 98,000 elements ( approximately 33 Mb) in the human genome, have been active in the primate lineage. There was a cessation in the transpositional activity of DNA transposons during the later phase of the primate radiation, with no evidence of elements younger than approximately 37 My. This data points to intense activity of DNA transposons during the mammalian radiation and early primate evolution, followed, apparently, by their mass extinction in an anthropoid primate ancestor.

  10. Evolutionary history of selenocysteine incorporation from the perspective of SECIS binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jesse; Copeland, Paul R

    2009-09-10

    The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine into nascent polypeptides by recoding the UGA stop codon occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, this event requires at least three specific factors: SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec), selenocysteinyl tRNA, and a cis-acting selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in selenoprotein mRNAs. While the phylogenetic relationships of selenoprotein families and the evolution of selenocysteine usage are well documented, the evolutionary history of SECIS binding proteins has not been explored. In this report we present a phylogeny of the eukaryotic SECIS binding protein family which includes SBP2 and a related protein we herein term SBP2L. Here we show that SBP2L is an SBP2 paralogue in vertebrates and is the only form of SECIS binding protein in invertebrate deuterostomes, suggesting a key role in Sec incorporation in these organisms, but an SBP2/SBP2L fusion protein is unable to support Sec incorporation in vitro. An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the conserved L7Ae RNA binding domain suggests an ancestral relationship with ribosomal protein L30. In addition, we describe the emergence of a motif upstream of the SBP2 RNA binding domain that shares significant similarity with a motif within the pseudouridine synthase Cbf5. Our analysis suggests that SECIS binding proteins arose once in evolution but diverged significantly in multiple lineages. In addition, likely due to a gene duplication event in the early vertebrate lineage, SBP2 and SBP2L are paralogous in vertebrates.

  11. Different Evolutionary History for Basque Diaspora Populations in USA and Argentina Unveiled by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Piñeiro-Hermida, Sergio; Arriba-Barredo, Miren; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; M. de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The Basque Diaspora in Western USA and Argentina represents two populations which have maintained strong Basque cultural and social roots in a completely different geographic context. Hence, they provide an exceptional opportunity to study the maternal genetic legacy from the ancestral Basque population and assess the degree of genetic introgression from the host populations in two of the largest Basque communities outside the Basque Country. For this purpose, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA control region of Basque descendants living in Western USA (n = 175) and in Argentina (n = 194). The Diaspora populations studied here displayed a genetic diversity in their European maternal input which was similar to that of the Basque source populations, indicating that not important founder effects would have occurred. Actually, the genetic legacy of the Basque population still prevailed in their present-day maternal pools, by means of a haplogroup distribution similar to the source population characterized by the presence of autochthonous Basque lineages, such as U5b1f1a and J1c5c1. However, introgression of non-Basque lineages, mostly Native American, has been observed in the Diaspora populations, particularly in Argentina, where the quick assimilation of the newcomers would have favored a wider admixture with host populations. In contrast, a longer isolation of the Diaspora groups in USA, because of language and cultural differences, would have limited the introgression of local lineages. This study reveals important differences in the maternal evolutionary histories of these Basque Diaspora populations, which have to be taken into consideration in forensic and medical genetic studies. PMID:26659590

  12. The effects of ecology and evolutionary history on robust capuchin morphological diversity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristin A; Wright, Barth W; Ford, Susan M; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia; Norconk, Marilyn; Masterson, Thomas; Hobbs, David G; Alfaro, Michael E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular work has confirmed the long-standing morphological hypothesis that capuchins are comprised of two distinct clades, the gracile (untufted) capuchins (genus Cebus, Erxleben, 1777) and the robust (tufted) capuchins (genus Sapajus Kerr, 1792). In the past, the robust group was treated as a single, undifferentiated and cosmopolitan species, with data from all populations lumped together in morphological and ecological studies, obscuring morphological differences that might exist across this radiation. Genetic evidence suggests that the modern radiation of robust capuchins began diversifying ∼2.5 Ma, with significant subsequent geographic expansion into new habitat types. In this study we use a morphological sample of gracile and robust capuchin craniofacial and postcranial characters to examine how ecology and evolutionary history have contributed to morphological diversity within the robust capuchins. We predicted that if ecology is driving robust capuchin variation, three distinct robust morphotypes would be identified: (1) the Atlantic Forest species (Sapajus xanthosternos, S. robustus, and S. nigritus), (2) the Amazonian rainforest species (S. apella, S. cay and S. macrocephalus), and (3) the Cerrado-Caatinga species (S. libidinosus). Alternatively, if diversification time between species pairs predicts degree of morphological difference, we predicted that the recently diverged S. apella, S. macrocephalus, S. libidinosus, and S. cay would be morphologically comparable, with greater variation among the more ancient lineages of S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, and S. robustus. Our analyses suggest that S. libidinosus has the most derived craniofacial and postcranial features, indicative of inhabiting a more terrestrial niche that includes a dependence on tool use for the extraction of imbedded foods. We also suggest that the cranial robusticity of S. macrocephalus and S. apella are indicative of recent competition with sympatric gracile capuchin

  13. The Complex Demographic History and Evolutionary Origin of the Western Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera.

    PubMed

    Cridland, Julie M; Tsutsui, Neil D; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2017-02-01

    The western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides critical pollination services to agricultural crops worldwide. However, despite substantial interest and prior investigation, the early evolution and subsequent diversification of this important pollinator remain uncertain. The primary hypotheses place the origin of A. mellifera in either Asia or Africa, with subsequent radiations proceeding from one of these regions. Here, we use two publicly available whole-genome data sets plus newly sequenced genomes and apply multiple population genetic analysis methods to investigate the patterns of ancestry and admixture in native honey bee populations from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The combination of these data sets is critical to the analyses, as each contributes samples from geographic locations lacking in the other, thereby producing the most complete set of honey bee populations available to date. We find evidence supporting an origin of A. mellifera in the Middle East or North Eastern Africa, with the A and Y lineages representing the earliest branching lineages. This finding has similarities with multiple contradictory hypotheses and represents a disentangling of genetic relationships, geographic proximity, and secondary contact to produce a more accurate picture of the origins of A. mellifera. We also investigate how previous studies came to their various conclusions based on incomplete sampling of populations, and illustrate the importance of complete sampling in understanding evolutionary processes. These results provide fundamental knowledge about genetic diversity within Old World honey bee populations and offer insight into the complex history of an important pollinator. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Evolutionary history of Cuban crocodiles Crocodylus rhombifer and Crocodylus acutus inferred from multilocus markers.

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Frias-Soler, Roberto; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramos-Targarona, Roberto; Rodríguez-Soberón, Roberto; Alonso-Tabet, Manuel; Thorbjarnarson, John; Sanjur, Oris I; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2011-07-01

    Among crocodilians, Crocodylus rhombifer is one of the world's most endangered species with the smallest natural distribution. In Cuba, this endemic species coexists with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Hybridization between these two species is well known in captivity and might occur in the wild, but has never been demonstrated genetically. Here, we combined molecular data with environmental, geographic, and fossil data to infer the evolutionary history of Crocodylus in the Cuban Archipelago, and to evaluate genealogical support for species boundaries. We analyzed seven microsatellite loci plus DNA sequence data from nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I) genes from 89 wild-caught individuals in Cuba, Grand Cayman Island, Jamaica, and Central America, and two samples from zoo collections. Microsatellites showed evidence of introgression, suggesting potential hybridization among Cuban groups. In Cuba, C. acutus contained one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, whereas C. rhombifer contained two haplotypes. MtDNA data showed that C. acutus is paraphyletic with respect to C. rhombifer, revealing 1% sequence divergence between species within Cuba vs. 8% divergence between Cuban forms and mainland C. acutus. We suggest that hybridization has been a historical as well as a current phenomenon between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. These findings suggest that long-term conservation of crocodiles in Cuba will require identification of genetically pure and hybrid individuals, and a decrease in anthropogenic activities. We also recommend more extensive morphological and genetic analyses of Cuban population to establish clear boundaries of the hybrid zone between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. Evolutionary history of tuberculosis shaped by conserved mutations in the PhoPR virulence regulator.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús; Malaga, Wladimir; Pawlik, Alexandre; Astarie-Dequeker, Catherine; Passemar, Charlotte; Moreau, Flavie; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Martin, Carlos; Brosch, Roland; Guilhot, Christophe

    2014-08-05

    Although the bovine tuberculosis (TB) agent, Mycobacterium bovis, may infect humans and cause disease, long-term epidemiological data indicate that humans represent a spill-over host in which infection with M. bovis is not self-maintaining. Indeed, human-to-human transmission of M. bovis strains and other members of the animal lineage of the tubercle bacilli is very rare. Here, we report on three mutations affecting the two-component virulence regulation system PhoP/PhoR (PhoPR) in M. bovis and in the closely linked Mycobacterium africanum lineage 6 (L6) that likely account for this discrepancy. Genetic transfer of these mutations into the human TB agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulted in down-regulation of the PhoP regulon, with loss of biologically active lipids, reduced secretion of the 6-kDa early antigenic target (ESAT-6), and lower virulence. Remarkably, the deleterious effects of the phoPR mutations were partly compensated by a deletion, specific to the animal-adapted and M. africanum L6 lineages, that restores ESAT-6 secretion by a PhoPR-independent mechanism. Similarly, we also observed that insertion of an IS6110 element upstream of the phoPR locus may completely revert the phoPR-bovis-associated fitness loss, which is the case for an exceptional M. bovis human outbreak strain from Spain. Our findings ultimately explain the long-term epidemiological data, suggesting that M. bovis and related phoPR-mutated strains pose a lower risk for progression to overt human TB, with major impact on the evolutionary history of TB.

  16. Underexplored biodiversity of Eastern Mediterranean biota: systematics and evolutionary history of the genus Aubrieta (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Koch, Marcus A; Karl, Robert; German, Dmitry A

    2017-01-01

    Aubrieta is a taxonomically difficult genus from the Brassicaceae family with approximately 20 species centred in Turkey and Greece. Species boundaries and their evolutionary history are poorly understood. Therefore, we analysed bio- and phylogeographic relationships and evaluated morphological variation to study the evolution of this genus. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence variation of nuclear-encoded loci and plastid DNA were used to unravel phylogeographic patterns. Morphometric analyses were conducted to study species delimitation. DNA sequence-based mismatch distribution and climate-niche analyses were performed to explain various radiations in space and time during the last 2·5 million years. Species groups largely show non-overlapping distribution patterns in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. We recognized 20 species and provide evidence for overlooked species, thereby highlighting taxonomical difficulties but also demonstrating underexplored species diversity. The centre of origin of Aubrieta is probably Turkey, from which various clades expanded independently towards Asia Minor, south to Lebanon and west to Greece and the Balkans during the Pleistocene. Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a pronounced effect on Aubrieta speciation and radiation during the last 1·1 million years in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. In contrast to many other Brassicaceae, speciation processes did not involve excessive formation of polyploids, but displayed formation of diploids with non-overlapping present-day distribution areas. Expansions from the Aubrieta centre of origin and primary centre of species diversity showed adaptation trends towards higher temperature and drier conditions. However, later expansion and diversification of taxa from within the second centre of species diversity in Greece started ∼0·19 Mya and were associated with a general transition of species adaptation towards milder temperatures and less dry conditions. © The

  17. Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Park, Solip; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Young-Eun; Hwang, Jihye; Park, Juyong; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which evolutionary changes have impacted the phenotypic relationships among human diseases remains unclear. In this work, we report that phenotypically similar diseases are connected by the evolutionary constraints on human disease genes. Human disease groups can be classified into slowly or rapidly evolving classes, where the diseases in the slowly evolving class are enriched with morphological phenotypes and those in the rapidly evolving class are enriched with physiological phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear evolutionary connection between disease classes and disease phenotypes for the first time. Furthermore, the high comorbidity found between diseases connected by similar evolutionary constraints enables us to improve the predictability of the relative risk of human diseases. We find the evolutionary constraints on disease genes are a new layer of molecular connection in the network-based exploration of human diseases.

  18. The Martian Crater Size-Frequency Distribution and the Evolutionary History of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Ivanov, B. A.; Neukum, G.

    2005-08-01

    . Aspects of secondary cratering, resurfacing and exhumation and their influence on the cratering record will be highlighted and insights to the evolutionary history of Mars will be given. The authors acknowledge the funding of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  19. EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NUCELLA (GASTROPODA, MURICIDAE): MOLECULAR, MORPHOLOGICAL, ECOLOGICAL, AND PALEONTOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    PubMed

    Collins, Timothy M; Frazer, Kenneth; Palmer, A Richard; Vermeij, Geerat J; Brown, Wesley M

    1996-12-01

    transitions and transversions accrue at a rate of 3-4% and 0.5% respectively per million yr. This supports an early participation by Nucella in the trans-Arctic interchange, as suggested by paleobiogeographic studies. Consistent with the unstable taxonomic history of species of Nucella, we found few nonmolecular traits to be phylogenetically informative. Among North Pacific species, more recently derived species (N. canaliculata and the N. emarginata clade) were more ecologically specialized (narrower diet and habitat range). Consistent with extensive intraspecific variation, shell traits were quite labile evolutionarily: neither overall size nor development of antipredatory traits exhibited consistent evolutionary trends over the history of the genus. Nurse eggs (unfertilized eggs consumed by developing embryos) were an ancestral trait that was lost evolutionarily in the two clades that also exhibited increased body size, suggesting that these two life-history traits may be coupled. The reduced number of chromosomes in N. lapillus is clearly a derived state and is consistent with White's (1978) observations on chromosome evolution in other clades. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How much can history constrain adaptive evolution? A real-time evolutionary approach of inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Fragata, I; Lopes-Cunha, M; Bárbaro, M; Kellen, B; Lima, M; Santos, M A; Faria, G S; Santos, M; Matos, M; Simões, P

    2014-12-01

    Chromosomal inversions are present in a wide range of animals and plants, having an important role in adaptation and speciation. Although empirical evidence of their adaptive value is abundant, the role of different processes underlying evolution of chromosomal polymorphisms is not fully understood. History and selection are likely to shape inversion polymorphism variation to an extent yet largely unknown. Here, we perform a real-time evolution study addressing the role of historical constraints and selection in the evolution of these polymorphisms. We founded laboratory populations of Drosophila subobscura derived from three locations along the European cline and followed the evolutionary dynamics of inversion polymorphisms throughout the first 40 generations. At the beginning, populations were highly differentiated and remained so throughout generations. We report evidence of positive selection for some inversions, variable between foundations. Signs of negative selection were more frequent, in particular for most cold-climate standard inversions across the three foundations. We found that previously observed convergence at the phenotypic level in these populations was not associated with convergence in inversion frequencies. In conclusion, our study shows that selection has shaped the evolutionary dynamics of inversion frequencies, but doing so within the constraints imposed by previous history. Both history and selection are therefore fundamental to predict the evolutionary potential of different populations to respond to global environmental changes.

  2. The complex evolutionary history and phylogeography of Caridina typus (Crustacea: Decapoda): long-distance dispersal and cryptic allopatric species.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Samuel C; Pepato, Almir R; von Rintelen, Thomas; von Rintelen, Kristina; Page, Timothy J; Freitag, Hendrik; de Bruyn, Mark

    2017-08-22

    The evolutionary history of the old, diverse freshwater shrimp genus Caridina is still poorly understood, despite its vast distribution - from Africa to Polynesia. Here, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA to infer the phylogeographic and evolutionary history of C. typus, which is one of only four species distributed across the entire range of the genus. Despite this species' potential for high levels of gene flow, questions have been raised regarding its phylogeographic structure and taxonomic status. We identified three distinct lineages that likely diverged in the Miocene. Molecular dating and ancestral range reconstructions are congruent with C. typus' early dispersal to Africa, possibly mediated by the Miocene Indian Ocean Equatorial Jet, followed by back dispersal to Australasia after the Jet's closure. Furthermore, several different species delimitation methods indicate each lineage represents a distinct (cryptic) species, contradicting current morphospecies delimitation of a single C. typus taxon. The evolutionary history of C. typus lineages is complex, in which ancient oceanic current systems and (currently unrecognised) speciation events preceded secondary sympatry of these cryptic species.

  3. Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree-herbivore networks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Hauzy, Céline; Loeuille, Nicolas; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2015-07-01

    Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant-herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with resultant differences in abiotic conditions. We evaluated network metrics and reported similar connectance between gardens but greater numbers of links per species in the northern common garden. Interaction matrices revealed clear nestedness, indicating subsetting of the bipartite interactions into specialist divisions, in both the environmental and evolutionary aspen groups, although nestedness values were only significant in the northern garden. Variation in plant vulnerability, measured as the frequency of herbivore specialization in the aspen population, was significantly partitioned by environment (common garden) but not by evolutionary origin of the aspens. Significant values of modularity were observed in all network matrices. Trait-matching indicated that growth traits, leaf morphology, and phenolic metabolites affected modular structure in both the garden and evolutionary groups, whereas extra-floral nectaries had little influence. Further examination of module configuration revealed that plant vulnerability explained considerable variance in web structure. The contrasting conditions between the two gardens resulted in bottom-up effects of the environment, which most strongly influenced the overall network architecture, however, the aspen groups with dissimilar evolutionary history also showed contrasting degrees of nestedness and modularity. Our research therefore shows that, while evolution does affect the structure of aspen

  4. Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree–herbivore networks

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Hauzy, Céline; Loeuille, Nicolas; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2015-01-01

    Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant–herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with resultant differences in abiotic conditions. We evaluated network metrics and reported similar connectance between gardens but greater numbers of links per species in the northern common garden. Interaction matrices revealed clear nestedness, indicating subsetting of the bipartite interactions into specialist divisions, in both the environmental and evolutionary aspen groups, although nestedness values were only significant in the northern garden. Variation in plant vulnerability, measured as the frequency of herbivore specialization in the aspen population, was significantly partitioned by environment (common garden) but not by evolutionary origin of the aspens. Significant values of modularity were observed in all network matrices. Trait-matching indicated that growth traits, leaf morphology, and phenolic metabolites affected modular structure in both the garden and evolutionary groups, whereas extra-floral nectaries had little influence. Further examination of module configuration revealed that plant vulnerability explained considerable variance in web structure. The contrasting conditions between the two gardens resulted in bottom-up effects of the environment, which most strongly influenced the overall network architecture, however, the aspen groups with dissimilar evolutionary history also showed contrasting degrees of nestedness and modularity. Our research therefore shows that, while evolution does affect the structure of aspen

  5. Joint palaeoclimate reconstruction from pollen data via forward models and climate histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Andrew C.; Haslett, John; Sweeney, James; Doan, Thinh K.; Allen, Judy R. M.; Huntley, Brian

    2016-11-01

    We present a method and software for reconstructing palaeoclimate from pollen data with a focus on accounting for and reducing uncertainty. The tools we use include: forward models, which enable us to account for the data generating process and hence the complex relationship between pollen and climate; joint inference, which reduces uncertainty by borrowing strength between aspects of climate and slices of the core; and dynamic climate histories, which allow for a far richer gamut of inferential possibilities. Through a Monte Carlo approach we generate numerous equally probable joint climate histories, each of which is represented by a sequence of values of three climate dimensions in discrete time, i.e. a multivariate time series. All histories are consistent with the uncertainties in the forward model and the natural temporal variability in climate. Once generated, these histories can provide most probable climate estimates with uncertainty intervals. This is particularly important as attention moves to the dynamics of past climate changes. For example, such methods allow us to identify, with realistic uncertainty, the past century that exhibited the greatest warming. We illustrate our method with two data sets: Laguna de la Roya, with a radiocarbon dated chronology and hence timing uncertainty; and Lago Grande di Monticchio, which contains laminated sediment and extends back to the penultimate glacial stage. The procedure is made available via an open source R package, Bclim, for which we provide code and instructions.

  6. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  7. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than λ.

  8. Mitochondrial evidence for multiple radiations in the evolutionary history of small apes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gibbons or small apes inhabit tropical and subtropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and adjacent regions, and are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives. With up to 16 species, gibbons form the most diverse group of living hominoids, but the number of taxa, their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogeography is controversial. To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies. Results Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions, several monophyletic clades were detected, corresponding to genera, species and subspecies. A significantly supported branching pattern was obtained for members of the genus Nomascus but not for the genus Hylobates. The phylogenetic relationships among the four genera were also not well resolved. Nevertheless, the new data permitted the estimation of divergence ages for all taxa for the first time and showed that most lineages emerged during four short time periods. In the first, between ~6.7 and ~8.3 mya, the four gibbon genera diverged from each other. In the second (~3.0 - ~3.9 mya) and in the third period (~1.3 - ~1.8 mya), Hylobates and Hoolock differentiated. Finally, between ~0.5 and ~1.1 mya, Hylobates lar diverged into subspecies. In contrast, differentiation of Nomascus into species and subspecies was a continuous and prolonged process lasting from ~4.2 until ~0.4 mya. Conclusions Although relationships among gibbon taxa on various levels remain unresolved, the present study provides a more complete view of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the hylobatid family, and a more solid genetic basis for the taxonomic classification of the surviving taxa. We also show that mtDNA constitutes a useful marker for the accurate identification of individual gibbons, a tool which is urgently required to locate hunting hotspots and select individuals for captive breeding programs

  9. Evolutionary history of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene family in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Citarelli, Matteo; Teotia, Sachin; Lamb, Rebecca S

    2010-10-13

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) superfamily was originally identified as enzymes that catalyze the attachment of ADP-ribose subunits to target proteins using NAD+ as a substrate. The family is characterized by the catalytic site, termed the PARP signature. While these proteins can be found in a range of eukaryotes, they have been best studied in mammals. In these organisms, PARPs have key functions in DNA repair, genome integrity and epigenetic regulation. More recently it has been found that proteins within the PARP superfamily have altered catalytic sites, and have mono(ADP-ribose) transferase (mART) activity or are enzymatically inactive. These findings suggest that the PARP signature has a broader range of functions that initially predicted. In this study, we investigate the evolutionary history of PARP genes across the eukaryotes. We identified in silico 236 PARP proteins from 77 species across five of the six eukaryotic supergroups. We performed extensive phylogenetic analyses of the identified PARPs. They are found in all eukaryotic supergroups for which sequence is available, but some individual lineages within supergroups have independently lost these genes. The PARP superfamily can be subdivided into six clades. Two of these clades were likely found in the last common eukaryotic ancestor. In addition, we have identified PARPs in organisms in which they have not previously been described. Three main conclusions can be drawn from our study. First, the broad distribution and pattern of representation of PARP genes indicates that the ancestor of all extant eukaryotes encoded proteins of this type. Second, the ancestral PARP proteins had different functions and activities. One of these proteins was similar to human PARP1 and likely functioned in DNA damage response. The second of the ancestral PARPs had already evolved differences in its catalytic domain that suggest that these proteins may not have possessed poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity. Third, the

  10. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Santoni, Sylvain; Causse, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and phenotypic variability of

  11. Distinct Viral Lineages from Fish and Amphibians Reveal the Complex Evolutionary History of Hepadnaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Jennifer A.; Camus, Alvin C.; Leary, John H.; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses [HBVs]) are the only animal viruses that replicate their DNA by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Until recently, the known host range of hepadnaviruses was limited to mammals and birds. We obtained and analyzed the first amphibian HBV genome, as well as several prototype fish HBVs, which allow the first comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of hepadnaviruses from four classes of vertebrates. Bluegill hepadnavirus (BGHBV) was characterized from in-house viral metagenomic sequencing. The African cichlid hepadnavirus (ACHBV) and the Tibetan frog hepadnavirus (TFHBV) were discovered using in silico analyses of the whole-genome shotgun and transcriptome shotgun assembly databases. Residues in the hydrophobic base of the capsid (core) proteins, designated motifs I, II, and III, are highly conserved, suggesting that structural constraints for proper capsid folding are key to capsid protein evolution. Surface proteins in all vertebrate HBVs contain similar predicted membrane topologies, characterized by three transmembrane domains. Most striking was the fact that BGHBV, ACHBV, and the previously described white sucker hepadnavirus did not form a fish-specific monophyletic group in the phylogenetic analysis of all three hepadnaviral genes. Notably, BGHBV was more closely related to the mammalian hepadnaviruses, indicating that cross-species transmission events have played a major role in viral evolution. Evidence of cross-species transmission was also observed with TFHBV. Hence, these data indicate that the evolutionary history of the hepadnaviruses is more complex than previously realized and combines both virus-host codivergence over millions of years and host species jumping. IMPORTANCE Hepadnaviruses are responsible for significant disease in humans (hepatitis B virus) and have been reported from a diverse range of vertebrates as both exogenous and endogenous viruses. We report the full-length genome of a

  12. The complex evolutionary history of big-eared horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus macrotis complex): insights from genetic, morphological and acoustic data

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keping; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Liu, Tong; Wei, Xuewen; Jin, Longru; Jiang, Tinglei; Lin, Aiqing; Feng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Palaeoclimatic oscillations and different landscapes frequently result in complex population-level structure or the evolution of cryptic species. Elucidating the potential mechanisms is vital to understanding speciation events. However, such complex evolutionary patterns have rarely been reported in bats. In China, the Rhinolophus macrotis complex contains a large form and a small form, suggesting the existence of a cryptic bat species. Our field surveys found these two sibling species have a continuous and widespread distribution with partial sympatry. However, their evolutionary history has received little attention. Here, we used extensive sampling, morphological and acoustic data, as well as different genetic markers to investigate their evolutionary history. Genetic analyses revealed discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear data. Mitochondrial data identified three reciprocally monophyletic lineages: one representing all small forms from Southwest China, and the other two containing all large forms from Central and Southeast China, respectively. The large form showed paraphyly with respect to the small form. However, clustering analyses of microsatellite and Chd1 gene sequences support two divergent clusters separating the large form and the small form. Moreover, morphological and acoustic analyses were consistent with nuclear data. This unusual pattern in the R. macrotis complex might be accounted for by palaeoclimatic oscillations, shared ancestral polymorphism and/or interspecific hybridization. PMID:27748429

  13. Potential pitfalls of reconstructing deep time evolutionary history with only extant data, a case study using the canidae (mammalia, carnivora).

    PubMed

    Finarelli, John A; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-12-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary patterns and their underlying processes is a central goal in biology. Yet many analyses of deep evolutionary histories assume that data from the fossil record is too incomplete to include, and rely solely on databases of extant taxa. Excluding fossil taxa assumes that character state distributions across living taxa are faithful representations of a clade's entire evolutionary history. Many factors can make this assumption problematic. Fossil taxa do not simply lead-up to extant taxa; they represent now-extinct lineages that can substantially impact interpretations of character evolution for extant groups. Here, we analyze body mass data for extant and fossil canids (dogs, foxes, and relatives) for changes in mean and variance through time. AIC-based model selection recovered distinct models for each of eight canid subgroups. We compared model fit of parameter estimates for (1) extant data alone and (2) extant and fossil data, demonstrating that the latter performs significantly better. Moreover, extant-only analyses result in unrealistically low estimates of ancestral mass. Although fossil data are not always available, reconstructions of deep-time organismal evolution in the absence of deep-time data can be highly inaccurate, and we argue that every effort should be made to include fossil data in macroevolutionary studies.

  14. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species. PMID:27891142

  15. Evolutionary history of lamprey paired species Lampetra fluviatilis (L.) and Lampetra planeri (Bloch) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Espanhol, Rute; Almeida, Pedro R; Alves, M Judite

    2007-05-01

    A remarkable trend in the evolution of lampreys is the occurrence in most genera of 'paired species', in which the parasitic anadromous lampreys are believed to have given rise to nonparasitic freshwater resident populations. The present work examines the phylogeography of the European paired species Lampetra fluviatilis and Lampetra planeri, in an attempt to elucidate species pair evolutionary history. We studied sequence variation in cytochrome b and ATPase 6, 8 mitochondrial genes in 63 individuals from 21 localities of the paired species throughout their distribution range. Results from the phylogenetic and nested clade analyses were largely consistent, suggesting the existence of three major evolutionary lineages: lineage I and possibly lineage II are widespread throughout Europe, while the most ancestral lineage III is apparently restricted to the Iberian Peninsula. The high genetic diversity observed in the Iberian Peninsula is probably the result of refugial persistence and subsequent accumulation of variation over several ice ages, whereas the low levels of genetic diversity observed in central and northern Europe should reflect a rapid postglacial colonization. Results suggest that L. planeri originated within at least two distinct evolutionary lineages, rejecting the single origin hypothesis. The observed lack of taxa monophyly within lineage I may be the result of ongoing gene flow if the two taxa are alternate life-history forms of a single species. However, structure within lineage I is also consistent with the hypothesis of divergence of taxa after postglacial dispersion (around 2000 generations ago) with incomplete lineage sorting. Further testing of the alternative hypotheses is warranted.

  16. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  17. Evolutionary history and molecular epidemiology of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly virulent calicivirus, first described in domestic rabbits in China in 1984. RHDV appears to be a mutant form of a benign virus that existed in Europe long before the first outbreak. In the Iberian Peninsula, the first epidemic in 1988 severely reduced the populations of autochthonous European wild rabbit. To examine the evolutionary history of RHDV in the Iberian Peninsula, we collected virus samples from wild rabbits and sequenced a fragment of the capsid protein gene VP60. These data together with available sequences from other Western European countries, were analyzed following Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to infer their phylogenetic relationships, evolutionary rates and demographic history. Results Evolutionary relationships of RHDV revealed three main lineages with significant phylogeographic structure. All lineages seem to have emerged at a common period of time, between ~1875 and ~1976. The Iberian Peninsula showed evidences of genetic isolation, probably due to geographic barriers to gene flow, and was also the region with the youngest MRCA. Overall, demographic analyses showed an initial increase and stabilization of the relative genetic diversity of RHDV, and a subsequent reduction in genetic diversity after the first epidemic breakout in 1984, which is compatible with a decline in effective population size. Conclusions Results were consistent with the hypothesis that the current Iberian RHDV arose from a single infection between 1869 and 1955 (95% HPD), and rendered a temporal pattern of appearance and extinction of lineages. We propose that the rising positive selection pressure observed throughout the history of RHDV is likely mediated by the host immune system as a consequence of the genetic changes that rendered the virus virulent. Consequently, this relationship is suggested to condition RHDV demographic history. PMID:21067589

  18. Complex evolutionary history of the Mexican stoneroller Campostoma ornatum Girard, 1856 (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    River paleosystem, where the southern group originated. Within groups, a complex reticulate biogeographic history for C. ornatum populations emerges, following the taxon pulse theory and mainly related with Pliocene tecto-volcanic processes. In the northern group, several events of vicariance promoted by river or drainage isolation episodes were found, but within both groups, the phylogeographic patterns suggest the occurrence of several events of river capture and fauna interchange. The Yaqui River supports the most diverse populations of C. ornatum, with several events of dispersal and isolation within the basin. Based on our genetic results, we defined three ESUs within C. ornatum as a first attempt to promote the conservation of the evolutionary processes determining the genetic diversity of this species. They will likely be revealed as a valuable tool for freshwater conservation policies in northwest Mexico, where many environmental problems concerning the use of water have rapidly arisen in recent decades. PMID:21639931

  19. The Crustal Evolutionary History of the Cathaysia Block from the Paleoproterozoic to Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longming, L.; Sun, M.; Wang, Y.; Xing, G.

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of crustal evolution of the Cathaysia Block can provide important insights into the process of the assembly, growth and breakup of the supercontinents in the history of the Earth. However, much controversy exist on the evolution of this continental block. Questions need to be answered include whether the Cathaysia Block represents an ancient continent; timing of the assembly of this block with the Yangtze Block; the geodynamic environment responsible for the late Mesozoic volcanic activities in the coastal area of the Cathaysia Block. This thesis provides important geochemical and geochronological data, which enable us to tackle these outstanding problems. The crustal evolutionary history is elucidated in the context of global supercontinent evolution. Gneissic granites in NW Fujian Province gave Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean (1.9 to 2.6 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic ages (~1.85 Ga) for the zircon cores and zoned rims, respectively. The geochemical data indicate that their precursor magmas were formed by partial melting of sedimentary rocks while their enclosed clinopyroxenites came from an arc-related affinity upper mantle source. Therefore our data show that the Cathaysia Block went through a complete Paleoproterozoic tectonic cycle from subduction to collision at ~1.85 Ga, we interpret which was related to the assembly of the Columbia. The detrital zircons from the schists of the Zhoutan Group are predominantly Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.826 Ga), suggesting that the Zhoutan Group deposited in a back-arc basin in the Neoproterozoic rather than Mesoproterozoic. Moreover, subordinate detrital zircons give 1.9-1.4 Ga ages and minor zircons yield Neoarchaean (~2.5 Ga) age. Because 1.0-0.82 Ga old rocks are common at the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block, while the 1.9-1.4 Ga rocks occur in the Cathaysia Block, we suggest that the Neoproterozoic sediments originated both from the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks and the timing of the final assembly between

  20. The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol; Musser, Steven M.; Brown, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission) occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS) data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79) and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221). There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates). Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations. PMID:24765574

  1. A New Model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History in the Northern Qinling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Guowei; Yang, Zhao; Qu, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling Orogenic Belt extends from the Qinling Mountains in the west to the Dabie Mountains in the east. It lies between the North China and South China Blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Zhang et al., 2000). The Qinling Orogenic Belt itself is divided into the North and South Qinling Terranes by the Shangdan suture zone. Although the Shangdan zone is thought to represent the major suture separating the two blocks, there still exists debate about the timing and mechanism of convergence between these two blocks. For instance, some authors suggested an Early Paleozoic collision between the North China Block and South China Block (Ren et al., 1991; Kroner et al., 1993; Zhai et al., 1998). Others postulated left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Shangdan suture at ca. 315 Ma and inferred a pre-Devonian collision between the two blocks (Mattauer et al., 1985; Xu et al., 1988). Geochemistry of fine-grained sediments in the Qinling Mountains was used to argue for a Silurian-Devonian collision (Gao et al., 1995). A Late Triassic collision has also been proposed (Sengor, 1985; Hsu et al., 1987; Wang et al., 1989), based on the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in the easternmost part of the Qinling Orogenic Belt at ~230 Ma (e.g., Li et al., 1993; Ames et al., 1996). Paleomagnetic data favor a Late Triassic-Middle Jurassic amalgamation of the North China and South China Blocks (Zhao and Coe, 1987; Enkin et al., 1992). It is clear that most authors thought that the Qinling Mountains are a collisional orogen, even they have different methods about the timing of the orogeny. Based on new detailed investigations, we propose a new model of the Early Paleozoic Tectonics and Evolutionary History between the North China and South China Blocks along the Shangdan Suture. The Shangdan suture is marked by a great number of ophiolites, island-arc volcanic rocks and other related rock

  2. Phylogenetic investigation of the complex evolutionary history of dispersal mode and diversification rates across living and fossil Fagales.

    PubMed

    Larson-Johnson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    As a primary determinant of spatial structure in angiosperm populations, fruit dispersal may impact large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes. Essential to understanding these mechanisms is an accurate reconstruction of dispersal mode over the entire history of an angiosperm lineage. A total-evidence phylogeny is presented for most fossil fruit and all extant genera in Fagales over its c. 95 million yr history. This phylogeny - the largest of its kind to include plant fossils - was used to reconstruct an evolutionary history directly informed by fossil morphologies and to assess relationships among dispersal mode, biogeographic range size, and diversification rate. Reconstructions indicate four transitions to wind dispersal and seven to biotic dispersal, with the phylogenetic integration of fossils crucial to understanding these patterns. Complexity further increased when more specialized behaviors were considered, with fluttering, gliding, autorotating, and scatter-hoarding evolving multiple times across the order. Preliminary biogeographic analyses suggest larger range sizes in biotically dispersed lineages, especially when pollination mode was held constant. Biotically dispersed lineages had significantly higher diversification rates than abiotically dispersed lineages, although transitions in dispersal mode alone cannot explain all detected diversification rate shifts across Fagales. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Evolutionary history of c-myc in teleosts and characterization of the duplicated c-myca genes in goldfish embryos.

    PubMed

    Marandel, Lucie; Labbe, Catherine; Bobe, Julien; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves

    2012-02-01

    c-Myc plays an important role during embryogenesis in mammals, but little is known about its function during embryonic development in teleosts. In addition, the evolutionary history of c-myc gene in teleosts remains unclear, and depending on the species, a variable number of gene duplicates exist in teleosts. To gain new insight into c-myc genes in teleosts, the present study was designed to clarify the evolutionary history of c-myc gene(s) in teleosts and to subsequently characterize DNA methylation and early embryonic expression patterns in a cyprinid fish. Our results show that a duplication of c-myc gene occurred before or around the teleost radiation, as a result of the teleost-specific whole genome duplication giving rise to c-myca and c-mycb in teleosts and was followed by a loss of the c-mycb gene in the Gasterosteiforms and Tetraodontiforms. Our data also demonstrate that both c-myc genes previously identified in carp and goldfish are co-orthologs of the zebrafish c-myca. These results indicate the presence of additional c-myca duplication in Cyprininae. We were able to identify differences between the expression patterns of the two goldfish c-myca genes in oocytes and early embryos. These differences suggest a partial sub-functionalization of c-myca genes after duplication. Despite differences in transcription patterns, both of the c-myca genes displayed similar DNA methylation patterns during early development and in gametes. Together, our results clarify the evolutionary history of the c-myc gene in teleosts and provide new insight into the involvement of c-myc in early embryonic development in cyprinids. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. GR 290 (Romano’s Star). II. Light History and Evolutionary State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Maryeva, O.; Nesci, R.; Calabresi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Haver, R.; Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H.; Pasquali, A.; Rossi, C.; Vasilyeva, T.; Viotti, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18-19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992-1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B - V color index has been constant within ±0.1m despite the 1.5m change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992-94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002-2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600-4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002-2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R2/3, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while Teff varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ˜1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity variations. Presently, GR 290 falls in the H

  5. Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common…

  6. The evolutionary history of an invasive species: alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The eco-evolutionary mechanisms of biological invasions are still not thoroughly understood. Alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Gisebach (Amaranthaceae), is a plant native to South America and a weed in Australia and other countries. To better understand its success as an invader,...

  7. Insights in the ecology and evolutionary history of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group lineage.

    PubMed

    Fillol, Mireia; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Casamayor, Emilio O; Borrego, Carles M

    2016-03-01

    Members of the archaeal Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) are among the most successful microorganisms on the planet. During its evolutionary diversification, this very diverse group has managed to cross the saline-freshwater boundary, one of the most important evolutionary barriers structuring microbial communities. However, the current understanding on the ecological significance of MCG in freshwater habitats is scarce and the evolutionary relationships between freshwater and saline MCG remains poorly known. Here, we carried out molecular phylogenies using publicly available 16S rRNA gene sequences from various geographic locations to investigate the distribution of MCG in freshwater and saline sediments and to evaluate the implications of saline-freshwater transitions during the diversification events. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework in which MCG archaea appeared as a core generalist group in the sediment realm. However, the analysis of the complex intragroup phylogeny of the 21 subgroups currently forming the MCG lineage revealed that distinct evolutionary MCG subgroups have arisen in marine and freshwater sediments suggesting the occurrence of adaptive evolution specific to each habitat. The ancestral state reconstruction analysis indicated that this segregation was mainly due to the occurrence of a few saline-freshwater transition events during the MCG diversification. In addition, a network analysis showed that both saline and freshwater MCG recurrently co-occur with archaea of the class Thermoplasmata in sediment ecosystems, suggesting a potentially relevant trophic connection between the two clades.

  8. A Time-Calibrated Road Map of Brassicaceae Species Radiation and Evolutionary History[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Nora; Wolf, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    The Brassicaceae include several major crop plants and numerous important model species in comparative evolutionary research such as Arabidopsis, Brassica, Boechera, Thellungiella, and Arabis species. As any evolutionary hypothesis needs to be placed in a temporal context, reliably dated major splits within the evolution of Brassicaceae are essential. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated framework with important divergence time estimates based on whole-chloroplast sequence data for 29 Brassicaceae species. Diversification of the Brassicaceae crown group started at the Eocene-to-Oligocene transition. Subsequent major evolutionary splits are dated to ∼20 million years ago, coinciding with the Oligocene-to-Miocene transition, with increasing drought and aridity and transient glaciation events. The age of the Arabidopsis thaliana crown group is 6 million years ago, at the Miocene and Pliocene border. The overall species richness of the family is well explained by high levels of neopolyploidy (43% in total), but this trend is neither directly associated with an increase in genome size nor is there a general lineage-specific constraint. Our results highlight polyploidization as an important source for generating new evolutionary lineages adapted to changing environments. We conclude that species radiation, paralleled by high levels of neopolyploidization, follows genome size decrease, stabilization, and genetic diploidization. PMID:26410304

  9. Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common…

  10. Insights in the ecology and evolutionary history of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group lineage

    PubMed Central

    Fillol, Mireia; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Casamayor, Emilio O; Borrego, Carles M

    2016-01-01

    Members of the archaeal Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) are among the most successful microorganisms on the planet. During its evolutionary diversification, this very diverse group has managed to cross the saline–freshwater boundary, one of the most important evolutionary barriers structuring microbial communities. However, the current understanding on the ecological significance of MCG in freshwater habitats is scarce and the evolutionary relationships between freshwater and saline MCG remains poorly known. Here, we carried out molecular phylogenies using publicly available 16S rRNA gene sequences from various geographic locations to investigate the distribution of MCG in freshwater and saline sediments and to evaluate the implications of saline–freshwater transitions during the diversification events. Our approach provided a robust ecological framework in which MCG archaea appeared as a core generalist group in the sediment realm. However, the analysis of the complex intragroup phylogeny of the 21 subgroups currently forming the MCG lineage revealed that distinct evolutionary MCG subgroups have arisen in marine and freshwater sediments suggesting the occurrence of adaptive evolution specific to each habitat. The ancestral state reconstruction analysis indicated that this segregation was mainly due to the occurrence of a few saline–freshwater transition events during the MCG diversification. In addition, a network analysis showed that both saline and freshwater MCG recurrently co-occur with archaea of the class Thermoplasmata in sediment ecosystems, suggesting a potentially relevant trophic connection between the two clades. PMID:26284443

  11. The impact of history on our perception of evolutionary events: endosymbiosis and the origin of eukaryotic complexity.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-02-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses are correctly interpreted as products of the data they set out to explain, but they are less often recognized as being heavily influenced by other factors. One of these is the history of preceding thought, and here I look back on historically important changes in our thinking about the role of endosymbiosis in the origin of eukaryotic cells. Specifically, the modern emphasis on endosymbiotic explanations for numerous eukaryotic features, including the cell itself (the so-called chimeric hypotheses), can be seen not only as resulting from the advent of molecular and genomic data, but also from the intellectual acceptance of the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids. This transformative idea may have unduly affected how other aspects of the eukaryotic cell are explained, in effect priming us to accept endosymbiotic explanations for endogenous processes. Molecular and genomic data, which were originally harnessed to answer questions about cell evolution, now so dominate our thinking that they largely define the question, and the original questions about how eukaryotic cellular architecture evolved have been neglected. This is unfortunate because, as Roger Stanier pointed out, these cellular changes represent life's "greatest single evolutionary discontinuity," and on this basis I advocate a return to emphasizing evolutionary cell biology when thinking about the origin of eukaryotes, and suggest that endogenous explanations will prevail when we refocus on the evolution of the cell.

  12. Mutational Studies on Resurrected Ancestral Proteins Reveal Conservation of Site-Specific Amino Acid Preferences throughout Evolutionary History

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Valeria A.; Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Delgado-Delgado, Asunción; Arco, Rocio; Barroso-delJesus, Alicia; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Gavira, Jose A.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Local protein interactions (“molecular context” effects) dictate amino acid replacements and can be described in terms of site-specific, energetic preferences for any different amino acid. It has been recently debated whether these preferences remain approximately constant during evolution or whether, due to coevolution of sites, they change strongly. Such research highlights an unresolved and fundamental issue with far-reaching implications for phylogenetic analysis and molecular evolution modeling. Here, we take advantage of the recent availability of phenotypically supported laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins and β-lactamases to experimentally address the change of site-specific amino acid preferences over long geological timescales. Extensive mutational analyses support the notion that evolutionary adjustment to a new amino acid may occur, but to a large extent this is insufficient to erase the primitive preference for amino acid replacements. Generally, site-specific amino acid preferences appear to remain conserved throughout evolutionary history despite local sequence divergence. We show such preference conservation to be readily understandable in molecular terms and we provide crystallographic evidence for an intriguing structural-switch mechanism: Energetic preference for an ancestral amino acid in a modern protein can be linked to reorganization upon mutation to the ancestral local structure around the mutated site. Finally, we point out that site-specific preference conservation naturally leads to one plausible evolutionary explanation for the existence of intragenic global suppressor mutations. PMID:25392342

  13. The Impact of History on Our Perception of Evolutionary Events: Endosymbiosis and the Origin of Eukaryotic Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses are correctly interpreted as products of the data they set out to explain, but they are less often recognized as being heavily influenced by other factors. One of these is the history of preceding thought, and here I look back on historically important changes in our thinking about the role of endosymbiosis in the origin of eukaryotic cells. Specifically, the modern emphasis on endosymbiotic explanations for numerous eukaryotic features, including the cell itself (the so-called chimeric hypotheses), can be seen not only as resulting from the advent of molecular and genomic data, but also from the intellectual acceptance of the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids. This transformative idea may have unduly affected how other aspects of the eukaryotic cell are explained, in effect priming us to accept endosymbiotic explanations for endogenous processes. Molecular and genomic data, which were originally harnessed to answer questions about cell evolution, now so dominate our thinking that they largely define the question, and the original questions about how eukaryotic cellular architecture evolved have been neglected. This is unfortunate because, as Roger Stanier pointed out, these cellular changes represent life’s “greatest single evolutionary discontinuity,” and on this basis I advocate a return to emphasizing evolutionary cell biology when thinking about the origin of eukaryotes, and suggest that endogenous explanations will prevail when we refocus on the evolution of the cell. PMID:24492708

  14. Assessing intratumor heterogeneity and tracking longitudinal and spatial clonal evolutionary history by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuchao; Qiu, Yu; Minn, Andy J.; Zhang, Nancy R.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease driven by evolutionary selection on somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we propose Canopy, a method for inferring the evolutionary phylogeny of a tumor using both somatic copy number alterations and single-nucleotide alterations from one or more samples derived from a single patient. Canopy is applied to bulk sequencing datasets of both longitudinal and spatial experimental designs and to a transplantable metastasis model derived from human cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Canopy successfully identifies cell populations and infers phylogenies that are in concordance with existing knowledge and ground truth. Through simulations, we explore the effects of key parameters on deconvolution accuracy and compare against existing methods. Canopy is an open-source R package available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/Canopy/. PMID:27573852

  15. SpreaD3: Interactive Visualization of Spatiotemporal History and Trait Evolutionary Processes.

    PubMed

    Bielejec, Filip; Baele, Guy; Vrancken, Bram; Suchard, Marc A; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Model-based phylogenetic reconstructions increasingly consider spatial or phenotypic traits in conjunction with sequence data to study evolutionary processes. Alongside parameter estimation, visualization of ancestral reconstructions represents an integral part of these analyses. Here, we present a complete overhaul of the spatial phylogenetic reconstruction of evolutionary dynamics software, now called SpreaD3 to emphasize the use of data-driven documents, as an analysis and visualization package that primarily complements Bayesian inference in BEAST (http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk, last accessed 9 May 2016). The integration of JavaScript D3 libraries (www.d3.org, last accessed 9 May 2016) offers novel interactive web-based visualization capacities that are not restricted to spatial traits and extend to any discrete or continuously valued trait for any organism of interest.

  16. Assessing intratumor heterogeneity and tracking longitudinal and spatial clonal evolutionary history by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuchao; Qiu, Yu; Minn, Andy J; Zhang, Nancy R

    2016-09-13

    Cancer is a disease driven by evolutionary selection on somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we propose Canopy, a method for inferring the evolutionary phylogeny of a tumor using both somatic copy number alterations and single-nucleotide alterations from one or more samples derived from a single patient. Canopy is applied to bulk sequencing datasets of both longitudinal and spatial experimental designs and to a transplantable metastasis model derived from human cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Canopy successfully identifies cell populations and infers phylogenies that are in concordance with existing knowledge and ground truth. Through simulations, we explore the effects of key parameters on deconvolution accuracy and compare against existing methods. Canopy is an open-source R package available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/Canopy/.

  17. Evolutionary History and Phylodynamics of Influenza A and B Neuraminidase (NA) Genes Inferred from Large-Scale Sequence Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianpeng; Davis, C. Todd; Christman, Mary C.; Rivailler, Pierre; Zhong, Haizhen; Donis, Ruben O.; Lu, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza neuraminidase (NA) is an important surface glycoprotein and plays a vital role in viral replication and drug development. The NA is found in influenza A and B viruses, with nine subtypes classified in influenza A. The complete knowledge of influenza NA evolutionary history and phylodynamics, although critical for the prevention and control of influenza epidemics and pandemics, remains lacking. Methodology/Principal findings Evolutionary and phylogenetic analyses of influenza NA sequences using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian MCMC methods demonstrated that the divergence of influenza viruses into types A and B occurred earlier than the divergence of influenza A NA subtypes. Twenty-three lineages were identified within influenza A, two lineages were classified within influenza B, and most lineages were specific to host, subtype or geographical location. Interestingly, evolutionary rates vary not only among lineages but also among branches within lineages. The estimated tMRCAs of influenza lineages suggest that the viruses of different lineages emerge several months or even years before their initial detection. The dN/dS ratios ranged from 0.062 to 0.313 for influenza A lineages, and 0.257 to 0.259 for influenza B lineages. Structural analyses revealed that all positively selected sites are at the surface of the NA protein, with a number of sites found to be important for host antibody and drug binding. Conclusions/Significance The divergence into influenza type A and B from a putative ancestral NA was followed by the divergence of type A into nine NA subtypes, of which 23 lineages subsequently diverged. This study provides a better understanding of influenza NA lineages and their evolutionary dynamics, which may facilitate early detection of newly emerging influenza viruses and thus improve influenza surveillance. PMID:22808012

  18. Revisiting the age, evolutionary history and species level diversity of the genus Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Martin; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-10-01

    The genus Hydra has long served as a model system in comparative immunology, developmental and evolutionary biology. Despite its relevance for fundamental research, Hydra's evolutionary origins and species level diversity are not well understood. Detailed previous studies using molecular techniques identified several clades within Hydra, but how these are related to described species remained largely an open question. In the present study, we compiled all published sequence data for three mitochondrial and nuclear genes (COI, 16S and ITS), complemented these with some new sequence data and delimited main genetic lineages (=hypothetical species) objectively by employing two DNA barcoding approaches. Conclusions on the species status of these main lineages were based on inferences of reproductive isolation. Relevant divergence times within Hydra were estimated based on relaxed molecular clock analyses with four genes (COI, 16S, EF1α and 28S) and four cnidarians fossil calibration points All in all, 28 main lineages could be delimited, many more than anticipated from earlier studies. Because allopatric distributions were common, inferences of reproductive isolation often remained ambiguous but reproductive isolation was rarely refuted. Our results support three major conclusions which are central for Hydra research: (1) species level diversity was underestimated by molecular studies; (2) species affiliations of several crucial 'workhorses' of Hydra evolutionary research were wrong and (3) crown group Hydra originated ∼200mya. Our results demonstrate that the taxonomy of Hydra requires a thorough revision and that evolutionary studies need to take this into account when interspecific comparisons are made. Hydra originated on Pangea. Three of four extant groups evolved ∼70mya ago, possibly on the northern landmass of Laurasia. Consequently, Hydra's cosmopolitan distribution is the result of transcontinental and transoceanic dispersal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  19. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  20. Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account.

    PubMed

    Riutort, Marta; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Lázaro, Eva; Solà, Eduard; Paps, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Within the free-living platyhelminths, the triclads, or planarians, are the best-known group, largely as a result of long-standing and intensive research on regeneration, pattern formation and Hox gene expression. However, the group's evolutionary history has been long debated, with controversies ranging from their phyletic structure and position within the Metazoa to the relationships among species within the Tricladida. Over the the last decade, with the advent of molecular phylogenies, some of these issues have begun to be resolved. Here, we present an up-to-date summary of the main phylogenetic changes and novelties with some comments on their evolutionary implications. The phylum has been split into two groups, and the position of the main group (the Rhabdithophora and the Catenulida), close to the Annelida and the Mollusca within the Lophotrochozoa, is now clear. Their internal relationships, although not totally resolved, have been clarified. Tricladida systematics has also experienced a revolution since the implementation of molecular data. The terrestrial planarians have been demonstrated to have emerged from one of the freshwater families, giving a different view of their evolution and greatly altering their classification. The use of molecular data is also facilitating the identification of Tricladida species by DNA barcoding, allowing better knowledge of their distribution and genetic diversity. Finally, molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, taking advantage of recent data, are beginning to give a clear picture of the recent history of the Dugesia and Schmidtea species in the Mediterranean.

  1. Evolutionary drivers of parasite-induced changes in insect life-history traits from theory to underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    Many hosts are able to tolerate infection by altering life-history traits that are traded-off one against another. Here the reproductive fitness of insect hosts and vectors is reviewed in the context of theories concerning evolutionary mechanisms driving such alterations. These include the concepts that changes in host reproductive fitness are by-products of infection, parasite manipulations, host adaptations, mafia-like strategies or host compensatory responses. Two models are examined in depth, a tapeworm/beetle association, Hymenolepis diminuta/Tenebrio molitor and malaria infections in anopheline mosquitoes. Parasite-induced impairment of vitellogenesis ultimately leads to a decrease in female reproductive success in both cases, though by different means. Evidence is put forwards for both a manipulator molecule of parasite origin and for host-initiated regulation. These models are backed by other examples in which mechanisms underlying fecundity reduction or fecundity compensation are explored. It is concluded that evolutionary theories must be supported by empirical evidence gained from studying molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying changes in host life-history traits, ideally using organisms that have evolved together and that are in their natural environment.

  2. Seedling response to environmental variability: The relationship between phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary history in closely related Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Susan; Bonser, Stephen P; Wilson, Peter G; Rossetto, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important means through which organisms cope with environmental variability. We investigated seedling plasticity in the green ash eucalypts within a phylogenetic framework to examine the relationship between plasticity and evolutionary history. The green ashes are a diverse group, which include the tallest flowering plant in the world (Eucalyptus regnans) and a rare mallee less than 1 m tall (E. cunninghamii). Seedlings of 12 species were exposed to high and low nutrient and water availability in a factorial experiment. Leaf trait and total plant plasticity were evaluated using the phenotypic plasticity index. A phylogeny of the species was estimated using genome-wide scans. We found significant differences in functional traits across species, growth forms, and substrates in response to changes in resource availability. Many traits (e.g., leaf width) were highly plastic for most species. Interspecific differences in leaf-level plasticity was significant, however plasticity was not correlated with phylogeny. Species with broader environmental niches had higher leaf-level plasticity than species with narrower environmental ranges. Plastic responses to environmental variability can differ widely among closely related species, and plasticity is therefore likely to be associated with many factors, including habitat and range size, as well as evolutionary history. Our results provided insights for species delimitation in Eucalyptus, which have management implications. Because of the high number of rare species and that other species are commercially important, a more comprehensive understanding of plasticity is essential for predicting their response to changing climates. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Evolutionary relationships among food habit, loss of flight, and reproductive traits: life-history evolution in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kagaya, Takashi; Kubota, Kohei; Abe, Toshio

    2008-08-01

    Flightlessness in insects is generally thought to have evolved due to changes in habitat environment or habitat isolation. Loss of flight may have changed reproductive traits in insects, but very few attempts have been made to assess evolutionary relationships between flight and reproductive traits in a group of related species. We elucidated the evolutionary history of flight loss and its relationship to evolution in food habit, relative reproductive investment, and egg size in the Silphinae (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Most flight-capable species in this group feed primarily on vertebrate carcasses, whereas flightless or flight-dimorphic species feed primarily on soil invertebrates. Ancestral state reconstruction based on our newly constructed molecular phylogenetic tree implied that flight muscle degeneration occurred twice in association with food habit changes from necrophagy to predatory, suggesting that flight loss could evolve independently from changes in the environmental circumstances per se. We found that total egg production increased with flight loss. We also found that egg size increased with decreased egg number following food habit changes in the lineage leading to predaceous species, suggesting that selection for larger larvae intensified with the food habit change. This correlated evolution has shaped diverse life-history patterns among extant species of Silphinae.

  4. Life-history specialization was not an evolutionary dead-end in Pyrenean cave beetles

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Alexandra; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Research on subterranean organisms has focused on the colonization process and some of the associated phenotypic changes, but little is known on the long-term evolutionary dynamics of subterranean lineages and the origin of some highly specialized complex characters. One of the most extreme modifications is the reduction of the number of larval instars in some Leptodirini beetles from the ancestral 3 to 2 and ultimately a single instar. This reduction is usually assumed to have occurred independently multiple times within the same lineage and geographical area, but its evolution has never been studied in a phylogenetic framework. Using a comprehensive molecular phylogeny, we found a low number of independent origins of the reduction in the number of instars, with a single transition, dated to the Oligocene–Miocene, from 3 to 2 and then 1 instar in the Pyrenees, the best-studied area. In the Pyrenees, the 1-instar lineage had a diversification rate (0.22 diversification events per lineage per million years) significantly higher than that of 3- or 2-instar lineages (0.10), and similar to that seen in other Coleopteran radiations. Far from being evolutionary dead-ends, ancient lineages fully adapted to subterranean life seem able to persist and diversify over long evolutionary periods. PMID:24573850

  5. Life-history specialization was not an evolutionary dead-end in Pyrenean cave beetles.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Alexandra; Fresneda, Javier; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-04-22

    Research on subterranean organisms has focused on the colonization process and some of the associated phenotypic changes, but little is known on the long-term evolutionary dynamics of subterranean lineages and the origin of some highly specialized complex characters. One of the most extreme modifications is the reduction of the number of larval instars in some Leptodirini beetles from the ancestral 3 to 2 and ultimately a single instar. This reduction is usually assumed to have occurred independently multiple times within the same lineage and geographical area, but its evolution has never been studied in a phylogenetic framework. Using a comprehensive molecular phylogeny, we found a low number of independent origins of the reduction in the number of instars, with a single transition, dated to the Oligocene-Miocene, from 3 to 2 and then 1 instar in the Pyrenees, the best-studied area. In the Pyrenees, the 1-instar lineage had a diversification rate (0.22 diversification events per lineage per million years) significantly higher than that of 3- or 2-instar lineages (0.10), and similar to that seen in other Coleopteran radiations. Far from being evolutionary dead-ends, ancient lineages fully adapted to subterranean life seem able to persist and diversify over long evolutionary periods.

  6. Sex, rebellion and decadence: the scandalous evolutionary history of the human Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Costa, Paulo

    2012-12-01

    It can be argued that the Y chromosome brings some of the spirit of rock&roll to our genome. Equal parts degenerate and sex-driven, the Y has boldly rebelled against sexual recombination, one of the sacred pillars of evolution. In evolutionary terms this chromosome also seems to have adopted another of rock&roll's mottos: living fast. Yet, it appears to have refused to die young. In this manuscript the Y chromosome will be analyzed from the intersection between structural, evolutionary and functional biology. Such integrative approach will present the Y as a highly specialized product of a series of remarkable evolutionary processes. These led to the establishment of a sex-specific genomic niche that is maintained by a complex balance between selective pressure and the genetic diversity introduced by intrachromosomal recombination. Central to this equilibrium is the "polish or perish" dilemma faced by the male-specific Y genes: either they are polished by the acquisition of male-related functions or they perish via the accumulation of inactivating mutations. Thus, understanding to what extent the idiosyncrasies of Y recombination may impact this chromosome's role in sex determination and male germline functions should be regarded as essential for added clinical insight into several male infertility phenotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular Genetics of Human Reproductive Failure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yuyama, Ikuko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris. We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris. These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis. PMID:27324918

  8. Different Endosymbiotic Interactions in Two Hydra Species Reflect the Evolutionary History of Endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Yuyama, Ikuko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-08-03

    Endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary event for organisms, and there is widespread interest in understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis establishment. Hydra is one of the most suitable organisms for studying the evolution of endosymbiosis. Within the genus Hydra, H. viridissima and H. vulgaris show endosymbiosis with green algae. Previous studies suggested that the endosymbiosis in H. vulgaris took place much more recently than that in H. viridissima, noting that the establishment of the interaction between H. vulgaris and its algae is not as stable as in H. viridissima. To investigate the on-going process of endosymbiosis, we first compared growth and tolerance to starvation in symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of both species. The results revealed that symbiotic H. viridissima had a higher growth rate and greater tolerance to starvation than aposymbiotic polyps. By contrast, growth of symbiotic H. vulgaris was identical to that of aposymbiotic polyps, and symbiotic H. vulgaris was less tolerant to starvation. Moreover, our gene expression analysis showed a pattern of differential gene expression in H. viridissima similar to that in other endosymbiotically established organisms, and contrary to that observed in H. vulgaris We also showed that H. viridissima could cope with oxidative stress that caused damage, such as cell death, in H. vulgaris These observations support the idea that oxidative stress related genes play an important role in the on-going process of endosymbiosis evolution. The different evolutionary stages of endosymbiosis studied here provide a deeper insight into the evolutionary processes occurring toward a stable endosymbiosis.

  9. Graphing evolutionary pattern and process: a history of techniques in archaeology and paleobiology.

    PubMed

    Lyman, R Lee

    2009-02-01

    Graphs displaying evolutionary patterns are common in paleontology and in United States archaeology. Both disciplines subscribed to a transformational theory of evolution and graphed evolution as a sequence of archetypes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. U.S. archaeologists in the second decade of the twentieth century, and paleontologists shortly thereafter, developed distinct graphic styles that reflected the Darwinian variational model of evolution. Paleobiologists adopted the view of a species as a set of phenotypically variant individuals and graphed those variations either as central tendencies or as histograms of frequencies of variants. Archaeologists presumed their artifact types reflected cultural norms of prehistoric artisans and the frequency of specimens in each type reflected human choice and type popularity. They graphed cultural evolution as shifts in frequencies of specimens representing each of several artifact types. Confusion of pattern and process is exemplified by a paleobiologist misinterpreting the process illustrated by an archaeological graph, and an archaeologist misinterpreting the process illustrated by a paleobiological graph. Each style of graph displays particular evolutionary patterns and implies particular evolutionary processes. Graphs of a multistratum collection of prehistoric mammal remains and a multistratum collection of artifacts demonstrate that many graph styles can be used for both kinds of collections.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA haplotype distribution patterns in Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae): range-wide evolutionary history and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D; Mahalovich, Mary F; Means, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) exhibits complicated patterns of morphological and genetic variation across its range in western North America. This study aims to clarify P. ponderosa evolutionary history and phylogeography using a highly polymorphic mitochondrial DNA marker, with results offering insights into how geographical and climatological processes drove the modern evolutionary structure of tree species in the region. We amplified the mtDNA nad1 second intron minisatellite region for 3,100 trees representing 104 populations, and sequenced all length variants. We estimated population-level haplotypic diversity and determined diversity partitioning among varieties, races and populations. After aligning sequences of minisatellite repeat motifs, we evaluated evolutionary relationships among haplotypes. The geographical structuring of the 10 haplotypes corresponded with division between Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties. Pacific haplotypes clustered with high bootstrap support, and appear to have descended from Rocky Mountain haplotypes. A greater proportion of diversity was partitioned between Rocky Mountain races than between Pacific races. Areas of highest haplotypic diversity were the southern Sierra Nevada mountain range in California, northwestern California, and southern Nevada. Pinus ponderosa haplotype distribution patterns suggest a complex phylogeographic history not revealed by other genetic and morphological data, or by the sparse paleoecological record. The results appear consistent with long-term divergence between the Pacific and Rocky Mountain varieties, along with more recent divergences not well-associated with race. Pleistocene refugia may have existed in areas of high haplotypic diversity, as well as the Great Basin, Southwestern United States/northern Mexico, and the High Plains.

  11. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective

  12. Breakpoint regions and homologous synteny blocks in chromosomes have different evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Denis M; Pape, Greg; Donthu, Ravikiran; Auvil, Loretta; Welge, Michael; Lewin, Harris A

    2009-05-01

    The persistence of large blocks of homologous synteny and a high frequency of breakpoint reuse are distinctive features of mammalian chromosomes that are not well understood in evolutionary terms. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary forces that affect genome architecture, synteny relationships among 10 amniotes (human, chimp, macaque, rat, mouse, pig, cattle, dog, opossum, and chicken) were compared at <1 human-Mbp resolution. Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs; N = 2233) and chromosome evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs; N = 1064) were identified from pairwise comparisons of all genomes. Analysis of the size distribution of HSBs shared in all 10 species' chromosomes (msHSBs) identified three (>20 Mbp) that are larger than expected by chance. Gene network analysis of msHSBs >3 human-Mbp and EBRs <1 Mbp demonstrated that msHSBs are significantly enriched for genes involved in development of the central nervous and other organ systems, whereas EBRs are enriched for genes associated with adaptive functions. In addition, we found EBRs are significantly enriched for structural variations (segmental duplications, copy number variants, and indels), retrotransposed and zinc finger genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results demonstrate that chromosome breakage in evolution is nonrandom and that HSBs and EBRs are evolving in distinctly different ways. We suggest that natural selection acts on the genome to maintain combinations of genes and their regulatory elements that are essential to fundamental processes of amniote development and biological organization. Furthermore, EBRs may be used extensively to generate new genetic variation and novel combinations of genes and regulatory elements that contribute to adaptive phenotypes.

  13. Breakpoint regions and homologous synteny blocks in chromosomes have different evolutionary histories

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Denis M.; Pape, Greg; Donthu, Ravikiran; Auvil, Loretta; Welge, Michael; Lewin, Harris A.

    2009-01-01

    The persistence of large blocks of homologous synteny and a high frequency of breakpoint reuse are distinctive features of mammalian chromosomes that are not well understood in evolutionary terms. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary forces that affect genome architecture, synteny relationships among 10 amniotes (human, chimp, macaque, rat, mouse, pig, cattle, dog, opossum, and chicken) were compared at <1 human-Mbp resolution. Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs; N = 2233) and chromosome evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs; N = 1064) were identified from pairwise comparisons of all genomes. Analysis of the size distribution of HSBs shared in all 10 species' chromosomes (msHSBs) identified three (>20 Mbp) that are larger than expected by chance. Gene network analysis of msHSBs >3 human-Mbp and EBRs <1 Mbp demonstrated that msHSBs are significantly enriched for genes involved in development of the central nervous and other organ systems, whereas EBRs are enriched for genes associated with adaptive functions. In addition, we found EBRs are significantly enriched for structural variations (segmental duplications, copy number variants, and indels), retrotransposed and zinc finger genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results demonstrate that chromosome breakage in evolution is nonrandom and that HSBs and EBRs are evolving in distinctly different ways. We suggest that natural selection acts on the genome to maintain combinations of genes and their regulatory elements that are essential to fundamental processes of amniote development and biological organization. Furthermore, EBRs may be used extensively to generate new genetic variation and novel combinations of genes and regulatory elements that contribute to adaptive phenotypes. PMID:19342477

  14. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and environmental adaptations

  15. Assessing variation in life-history tactics within a population using mixture regression models: a practical guide for evolutionary ecologists.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Mixed models are now well-established methods in ecology and evolution because they allow accounting for and quantifying within- and between-individual variation. However, the required normal distribution of the random effects can often be violated by the presence of clusters among subjects, which leads to multi-modal distributions. In such cases, using what is known as mixture regression models might offer a more appropriate approach. These models are widely used in psychology, sociology, and medicine to describe the diversity of trajectories occurring within a population over time (e.g. psychological development, growth). In ecology and evolution, however, these models are seldom used even though understanding changes in individual trajectories is an active area of research in life-history studies. Our aim is to demonstrate the value of using mixture models to describe variation in individual life-history tactics within a population, and hence to promote the use of these models by ecologists and evolutionary ecologists. We first ran a set of simulations to determine whether and when a mixture model allows teasing apart latent clustering, and to contrast the precision and accuracy of estimates obtained from mixture models versus mixed models under a wide range of ecological contexts. We then used empirical data from long-term studies of large mammals to illustrate the potential of using mixture models for assessing within-population variation in life-history tactics. Mixture models performed well in most cases, except for variables following a Bernoulli distribution and when sample size was small. The four selection criteria we evaluated [Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and two bootstrap methods] performed similarly well, selecting the right number of clusters in most ecological situations. We then showed that the normality of random effects implicitly assumed by evolutionary ecologists when using mixed models was often

  16. Model-based evolutionary analysis: the natural history of phage-shock stress response.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Maxime; Toni, Tina; Tan, Hui; Jovanovic, Goran; Engl, Christoph; Buck, Martin; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of proteins is inseparably linked to their function. Because most biological processes involve a number of different proteins, it may become impossible to study the evolutionary properties of proteins in isolation. In the present article, we show how simple mechanistic models of biological processes can complement conventional comparative analyses of biological traits. We use the specific example of the phage-shock stress response, which has been well characterized in Escherichia coli, to elucidate patterns of gene sharing and sequence conservation across bacterial species.

  17. Joint inference of microsatellite mutation models, population history and genealogies using transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J

    2011-05-01

    We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example.

  18. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, and Evolutionary History of Kleinia neriifolia (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos F.

    2017-01-01

    Kleinia neriifolia Haw. is an endemic species on the Canarian archipelago, this species is widespread in the coastal thicket of all the Canarian islands. In