Science.gov

Sample records for joint global ocean

  1. Ocean Carbon Cycle Data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP). Data are available throughout the U.S. JGOFS web site at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/ and from the U.S. JGOFS Data System at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/jg/dir/jgofs/. Major named segments of the project are: Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study, Equatorial Pacific Process Study, North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (1989), Arabian Sea Process Study, and the Southern Ocean Process Study.

  2. Global Oceanic Precipitation: A Joint View by TOPEX and the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ge; Chapron, Bertrand; Tournadre, Jean; Katsaros, Kristina; Vandemark, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission offers the first opportunity to observe rain cells over the ocean by a dual-frequency radar altimeter (TOPEX) and simultaneously observe their natural radiative properties by a three-frequency radiometer (TOPEX microwave radiometer (TMR)). This work is a feasibility study aimed at understanding the capability and potential of the active/passive TOPEX/TMR system for oceanic rainfall detection. On the basis of past experiences in rain flagging, a joint TOPEX/TMR rain probability index is proposed. This index integrates several advantages of the two sensors and provides a more reliable rain estimate than the radiometer alone. One year's TOPEX/TMR data are used to test the performance of the index. The resulting rain frequency statistics show quantitative agreement with those obtained from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), while qualitative agreement is found for other regions of the world ocean. A recent finding that the latitudinal frequency of precipitation over the Southern Ocean increases steadily toward the Antarctic continent is confirmed by our result. Annual and seasonal precipitation maps are derived from the index. Notable features revealed include an overall similarity in rainfall pattern from the Pacific, the Atlantic, and the Indian Oceans and a general phase reversal between the two hemispheres, as well as a number of regional anomalies in terms of rain intensity. Comparisons with simultaneous Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) multisatellite precipitation rate and COADS rain climatology suggest that systematic differences also exist. One example is that the maximum rainfall in the ITCZ of the Indian Ocean appears to be more intensive and concentrated in our result compared to that of the GPCP. Another example is that the annual precipitation produced by TOPEX/TMR is constantly higher than those from GPCP and COADS in the extratropical regions of the

  3. Aircraft remote sensing of phytoplankton spatial patterns during the 1989 Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) North Atlantic bloom experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, James A.; Hoge, Frank E.

    1991-01-01

    Mesoscale phytoplankton chlorophyll variability near the Joint Global Ocean Flux study sites along the 20 W meridian at 34 N, 47 N, and 59 N is discussed. The NASA P-3 aircraft and the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system provides remote sensing support for the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment. The principal instrument of the AOL system is the blue-green laser that stimulates fluorescence from photoplankton chlorophyll, the principal photosynthetic pigment. Other instruments on the NASA P-3 aircraft include up- and down-looking spectrometers, PRT-5 for infrared measurements to determine sea surface temperature, and a system to deploy and record AXBTs to measure subsurface temperature structure.

  4. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

  5. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  6. A steady state model of particulate organic carbon flux below the mixed layer and application to the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2001-12-01

    The downward flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) through the ocean is controlled by a complex coupling of physical and biological processes. Here we analyze the equation that describes steady state coagulation, fragmentation, sedimentation, and grazing of POC below the mixed layer. The analysis yields a set of conditions under which vertical flux of POC is uncoupled from coagulation and fragmentation. When these conditions are satisfied, the model predicts that the flux of POC decays exponentially with depth down to 200-500 m, below which the flux is constant. From the magnitude of the terminal flux an estimate for the in situ clearance rate (volume swept clear of prey per grazer per unit time) for the grazer community can be obtained. This in situ clearance rate is estimated for five oceanic field sites using data collected during the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and the resulting values compare favorably to previously published laboratory estimates. These results suggest that, in some cases, bacterial mineralization may not be needed to explain the decline in POC flux in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean.

  7. Dynamical Interpolation of Mesoscale Flows in the TOPEX/ Poseidon Diamond Surrounding the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, D. J.; Kosnyrev, V. K.

    2001-01-01

    An open boundary ocean model is configured in a domain bounded by the four TOPEX/Poseidon (TIP) ground tracks surrounding the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. This implementation facilitates prescription of model boundary conditions directly from altimetric measurements (both TIP and ERS-2). The expected error characteristics for a domain of this size with periodically updated boundary conditions are established with idealized numerical experiments using simulated data. A hindcast simulation is then constructed using actual altimetric observations during the period October 1992 through September 1998. Quantitative evaluation of the simulation suggests significant skill. The correlation coefficient between predicted sea level anomaly and ERS observations in the model interior is 0.89; that for predicted versus observed dynamic height anomaly based on hydrography at the BATS site is 0.73. Comparison with the idealized experiments suggests that the main source of error in the hindcast is temporal undersampling of the boundary conditions. The hindcast simulation described herein provides a basis for retrospective analysis of BATS observations in the context of the mesoscale eddy field.

  8. Dynamical Interpolation of Mesoscale Flows in the TOPEX/Poseidon Diamond Surrounding the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Kosnyrev, V. K.

    2001-01-01

    An open boundary ocean model is configured in a domain bounded by the four TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) ground tracks surrounding the US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site. This implementation facilitates prescription of model boundary conditions directly from altimetric measurements (both TIP and ERS-2). The expected error characteristics for a domain of this size with periodically updated boundary conditions are established with idealized numerical experiments using simulated data. A hindcast simulation is then constructed using actual altimetric observations during the period October 1992 through September 1998. Quantitative evaluation of the simulation suggests significant skill. The correlation coefficient between predicted sea level anomaly and ERS observations in the model interior is 0.89; that for predicted versus observed dynamic height anomaly based on hydrography at the BATS site is 0.73. Comparison with the idealized experiments suggests that the main source of error in the hindcast is temporal undersampling of the boundary conditions. The hindcast simulation described herein provides a basis for retrospective analysis of BATS observations in the context of the mesoscale eddy field.

  9. Bio-optical profile data report: Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-Series, HOT-3, R/V Moana Wave, 6-10 January 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Donald J.; Rhea, W. Joseph; Tran, An Van

    1990-01-01

    Time-series measurements of the incident surface downwelling irradiance and vertical profiles of the Bio-optical properties of the ocean have been measured during the third cruise of the Hawaii Ocean Time-Series to the ALOHA site, 22 degrees 56.4 minutes N, 157 degrees 54.6 minutes W, north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during the period January 6 to 10, 1989. A summary of these data is presented to permit investigators an overview of the data collected. The data are available in digital form for scientific investigators.

  10. The Global Ocean Observing System: One perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. Ron

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a possible organization for a Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) within the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the joint ocean programs with the World Meteorological Organization. The document and the organization presented here is not intended to be definitive, complete or the best possible organization for such an observation program. It is presented at this time to demonstrate three points. The first point to be made is that an international program office for GOOS along the lines of the WOCE and TOGA IPOs is essential. The second point is that national programs will have to continue to collect data at the scale of WOCE plus TOGA and more. The third point is that there are many existing groups and committees within the IOC and joint IOC/WMO ocean programs that can contribute essential experience to and form part of the basis of a Global Ocean Observing System. It is particularly important to learn from what has worked and what has not worked in the past if a successful ocean observing system is to result.

  11. The Global Ocean Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Dana

    1992-01-01

    A Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) should be established now with international coordination (1) to address issues of global change, (2) to implement operational ENSO forecasts, (3) to provide the data required to apply global ocean circulation models, and (4) to extract the greatest value from the one billion dollar investment over the next ten years in ocean remote sensing by the world's space agencies. The objectives of GOOS will focus on climatic and oceanic predictions, on assessing coastal pollution, and in determining the sustainability of living marine resources and ecosystems. GOOS will be a complete system including satellite observations, in situ observations, numerical modeling of ocean processes, and data exchange and management. A series of practical and economic benefits will be derived from the information generated by GOOS. In addition to the marine science community, these benefits will be realized by the energy industries of the world, and by the world's fisheries. The basic oceanic variables that are required to meet the oceanic and predictability objectives of GOOS include wind velocity over the ocean, sea surface temperature and salinity, oceanic profiles of temperature and salinity, surface current, sea level, the extent and thickness of sea ice, the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters, and the chlorophyll concentration of surface waters. Ocean circulation models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models can be used to evaluate observing system design, to assimilate diverse data sets from in situ and remotely sensed observations, and ultimately to predict future states of the system. The volume of ocean data will increase enormously over the next decade as new satellite systems are launched and as complementary in situ measuring systems are deployed. These data must be transmitted, quality controlled, exchanged, analyzed, and archived with the best state-of-the-art computational methods.

  12. The global ocean microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moran, Mary Ann

    2015-12-11

    The microbiome of the largest environment on Earth has been gradually revealing its secrets over four decades of study. Despite the dispersed nature of substrates and the transience of surfaces, marine microbes drive essential transformations in all global elemental cycles. Much has been learned about the microbes that carry out key biogeochemical processes, but there are still plenty of ambiguities about the factors important in regulating activity, including the role of microbial interactions. Identifying the molecular "currencies" exchanged within the microbial community will provide key information on microbiome function and its vulnerability to environmental change.

  13. Global Trends in Ocean Noise.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    This ongoing work provides information about sound level trends from three ocean regions to compare with those of the North Pacific to determine whether increasing sound levels are a global phenomenon. Here the term soundscape is used to describe a measured physical property that can be selectively decomposed by frequency and sound level is used to provide insight relating to conditions ranging from the quietest conditions (sound floor) to the most extreme acoustic events. Acoustic time series from the Indian, South Atlantic, and Equatorial Pacific Oceans were used to quantify the rate and direction of low-frequency change over the past decade.

  14. Global ocean circulation by altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl; Haidvogel, D.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to determine the general circulation of the oceans and many of its climate and biochemical consequences through the optimum use of altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and related missions. Emphasis is on the global-scale circulation, as opposed to the regional scale, but some more local studies will be carried out. Because of funding limitations, the primary initial focus will be on the time-dependent global-scale circulation rather than the mean; eventually, the mean circulation must be dealt with as well.

  15. GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP): Data and Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sabine, C. L.; Key, R. M.; Feely, R. A.; Bullister, J. L.; Millero, F. J.; Wanninkhof, R.; Peng, T. H.; Kozyr, A.

    The GLobal Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a cooperative effort to coordinate global synthesis projects funded through NOAA, DOE, and NSF as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study - Synthesis and Modeling Project (JGOFS-SMP). Cruises conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), JGOFS, and the NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Exchange Study (OACES) over the decade of the 1990s have created an important oceanographic database for the scientific community investigating carbon cycling in the oceans. The unified data help to determine the global distributions of both natural and anthropogenic inorganic carbon, including radiocarbon. These estimates provide an important benchmark against which future observational studies will be compared. They also provide tools for the direct evaluation of numerical ocean carbon models. GLODAP information available through CDIAC includes gridded and bottle data, a live server, an interactive atlas that provides access to data plots, and other tools for viewing and interacting with the data. [from http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/oceans/glodap/Glopintrod.htm](Specialized Interface)

  16. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The global ocean chlorophyll archive produced by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) was revised using compatible algorithms with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS), and both were blended with in situ data. This methodology permitted a quantitative comparison of decadal changes in global ocean chlorophyll from the CZCS (1979-1986) and SeaWiFS (Sep. 1997-Dec. 2000) records. Global seasonal means of ocean chlorophyll decreased over the two observational segments, by 8% in winter to 16% in autumn. Chlorophyll in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, chlorophyll concentrations in the low latitudes increased. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence of how the Earth's climate may be changing and how ocean biota respond. Furthermore, the results have implications for the ocean carbon cycle.

  17. Ocean U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Ocean U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) By Eric P. Chassignet1 and Harley E. Hurlburt2 1 COAPS ...UAcademia:U Florida State University/Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies ( COAPS ); University of Miami/Rosenstiel School of Marine and

  18. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  19. Multivariate Global Ocean Assimilation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    representations of the four dimensional circulation of the ocean using data assimilation methods . We intend these representations to be applied in a variety of military, academic, as well as commercial applications.

  20. State of Climate 2011 - Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, D. A.; Antoine, D.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; d'Andon, O. H. Fanton; Fields, E.; Franz, B. A.; Goryl, P.; Maritorena, S.; McClain, C. R.; Wang, M.; Yoder, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the sun lit upper layer of the global ocean is the overwhelmingly dominant source of organic matter that fuels marine ecosystems. Phytoplankton contribute roughly half of the global (land and ocean) net primary production (NPP; gross photosynthesis minus plant respiration) and phytoplankton carbon fixation is the primary conduit through which atmospheric CO2 concentrations interact with the ocean s carbon cycle. Phytoplankton productivity depends on the availability of sunlight, macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and micronutrients (e.g., iron), and thus is sensitive to climate-driven changes in the delivery of these resources to the euphotic zone

  1. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  2. Southern Ocean biological impacts on global ocean oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Kriest, Iris; Koeve, Wolfgang; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Southern Ocean (SO) physical and biological processes are known to have a large impact on global biogeochemistry. However, the role that SO biology plays in determining ocean oxygen concentrations is not completely understood. These dynamics are investigated here by shutting off SO biology in two marine biogeochemical models. The results suggest that SO biological processes reduce the ocean's oxygen content, mainly in the deep ocean, by 14 to 19%. However, since these processes also trap nutrients that would otherwise be transported northward to fuel productivity and subsequent organic matter export, consumption, and the accompanying oxygen consumption in midlatitude to low-latitude waters, SO biology helps to maintain higher oxygen concentrations in these subsurface waters. Thereby, SO biology can influence the size of the tropical oxygen minimum zones. As a result of ocean circulation the link between SO biological processes and remote oxygen changes operates on decadal to centennial time scales.

  3. Improved Global Ocean Color Using Polymer Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, Francois; Ramon, Didier; Deschamps, ierre-Yves; Stum, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    A global ocean color product has been developed based on the use of the POLYMER algorithm to correct atmospheric scattering and sun glint and to process the data to a Level 2 ocean color product. Thanks to the use of this algorithm, the coverage and accuracy of the MERIS ocean color product have been significantly improved when compared to the standard product, therefore increasing its usefulness for global ocean monitor- ing applications like GLOBCOLOUR. We will present the latest developments of the algorithm, its first application to MODIS data and its validation against in-situ data from the MERMAID database. Examples will be shown of global NRT chlorophyll maps produced by CLS with POLYMER for operational applications like fishing or oil and gas industry, as well as its use by Scripps for a NASA study of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas.

  4. Toward Submesocale Ocean Modelling and Observations for Global Ocean Forecast.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drillet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is the French oceanographic operational center involved in the development an operation of global high resolution ocean forecasting systems; it is part of the European Copernicus Marine service initiated during MyOcean project. Mercator Ocean currently delivers daily 1/12° global ocean forecast based on the NEMO model which allows for a good representation of mesoscale structures in main areas of the global ocean. Data assimilation of altimetry provides a precise initialization of the mesoscale structures while in situ observations, mainly based on the ARGO network, and satellite Sea Surface Temperature constrain water mass properties from the surface to intermediate depths. One of the main improvements scheduled in the coming years is the transitioning towards submesoscale permitting horizontal resolution (1/36°). On the basis of numerical simulations in selected areas and standard diagnostics developed to validate operational systems, we will discuss : i) The impact of the resolution increase at the basin scale. ii) Adequacy of numerical schemes, vertical resolution and physical parameterization. iii) Adequacy of currently implemented data assimilation procedures in particular with respect to new high resolution data set such as SWOT.

  5. Global Education for Ocean County College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rykiel, Joan Devlin

    This paper presents a rationale for establishing a global education curriculum at Ocean County College (OCC) (New Jersey) and proposes a workable curriculum, along with suggestions for implementation. The author distinguishes between multicultural and global education--both curricula address issues of cultural diversity, human rights, and…

  6. Global Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telszewski, Maciej; Tanhua, Toste; Palacz, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of the marine carbon cycle and its numerous connections to carbon's atmospheric and terrestrial pathways means that a wide range of approaches have to be used in order to establish it's qualitative and quantitative role in the global climate system. Ocean carbon and biogeochemistry research, observations, and modelling are conducted at national, regional, and global levels to quantify the global ocean uptake of atmospheric CO2 and to understand controls of this process, the variability of uptake and vulnerability of carbon fluxes into the ocean. These science activities require support by a sustained, international effort that provides a central communication forum and coordination services to facilitate the compatibility and comparability of results from individual efforts and development of the ocean carbon data products that can be integrated with the terrestrial, atmospheric and human dimensions components of the global carbon cycle. The International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP) was created in 2005 by the IOC of UNESCO and the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research. IOCCP provides an international, program-independent forum for global coordination of ocean carbon and biogeochemistry observations and integration with global carbon cycle science programs. The IOCCP coordinates an ever-increasing set of observations-related activities in the following domains: underway observations of biogeochemical water properties, ocean interior observations, ship-based time-series observations, large-scale ocean acidification monitoring, inorganic nutrients observations, biogeochemical instruments and autonomous sensors and data and information creation. Our contribution is through the facilitation of the development of globally acceptable strategies, methodologies, practices and standards homogenizing efforts of the research community and scientific advisory groups as well as integrating the ocean biogeochemistry observations with the

  7. Requirements to Sustain Global Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengelt, C.; Yoder, J. A.; Antoine, D.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Evans, R. H.; Mobley, C.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Sathyendranath, S.; Schueler, C. F.; Siegel, D. A.; Wilson, C.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite measurements of ocean color provide a unique vantage point to measure global phytoplankton abundance and their contribution to the health of marine ecosystems, the global cycle of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon, and their response to long-term climate change. However, the United States is at risk of losing access to ocean color data because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has ceased operation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is aging and planned new satellite missions might not be able to acquire data at the accuracy levels required for climate research. Given the importance of maintaining the ocean color time-series, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research requested the National Research Council (NRC) convene a committee of experts to review the minimum requirements to sustain global ocean color measurements for research and operational applications, and identify options to minimize the risk of a data gap. This poster summarizes the NRC report's findings. In particular, it reviews the minimum mission requirements to sustain at least the current capabilities for measuring ocean color at a global scale such as the need for post-launch vicarious calibration and monitoring of the sensor's stability. The poster will also summarize the report's recommendations regarding the options to improve the VIIRS/NPP mission. Moreover, it details how a data-centric planning effort could ensure that ocean color research can be advanced and maintained over the long term. The poster concludes that the ever broadening user community that depends on accurate and timely ocean color data highlights the urgency for fixing the VIIRS sensor and developing the next generation capability. In particular, NASA's climate continuity and decadal survey missions PACE/ACE, GEOCAPE and HyspIRI are required to advance ocean

  8. Microbial community structure at the U.S.-Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Station ALOHA: Inverse methods for estimating biochemical indicator ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, James R.; Karl, David M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling biogeochemical fluxes in the marine plankton requires the application of factors for extrapolation of biomass indicators measured in the field (chlorophyll a, adenosine triphosphate, bacterial counts) to biomass carbon or nitrogen. These are often inferred from culture studies and are poorly constrained for natural populations. At least squares inverse method with a simple linear model constrains the values of several common indicator ratios, giving self-consistent solutions that provide useful information about the structure of the microbial community at our North Pacific Ocean study site (Station ALOHA (A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment)). These results indicate that the fraction of the microbial biomass that is autotrophic (pigmented) is greater in the mixed layer than at the deep chlorophyll maximum layer and that heterotrophic bacteria are a significant but not necessarily predominant component of the microbial community in the euphotic zone.

  9. Global View of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    together to create a time-lapsed view of this remote and inhospitable region. So far, they have processed one season's worth of images.

    'We can see large cracks in the ice cover, where most ice grows, ' said Kwok. 'These cracks are much longer than previously thought, some as long as 2,000 kilometers (1,200 miles),' Kwok continued. 'If the ice is thinning due to warming, we'll expect to see more of these long cracks over the Arctic Ocean. '

    Scientists believe this is one of the most significant breakthroughs in the last two decades of ice research. 'We are now in a position to better understand the sea ice cover and the role of the Arctic Ocean in global climate change, ' said Kwok.

    Radar can see through clouds and any kind of weather system, day or night, and as the Arctic regions are usually cloud-covered and subject to long, dark winters, radar is proving to be extremely useful. However, compiling these data into extremely detailed pictures of the Arctic is a challenging task.

    'This is truly a major innovation in terms of the quantities of data being processed and the novelty of the methods being used, ' said Verne Kaupp, director of the Alaska SAR Facility at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

    The mission is a joint project between JPL, the Alaska SAR Facility, and the Canadian Space Agency. Launched by NASA in 1995, the Radarsat satellite is operated by the Canadian Space Agency. JPL manages the Sea Ice Thickness Derived From High Resolution Radar Imagery project for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. The Earth Science Enterprise is dedicated to studying how natural and human-induced changes affect our global environment.

  10. Ocean modeling in a global ocean observing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Neville R.

    1993-08-01

    The oceanographic community is currently contemplating the design of a global ocean climate observing system to help monitor, describe, and understand the seasonal to decadal climate changes of the ocean and to provide the observations needed for climate prediction. This review attempts to define a role for modeling within that system, the central theme being that the observational and modeling elements must be developed in concert, with the presence of one enhancing the value of the other. Three distinct categories of model-to-data interface are identified. In the first class, models and data collection develop separately, being joined only by intermittent validation steps. In the second, and by far most important, class the model and data collection evolve together, either in a time-space data assimilation and prediction system, or through the application of inverse methods. In the final category, model information feeds back to the observing system design, and vice versa, and the model assimilation system provides quality control on the data. The key role of (atmospheric) models in the determination of surface fluxes to drive ocean models is discussed. A nontrivial role is proposed for ocean models whereby they provide additional, and largely independent, constraints on atmospheric forecast system estimates. The role of ocean models in the analysis of surface and upper ocean fields needs to be developed, particularly with respect to salinity and nonphysical fields. The use of models in rationalizing the choice of observation platforms is discussed, together with some of the difficulties in interpreting such studies. The state of tropical ocean prediction is reviewed with particular emphasis on systems that assimilate subsurface temperature data. A range of thermocline models are also reviewed with the emphasis on subduction and the problem of initializing and constraining models that resolve mesoscale eddies. Some of the issues involved in matching the models to

  11. Revaluating ocean warming impacts on global phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Westberry, Toby K.; Graff, Jason R.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Siegel, David A.; Brown, Matthew B.

    2016-03-01

    Global satellite observations document expansions of the low-chlorophyll central ocean gyres and an overall inverse relationship between anomalies in sea surface temperature and phytoplankton chlorophyll concentrations. These findings can provide an invaluable glimpse into potential future ocean changes, but only if the story they tell is accurately interpreted. Chlorophyll is not simply a measure of phytoplankton biomass, but also registers changes in intracellular pigmentation arising from light-driven (photoacclimation) and nutrient-driven physiological responses. Here, we show that the photoacclimation response is an important component of temporal chlorophyll variability across the global ocean. This attribution implies that contemporary relationships between chlorophyll changes and ocean warming are not indicative of proportional changes in productivity, as light-driven decreases in chlorophyll can be associated with constant or even increased photosynthesis. Extension of these results to future change, however, requires further evaluation of how the multifaceted stressors of a warmer, higher-CO2 world will impact plankton communities.

  12. Eddy Resolving Global Ocean Prediction including Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    for the global ocean. Isopycnal (density tracking) layers are best in the deep stratified ocean, pressure levels (nearly fixed depths) provide high...wavenumber spectrum which when combined with the low-frequency SSH or velocity leads to a flattening of the spectral slopes over the fixed mesoscale...between the model and altimeter spectral slope maps may be an artifact of the estimation over a fixed mesoscale band, which does not account for

  13. Eddy Resolving Global Ocean Prediction including Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    for the global ocean. Isopycnal (density tracking) layers are best in the deep stratified ocean, pressure levels (nearly fixed depths) provide high...Adams, D. K., D. J. McGillicuddy Jr., L. Zamudio , A. M. Thurnherr, X. Liang, O. Rouxel, C. R. German, L. S. Mullineaux (2011), Surface-generated...Gaxiola-Castro, G., Zamudio , L., and Cervantes-Duarte, R. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja

  14. Including eddies in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semtner, Albert J.; Chervin, Robert M.

    The ocean is a turbulent fluid that is driven by winds and by surface exchanges of heat and moisture. It is as important as the atmosphere in governing climate through heat distribution, but so little is known about the ocean that it remains a “final frontier” on the face of the Earth. Many ocean currents are truly global in extent, such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the “conveyor belt” that connects the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans by flows around the southern tips of Africa and South America. It has long been a dream of some oceanographers to supplement the very limited observational knowledge by reconstructing the currents of the world ocean from the first principles of physics on a computer. However, until very recently, the prospect of doing this was thwarted by the fact that fluctuating currents known as “mesoscale eddies” could not be explicitly included in the calculation.

  15. Global Ocean Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon (GOSAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J C

    2002-04-02

    GOSAC was an EC-funded project (1998-2001) focused on improving the predictive capacity and accelerating development of global-scale, three-dimensional, ocean carbon-cycle models by means of standardized model evaluation and model intercomparison. Through the EC Environment and Climate Programme, GOSAC supported the participation of seven European modeling groups in the second phase of the larger international effort OCMIP (the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project). OCMIP included model comparison and validation for both CO{sub 2} and other ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers. Beyond the international OCMIP effort, GOSAC also supported the same EC ocean carbon cycle modeling groups to make simulations to evaluate the efficiency of purposeful sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the ocean. Such sequestration, below the thermocline has been proposed as a strategy to help mitigate the increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Some technical and scientific highlights of GOSAC are given.

  16. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W R; Bange, Hermann W

    2012-05-05

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N(2)O and N(2)O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N(2)O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N(2)O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N(2)O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N(2)O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N(2)O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr(-1). This is in agreement with estimates of the global N(2)O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N(2)O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N(2)O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed.

  17. Global oceanic production of nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Freing, Alina; Wallace, Douglas W. R.; Bange, Hermann W.

    2012-01-01

    We use transient time distributions calculated from tracer data together with in situ measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) to estimate the concentration of biologically produced N2O and N2O production rates in the ocean on a global scale. Our approach to estimate the N2O production rates integrates the effects of potentially varying production and decomposition mechanisms along the transport path of a water mass. We estimate that the oceanic N2O production is dominated by nitrification with a contribution of only approximately 7 per cent by denitrification. This indicates that previously used approaches have overestimated the contribution by denitrification. Shelf areas may account for only a negligible fraction of the global production; however, estuarine sources and coastal upwelling of N2O are not taken into account in our study. The largest amount of subsurface N2O is produced in the upper 500 m of the water column. The estimated global annual subsurface N2O production ranges from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.9 Tg N yr−1. This is in agreement with estimates of the global N2O emissions to the atmosphere and indicates that a N2O source in the mixed layer is unlikely. The potential future development of the oceanic N2O source in view of the ongoing changes of the ocean environment (deoxygenation, warming, eutrophication and acidification) is discussed. PMID:22451110

  18. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer

    2015-05-22

    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems.

  19. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  20. Recent Trends in Global Ocean Chlorophyll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.

  1. Robust warming of the global upper ocean.

    PubMed

    Lyman, John M; Good, Simon A; Gouretski, Viktor V; Ishii, Masayoshi; Johnson, Gregory C; Palmer, Matthew D; Smith, Doug M; Willis, Josh K

    2010-05-20

    A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).

  2. Ensemble-based global ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Casper, W. Riley; Jones, Philip W.

    2013-12-01

    We present results of experiments performing global, ensemble-based, ocean-only data assimilation and assess the utility of such data assimilation in improving model predictions. The POP (Parallel Ocean Program) Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is forced by interannually varying atmospheric fields of version 2 of the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE) data set, and temperature and salinity observations from the World Ocean Database 2009 (WOD09) are assimilated. The assimilation experiments are conducted over a period of about two years starting January 1, 1990 using the framework of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). We find that an inflation scheme that blends the ensemble-based sample error covariance with a static estimate of ensemble spread is necessary for the assimilations to be effective in the ocean model. We call this Climatology-based Spread Inflation or CSI for short. The effectiveness of the proposed inflation scheme is investigated in a low-order model; a series of experiments in this context demonstrates its effectiveness. Using a number of diagnostics, we show that the resulting assimilated state of ocean circulation is more realistic: In particular, the sea surface temperature (SST) shows reduced errors with respect to an unassimilated SST data set, and the subsurface temperature shows reduced errors with respect to observations. Finally, towards assessing the utility of assimilations for predictions, we show that the use of an assimilated state as initial condition leads to improved hindcast skill over a significant period of time; that is when the OGCM is initialized with an assimilated state and run forward, it is better able to predict unassimilated observations of the WOD09 than a control non-assimilating run (≈ 20% reduction in error) over a period of about three months. The loss of skill beyond this period is conjectured to be due, in part, to model error and prevents an improvement in the representation of

  3. Global oceanic emissions of nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nevison, C.D.; Erickson, D.J.; Weiss, R.F.

    1995-08-15

    The global N{sub 2}O flux from the ocean to the atmosphere is calculated based on more than 60,000 expedition measurements of the N{sub 2}O anomaly in surface water. The expedition data are coupled to daily air-sea gas transfer coefficients modeled at 2.8{degrees} x 2.8{degrees} resolution to estimate a global ocean source of about 4 (1.2-6.8) Tg N yr{sup {minus}1}. The strongest source is predicted from the 40-60{degrees}S latitude band. Strong emissions also are predicted from the northern Pacific Ocean, the equatorial upwelling zone, and coastal upwelling zones occurring predominantly in the tropical northern hemisphere. High apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) at 100 m below the mixed layer is found to be correlated positively both to N{sub 2}O production at depth and to the surface N{sub 2}O anomaly. On the basis of these correlations, the expedition data are partitioned into two subsets associated with high and low AOU at depth. The zonally averaged monthly means in each subset are extrapolated to produce two latitude-by-month matrices in which monthly surface N{sub 2}O is expressed as the deviation from the annual mean. Both matrices contain large uncertainties. The low-AOU matrix, which mainly includes surface N{sub 2}O data from the North Atlantic and the subtropical gyres, suggests many regions with positive summer deviations and negative winter deviations, consistent with a seasonal cycle predominantly driven by seasonal heating and cooling of the surface ocean. The high-AOU subset, which includes the regions most important to the global N{sub 2}O ocean source, suggests some regions with positive winter deviations and negative summer deviations, consistent with a seasonal cycle predominantly driven by wintertime mixing of surface water with N{sub 2}O-rich deep water. Coupled seasonal changes in gas transfer coefficients and surface N{sub 2}O in these important source regions could strongly influence the global ocean source. 36 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Biogeography of the Global Ocean's Mesopelagic Zone.

    PubMed

    Proud, Roland; Cox, Martin J; Brierley, Andrew S

    2017-01-09

    The global ocean's near surface can be partitioned into distinct provinces on the basis of regional primary productivity and oceanography [1]. This ecological geography provides a valuable framework for understanding spatial variability in ecosystem function but has relevance only partway into the epipelagic zone (the top 200 m). The mesopelagic (200-1,000 m) makes up approximately 20% of the global ocean volume, plays important roles in biogeochemical cycling [2], and holds potentially huge fish resources [3-5]. It is, however, hidden from satellite observation, and a lack of globally consistent data has prevented development of a global-scale understanding. Acoustic deep scattering layers (DSLs) are prominent features of the mesopelagic. These vertically narrow (tens to hundreds of m) but horizontally extensive (continuous for tens to thousands of km) layers comprise fish and zooplankton and are readily detectable using echosounders. We have compiled a database of DSL characteristics globally. We show that DSL depth and acoustic backscattering intensity (a measure of biomass) can be modeled accurately using just surface primary productivity, temperature, and wind stress. Spatial variability in these environmental factors leads to a natural partition of the mesopelagic into ten distinct classes. These classes demark a more complex biogeography than the latitudinally banded schemes proposed before [6, 7]. Knowledge of how environmental factors influence the mesopelagic enables future change to be explored: we predict that by 2100 there will be widespread homogenization of mesopelagic communities and that mesopelagic biomass could increase by approximately 17%. The biomass increase requires increased trophic efficiency, which could arise because of ocean warming and DSL shallowing.

  5. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  6. Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global Ocean (APPIGO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global...the Polar Ice and Global Ocean (APPIGO) Eric P. Chassignet Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies Florida State University phone: (850...architectures. These codes form the ocean and sea ice components of the Navy’s Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS) and the Navy Global Ocean

  7. SubArctic Oceans and Global Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhines, P. B.

    2004-12-01

    The passages connecting the Arctic Ocean with the Atlantic and Pacific, and their `mediterranean' basins, are focal points for the global meridional overturning circulation, and all of the climate impacts which this implies. It is also a difficult region to model accurately: the sensitivity of climate models to subpolar ocean dynamics is well-known. In this talk we stress the need to instrument and analyze the subpolar oceans, and some examples of sustained observations developing there. Results from satellite altimetry, recent Seaglider deployments from Greenland, and mooring arrays will be described. In particular we show the first Seaglider sections of hydrography and bio-optical profiles of the Labrador Sea (one of the first extended deployments of this autonomous undersea vehicle); we discuss the decline during the 1990s of the subpolar gyre circulation of the Atlantic from its great strength during the positive NAO period of the early 1990s, and its relevance to the salinity decline observed over a much longer period; we review observations of the flows at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge and Davis Strait, argued in terms of volume transport plots on the potential temperature/salinity plane; we display maps of the `convection resistance' (related to dynamic height) and its sensitivity to surface low-salinity water masses and their partition between shallow continental shelves and deep ocean. This is a particularly exciting time for climate studies, with fundamental properties of the atmosphere-ocean circulation under debate, even before one considers natural and human-induced variability. Is the four-decade long decline in subArctic salinity the result of increased hydrologic cycle, increased or altered Arctic outflow to the Atlantic, or slowing of the subpolar circulation? Is the basic intensity of the MOC more dependent on high-latitude buoyancy forcing, or wind- or tide-driven mixing in the upwelling branch, or possibly wind-stress at high latitude? Is the

  8. Adaptive wavelet simulation of global ocean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevlahan, N. K.-R.; Dubos, T.; Aechtner, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to easily enforce solid-wall boundary conditions in the presence of complex coastlines, we propose a new mass and energy conserving Brinkman penalization for the rotating shallow water equations. This penalization does not lead to higher wave speeds in the solid region. The error estimates for the penalization are derived analytically and verified numerically for linearized one dimensional equations. The penalization is implemented in a conservative dynamically adaptive wavelet method for the rotating shallow water equations on the sphere with bathymetry and coastline data from NOAA's ETOPO1 database. This code could form the dynamical core for a future global ocean model. The potential of the dynamically adaptive ocean model is illustrated by using it to simulate the 2004 Indonesian tsunami and wind-driven gyres.

  9. Coccolithophorid blooms in the global ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher W.; Yoder, James A.

    1994-01-01

    The global distribution pattern of coccolithophrid blooms was mapped in order to ascertain the prevalence of these blooms in the world's oceans and to estimate their worldwide production of CaCO3 and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Mapping was accomplished by classifying pixels of 5-day global composites of coastal zone color scanner imagery into bloom and nonbloom classes using a supervised, multispectral classification scheme. Surface waters with the spectral signature of coccolithophorid blooms annually covered an average of 1.4 x 10(exp 6) sq km in the world oceans from 1979 to 1985, with the subpolar latitudes accounting for 71% of this surface area. Classified blooms were most extensive in the Subartic North Atlantic. Large expanses of the bloom signal were also detected in the North Pacific, on the Argentine shelf and slope, and in numerous lower latitude marginal seas and shelf regions. The greatest spatial extent of classified blooms in subpolar oceanic regions occurred in the months from summer to early autumn, while those in lower latitude marginal seas occurred in midwinter to early spring. Though the classification scheme was effcient in separating bloom and nonbloom classes during test simulations, and biogeographical literature generally confirms the resulting distribution pattern of blooms in the subpolar regions, the cause of the bloom signal is equivocal in some geographic areas, particularly on shelf regions at lower latitudes. Standing stock estimates suggest that the presumed Emiliania huxleyi blooms act as a significant source of calcite carbon and DMS sulfur on a regional scale. On a global scale, however, the satellite-detected coccolithophorid blooms are estimated to play only a minor role in the annual production of these two compounds and their flux from the surface mixed layer.

  10. Is low frequency ocean sound increasing globally?

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Nichols, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency sound has increased in the Northeast Pacific Ocean over the past 60 yr [Ross (1993) Acoust. Bull. 18, 5-8; (2005) IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30, 257-261; Andrew, Howe, Mercer, and Dzieciuch (2002) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651; McDonald, Hildebrand, and Wiggins (2006) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 711-717; Chapman and Price (2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, EL161-EL165] and in the Indian Ocean over the past decade, [Miksis-Olds, Bradley, and Niu (2013) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3464-3475]. More recently, Andrew, Howe, and Mercer's [(2011) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 642-651] observations in the Northeast Pacific show a level or slightly decreasing trend in low frequency noise. It remains unclear what the low frequency trends are in other regions of the world. In this work, data from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization International Monitoring System was used to examine the rate and magnitude of change in low frequency sound (5-115 Hz) over the past decade in the South Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific Oceans. The dominant source observed in the South Atlantic was seismic air gun signals, while shipping and biologic sources contributed more to the acoustic environment at the Equatorial Pacific location. Sound levels over the past 5-6 yr in the Equatorial Pacific have decreased. Decreases were also observed in the ambient sound floor in the South Atlantic Ocean. Based on these observations, it does not appear that low frequency sound levels are increasing globally.

  11. Global Warming 'Pause' - Oceans Reshuffle Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, V.; Willis, J. K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the fact that greenhouse gases are still increasing and all other indicators show warming-related change (+0.0064 °C/year since 1880 or +0.0077 °C/year during 1993-2002), surface temperatures stopped climbing steadily during the past decade at a rate of +0.0010 °C/year from 2003 to 2012. We show that in recent years, the heat was being trapped in the subsurface waters of the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans between 100 and 300 m. The movement of warm Pacific water below the surface, also related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climatic pattern, temporarily affected surface temperatures and accounted for the global cooling trend in surface temperature. With the Pacific Decadal Oscillation possibly changing to a warm phase, it is likely that the oceans will drive a major surge in global surface warming sometime in the next decade or two. Reference: Nieves, V., Willis, J. K., and Patzert, W. C. (2015). Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521.

  12. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  13. Modeling Coccolithophores in the Global Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, W.

    2006-12-01

    Coccolithophores are important ecological and geochemical components of the global oceans. A global three- dimensional model was used to simulate their distributions in a multi-phytoplankton context. The realism of the simulation was supported by comparisons of model surface nutrients and total chlorophyll with in situ and satellite observations. Nitrate, silica, and dissolved iron surface distributions were positively correlated with in situ data across major oceanographic basins. Global annual departures were +18.9% for nitrate (model high), +5.4% for silica, and +45.0% for iron. Total surface chlorophyll was also positively correlated with satellite and in situ data sets across major basins. Global annual departures were -8.0% with SeaWiFS (model low), +1.1% with Aqua, and -17.1% with in situ data. Global annual primary production estimates were within 1% and 9% of estimates derived from SeaWiFS and Aqua, respectively, using a common primary production algorithm. Coccolithophore annual mean relative abundances were 2.6% lower than observations, but were positively correlated across basins. Two of the other three phytoplankton groups, diatoms and cyanobacteria, were also positively correlated with observations. Distributions of coccolithophores were dependent upon interactions and competition with the other phytoplankton groups. In this model coccolithophores had a competitive advantage over diatoms and chlorophytes by virtue of a greater ability to utilize nutrients and light at low values. However, their higher sinking rates placed them at a disadvantage when nutrients and light were plentiful. In very low nutrient conditions, such as the mid-ocean gyres, coccolithophores were unable to compete with the efficient nutrient utilization capability and low sinking rate of cyanobacteria. Comparisons of simulated coccolithophore distributions with satellite-derived estimates of calcite concentration and coccolithophore blooms showed some agreement, but also areas of

  14. Modeling coccolithophores in the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.

    2007-03-01

    Coccolithophores are important ecological and geochemical components of the global oceans. A global three-dimensional model was used to simulate their distributions in a multi-phytoplankton context. The realism of the simulation was supported by comparisons of model surface nutrients and total chlorophyll with in situ and satellite observations. Nitrate, silica, and dissolved iron surface distributions were positively correlated with in situ data across major oceanographic basins. Global annual departures were +18.9% for nitrate (model high), +5.4% for silica, and +45.0% for iron. Total surface chlorophyll was also positively correlated with satellite and in situ data sets across major basins. Global annual departures were -8.0% with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (model low), +1.1% with Aqua, and -17.1% with in situ data. Global annual primary production estimates were within 1% and 9% of estimates derived from SeaWiFS and Aqua, respectively, using a common primary production algorithm. Coccolithophore annual mean relative abundances were 2.6% lower than observations, but were positively correlated across basins. Two of the other three phytoplankton groups, diatoms and cyanobacteria, were also positively correlated with observations. Distributions of coccolithophores were dependent upon interactions and competition with the other phytoplankton groups. In this model, coccolithophores had a competitive advantage over diatoms and chlorophytes by virtue of a greater ability to utilize nutrients and light at low values. However, their higher sinking rates placed them at a disadvantage when nutrients and light were plentiful. In very low nutrient conditions, such as the mid-ocean gyres, coccolithophores were unable to compete with the efficient nutrient utilization capability and low sinking rate of cyanobacteria. Comparisons of simulated coccolithophore distributions with satellite-derived estimates of calcite concentration and coccolithophore blooms

  15. Pliocene oceanic seaways and global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Bahr, André; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Herrle, Jens O.; Tiedemann, Ralf; Demenocal, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Tectonically induced changes in oceanic seaways had profound effects on global and regional climate during the Late Neogene. The constriction of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold during the early Pliocene ~4.8–4 million years (Ma) ago. Model simulations indicate the strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) with a signature warming response in the Northern Hemisphere and cooling in the Southern Hemisphere. Subsequently, between ~4–3 Ma, the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway impacted regional climate and might have accelerated the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. We here present Pliocene Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature and salinity gradients (deduced from foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotopes, δ18O) in combination with a recently published benthic stable carbon isotope (δ13C) record from the southernmost extent of North Atlantic Deep Water to reconstruct gateway-related changes in the AMOC mode. After an early reduction of the AMOC at ~5.3 Ma, we show in agreement with model simulations of the impacts of Central American Seaway closure a strengthened AMOC with a global climate signature. During ~3.8–3 Ma, we suggest a weakening of the AMOC in line with the global cooling trend, with possible contributions from the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway.

  16. Pliocene oceanic seaways and global climate.

    PubMed

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Bahr, André; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Herrle, Jens O; Tiedemann, Ralf; deMenocal, Peter B

    2017-01-05

    Tectonically induced changes in oceanic seaways had profound effects on global and regional climate during the Late Neogene. The constriction of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold during the early Pliocene ~4.8-4 million years (Ma) ago. Model simulations indicate the strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) with a signature warming response in the Northern Hemisphere and cooling in the Southern Hemisphere. Subsequently, between ~4-3 Ma, the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway impacted regional climate and might have accelerated the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. We here present Pliocene Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature and salinity gradients (deduced from foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotopes, δ(18)O) in combination with a recently published benthic stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) record from the southernmost extent of North Atlantic Deep Water to reconstruct gateway-related changes in the AMOC mode. After an early reduction of the AMOC at ~5.3 Ma, we show in agreement with model simulations of the impacts of Central American Seaway closure a strengthened AMOC with a global climate signature. During ~3.8-3 Ma, we suggest a weakening of the AMOC in line with the global cooling trend, with possible contributions from the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway.

  17. Pliocene oceanic seaways and global climate

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Cyrus; Nürnberg, Dirk; Bahr, André; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Herrle, Jens O.; Tiedemann, Ralf; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    Tectonically induced changes in oceanic seaways had profound effects on global and regional climate during the Late Neogene. The constriction of the Central American Seaway reached a critical threshold during the early Pliocene ~4.8–4 million years (Ma) ago. Model simulations indicate the strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) with a signature warming response in the Northern Hemisphere and cooling in the Southern Hemisphere. Subsequently, between ~4–3 Ma, the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway impacted regional climate and might have accelerated the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. We here present Pliocene Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature and salinity gradients (deduced from foraminiferal Mg/Ca and stable oxygen isotopes, δ18O) in combination with a recently published benthic stable carbon isotope (δ13C) record from the southernmost extent of North Atlantic Deep Water to reconstruct gateway-related changes in the AMOC mode. After an early reduction of the AMOC at ~5.3 Ma, we show in agreement with model simulations of the impacts of Central American Seaway closure a strengthened AMOC with a global climate signature. During ~3.8–3 Ma, we suggest a weakening of the AMOC in line with the global cooling trend, with possible contributions from the constriction of the Indonesian Seaway. PMID:28054561

  18. Global Characterization of the Ocean Ridge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, A.; Langmuir, C. H.; Dalton, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The mid-ocean ridge system is a window into the upper mantle, producing over 80% of Earth’s volcanism. Fundamental, first-order questions remain debated and require a reliable global perspective. Such questions include the relative roles of mantle temperature, mantle heterogeneity and spreading rate on mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) compositions, and the importance of spreading rate to melting and fractionation processes. To address these issues and provide a common reference for geochemists and geophysicists, we have assembled a comprehensive petrological presentation of global MORB. The data are compiled from PetDB as well as unpublished data. Transforming the raw data into a useful catalog poses several challenges. First, to link each sample with a particular ridge segment requires defining the individual segments of the ridge system. Using the highest resolution bathymetry available, we identified 771 global ridge segments with a total length of 60,864km. For each segment we also generated a digital along-strike depth profile, enabling precise characterization of both mean depth and depth range. Second, as noted in earlier work, different laboratories calibrate their analyses to different standards, which can lead to significant, systematic offsets among analyses. It is therefore important to apply correction factors to the data to make them consistent with one another. Erroneous data and mislocated samples were identified and either eliminated or manually corrected, leading to a total dataset of 11,366 glass and 874 whole-rock analyses that have had interlab correction values carefully applied. These results show that the mean depth of the global ridge system is 2981m, calculated by averaging the segment mean depths, weighted by segment length. Of the 771 ridge segments, 476 have at least one basalt sample within 10km of the ridge axis but only 181 segments have samples from three or more unique locations. Using these data, a far more reliable composition can

  19. Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Vaulot, D.; Lomas, M. W.; Landry, M. R.; Partensky, F.; Karl, D. M.; Ulloa, O.; Campbell, L.; Jacquet, S.; Lantoine, F.; Chavez, F.; Macias, D.; Gosselin, M.; McManus, G. B.

    2012-08-01

    The smallest marine phytoplankton, collectively termed picophytoplankton, have been routinely enumerated by flow cytometry since the late 1980s during cruises throughout most of the world ocean. We compiled a database of 40 946 data points, with separate abundance entries for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes. We use average conversion factors for each of the three groups to convert the abundance data to carbon biomass. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 2.4% of the ocean surface area, with the best data coverage in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific and North Indian basins, and at least some data in all other basins. The average picophytoplankton biomass is 12 ± 22 μg C l-1 or 1.9 g C m-2. We estimate a total global picophytoplankton biomass of 0.53-1.32 Pg C (17-39% Prochlorococcus, 12-15% Synechococcus and 49-69% picoeukaryotes), with an intermediate/best estimate of 0.74 Pg C. Future efforts in this area of research should focus on reporting calibrated cell size and collecting data in undersampled regions. http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.777385

  20. Picophytoplankton biomass distribution in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, E. T.; Li, W. K. W.; Vaulot, D.; Lomas, M. W.; Landry, M.; Partensky, F.; Karl, D. M.; Ulloa, O.; Campbell, L.; Jacquet, S.; Lantoine, F.; Chavez, F.; Macias, D.; Gosselin, M.; McManus, G. B.

    2012-04-01

    The smallest marine phytoplankton, collectively termed picophytoplankton, have been routinely enumerated by flow cytometry since the late 1980s, during cruises throughout most of the world ocean. We compiled a database of 40 946 data points, with separate abundance entries for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes. We use average conversion factors for each of the three groups to convert the abundance data to carbon biomass. After gridding with 1° spacing, the database covers 2.4% of the ocean surface area, with the best data coverage in the North Atlantic, the South Pacific and North Indian basins. The average picophytoplankton biomass is 12 ± 22 μg C l-1 or 1.9 g C m-2. We estimate a total global picophytoplankton biomass of 0.53-0.74 Pg C (17-39% Prochlorococcus, 12-15% Synechococcus and 49-69% picoeukaryotes). Future efforts in this area of research should focus on reporting calibrated cell size, and collecting data in undersampled regions.

  1. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  2. Global deep ocean oxygenation by enhanced ventilation in the Southern Ocean under long-term global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Global warming is expected to decrease ocean oxygen concentrations by less solubility of surface ocean and change in ocean circulation. The associated expansion of the oxygen minimum zone would have adverse impacts on marine organisms and ocean biogeochemical cycles. Oxygen reduction is expected to persist for a thousand years or more, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. However, long-term changes in ocean oxygen and circulation are still unclear. Here we simulate multimillennium changes in ocean circulation and oxygen under doubling and quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model and an offline biogeochemical model. In the first 500 years, global oxygen concentration decreases, consistent with previous studies. Thereafter, however, the oxygen concentration in the deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots at the end of the simulations, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This is because, after the initial cessation, the recovery and overshooting of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea enhance ventilation and supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean. Another contributor to deep ocean oxygenation is seawater warming, which reduces the export production and shifts the organic matter remineralization to the upper water column. Our results indicate that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in deep ocean, which is opposite to the centennial-scale global oxygen reduction and general expectation.

  3. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  4. Joint Force Transformation to Fight the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-08

    JOINT FORCE TRANSFORMATION TO FIGHT THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM Capt Stephen Guse LTC Paul Disney...for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...AND SUBTITLE Joint Force Transformation to Fight the Global War on Terrorism 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  5. US Navy Operational Global Ocean and Arctic Ice Prediction Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Wallcraft, L. Zamudio, D.S. Franklin, P.G. Posey, M.W. Phelps, P.J. Hogan, F.L. Bub, and C.J. DeHaan. 2014. US Navy operational global ocean and...P E C I A L I S S U E O N N AV Y O P E R AT I O N A L M O D E L S US Navy Operational Global Ocean and Arctic Ice Prediction Systems B Y E...operational Global Ocean Forecast System that shows the proper placement of the Kuroshio (the strongly inertial western boundary current in the North

  6. Effects of ocean grid resolution on tropical cyclone-induced upper ocean responses using a global ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Sriver, Ryan L.

    2016-11-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) have the potential to influence regional and global climate through interactions with the upper ocean. Here we present results from a suite of ocean-only model experiments featuring the Community Earth System Model, in which we analyze the effect of tropical cyclone wind forcing on the global ocean using three different horizontal ocean grid resolutions (3°, 1°, and 0.1°). The ocean simulations are forced with identical atmospheric inputs from the Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments version 2 (COREv2) normal year forcing conditions, featuring global blended TC winds from a fully coupled CESM simulation with a 25 km atmosphere. The simulated TC climatology shows good agreement with observational estimates of annual TC statistics, including annual frequency, intensity distributions, and geographic distributions. Each ocean simulation is composed of a 5 year spin-up with COREv2 normal year forcing, followed by 18 months with blended TC winds. In addition, we conduct corresponding control simulations for each grid resolution configuration without blended TC winds. We find that ocean horizontal and vertical grid resolutions affect TC-induced heat and momentum fluxes, poststorm cold wake features, and ocean subsurface temperature profiles. The responses are amplified for smaller grid spacing. Moreover, analyses show that the annually accumulated TC-induced ocean heat uptake is also sensitive to ocean grid resolution, which may have important implications for modeled ocean heat budgets and variability.

  7. Eddy-Resolving Global Ocean Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    key observing system for mapping ocean eddies and current meanders, but sea surface temperature, temperature and salinity profiles, and atmospheric...for mapping ocean eddies and current meanders, but sea surface temperature, temperature and salinity profiles, and atmospheric forcing arc also...fronts, eddies, Rossby waves, and the associated temperature, salinity, currents, and sea surface height (SSH). Only since the turn of the century

  8. Oceanic Hot Spots - Internal Tides in the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    oil plat- form Stena Clyde was hit by a set of internal waves in the Andaman Sea, which broke the drill pipe, damaged the mooring lines and flotation ...Ocean Model) Data Assimilative System,” J. Mar. Syst. 65, 60–83 (2007). 3 E.J. Metzger, H.E. Hurlburt, X . Xu, J.F. Shriver, A.L. Gordon, J. Sprintall...Drillet, M.W. Hecht, O. Le Galloudec, J.F. Shriver, X . Xu, and L. Zamudio, “Dynamical Evaluation of Ocean Models Using the Gulf Stream as an Example

  9. Ocean Tides. Part 1. Global Ocean Tidal Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    tidal loading found by Estes (1977). Following Thomson (1868), Darwin (1883), Doodson (1921), and Cartwright and Taylor (1971), the primary...Prandtl Number Fluid. Journal of Fluid Mechan- ics, 47, p. 305. Cartwright , D. E., and Tayler, R. J., 1971, New Computations of the Tide-Generating...Potential. Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 23, p. 45. Cox, M. D., 1970. A Mathematical Model of the Indian Ocean. Deep- Sea Research, 17, p. 45. Darwin , G

  10. Global Earth Response to Loading by Ocean Tide Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.; Strayer, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and programming techniques to numerically calculate Earth response to global semidiurnal and diurnal ocean tide models were developed. Global vertical crustal deformations were evaluated for M sub 2, S sub 2, N sub 2, K sub 2, K sub 1, O sub 1, and P sub 1 ocean tide loading, while horizontal deformations were evaluated for the M sub 2 tidal load. Tidal gravity calculations were performed for M sub 2 tidal loads, and strain tensor elements were evaluated for M sub 2 loads. The M sub 2 solution used for the ocean tide included the effects of self-gravitation and crustal loading.

  11. Joint IAMAS/IAHS Symposium J1 on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohring, G.; Aoki, T.; Halpern D.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Charlock, T.; Joseph, J.; Labitzke, K.; Raschke, E.; Smith, W.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  12. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

  13. Global observations of ocean Rossby waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chelton, D.B.; Schlax, M.G.

    1996-04-12

    Rossby waves play a critical role in the transient adjustment of ocean circulation to changes in large-scale atmospheric forcing. The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter has detected Rossby waves throughout much of the world ocean from sea level signals with {approx_lt} 10-centimeters amplitude and {approx_lt} 500-kilometer wavelength. Outside of the tropics Rossby waves are abruptly amplified by major topographic features. Analysis of 3 years of data reveals discrepancies between observed and theoretical Rossby wave phase speeds that indicate that the standard theory for free, linear Rossby waves in an incomplete description of the observed waves. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global Ocean Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-14

    14 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global...resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as

  15. Global coupled sea ice-ocean state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenty, Ian; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Zhang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    We study the impact of synthesizing ocean and sea ice concentration data with a global, eddying coupled sea ice-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with the goal of reproducing the 2004 three-dimensional time-evolving ice-ocean state. This work builds on the state estimation framework developed in the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean consortium by seeking a reconstruction of the global sea ice-ocean system that is simultaneously consistent with (1) a suite of in situ and remotely-sensed ocean and ice data and (2) the physics encoded in the numerical model. This dual consistency is successfully achieved here by adjusting only the model's initial hydrographic state and its atmospheric boundary conditions such that misfits between the model and data are minimized in a least-squares sense. We show that synthesizing both ocean and sea ice concentration data is required for the model to adequately reproduce the observed details of the sea ice annual cycle in both hemispheres. Surprisingly, only modest adjustments to our first-guess atmospheric state and ocean initial conditions are necessary to achieve model-data consistency, suggesting that atmospheric reanalysis products remain a leading source of errors for sea ice-ocean model hindcasts and reanalyses. The synthesis of sea ice data is found to ameliorate misfits in the high latitude ocean, especially with respect to upper ocean stratification, temperature, and salinity. Constraining the model to sea ice concentration modestly reduces ICESat-derived Arctic ice thickness errors by improving the temporal and spatial evolution of seasonal ice. Further increases in the accuracy of global sea ice thickness in the model likely require the direct synthesis of sea ice thickness data.

  16. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses.

    PubMed

    Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Dutilh, Bas E; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Duhaime, Melissa B; Loy, Alexander; Poulos, Bonnie T; Solonenko, Natalie; Lara, Elena; Poulain, Julie; Pesant, Stéphane; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Cruaud, Corinne; Alberti, Adriana; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Vaqué, Dolors; Bork, Peer; Acinas, Silvia G; Wincker, Patrick; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-09-29

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface- and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting 'global ocean virome' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where they

  17. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-09-01

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface- and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting ‘global ocean virome’ dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where

  18. Decoupling of Iron and Phosphate in the Global Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parekh, Payal

    2003-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton, limiting their growth in high nutrient, low chlorophyll regions of the ocean. I use a hierarchy of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry models to understand controls on global iron distribution. I formulate a mechanistic model of iron cycling which includes scavenging onto sinking particles and complexation with an organic ligand. The iron cycle is coupled to a phosphorus cycling model. Iron's aeolian source is prescribed. In the context of a highly idealized multi-box model scheme, the model can be brought into consistency with the relatively sparse ocean observations of iron in the oceans. This biogeochemical scheme is also implemented in a coarse resolution ocean general circulation model. This model also successfully reproduces the broad regional patterns of iron and phosphorus. In particular, the high macronutrient concentrations of the Southern Ocean result from iron limitation in the model. Due to the potential ability of iron to change the efficiency of the carbon pump in the remote Southern Ocean, I study Southern Ocean surface phosphate response to increased aeolian dust flux. My box model and GCM results suggest that a global ten fold increase in dust flux can support a phosphate drawdown of 0.25-0.5 micromolar.

  19. Global Climate Change and Ocean Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    The New England Aquarium, collaborating with other aquariums across the country, is leading a national effort to enable aquariums and related informal science education institutions to effectively communicate the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine animals, habitats and ecosystems. Our goal is to build on visitors' emotional connection with ocean animals, connect to their deeply held values, help them understand causes and effects of climate change and motivate them to embrace effective solutions. Our objectives are to: (1) Build a national coalition of aquariums and related informal education institutions collaborating on climate change education; (2) Develop an interpretive framework for climate change and the ocean that is scientifically sound, research-based, field tested and evaluated; and (3) Build capacity of aquariums to interpret climate change via training for interpreters, interactive exhibits and activities and communities of practice for ongoing support. Centers of informal learning have the potential to bring important environmental issues to the public by presenting the facts, explaining the science, connecting with existing values and interests, and motivating concern and action. Centers that work with live animals (including aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks, national marine sanctuaries, etc.) are unique in that they attract large numbers of people of all ages (over 140 million in the US), have strong connections to the natural, and engage many visitors who may not come with a primary interest in science. Recent research indicates that that the public expects and trusts aquariums, zoos, and museums to communicate solutions to environmental and ocean issues, and to advance ocean conservation, and that climate change is the environmental issue of most concern to the public; Ironically, however, most people do not associate climate change with ocean health, or understand the critical role that the ocean plays in

  20. Tides of global ice-covered oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-08-01

    The tides of an ice-covered ocean are examined using a Cartesian representation of the elastic and fluid equations. Although unconstrained by any observations, the ocean tides of a Neoproterozoic "snowball" Earth could have been significantly larger than they are today. Time-mean tidal-residual circulations would then have been set up that are competitive with the circulation driven by geothermal heating. In any realistic configuration, the snowball Earth would have had an ice cover that is in the thin shell limit, but by permitting the ice thickness to become large, more interesting ice tidal response can be found, ones conceivably of application to bodies in the outer Solar System or hypothetical exoplanets. Little can be said concerning a reduction in tidal dissipation necessary to avoid a crisis in the history of the lunar orbit.

  1. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    SSH slopes appropriate for the ocean mesoscale, noise in the aJong-track altimeter data must be suppressed. For this purpose a quadratic LOESS ...shows the LOESS smoothing of the altimeter SSH data along two tracks; track 109 across the Gulf Stream (Fig 13.14a) and track 106 across the Kuroshio...Fig. 13.14b). The quality of the LOESS filter is clearly seen when the altimeter data exhibit considerable noise (distance points 1,000-3,000

  2. Eddy Resolving Global Ocean Prediction including Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    best in the deep stratified ocean, pressure levels (nearly fixed depths) provide high vertical resolution in the mixed layer, and σ ­ levels (terrain...Metzger, E. J., Richman, J. G., Chassignet, E. P., Drillet, Y., Hecht, M. W., Le Galloudec, O., Shriver, J. F., Xu, X., and Zamudio , L., “Dynamical...Proceedings of the 2009 HPCMP User’s Group Conference, San Diego, CA. [published] 11 Zamudio , L., E. J. Metzger, and P. J. Hogan (2010), Gulf of California

  3. Influence of the Southern Ocean on the Global deep ocean stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Eisenman, I.; Stewart, A.

    2015-12-01

    The stratification of the deep ocean plays a key role in the climate system by influencing the ocean circulation and regulating the outgassing of CO2. Previous studies have suggested that Southern Ocean processes control the global ocean stratification below the main thermocline (i.e., below ~500m). In this study, three ocean-only simulations are carried out with the Community Earth System Model (CESM1): one control simulation forced with Pre-industrial (PI) surface conditions, a second control simulation forced with Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) surface conditions, and a test simulation forced with LGM surface conditions in southern high latitudes and PI surface conditions elsewhere. We find that the test simulation does broadly reproduce the LGM density stratification of the global ocean below 2000m, but not at intermediate depths between 500m and 1500m. We propose a mechanism whereby the stratification of the intermediate-depth waters is influenced by the differing effects on the surface buoyancy distribution of fixed versus restoring aspects of the surface buoyancy forcing. This implies the Southern Ocean exerts less influence over the global deep ocean stratification than has been previously suggested, at least when considering the difference between LGM and PI climates in CESM1.

  4. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System.

  5. Ocean Global Warming Impacts on the South America Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Da-Silva, Renato

    2016-03-01

    The global Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM) model was used to estimate the impacts of the global oceanic warming on the climate projections for the 21st Century focusing on the South America region. This new model is able to represent simultaneously the global and regional scales using a refining grid approach for the region of interest. First, the model was run for a 31-year control period consisting on the years 1960-1990 using the monthly Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) data as a driver for the ocean fluxes. Then, the model was run for the period 2010-2100 using the monthly projected SST from the Hadley Center model (HadCM3) as a driver for the oceanic changes. The model was set up with an icosahedral triangular global grid having about 250 km of grid spacing and with a refining grid resolution with the cells reaching about 32 km over the South America region. The results show an overall temperature increase mainly over the center of the Amazon basin caused by the increase of the greenhouse effect of the water vapor; a decrease on precipitation mainly over the northeast Brazil and an increase in the south and over the western Amazon region; and a major increase on the near surface wind speed. These results are similar to the global coupled models; however, OLAM has a novel type of grid that can provide the interaction between the global and regional scales simultaneously.

  6. Marine defaunation: animal loss in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Douglas J; Pinsky, Malin L; Palumbi, Stephen R; Estes, James A; Joyce, Francis H; Warner, Robert R

    2015-01-16

    Marine defaunation, or human-caused animal loss in the oceans, emerged forcefully only hundreds of years ago, whereas terrestrial defaunation has been occurring far longer. Though humans have caused few global marine extinctions, we have profoundly affected marine wildlife, altering the functioning and provisioning of services in every ocean. Current ocean trends, coupled with terrestrial defaunation lessons, suggest that marine defaunation rates will rapidly intensify as human use of the oceans industrializes. Though protected areas are a powerful tool to harness ocean productivity, especially when designed with future climate in mind, additional management strategies will be required. Overall, habitat degradation is likely to intensify as a major driver of marine wildlife loss. Proactive intervention can avert a marine defaunation disaster of the magnitude observed on land.

  7. Measuring Global Oceans and Terrestrial Freshwater From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, Doug; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Mognard, Nelly; Cazenave, Anny; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Chelton, Dudley; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2007-06-01

    Radar altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing global measurements of ocean surface topography (OST [e.g., Fu and Cazenave, 2001]). Long-term measurements of large-scale circulation and heat storage of the global oceans have led to discoveries such as the effects of changes in ocean circulation on climate (e.g., El Niño and La Niña). A critical limitation, however, is the 200- to 300-kilometer spacings between satellite orbital tracks, which are unable to resolve the currents and oceanic mesoscale processes that contain 90% of the kinetic energy of the oceans. In contrast to ocean observations, surface freshwater measurements are limited mostly to in situ networks of gauges that record water surface elevations at fixed points along river channels. Globally, the spatial and temporal distribution of water stored on the land surface and moving through river channels is known only crudely. Furthermore, water movement in wetlands and across floodplains throughout the world is essentially unmeasured, significantly limiting our understanding of flood processes.

  8. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Bror F.; Watson, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types.

  9. The self-consistent dynamic pole tide in global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic pole tide is characterized in a self-consistent manner by means of introducing a single nondifferential matrix equation compatible with the Liouville equation, modelling the ocean as global and of uniform depth. The deviations of the theory from the realistic ocean, associated with the nonglobality of the latter, are also given consideration, with an inference that in realistic oceans long-period modes of resonances would be increasingly likely to exist. The analysis of the nature of the pole tide and its effects on the Chandler wobble indicate that departures of the pole tide from the equilibrium may indeed be minimal.

  10. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Bror F; Watson, James R

    2016-04-19

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches--each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean--is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change--increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales--through the advection of resilient types.

  11. Distribution of diverse nitrogen fixers in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, F. M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.

    2010-09-01

    We employ a global three-dimensional model to simulate diverse phytoplanktonic diazotrophs (nitrogen fixers) in the oceans. In the model, the structure of the marine phytoplankton community self-assembles from a large number of potentially viable physiologies. Amongst them, analogs of Trichodesmium, unicellular diazotrophs and diatom-diazotroph associations (DDA) are successful and abundant. The simulated biogeography and nitrogen fixation rates of the modeled diazotrophs compare favorably with a compilation of published observations, which includes both traditional and molecular measurements of abundance and activity of marine diazotrophs. In the model, the diazotroph analogs occupy warm subtropical and tropical waters, with higher concentrations and nitrogen fixation rates in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea/Northern Indian Ocean, and lower values in the tropical and subtropical South Pacific Ocean. The three main diazotroph types typically co-exist in the model, although Trichodesmium analogs dominate the diazotroph population in much of the North and tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Arabian Sea, while unicellular-diazotroph analogs dominate in the South Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. This pattern reflects the relative degree of nutrient limitation by iron or phosphorus. The model suggests in addition that unicellular diazotrophs could add as much new nitrogen to the global ocean as Trichodesmium.

  12. Global ocean modeling on the Connection Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Malone, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The authors have developed a version of the Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model (Bryan, 1969; Semtner, 1976; Cox, 1984) for massively parallel computers. Such models are three-dimensional, Eulerian models that use latitude and longitude as the horizontal spherical coordinates and fixed depth levels as the vertical coordinate. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with a turbulent eddy viscosity, and mass continuity equation are solved, subject to the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations. The traditional model formulation uses a rigid-lid approximation (vertical velocity = 0 at the ocean surface) to eliminate fast surface waves. These waves would otherwise require that a very short time step be used in numerical simulations, which would greatly increase the computational cost. To solve the equations with the rigid-lid assumption, the equations of motion are split into two parts: a set of twodimensional ``barotropic`` equations describing the vertically-averaged flow, and a set of three-dimensional ``baroclinic`` equations describing temperature, salinity and deviations of the horizontal velocities from the vertically-averaged flow.

  13. Global environmental change issues in the western Indian ocean region

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.J.; Aubrey, D.G.; Gentile, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change caused by increased atmospheric trace gas loading is expected to cause a variety of direct and indirect impacts. These impacts include rising sea levels, changes in storm climates, changes in precipitation patterns, and alterations of ocean circulation patterns. The purpose of the paper is to place into a regional context for the Western Indian Ocean region the problems arising from changes in global climate. Specifically, the paper will focus on the potential for impacts in the coastal zone, where the indirect pressures of climate change and anthropogenic forcings (e.g. pollution, dredging, coral mining) and policy (land use, coastal zone) collide.

  14. Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; Hostetler, Chris A.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Rodier, Sharon D.; Hair, John W.; Trepte, Charles R.

    2013-08-01

    Global ocean phytoplankton biomass (Cphyto) and total particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks have largely been characterized from space using passive ocean color measurements. A space-based light detection and ranging (lidar) system can provide valuable complementary observations for Cphyto and POC assessments, with benefits including day-night sampling, observations through absorbing aerosols and thin cloud layers, and capabilities for vertical profiling through the water column. Here we use measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) to quantify global Cphyto and POC from retrievals of subsurface particulate backscatter coefficients (bbp). CALIOP bbp data compare favorably with airborne, ship-based, and passive ocean data and yield global average mixed-layer standing stocks of 0.44 Pg C for Cphyto and 1.9 Pg for POC. CALIOP-based Cphyto and POC data exhibit global distributions and seasonal variations consistent with ocean plankton ecology. Our findings support the use of spaceborne lidar measurements for advancing understanding of global plankton systems.

  15. The positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-02-04

    Climate models project a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD)-like SST response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming. By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of the formation mechanisms for the changes in the tropical Indian Ocean during the pIOD versus global warming. Results show that their formation processes and related seasonality are quite similar; in particular, the Bjerknes feedback is the leading mechanism in producing the anomalous cooling over the eastern tropics in both cases. Some differences are also found, including that the cooling effect of the vertical advection over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is dominated by the anomalous vertical velocity during the pIOD while it is dominated by the anomalous upper-ocean stratification under global warming. Lastly, these findings above are further examined with an analysis of the mixed layer heat budget.

  16. The positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; ...

    2016-02-04

    Climate models project a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD)-like SST response in the tropical Indian Ocean to global warming. By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of the formation mechanisms for the changes in the tropical Indian Ocean during the pIOD versus global warming. Results show that their formation processes and related seasonality are quite similar; in particular, the Bjerknes feedback is the leading mechanism in producing the anomalous cooling over the eastern tropics in both cases.more » Some differences are also found, including that the cooling effect of the vertical advection over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean is dominated by the anomalous vertical velocity during the pIOD while it is dominated by the anomalous upper-ocean stratification under global warming. Lastly, these findings above are further examined with an analysis of the mixed layer heat budget.« less

  17. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Annual Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Conkright, Margarita E.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Ginoux, Paul; Casey, Nancy W.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) has produced the first multi-year time series of global ocean chlorophyll observations since the demise of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) in 1986. Global observations from 1997-present from SeaWiFS combined with observations from 1979-1986 from the CZCS should in principle provide an opportunity to observe decadal changes in global ocean annual primary production, since chlorophyll is the primary driver for estimates of primary production. However, incompatibilities between algorithms have so far precluded quantitative analysis. We have developed and applied compatible processing methods for the CZCS, using modern advances in atmospheric correction and consistent bio-optical algorithms to advance the CZCS archive to comparable quality with SeaWiFS. We applied blending methodologies, where in situ data observations are incorporated into the CZCS and SeaWiFS data records, to provide improvement of the residuals. These re-analyzed, blended data records provide maximum compatibility and permit, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of the changes in global ocean primary production in the early-to-mid 1980's and the present, using synoptic satellite observations. An intercomparison of the global and regional primary production from these blended satellite observations is important to understand global climate change and the effects on ocean biota. Photosynthesis by chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton is responsible for biotic uptake of carbon in the oceans and potentially ultimately from the atmosphere. Global ocean annual primary decreased from the CZCS record to SeaWiFS, by nearly 6% from the early 1980s to the present. Annual primary production in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, primary production in the low latitudes generally increased, with the exception of the tropical Pacific. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence

  18. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  19. Global Ocean Sedimentation Patterns: Plate Tectonic History Versus Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Reynolds, E.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global sediment data (Whittaker et al., 2013) and carbonate content data (Archer, 1996) allows examination of ocean sedimentation evolution with respect to age of the underlying ocean crust (Müller et al., 2008). From these data, we construct time series of ocean sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate for the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean basins for the past 120 Ma. These time series are unique to each basin and reflect an integrated response to plate tectonics and climate change. The goal is to parameterize ocean sedimentation tied to crustal age for paleoclimate studies. For each basin, total sediment thickness and carbonate deposition rate from 0.1 x 0.1 degree cells are binned according to basement crustal age; area-corrected moments (mean, variance, etc.) are calculated for each bin. Segmented linear fits identify trends in present-day carbonate deposition rates and changes in ocean sedimentation from 0 to 120 Ma. In the North and South Atlantic and Indian oceans, mean sediment thickness versus crustal age is well represented by three linear segments, with the slope of each segment increasing with increasing crustal age. However, the transition age between linear segments varies among the three basins. In contrast, mean sediment thickness in the North and South Pacific oceans are numerically smaller and well represented by two linear segments with slopes that decrease with increasing crustal age. These opposing trends are more consistent with the plate tectonic history of each basin being the controlling factor in sedimentation rates, rather than climate change. Unlike total sediment thickness, carbonate deposition rates decrease smoothly with crustal age in all basins, with the primary controls being ocean chemistry and water column depth.References: Archer, D., 1996, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 159-174.Müller, R.D., et al., 2008, Science, 319, 1357-1362.Whittaker, J., et al., 2013, Geochem., Geophys., Geosyst. DOI: 10.1002/ggge.20181

  20. Perfluoroalkylated substances in the global tropical and subtropical surface oceans.

    PubMed

    González-Gaya, Belén; Dachs, Jordi; Roscales, Jose L; Caballero, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-11-18

    In this study, perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were analyzed in 92 surface seawater samples taken during the Malaspina 2010 expedition which covered all the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. Nine ionic PFASs including C6-C10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C4 and C6-C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and two neutral precursors perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (PFASAs), were identified and quantified. The Atlantic Ocean presented the broader range in concentrations of total PFASs (131-10900 pg/L, median 645 pg/L, n = 45) compared to the other oceanic basins, probably due to a better spatial coverage. Total concentrations in the Pacific ranged from 344 to 2500 pg/L (median = 527 pg/L, n = 27) and in the Indian Ocean from 176 to 1976 pg/L (median = 329, n = 18). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the most abundant compound, accounting for 33% of the total PFASs globally, followed by perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA, 22%) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA, 12%), being the rest of the individual congeners under 10% of total PFASs, even for perfluorooctane carboxylic acid (PFOA, 6%). PFASAs accounted for less than 1% of the total PFASs concentration. This study reports the ubiquitous occurrence of PFCAs, PFSAs, and PFASAs in the global ocean, being the first attempt, to our knowledge, to show a comprehensive assessment in surface water samples collected in a single oceanic expedition covering tropical and subtropical oceans. The potential factors affecting their distribution patterns were assessed including the distance to coastal regions, oceanic subtropical gyres, currents and biogeochemical processes. Field evidence of biogeochemical controls on the occurrence of PFASs was tentatively assessed considering environmental variables (solar radiation, temperature, chlorophyll a concentrations among others), and these showed significant correlations with some PFASs, but explaining small to moderate percentages of variability

  1. Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global Ocean (APPIGO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    optimizations, to tune the standard 0.04 degree global HYCOM benchmark case described above for the Cray XC40 and the Intel fortran compiler. At Navy...then transferred with MPI, and copied back to the device memory on the recipient host. A new approach called GPUDirect now provides a mechanism that...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Accelerated Prediction of the Polar Ice and Global Ocean

  2. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Weinberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Melanie; Morrison, Cheryl; Correa, Matthias Lopez; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-01-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth׳s largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium–thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  3. Global ocean conveyor lowers extinction risk in the deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Frank, Norbert; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wienberg, Claudia; Robinson, Laura; van de Flierdt, Tina; Dahl, Mikael; Douarin, Mélanie; Morrison, Cheryl L.; López Correa, Matthias; Rogers, Alex D.; Ruckelshausen, Mario; Roberts, J. Murray

    2014-06-01

    General paradigms of species extinction risk are urgently needed as global habitat loss and rapid climate change threaten Earth with what could be its sixth mass extinction. Using the stony coral Lophelia pertusa as a model organism with the potential for wide larval dispersal, we investigated how the global ocean conveyor drove an unprecedented post-glacial range expansion in Earth's largest biome, the deep sea. We compiled a unique ocean-scale dataset of published radiocarbon and uranium-series dates of fossil corals, the sedimentary protactinium-thorium record of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength, authigenic neodymium and lead isotopic ratios of circulation pathways, and coral biogeography, and integrated new Bayesian estimates of historic gene flow. Our compilation shows how the export of Southern Ocean and Mediterranean waters after the Younger Dryas 11.6 kyr ago simultaneously triggered two dispersal events in the western and eastern Atlantic respectively. Each pathway injected larvae from refugia into ocean currents powered by a re-invigorated AMOC that led to the fastest postglacial range expansion ever recorded, covering 7500 km in under 400 years. In addition to its role in modulating global climate, our study illuminates how the ocean conveyor creates broad geographic ranges that lower extinction risk in the deep sea.

  4. Potential increasing dominance of heterotrophy in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvale, K. F.; Meissner, K. J.; Keller, D. P.

    2015-07-01

    Autotrophy is largely resource-limited in the modern ocean. Paleo evidence indicates this was not necessarily the case in warmer climates, and modern observations as well as standard metabolic theory suggest continued ocean warming could shift global ecology towards heterotrophy, thereby reducing autotrophic nutrient limitation. Such a shift would entail strong nutrient recycling in the upper ocean and high rates of net primary production (NPP), yet low carbon export to the deep ocean and sediments. We demonstrate transition towards such a state in the early 22nd century as a response to business-as-usual representative concentration pathway forcing (RCP8.5) in an intermediate complexity Earth system model in three configurations; with and without an explicit calcifier phytoplankton class and calcite ballast model. In all models nutrient regeneration in the near-surface becomes an increasingly important driver of primary production. The near-linear relationship between changes in NPP and global sea surface temperature (SST) found over the 21st century becomes exponential above a 2-4{ }\\circ {{C}} global mean SST change. This transition to a more heterotrophic ocean agrees roughly with metabolic theory.

  5. An operational global ocean forecast system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Tolman, H. L.; Rivin, I.; Rajan, B.; Spindler, T.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Kim, H.

    2012-12-01

    A global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) was implemented in operations at NCEP/NWS/NOAA on 10/25/2011. This system is based on an eddy resolving 1/12 degree global HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinates Ocean Model) and is part of a larger national backbone capability of ocean modeling at NWS in strong partnership with US Navy. The forecast system is run once a day and produces a 6 day long forecast using the daily initialization fields produced at NAVOCEANO using NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation), a 3D multi-variate data assimilation methodology. As configured within RTOFS, HYCOM has a horizontal equatorial resolution of 0.08 degrees or ~9 km. The HYCOM grid is on a Mercator projection from 78.64 S to 47 N and north of this it employs an Arctic dipole patch where the poles are shifted over land to avoid a singularity at the North Pole. This gives a mid-latitude (polar) horizontal resolution of approximately 7 km (3.5 km). The coastline is fixed at 10 m isobath with open Bering Straits. This version employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces with potential density referenced to 2000 m. Vertical coordinates can be isopycnals, often best for resolving deep water masses, levels of equal pressure (fixed depths), best for the well mixed unstratified upper ocean and sigma-levels (terrain-following), often the best choice in shallow water. The dynamic ocean model is coupled to a thermodynamic energy loan ice model and uses a non-slab mixed layer formulation. The forecast system is forced with 3-hourly momentum, radiation and precipitation fluxes from the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) fields. Results include global sea surface height and three dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, density and velocity fields used for validation and evaluation against available observations. Several downstream applications of this forecast system will also be discussed which include search and rescue operations at US Coast Guard, navigation safety information

  6. Cloud and ocean effects on global greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1991-02-01

    Six months into the above-referenced grant, we are making good progress on our research plan. We intend to develop a new generation of transient climate/ocean model capable of reflecting feedbacks associated with clouds and ocean dynamics, and to use them to better constrain the transient climate response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. This is a necessary step in quantifying the links between radiative forcing of the atmosphere and climate response on 10--100 year time scales. The modelling work involves, on the one hand, developing a better characterization of cloud forcing and feedback, and on the other, a new generation of ocean/climate model incorporating feedbacks from the changing stratification of the ocean as heat is absorbed during periods of global warming. 3 figs.

  7. Intraseasonal oscillation in global ocean temperature inferred from Argo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ruijin; Wei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    The intraseasonal oscillation (ISO; 14-97-day periods) of temperature in the upper 2000 m of the global ocean was studied based on Argo observations from 2003-2008. It is shown that near the surface the ISO existed mainly in a band east of 60°E, between 10°S and 10°N, and the region around the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). At other levels analyzed, the ISOs also existed in the regions of the Kuroshio, the Gulf Stream, the Indonesian throughflow, the Somalia current, and the subtropical countercurrent (STCC) of the North Pacific. The intraseasonal signals can be seen even at depths of about 2000 m in some regions of the global ocean. The largest amplitude of ISO appeared at the thermocline of the equatorial Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Ocean, with maximum standard deviation (STD) exceeding 1.2°C. The ACC, the Kuroshio, and the Gulf Stream regions all exhibited large STD for all levels analyzed. Especially at 1000 m, the largest STD appeared in the south and southeast of South Africa-a part of the ACC, with a maximum value that reached 0.5°C. The ratios of the intraseasonal temperature variance to the total variance at 1000 m and at the equator indicated that, in a considerable part of the global deep ocean, the ISO was dominant in the variations of temperature, since such a ratio exceeded even 50% there. A case study also confirmed the existence of the ISO in the deep ocean. These results provide useful information for the design of field observations in the global ocean. Analysis and discussion are also given for the mechanism of the ISO.

  8. The global oxidation state of the upper oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, J.; Harris, M.; Coggon, R. M.; Alt, J.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Teagle, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation state of the oceanic crust is an important component of the Earth system. The widespread oxidation of the crust is a major contributor to the redox state of the mantle due to the subduction of hydrothermally altered oceanic crust, which supplies 10 - 25 % of the net ferric iron flux to the global mantle Fe3+/FeTOT budget (Lécuyer and Ricard, 1999). Secondly, the degree of oxidation of the upper oceanic crust provides a measure of the biomass of microbial life sub-basement (Bach and Edwards, 2003). Thirdly, oxidation state analyses of oceanic basalt give information on the environment and relative timings of local hydrothermal alteration events. To date comprehensive measurements of Fe3+/FeTOT for the oceanic crust are lacking. Post crystallisation oxidation processes, occurring predominantly in the upper basaltic layers of the crust, elevate ratios of ferric to total iron (Fe3+/FeTOT) from mantle levels of 0.16 ± 0.01 (Cottrell and Kelley, 2011). Ferrous (Fe2+/) iron is oxidised to ferric (Fe3+/) iron during reaction with oxidised seawater, which circulates through oceanic crust for tens of millions of years following crustal formation. This study integrates published data with new analyses from six ocean crustal boreholes to categorise the global oxidation state of the upper crust. Samples range from <1 to 129 Ma, and represent basalt from medium to superfast spreading centres, depths between <100 - 2000 mbsf, and at a variety of sedimentary cover rates and thicknesses. Results show that by 1 Ma, the Fe3+/FeTOT ratio of the bulk crust is already raised to an average of 0.28 ± 0.07, implying that the oxidation state is established very early in the lifetime of the ocean crust. Post 1 Ma, Fe3+/FeTOT ratios are more variable, reflecting the effects of prolonged exposure to circulating seawater, but are on average ~0.35.

  9. Evaluating the deep-ocean circulation of a global ocean model using carbon isotopic ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, André; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gebbie, Jake; Losch, Martin; Marchal, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We study the sensitivity of a global three-dimensional biotic ocean carbon-cycle model to the parameterizations of gas exchange and biological productivity as well as to deep-ocean circulation strength, and we employ the carbon isotopic ratios δ13C and Δ14C of dissolved inorganic carbon for a systematic evaluation against observations. Radiocarbon (Δ14C) in particular offers the means to assess the model skill on a time scale of 100 to 1000 years relevant to the deep-ocean circulation. The carbon isotope ratios are included as tracers in the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The implementation involves the fractionation processes during photosynthesis and air-sea gas exchange. We present the results of sixteen simulations combining two different parameterizations of the piston velocity, two different parameterizations of biological productivity (including the effect of iron fertilization) and four different overturning rates. These simulations were first spun up to equilibrium (more than 10,000 years of model simulation) and then continued from AD 1765 to AD 2002. For the model evaluation, we followed the OCMIP-2 (Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparision Project phase two) protocol, comparing the results to GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Survey) and WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment) δ13C and natural Δ14C data in the world ocean. The range of deep natural Δ14C (below 1000 m) for our single model (MITgcm) was smaller than for the group of different OCMIP-2 models. Furthermore, differences between different model parameterizations were smaller than for different overturning rates. We conclude that carbon isotope ratios are a useful tool to evaluate the deep-ocean circulation. Since they are also available from deep-sea sediment records, we postulate that the simulation of carbon isotope ratios in a global ocean model will aid in estimating the deep-ocean circulation and climate during present and past.

  10. Patterns and Emerging Trends in Global Ocean Health

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Benjamin S.; Longo, Catherine; Lowndes, Julia S. Stewart; Best, Benjamin D.; Frazier, Melanie; Katona, Steven K.; Kleisner, Kristin M.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Scarborough, Courtney; Selig, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    International and regional policies aimed at managing ocean ecosystem health need quantitative and comprehensive indices to synthesize information from a variety of sources, consistently measure progress, and communicate with key constituencies and the public. Here we present the second annual global assessment of the Ocean Health Index, reporting current scores and annual changes since 2012, recalculated using updated methods and data based on the best available science, for 221 coastal countries and territories. The Index measures performance of ten societal goals for healthy oceans on a quantitative scale of increasing health from 0 to 100, and combines these scores into a single Index score, for each country and globally. The global Index score improved one point (from 67 to 68), while many country-level Index and goal scores had larger changes. Per-country Index scores ranged from 41–95 and, on average, improved by 0.06 points (range -8 to +12). Globally, average scores increased for individual goals by as much as 6.5 points (coastal economies) and decreased by as much as 1.2 points (natural products). Annual updates of the Index, even when not all input data have been updated, provide valuable information to scientists, policy makers, and resource managers because patterns and trends can emerge from the data that have been updated. Changes of even a few points indicate potential successes (when scores increase) that merit recognition, or concerns (when scores decrease) that may require mitigative action, with changes of more than 10–20 points representing large shifts that deserve greater attention. Goal scores showed remarkably little covariance across regions, indicating low redundancy in the Index, such that each goal delivers information about a different facet of ocean health. Together these scores provide a snapshot of global ocean health and suggest where countries have made progress and where a need for further improvement exists. PMID:25774678

  11. Integrated studies of uncultured microbes in the global ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, C.; Rusch, D.; Martiny, A.; Lasken, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) initiative at the J. Craig Venter Institute represents the most extensive metagenomic study of a single environment. Early findings highlighted the potential of shotgun metagenomics to expand our knowledge of marine microbial biodiversity and physiology. However, it also became clear that many of the abundant marine microbes remain uncultured, hindering a direct connection between phylogeny and ecophysiology. In two recent studies, a combination of single cell genomics and aggressive assembly of binned metagenomic data have resulted in the acquisition of multiple genomes for two uncultured but globally relevant organisms. Metabolic reconstructions of the whole genomes revealed unique physiological adaptations in marine Prochlorococcus to high nutrient, low Fe regions of the global ocean and illuminated the potential ecological role of the gamma-proteobacterial 16S clade SAR86. The internal reference genomes also facilitate fragment recruitment based biogeographical studies, both at the whole genome level and the protein level.

  12. Impacts of data assimilation on the global ocean carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, L.; Masina, S.; Vichi, M.; Storto, A.; Lovato, T.

    2016-06-01

    In an ocean reanalysis, historical observations are combined with ocean and biogeochemical general circulation models to produce a reconstruction of the oceanic properties in past decades. This is one possible method to better constrain the role of the ocean carbon cycle in the determination of the air-sea CO2 flux. In this work, we investigate how the assimilation of physical variables and subsequently the combined assimilation of physical data and inorganic carbon variables - namely dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity - affect the modelling of the marine carbonate system and the related air-sea CO2 fluxes. The performance of the two assimilation exercises are quantitatively assessed against the assimilated DIC and alkalinity data and the independent ocean surface pCO2 observations from global datasets. We obtain that the assimilation of physical observations has contrasting effects in different ocean basins when compared with the DIC and alkalinity data: it reduces the root-mean square error against the observed pCO2 in the Atlantic and Southern oceans, while increases the model error in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans. In both cases the corrected evaporation rates are the major factor determining the changes in concentrations. The assimilation of inorganic carbon variables on top of the physical data gives a generalized improvement in the model error of inorganic carbon variables, also improving the annual mean and spatial distribution of air-sea fluxes in agreement with other published estimates. These results indicate that data assimilation of physical and inorganic carbon data does not guarantee the improvement of the simulated pCO2 in all the oceanic regions; nevertheless, errors in pCO2 are reduced by a factor corresponding to those associated with the air-sea flux formulations.

  13. (The ocean's role in the global carbon cycle)

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, L.F.

    1990-12-20

    The traveler collaborated with Dr. J. L. Sarmiento of the Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Princeton University, and Dr. U. Siegenthaler of the University of Bern in box-model studies of the potential enhancement of oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake by fertilizing the southern ocean with iron. As a result of this collaboration, a letter describing the results was submitted to the journal Nature. Sensitivity studies were carried out to gain a better understanding of the processes involved for a hypothetical iron fertilization of the ocean. An article that describes this work has been submitted to the journal Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The traveler and U. Siegenthaler are preparing a journal article describing a box model of the global carbon cycle that is an extension of the one-dimensional box-diffusion model. The traveler attended Oceanography 590b at the University of Washington in Friday Harbor. While at Friday Harbor, he started to collaborate with Drs. M. Warner, R. Gammon, and J. Bullister, all from the University of Washington, Seattle, to calibrate the global carbon cycle model with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and CFC-12. The traveler started collaboration with Drs. J. C. Orr and J. L. Sarmiento to calculate apparent eddy diffusivities from the Princeton three-dimensional ocean model. The work is conducted by the University of Bern, Switzerland (the traveler is principal investigator), for a US Department of Energy program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. The Mercator-Ocean Forecasting Service: a 4D vision of the Global Ocean, Serving the Ocean Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Baudel, S.; Vinay, G.; Nouel, L.

    2005-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Meteo-France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator-Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The current high-resolution model offers a 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage has been implemented early 2004. A 1/4(°) model will be operated by the end of 2006. Objective 1- Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2- Support applications for commercial shipping and naval forces, promote sustainable stewardship of the world's oceans

  15. Mercator-Ocean monitoring and forecasting : a 4D vision of the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahurel, P.; Toumazou, V.

    Mercator Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The new high-resolution model that is now on line offers 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage will be implemented in 2004. Over the next four years, Mercator Ocean also plans to establish a European Operational Oceanography Centre in Toulouse. Objective 1. Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2. Support applications for commercial shipping and

  16. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Beman, J Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R; Popp, Brian N; Hutchins, David A

    2011-01-04

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO(2) emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05-0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r(2) = 0.87, P < 0.05). Across all experiments, rates declined by 8-38% in low pH treatments, and the greatest absolute decrease occurred where rates were highest off the California coast. Collectively our results suggest that ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3-44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea.

  17. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05–0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r2 = 0.87, P < 0.05). Across all experiments, rates declined by 8–38% in low pH treatments, and the greatest absolute decrease occurred where rates were highest off the California coast. Collectively our results suggest that ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3–44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea. PMID:21173255

  18. A Coupled Ocean General Circulation, Biogeochemical, and Radiative Model of the Global Oceans: Seasonal Distributions of Ocean Chlorophyll and Nutrients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Busalacchi, Antonio (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ocean general circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability. and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms. chlorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Basin scale (greater than 1000 km) model chlorophyll results are in overall agreement with CZCS pigments in many global regions. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are generally in conformance although occasional departures are apparent. Model nitrate distributions agree with in situ data, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The overall agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics offer a reasonably realistic simulation of phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent many aspects of the great diversity of physical, biological, chemical, and radiative environments encountered in the global oceans.

  19. The dependence of global ocean modeling on background diapycnal mixing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zengan

    2014-01-01

    The Argo-derived background diapycnal mixing (BDM) proposed by Deng et al. (in publish) is introduced to and applied in Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Sensitive experiments are carried out using HYCOM to detect the responses of ocean surface temperature and Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) to BDM in a global context. Preliminary results show that utilizing a constant BDM, with the same order of magnitude as the realistic one, may cause significant deviation in temperature and MOC. It is found that the dependence of surface temperature and MOC on BDM is prominent. Surface temperature is decreased with the increase of BDM, because diapycnal mixing can promote the deep cold water return to the upper ocean. Comparing to the control run, more striking MOC changes can be caused by the larger variation in BDM.

  20. Global negative emissions capacity of ocean macronutrient fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Daniel P.

    2017-03-01

    In order to meet the goal of limiting global average temperature increase to less than 2 °C, it is increasingly apparent that negative emissions technologies of up to 10 Pg C yr‑1 will be needed before the end of the century. Recent research indicates that fertilization of the ocean with the macronutrients nitrogen and phosphorus where they limit primary production, may have sequestration advantages over fertilizing iron limited regions. Utilizing global datasets of oceanographic field measurements, and output from a high resolution global circulation model, the current study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global potential for carbon sequestration from ocean macronutrient fertilization (OMF). Sufficient excess phosphate exists outside the iron limited surface ocean to support once-off sequestration of up to 3.6 Pg C by fertilization with nitrogen. Ongoing maximum capacity of nitrogen only fertilization is estimated at 0.7 ± 0.4 Pg C yr‑1. Sequestration capacity is expected to decrease from the upper toward the lower bound over time under continued intense fertilization. If N and P were used in combination the capacity is ultimately limited by societies willingness to utilize phosphate resources. Doubling current phosphate production would allow an additional 0.9 Pg C yr‑1 and consume 0.07% yr‑1 of known global resources. Therefore offsetting up to around 15% (1.5 Pg C yr‑1) of annual global CO2 emissions is assessed as being technically plausible. Environmental risks which to date have received little quantitative evaluation, could also limit the scale of implementation. These results reinforce the need to consider a multi-faceted approach to greenhouse gasses, including a reduction in emissions coupled with further research into negative emissions technologies.

  1. Climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li-Qing; Feely, Richard A.; Carter, Brendan R.; Greeley, Dana J.; Gledhill, Dwight K.; Arzayus, Krisa M.

    2015-10-01

    Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface and subsurface waters of the global oceans was calculated from up-to-date (through the year of 2012) ocean station dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data. Surface Ωarag in the open ocean was always supersaturated (Ω > 1), ranging between 1.1 and 4.2. It was above 2.0 (2.0-4.2) between 40°N and 40°S but decreased toward higher latitude to below 1.5 in polar areas. The influences of water temperature on the TA/DIC ratio, combined with the temperature effects on inorganic carbon equilibrium and apparent solubility product (K'sp), explain the latitudinal differences in surface Ωarag. Vertically, Ωarag was highest in the surface mixed layer. Higher hydrostatic pressure, lower water temperature, and more CO2 buildup from biological activity in the absence of air-sea gas exchange helped maintain lower Ωarag in the deep ocean. Below the thermocline, aerobic decomposition of organic matter along the pathway of global thermohaline circulation played an important role in controlling Ωarag distributions. Seasonally, surface Ωarag above 30° latitudes was about 0.06 to 0.55 higher during warmer months than during colder months in the open-ocean waters of both hemispheres. Decadal changes of Ωarag in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans showed that Ωarag in waters shallower than 100 m depth decreased by 0.10 ± 0.09 (-0.40 ± 0.37% yr-1) on average from the decade spanning 1989-1998 to the decade spanning 1998-2010.

  2. Enceladus's measured physical libration requires a global subsurface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. C.; Tajeddine, R.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Burns, J. A.; Joseph, J.; Loredo, T. J.; Helfenstein, P.; Porco, C.

    2016-01-01

    Several planetary satellites apparently have subsurface seas that are of great interest for, among other reasons, their possible habitability. The geologically diverse saturnian satellite Enceladus vigorously vents liquid water and vapor from fractures within a south polar depression and thus must have a liquid reservoir or active melting. However, the extent and location of any subsurface liquid region is not directly observable. We use measurements of control points across the surface of Enceladus accumulated over seven years of spacecraft observations to determine the satellite's precise rotation state, finding a forced physical libration of 0.120 ± 0.014° (2σ). This value is too large to be consistent with Enceladus's core being rigidly connected to its surface, and thus implies the presence of a global ocean rather than a localized polar sea. The maintenance of a global ocean within Enceladus is problematic according to many thermal models and so may constrain satellite properties or require a surprisingly dissipative Saturn.

  3. An ensemble of eddy-permitting global ocean reanalyses from the MyOcean project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Ferry, Nicolas; Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Zuo, Hao; Drevillon, Marie; Parent, Laurent

    2015-07-01

    A set of four eddy-permitting global ocean reanalyses produced in the framework of the MyOcean project have been compared over the altimetry period 1993-2011. The main differences among the reanalyses used here come from the data assimilation scheme implemented to control the ocean state by inserting reprocessed observations of sea surface temperature (SST), in situ temperature and salinity profiles, sea level anomaly and sea-ice concentration. A first objective of this work includes assessing the interannual variability and trends for a series of parameters, usually considered in the community as essential ocean variables: SST, sea surface salinity, temperature and salinity averaged over meaningful layers of the water column, sea level, transports across pre-defined sections, and sea ice parameters. The eddy-permitting nature of the global reanalyses allows also to estimate eddy kinetic energy. The results show that in general there is a good consistency between the different reanalyses. An intercomparison against experiments without data assimilation was done during the MyOcean project and we conclude that data assimilation is crucial for correctly simulating some quantities such as regional trends of sea level as well as the eddy kinetic energy. A second objective is to show that the ensemble mean of reanalyses can be evaluated as one single system regarding its reliability in reproducing the climate signals, where both variability and uncertainties are assessed through the ensemble spread and signal-to-noise ratio. The main advantage of having access to several reanalyses differing in the way data assimilation is performed is that it becomes possible to assess part of the total uncertainty. Given the fact that we use very similar ocean models and atmospheric forcing, we can conclude that the spread of the ensemble of reanalyses is mainly representative of our ability to gauge uncertainty in the assimilation methods. This uncertainty changes a lot from one ocean

  4. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  5. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 42 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements. The verification results indicate that all the measurement objectives have been met...

  6. Observing Global Ocean Circulation From Space: The First Year's Results From the TOPEX/POSEIDON Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. -L.

    1993-01-01

    The joint U.S./France TOPEX/Poseidon satellite was launched on August 10, 1992, and became operational 43 days later. The major goal of the mission is to use a radar altimeter system for making precise measurements of the height of the sea surface for the study of the dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation, which is a key to understanding global climate change. Additionally, the data are used for studying ocean tides and marine geophysics. The radar altimeter also measures wave height and wind speed. The mission is being conducted to optimize the sea surface height measurements for a minimum of three years. The primary objective of the first six months of the mission was to calibrate and validate the mission's measurements...

  7. Why ocean heat transport warms the global mean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herweijer, Celine; Seager, Richard; Winton, Michael; Clement, Amy

    2005-08-01

    Observational and modelling evidence suggest that poleward ocean heat transport (OHT) can vary in response to both natural climate variability and greenhouse warming. Recent modelling studies have shown that increased OHT warms both the tropical and global mean climates. Using two different coupled climate models with mixed-layer oceans, with and without OHT, along with a coupled model with a fixed-current ocean component in which the currents are uniformly reduced and increased by 50%, an attempt is made to explain why this may happen.OHT warms the global mean climate by 1 to 1.6K in the atmospheric general circulation (AGCM) ML model and 3.5K in the AGCM fixed current model. In each model the warming is attributed to an increase in atmospheric greenhouse trapping, primarily clear-sky greenhouse trapping, and a reduction in albedo. This occurs as OHT moistens the atmosphere, particularly at subtropical latitudes. This is not purely a thermodynamic response to the reduction in planetary albedo at these latitudes. It is a change in atmospheric circulation that both redistributes the water vapour and allows for a global atmospheric moistening—a positive 'dynamical' water vapour feedback. With increasing OHT the atmospheric water vapour content increases as atmospheric convection spreads out of the deep tropics. The global mean planetary albedo is decreased with increased OHT. This change is explained by a decrease in subtropical and mid-latitude low cloudiness, along with a reduction in high-latitude surface albedo due to decreased sea ice. The climate models with the mixed layer oceans underestimate both the subtropical low cloud cover and the high-latitude sea ice/surface albedo, and consequently have a smaller warming response to OHT.

  8. El Nino and the Global Ocean Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    1999-01-01

    Until a decade ago, an often-quoted expression in oceanography is that very few observations are recorded throughout the ocean. Now, the sentiment is no longer valid in the uppermost 10% of the tropical Pacific Ocean nor at the surface of the global ocean. One of the remarkable legacies of the 1985-1994 Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program is an in situ marine meteorological and upper oceanographic measurement array throughout the equatorial Pacific to monitor the development and maintenance of El Nino episodes. The TOGA Observing System, which initially consisted of moored- and drifting-buoy arrays, a network of commercial ships, and coastal and island stations, now includes a constellation of satellites and data-assimilating models to simulate subsurface oceanographic conditions. The El Nino and La Nina tropical Pacific Ocean observing system represents the initial phase of an integrated global ocean observing system. Remarkable improvements have been made in ocean model simulation of subsurface currents, but some problems persist. For example, the simulation of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) remains an important challenge in the 2S-2N Pacific equatorial wave guide. During El Nino the SEC at the equator is reduced and sometimes the direction is reversed, becoming eastward. Both conditions allow warm water stored in the western Pacific to invade the eastern region, creating an El Nino episode. Assimilation of data is a tenet of faith to correct simulation errors caused by deficiencies in surface fluxes (especially wind stress) and parameterizations of subgrid-scale physical processes. In the first of two numerical experiments, the Pacific SEC was simulated with and without assimilation of subsurface temperature data. Along the equator, a very weak SEC occurred throughout the eastern Pacific, independent of assimilation of data. However, as displayed in the diagram, in the western Pacific there was no satisfactory agreement between the two

  9. Spurious dianeutral mixing in a global ocean model using spherical centroidal voronoi tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shimei; Liu, Yudi

    2016-12-01

    In order to quantitatively evaluate the spurious dianeutral mixing in a global ocean model MPAS-Ocean (Model for Prediction Across Scales) using a spherical centroidal voronoi tessellations developed jointly by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States, we choose z* vertical coordinate system in MPAS-Ocean, in which all physical mixing processes, such as convection adjustment and explicit diffusion parameter schemes, are omitted, using a linear equation of state. By calculating the Reference Potential Energy (RPE), front revolution position, time rate of RPE change, probability density function distribution and dimensionless parameter χ, from the perspectives of resolution, viscosity, Horizontal Grid Reynolds Number (HGRN), ReΔ, and momentum transmission scheme, using two ideal cases, overflow and baroclinic eddy channel, we qualitatively analyze the simulation results by comparison with the three non-isopycnal models in Ilicak et al. (2012), i.e., MITGCM, MOM, and ROMS. The results show that the spurious dianeutral mixing in the MPAS-Ocean increases over time. The spurious dianeutral transport is proportional to the HGRN directly and is reduced by increasing the lateral viscosity or using a finer resolution to control HGRN. When the HGRN is less than 10, spurious transport is reduced significantly. When using the proper viscosity closure, MPAS-Ocean performs better than MITGCM and MOM, closely to ROMS, in the 2D case without rotation, and much better than the above-mentioned three ocean models under the condition of 3D space with rotation due to the cell area difference between the hexagon cell and the quadrilateral cell with the same resolution. Both the Zalesak (1979) flux corrected transport scheme and Leith closure in MPAS-Ocean play an excellent role in reducing spurious dianeutral mixing. The performance of Leith scheme is preferable to the condition of three-dimensional baroclinic eddy.

  10. Penetration of UV irradiance into the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, T. J.

    2011-11-01

    A new global ocean-atmosphere model has been developed to determine the penetration of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through the water column. This is accomplished by combining an atmospheric UV irradiance model, taking into consideration the effects of aerosols, clouds, and the air-sea interface, with empirical in-water diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd(λUV)) relationships. These empirical relationships are derived from simultaneous in situ profiles of visible wavelength inherent optical properties and downwelling UV irradiances. The combined model is applied to global data sets using a look-up table approach to speed up calculation time. The atmospheric model compared against ˜3000 data points gave a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of between 10% and 15% at wavelengths of 305, 325, 340, and 380 nm; the coupled global model compared against 30 independent in-water irradiance profiles gave a logarithmic RMSE of between 0.15 and 0.35 at these wavelengths. On the global scale the 10% irradiance levels were found to be deepest in the oceanic gyres (˜18, 32, 44, and 70 m at 305, 325, 340 and 380 nm, respectively) and shallowest in the optically complex continental shelf regions. The calculated UV doses were shown to be spectrally and seasonally variable, with the highest values being encountered in the eastern Mediterranean during July, with values of ˜0.5, 4, 7, and 10 kJ m-2 d-1 nm-1 at 305, 325, 340, and 380 nm, respectively.

  11. The global Mercator Ocean analysis and forecasting high resolution system and its main future updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Legalloudec, Olivier; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Garric, Gilles; Greiner, Eric; Drévillon, Marie; Regnier, Charly; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel; Benkiran, Mounir; Drillet, Yann

    2015-04-01

    In April 2013, Mercator Ocean has performed a major upgrade of the global 1/12° high resolution system. This system currently delivers daily services, and includes numerous improvements related to the ocean/sea-ice model and the assimilation scheme. Observations are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. It includes an adaptive-error estimate and a localization algorithm. Altimeter data, satellite Sea Surface Temperature and in situ temperature and salinity vertical profiles are jointly assimilated to estimate the initial conditions for numerical ocean forecasting. A 3D-Var scheme provides a correction for the slowly-evolving large-scale biases in temperature and salinity. In April 2015, Mercator Ocean will open the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and will be in charge of the global ocean at eddy resolving resolution. In this context, R&D activities conducted during the end of the MyOcean2 and MyOcean follow-on projects to deliver an improved version of the global system will continue throughout 2015. The main new updates we plan to integrate in the next version of the global system concern: 1) A new vertical mixing scheme k-epsilon: vertical physics has been explored with a special focus on the turbulent closure problem to improve the representation of temperature and salinity in the Mixed Layer Depth. 2) An adaptive tuning of observations errors: as the prescription of observation errors in the assimilation systems is often too approximate, some diagnostics have been developed. These diagnostics consist in the computation of the Desroziers ratio which is a function of observation errors, innovations and residuals. It helps to identify inconsistency on the specified observation errors and to tune an adaptive weight coefficient acting on the error of each assimilated observation. 3) The assimilation of sea-ice concentration observations: it is introduced in the

  12. Global Ocean Integrals and Means, with Trend Implications.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ocean requires determining and explaining global integrals and equivalent average values of temperature (heat), salinity (freshwater and salt content), sea level, energy, and other properties. Attempts to determine means, integrals, and climatologies have been hindered by thinly and poorly distributed historical observations in a system in which both signals and background noise are spatially very inhomogeneous, leading to potentially large temporal bias errors that must be corrected at the 1% level or better. With the exception of the upper ocean in the current altimetric-Argo era, no clear documentation exists on the best methods for estimating means and their changes for quantities such as heat and freshwater at the levels required for anthropogenic signals. Underestimates of trends are as likely as overestimates; for example, recent inferences that multidecadal oceanic heat uptake has been greatly underestimated are plausible. For new or augmented observing systems, calculating the accuracies and precisions of global, multidecadal sampling densities for the full water column is necessary to avoid the irrecoverable loss of scientifically essential information.

  13. Joint IAMAS/IAHS symposium J1 on global monitoring and advanced observing techniques in the atmosphere and hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ohring, G. ); Aoki, T. ); Halpern, D. ); Henderson-Sellers, A. ); Charlock, T. ); Joseph, J. ); Labitzke, K. ); Raschke, E. ); Smith, W. )

    1994-04-01

    Seventy papers were presented at the two-and-a-half-day Symposium on Global Monitoring and Advanced Observing Techniques in the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere. The symposium was jointly organized by the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) and took place in Yokohama, Japan, 13-15 July 1993, as part of the IAMAS/IAHS Join Assembly. Global observing systems are receiving increased attention in connection with such problems as monitoring global climate change. The symposium included papers on observational requirements; measurement methodologies; descriptions of available datasets; results of analysis of observational data; plans for future observing systems, including the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); and the programs and plans of the space agencies.

  14. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling.

    PubMed

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D

    2012-04-24

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ∼3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ∼2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world.

  15. Antarctic and Southern Ocean influences on Late Pliocene global cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKay, Robert; Naish, Tim; Carter, Lionel; Riesselman, Christina; Dunbar, Robert; Sjunneskog, Charlotte; Winter, Diane; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Warren, Courtney; Pagani, Mark; Schouten, Stefan; Willmott, Veronica; Levy, Richard; DeConto, Robert; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean on Late Pliocene global climate reconstructions has remained ambiguous due to a lack of well-dated Antarctic-proximal, paleoenvironmental records. Here we present ice sheet, sea-surface temperature, and sea ice reconstructions from the ANDRILL AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. We provide evidence for a major expansion of an ice sheet in the Ross Sea that began at ~3.3 Ma, followed by a coastal sea surface temperature cooling of ~2.5 °C, a stepwise expansion of sea ice, and polynya-style deep mixing in the Ross Sea between 3.3 and 2.5 Ma. The intensification of Antarctic cooling resulted in strengthened westerly winds and invigorated ocean circulation. The associated northward migration of Southern Ocean fronts has been linked with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by restricting surface water connectivity between the ocean basins, with implications for heat transport to the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. While our results do not exclude low-latitude mechanisms as drivers for Pliocene cooling, they indicate an additional role played by southern high-latitude cooling during development of the bipolar world.

  16. Attenuation coefficient of usable solar radiation of the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Kahru, Mati

    2016-05-01

    Usable solar radiation (USR) represents spectrally integrated solar energy in the spectral range of 400-560 nm, a domain where photons penetrate the most in oceanic waters and thus contribute to photosynthesis and heating at deeper depths. Through purely numerical simulations, it was found that the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling USR (Kd(USR), m-1) is nearly a constant vertically in the upper water column for clear waters and most turbid waters. Subsequently an empirical model was developed to estimate Kd(USR) based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd(490), m-1). We here evaluate this relationship using data collected from a wide range of oceanic and coastal environments and found that the relationship between Kd(490) and Kd(USR) developed via the numerical simulation is quite robust. We further refined this relationship to extend the applicability to "clearest" natural waters. This refined relationship was then used to produce sample distribution of Kd(USR) of global oceans. As expected, extremely low Kd(USR) (˜0.02 m-1) was observed in ocean gyres, while significantly higher Kd(USR) (˜5.2 m-1) was found in very turbid coastal regions. A useful application of Kd(USR) is to easily and accurately propagate surface USR to deeper depths, potentially to significantly improve the estimation of basin scale primary production and heat fluxes in the upper water column.

  17. General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) - Mapping the Global Seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherall, P.; Jakobsson, M.; Marks, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over one hundred years GEBCO (www.gebco.net) has been at the forefront of producing maps and digital data sets showing the shape of the global seafloor in the deep oceans with the first GEBCO chart series initiated in 1903 by Prince Albert I of Monaco. Today the GEBCO community consists of an international group of experts in seafloor mapping who develop a range of data sets and data products with the aim of providing the most authoritative publicly-available bathymetric data sets for the world's oceans. We are also training a new generation of seafloor mappers through the Nippon Foundation/GEBCO Training Programme. GEBCO operates under the joint auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). Our range of products includes: A global Digital Terrain Model (DTM) - modelling the shape of the seafloor in the form of a periodically-updated 30 arc-second interval grid A gazetteer of undersea feature names GEBCO Cook Book - information on topics related to building bathymetric grids Web services GEBCO world map GEBCO Digital Atlas - a collection of GEBCO's data sets and viewing software Recognising the importance of local expertise when building a bathymetric grid, GEBCO's latest 30 arc-second interval DTM, GEBCO_2014, (due for release in Fall 2014) has benefited from contributions from many regional mapping projects such as the International Bathymetric Charts of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) and Southern Ocean (IBCSO); the Baltic Sea Bathymetry Database and EMODnet for European waters. Through the Sub-Committee on Regional Undersea Mapping, GEBCO is aiming to build on and extend its collaboration with regional mapping groups to continually improve its global bathymetric model.

  18. The timescales of global surface-ocean connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Bror F.; Watson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Planktonic communities are shaped through a balance of local evolutionary adaptation and ecological succession driven in large part by migration. The timescales over which these processes operate are still largely unresolved. Here we use Lagrangian particle tracking and network theory to quantify the timescale over which surface currents connect different regions of the global ocean. We find that the fastest path between two patches—each randomly located anywhere in the surface ocean—is, on average, less than a decade. These results suggest that marine planktonic communities may keep pace with climate change—increasing temperatures, ocean acidification and changes in stratification over decadal timescales—through the advection of resilient types. PMID:27093522

  19. Subsurface Ocean Climate Data Records: Global Ocean Heat and Freshwater Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Locarnini, R. A.; Mishonov, A. V.; Reagan, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The ocean is the main sink of excess heat in the Earth's climate system. It absorbs more than 90% of the Top of the Atmosphere imbalance between incoming solar radiation and outgoing long-wave radiation. The ocean, covering more than 70% of the Earth's surface, is also the major component of the planet's freshwater cycle. More than 60 years of in situ subsurface temperature and salinity data have been compiled and quality controlled in World Ocean Database of the National Centers for Environmental Information. These data have been used to calculate time series of global heat and salt changes in the ocean. Salt changes can be used to calculate freshwater changes, including from melting continental glaciers. Both time series provide a measure of the changes in the Earth's climate system: from heat sequestered in the ocean, to the rise of sea level due to thermosteric and halosteric components. The time series are updated every three months and are widely used in climate related studies. Method of quality control of the data, calculation of the time series, and dissemination and use of the time series are discussed.

  20. Joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics: Evaluation of constraints from global tomography models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinguo; Holt, William E.; Ghosh, Attreyee

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in technology, seismological theory, and data acquisition, a number of high-resolution seismic tomography models have been published. However, discrepancies between tomography models often arise from different theoretical treatments of seismic wave propagation, different inversion strategies, and different data sets. Using a fixed velocity-to-density scaling and a fixed radial viscosity profile, we compute global mantle flow models associated with the different tomography models and test the impact of these for explaining surface geophysical observations (geoid, dynamic topography, stress, and strain rates). We use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Ghosh and Holt (2012) to compute the full lithosphere stresses, except that we use HC for the mantle circulation model, which accounts for the primary flow-coupling features associated with density-driven mantle flow. Our results show that the seismic tomography models of S40RTS and SAW642AN provide a better match with surface observables on a global scale than other models tested. Both of these tomography models have important similarities, including upwellings located in Pacific, Eastern Africa, Iceland, and mid-ocean ridges in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean and downwelling flows mainly located beneath the Andes, the Middle East, and central and Southeast Asia.

  1. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-05-16

    Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions.

  2. A Parallel Ocean Model With Adaptive Mesh Refinement Capability For Global Ocean Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Herrnstein, Aaron R.

    2005-12-01

    An ocean model with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability is presented for simulating ocean circulation on decade time scales. The model closely resembles the LLNL ocean general circulation model with some components incorporated from other well known ocean models when appropriate. Spatial components are discretized using finite differences on a staggered grid where tracer and pressure variables are defined at cell centers and velocities at cell vertices (B-grid). Horizontal motion is modeled explicitly with leapfrog and Euler forward-backward time integration, and vertical motion is modeled semi-implicitly. New AMR strategies are presented for horizontal refinement on a B-grid, leapfrog time integration, and time integration of coupled systems with unequal time steps. These AMR capabilities are added to the LLNL software package SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) and validated with standard benchmark tests. The ocean model is built on top of the amended SAMRAI library. The resulting model has the capability to dynamically increase resolution in localized areas of the domain. Limited basin tests are conducted using various refinement criteria and produce convergence trends in the model solution as refinement is increased. Carbon sequestration simulations are performed on decade time scales in domains the size of the North Atlantic and the global ocean. A suggestion is given for refinement criteria in such simulations. AMR predicts maximum pH changes and increases in CO2 concentration near the injection sites that are virtually unattainable with a uniform high resolution due to extremely long run times. Fine scale details near the injection sites are achieved by AMR with shorter run times than the finest uniform resolution tested despite the need for enhanced parallel performance. The North Atlantic simulations show a reduction in passive tracer errors when AMR is applied instead of a uniform coarse resolution. No

  3. The global land and ocean mean energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2016-04-01

    land, and 16 and 100 Wm-2 over oceans, for sensible and latent heat fluxes, respectively. Estimated uncertainties are on the order of 10 and 5 Wm-2 for most surface and TOA fluxes, respectively. Combining these surface budgets with satellite-determined TOA budgets (CERES-EBAF) results in an atmospheric solar absorption of 77 and 82 Wm-2 and a net atmospheric thermal emission of -165 and -190 Wm-2 over land and oceans, respectively. We further revisit the global mean energy balance by combining the area weighed land and ocean mean budgets. This study is published in: Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M., Schär, C., Seneviratne, S.I., Kato, S., Rutan, D., Ammann, C., Wood, E.F., and König-Langlo, G., 2015: The energy balance over land and oceans: An assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Clim. Dyn., Dyn., 44, 3393-3429, doi: 10.1007/s00382-014-2430-z.

  4. Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, P.; Follows, M. J.; Boyle, E. A.

    2005-06-01

    We formulate a mechanistic model of the coupled oceanic iron and phosphorus cycles. The iron parameterization includes scavenging onto sinking particles, complexation with an organic ligand, and a prescribed aeolian source. Export production is limited by the availability of light, phosphate, and iron. We implement this biogeochemical scheme in a coarse resolution ocean general circulation model using scavenging rates and conditional stability constants guided by laboratory studies and a suite of box model sensitivity studies. The model is able to reproduce the broad regional patterns of iron and phosphorus. In particular, the high macronutrient concentrations of the Southern Ocean, tropical Pacific, and subarctic Pacific emerge from the explicit iron limitation of the model. In addition, the model also qualitatively reproduces the observed interbasin gradients of deep, dissolved iron with the lowest values in the Southern Ocean. The ubiquitous presence of significant amounts of free ligand is also explicitly captured. We define a tracer, Fe* which quantifies the degree to which a water mass is iron limited, relative to phosphorus. Surface waters in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions have negative Fe* values, indicating Fe limitation. The extent of the decoupling of iron and phosphorus is determined by the availability and binding strength of the ligand relative to the scavenging by particulate. Global iron concentrations are sensitive to changes in scavenging rate and physical forcing. Decreasing the scavenging rate 40% results in ˜0.1 nM increase in dissolved iron in deep waters. Forcing the model with weaker wind stresses leads to a decrease in surface [PO4] and [Fe] in the Southern Ocean due to a reduction in the upwelling strength.

  5. Scene-aware joint global and local homographic video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiulian; Xu, Jizheng; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2016-09-01

    Perspective motion is commonly represented in video content that is captured and compressed for various applications including cloud gaming, vehicle and aerial monitoring, etc. Existing approaches based on an eight-parameter homography motion model cannot deal with this efficiently, either due to low prediction accuracy or excessive bit rate overhead. In this paper, we consider the camera motion model and scene structure in such video content and propose a joint global and local homography motion coding approach for video with perspective motion. The camera motion is estimated by a computer vision approach, and camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are globally coded at the frame level. The scene is modeled as piece-wise planes, and three plane parameters are coded at the block level. Fast gradient-based approaches are employed to search for the plane parameters for each block region. In this way, improved prediction accuracy and low bit costs are achieved. Experimental results based on the HEVC test model show that up to 9.1% bit rate savings can be achieved (with equal PSNR quality) on test video content with perspective motion. Test sequences for the example applications showed a bit rate savings ranging from 3.7 to 9.1%.

  6. The Mercator-Ocean forecasting service: a 4D vision of the global ocean, serving the ocean services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.

    2006-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is a public consortium formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by the six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Meo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. More than three thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator-Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The current high-resolution model offers a 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage has been implemented early 2004. A ¼° model is operated since October 2005. The services offered by Mercator-Ocean consist in a real-time general description of the physical state of the ocean (3D currents, temperature, salinity ). This is exactly in line with the so called Marine Core Service initiative developed by the operational oceanography community within the programs funded by the European Commission and the European Space Agency (Marcoast, Mersea, BOSS4GMES projects ). The downstream activities are now in

  7. Global ocean particulate organic carbon flux merged with satellite parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Barnett, Audrey; McKinley, Galen A.; Gloege, Lucas; Pilcher, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux estimated from POC concentration observations from sediment traps and 234Th are compiled across the global ocean. The compilation includes six time series locations: CARIACO, K2, OSP, BATS, OFP, and HOT. Efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean depends largely on biologically mediated export of carbon from the surface ocean and its remineralization with depth; thus biologically related parameters able to be estimated from satellite observations were merged at the POC observation sites. Satellite parameters include net primary production, percent microplankton, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm, euphotic zone depth, and climatological mixed layer depth. Of the observations across the globe, 85 % are concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere with 44 % of the data record overlapping the satellite record. Time series sites accounted for 36 % of the data, while 71 % of the data are measured at ≥ 500 m with the most common deployment depths between 1000 and 1500 m. This data set is valuable for investigations of CO2 drawdown, carbon export, remineralization, and sequestration. The compiled data can be freely accessed at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.855600.

  8. Global ocean circulation and equator-pole heat transport as a function of ocean GCM resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, C.

    1994-06-01

    To determine whether resolution of smaller scales is necessary to simulate large-scale ocean climate correctly, I examine results from a global ocean GCM run with horizontal grid spacings spanning a range from coarse resolutions traditionally used in climate modeling to nearly the highest resolution attained with today`s computers. The experiments include four cases employing 4{degrees}, 2{degrees}, 1{degrees} and 1/2{degrees} spacing in latitude and longitude, which were run with minimal differences among them, i.e., in a controlled experiment. Two additional cases-1/2{degrees} spacing with a more scale-selective sub-gridscale mixing of heat and momentum, and approximate 1/4{degrees} spacing-are also included. The 1/4{degrees} run resolves most of the observed mesoscale eddy energy in the ocean. Several artificial constraints on the model tend to minimize differences among the different resolution cases. Nevertheless, for quantities of interest to global climate studies,the simulations show significant changes as resolution increases.

  9. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  10. Phytoplankton size impact on export flux in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen B.; Barnett, Audrey; McKinley, Galen A.; Gloege, Lucas; Pilcher, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean depends largely on biologically mediated export of carbon from the surface ocean and its remineralization with depth. Global satellite studies have primarily focused on chlorophyll concentration and net primary production (NPP) to understand the role of phytoplankton in these processes. Recent satellite retrievals of phytoplankton composition now allow for the size of phytoplankton cells to be considered. Here we improve understanding of phytoplankton size structure impacts on particle export, remineralization, and transfer. A global compilation of particulate organic carbon (POC) flux estimated from sediment traps and 234Th are utilized. Annual climatologies of NPP, percent microplankton, and POC flux at four time series locations and within biogeochemical provinces are constructed. Parameters that characterize POC flux versus depth (export flux ratio, labile fraction, and remineralization length scale) are fit for time series locations, biogeochemical provinces, and times of the year dominated by small and large phytoplankton cells where phytoplankton cell size show enough dynamic range over the annual cycle. Considering all data together, our findings support the idea of high export flux but low transfer efficiency in productive regions and vice versa for oligotrophic regions. However, when parsing by dominant size class, we find periods dominated by small cells to have both greater export flux efficiency and lower transfer efficiency than periods when large cells comprise a greater proportion of the phytoplankton community.

  11. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  12. CFOSAT: a new Chinese-French satellite for joint observations of ocean wind vector and directional spectra of ocean waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, D.; Tison, C.; Amiot, T.; Delaye, L.; Mouche, A.; Guitton, G.; Aouf, L.; Castillan, P.

    2016-05-01

    CFOSAT (the China France Oceanography Satellite) is a joint mission from the Chinese and French Space Agencies, devoted to the observation ocean surface wind and waves so as to improve wind and wave forecast for marine meteorology, ocean dynamics modeling and prediction, climate variability knowledge, fundamental knowledge of surface processes. Currently under Phase D (manufacturing phase), the launch is now planned for mid-2018 the later. The CFOSAT will carry two payloads, both Ku-Band radar: the wave scatterometer (SWIM) and the wind scatterometer (SCAT). Both instruments are based on new concepts with respect to existing satellite-borne wind and wave sensors. Indeed, one of the originalities of CFOSAT is that it will provide simultaneously and in the same zone, the directional spectra of ocean waves and the wind vector. The concept used to measure the directional spectra of ocean waves has never been used from space until now: it is based on a near-nadir incidence pointing, rotating fan-beam radar, used in a real-aperture mode. In this paper we present the CFOSAT mission, its objectives and main characteristics. We then focus on the SWIM instrument, the expected geophysical products and performances. Finally, we present ongoing studies based on existing satellite data of directional spectra of ocean waves (Sentinel-1, ..) and carried out in preparation to CAL/VAL activities and to future data exploitation.

  13. Ocean Circulation and Mixing: New Insights From the Global Distribution of 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Winckler, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since the discovery of mantle 3He in the ocean in the 1960's by Clarke and others this isotope has been used in numerous studies of ocean circulation and mixing. Recently, a global helium isotope data set has been collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). We combined the WOCE helium isotope data with similar, but smaller, data sets from previous global and regional studies such as GEOCSECS or TTO to study features of the global ocean circulation, as well as ventilation and mixing. In this contribution we describe the global data set and discuss the first results obtained on global ocean ventilation and deep ocean mixing. A simple model is used to estimate vertical turbulent exchange coefficients for the deep ocean in the South Pacific and the results are compared to mixing coefficients obtained from fine structure measurements and tracer release experiments.

  14. Atmospheric response to Indian Ocean Dipole forcing: changes of Southeast China winter precipitation under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Sielmann, Frank; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and the subsequent winter precipitation in Southeast China (SEC), observed fields of monthly precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation are subjected to a running and a maximum correlation analysis. The results show a significant change of the relevance of IOD for the early modulation of SEC winter precipitation in the 1980s. After 1980, positive correlations suggest prolonged atmospheric responses to IOD forcing, which are linked to an abnormal moisture supply initiated in autumn and extended into the subsequent winter. Under global warming two modulating factors are relevant: (1) an increase of the static stability has been observed suppressing vertical heat and momentum transports; (2) a positive (mid-level) cloud-radiation feedback jointly with the associated latent heating (apparent moisture sink Q2) explains the prolongation of positive as well as negative SST anomalies by conserving the heating (apparent heat source Q1) in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. During the positive IOD events in fall (after 1980) the dipole heating anomalies in the middle and lower troposphere over the tropical Indian Ocean are prolonged to winter by a positive mid-level cloud-radiative feedback with latent heat release. Subsequently, thermal adaptation leads to an anticyclonic anomaly over Eastern India overlying the anomalous cooling SST of the tropical Eastern Indian Ocean enhancing the moisture flow from the tropical Indian Ocean through the Bay of Bengal into South China, following the northwestern boundary of the anticyclonic circulation anomaly over east India, thereby favoring abundant precipitation in SEC.

  15. Atmospheric response to Indian Ocean Dipole forcing: changes of Southeast China winter precipitation under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Sielmann, Frank; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and the subsequent winter precipitation in Southeast China (SEC), observed fields of monthly precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation are subjected to a running and a maximum correlation analysis. The results show a significant change of the relevance of IOD for the early modulation of SEC winter precipitation in the 1980s. After 1980, positive correlations suggest prolonged atmospheric responses to IOD forcing, which are linked to an abnormal moisture supply initiated in autumn and extended into the subsequent winter. Under global warming two modulating factors are relevant: (1) an increase of the static stability has been observed suppressing vertical heat and momentum transports; (2) a positive (mid-level) cloud-radiation feedback jointly with the associated latent heating (apparent moisture sink Q2) explains the prolongation of positive as well as negative SST anomalies by conserving the heating (apparent heat source Q1) in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. During the positive IOD events in fall (after 1980) the dipole heating anomalies in the middle and lower troposphere over the tropical Indian Ocean are prolonged to winter by a positive mid-level cloud-radiative feedback with latent heat release. Subsequently, thermal adaptation leads to an anticyclonic anomaly over Eastern India overlying the anomalous cooling SST of the tropical Eastern Indian Ocean enhancing the moisture flow from the tropical Indian Ocean through the Bay of Bengal into South China, following the northwestern boundary of the anticyclonic circulation anomaly over east India, thereby favoring abundant precipitation in SEC.

  16. Designing Scatterometer Constellations for Sampling Global Ocean Vector Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Chelton, D. B.; Stoffelen, A.; Schlax, M.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid temporal variations in ocean vector winds make it impossible to obtain synoptic global snapshots of winds and wind stress from a single spaceborne sensor. Even when multiple sensors are present, the peculiarities of the resulting space-time sampling pattern require that significant smoothing in space and time be performed to limit spatially and temporally inhomogeneous error characteristics in the merged data. Based on the collected common experience in its member states, the World Meteorological Organization collects requirements for spatio-temporal sampling in meteorological applications such as global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction, nowcasting, and climate. An additional concern, when constructing data sets from sun-synchronous missions, is that undersampling of diurnal and sub-diurnal variability may result in aliasing of the climate data record. Indeed, examination of climatologies constructed from different satellite missions, such as NASA's QuikSCAT and EUMETSAT's ASCAT scatterometers, show systematic differences that cannot be explained as being due solely to unresolved incoherent diurnal and sub-diurnal variability. Some of these differences, especially in the tropics, are probably explained by systematic diurnal and sub-diurnal variations. Other differences may be due to the difficulty of cross-calibrating sun-synchronous satellites with different local times. Forthcoming satellite missions may offer the possibility of overcoming or mitigating the space-time sampling and calibration challenges using multiple coordinated platforms. In the next decade, there is an expectation that ocean vector winds will be measured simultaneously by multiple satellites from the European community, India, China, and the United States. The coordination and suitable merging of the data from these satellites to produce a climate data record will be a challenge to the ocean vector winds community. In this presentation, we use climatologies constructed from

  17. Toward a Global 1/25 degree HYCOM Ocean Prediction System with Tides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Toward a Global 1/25° HYCOM Ocean Prediction System...implement a 1/25° horizontal resolution global ocean prediction system based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) with tides and dynamic sea ice...mixing, etc. OBJECTIVES Perform the R&D necessary to develop, evaluate, and investigate the dynamics of 1/25° global HYCOM with tides coupled to

  18. Near-Real Time Monthly Global Temperature and Salinity Gridded Data from New Ocean Exploration by Argo Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.; Sun, L.; Fan, C.

    2010-12-01

    New ocean exploration by Argo floats provides sufficient spatial and temporal coverage for sampling the global ocean temperature and salinity. Currently, there are 3193 Argo floats all over the world oceans. Combined with traditionally sampled data, they are included into the Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP). To fully understanding the variability in ocean thermohaline structure and then its effects on climate variability needs a sufficient resolution in space and, especially, in time, gridded ocean temperature and salinity (T, S) dataset. We analyzed observational profiles (from Argo and traditional technologies) from the GTSPP and produced a T-S data set to meet the above need. GTSPP is a joint programme of the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange committee (IODE) and the Joint Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). IODE and JCOMM are technical committees of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and the World Meteorological Organization. The quality control procedures used in GTSPP were developed by the Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS), now the Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM), of Canada. The GTSPP handles all temperature and salinity profile data. This includes observations collected using water samplers, continuous profiling instruments such as Argo, CTDs, thermistor chain data and observations acquired using thermosalinographs. These data will reach data processing centres of the Program through the real-time channels of the IGOSS program or in delayed mode through the IODE system. Real-time data in GTSPP are acquired from the Global Telecommunications System in the bathythermal (BATHY) and temperature, salinity & current (TESAC) codes forms supported by the WMO. Delayed mode data are contributed directly by member states of IOC. Any variable (temperature, salinity, or velocity) can be decomposed into generalized Fourier series using the recently developed optimal

  19. Assimilation of SeaWiFS Ocean Chlorophyll Data into a Three-Dimensional Global Ocean Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.

    2005-01-01

    Assimilation of satellite ocean color data is a relatively new phenomenon in ocean sciences. However, with routine observations from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), launched in late 1997, and now with new data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradometer (MODIS) Aqua, there is increasing interest in ocean color data assimilation. Here SeaWiFS chlorophyll data were assimilated with an established thre-dimentional global ocean model. The assimilation improved estimates of hlorophyll and primary production relative to a free-run (no assimilation) model. This represents the first attempt at ocean color data assimilation using NASA satellites in a global model. The results suggest the potential of assimilation of satellite ocean chlorophyll data for improving models.

  20. Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute

    DOE Data Explorer

    Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model

  1. Role of the Polar Oceans in Global Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The project focused on ice-ocean model development and in particular on the assimilation of ice motion data and ice concentration data into both regional and global models. Many of the resulting publications below deal with improvements made in the physics treated by the model and the procedures for assimilating data. Several papers examine how the ability of the model to simulate the past behavior of the ice cover, especially to represent the ice thickness and ice deformation, is improved by data assimilation. A second aspect of the work involved interpretation of modeled behavior. Resulting papers treat the decline of arctic ice thickness over the last thirty years, and how that decline was caused by a slight warming of the near-surface atmosphere, and also how large variation in ice thickness are due to changes in wind patterns associated with a well- known oscillation of the atmospheric circulation. The research resulted in over 20 published papers on these topics.

  2. GLOBEC: Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: A component of the US Global Change Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    GLOBEC (GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics) is a research initiative proposed by the oceanographic and fisheries communities to address the question of how changes in global environment are expected to affect the abundance and production of animals in the sea. The approach to this problem is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that determine both the abundance of key marine animal populations and their variances in space and time. The assumption is that the physical environment is a major contributor to patterns of abundance and production of marine animals, in large part because the planktonic life stages typical of most marine animals are intrinsically at the mercy of the fluid motions of the medium in which they live. Consequently, the authors reason that a logical approach to predicting the potential impact of a globally changing environment is to understand how the physical environment, both directly and indirectly, contributes to animal abundance and its variability in marine ecosystems. The plans for this coordinated study of of the potential impact of global change on ocean ecosystems dynamics are discussed.

  3. Assimilating ocean tide determined data into global tidal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahel, W.

    1995-01-01

    A data assimilation procedure, which has successfully been applied to fictive and realistic scenarios, is applied to a 1 °-model making use of an effective iterative method for the solution of the minimization problem. Two sets of ocean tide determined data are used for the purpose of assimilation, the more extensive one mainly comprising pelagic together with some coastal sea surface elevation data, and the other one consisting of loading gravity data. The computed O1 and M2 global tidal oscillation systems, namely the fields of tidal elevation and loading gravity, are compared with numerous additional pelagic and coastal elevation data and with a selected number of proper gravity data, respectively. The assimilation of the two sets of data leads to an enormous reduction of the errors of the model results in all oceans. Assimilating this altogether still restricted number of data, allows studying the generation of realistic tidal oscillation phenomena by individual data and comparing these data effects with those having been obtained by previous data assimilation experiments using a model with coarser grid spacing. The field of dynamical residuals resulting from data assimilation reflects the far reaching influence of the data, and it is shown that the spatially integrated work done by the residuals contributes to the in all reduced rate of dissipation in the tidal power balance.

  4. Effects of Drake Passage on a strongly eddying global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viebahn, Jan P.; Heydt, Anna S.; Le Bars, Dewi; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2016-05-01

    The climate impact of ocean gateway openings during the Eocene-Oligocene transition is still under debate. Previous model studies employed grid resolutions at which the impact of mesoscale eddies has to be parameterized. We present results of a state-of-the-art eddy-resolving global ocean model with a closed Drake Passage and compare with results of the same model at noneddying resolution. An analysis of the pathways of heat by decomposing the meridional heat transport into eddy, horizontal, and overturning circulation components indicates that the model behavior on the large scale is qualitatively similar at both resolutions. Closing Drake Passage induces (i) sea surface warming around Antarctica due to equatorward expansion of the subpolar gyres, (ii) the collapse of the overturning circulation related to North Atlantic Deep Water formation leading to surface cooling in the North Atlantic, and (iii) significant equatorward eddy heat transport near Antarctica. However, quantitative details significantly depend on the chosen resolution. The warming around Antarctica is substantially larger for the noneddying configuration (˜5.5°C) than for the eddying configuration (˜2.5°C). This is a consequence of the subpolar mean flow which partitions differently into gyres and circumpolar current at different resolutions. We conclude that for a deciphering of the different mechanisms active in Eocene-Oligocene climate change detailed analyses of the pathways of heat in the different climate subsystems are crucial in order to clearly identify the physical processes actually at work.

  5. Does Ocean Color Data Assimilation Improve Estimates of Global Ocean Inorganic Carbon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2012-01-01

    Ocean color data assimilation has been shown to dramatically improve chlorophyll abundances and distributions globally and regionally in the oceans. Chlorophyll is a proxy for phytoplankton biomass (which is explicitly defined in a model), and is related to the inorganic carbon cycle through the interactions of the organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) and through primary production where inorganic carbon is directly taken out of the system. Does ocean color data assimilation, whose effects on estimates of chlorophyll are demonstrable, trickle through the simulated ocean carbon system to produce improved estimates of inorganic carbon? Our emphasis here is dissolved inorganic carbon, pC02, and the air-sea flux. We use a sequential data assimilation method that assimilates chlorophyll directly and indirectly changes nutrient concentrations in a multi-variate approach. The results are decidedly mixed. Dissolved organic carbon estimates from the assimilation model are not meaningfully different from free-run, or unassimilated results, and comparisons with in situ data are similar. pC02 estimates are generally worse after data assimilation, with global estimates diverging 6.4% from in situ data, while free-run estimates are only 4.7% higher. Basin correlations are, however, slightly improved: r increase from 0.78 to 0.79, and slope closer to unity at 0.94 compared to 0.86. In contrast, air-sea flux of C02 is noticeably improved after data assimilation. Global differences decline from -0.635 mol/m2/y (stronger model sink from the atmosphere) to -0.202 mol/m2/y. Basin correlations are slightly improved from r=O.77 to r=0.78, with slope closer to unity (from 0.93 to 0.99). The Equatorial Atlantic appears as a slight sink in the free-run, but is correctly represented as a moderate source in the assimilation model. However, the assimilation model shows the Antarctic to be a source, rather than a modest sink and the North Indian basin is represented incorrectly as a sink

  6. Multidecadal climate variability of global lands and oceans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Palecki, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used to identify the primary modes of decadal and multidecadal variability in annual global Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values and sea-surface temperature (SSTs). The PDSI and SST data for 1925-2003 were detrended and smoothed (with a 10-year moving average) to isolate the decadal and multidecadal variability. The first two principal components (PCs) of the PDSI PCA explained almost 38% of the decadal and multidecadal variance in the detrended and smoothed global annual PDSI data. The first two PCs of detrended and smoothed global annual SSTs explained nearly 56% of the decadal variability in global SSTs. The PDSI PCs and the SST PCs are directly correlated in a pairwise fashion. The first PDSI and SST PCs reflect variability of the detrended and smoothed annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), as well as detrended and smoothed annual Indian Ocean SSTs. The second set of PCs is strongly associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The SVD analysis of the cross-covariance of the PDSI and SST data confirmed the close link between the PDSI and SST modes of decadal and multidecadal variation and provided a verification of the PCA results. These findings indicate that the major modes of multidecadal variations in SSTs and land-surface climate conditions are highly interrelated through a small number of spatially complex but slowly varying teleconnections. Therefore, these relations may be adaptable to providing improved baseline conditions for seasonal climate forecasting. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Stochastic Modeling and Global Warming Trend Extraction For Ocean Acoustic Travel Times.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-06

    consideration and that these models can not currently be relied upon by themselves to predict global warming . Experimental data is most certainly needed, not...only to measure global warming itself, but to help improve the ocean model themselves. (AN)

  8. Joint Geophysical Inversion With Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, P. G.; Bijani, R.; Farquharson, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Pareto multi-objective global optimization (PMOGO) methods generate a suite of solutions that minimize multiple objectives (e.g. data misfits and regularization terms) in a Pareto-optimal sense. Providing a suite of models, as opposed to a single model that minimizes a weighted sum of objectives, allows a more complete assessment of the possibilities and avoids the often difficult choice of how to weight each objective. We are applying PMOGO methods to three classes of inverse problems. The first class are standard mesh-based problems where the physical property values in each cell are treated as continuous variables. The second class of problems are also mesh-based but cells can only take discrete physical property values corresponding to known or assumed rock units. In the third class we consider a fundamentally different type of inversion in which a model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units; the physical properties of each rock unit remain fixed while the inversion controls the position of the contact surfaces via control nodes. This third class of problem is essentially a geometry inversion, which can be used to recover the unknown geometry of a target body or to investigate the viability of a proposed Earth model. Joint inversion is greatly simplified for the latter two problem classes because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function. PMOGO methods can solve numerically complicated problems that could not be solved with standard descent-based local minimization methods. This includes the latter two classes of problems mentioned above. There are significant increases in the computational requirements when PMOGO methods are used but these can be ameliorated using parallelization and problem dimension reduction strategies.

  9. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  10. Toward an internal gravity wave spectrum in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Malte; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Kunze, Eric L.; Scott, Robert B.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as model resolution increases. This paper examines internal waves in global simulations with 0.08° and 0.04° (~8 and 4 km) horizontal resolutions, respectively. Frequency spectra of internal wave horizontal kinetic energy in the North Pacific lie closer to observations in the 0.04° simulation than in the 0.08° simulation. The horizontal wave number and frequency (K-ω) kinetic energy spectra contain peaks in the semidiurnal tidal band and near-inertial band, along with a broadband frequency continuum aligned along the linear dispersion relations of low-vertical-mode internal waves. Spectral kinetic energy transfers describe the rate at which nonlinear mechanisms remove or supply kinetic energy in specific K-ω ranges. Energy is transferred out of low-mode inertial and semidiurnal internal waves into a broad continuum of higher-frequency and higher-wave number internal waves.

  11. Comparison of retrospective analyses of the global ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurin, Gennady A.; Carton, James A.

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we compare seven retrospective analyses of basin- to global-scale upper ocean temperature. The analyses span a minimum of 10 years during the 50-year period since World War II. Three of the analyses (WOA-94, WHITE, BMRC) are based on objective analysis and thus, do not rely on a numerical forecast model. The remaining four (NCEP, WAJSOWICZ, ROSATI, SODA) are based on data assimilation in which the numerical forecast is provided by some form of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Modular Ocean Model driven by historical winds. The comparison presented here is limited to heat content in the upper 250 m, information that is available for all analyses. The results are presented in three frequency bands: seasonal, interannual (periods of 1-5 years), and decadal (periods of 5-25 years). At seasonal frequencies, all of the analyses are quite similar. Otherwise, the differences among analyses are limited to the regions of the western boundary currents, and some regions in the Southern Hemisphere. At interannual frequencies, significant differences appear between the objective analyses and the data assimilation analyses. Along the equator in the Pacific, where variability is dominated by El Niño, the objective analyses have somewhat noisier fields, as well as reduced variance prior to 1980 due to lack of observations. Still, the correlation among analyses generally exceeds 80% in this region. Along the equator in the Atlantic, the correlation is lower (30-60%) although inspection of the time series shows that the same biennial progression of warm and cool events appears in all analyses since 1980. In the midlatitude Pacific agreement among objective analyses and data assimilation analyses is good. The analysis of Rosati et al. [Rosati, A., Gudgel, R., Miyakoda, K., 1995. Decadal analysis produced from an ocean assimilation system. Mon. Weather Rev., 123, 2, 206.] differs somewhat from the others apparently because in this analysis, the forecast model

  12. Millennial-scale projection of oceanic oxygen change due to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akitomo; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Shigemitsu, Masahito; Oka, Akira; Takahashi, Kunio; Ohgaito, Rumi; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Global warming is expected to globally decrease ocean oxygen concentrations by sea surface warming and ocean circulation change. Oxygen reduction is expected to persist for a thousand years or more, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. However, long-term changes in ocean oxygen and circulation are still unclear. Here we simulate multimillennium changes in ocean circulation and oxygen under doubling and quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, using GCM (MIROC) and an offline biogeochemical model. In the first 500 years, global oxygen concentration decreases, consistent with previous studies. Thereafter, however, the oxygen concentration in the deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots at the end of the simulations, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker AMOC. This is because, after the initial cessation, the recovery and overshooting of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea enhance ventilation and supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean. Another contributor to deep ocean oxygenation is seawater warming, which reduces the export production and shifts the organic matter remineralization to the upper water column. Our results indicate that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in deep ocean, which is opposite to the centennial-scale global oxygen reduction and general expectation.

  13. Ocean topography mapping, improvement of the marine geoid, and global permanent ocean circulation studies from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, James G.; Lerch, F. J.; Koblinsky, C. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Klosko, S. M.; Williamson, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be the first global observations of the sea surface with accuracy sufficient to make quantitative determinations of the ocean's general circulation and its variations. These measurements are an important step to understanding global change in the ocean and its impact on the climate. Our investigation will focus on the examination of features in the sea surface elevation at the largest spatial and temporal scales. TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements will be used in conjunction with observations from past satellite-altimeter missions, such as NASA's GEOS-3 and Seasat, the U.S. Navy's Geosat and SALT, and the European Remote Sensing satellite in order to address the following issues: (1) Improve models of the marine geoid, especially at wavelengths needed to understand the basin-scale ocean dynamic topograpy. (2) Measure directly from the altimeter data the expression of the mean global ocean circulation in the sea surface at the largest scales through a simultaneous solution for gravity, orbital, and oceanographic parameters. (3) Examine the sea surface measurements for changes in global ocean mass or volume, interannual variations in the basin-scale ocean circulation, and annual changes in the heating and cooling of the upper ocean.

  14. Bioavailable atmospheric phosphorous supply to the global ocean: a 3-D global modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nenes, Athanasios; Baker, Alex R.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric cycle of phosphorus (P) is parameterized here in a state-of-the-art global 3-D chemistry transport model, taking into account primary emissions of total P (TP) and soluble P (DP) associated with mineral dust, combustion particles from natural and anthropogenic sources, bioaerosols, sea spray and volcanic aerosols. For the present day, global TP emissions are calculated to be roughly 1.33 Tg-P yr-1, with the mineral sources contributing more than 80 % to these emissions. The P solubilization from mineral dust under acidic atmospheric conditions is also parameterized in the model and is calculated to contribute about one-third (0.14 Tg-P yr-1) of the global DP atmospheric source. To our knowledge, a unique aspect of our global study is the explicit modeling of the evolution of phosphorus speciation in the atmosphere. The simulated present-day global annual DP deposition flux is 0.45 Tg-P yr-1 (about 40 % over oceans), showing a strong spatial and temporal variability. Present-day simulations of atmospheric P aerosol concentrations and deposition fluxes are satisfactory compared with available observations, indicating however an underestimate of about 70 % on current knowledge of the sources that drive the P atmospheric cycle. Sensitivity simulations using preindustrial (year 1850) anthropogenic and biomass burning emission scenarios showed a present-day increase of 75 % in the P solubilization flux from mineral dust, i.e., the rate at which P is converted into soluble forms, compared to preindustrial times, due to increasing atmospheric acidity over the last 150 years. Future reductions in air pollutants due to the implementation of air-quality regulations are expected to decrease the P solubilization flux from mineral dust by about 30 % in the year 2100 compared to the present day. Considering, however, that all the P contained in bioaerosols is readily available for uptake by marine organisms, and also accounting for all other DP sources, a total

  15. Change in ocean subsurface environment to suppress tropical cyclone intensification under global warming.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Lin, I-I; Chou, Chia; Huang, Rong-Hui

    2015-05-18

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are hazardous natural disasters. Because TC intensification is significantly controlled by atmosphere and ocean environments, changes in these environments may cause changes in TC intensity. Changes in surface and subsurface ocean conditions can both influence a TC's intensification. Regarding global warming, minimal exploration of the subsurface ocean has been undertaken. Here we investigate future subsurface ocean environment changes projected by 22 state-of-the-art climate models and suggest a suppressive effect of subsurface oceans on the intensification of future TCs. Under global warming, the subsurface vertical temperature profile can be sharpened in important TC regions, which may contribute to a stronger ocean coupling (cooling) effect during the intensification of future TCs. Regarding a TC, future subsurface ocean environments may be more suppressive than the existing subsurface ocean environments. This suppressive effect is not spatially uniform and may be weak in certain local areas.

  16. Ocean in peril: reforming the management of global ocean living resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Kristina M; Currie, Duncan; Wowk, Kateryna; Sack, Karen

    2013-09-30

    This article presents the outcome of research aimed at assisting governments in meeting their commitments and legal obligations for sustainable fisheries, based on increasing evidence that global fisheries are in crisis. The article assesses the effectiveness of the existing legal and institutional framework for high seas living resources. It focuses on: (1) the role of regional fisheries management organizations (RFMOs); (2) tools for compliance and enforcement to stem illegal fishing; and (3) mechanisms for habitat protection. The article further highlights a variety of options for addressing key weaknesses and gaps in current ocean governance, including United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions, reforms at the regional level, as well as a possible new legal instrument, with a view to informing international discussions on ways to ensure the sustainable use of high seas resources without compromising the health of the marine environment.

  17. Analysis of 50-y record of surface (137)Cs concentrations in the global ocean using the HAM-global database.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in (137)Cs concentrations in the surface waters of the global ocean for the period from 1957 to 2005 using the "HAM database - a global version". Based on the 0.5-y average value of (137)Cs concentrations in the surface water in each sea area, we classified the temporal variations into four types. (1) In the North Pacific Ocean where there was high fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, the rates of decrease in the (137)Cs concentrations changed over the five decades: the rate of decrease from the 1950s to the 1970s was much faster than that after the 1970s, and the (137)Cs concentrations were almost constant after the 1990s. Latitudinal differences in (137)Cs concentrations in the North Pacific Ocean became small with time. (2) In the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans, the (137)Cs concentrations varied within a constant range in the 1970s and 1980s, suggesting the advection of (137)Cs from areas of high global fallout in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific Ocean. (3) In the eastern South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (south of 40 degrees S), the concentrations decreased exponentially over the five decades. (4) In the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, including marginal seas, (137)Cs concentrations were strongly controlled by discharge from nuclear reprocessing plants after the late 1970s. The apparent half-residence times of (137)Cs in the surface waters of the global ocean from 1970 to 2005 ranged from 4.5 to 36.8 years. The apparent half-residence times were longer in the equatorial region and shorter in the higher latitudes. There was no notable difference between the latitudinal distributions of the apparent half-residence times in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. These results suggest that (137)Cs in the North Pacific Ocean is transported to the equatorial, South Pacific, and Indian Oceans by the oceanic circulation.

  18. A joint global carbon inversion system using both CO2 and 13CO2 atmospheric concentration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Deng, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Observations of 13CO2 at 73 sites compiled in the GLOBALVIEW database are used for an additional constraint in a global atmospheric inversion of the surface CO2 flux using CO2 observations at 210 sites (62 collocated with 13CO2 sites) for the 2002-2004 period for 39 land regions and 11 ocean regions. This constraint is implemented using prior CO2 fluxes estimated with a terrestrial ecosystem model and an ocean model. These models simulate 13CO2 discrimination rates of terrestrial photosynthesis and ocean-atmosphere diffusion processes. In both models, the 13CO2 disequilibrium between fluxes to and from the atmosphere is considered due to the historical change in atmospheric 13CO2 concentration. This joint inversion system using both13CO2 and CO2 observations is effectively a double deconvolution system with consideration of the spatial variations of isotopic discrimination and disequilibrium. Compared to the CO2-only inversion, this 13CO2 constraint on the inversion considerably reduces the total land carbon sink from 3.40 ± 0.84 to 2.53 ± 0.93 Pg C year-1 but increases the total oceanic carbon sink from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 2.36 ± 0.49 Pg C year-1. This constraint also changes the spatial distribution of the carbon sink. The largest sink increase occurs in the Amazon, while the largest source increases are in southern Africa, and Asia, where CO2 data are sparse. Through a case study, in which the spatial distribution of the annual 13CO2 discrimination rate over land is ignored by treating it as a constant at the global average of -14. 1 ‰, the spatial distribution of the inverted CO2 flux over land was found to be significantly modified (up to 15 % for some regions). The uncertainties in our disequilibrium flux estimation are 8.0 and 12.7 Pg C year-1 ‰ for land and ocean, respectively. These uncertainties induced the unpredictability of 0.47 and 0.54 Pg C year-1 in the inverted CO2 fluxes for land and ocean, respectively. Our joint inversion system is therefore

  19. A Multiyear Dataset of SSM/I-Derived Global Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Shie, Chung-Lin; Atlas, Robert M.; Ardizzone, Joe; Nelkin, Eric; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, latent heat, and sensible heat over global oceans are essential to weather, climate and ocean problems. Evaporation is a key component of the hydrological cycle and the surface heat budget, while the wind stress is the major forcing for driving the oceanic circulation. The global air-sea fluxes of momentum, latent and sensible heat, radiation, and freshwater (precipitation-evaporation) are the forcing for driving oceanic circulation and, hence, are essential for understanding the general circulation of global oceans. The global air-sea fluxes are required for driving ocean models and validating coupled ocean-atmosphere global models. We have produced a 7.5-year (July 1987-December 1994) dataset of daily surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans from the Special Sensor microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Daily turbulent fluxes were derived from daily data of SSM/I surface winds and specific humidity, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) sea surface temperatures, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) air-sea temperature differences, using a stability-dependent bulk scheme. The retrieved instantaneous surface air humidity (with a 25-km resolution) validated well with that of the collocated radiosonde observations over the global oceans. Furthermore, the retrieved daily wind stresses and latent heat fluxes were found to agree well with that of the in situ measurements (IMET buoy, RV Moana Wave, and RV Wecoma) in the western Pacific warm pool during the TOGA COARE intensive observing period (November 1992-February 1993). The global distributions of 1988-94 seasonal-mean turbulent fluxes will be presented. In addition, the global distributions of 1990-93 annual-means turbulent fluxes and input variables will be compared with those of UWM/COADS covering the same period. The latter is based on the COADS (comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set) and is recognized to be one of the best

  20. Global-Local Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single-Lap Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilic, Bahattin; Madenci, Erdogan; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2004-01-01

    Adhesively bonded lap joints involve dissimilar material junctions and sharp changes in geometry, possibly leading to premature failure. Although the finite element method is well suited to model the bonded lap joints, traditional finite elements are incapable of correctly resolving the stress state at junctions of dissimilar materials because of the unbounded nature of the stresses. In order to facilitate the use of bonded lap joints in future structures, this study presents a finite element technique utilizing a global (special) element coupled with traditional elements. The global element includes the singular behavior at the junction of dissimilar materials with or without traction-free surfaces.

  1. Global oceanic emission of ammonia: Constraints from seawater and atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulot, F.; Jacob, D. J.; Johnson, M. T.; Bell, T. G.; Baker, A. R.; Keene, W. C.; Lima, I. D.; Doney, S. C.; Stock, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    Current global inventories of ammonia emissions identify the ocean as the largest natural source. This source depends on seawater pH, temperature, and the concentration of total seawater ammonia (NHx(sw)), which reflects a balance between remineralization of organic matter, uptake by plankton, and nitrification. Here we compare [NHx(sw)] from two global ocean biogeochemical models (BEC and COBALT) against extensive ocean observations. Simulated [NHx(sw)] are generally biased high. Improved simulation can be achieved in COBALT by increasing the plankton affinity for NHx within observed ranges. The resulting global ocean emissions is 2.5 TgN a-1, much lower than current literature values (7-23 TgN a-1), including the widely used Global Emissions InitiAtive (GEIA) inventory (8 TgN a-1). Such a weak ocean source implies that continental sources contribute more than half of atmospheric NHx over most of the ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. Ammonia emitted from oceanic sources is insufficient to neutralize sulfate aerosol acidity, consistent with observations. There is evidence over the Equatorial Pacific for a missing source of atmospheric ammonia that could be due to photolysis of marine organic nitrogen at the ocean surface or in the atmosphere. Accommodating this possible missing source yields a global ocean emission of ammonia in the range 2-5 TgN a-1, comparable in magnitude to other natural sources from open fires and soils.

  2. Assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Data into a Global Ocean Circulation Model: Are the Results Any Good?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukumori, I.; Fu, L. L.; Chao, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of assimilating satellite altimetry data into a global ocean general ocean general circulation model is studied. Three years of TOPEX/POSEIDON data is analyzed using a global, three-dimensional, nonlinear primitive equation model.

  3. Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades.

    PubMed

    Schmidtko, Sunke; Stramma, Lothar; Visbeck, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Ocean models predict a decline in the dissolved oxygen inventory of the global ocean of one to seven per cent by the year 2100, caused by a combination of a warming-induced decline in oxygen solubility and reduced ventilation of the deep ocean. It is thought that such a decline in the oceanic oxygen content could affect ocean nutrient cycles and the marine habitat, with potentially detrimental consequences for fisheries and coastal economies. Regional observational data indicate a continuous decrease in oceanic dissolved oxygen concentrations in most regions of the global ocean, with an increase reported in a few limited areas, varying by study. Prior work attempting to resolve variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations at the global scale reported a global oxygen loss of 550 ± 130 teramoles (10(12) mol) per decade between 100 and 1,000 metres depth based on a comparison of data from the 1970s and 1990s. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the entire ocean oxygen inventory by analysing dissolved oxygen and supporting data for the complete oceanic water column over the past 50 years. We find that the global oceanic oxygen content of 227.4 ± 1.1 petamoles (10(15) mol) has decreased by more than two per cent (4.8 ± 2.1 petamoles) since 1960, with large variations in oxygen loss in different ocean basins and at different depths. We suggest that changes in the upper water column are mostly due to a warming-induced decrease in solubility and biological consumption. Changes in the deeper ocean may have their origin in basin-scale multi-decadal variability, oceanic overturning slow-down and a potential increase in biological consumption.

  4. Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtko, Sunke; Stramma, Lothar; Visbeck, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Ocean models predict a decline in the dissolved oxygen inventory of the global ocean of one to seven per cent by the year 2100, caused by a combination of a warming-induced decline in oxygen solubility and reduced ventilation of the deep ocean. It is thought that such a decline in the oceanic oxygen content could affect ocean nutrient cycles and the marine habitat, with potentially detrimental consequences for fisheries and coastal economies. Regional observational data indicate a continuous decrease in oceanic dissolved oxygen concentrations in most regions of the global ocean, with an increase reported in a few limited areas, varying by study. Prior work attempting to resolve variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations at the global scale reported a global oxygen loss of 550 ± 130 teramoles (1012 mol) per decade between 100 and 1,000 metres depth based on a comparison of data from the 1970s and 1990s. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the entire ocean oxygen inventory by analysing dissolved oxygen and supporting data for the complete oceanic water column over the past 50 years. We find that the global oceanic oxygen content of 227.4 ± 1.1 petamoles (1015 mol) has decreased by more than two per cent (4.8 ± 2.1 petamoles) since 1960, with large variations in oxygen loss in different ocean basins and at different depths. We suggest that changes in the upper water column are mostly due to a warming-induced decrease in solubility and biological consumption. Changes in the deeper ocean may have their origin in basin-scale multi-decadal variability, oceanic overturning slow-down and a potential increase in biological consumption.

  5. Impact of an upgraded model in the NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System: The tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Hasibur; Behringer, David W.; Penny, Stephen G.; Ravichandran, M.

    2016-11-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) produces global ocean analysis based on the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS). This study shows how upgrades to the forward model simulations from MOM4p0d to MOM4p1 impact ocean analyses over the tropical Indian Ocean in GODAS. Three experiments were performed with same atmospheric forcing fields: (i) using MOM4p0d (GODAS_p0), (ii) using MOM4p1 (GODAS_p1), both using observed temperature and synthetic salinity, and (iii) using MOM4p1 (GODAS_p1S) assimilating both observed temperature and observed salinity. Validation with independent observations shows significant improvement of subsurface temperature and salinity in the new analysis using MOM4p1 versus MOM4p0d. There is also improvement in the upper ocean current of the equatorial Indian Ocean. The impact of observed salinity on the upper ocean surface current is marginal, but there is significant improvement in the subsurface current. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the Wyrtki jet and the equatorial undercurrent is improved in GODAS_p1 versus GODAS_p0. All analyses reproduced the Indian Ocean dipole, with the GODAS_p1S simulated sea surface temperature (SST) the most accurate. The temperature inversion over the north Bay of Bengal (BoB) is reproduced only in GODAS_p1S. The mean sea level over BoB and equatorial Indian Ocean improved in GODAS_p1S as compared with AVISO observation. The combined model upgrade and assimilation of observed salinity led to reduced root-mean-square deviation and higher correlation coefficient values in the sea level anomaly (SLA) when compared with satellite observations.

  6. Are Global In-Situ Ocean Observations Fit-for-purpose? Applying the Framework for Ocean Observing in the Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.; Fischer, A. S.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Mowlem, M. C.; Speich, S.; Larkin, K.

    2015-12-01

    There are an increasing number of global, regional and local processes that are in need of integrated ocean information. In the sciences ocean information is needed to support physical ocean and climate studies for example within the World Climate Research Programme and its CLIVAR project, biogeochemical issues as articulated by the GCP, IMBER and SOLAS projects of ICSU-SCOR and Future Earth. This knowledge gets assessed in the area of climate by the IPCC and biodiversity by the IPBES processes. The recently released first World Ocean Assessment focuses more on ecosystem services and there is an expectation that the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 14 on the Ocean and Seas will generate new demands for integrated ocean observing from Climate to Fish and from Ocean Resources to Safe Navigation and on a healthy, productive and enjoyable ocean in more general terms. In recognition of those increasing needs for integrated ocean information we have recently launched the Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project to promote the transition from a loosely-coordinated set of existing ocean observing activities to a more integrated, more efficient, more sustainable and fit-for-purpose Atlantic Ocean Observing System. AtlantOS takes advantage of the Framework for Ocean observing that provided strategic guidance for the design of the project and its outcome. AtlantOS will advance the requirements and systems design, improving the readiness of observing networks and data systems, and engaging stakeholders around the Atlantic. AtlantOS will bring Atlantic nations together to strengthen their complementary contributions to and benefits from the internationally coordinated Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and the Blue Planet Initiative of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). AtlantOS will fill gaps of the in-situ observing system networks and will ensure that their data are readily accessible and useable. AtlantOS will demonstrate the utility of

  7. MERCATOR-Ocean monitoring and forecasting : a 4D vision of the global ocean. Data policy and applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Nouel, L.; Sureau, J.; Greiner, E.; Landes, V.; Dombrowsky, E.; Charon, I.

    2003-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Météo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The new high-resolution model that is now on line offers 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage will be implemented late 2003. Over the next four years, Mercator Ocean also plans to establish a European Operational Oceanography Centre in Toulouse. Objective 1. Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2. Support applications for commercial shipping

  8. Building the Global Community: Joint Statement on the Role of Community Colleges in International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This joint statement by the American Association of Community Colleges and the Association of Community College Trustees describes the economic, cultural, and social value of global education in community colleges. Through bullet points, the statement describes how community colleges, including their Boards and CEOs, can promote global competency.…

  9. Ubiquitous cyanobacterial podoviruses in the global oceans unveiled through viral DNA polymerase gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijun; Wilhelm, Steven W; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2010-10-01

    As a major cyanophage group, cyanobacterial podoviruses are important in regulating the biomass and population structure of picocyanobacteria in the ocean. However, little is known about their biogeography in the open ocean. This study represents the first survey of the biodiversity of cyanopodoviruses in the global oceans based on the viral encoded DNA polymerase (pol) gene. A total of 303 DNA pol sequences were amplified by PCR from 10 virus communities collected in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and the South China Sea. At least five subclusters of cyanopodoviruses were identified in these samples, and one subcluster (subcluster VIII) was found in all sampling sites and comprised approximately 50% of total sequences. The diversity index based on the DNA pol gene sequences recovered through PCR suggests that cyanopodoviruses are less diverse in these oceanic samples than in a previously studied estuarine environment. Although diverse podoviruses were present in the global ocean, each sample was dominated by one major group of cyanopodoviruses. No clear biogeographic patterns were observed using statistical analysis. A metagenomic analysis based on the Global Ocean Sampling database indicates that other types of cyanopodovirus-like DNA pol sequences were present in the global ocean. Together, our study results suggest that cyanopodoviruses are widely distributed in the ocean but their community composition varies with local environments.

  10. Keeping the lights on for global ocean salinity observation

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Paul J.; Lee, Tong; Vinogradova, Nadya T.; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-02-24

    Here, insights about climate are being uncovered thanks to improved capacities to observe ocean salinity, an essential climate variable. However, cracks are beginning to appear in the ocean observing system that require prompt attention if we are to maintain the existing, hard-won capacity into the near future.

  11. TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Karsenti, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Eric Karsenti of EMBL delivers the closing keynote on "TARA OCEANS: A Global Analysis of Oceanic Plankton Ecosystems" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  12. Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Nicolas

    2011-05-28

    In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver

  13. Strong coupling among Antarctic ice shelves, ocean circulation and sea ice in a global sea-ice - ocean circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The thermodynamic effects of Antarctic ice shelf interaction with ocean circulation are investigated using a global, high-resolution, isopycnal ocean-circulation model coupled to a sea-ice model. The model uses NASA MERRA Reanalysis from 1992 to 2011 as atmospheric forcing. The simulated long-period variability of ice-shelf melting/freezing rates differ across geographic locations. The ice shelves in Antarctic Peninsula, Amundsen and Bellingshausen sea embayments and the Amery Ice Shelf experience an increase in melting starting from 2005. This increase in melting is due to an increase in the subsurface (100-500 m) ocean heat content in the embayments of these ice shelves, which is caused by an increase in sea-ice concentration after 2005, and consequent reduction of the heat loss to the atmosphere. Our simulations provide a strong evidence for a coupling between ocean circulation, sea ice and ice shelves.

  14. ECCO version 4: an integrated framework for non-linear inverse modeling and global ocean state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Campin, J.-M.; Heimbach, P.; Hill, C. N.; Ponte, R. M.; Wunsch, C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework and its baseline solution for the evolving ocean state over the period 1992-2011. Both components are publicly available and subjected to regular, automated regression tests. The modeling framework includes sets of global conformal grids, a global model setup, implementations of data constraints and control parameters, an interface to algorithmic differentiation, as well as a grid-independent, fully capable Matlab toolbox. The baseline ECCO v4 solution is a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate without unidentified sources of heat and buoyancy, which any interested user will be able to reproduce accurately. The solution is an acceptable fit to most data and has been found to be physically plausible in many respects, as documented here and in related publications. Users are being provided with capabilities to assess model-data misfits for themselves. The synergy between modeling and data synthesis is asserted through the joint presentation of the modeling framework and the state estimate. In particular, the inverse estimate of parameterized physics was instrumental in improving the fit to the observed hydrography, and becomes an integral part of the ocean model setup available for general use. More generally, a first assessment of the relative importance of external, parametric and structural model errors is presented. Parametric and external model uncertainties appear to be of comparable importance and dominate over structural model uncertainty. The results generally underline the importance of including turbulent transport parameters in the inverse problem.

  15. Visualization and analysis of eddies in a global ocean simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Sean J; Hecht, Matthew W; Petersen, Mark; Strelitz, Richard; Maltrud, Mathew E; Ahrens, James P; Hlawitschka, Mario; Hamann, Bernd

    2010-10-15

    Eddies at a scale of approximately one hundred kilometers have been shown to be surprisingly important to understanding large-scale transport of heat and nutrients in the ocean. Due to difficulties in observing the ocean directly, the behavior of eddies below the surface is not very well understood. To fill this gap, we employ a high-resolution simulation of the ocean developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using large-scale parallel visualization and analysis tools, we produce three-dimensional images of ocean eddies, and also generate a census of eddy distribution and shape averaged over multiple simulation time steps, resulting in a world map of eddy characteristics. As expected from observational studies, our census reveals a higher concentration of eddies at the mid-latitudes than the equator. Our analysis further shows that mid-latitude eddies are thicker, within a range of 1000-2000m, while equatorial eddies are less than 100m thick.

  16. Energetics of a Global Ocean Circulation Model Compared to Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-09

    in the dynamics of the ocean circulation with instabilities of the strong mean currents generating eddies in the upper ocean. Interactions between...obser- vations from surface drifters, geostrophic currents from satellite altimetry, subsurface floats and deep current meter moorings. HYCOM...rings of the boundary currents [Stammer, 1997; Ferrari and Wunsch, 2009, 2010], is generated by instabilities of the mean flow and direct wind forcing

  17. Accuracy Assessment of Global Barotropic Ocean Tide Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    Denmark, 4Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, 5Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut...and Technology, Nanjing, China, 8SGT Inc., NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA, 9College of Earth , Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State... Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 12School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, UK, 13Department of Applied

  18. Sensitivity of global ocean heat content from reanalyses to the atmospheric reanalysis forcing: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storto, Andrea; Yang, Chunxue; Masina, Simona

    2016-05-01

    The global ocean heat content evolution is a key component of the Earth's energy budget and can be consistently determined by ocean reanalyses that assimilate hydrographic profiles. This work investigates the impact of the atmospheric reanalysis forcing through a multiforcing ensemble ocean reanalysis, where the ensemble members are forced by five state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalyses during the meteorological satellite era (1979-2013). Data assimilation leads the ensemble to converge toward robust estimates of ocean warming rates and significantly reduces the spread (1.48 ± 0.18 W/m2, per unit area of the World Ocean); hence, the impact of the atmospheric forcing appears only marginal for the global heat content estimates in both upper and deeper oceans. A sensitivity assessment performed through realistic perturbation of the main sources of uncertainty in ocean reanalyses highlights that bias correction and preprocessing of in situ observations represent the most crucial component of the reanalysis, whose perturbation accounts for up to 60% of the ocean heat content anomaly variability in the pre-Argo period. Although these results may depend on the single reanalysis system used, they reveal useful information for the ocean observation community and for the optimal generation of perturbations in ocean ensemble systems.

  19. Global Bathymetric Prediction For Ocean Modeling and Marine Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Smith, Walter H. F.; Sichoix, Lydie; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We proposed to construct a complete bathymetric map of the oceans at a 3-10 km resolution by combining all of the available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years with high resolution marine gravity information provided by the Geosat, ERS-1/2, and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. Detailed bathymetry is essential for understanding physical oceanography and marine geophysics. Currents and tides are controlled by the overall shapes of the ocean basins as well as the smaller sharp ocean ridges and seamounts. Because erosion rates are low in the deep oceans, detailed bathymetry reveals the mantle convection patterns, the plate boundaries, the cooling/subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere, the oceanic plateaus, and the distribution of off-ridge volcanoes. We proposed to: (1) Accumulate all available depth soundings collected over the past 30 years; (2) Use the short wavelength (< 160 km) satellite gravity information to interpolate between sparse ship soundings; (3) Improve the resolution of the marine gravity field using enhanced estimates along repeat altimeter profiles together with the dense altimeter measurements; (4) Refine/improve bathymetric predictions using the improved resolution gravity field and also by investigating computer-intensive methods for bathymetric prediction such as inverse theory; and (5) Produce a 'Globe of the Earth' similar to the globe of Venus prepared by the NASA Magellan investigation. This will also include the best available digital land data.

  20. Perfluorinated acids as novel chemical tracers of global circulation of ocean waters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Petrick, Gert; Wei, Si; Gamo, Toshitaka; Lam, Paul K S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are global environmental contaminants. The physicochemical properties of PFAs are unique in that they have high water solubilities despite the low reactivity of carbon-fluorine bond, which also imparts high stability in the environment. Because of the high water solubilities, the open-ocean water column is suggested to be the final sink for PFOS and PFOA. However, little is known on the distribution of PFAs in the oceans around the world. Here we describe the horizontal (spatial) and vertical distribution of PFAs in ocean waters worldwide. PFOS and PFOA concentrations in the North Atlantic Ocean ranged from 8.6 to 36pg l(-1) and from 52 to 338pg l(-1), respectively, whereas the corresponding concentrations in the Mid Atlantic Ocean were 13-73pg l(-1) and 67-439pg l(-1). These were completely different from the surface waters of the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean (overall range of <5-11pg l(-1) for PFOS and PFOA). Vertical profiles of PFAs in the marine water column were associated with the global ocean circulation theory. Vertical profiles of PFAs in water columns from the Labrador Sea reflected the influx of the North Atlantic Current in surface waters, the Labrador Current in subsurface waters, and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in deep layers below 2000m. Striking differences in the vertical and spatial distribution of PFAs, depending on the oceans, suggest that these persistent acids can serve as useful chemical tracers to allow us to study oceanic transportation by major water currents. The results provide evidence that PFA concentrations and profiles in the oceans adhere to a pattern consistent with the global "Broecker's Conveyor Belt" theory of open ocean water circulation.

  1. Examination and comparison of SMOS and MyOcean global salinity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel-Rhoads, Yianna; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Zodiatis, George

    2014-05-01

    The recent availability of satellite remote sensing data of ocean salinity from SMOS, has promoted the oceanographic exploitation of these results and their comparison with other available ocean salinity databases, in order to determine the validity and accuracy of the SMOS measurements. Here, we examine monthly global SMOS salinity data for the years 2010 and 2011, and compare them with monthly global data from the project MyOcean during the above timeframe. The MyOcean project aims to deliver and operate a rigorous, robust and sustainable Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting system of the GMES Marine Service (OMF/GMS) to users for all marine applications. SMOS salinity data were obtained from the CP34 SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre (SMOS-BEC) site. Ten-day average satellite ocean salinity reprocessed data were obtained for 2010 and 2011, at 1 degree resolution from the ascending orbit, and averaged into monthly mean values. MyOcean global salinity data were obtained from the L4 reprocessing for 2010 and 2011, at 1/3 degree resolution. These data were then interpolated to 1x1 degree resolution and compared with the SMOS global monthly salinity data. Over the examined months, the SMOS satellite underestimates global salinity values relative to MyOcean, except for three occasions. In January 2010, SMOS overestimates salinity values (+0.112 psu), while for April 2010 (+0.02 psu) as well as for April 2011 (-0.017 psu) the SMOS satellite is recording similar salinity values as the MyOcean data. During September for both years, the highest discrepancy is observed between the two datasets, with the SMOS satellite recording salinities much lower than the MyOcean data (0.43 psu and 0.516 psu difference respectively). On a monthly basis, SMOS satellite records higher than MyOcean salinity values in the Gulf of Mexico, the delta of the Amazon River, off Rio Grande Brazil, as well as off the Antarctic coast (an overestimation possibly associated with the Antarctic Coastal Current

  2. CLIVAR-GSOP/GODAE Ocean Synthesis Inter-Comparison of Global Air-Sea Fluxes From Ocean and Coupled Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdivieso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The GODAE OceanView and CLIVAR-GSOP ocean synthesis program has been assessing the degree of consistency between global air-sea flux data sets obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses (Valdivieso et al., 2014). So far, fifteen global air-sea heat flux products obtained from ocean or coupled reanalyses have been examined: seven are from low-resolution ocean reanalyses (BOM PEODAS, ECMWF ORAS4, JMA/MRI MOVEG2, JMA/MRI MOVECORE, Hamburg Univ. GECCO2, JPL ECCOv4, and NCEP GODAS), five are from eddy-permitting ocean reanalyses developed as part of the EU GMES MyOcean program (Mercator GLORYS2v1, Reading Univ. UR025.3, UR025.4, UKMO GloSea5, and CMCC C-GLORS), and the remaining three are couple reanalyses based on coupled climate models (JMA/MRI MOVE-C, GFDL ECDA and NCEP CFSR). The global heat closure in the products over the period 1993-2009 spanned by all data sets is presented in comparison with observational and atmospheric reanalysis estimates. Then, global maps of ensemble spread in the seasonal cycle, and of the Signal to Noise Ratio of interannual flux variability over the 17-yr common period are shown to illustrate the consistency between the products. We have also studied regional variability in the products, particularly at the OceanSITES project locations (such as, for instance, the TAO/TRITON and PIRATA arrays in the Tropical Pacific and Atlantic, respectively). Comparisons are being made with other products such as OAFlux latent and sensible heat fluxes (Yu et al., 2008) combined with ISCCP satellite-based radiation (Zhang et al., 2004), the ship-based NOC2.0 product (Berry and Kent, 2009), the Large and Yeager (2009) hybrid flux dataset CORE.2, and two atmospheric reanalysis products, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (referred to as ERAi, Dee et al., 2011) and the NCEP/DOE reanalysis R2 (referred to as NCEP-R2, Kanamitsu et al., 2002). Preliminary comparisons with the observational flux products from OceanSITES are also underway. References Berry, D

  3. Joint environmental site assessments in support of global basing.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Timothy G

    2009-01-01

    As the US Army becomes more expeditionary and establishes forward operating bases in new locations, the need to document environmental conditions becomes paramount in the protection of the health of deployed service members and the US government from potential claims. The same holds true for exercises where the US presence may only be for a week, however, the potential impacts on force health protection and environmental claims linger for years. Balancing and synchronizing these multiple demands and requirements can be daunting. Over the past 3 years, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine - Europe has been working closely with the US Army Europe Deputy Chief of Staff, Engineer, and the US Army Claims Service Europe to conduct joint environmental assessments in support of command exercises and forward basing initiatives. The synergy and partnerships forged during this process ensure that environmental assessments are conducted to document environmental conditions, protect human health, and protect the US government against claims.

  4. Ocean Front Detection from MERIS and OLCI Ocean Colour Data Applied to Marine Conservation and Global Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Peter I.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean front detection and aggregation techniques were recently applied to 300m resolution Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite ocean colour data for the first time, to describe frequently occurring shelf-sea fronts near to the Scottish coast (Miller et al., in press). This resolution enabled the location of smaller frontal zones and those in close proximity to a convoluted coastline, and was used to identify zones of ecological importance that could assist the process of defining marine protected areas. Frequent front zones are associated with higher abundance of plankton, certain pelagic fish and megafauna. This paper anticipates the improved insights into submesoscale sediment and plankton dynamics that will result from application of these techniques to the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3a and 3b. Looking to the global scale, we show global chlorophyll-a fronts, eddies and other structures detected from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative daily 4 km resolution merged dataset derived from MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS data. This emphasises the importance of the Sentinel missions to improving study of both physical and biological ocean processes.

  5. The polar oceans and their role in shaping the global environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johannessen, O.M.; Muench, R.D.; Overland, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of major advances made in the past decade in understanding of the interactions between polar oceans and the local atmosphere and ocean system. Included are 38 papers discussing the circulation, dynamics and convective processes occurring in the polar oceans; its carbon cycle chemistry and biology; the paleooceanography and paleoclimate of the polar regions; the interaction between the polar ocean and the global climate, and a variety of strategies for detection of climate change in polar regions, predominantly Arctic.

  6. Oceanic Carbon Dioxide Uptake in a Model of Century-Scale Global Warming

    PubMed

    Sarmiento; Le Quéré C

    1996-11-22

    In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving global warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact on the future growth rate of atmospheric CO2. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic carbon. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge.

  7. New features of global climatology revealed by satellite-derived oceanic rainfall maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. S. V.; Theon, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative rainfall maps over the oceanic areas of the globe were derived from the Nimbus 5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data. Analysis of satellite derived oceanic rainfall maps reveal certain distinctive characteristics of global patterns for the years 1973-74. The main ones are (1) the forking of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the Pacific, (2) a previously unrecognized rain area in the South Atlantic, (3) the bimodal behavior of rainbelts in the Indian Ocean and (4) the large interannual variability in oceanic rainfall. These features are discussed.

  8. How well do global ocean biogeochemistry models simulate dissolved iron distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Aumont, Olivier; DeAth, Ros; Dunne, John P.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Galbraith, Eric; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Moore, J. Keith; Ridgwell, Andy; Sherman, Elliot; Stock, Charles; Vichi, Marcello; Völker, Christoph; Yool, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models of ocean biogeochemistry are relied upon to make projections about the impact of climate change on marine resources and test hypotheses regarding the drivers of past changes in climate and ecosystems. In large areas of the ocean, iron availability regulates the functioning of marine ecosystems and hence the ocean carbon cycle. Accordingly, our ability to quantify the drivers and impacts of fluctuations in ocean ecosystems and carbon cycling in space and time relies on first achieving an appropriate representation of the modern marine iron cycle in models. When the iron distributions from 13 global ocean biogeochemistry models are compared against the latest oceanic sections from the GEOTRACES program, we find that all models struggle to reproduce many aspects of the observed spatial patterns. Models that reflect the emerging evidence for multiple iron sources or subtleties of its internal cycling perform much better in capturing observed features than their simpler contemporaries, particularly in the ocean interior. We show that the substantial uncertainty in the input fluxes of iron results in a very wide range of residence times across models, which has implications for the response of ecosystems and global carbon cycling to perturbations. Given this large uncertainty, iron fertilization experiments based on any single current generation model should be interpreted with caution. Improvements to how such models represent iron scavenging and also biological cycling are needed to raise confidence in their projections of global biogeochemical change in the ocean.

  9. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Moriarty, R.; Alvain, S.; Aumont, O.; Bopp, L.; Chollet, S.; Enright, C.; Franklin, D. J.; Geider, R. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Hirst, A.; Larsen, S.; Legendre, L.; Platt, T.; Prentice, I. C.; Rivkin, R. B.; Sathyendranath, S.; Stephens, N.; Vogt, M.; Sailley, S.; Vallina, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Global ocean biogeochemistry models currently employed in climate change projections use highly simplified representations of pelagic food webs. These food webs do not necessarily include critical pathways by which ecosystems interact with ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Here we present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types (PFTs); six types of phytoplankton, three types of zooplankton, and heterotrophic bacteria. We improved the representation of zooplankton dynamics in our model through (a) the explicit inclusion of large, slow-growing zooplankton, and (b) the introduction of trophic cascades among the three zooplankton types. We use the model to quantitatively assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer. When model simulations do not represent crustacean macrozooplankton grazing, they systematically overestimate Southern Ocean chlorophyll biomass during the summer, even when there was no iron deposition from dust. When model simulations included the developments of the zooplankton component, the simulation of phytoplankton biomass improved and the high chlorophyll summer bias in the Southern Ocean HNLC region largely disappeared. Our model results suggest that the observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community rather than iron limitation. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean.

  10. Pliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Foley, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    A snapshot of the thermal structure of the mid-Piacenzian ocean is obtained by combining the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM3) multiproxy sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction with bottom water tempera-5 ture estimates produced using Mg/Ca paleothermometry. This reconstruction assumes a Pliocene water mass framework similar to that which exists today, with several important modifications. The area of formation of present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was expanded and extended further north toward the Arctic Ocean during the mid-Piacenzian relative to today. This, combined with a deeper Greenland-Scotland Ridge, allowed a greater volume of warmer NADW to enter the Atlantic Ocean. In the Southern Ocean, the Polar Front Zone was expanded relative to present day, but shifted closer to the Antarctic continent. This, combined with at least seasonal reduction in sea ice extent, resulted in decreased Antarctic BottomWater (AABW) production (relative to present day) as well as possible changes in the depth of intermediate wa15 ters. The reconstructed mid-Piacenzian three-dimensional ocean was warmer overall than today, and the hypothesized aerial extent of water masses appears to fit the limited stable isotopic data available for this time period. ?? Author(s) 2009.

  11. Pliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Foley, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal structure of the mid-Piacenzian ocean is obtained by combining the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM3) multiproxy sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction with bottom water temperature estimates from 27 locations produced using Mg/Ca paleothermometry based upon the ostracod genus Krithe. Deep water temperature estimates are skewed toward the Atlantic Basin (63% of the locations) and represent depths from 1000m to 4500 m. This reconstruction, meant to serve as a validation data set as well as an initialization for coupled numerical climate models, assumes a Pliocene water mass framework similar to that which exists today, with several important modifications. The area of formation of present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was expanded and extended further north toward the Arctic Ocean during the mid-Piacenzian relative to today. This, combined with a deeper Greenland-Scotland Ridge, allowed a greater volume of warmer NADW to enter the Atlantic Ocean. In the Southern Ocean, the Polar Front Zone was expanded relative to present day, but shifted closer to the Antarctic continent. This, combined with at least seasonal reduction in sea ice extent, resulted in decreased Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production (relative to present day) as well as possible changes in the depth of intermediate waters. The reconstructed mid-Piacenzian three-dimensional ocean was warmer overall than today, and the hypothesized aerial extent of water masses appears to fit the limited stable isotopic data available for this time period. ?? Author(s) 2009.

  12. Global Observations and Understanding of the General Circulation of the Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop was organized to: (1) assess the ability to obtain ocean data on a global scale that could profoundly change our understanding of the circulation; (2) identify the primary and secondary elements needed to conduct a World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE); (3) if the ability is achievable, to determine what the U.S. role in such an experiment should be; and (4) outline the steps necessary to assure that an appropriate program is conducted. The consensus of the workshop was that a World Ocean Circulation Experiment appears feasible, worthwhile, and timely. Participants did agree that such a program should have the overall goal of understanding the general circulation of the global ocean well enough to be able to predict ocean response and feedback to long-term changes in the atmosphere. The overall goal, specific objectives, and recommendations for next steps in planning such an experiment are included.

  13. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Part 1, Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ``Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature``. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.

  14. Coupled Global-Regional Data Assimilation Using Joint States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    scale atmospheric flow features (e.g., in a tropical cyclone or over complex terrain) severely restrict the representativeness of the observations at...robust version of the ensemble-based Kalman filter, by assimilating Tropical Cyclone observations by the global-limited-area data assimilation system...Ott and Brian Hunt, while Matthew Kretschmer, a graduate student, carried out the idealized model calculations. We consider the case where each

  15. How well-connected is the surface of the global ocean?

    PubMed

    Froyland, Gary; Stuart, Robyn M; van Sebille, Erik

    2014-09-01

    The Ekman dynamics of the ocean surface circulation is known to contain attracting regions such as the great oceanic gyres and the associated garbage patches. Less well-known are the extents of the basins of attractions of these regions and how strongly attracting they are. Understanding the shape and extent of the basins of attraction sheds light on the question of the strength of connectivity of different regions of the ocean, which helps in understanding the flow of buoyant material like plastic litter. Using short flow time trajectory data from a global ocean model, we create a Markov chain model of the surface ocean dynamics. The surface ocean is not a conservative dynamical system as water in the ocean follows three-dimensional pathways, with upwelling and downwelling in certain regions. Using our Markov chain model, we easily compute net surface upwelling and downwelling, and verify that it matches observed patterns of upwelling and downwelling in the real ocean. We analyze the Markov chain to determine multiple attracting regions. Finally, using an eigenvector approach, we (i) identify the five major ocean garbage patches, (ii) partition the ocean into basins of attraction for each of the garbage patches, and (iii) partition the ocean into regions that demonstrate transient dynamics modulo the attracting garbage patches.

  16. Concentrations and ratios of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Martiny, Adam C; Vrugt, Jasper A; Lomas, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of concentrations and elemental ratios of suspended particles are important for understanding many biogeochemical processes in the ocean. These include patterns of phytoplankton nutrient limitation as well as linkages between the cycles of carbon and nitrogen or phosphorus. To further enable studies of ocean biogeochemistry, we here present a global dataset consisting of 100,605 total measurements of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus analyzed as part of 70 cruises or time-series. The data are globally distributed and represent all major ocean regions as well as different depths in the water column. The global median C:P, N:P, and C:N ratios are 163, 22, and 6.6, respectively, but the data also includes extensive variation between samples from different regions. Thus, this compilation will hopefully assist in a wide range of future studies of ocean elemental ratios.

  17. Anthropogenic radioactivity in the Arctic Ocean--review of the results from the joint German project.

    PubMed

    Nies, H; Harms, I H; Karcher, M J; Dethleff, D; Bahe, C

    1999-09-30

    The paper presents the results of the joint project carried out in Germany in order to assess the consequences in the marine environment from the dumping of nuclear wastes in the Kara and Barents Seas. The project consisted of experimental work on measurements of radionuclides in samples from the Arctic marine environment and numerical modelling of the potential pathways and dispersion of contaminants in the Arctic Ocean. Water and sediment samples were collected for determination of radionuclide such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 239 + 240Pu, 238Pu, and 241Am and various organic micropollutants. In addition, a few water and numerous surface sediment samples collected in the Kara Sea and from the Kola peninsula were taken by Russian colleagues and analysed for artificial radionuclide by the BSH laboratory. The role of transport by sea ice from the Kara Sea into the Arctic Ocean was assessed by a small subgroup at GEOMAR. This transport process might be considered as a rapid contribution due to entrainment of contaminated sediments into sea ice, following export from the Kara Sea into the transpolar ice drift and subsequent release in the Atlantic Ocean in the area of the East Greenland Current. Numerical modelling of dispersion of pollutants from the Kara and Barents Seas was carried out both on a local scale for the Barents and Kara Seas and for long range dispersion into the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. Three-dimensional baroclinic circulation models were applied to trace the transport of pollutants. Experimental results were used to validate the model results such as the discharges from the nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield and subsequent contamination of the North Sea up the Arctic Seas.

  18. Century-long trend of global ocean warming identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-01-01

    One of the largest sources of uncertainty in reconstructing the warming of the past century stems from problems with historical ocean temperature records. Inconsistencies in method or technology or gaps in observation caused by two world wars mean that long-term records of sea temperature need to be interpreted with care. Drawing on two historical sets of ocean temperature observations—one of the sea surface and the other of the upper 20 meters—Gouretski et al. found that the twentieth century saw a long-term trend of ocean warming. The two data sets were mostly collected independently, using different tools and techniques, and were subjected to different processing. The authors suggest that, owing to the distinct ways in which the data were gathered, the presence of a similar trend could mean that it is not a spurious finding.

  19. Novel lineages of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in the global oceans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sijun; Wilhelm, Steven W; Harvey, H Rodger; Taylor, Karen; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2012-02-01

    Picocyanobacteria represented by Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have an important role in oceanic carbon fixation and nutrient cycling. In this study, we compared the community composition of picocyanobacteria from diverse marine ecosystems ranging from estuary to open oceans, tropical to polar oceans and surface to deep water, based on the sequences of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A total of 1339 ITS sequences recovered from 20 samples unveiled diverse and several previously unknown clades of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Six high-light (HL)-adapted Prochlorococcus clades were identified, among which clade HLVI had not been described previously. Prochlorococcus clades HLIII, HLIV and HLV, detected in the Equatorial Pacific samples, could be related to the HNLC clades recently found in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC), iron-depleted tropical oceans. At least four novel Synechococcus clades (out of six clades in total) in subcluster 5.3 were found in subtropical open oceans and the South China Sea. A niche partitioning with depth was observed in the Synechococcus subcluster 5.3. Members of Synechococcus subcluster 5.2 were dominant in the high-latitude waters (northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea), suggesting a possible cold-adaptation of some marine Synechococcus in this subcluster. A distinct shift of the picocyanobacterial community was observed from the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea, which reflected the change of water temperature. Our study demonstrates that oceanic systems contain a large pool of diverse picocyanobacteria, and further suggest that new genotypes or ecotypes of picocyanobacteria will continue to emerge, as microbial consortia are explored with advanced sequencing technology.

  20. Trends and drivers in global surface ocean pH over the past 3 decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, S. K.; Gruber, N.; Landschützer, P.; Olsen, A.; Tjiputra, J.

    2015-03-01

    We report global long-term trends in surface ocean pH using a new pH data set computed by combining fCO2 observations from the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) version 2 with surface alkalinity estimates based on temperature and salinity. Trends were determined over the periods 1981-2011 and 1991-2011 for a set of 17 biomes using a weighted linear least squares method. We observe significant decreases in surface ocean pH in ~70% of all biomes and a mean rate of decrease of 0.0018 ± 0.0004 yr-1 for 1991-2011. We are not able to calculate a global trend for 1981-2011 because too few biomes have enough data for this. In half the biomes, the rate of change is commensurate with the trends expected based on the assumption that the surface ocean pH change is only driven by the surface ocean CO2 chemistry remaining in a transient equilibrium with the increase in atmospheric CO2. In the remaining biomes, deviations from such equilibrium may reflect that the trend of surface ocean fCO2 is not equal to that of the atmosphere, most notably in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, or may reflect changes in the oceanic buffer (Revelle) factor. We conclude that well-planned and long-term sustained observational networks are key to reliably document the ongoing and future changes in ocean carbon chemistry due to anthropogenic forcing.

  1. Global Average Upper Ocean Temperature Response To Changing Solar Irradiance: Exciting The Internal Decadal Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. B.; Dettinger, M. D.; Cayan, D. R.; White, Warren B.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    Global average upper ocean temperatures anomalies of +/-0.05°K fluctuate in fixed phase with decadal signals in the Sun's irradiance of +/-0.5 Watts m-2 over the past 100 years (White et al., 1997), but its amplitude is 2 to 3 times that expected from the transient Stefan-Boltzmann radiation balance (White et al., 1988). Examining global patterns of upper ocean temperature and lower troposphere winds, we find the internal interannual mode of variability in Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system with global-average upper ocean temperature anomalies of +/-0.05°K occurring naturally, independent of changing solar irradiance (White et al., 2000). Yet coherence and phase statistics indicate that the observed internal decadal mode in Earth's ocean -atmosphere terrestrial system is excited by the decadal signal in the Sun's irradiance. To understand the thermodynamics of this association we conduct a global-average upper ocean heat budget utilizing upper ocean temperatures from the SIO reanalysis and air-sea heat and momentum fluxes from the COADS reanalysis, finding the source of decadal global warming to be the reduction in trade wind intensity across the tropics, decreasing global average latent heat flux out of the ocean. We demonstrate that this reduction in trade wind intensity in the Pacific Ocean is governed by a delayed action oscillator mechanism in the ocean-atmosphere system differing little from that used to explain the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (Graham and White, 1988). We operate an intermediate coupled model of this delayed action oscillator, normally driven by white noise, by superimposing the Stefan-Boltzmann upper ocean temperature response to decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance. We find the latter, with weak amplitude of +/-0.02°K and non-random phase, is able to excite a decadal signal in this delayed action oscillator, yielding a damped resonance response of +/-0.1°K in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, with dissipation provided by

  2. Information Technology Management: Global Command and Control System Joint Operation Planning and Execution System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General April 15, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality Global Command...Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Information Technology Management : Global Command and Control System Joint Operation Planning and...September 7, 1999; “GCCS Strategic Plan 1999-2002,” December 27, 1999; “JOPES Strategic Plan,” April 2000; “ Information Technology Management Reform Act

  3. Global diversity and oceanic divergence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jennifer A; Steel, Debbie J; Beerli, P; Congdon, Bradley C; Olavarría, Carlos; Leslie, Matthew S; Pomilla, Cristina; Rosenbaum, Howard; Baker, C Scott

    2014-07-07

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) annually undertake the longest migrations between seasonal feeding and breeding grounds of any mammal. Despite this dispersal potential, discontinuous seasonal distributions and migratory patterns suggest that humpbacks form discrete regional populations within each ocean. To better understand the worldwide population history of humpbacks, and the interplay of this species with the oceanic environment through geological time, we assembled mitochondrial DNA control region sequences representing approximately 2700 individuals (465 bp, 219 haplotypes) and eight nuclear intronic sequences representing approximately 70 individuals (3700 bp, 140 alleles) from the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Southern Hemisphere. Bayesian divergence time reconstructions date the origin of humpback mtDNA lineages to the Pleistocene (880 ka, 95% posterior intervals 550-1320 ka) and estimate radiation of current Northern Hemisphere lineages between 50 and 200 ka, indicating colonization of the northern oceans prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Coalescent analyses reveal restricted gene flow between ocean basins, with long-term migration rates (individual migrants per generation) of less than 3.3 for mtDNA and less than 2 for nuclear genomic DNA. Genetic evidence suggests that humpbacks in the North Pacific, North Atlantic and Southern Hemisphere are on independent evolutionary trajectories, supporting taxonomic revision of M. novaeangliae to three subspecies.

  4. Preliminary Results from Global and Regional Ensemble Ocean Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Cooper-Haines, 3 used MODAS synthetics. Two used 35 layers instead of 27. Some used an updated version of NCODA and one used mixed layer...depth to modify the MODAS synthetic, etc.) Set 2 (2012): All 3DVar, 32 vs. 41 layers, different ocean analysis configurations 20 SSH

  5. Accuracy assessment of the global ionospheric model over the Southern Ocean based on dynamic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaowen; Xu, Huajun; Li, Zishen; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Jinyao; Shen, Zhongyan; Yang, Chunguo; Wu, Ziyin

    2017-02-01

    The global ionospheric model based on the reference stations of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) of the International GNSS Services is presently the most commonly used products of the global ionosphere. It is very important to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the model for the reasonable use of this kind of ionospheric product. In terms of receiver station deployment, this work is different from the traditional performance evaluation of the global ionosphere model based on observation data of ground-based static reference stations. The preliminary evaluation and analysis of the the global ionospheric model was conducted with the dynamic observation data across different latitudes over the southern oceans. The validation results showed that the accuracy of the global ionospheric model over the southern oceans is about 5 TECu, which deviates from the measured ionospheric TEC by about -0.6 TECu.

  6. Circulation from a joint gravity field solution determination of the general ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Nerem, R. S.; Shum, C. K.; Ries, J. C.; Yuan, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    With the development of satellite altimetry, it is possible to infer the geostrophic velocity of the surface ocean currents, if the geoid and the position of the satellite are known accurately. Errors in current geoid models and orbit computations, both due primarily to errors in the earth's gravity field model, have limited the use of altimeter data for this purpose. The objective of this investigation is to demonstrate that altimeter data can be used in a joint solution to simultaneously estimate the quasi-stationary sea surface topography, zeta, and the model for the gravity field. Satellite tracking data from twelve satellites were used along with Seasat altimeter data for the solution. The estimated model of zeta compares well at long wavelengths with the hydrographic model of zeta. Covariance analysis indicates that the geoid is separable from zeta up to degree 9, at which point geoid error is comparable to the signal of zeta.

  7. Ocean Sciences Best Student Papers for 1988 Joint AGU/ASLO Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ocean Sciences Section has selected four students to receive Best Student Paper Awards for the 1988 Joint AGU and American Society for Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) Meeting held last January in New Orleans.Brad M. Bebout received a Best Student Paper Award for his paper “The Use of Agricultural Waste (Corn Slash) to Support Microzone-Associated Nitrogen Fixation by Marine Microorganisms.” Bebout is an M.S. candidate in marine sciences at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His thesis is on “The Role of Marine Fungi in Food Selection and Nutrition of the Salt Marsh Periwinkle Littorina irrorata Say (Gastropoda).” He received his B.A. in biology from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

  8. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) - an internally consistent data product for the world ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; van Heuven, Steven; Lauvset, Siv K.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Jeansson, Emil; Ishii, Masao; Pérez, Fiz F.; Suzuki, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. This compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.The original data and their documentation and doi codes are available at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (oceans/GLODAPv2/" target="_blank">http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/). This site also provides access to the calibrated data product, which is provided as a single global file or four regional ones - the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans - under the doi:10.3334/CDIAC

  9. Development of a global ocean mercury model with a methylation cycle: Outstanding issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Kirill; Dastoor, Ashu

    2017-02-01

    We present a newly developed global ocean mercury (Hg) transport and biogeochemistry model and use preanthropogenic equilibrium simulations to highlight physical and chemical processes which reveal significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. As with previous 3-D ocean Hg model work we use a bulk chemistry scheme based on particulate organic carbon remineralization. We also include an explicit methylation cycle based on available reaction rates. The methylation to demethylation rate ratio based on various field studies is found to be inconsistent with the concentration ratios measured in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and in the Arctic. There is also model-measurement disagreement in the old waters of the tropical and North Pacific Ocean. The model produces an intermediate water maximum in total Hg in this region reflecting the higher age of water which is absent in observations. The model also underestimates total Hg concentrations in the deepest waters in this region. These disagreements in depth profile shape point to an inadequate representation of scavenging and sedimentation and possibly seabed emission or remobilization of Hg. In addition, the total Hg distribution differences compared to previous model work reflect sensitivity to ocean model transport characteristics and in particular the tracer diffusion. The residence time of Hg in the global ocean and the surface evasion flux of elemental Hg is sensitive to such model aspects. We find a global ocean Hg turnover time against sediment burial to be about 1100 years which is within the range of previous studies.

  10. US GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    coastal application was to assess the impact of open boundary conditions from the HYCOM ocean prediction system on the dynamics and accuracy of a...near the Florida Keys when hurricane Katrina crossed South Florida in late August 2005. iMPact In summary, 25 institutions (nine from academia, nine...example, detailed surface current information derived from HYCOM is summarized by OCENS (Ocean and Coastal ENviromental Sensing, http

  11. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and ocean prediction system developers. The main goal of the first coastal application was to assess the impact of open boundary conditions from...Keys when hurricane Katrina crossed South Florida in late August 2005. IMPACT In summary, 25 institutions (nine from academia, nine from...Ocean and Coastal ENviromental Sensing, http://www.ocens.com) for their customers who continually provide posi- tive feedback on their accuracy

  12. Seismic performance and global ductility of RC frames rehabilitated with retrofitted joints by CFRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakharifar, M.; Sharbatdar, M. K.; Lin, Z.; Dalvand, A.; Sivandi-Pour, A.; Chen, G.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new FRP retrofitting scheme to strengthen local beam-column joints in reinforced concrete (RC) frames. The new retrofitting scheme was proposed following a preliminary study of four different existing retrofitting schemes. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete frames by bridging behavior of local joints to the whole structure. Local confinement effects due to varying retrofitting schemes in the joints were simulated in the frame model. The seismic behavior factor was used to evaluate the seismic performance of the strengthened RC frames. The results demonstrated that the new proposed retrofitting scheme was robust and promising, and finite element analysis appropriately captured the strength and global ductility of the frame due to upgrading of the local joints.

  13. Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirk R.; Desai, Manish A.; Rogers, Jamesine V.; Houghton, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a transparent climate debt index incorporating both methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We develop national historic emissions databases for both greenhouse gases to 2005, justifying 1950 as the starting point for global perspectives. We include CO2 emissions from fossil sources [CO2(f)], as well as, in a separate analysis, land use change and forestry. We calculate the CO2(f) and CH4 remaining in the atmosphere in 2005 from 205 countries using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report impulse response functions. We use these calculations to estimate the fraction of remaining global emissions due to each country, which is applied to total radiative forcing in 2005 to determine the combined climate debt from both greenhouse gases in units of milliwatts per square meter per country or microwatts per square meter per person, a metric we term international natural debt (IND). Australia becomes the most indebted large country per capita because of high CH4 emissions, overtaking the United States, which is highest for CO2(f). The differences between the INDs of developing and developed countries decline but remain large. We use IND to assess the relative reduction in IND from choosing between CO2(f) and CH4`control measures and to contrast the imposed versus experienced health impacts from climate change. Based on 2005 emissions, the same hypothetical impact on world 2050 IND could be achieved by decreasing CH4 emissions by 46% as stopping CO2 emissions entirely, but with substantial differences among countries, implying differential optimal strategies. Adding CH4 shifts the basic narrative about differential international accountability for climate change. PMID:23847202

  14. Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Desai, Manish A; Rogers, Jamesine V; Houghton, Richard A

    2013-07-30

    We propose a transparent climate debt index incorporating both methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We develop national historic emissions databases for both greenhouse gases to 2005, justifying 1950 as the starting point for global perspectives. We include CO2 emissions from fossil sources [CO2(f)], as well as, in a separate analysis, land use change and forestry. We calculate the CO2(f) and CH4 remaining in the atmosphere in 2005 from 205 countries using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report impulse response functions. We use these calculations to estimate the fraction of remaining global emissions due to each country, which is applied to total radiative forcing in 2005 to determine the combined climate debt from both greenhouse gases in units of milliwatts per square meter per country or microwatts per square meter per person, a metric we term international natural debt (IND). Australia becomes the most indebted large country per capita because of high CH4 emissions, overtaking the United States, which is highest for CO2(f). The differences between the INDs of developing and developed countries decline but remain large. We use IND to assess the relative reduction in IND from choosing between CO2(f) and CH4`control measures and to contrast the imposed versus experienced health impacts from climate change. Based on 2005 emissions, the same hypothetical impact on world 2050 IND could be achieved by decreasing CH4 emissions by 46% as stopping CO2 emissions entirely, but with substantial differences among countries, implying differential optimal strategies. Adding CH4 shifts the basic narrative about differential international accountability for climate change.

  15. Phenological Responses to ENSO in the Global Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racault, M.-F.; Sathyendranath, S.; Menon, N.; Platt, T.

    2017-01-01

    Phenology relates to the study of timing of periodic events in the life cycle of plants or animals as influenced by environmental conditions and climatic forcing. Phenological metrics provide information essential to quantify variations in the life cycle of these organisms. The metrics also allow us to estimate the speed at which living organisms respond to environmental changes. At the surface of the oceans, microscopic plant cells, so-called phytoplankton, grow and sometimes form blooms, with concentrations reaching up to 100 million cells per litre and extending over many square kilometres. These blooms can have a huge collective impact on ocean colour, because they contain chlorophyll and other auxiliary pigments, making them visible from space. Phytoplankton populations have a high turnover rate and can respond within hours to days to environmental perturbations. This makes them ideal indicators to study the first-level biological response to environmental changes. In the Earth's climate system, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dominates large-scale inter-annual variations in environmental conditions. It serves as a natural experiment to study and understand how phytoplankton in the ocean (and hence the organisms at higher trophic levels) respond to climate variability. Here, the ENSO influence on phytoplankton is estimated through variations in chlorophyll concentration, primary production and timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration of the growing period. The phenological variabilities are used to characterise phytoplankton responses to changes in some physical variables: sea surface temperature, sea surface height and wind. It is reported that in oceanic regions experiencing high annual variations in the solar cycle, such as in high latitudes, the influence of ENSO may be readily measured using annual mean anomalies of physical variables. In contrast, in oceanic regions where ENSO modulates a climate system characterised by a seasonal

  16. Global Ocean Circulation Modeling with an Isopycnic Coordinate Model. Final Report for May 1, 1998 - April 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Bleck, R.

    2004-05-19

    The overall aim of this project was to continue development of a global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) with the intent of turning it into a full-fledged oceanic component of an earth system model.

  17. Seasonal Distributions of Global Ocean Chlorophyll and Nutrients: Analysis with a Coupled Ocean General Circulation Biogeochemical, and Radiative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.

    1999-01-01

    A coupled general ocean circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. The model is driven by climatological meteorological conditions, cloud cover, and sea surface temperature. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability, and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrient groups (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Phytoplankton groups are initialized as homogeneous fields horizontally and vertically, and allowed to distribute themselves according to the prevailing conditions. Basin-scale model chlorophyll results are in very good agreement with CZCS pigments in virtually every global region. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also well represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are also in good conformance, although occasional departures are apparent. Agreement of nitrate distributions with in situ data is even better, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The good agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics realistically simulate phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization, and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent the great diversity of physical, biological

  18. Global Upper Ocean Heat Content and Climate Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    References Ashok K, Behera S, Rao A. S, Weng H., and Yamagata, T., 2007. El Nino Modoki and...2027–2033. Rao, S. A., S. K. Behera , Y. Masumoto, and T. Yamagata, 2002. Interannual subsurface variability in the tropical Indian Ocean with a...W., 1937. World weather VI. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 4, 119–139. Weng, H., Ashok, S. K., Behera , S., . Rao, A., Yamagata, T., 2007

  19. Digital Global Map of Potential Ocean Paleoshorelines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    Our objective is to compile a global shoreline map, in the form of GIS shapefiles. This map will be used to investigate deviations from horizontal that might indicate neotectonic changes such as mass accumulations and crustal deformations over time.

  20. Global ocean tide mapping using TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Cartwright, D. E.; Estes, R. H.; Williamson, R. G.; Colombo, O. L.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation's main goals are to produce accurate tidal maps of the main diurnal, semidiurnal, and long-period tidal components in the world's deep oceans. This will be done by the application of statistical estimation techniques to long time series of altimeter data provided by the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission, with additional information provided by satellite tracking data. In the prelaunch phase, we will use in our simulations and preliminary work data supplied by previous oceanographic missions, such as Seasat and Geosat. These results will be of scientific interest in themselves. The investigation will also be concerned with the estimation of new values, and their uncertainties, for tidal currents and for the physical parameters appearing in the Laplace tidal equations, such as bottom friction coefficients and eddy viscosity coefficients. This will be done by incorporating the altimetry-derived charts of vertical tides as boundary conditions in the integration of those equations. The methodology of the tidal representation will include the use of appropriate series expansions such as ocean-basin normal modes and spherical harmonics. The results of the investigation will be space-determined tidal models of coverage and accuracy superior to that of the present numerical models of the ocean tides, with the concomitant benefits to oceanography and associated disciplinary fields.

  1. Global variations in gravity-derived oceanic crustal thickness: Implications on oceanic crustal accretion and hotspot-lithosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zhu, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new global model of oceanic crustal thickness based on inversion of global oceanic gravity anomaly with constrains from seismic crustal thickness profiles. We first removed from the observed marine free-air gravity anomaly all gravitational effects that can be estimated and removed using independent constraints, including the effects of seafloor topography, marine sediment thickness, and the age-dependent thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere. We then calculated models of gravity-derived crustal thickness through inversion of the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly using best-fitting gravity-modeling parameters obtained from comparison with seismically determined crustal thickness profiles. Modeling results show that about 5% of the global crustal volume (or 9% of the global oceanic surface area) is associated with model crustal thickness <5.2 km (designated as "thin" crust), while 56% of the crustal volume (or 65% of the surface area) is associated with crustal thickness of 5.2-8.6 km thick (designated as "normal" crust). The remaining 39% of the crustal volume (or 26% of the surface area) is associated with crustal thickness >8.6 km and is interpreted to have been affected by excess magmatism. The percentage of oceanic crustal volume that is associated with thick crustal thickness (>8.6 km) varies greatly among tectonic plates: Pacific (33%), Africa (50%), Antarctic (33%), Australia (30%), South America (34%), Nazca (23%), North America (47%), India (74%), Eurasia (68%), Cocos (20%), Philippine (26%), Scotia (41%), Caribbean (89%), Arabian (82%), and Juan de Fuca (21%). We also found that distribution of thickened oceanic crust (>8.6 km) seems to depend on spreading rate and lithospheric age: (1) On ocean basins younger than 5 Ma, regions of thickened crust are predominantly associated with slow and ultraslow spreading ridges. The relatively strong lithospheric plate at slow and ultraslow ridges might facilitate the loading of large magmatic

  2. The Argo Project: Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability. Report for Calendar Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    environment of ocean ecosystems. Over 90% of the increased heat content due to global warming of the air/sea/ice climate system in the past 40...years occurred in the oceans. Climate stresses on ocean ecosystems have serious consequences, and sometimes dramatic ones, such as coral reef bleaching ...The Argo Project Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability Report for Calendar Year 2005 Dean H

  3. An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Longo, Catherine; Hardy, Darren; McLeod, Karen L; Samhouri, Jameal F; Katona, Steven K; Kleisner, Kristin; Lester, Sarah E; O'Leary, Jennifer; Ranelletti, Marla; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Scarborough, Courtney; Selig, Elizabeth R; Best, Benjamin D; Brumbaugh, Daniel R; Chapin, F Stuart; Crowder, Larry B; Daly, Kendra L; Doney, Scott C; Elfes, Cristiane; Fogarty, Michael J; Gaines, Steven D; Jacobsen, Kelsey I; Karrer, Leah Bunce; Leslie, Heather M; Neeley, Elizabeth; Pauly, Daniel; Polasky, Stephen; Ris, Bud; St Martin, Kevin; Stone, Gregory S; Sumaila, U Rashid; Zeller, Dirk

    2012-08-30

    The ocean plays a critical role in supporting human well-being, from providing food, livelihoods and recreational opportunities to regulating the global climate. Sustainable management aimed at maintaining the flow of a broad range of benefits from the ocean requires a comprehensive and quantitative method to measure and monitor the health of coupled human–ocean systems. We created an index comprising ten diverse public goals for a healthy coupled human–ocean system and calculated the index for every coastal country. Globally, the overall index score was 60 out of 100 (range 36–86), with developed countries generally performing better than developing countries, but with notable exceptions. Only 5% of countries scored higher than 70, whereas 32% scored lower than 50. The index provides a powerful tool to raise public awareness, direct resource management, improve policy and prioritize scientific research.

  4. MJO simulation in a cloud-system-resolving global ocean-atmosphere coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Wataru; Onishi, Ryo; Fuchigami, Hiromitsu; Goto, Koji; Nishikawa, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Takahashi, Keiko

    2016-09-01

    An observed Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) propagating from the central Indian Ocean to the western Pacific from 15 December 2006 to 10 January 2007 was successfully simulated by a cloud-system-resolving global ocean-atmosphere coupled model without parameterization of cumulus convection. We found that the ocean coupling has significant impacts on the MJO simulation, e.g., strength of the moisture convergence, and the timing and strength of the westerly wind burst over the Maritime Continent. The model also generally well simulated the decay of the MJO in the western Pacific, as well as the changes in sea surface temperature. These results demonstrate that the cloud-system-resolving global ocean-atmosphere coupled model can be used for realistic MJO simulation.

  5. Changes of the Oceanic Long-term and seasonal variation in a Global-warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Q.; He, Y.; Dong, C.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Gridded absolute dynamic topography (ADT) from AVISO and outputs of sea surface height above geoid from a series of climate models run for CMIP5 are used to analysis global sea level variation. Variance has been calculated to determine the magnitude of change in sea level variation over two decades. Increasing trend of variance of ADT suggests an enhanced fluctuation as well as geostrophic shear of global ocean. To further determine on what scale does the increasing fluctuation dominate, the global absolute dynamic topography (ADT) has been separated into two distinguished parts: the global five-year mean sea surface (MSS) and the residual absolute dynamic topography (RADT). Increased variance of MSS can be ascribed to the nonuniform rising of global sea level and an enhancement of ocean gyres in the Pacific Ocean. While trend in the variance of RADT is found to be close to zero which suggests an unchanged ocean mesoscale variability. The Gaussian-like distribution of global ADT are used to study the change in extreme sea levels. Information entropy has also been adapted in our study. Increasing trend of information entropy which measures the degree of dispersion of a probability distribution suggests more appearance of extreme sea levels. Extreme high sea levels are increasing with a higher growing rate than the mean sea level rise.

  6. Assessment of Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) using new satellite SST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascione Kenov, Isabella; Sykes, Peter; Fiedler, Emma; McConnell, Niall; Ryan, Andrew; Maksymczuk, Jan

    2016-04-01

    There is an increased demand for accurate ocean weather information for applications in the field of marine safety and navigation, water quality, offshore commercial operations, monitoring of oil spills and pollutants, among others. The Met Office, UK, provides ocean forecasts to customers from governmental, commercial and ecological sectors using the Global Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM), an operational modelling system which covers the global ocean and runs daily, using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model with horizontal resolution of 1/4° and 75 vertical levels. The system assimilates salinity and temperature profiles, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), and sea ice concentration observations on a daily basis. In this study, the FOAM system is updated to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) SST data. Model results from one month trials are assessed against observations using verification tools which provide a quantitative description of model performance and error, based on statistical metrics, including mean error, root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient, and Taylor diagrams. A series of hindcast experiments is used to run the FOAM system with AMSR2 and SEVIRI SST data, using a control run for comparison. Results show that all trials perform well on the global ocean and that largest SST mean errors were found in the Southern hemisphere. The geographic distribution of the model error for SST and temperature profiles are discussed using statistical metrics evaluated over sub-regions of the global ocean.

  7. Cycling of DDT in the global environment 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    The global distribution and fate of the insecticide DDT was modeled for the first time using a spatially resolved global multicompartment chemistry-transport model comprising a 3D coupled atmosphere and ocean GCM, coupled to 2D vegetation surfaces and top soils. DDT enters the model environment as a pesticide in agriculture only. Final sinks of DDT in the total environment are degradation in air (hydroxyl radical reaction), on vegetation surfaces, in ocean sediments and soils. The process resolution of the ocean compartment, i.e., either a fixed or variable size and sinking velocity of suspended particles, has almost no effect on the large-scale cycling and fate of DDT. The residence times in various ocean basins were declining but varied regionally. The global ocean absorbed until 1977 and since then has been losing DDT, while large sea areas are still accumulating the pollutant. The main sink is volatilization to the atmosphere. In 1990, the year when emissions ceased, 292 kt of DDT were deposited to the global ocean, 301 kt were volatilized, and 41 kt were exported from the surface layer to the deeper levels. The sea region that has been representing the most significant (secondary) DDT source is the western N Atlantic (Gulf stream and N Atlantic Drift regions). It has been a source since approximately 1970. Also large parts of the tropical ocean and the southern mid-latitude ocean have turned net volatilizational (i.e., volatilization flux > deposition flux) during the 1980s. Despite the emissions migrating southward as a consequence of substance ban in mid latitudes, the geographic distribution of the contaminant (and, hence, environmental exposure) has been migrating steadily northward since the 1960s.

  8. The Argo Project: Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability. Report for Calendar Year 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    physical environment of ocean ecosystems. Over 90% of the increased heat content due to global warming of the air/sea/ice climate system in the...The Argo Project Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability Report for Calendar Year 2006 Dean H...1. REPORT DATE 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Argo Project Global Ocean

  9. Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global warming/cooling of ???0.1??C, similar to that occuring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global warming/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for Environmental Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabetic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS warming tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal warming the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical warming during the El Nin??o. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ???0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.

  10. Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren B.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2003-08-01

    Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global warming/cooling of ˜0.1°C, similar to that occurring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Niño-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global warming/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for Environmental Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabatic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS warming tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal warming the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical warming during the El Niño. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ˜0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.

  11. Impacts on the Hydrological Cycle of Counteracting Global Warming with Albedo Changes over Oceans or Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, G.; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R. R.; Cao, L.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Shin, H.

    2010-12-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) "geoengineering" proposals to completely offset global mean temperature increases by reducing the amount of absorbed sunlight nearly uniformly over land and oceans (e.g. stratospheric injection of aerosols) are expected to slow the global water cycle and reduce runoff over land. However, proposed countering of global warming by increasing the albedo of marine clouds or painting the roof white would reduce surface solar radiation either over the oceans or land. Here, we analyze the response of temperature and the hydrological cycle to either increased reflection over the oceans or decreased reflection over land using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. When cloud droplets are reduced in size over all oceans uniformly to offset the temperature increase from a doubling of atmospheric CO2, the global-mean precipitation and evaporation decreases by about 1.3% but runoff over land increases by 7.5% primarily due to increases over tropical land. In the model, more reflective marine clouds cool the atmospheric column over ocean. The result is a sinking motion over oceans and upward motion over land. We attribute the increased runoff over land to this increased upward motion over land when marine clouds are made more reflective. Qualitatively similar results are obtained when reflection from land areas is reduced indicating that increased reflection from land surface could result in reduced precipitation and runoff over land. Our results suggest that offsetting mean global warming by reducing marine cloud droplet size will lead to wetter continents, and large scale increase in land surface albedo could lead to drying of the continents.

  12. Remote sensing of oceanic biology in relation to global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, J.; Moore, G.F.; Holligan, P.M. )

    1992-10-01

    The oceans have a fundamental role in the global climate system because of their capacity to store and transport heat and absorb and emit trace gases which affect the earth's radiation budget. Although good progress has been made with issues such as carbon and sulfur cycling, feedback responses related to the impact of climate change on biological systems, and links between plankton ecology and climate, there is a lack of information on the distributions of biological properties on a global scale. This article reviews the potential contribution of ocean color measurements for biological studies within the context of climate change. The remote sensing of oceanic phytoplankton from satellites measuring radiance at visible and near infrared wavelenghts has produced a wealth of new information on biomass distributions and has provided a basis for new approaches to estimation of global marine primary productivity.

  13. The global pattern of trace-element distributions in ocean floor basalts.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Hugh St C; Jenner, Frances E

    2012-11-29

    The magmatic layers of the oceanic crust are created at constructive plate margins by partial melting of the mantle as it wells up. The chemistry of ocean floor basalts, the most accessible product of this magmatism, is studied for the insights it yields into the compositional heterogeneity of the mantle and its thermal structure. However, before eruption, parental magma compositions are modified at crustal pressures by a process that has usually been assumed to be fractional crystallization. Here we show that the global distributions of trace elements in ocean floor basalts describe a systematic pattern that cannot be explained by simple fractional crystallization alone, but is due to cycling of magma through the global ensemble of magma chambers. Variability in both major and incompatible trace-element contents about the average global pattern is due to fluctuations in the magma fluxes into and out of the chambers, and their depth, as well as to differences in the composition of the parental magmas.

  14. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  15. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1996-10-01

    This research focuses on assessing connections between anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and global climatic change. it has been supported since the early 1990s in part by the DOE ``Quantitative Links`` Program (QLP). A three-year effort was originally proposed to the QLP to investigate effects f global cloudiness on global climate and its implications for cloud feedback; and to continue the development and application of climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by clouds and oceans. It is well-known that cloud and ocean processes are major sources of uncertainty in the ability to predict climatic change from humankind`s greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions. And it has always been the objective to develop timely and useful analytical tools for addressing real world policy issues stemming from anthropogenic climate change.

  16. Freshwater and its role in the Arctic Marine System: Sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, E. C.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Haine, T. W. N.; Bacon, S.; Bluhm, B. A.; Lique, C.; Melling, H.; Polyakov, I. V.; Straneo, F.; Timmermans, M.-L.; Williams, W. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a fundamental node in the global hydrological cycle and the ocean's thermohaline circulation. We here assess the system's key functions and processes: (1) the delivery of fresh and low-salinity waters to the Arctic Ocean by river inflow, net precipitation, distillation during the freeze/thaw cycle, and Pacific Ocean inflows; (2) the disposition (e.g., sources, pathways, and storage) of freshwater components within the Arctic Ocean; and (3) the release and export of freshwater components into the bordering convective domains of the North Atlantic. We then examine physical, chemical, or biological processes which are influenced or constrained by the local quantities and geochemical qualities of freshwater; these include stratification and vertical mixing, ocean heat flux, nutrient supply, primary production, ocean acidification, and biogeochemical cycling. Internal to the Arctic the joint effects of sea ice decline and hydrological cycle intensification have strengthened coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere (e.g., wind and ice drift stresses, solar radiation, and heat and moisture exchange), the bordering drainage basins (e.g., river discharge, sediment transport, and erosion), and terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., Arctic greening, dissolved and particulate carbon loading, and altered phenology of biotic components). External to the Arctic freshwater export acts as both a constraint to and a necessary ingredient for deep convection in the bordering subarctic gyres and thus affects the global thermohaline circulation. Geochemical fingerprints attained within the Arctic Ocean are likewise exported into the neighboring subarctic systems and beyond. Finally, we discuss observed and modeled functions and changes in this system on seasonal, annual, and decadal time scales and discuss mechanisms that link the marine system to atmospheric, terrestrial, and cryospheric systems.

  17. The Tara Oceans voyage reveals global diversity and distribution patterns of marine planktonic ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Gimmler, Anna; Korn, Ralf; de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Illumina reads of the SSU-rDNA-V9 region obtained from the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition allow the investigation of protistan plankton diversity patterns on a global scale. We analyzed 6,137,350 V9-amplicons from ocean surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, which were taxonomically assigned to the phylum Ciliophora. For open ocean samples global planktonic ciliate diversity is relatively low (ca. 1,300 observed and predicted ciliate OTUs). We found that 17% of all detected ciliate OTUs occurred in all oceanic regions under study. On average, local ciliate OTU richness represented 27% of the global ciliate OTU richness, indicating that a large proportion of ciliates is widely distributed. Yet, more than half of these OTUs shared <90% sequence similarity with reference sequences of described ciliates. While alpha-diversity measures (richness and exp(Shannon H)) are hardly affected by contemporary environmental conditions, species (OTU) turnover and community similarity (β-diversity) across taxonomic groups showed strong correlation to environmental parameters. Logistic regression models predicted significant correlations between the occurrence of specific ciliate genera and individual nutrients, the oceanic carbonate system and temperature. Planktonic ciliates displayed distinct vertical distributions relative to chlorophyll a. In contrast, the Tara Oceans dataset did not reveal any evidence that latitude is structuring ciliate communities. PMID:27633177

  18. Global representation of tropical cyclone-induced short-term ocean thermal changes using Argo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Zhu, J.; Sriver, R. L.

    2015-09-01

    Argo floats are used to examine tropical cyclone (TC) induced ocean thermal changes on the global scale by comparing temperature profiles before and after TC passage. We present a footprint method that analyzes cross-track thermal responses along all storm tracks during the period 2004-2012. We combine the results into composite representations of the vertical structure of the average thermal response for two different categories: tropical storms/tropical depressions (TS/TD) and hurricanes. The two footprint composites are functions of three variables: cross-track distance, water depth and time relative to TC passage. We find that this footprint strategy captures the major features of the upper-ocean thermal response to TCs on timescales up to 20 days when compared against previous case study results using in situ measurements. On the global scale, TCs are responsible for 1.87 PW (11.05 W m-2) of heat transfer annually from the global ocean to the atmosphere during storm passage (0-3 days). Of this total, 1.05 ± 0.20 PW (4.80 ± 0.85 W m-2) is caused by TS/TD and 0.82 ± 0.21 PW (6.25 ± 1.5 W m-2) is caused by hurricanes. Our findings indicate that ocean heat loss by TCs may be a substantial missing piece of the global ocean heat budget. Changes in ocean heat content (OHC) after storm passage are estimated by analyzing the temperature anomalies during wake recovery following storm events (4-20 days after storm passage) relative to pre-storm conditions. Results indicate the global ocean experiences a 0.75 ± 0.25 PW (5.98 ± 2.1 W m-2) heat gain annually for hurricanes. In contrast, under TS/TD conditions, the ocean experiences 0.41 ± 0.21 PW (1.90 ± 0.96 W m-2) ocean heat loss, suggesting the overall oceanic thermal response is particularly sensitive to the intensity of the event. The ocean heat uptake caused by all storms during the restorative stage is 0.34 PW.

  19. Ocean plankton. Determinants of community structure in the global plankton interactome.

    PubMed

    Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Faust, Karoline; Henry, Nicolas; Decelle, Johan; Colin, Sébastien; Carcillo, Fabrizio; Chaffron, Samuel; Ignacio-Espinosa, J Cesar; Roux, Simon; Vincent, Flora; Bittner, Lucie; Darzi, Youssef; Wang, Jun; Audic, Stéphane; Berline, Léo; Bontempi, Gianluca; Cabello, Ana M; Coppola, Laurent; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; d'Ovidio, Francesco; De Meester, Luc; Ferrera, Isabel; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Guidi, Lionel; Lara, Elena; Pesant, Stéphane; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez, Pablo; Sebastian, Marta; Souffreau, Caroline; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Gorsky, Gabriel; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Acinas, Silvia G; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; Sullivan, Matthew B; Karsenti, Eric; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-05-22

    Species interaction networks are shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. Here, as part of the Tara Oceans project, we studied the photic zone interactome using environmental factors and organismal abundance profiles and found that environmental factors are incomplete predictors of community structure. We found associations across plankton functional types and phylogenetic groups to be nonrandomly distributed on the network and driven by both local and global patterns. We identified interactions among grazers, primary producers, viruses, and (mainly parasitic) symbionts and validated network-generated hypotheses using microscopy to confirm symbiotic relationships. We have thus provided a resource to support further research on ocean food webs and integrating biological components into ocean models.

  20. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) – an internally consistent data product for the world ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; van Heuven, Steven; ...

    2016-08-15

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. Themore » data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. In conclusion, this compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.« less

  1. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) – an internally consistent data product for the world ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; van Heuven, Steven; Lauvset, Siv K.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Jeansson, Emil; Ishii, Masao; Pérez, Fiz F.; Suzuki, Toru

    2016-08-15

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. In conclusion, this compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.

  2. Joint distributions of partial and global maxima of a Brownian bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the joint distributions and temporal correlations between the partial maximum m and the global maximum M achieved by a Brownian bridge on the subinterval [0,{t}1] and on the entire interval [0,t], respectively. We determine three probability distribution functions: the joint distribution P(m,M) of both maxima; the distribution P(m) of the partial maximum; and the distribution {{\\Pi }}(G) of the gap between the maxima, G=M-m. We present exact results for the moments of these distributions and quantify the temporal correlations between m and M by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient.

  3. Global-Local Finite Element Analysis for Thermo-Mechanical Stresses in Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkarayev, S.; Madenci, Erdogan; Camarda, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of adhesively bonded joints using conventional finite elements does not capture the singular behavior of the stress field in regions where two or three dissimilar materials form a junction with or without free edges. However, these regions are characteristic of the bonded joints and are prone to failure initiation. This study presents a method to capture the singular stress field arising from the geometric and material discontinuities in bonded composites. It is achieved by coupling the local (conventional) elements with global (special) elements whose interpolation functions are constructed from the asymptotic solution.

  4. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  5. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean

    PubMed Central

    Malviya, Shruti; Scalco, Eleonora; Audic, Stéphane; Vincent, Flora; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Iudicone, Daniele; de Vargas, Colomban; Bittner, Lucie; Zingone, Adriana; Bowler, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 size-fractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron. We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered. PMID:26929361

  6. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world's ocean.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Shruti; Scalco, Eleonora; Audic, Stéphane; Vincent, Flora; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Iudicone, Daniele; de Vargas, Colomban; Bittner, Lucie; Zingone, Adriana; Bowler, Chris

    2016-03-15

    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 size-fractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered.

  7. An Analysis of an Eddy-Resolving Global Ocean Model in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Ocean circulation. The seasonally-reversing Somali Current is simulated by the model, and includes seasonai undercurrents and a tvo-gyre system during...undercurrents and a two-gyre system during the southwest monson. Westward-flow occ,, rs beneath the Southwest Monsoon Current during June and July. The...25 F. THE SOMALI CURRENT SYSTEM ....................................... 28 G. THROUGHFLOW IN THE

  8. U. S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    conditions to nested models with fixed depth z-level coordinates, terrain following coordinates, generalized coordinates (HYCOM), and unstructured...ocean prediction using HYCOM. DoD HPC Users Conference Proceedings, pp. 259-262. Zamudio , L., P.J. Hogan and E.J. Metzger, 2008. Summer generation of

  9. Long-term changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the ocean caused by protracted global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matear, R. J.; Hirst, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    In the Earth's geological record massive marine ecological change has been attributed to the occurrence of widespread anoxia in the ocean [, 2002; , 2002; , 1996]. Climate change projection till the end of this century predict a 4 to 7% decline in the dissolve oxygen in the ocean [, 2002; , 2000; , 2001; , 1998] suggesting the potential for global warming to eventually drive the deep ocean anoxic. To examine the multicentury impact of protracted global warming on oceanic concentrations of dissolved oxygen, we use a climate system model and a low-order oceanic biogeochemical model. The models are integrated for an atmospheric equivalent CO2 concentration, which is specified to triple according to a standard scenario from the late nineteenth to the late twenty-first century, and then is subsequently held constant at that elevated level for an additional 6 centuries. For the present day, the model successfully reproduced the large-scale features of the dissolved oxygen field in the ocean. In the global warming simulation, the physical model displays marked changes in high-latitude oceanic stratification and overturning, including near-cessation of deep water renewal for depths greater than about 1.5 km during the period of elevated stable CO2 concentration. Our model predicts a decline in oxygen concentration through most of the subsurface ocean. Concentration changes in the thermocline waters result mainly from solubility changes in the upstream source waters, while changes in the deep waters result mainly from lack of ventilation and ongoing consumption of oxygen by remineralization of sinking particulate organic matter. Changes in the upper 2 km of the ocean generally show signs of equilibration by the end of the integration, but at greater depths, there occurs a slow but steady decline through to the end of the integration. By the end of the integration, we simulate a doubling of the volume of hypoxic water (less than 10 μmol/kg) in the thermocline of the eastern

  10. Manganese in the west Atlantic Ocean in the context of the first global ocean circulation model of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hulten, Marco; Middag, Rob; Dutay, Jean-Claude; de Baar, Hein; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Gehlen, Marion; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Sterl, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Dissolved manganese (Mn) is a biologically essential element. Moreover, its oxidised form is involved in removing itself and several other trace elements from ocean waters. Here we report the longest thus far (17 500 km length) full-depth ocean section of dissolved Mn in the west Atlantic Ocean, comprising 1320 data values of high accuracy. This is the GA02 transect that is part of the GEOTRACES programme, which aims to understand trace element distributions. The goal of this study is to combine these new observations with new, state-of-the-art, modelling to give a first assessment of the main sources and redistribution of Mn throughout the ocean. To this end, we simulate the distribution of dissolved Mn using a global-scale circulation model. This first model includes simple parameterisations to account for the sources, processes and sinks of Mn in the ocean. Oxidation and (photo)reduction, aggregation and settling, as well as biological uptake and remineralisation by plankton are included in the model. Our model provides, together with the observations, the following insights: - The high surface concentrations of manganese are caused by the combination of photoreduction and sources contributing to the upper ocean. The most important sources are sediments, dust, and, more locally, rivers. - Observations and model simulations suggest that surface Mn in the Atlantic Ocean moves downwards into the southward-flowing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), but because of strong removal rates there is no elevated concentration of Mn visible any more in the NADW south of 40° N. - The model predicts lower dissolved Mn in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean than the observed concentrations. The intense oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in subsurface waters is deemed to be a major source of dissolved Mn also mixing upwards into surface waters, but the OMZ is not well represented by the model. Improved high-resolution simulation of the OMZ may solve this problem. - There is a mainly

  11. A global seasonal surface ocean climatology of phytoplankton types based on CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Chantal M.; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Laufkoetter, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Much advancement has been made in recent years in field data assimilation, remote sensing and ecosystem modeling, yet our global view of phytoplankton biogeography beyond chlorophyll biomass is still a cursory taxonomic picture with vast areas of the open ocean requiring field validations. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data combined with inverse methods offer an advantage over many other phytoplankton quantification measures by way of providing an immediate perspective of the whole phytoplankton community in a sample as a function of chlorophyll biomass. Historically, such chemotaxonomic analysis has been conducted mainly at local spatial and temporal scales in the ocean. Here, we apply a widely tested inverse approach, CHEMTAX, to a global climatology of pigment observations from HPLC. This study marks the first systematic and objective global application of CHEMTAX, yielding a seasonal climatology comprised of ~1500 1°×1° global grid points of the major phytoplankton pigment types in the ocean characterizing cyanobacteria, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and diatoms, with results validated against prior regional studies where possible. Key findings from this new global view of specific phytoplankton abundances from pigments are a) the large global proportion of marine haptophytes (comprising 32±5% of total chlorophyll), whose biogeochemical functional roles are relatively unknown, and b) the contrasting spatial scales of complexity in global community structure that can be explained in part by regional oceanographic conditions. The results are publically accessible via

  12. Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming.

    PubMed

    Vallina, S M; Simó, R; Manizza, M

    2007-10-09

    The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO(2) and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000-2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the "plankton-DMS-clouds-earth albedo feedback" hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere.

  13. Sources of global warming in upper ocean temperature during El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Mike; Auad, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Global average sea surface temperature (SST) from 40°S to 60°N fluctuates ±0.3°C on interannual period scales, with global warming (cooling) during El Niño (La Niña). About 90% of the global warming during El Niño occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20°S to 20°N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Niño and the other half because of warm SST anomalies occurring over ∼80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for Environmental Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global warming during El Niño is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Niño. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1–3 W m−2above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2–5 W m−2. Subsequently, peak tropical global warming during El Niño is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2–5 W m−2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Niño tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global warming and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global warming on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales.

  14. Internally Consistent MODIS Estimate of Aerosol Clear-Sky Radiative Effect Over the Global Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2004-01-01

    Modern satellite remote sensing, and in particular the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), offers a measurement-based pathway to estimate global aerosol radiative effects and aerosol radiative forcing. Over the Oceans, MODIS retrieves the total aerosol optical thickness, but also reports which combination of the 9 different aerosol models was used to obtain the retrieval. Each of the 9 models is characterized by a size distribution and complex refractive index, which through Mie calculations correspond to a unique set of single scattering albedo, assymetry parameter and spectral extinction for each model. The combination of these sets of optical parameters weighted by the optical thickness attributed to each model in the retrieval produces the best fit to the observed radiances at the top of the atmosphere. Thus the MODIS Ocean aerosol retrieval provides us with (1) An observed distribution of global aerosol loading, and (2) An internally-consistent, observed, distribution of aerosol optical models that when used in combination will best represent the radiances at the top of the atmosphere. We use these two observed global distributions to initialize the column climate model by Chou and Suarez to calculate the aerosol radiative effect at top of the atmosphere and the radiative efficiency of the aerosols over the global oceans. We apply the analysis to 3 years of MODIS retrievals from the Terra satellite and produce global and regional, seasonally varying, estimates of aerosol radiative effect over the clear-sky oceans.

  15. Sensitivity of a global coupled ocean-sea ice model to the parameterization of vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosse, H.; Deleersnijder, E.; Fichefet, T.; England, M. H.

    1999-06-01

    Three numerical experiments have been carried out with a global coupled ice-ocean model to investigate its sensitivity to the treatment of vertical mixing in the upper ocean. In the first experiment, a widely used fixed profile of vertical diffusivity and viscosity is imposed, with large values in the upper 50 m to crudely represent wind-driven mixing. In the second experiment, the eddy coefficients are functions of the Richardson number, and, in the third case, a relatively sophisticated parameterization, based on the turbulence closure scheme of Mellor and Yamada version 2.5, is introduced. We monitor the way the different mixing schemes affect the simulated ocean ventilation, water mass properties, and sea ice distributions. CFC uptake is also diagnosed in the model experiments. The simulation of the mixed layer depth is improved in the experiment which includes the sophisticated turbulence closure scheme. This results in a good representation of the upper ocean thermohaline structure and in heat exchange with the atmosphere within the range of current estimates. However, the error in heat flux in the experiment with simple fixed vertical mixing coefficients can be as high as 50 W m-2 in zonal mean during summer. Using CFC tracers allows us to demonstrate that the ventilation of the deep ocean is not significantly influenced by the parameterization of vertical mixing in the upper ocean. The only exception is the Southern Ocean. There, the ventilation is too strong in all three experiments. However, modifications of the vertical diffusivity and, surprisingly, the vertical viscosity significantly affect the stability of the water column in this region through their influence on upper ocean salinity, resulting in a more realistic Southern Ocean circulation. The turbulence scheme also results in an improved simulation of Antarctic sea ice coverage. This is due to to a better simulation of the mixed layer depth and thus of heat exchanges between ice and ocean. The

  16. GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Northwest Atlantic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The specific objective of the meeting was to plan an experiment in the Northwestern Atlantic to study the marine ecosystem and its role, together with that of climate and physical dynamics, in determining fisheries recruitment. The underlying focus of the GLOBEC initiative is to understand the marine ecosystem as it related to marine living resources and to understand how fluctuation in these resources are driven by climate change and exploitation. In this sense the goal is a solid scientific program to provide basic information concerning major fisheries stocks and the environment that sustains them. The plan is to attempt to reach this understanding through a multidisciplinary program that brings to bear new techniques as disparate as numerical fluid dynamic models of ocean circulation, molecular biology and modern acoustic imaging. The effort will also make use of the massive historical data sets on fisheries and the state of the climate in a coordinated manner.

  17. The effect of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on marine nitrogen cycling throughout the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somes, Christopher; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The rapidly increasing rate of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition has the potential to perturb marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles because nitrogen is one of the major limiting nutrients in the ocean. We use an Earth System Climate Model that includes ocean biogeochemistry to assess the impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Experiments are conducted where we artificially add nitrogen to nearly all locations individually throughout the global surface ocean using a nitrogen deposition rate of 700 mg N m-2 yr-1, which is consistent with modern estimates near industrial areas. We identify oceanic "biomes" that respond differently to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. (1) When nitrogen is deposited near oxygen minimum zones where water column denitrification occurs, locally increased primary production stimulates additional denitrification. Since water column denitrification removes 7 mol N for every mol N of newly formed organic matter respired, the global oceanic nitrogen inventory declines in response to nitrogen deposition in these areas. This slow, but steady decline persists for at least 1,000 years. (2) When nitrogen is deposited above shallow continental shelves where benthic denitrification occurs, our benthic denitrification model predicts an increase that is nearly equal to the nitrogen deposited and thus no net change in the global nitrogen inventory. (3) When nitrogen is deposited into the high latitude open ocean far removed from nitrogen fixation and denitrification, all of this deposited nitrogen initially accumulates in the ocean. This nitrogen eventually circulates into the tropical oxygen minimum zones where it fuels additional primary production and denitrification, which removes nitrogen at a rate equal to the deposition after 1,000 years and leads to a stable, but increased nitrogen inventory in our model. (4) When nitrogen is deposited into the open ocean where nitrogen fixation occurs, nitrogen fixation decreases due to less nitrogen

  18. Ocean Margins Program: Closure on the global carbon cycle. Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Riches, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Ocean Margins Program (OMP) is designed to quantitatively assess the importance of coastal ocean systems in the global carbon cycle. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, human energy-related activities have dramatically altered the global carbon cycle, and consequently, this cycle is not presently in a steady-state. To reduce major uncertainties in predicting future global environmental quality, it is imperative to understand the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the role of anthropogenic activities in disrupting the natural carbon cycle, and the effects of, and feedbacks between, these activities and the natural carbon cycle. Due to continuously increased loading of nutrients to the margins, which, globally, is related to the rate of human population growth and high population densities in coastal states, biological carbon fixation has been stimulated. Depending on the fate of the fixed carbon, this stimulation has the potential to mitigate the anthropogenically derived Co{sub 2}. Determining the factors that control the magnitude of carbon exchanges between the ocean margins and the atmosphere, and the subsequent fate of this carbon, is crucial to predicting the strength and capacity of the oceans to absorb excess anthropogenic atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The goals of the OMP are to: quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that define the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; identify how ocean-margin sources and sinks of carbon change in response to human activities; and determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior of the open ocean.

  19. Role of zooplankton dynamics for Southern Ocean phytoplankton biomass and global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Moriarty, Róisín; Alvain, Séverine; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Chollet, Sophie; Enright, Clare; Franklin, Daniel J.; Geider, Richard J.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Larsen, Stuart; Legendre, Louis; Platt, Trevor; Prentice, I. Colin; Rivkin, Richard B.; Sailley, Sévrine; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Stephens, Nick; Vogt, Meike; Vallina, Sergio M.

    2016-07-01

    Global ocean biogeochemistry models currently employed in climate change projections use highly simplified representations of pelagic food webs. These food webs do not necessarily include critical pathways by which ecosystems interact with ocean biogeochemistry and climate. Here we present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types (PFTs): six types of phytoplankton, three types of zooplankton, and heterotrophic procaryotes. We improved the representation of zooplankton dynamics in our model through (a) the explicit inclusion of large, slow-growing macrozooplankton (e.g. krill), and (b) the introduction of trophic cascades among the three zooplankton types. We use the model to quantitatively assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) region during summer. When model simulations do not include macrozooplankton grazing explicitly, they systematically overestimate Southern Ocean chlorophyll biomass during the summer, even when there is no iron deposition from dust. When model simulations include a slow-growing macrozooplankton and trophic cascades among three zooplankton types, the high-chlorophyll summer bias in the Southern Ocean HNLC region largely disappears. Our model results suggest that the observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton community growth rates. This result has implications for the representation of global biogeochemical cycles in models as zooplankton faecal pellets sink rapidly and partly control the carbon export to the intermediate and deep ocean.

  20. Tracing dust input to the global ocean using thorium isotopes in marine sediments: ThoroMap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, S. S.; Winckler, G.; Lippold, J.; Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2016-10-01

    Continental dust input into the ocean-atmosphere system has significant ramifications for biogeochemical cycles and global climate, yet direct observations of dust deposition in the ocean remain scarce. The long-lived isotope thorium-232 (232Th) is greatly enriched in upper continental crust compared to oceanic crust and mid-ocean ridge basalt-like volcanogenic material. In open ocean sediments, away from fluvial and ice-rafted sources of continental material, 232Th is often assumed to be of predominantly eolian origin. In conjunction with flux normalization based on the particle reactive radioisotope thorium-230 (230Th), 232Th measurements in marine sediments are a promising proxy for dust accumulation in the modern and past ocean. Here we present ThoroMap, a new global data compilation of 230Th-normalized fluxes of 232Th. After careful screening, we derive dust deposition estimates in the global ocean averaged for the late Holocene (0-4 ka) and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 19-23 ka). ThoroMap is compared with dust deposition estimates derived from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) and CCSM4, two coupled atmosphere, land, ocean, and sea ice models. Model-data correlation factors are 0.63 (CCSM3) and 0.59 (CCSM4) in the late Holocene and 0.82 (CCSM3) and 0.83 (CCSM4) in the LGM. ThoroMap is the first compilation that is built on a single, specific proxy for dust and that exclusively uses flux-normalization to derive dust deposition rates.

  1. Upper ocean ecosystem dynamics and iron cycling in a global three-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C.; Lindsay, Keith

    2004-12-01

    A global three-dimensional marine ecosystem model with several key phytoplankton functional groups, multiple limiting nutrients, explicit iron cycling, and a mineral ballast/organic matter parameterization is run within a global ocean circulation model. The coupled biogeochemistry/ecosystem/circulation (BEC) model reproduces known basin-scale patterns of primary and export production, biogenic silica production, calcification, chlorophyll, macronutrient and dissolved iron concentrations. The model captures observed high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) conditions in the Southern Ocean, subarctic and equatorial Pacific. Spatial distributions of nitrogen fixation are in general agreement with field data, with total N-fixation of 55 Tg N. Diazotrophs directly account for a small fraction of primary production (0.5%) but indirectly support 10% of primary production and 8% of sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) export. Diatoms disproportionately contribute to export of POC out of surface waters, but CaCO3 from the coccolithophores is the key driver of POC flux to the deep ocean in the model. An iron source from shallow ocean sediments is found critical in preventing iron limitation in shelf regions, most notably in the Arctic Ocean, but has a relatively localized impact. In contrast, global-scale primary production, export production, and nitrogen fixation are all sensitive to variations in atmospheric mineral dust inputs. The residence time for dissolved iron in the upper ocean is estimated to be a few years to a decade. Most of the iron utilized by phytoplankton is from subsurface sources supplied by mixing, entrainment, and ocean circulation. However, owing to the short residence time of iron in the upper ocean, this subsurface iron pool is critically dependent on continual replenishment from atmospheric dust deposition and, to a lesser extent, lateral transport from shelf regions.

  2. C-GLORSv5: an improved multipurpose global ocean eddy-permitting physical reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storto, Andrea; Masina, Simona

    2016-11-01

    Global ocean reanalyses combine in situ and satellite ocean observations with a general circulation ocean model to estimate the time-evolving state of the ocean, and they represent a valuable tool for a variety of applications, ranging from climate monitoring and process studies to downstream applications, initialization of long-range forecasts and regional studies. The purpose of this paper is to document the recent upgrade of C-GLORS (version 5), the latest ocean reanalysis produced at the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) that covers the meteorological satellite era (1980-present) and it is being updated in delayed time mode. The reanalysis is run at eddy-permitting resolution (1/4° horizontal resolution and 50 vertical levels) and consists of a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system, a surface nudging and a bias correction scheme. With respect to the previous version (v4), C-GLORSv5 contains a number of improvements. In particular, background- and observation-error covariances have been retuned, allowing a flow-dependent inflation in the globally averaged background-error variance. An additional constraint on the Arctic sea-ice thickness was introduced, leading to a realistic ice volume evolution. Finally, the bias correction scheme and the initialization strategy were retuned. Results document that the new reanalysis outperforms the previous version in many aspects, especially in representing the variability of global heat content and associated steric sea level in the last decade, the top 80 m ocean temperature biases and root mean square errors, and the Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation; slight worsening in the high-latitude salinity and deep ocean temperature emerge though, providing the motivation for further tuning of the reanalysis system. The dataset is available in NetCDF format at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.857995.

  3. Biogeochemical drivers of the fate of riverine mercury discharged to the global and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Amos, Helen M.; Long, Michael S.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2015-06-01

    Rivers discharge 28 ± 13 Mmol yr-1 of mercury (Hg) to ocean margins, an amount comparable to atmospheric deposition to the global oceans. Most of the Hg discharged by rivers is sequestered by burial of benthic sediment in estuaries or the coastal zone, but some is evaded to the atmosphere and some is exported to the open ocean. We investigate the fate of riverine Hg by developing a new global 3-D simulation for Hg in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model. The model includes plankton dynamics and carbon respiration (DARWIN project model) coupled to inorganic Hg chemistry. Results are consistent with observed spatial patterns and magnitudes of surface ocean Hg concentrations. We use observational constraints on seawater Hg concentrations and evasion to infer that most Hg from rivers is sorbed to refractory organic carbon and preferentially buried. Only 6% of Hg discharged by rivers (1.8 Mmol yr-1) is transported to the open ocean on a global basis. This fraction varies from a low of 2.6% in East Asia due to the barrier imposed by the Korean Peninsula and Japanese archipelago, up to 25% in eastern North America facilitated by the Gulf Stream. In the Arctic Ocean, low tributary particle loads and efficient degradation of particulate organic carbon by deltaic microbial communities favor a more labile riverine Hg pool. Evasion of Hg to the Arctic atmosphere is indirectly enhanced by heat transport during spring freshet that accelerates sea ice melt and ice rafting. Discharges of 0.23 Mmol Hg yr-1 from Arctic rivers can explain the observed summer maximum in the Arctic atmosphere, and this magnitude of releases is consistent with recent observations. Our work indicates that rivers are major contributors to Hg loads in the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange: A global modeling study of biogeochemical, atmospheric, and waterside turbulence dependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, L.; Helmig, D.; Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J.; Pozzer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The significance of the removal of tropospheric ozone by the oceans, covering ˜2/3 of the Earth's surface, has only been addressed in a few studies involving water tank, aircraft, and tower flux measurements. On the basis of results from these few observations of the ozone dry deposition velocity (VdO3), atmospheric chemistry models generally apply an empirical, constant ocean uptake rate of 0.05 cm s-1. This value is substantially smaller than the atmospheric turbulent transport velocity for ozone. On the other hand, the uptake is higher than expected from the solubility of ozone in clean water alone, suggesting that there is an enhancement in oceanic ozone uptake, e.g., through a chemical destruction mechanism. We present an evaluation of a global-scale analysis with a new mechanistic representation of atmosphere-ocean ozone exchange. The applied atmosphere chemistry-climate model includes not only atmospheric but also waterside turbulence and the role of waterside chemical loss processes as a function of oceanic biogeochemistry. The simulations suggest a larger role of biogeochemistry in tropical and subtropical ozone oceanic uptake with a relative small temporal variability, whereas in midlatitude and high-latitude regions, highly variable ozone uptake rates are expected because of the stronger influence of waterside turbulence. Despite a relatively large range in the explicitly calculated ocean uptake rate, there is a surprisingly small sensitivity of simulated Marine Boundary Layer ozone concentrations compared to the sensitivity for the commonly applied constant ocean uptake approach. This small sensitivity points at compensating effects through inclusion of the process-based ocean uptake mechanisms to consider variability in oceanic O3 deposition consistent with that in atmospheric and oceanic physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  5. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    models with fixed depth z-level coordinates, terrain following coordinates, generalized coordinates (HYCOM), and unstructured grids. (5) To facilitate...days of atmospheric forecast forcing. A total of 8007 temperature profiles from fixed buoys and ARGO floats (fairly evenly distributed between 65°S...E.P. Chassignet and G. Halliwell, 2006: Value of bulk heat flux parameterizations for ocean SST prediction. J. Mar. Sys. (submitted) Zamudio , L

  6. New Community Education Program on Oceans and Global Climate Change: Results from Our Pilot Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wiener, C.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together) engages elementary school students and their parents and teachers in hands-on science. Through this evening program, we educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their local communities. In the process, we hope to inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and girls, to pursue careers in the ocean and earth sciences. Hawaii and the Pacific Islands will be disproportionately affected by the impacts of global climate change, including rising sea levels, coastal erosion, coral reef degradation and ocean acidification. It is therefore critically important to train ocean and earth scientists within these communities. This two-hour program explores ocean properties and timely environmental topics through six hands-on science activities. Activities are designed so students can see how globally important issues (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification) have local effects (e.g., sea level rise, coastal erosion, coral bleaching) which are particularly relevant to island communities. The Ocean FEST program ends with a career component, drawing parallel between the program activities and the activities done by "real scientists" in their jobs. The take-home message is that we are all scientists, we do science every day, and we can choose to do this as a career. Ocean FEST just completed our pilot year. During the 2009-2010 academic year, we conducted 20 events, including 16 formal events held at elementary schools and 4 informal outreach events. Evaluation data were collected at all formal events. Formative feedback from adult participants (parents, teachers, administrators and volunteers) was solicited through written questionnaires. Students were invited to respond to a survey of five questions both before and after the program to see if there were any changes in content knowledge and career attitudes. In our presentation, we will present our

  7. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  8. ECCO version 4: an integrated framework for non-linear inverse modeling and global ocean state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, G.; Campin, J.-M.; Heimbach, P.; Hill, C. N.; Ponte, R. M.; Wunsch, C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the ECCO v4 non-linear inverse modeling framework and its baseline solution for the evolving ocean state over the period 1992-2011. Both components are publicly available and highly integrated with the MITgcm. They are both subjected to regular, automated regression tests. The modeling framework includes sets of global conformal grids, a global model setup, implementations of model-data constraints and adjustable control parameters, an interface to algorithmic differentiation, as well as a grid-independent, fully capable Matlab toolbox. The reference ECCO v4 solution is a dynamically consistent ocean state estimate (ECCO-Production, release 1) without un-identified sources of heat and buoyancy, which any interested user will be able to reproduce accurately. The solution is an acceptable fit to most data and has been found physically plausible in many respects, as documented here and in related publications. Users are being provided with capabilities to assess model-data misfits for themselves. The synergy between modeling and data synthesis is asserted through the joint presentation of the modeling framework and the state estimate. In particular, the inverse estimate of parameterized physics was instrumental in improving the fit to the observed hydrography, and becomes an integral part of the ocean model setup available for general use. More generally, a first assessment of the relative importance of external, parametric and structural model errors is presented. Parametric and external model uncertainties appear to be of comparable importance and dominate over structural model uncertainty. The results generally underline the importance of including turbulent transport parameters in the inverse problem.

  9. The ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model and global cycle of carbon dioxide in system of atmosphere-ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Alexander; Glushkov, Alexander; Loboda, Nataliya; Khokhlov, Valery; Serbov, Nikoly; Svinarenko, Andrey

    The purpose of this paper is carrying out the detailed model of the CO2 global turnover in system of "atmosphere-ocean" with using the ocean quasi-homogeneous layer model. Practically all carried out models are functioning in the average annual regime and accounting for the carbon distribution in bio-sphere in most general form (Glushkov et al, 2003). We construct a modified model for cycle of the carbon dioxide, which allows to reproduce a season dynamics of carbon turnover in ocean with account of zone ocean structure (up quasi-homogeneous layer, thermocline and deepest layer). It is taken into account dependence of the CO2 transfer through the bounder between atmosphere and ocean upon temperature of water and air, wind velocity, buffer mechanism of the CO2 dissolution. The same program is realized for atmosphere part of whole system. It is obtained a tempo-ral and space distribution for concentration of non-organic carbon in ocean, partial press of dissolute CO2 and value of exchange on the border between atmosphere and ocean. It is estimated a role of the wind intermixing of the up ocean layer. The increasing of this effect leads to increasing the plankton mass and further particles, which are transferred by wind, contribute to more quick immersion of microscopic shells and organic material. It is fulfilled investigation of sen-sibility of the master differential equations system solutions from the model parameters. The master differential equa-tions system, describing a dynamics of the CO2 cycle, is numerically integrated by the four order Runge-Cutt method under given initial values of valuables till output of solution on periodic regime. At first it is indicated on possible real-zation of the chaos scenario in system. On our data, the difference of the average annual values for the non-organic car-bon concentration in the up quasi-homogeneous layer between equator and extreme southern zone is 0.15 mol/m3, be-tween the equator and extreme northern zone is 0

  10. The role of Pacific Trade Wind trends in driving ocean heat uptake and global hiatuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Nicola; England, Matthew; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Spence, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous work has noted the importance of the tropical Pacific in modulating global temperatures and in offsetting anthropogenic surface warming over decadal periods. This project investigates the role of Pacific Trade Wind changes in modulating the exchange of heat into and out of the sub-surface tropical Pacific Ocean. In particular, the trade wind acceleration observed since the early 1990's is examined, with a focus on ocean heat uptake dynamics associated with phase changes of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). A number of simulations are performed in an eddy-permitting global ocean model (MOM5) coupled to a sea ice model (SIS). To examine the recent period, the ocean model is forced with atmospheric CORE normal year forcing, with the observed Pacific wind trend from 1992-2013 superimposed linearly over the tropical Pacific region. The role of seasonally varying wind trends is further investigated by running a second experiment with seasonally varying wind anomalies added in the Pacific. To investigate how and when the subducted heat might re-surfaces from the ocean interior in the future, additional experiments are performed that include a ramp down of the trade winds under a variety of scenarios to mimic a future phase change in the IPO. This work has implications for decadal predictions of future global climate change.

  11. Improved estimates of global ocean circulation, heat transport and mixing from hydrographic data.

    PubMed

    Ganachaud, A; Wunsch, C

    2000-11-23

    Through its ability to transport large amounts of heat, fresh water and nutrients, the ocean is an essential regulator of climate. The pathways and mechanisms of this transport and its stability are critical issues in understanding the present state of climate and the possibilities of future changes. Recently, global high-quality hydrographic data have been gathered in the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), to obtain an accurate picture of the present circulation. Here we combine the new data from high-resolution trans-oceanic sections and current meters with climatological wind fields, biogeochemical balances and improved a priori error estimates in an inverse model, to improve estimates of the global circulation and heat fluxes. Our solution resolves globally vertical mixing across surfaces of equal density, with coefficients in the range (3-12) x 10(-4) m2 s(-1). Net deep-water production rates amount to (15 +/- 12) x 10(6) m3 s(-1) in the North Atlantic Ocean and (21 +/- 6) x 10(6) m3 s(-1) in the Southern Ocean. Our estimates provide a new reference state for future climate studies with rigorous estimates of the uncertainties.

  12. Time-domain modeling of global ocean tides generated by the full lunisolar potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einšpigel, David; Martinec, Zdeněk

    2017-02-01

    Traditionally, ocean tides have been modeled in frequency domain with a forcing from selected tidal constituents. It is a natural approach; however, it implicitly neglects non-linearities of ocean dynamics. An alternative approach is time-domain modeling with a forcing given by the full lunisolar potential, i.e., all tidal waves are a priori included. This approach has been applied in several ocean tide models; however, some challenging tasks still remain, for example, assimilation of satellite altimetry data. In this paper, we introduce the assimilative scheme applicable in a time-domain model, which is an alternative to existing techniques used in assimilative ocean tide models. We present results from DEBOT, a global barotropic ocean tide model, which has two modes: DEBOT-h, a purely hydrodynamical mode, and DEBOT-a, an assimilative mode. The accuracy of DEBOT in both modes is assessed through a series of tests against tide gauge data which demonstrate that DEBOT is comparable to state-of-the-art global ocean tide models for major tidal constituents. Furthermore, as signals of all tidal frequencies are included in DEBOT, we also discuss modeling of minor tidal constituents and non-linear compound tides. Our modeling approach can be useful for those applications where the frequency domain approach is not suitable.

  13. Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) heat exchange project: A summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. T.; Niiler, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    A pilot data center to compute ocean atmosphere heat exchange over the tropical ocean is prposed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in response to the scientific needs of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program. Optimal methods will be used to estimate sea surface temperature (SET), surface wind speed, and humidity from spaceborne observations. A monthly summary of these parameters will be used to compute ocean atmosphere latent heat exchanges. Monthly fields of surface heat flux over tropical oceans will be constructed using estimations of latent heat exchanges and short wave radiation from satellite data. Verification of all satellite data sets with in situ measurements at a few locations will be provided. The data center will be an experimental active archive where the quality and quantity of data required for TOGA flux computation are managed. The center is essential to facilitate the construction of composite data sets from global measurements taken from different sensors on various satellites. It will provide efficient utilization and easy access to the large volume of satellite data available for studies of ocean atmosphere energy exchanges.

  14. Global variability and changes in ocean total alkalinity from Aquarius satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Rana A.; Willey, Debra A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates how large-scale Aquarius satellite salinity data have provided an unprecedented opportunity when combined with total alkalinity (TA) equations as a function of salinity and temperature to examine global changes in the CO2 system. Alkalinity is a gauge on the ability of seawater to neutralize acids. TA correlates strongly with salinity. Spatial variability in alkalinity and salinity exceed temporal variability. Northern Hemisphere has more spatial variability in TA and salinity, while less variability in Southern Ocean TA is due to less salinity variability and upwelling of waters enriched in alkalinity. For the first time it is shown that TA in subtropical regions has increased as compared with climatological data; this is reflective of large-scale changes in the global water cycle. Thus, as temperature and salinity increase in subtropical regions, the resultant increase in TA and ocean acidification is reinforcing that from oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2.

  15. Industrial-era global ocean heat uptake doubles in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, Peter J.; Durack, Paul J.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Forest, Chris E.

    2016-04-01

    Formal detection and attribution studies have used observations and climate models to identify an anthropogenic warming signature in the upper (0-700 m) ocean. Recently, as a result of the so-called surface warming hiatus, there has been considerable interest in global ocean heat content (OHC) changes in the deeper ocean, including natural and anthropogenically forced changes identified in observational, modelling and data re-analysis studies. Here, we examine OHC changes in the context of the Earth’s global energy budget since early in the industrial era (circa 1865-2015) for a range of depths. We rely on OHC change estimates from a diverse collection of measurement systems including data from the nineteenth-century Challenger expedition, a multi-decadal record of ship-based in situ mostly upper-ocean measurements, the more recent near-global Argo floats profiling to intermediate (2,000 m) depths, and full-depth repeated transoceanic sections. We show that the multi-model mean constructed from the current generation of historically forced climate models is consistent with the OHC changes from this diverse collection of observational systems. Our model-based analysis suggests that nearly half of the industrial-era increases in global OHC have occurred in recent decades, with over a third of the accumulated heat occurring below 700 m and steadily rising.

  16. Oceanic Fluxes of Mass, Heat and Freshwater: A Global Estimate and Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDonald, Alison Marguerite

    1995-01-01

    Data from fifteen globally distributed, modern, high resolution, hydrographic oceanic transects are combined in an inverse calculation using large scale box models. The models provide estimates of the global meridional heat and freshwater budgets and are used to examine the sensitivity of the global circulation, both inter and intra-basin exchange rates, to a variety of external constraints provided by estimates of Ekman, boundary current and throughflow transports. A solution is found which is consistent with both the model physics and the global data set, despite a twenty five year time span and a lack of seasonal consistency among the data. The overall pattern of the global circulation suggested by the models is similar to that proposed in previously published local studies and regional reviews. However, significant qualitative and quantitative differences exist. These differences are due both to the model definition and to the global nature of the data set.

  17. Preface to special issue (Impacts of surface ocean acidification in polar seas and globally: A field-based approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Toby; Tarling, Geraint A.; Leakey, Raymond J. G.; Cripps, Gemma; Thorpe, Sally; Richier, Sophie; Mark Moore, C.

    2016-05-01

    Both ocean acidification and global warming are consequences of the rise in atmospheric CO2. Ocean acidification is not itself a consequence of global warming, but rather of the invasion of atmospheric CO2 into the ocean. Time-series of carbonate chemistry measurements in different locations around the world all document the continuous and ongoing increase in the amount of CO2 in the ocean, and the consequential accompanying decrease in surface ocean seawater pH at all sites over the last years (Bates et al., 2014).

  18. Twenty Years of Progress on Global Ocean Tides: The Impact of Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egbert, Gary; Ray, Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of the era of high-precision altimetry, before the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon, ocean tides were properly viewed as a source of noise--tidal variations in ocean height would represent a very substantial fraction of what the altimeter measures, and would have to be accurately predicted and subtracted if altimetry were to achieve its potential for ocean and climate studies. But to the extent that the altimetry could be severely contaminated by tides, it also represented an unprecedented global-scale tidal data set. These new data, together with research stimulated by the need for accurate tidal corrections, led to a renaissance in tidal studies in the oceanographic community. In this paper we review contributions of altimetry to tidal science over the past 20 years, emphasizing recent progress. Mapping of tides has now been extended from the early focus on major constituents in the open ocean to include minor constituents, (e.g., long-period tides; non-linear tides in shelf waters, and in the open ocean), and into shallow and coastal waters. Global and spatially local estimates of tidal energy balance have been refined, and the role of internal tide conversion in dissipating barotropic tidal energy is now well established through modeling, altimetry, and in situ observations. However, energy budgets for internal tides, and the role of tidal dissipation in vertical ocean mixing remain controversial topics. Altimetry may contribute to resolving some of these important questions through improved mapping of low-mode internal tides. This area has advanced significantly in recent years, with several global maps now available, and progress on constraining temporally incoherent components. For the future, new applications of altimetry (e.g., in the coastal ocean, where barotropic tidal models remain inadequate), and new mission concepts (studies of the submesoscale with SWOT, which will require correction for internal tides) may bring us full circle, again pushing

  19. Recent Short Term Global Aerosol Trends over Land and Ocean Dominated by Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Koren, Ilan; Kleidman, RIchard G.; Levy, Robert C.; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Tanre, Didier; Mattoo, Shana; Yu, Hongbin

    2007-01-01

    NASA's MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite is one of the premier tools to assess aerosol over land and ocean because of its high quality calibration and consistency. We analyze Terra-MODIS's seven year record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations to determine whether global aerosol has increased or decreased during this period. This record shows that AOD has decreased over land and increased over ocean. Only the ocean trend is statistically significant and corresponds to an increase in AOD of 0.009, or a 15% increase from background conditions. The strongest increasing trends occur over regions and seasons noted for strong biomass burning. This suggests that biomass burning aerosol dominates the increasing trend over oceans and mitigates the otherwise mostly negative trend over the continents.

  20. M2, S2, K1 models of the global ocean tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, M. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean tidal signals appear in many geophysical measurements. Geophysicists need realistic tidal models to aid in interpretation of their data. Because of the closeness to resonance of dissipationless ocean tides, it is difficult for numerical models to correctly represent the actual open ocean tide. As an approximate solution to this problem, test functions derived by solving Laplace's Tidal Equations with ocean loading and self gravitation are used as a basis for least squares dynamic interpolation of coastal and island tidal data for the constituents M2, S2, and Kl. The resulting representations of the global tide are stable over at least a ?5% variation in the mean depth of the model basin, and they conserve mass. Maps of the geocentric tide, the induced free space potential, the induced vertical component of the solid earth tide, and the induced vertical component of the gravitational field for each contituent are presented.

  1. Oceanic carbon dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Le Quere, C.

    1996-11-22

    In a model of ocean-atmosphere interaction that excluded biological processes, the oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was substantially reduced in scenarios involving global warming relative to control scenarios. The primary reason for the reduced uptake was the weakening or collapse of the ocean thermohaline circulation. Such a large reduction in this ocean uptake would have a major impact o the future growth rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Model simulations that include a simple representation of biological processes show a potentially large offsetting effect resulting from the downward flux of biogenic carbon. However, the magnitude of the offset is difficult to quantify with present knowledge. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The joint impact of ocean circulation and plate tectonics on the glacial South Pacific carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronge, T.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Köhler, P.; Alloway, B.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Pahnke, K.; Southon, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the whereabouts of CO2 during glacials and its pathways during deglacial transitions is one of the main priorities in paleoclimate research. The opposing patterns of atmospheric CO2 and Δ14C suggest that the bulk of CO2 was released from an old and therefore 14C-depleted carbon reservoir. As the modern deep ocean, below ~2000 m, stores up to 60-times more carbon than the entire atmosphere, it is considered to be a major driver of the atmospheric CO2 pattern, storing CO2 during glacials, releasing it during deglacial transitions. We use a South Pacific transect of sediment cores, covering the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and the Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW), to reconstruct the spatio-temporal evolution of oceanic Δ14C over the last 30,000 years. During the last glacial, we find significantly 14C-depleted waters between 2000 and 4300 m water depth, indicating a strong stratification and the storage of carbon in these water masses. However, two sediment cores from 2500 m and 3600 m water depth reveal an extreme glacial atmosphere-to-deep-water Δ14C offset of up to -1000‰ and ventilation ages (deep-water to atmosphere 14C-age difference) of ~8000 years. Such old water masses are expected to be anoxic, yet there is no evidence of anoxia in the glacial S-Pacific. Recent studies showed an increase of Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) volcanism during glacials due to the low stand of global sea level. For this reason, we hypothesize that the admixture of 14C-dead carbon via tectonic activity along MORs might have contributed to these extremely low radiocarbon values. With a simple 1-box model, we calculated if the admixture of hydrothermal CO2 has the potential to lower the deep Pacific Δ14C signal. We show that if the oceanic turnover time is at least 2700 years, an increased hydrothermal flux of 1.2 μmol kg-1 yr-1 has the potential to reproduce the extreme radiocarbon values observed in our records.

  3. Interannual and Spatial Variability of Global Ocean Heat/Freshwater Content Identified from GTSPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.; Sun, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) is a cooperative international project since 1990. The GTSPP handles all temperature and salinity profile data including XBT, CTDs, thermistor chain data, and Argo observations. Near-real time gridded (T, S) dataset was established from GTSPP since 1990 with horizontal resolution of (1o×1o) and temporal increment of 1 month using the recently developed optimal spectral decomposition (OSD) method. With this new monthly varying gridded dataset, the upper ocean (surface to 300 m depth) heat content OHC300 and freshwater content FWC300 were calculated at each horizontal grid point. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was conducted on the temporally varying global 2D OHC300 anomaly relative to its seasonal variation. A new phenomenon, global ocean tripole, was discovered. The EOF-1 mode (44.2% variance) represents the classical El Nino/La Nina phenomenon. The EOF-2 mode (14.6%) represents the Indian Ocean Dipole mode and the El Nino Modoki. Its features and connection to climate variability is also discussed. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was conducted on the temporally varying global 2D FWC300 anomaly relative to its seasonal variation. The EOF-1 mode (73.7% variance) represents near global-scale variability with the largest anomaly appearing in the Indian Ocean near southeast of Africa. The first principal component (PC1) shows decadal variability. The temporal-spatial variability represented by the EOF-1 mode shows rapid increasing of global FWC300 from 1999 to 2005 and sustaining the high values after 2005. Interpretations of the observational results to recent global warming will also be presented.

  4. Seven-Year SSM/I-Derived Global Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Shie, Chung-Lin; Atlas, Robert M.; Ardizzone, Joe

    2000-01-01

    A 7.5-year (July 1987-December 1994) dataset of daily surface specific humidity and turbulent fluxes (momentum, latent heat, and sensible heat) over global oceans has been retrieved from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data and other data. It has a spatial resolution of 2.0 deg.x 2.5 deg. latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface specific humidity is generally accurate over global oceans as validated against the collocated radiosonde observations. The retrieved daily wind stresses and latent heat fluxes show useful accuracy as verified by those measured by the RV Moana Wave and IMET buoy in the western equatorial Pacific. The derived turbulent fluxes and input variables are also found to agree generally with the global distributions of annual-and seasonal-means of those based on 4-year (1990-93) comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set (COADS) with adjustment in wind speeds and other climatological studies. The COADS has collected the most complete surface marine observations, mainly from merchant ships. However, ship measurements generally have poor accuracy, and variable spatial coverages. Significant differences between the retrieved and COADS-based are found in some areas of the tropical and southern extratropical oceans, reflecting the paucity of ship observations outside the northern extratropical oceans. Averaged over the global oceans, the retrieved wind stress is smaller but the latent heat flux is larger than those based on COADS. The former is suggested to be mainly due to overestimation of the adjusted ship-estimated wind speeds (depending on sea states), while the latter is suggested to be mainly due to overestimation of ship-measured dew point temperatures. The study suggests that the SSM/I-derived turbulent fluxes can be used for climate studies and coupled model validations.

  5. A 1/16° eddying simulation of the global NEMO sea-ice-ocean system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovino, Doroteaciro; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Cipollone, Andrea; Stepanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of a global eddy-resolving simulation using the NEMO general circulation model is presented. The model has 1/16° horizontal spacing at the Equator, employs two displaced poles in the Northern Hemisphere, and uses 98 vertical levels. The simulation was spun up from rest and integrated for 11 model years, using ERA-Interim reanalysis as surface forcing. Primary intent of this hindcast is to test how the model represents upper ocean characteristics and sea ice properties. Analysis of the zonal averaged temperature and salinity, and the mixed layer depth indicate that the model average state is in good agreement with observed fields and that the model successfully represents the variability in the upper ocean and at intermediate depths. Comparisons against observational estimates of mass transports through key straits indicate that most aspects of the model circulation are realistic. As expected, the simulation exhibits turbulent behaviour and the spatial distribution of the sea surface height (SSH) variability from the model is close to the observed pattern. The distribution and volume of the sea ice are, to a large extent, comparable to observed values. Compared with a corresponding eddy-permitting configuration, the performance of the model is significantly improved: reduced temperature and salinity biases, in particular at intermediate depths, improved mass and heat transports, better representation of fluxes through narrow and shallow straits, and increased global-mean eddy kinetic energy (by ˜ 40 %). However, relatively minor weaknesses still exist such as a lower than observed magnitude of the SSH variability. We conclude that the model output is suitable for broader analysis to better understand upper ocean dynamics and ocean variability at global scales. This simulation represents a major step forward in the global ocean modelling at the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change and constitutes the groundwork for future applications to short

  6. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  7. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  8. Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, John M; Connolly, Sean R; Marshall, Dustin J; Cohen, Anne L

    2011-07-22

    Many physiological responses in present-day coral reefs to climate change are interpreted as consistent with the imminent disappearance of modern reefs globally because of annual mass bleaching events, carbonate dissolution, and insufficient time for substantial evolutionary responses. Emerging evidence for variability in the coral calcification response to acidification, geographical variation in bleaching susceptibility and recovery, responses to past climate change, and potential rates of adaptation to rapid warming supports an alternative scenario in which reef degradation occurs with greater temporal and spatial heterogeneity than current projections suggest. Reducing uncertainty in projecting coral reef futures requires improved understanding of past responses to rapid climate change; physiological responses to interacting factors, such as temperature, acidification, and nutrients; and the costs and constraints imposed by acclimation and adaptation.

  9. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; Cummings, James; Dombrowsky, Eric; Fairall, Chris; Ferry, Nicolas; Forget, Gael; Gregg, Watson; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haines, Keith; Harrison, D. Edward; Heimbach, Patrick; Kamachi, Masafumi; Kent, Elizabeth; Lee, Tony; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  10. Mapping Dust Input to the Global Ocean using Thorium Isotope Measurements in Surface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, S. S.; Winckler, G.; Lippold, J.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    Dust input into the ocean-atmosphere system has significant ramifications for biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Thorium-232, sometimes referred to as primordial Thorium, is the longest lived (1.4 1010 yrs) isotope in the U-Th decay chain. It is greatly enriched in upper continental crust compared to oceanic crust and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) like volcanogenic material. In remote areas of the ocean, away from hemipelagic sources of continental material, it is assumed to be of aeolian origin. In conjunction with 230Th-flux normalization, 232Th measurements are thus becoming a promising new proxy for dust accumulation in the present and past ocean. Here, we present a pilot data compilation of previously published 230Th-normalized fluxes of 232Th from a large set of surface sediments originating from the equatorial Pacific, equatorial Atlantic, Southern Ocean, and other areas, complemented by unpublished data. We compare these 232Th fluxes with estimates of present day dust accumulation derived from a coupled atmosphere, land, ocean, and sea-ice model (CCSM-SMOB1). There is excellent agreement between sedimentary and model derived dust fluxes in e.g. the equatorial Atlantic and eastern equatorial Pacific. In the western equatorial Pacific, we observe differences between the sedimentary 232Th record and model estimates. Potential reasons for these discrepancies, and implications for the use of 232Th as dust proxy will be discussed. 1Mahowald et al. . J. Geosphys.Res.111, 2006

  11. Contrasting correlation patterns between environmental factors and chlorophyll levels in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianfeng; Durant, Joël. Marcel; Stige, Leif Chr.; Hessen, Dag Olav; Hjermann, Dag Øystein; Zhu, Lin; Llope, Marcos; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze large-scale satellite-derived data using generalized additive models to characterize the global correlation patterns between environmental forcing and marine phytoplankton biomass. We found systematic differences in the relationships between key environmental drivers (temperature, light, and wind) and ocean chlorophyll in the subtropical/tropical and temperate oceans. For the subtropical/tropical and equatorial oceans, the chlorophyll generally declined with increasing temperature and light, while in temperate oceans, chlorophyll was best explained by bell-shaped or positive functions of temperature and light. The relationship between chlorophyll and wind speed is generally positive in low-latitude oceans and bell shaped in temperate oceans. Our analyses also demonstrated strong and geographically consistent positive autoregressive effects of chlorophyll from 1 month to the next and negative autoregressive effects for measurements 2 months apart. These findings imply possibly different regional phytoplankton responses to environmental forcing, suggesting that future environmental change could affect the tropical and temperate upper ocean chlorophyll levels differently.

  12. Oceanic primary production 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; André, Jean-Michel; Morel, André

    A fast method has been proposed [Antoine and Morel, this issue] to compute the oceanic primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentration, as it can be routinely detected by a spaceborne ocean color sensor. This method is applied here to the monthly global maps of the photosynthetic pigments that were derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data archive [Feldman et al., 1989]. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) field is computed from the astronomical constant and by using an atmospheric model, thereafter combined with averaged cloud information, derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The aim is to assess the seasonal evolution, as well as the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic carbon fixation within the world ocean and for a ``climatological year,'' to the extent that both the chlorophyll information and the cloud coverage statistics actually are averages obtained over several years. The computed global annual production actually ranges between 36.5 and 45.6 Gt C yr-1 according to the assumption which is made (0.8 or 1) about the ratio of active-to-total pigments (recall that chlorophyll and pheopigments are not radiometrically resolved by CZCS). The relative contributions to the global productivity of the various oceans and zonal belts are examined. By considering the hypotheses needed in such computations, the nature of the data used as inputs, and the results of the sensitivity studies, the global numbers have to be cautiously considered. Improving the reliability of the primary production estimates implies (1) new global data sets allowing a higher temporal resolution and a better coverage, (2) progress in the knowledge of physiological responses of phytoplankton and therefore refinements of the time and space dependent parameterizations of these responses.

  13. The ARGO Project: Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability. Report for Calendar Year 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Over 90% of the increased heat content due to global warming of the air/sea/ice climate system in the past 40 years occurred in the oceans. Climate...stresses on ocean ecosystems have serious consequences, and sometimes dramatic ones, such as coral reef bleaching . In the future, the impacts of a...The Argo Project Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability Report for Calendar Year 2004 Dean H

  14. Contamination, misuse and abuse of the global oceans leading to ecosystem damage and destruction, health consequences and international conflict

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Unregulated uses of the oceans may threaten the global ecological balance, alter plant and animal life and significantly impact the global climatic systems. Recent plans to locate large scale structures on the oceans and to exploit the mineral riches of the seas pose even greater risk to the ecological system. Finally, increasing use of the oceans for large scale transport greatly enhances the probability of collision, polluting spills and international conflict.

  15. Skill assessment of the PELAGOS global ocean biogeochemistry model over the period 1980-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, M.; Masina, S.

    2009-04-01

    Global Ocean Biogeochemistry General Circulation models are useful tools to study biogeochemical processes at gobal and large scales under current climate and future scenario conditions. The accuracy of the future estimate is however dependent on the adequate representation of the current ocean biogeochemical features. To this purpose, the results of an interannual simulation of the global ocean biogeochemical model PELAGOS have been objectively compared with multi-variate observations from the last 20 years of the XX century. The model was assessed in terms of spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll and primary production derived from satellite sensors, with a specific focus on the simulation of carbon production/consumption rates observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean and at the long-term JGOFS stations. The predicted chlorophyll is acceptable in the northern mid-latitude regions and equatorial Pacific, but is underestimated in the upwelling regions of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and markedly overestimated in the Southern Ocean. This latter bias is linked to the inadequate representation of the mixed layer seasonal cycle in the region, which favours primary production during austral spring. Simulated primary production is comparable with satellite estimates both at the global scale and when compared with an independent data-set in the equatorial Pacific. A comparison with other models showed that PELAGOS results are as good as the estimates from state-of-the-art diagnostic models based on satellite data. The skill in reproducing the interannual varibility was assessed in the equatorial Pacific and against the decadal JGOFS timeseries BATS and HOT. In the tropical Pacific our analysis suggests that interannual variability of primary production is related to the climate variability both in the observations and in the model. At the JGOFS stations PELAGOS has skill to simulate the observed bacterial biomass and shows realistic means of primary and

  16. Global assessment of oceanic lead pollution using sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) as an indicator species.

    PubMed

    Savery, Laura C; Wise, Sandra S; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, James; Gianios, Christy; Douglas Thompson, W; Perkins, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-02-15

    Lead (Pb) is an oceanic pollutant of global concern. Anthropogenic activities are increasing oceanic levels, but to an unknown extent. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) has a global distribution and high trophic level. The aim of this study was to establish a global baseline of oceanic Pb concentrations using free-ranging sperm whales as an indicator species. Skin biopsies (n=337) were collected during the voyage of the Odyssey (2000-2005) from 17 regions considering gender and age. Pb was detectable in 315 samples with a global mean of 1.6 ug/gww ranging from 0.1 to 129.6 ug/gww. Papua New Guinea, Bahamas and Australia had the highest regional mean with 6.1, 3.4, and 3.1 ug/gww, respectively. Pb concentrations were not significantly different between sex and age in males. This is the first global toxicological dataset for Pb in a marine mammal and confirms Pb is widely distributed with hotspots in some regions.

  17. Global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models in LASG/IAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongqiang, Yu; Xuehong, Zhang; Yufu, Guo

    2004-06-01

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric general circulation models are the only tools to quantitatively simulate the climate system. Since the end of the 1980s, a group of scientists in the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), have been working to develop a global OGCM and a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM). From the original flux anomaly-coupling model developed in the beginning of the 1990s to the latest directly-coupling model, LASG scientists have developed four global coupled GCMs. This study summarizes the development history of these models and describes the third and fourth coupled GCMs and selected applications. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are highlighted.

  18. Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean.

    PubMed

    Vallina, S M; Follows, M J; Dutkiewicz, S; Montoya, J M; Cermeno, P; Loreau, M

    2014-07-01

    The shape of the productivity-diversity relationship (PDR) for marine phytoplankton has been suggested to be unimodal, that is, diversity peaking at intermediate levels of productivity. However, there are few observations and there has been little attempt to understand the mechanisms that would lead to such a shape for planktonic organisms. Here we use a marine ecosystem model together with the community assembly theory to explain the shape of the unimodal PDR we obtain at the global scale. The positive slope from low to intermediate productivity is due to grazer control with selective feeding, which leads to the predator-mediated coexistence of prey. The negative slope at high productivity is due to seasonal blooms of opportunist species that occur before they are regulated by grazers. The negative side is only unveiled when the temporal scale of the observation captures the transient dynamics, which are especially relevant at highly seasonal latitudes. Thus selective predation explains the positive side while transient competitive exclusion explains the negative side of the unimodal PDR curve. The phytoplankton community composition of the positive and negative sides is mostly dominated by slow-growing nutrient specialists and fast-growing nutrient opportunist species, respectively.

  19. Global relationship between phytoplankton diversity and productivity in the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vallina, S. M.; Follows, M. J.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Montoya, J. M.; Cermeno, P.; Loreau, M.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of the productivity–diversity relationship (PDR) for marine phytoplankton has been suggested to be unimodal, that is, diversity peaking at intermediate levels of productivity. However, there are few observations and there has been little attempt to understand the mechanisms that would lead to such a shape for planktonic organisms. Here we use a marine ecosystem model together with the community assembly theory to explain the shape of the unimodal PDR we obtain at the global scale. The positive slope from low to intermediate productivity is due to grazer control with selective feeding, which leads to the predator-mediated coexistence of prey. The negative slope at high productivity is due to seasonal blooms of opportunist species that occur before they are regulated by grazers. The negative side is only unveiled when the temporal scale of the observation captures the transient dynamics, which are especially relevant at highly seasonal latitudes. Thus selective predation explains the positive side while transient competitive exclusion explains the negative side of the unimodal PDR curve. The phytoplankton community composition of the positive and negative sides is mostly dominated by slow-growing nutrient specialists and fast-growing nutrient opportunist species, respectively. PMID:24980772

  20. Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: A satellite view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvain, S.; Moulin, C.; Dandonneau, Y.; Loisel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Phytoplankton plays an important role in the global carbon cycle via the fixation of inorganic carbon during photosynthesis. However, the efficiency of this "biological pump of carbon" strongly depends on the nature of the phytoplankton. Monitoring spatial and temporal variations of the distribution of dominant phytoplankton groups at the global scale is thus of critical importance. Recently, an algorithm has been developed to detect the major dominant phytoplankton groups from anomalies of the marine signal measured by ocean color satellites. This method, called PHYSAT, allows to identify nanoeucaryotes, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and diatoms. In this paper, PHYSAT has been improved to detect an additional group, named phaeocystis-like, by analyzing specific signal anomalies in the Southern Ocean during winter months. This new version of PHYSAT was then used to process daily global SeaWiFS GAC data between 1998 and 2006. The global distribution of major phytoplankton groups is presented in this study as a monthly climatology of the most frequent phytoplankton group. The contribution of nanoeucaryotes-dominated waters to the global ocean varies from 45 to 70% depending on the season, whereas both diatoms and phaeocystis-like contributions exhibit a stronger seasonal variability mostly due to the large blooms that occur during winter in the Southern Ocean. Three regions of particular interest are also studied in more details: the Southern Ocean, the North Atlantic, and the Equatorial Pacific. The North Atlantic diatom bloom shows a large interannual variability. Large blooms of both diatoms and phaeocystis-like are observed during winter in the Southern Ocean, with a larger contribution from diatoms. Their respective geographical distribution is shown to be tightly related to the depth of the mixed-layer, with diatoms prevailing in stratified waters. Synechococcus and Prochloroccocus prevail in the Equatorial Pacific, but our data show also sporadic diatoms

  1. The microbial carbon pump concept: Potential biogeochemical significance in the globally changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Louis; Rivkin, Richard B.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Guidi, Lionel; Uitz, Julia

    2015-05-01

    Three vertical ocean carbon pumps have been known for almost three decades to sequester atmospheric carbon in the deep-water and sediment reservoirs, i.e. the solubility pump, the carbonate pump, and the soft-tissue (also known as organic, or biological) carbon pump (BCP). These three pumps maintain the vertical gradient in total dissolved inorganic carbon between the surface and deep waters. The more recently proposed microbial carbon pump (MCP) would maintain a gradient between short- and long-lived dissolved organic carbon (DOC; average lifetimes of <100 and >100 years, respectively). Long-lived DOC is an additional proposed reservoir of sequestered carbon in the ocean. This review: examines critically aspects of the vertical ocean carbon pumps and the MCP, in particular their physical dimensions and their potential roles in carbon sequestration; normalises the dimensions of the MCP to allow direct comparisons with the three vertical ocean carbon pumps; compares the MCP and vertical ocean carbon pumps; organises in a coherent framework the information available in the literature on refractory DOC; explores the potential effects of the globally changing ocean on the MCP; and identifies the assumptions that generally underlie the MCP studies, as bases for future research. The study: proposes definitions of terms, expressions and concepts related to the four ocean carbon pumps (i.e. three vertical pumps and MCP); defines the magnitude for the MCP as the rate of production of DOC with an average lifetime of >100 years and provides its first estimate for the World Ocean, i.e. 0.2 Pg C year-1; and introduces an operational "first-time-sequestration" criterion that prevents organic carbon fluxes from being assigned to both the BCP and the MCP. In our review of the potential effects of predicted climate-related changes in the ocean environment on the MCP, we found that three of the seven predicted changes could potentially enhance carbon sequestration by the MCP, and

  2. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction with the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    was doubled. The climatological wind and thermal forcing were derived from the 1.125° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re...of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data from Liang et al. (2003) and (left – bottom) from global HYCOM. Both observed and simulated...Bleck, R. and S. Benjamin, 1993. Regional weather prediction with a model combining terrain- following and isentropic coordinates. Part I.: Model

  3. Dispersion of Fukushima radionuclides in the global atmosphere and the ocean.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Gera, M; Holý, K; Hirose, K; Lujaniené, G; Nakano, M; Plastino, W; Sýkora, I; Bartok, J; Gažák, M

    2013-11-01

    Large quantities of radionuclides were released in March-April 2011 during the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant to the atmosphere and the ocean. Atmospheric and marine modeling has been carried out to predict the dispersion of radionuclides worldwide, to compare the predicted and measured radionuclide concentrations, and to assess the impact of the accident on the environment. Atmospheric Lagrangian dispersion modeling was used to simulate the dispersion of (137)Cs over America and Europe. Global ocean circulation model was applied to predict the dispersion of (137)Cs in the Pacific Ocean. The measured and simulated (137)Cs concentrations in atmospheric aerosols and in seawater are compared with global fallout and the Chernobyl accident, which represent the main sources of the pre-Fukushima radionuclide background in the environment. The radionuclide concentrations in the atmosphere have been negligible when compared with the Chernobyl levels. The maximum (137)Cs concentration in surface waters of the open Pacific Ocean will be around 20 Bq/m(3). The plume will reach the US coast 4-5 y after the accident, however, the levels will be below 3 Bq/m(3). All the North Pacific Ocean will be labeled with Fukushima (137)Cs 10 y after the accident with concentration bellow 1 Bq/m(3).

  4. Global linkages originating from decadal oceanic variability in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafik, L.; Häkkinen, S.; England, M. H.; Carton, J. A.; Nigam, S.; Ruiz-Barradas, A.; Hannachi, A.; Miller, L.

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous decadal warming of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean (SPNA), and the northward spreading of this warm water, has been linked to rapid Arctic sea ice loss and more frequent cold European winters. Recently, variations in this heat transport have also been reported to covary with global warming slowdown/acceleration periods via a Pacific climate response. We here examine the role of SPNA temperature variability in this Atlantic-Pacific climate connectivity. We find that the evolution of ocean heat content anomalies from the subtropics to the subpolar region, likely due to ocean circulation changes, coincides with a basin-wide Atlantic warming/cooling. This induces an Atlantic-Pacific sea surface temperature seesaw, which in turn, strengthens/weakens the Walker circulation and amplifies the Pacific decadal variability that triggers pronounced global-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies. We conclude that the decadal oceanic variability in the SPNA is an essential component of the tropical interactions between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

  5. In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean.

    PubMed

    Biard, Tristan; Stemmann, Lars; Picheral, Marc; Mayot, Nicolas; Vandromme, Pieter; Hauss, Helena; Gorsky, Gabriel; Guidi, Lionel; Kiko, Rainer; Not, Fabrice

    2016-04-28

    Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles. Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods. A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in situ imaging survey of plankton larger than 600 μm, we show that a substantial part of the biomass of this size fraction consists of giant protists belonging to the Rhizaria, a super-group of mostly fragile unicellular marine organisms that includes the taxa Phaeodaria and Radiolaria (for example, orders Collodaria and Acantharia). Globally, we estimate that rhizarians in the top 200 m of world oceans represent a standing stock of 0.089 Pg carbon, equivalent to 5.2% of the total oceanic biota carbon reservoir. In the vast oligotrophic intertropical open oceans, rhizarian biomass is estimated to be equivalent to that of all other mesozooplankton (plankton in the size range 0.2-20 mm). The photosymbiotic association of many rhizarians with microalgae may be an important factor in explaining their distribution. The previously overlooked importance of these giant protists across the widest ecosystem on the planet changes our understanding of marine planktonic ecosystems.

  6. Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Meteorological and Oceanographic Data Sets for 1985 and 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Ashby, H.; Finch, C.; Smith, E.; Robles, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program is a component of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)/International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) World Climate Research Program (WCRP). One of the objectives of TOGA, which began in 1985, is to determine the limits of predictability of monthly mean sea surface temperature variations in tropical regions. The TOGA program created a raison d'etre for an explosive growth of the tropical ocean observing system and a substantial improvement in numerical simulations from atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models. Institutions located throughout the world are involved in the TOGA-distributed active data archive system. The diverse TOGA data sets for 1985 and 1986, including results from general circulation models, are included on a CD-ROM. Variables on the CD-ROM are barometric pressure, surface air temperature, dewpoint temperature Cartesian components of surface wind, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes,Cartesian components of surface wind stress and of an index of surface wind stress, sea level, sea surface temperature, and depth profiles of temperature and current in the upper ocean. Some data sets are global in extent, some are regional and cover portions of an ocean basin. Data on the CD-ROM can be extracted with an Apple Macintosh or an IBM PC.

  7. The CAFE model: A net production model for global ocean phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silsbe, Greg M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Halsey, Kimberly H.; Milligan, Allen J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon, Absorption, and Fluorescence Euphotic-resolving (CAFE) net primary production model is an adaptable framework for advancing global ocean productivity assessments by exploiting state-of-the-art satellite ocean color analyses and addressing key physiological and ecological attributes of phytoplankton. Here we present the first implementation of the CAFE model that incorporates inherent optical properties derived from ocean color measurements into a mechanistic and accurate model of phytoplankton growth rates (μ) and net phytoplankton production (NPP). The CAFE model calculates NPP as the product of energy absorption (QPAR), and the efficiency (ϕμ) by which absorbed energy is converted into carbon biomass (CPhyto), while μ is calculated as NPP normalized to CPhyto. The CAFE model performance is evaluated alongside 21 other NPP models against a spatially robust and globally representative set of direct NPP measurements. This analysis demonstrates that the CAFE model explains the greatest amount of variance and has the lowest model bias relative to other NPP models analyzed with this data set. Global oceanic NPP from the CAFE model (52 Pg C m-2 yr-1) and mean division rates (0.34 day-1) are derived from climatological satellite data (2002-2014). This manuscript discusses and validates individual CAFE model parameters (e.g., QPAR and ϕμ), provides detailed sensitivity analyses, and compares the CAFE model results and parameterization to other widely cited models.

  8. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  9. DMS cycle in the marine ocean-atmosphere system a global model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Feichter, J.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Six, K. D.; Stier, P.; Wetzel, P.

    2005-08-01

    A global coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system is established to study the production of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean, the DMS flux to the atmosphere, and the resulting sulfur concentrations in the atmosphere. The DMS production and consumption processes in the ocean are simulated in the marine biogeochemistry model HAMOCC5, embedded in a ocean general circulation model (MPI-OM). The atmospheric model ECHAM5 is extended by the microphysical aerosol model HAM, treating the sulfur chemistry in the atmosphere and the evolution of the microphysically interacting internally- and externally mixed aerosol populations.

    We simulate a global annual mean DMS sea surface concentration of 1.8 nmol/l, a DMS emission of 28 Tg(S)/yr, a DMS burden in the atmosphere of 0.077 Tg(S), and a DMS lifetime of 1.0 days. To quantify the role of DMS in the atmospheric sulfur cycle we simulate the relative contribution of DMS-derived SO2 and SO4-2 to the total atmospheric sulfur concentrations. DMS contributes 25% to the global annually averaged SO2 column burden. For SO4-2 the contribution is 27%.

    The coupled model setup allows the evaluation of the simulated DMS quantities with measurements taken in the ocean and in the atmosphere. The simulated global distribution of DMS sea surface concentrations compares reasonably well with measurements. The comparison to SO4-2 surface concentration measurements in regions with a high DMS contribution to SO4-2 shows an overestimation by the model. This overestimation is most pronounced in the biologically active season with high DMS emissions and most likely caused by a too high simulated SO4-2 yield from DMS oxidation.

  10. Remote-sensing-based measurement of phytoplankton size spectrum and cell diameter in the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Sathyendranath, S.; Bouman, H. A.; Platt, T.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic phytoplankton regulate the spectral quality of the submarine light field because light absorption by phytoplankton is spectrally structured, with a maximum in the blue and a secondary maximum in the red. The spectral characteristics of absorption are variable with phytoplankton taxa, and also with cell size and growth conditions. The intra-cellular concentration of light-absorbing pigments varies with phytoplankton size, which in turn modulates its specific absorption. The changes in phytoplankton cell size alter not only the bio-optical properties of the water column, but also the trophic interactions within the ecosystem. It is thus important to study the time evolution of phytoplankton size structure over the global ocean. We have developed a novel model that uses the light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton to retrieve quantitative information about phytoplankton size structure from satellite-derived ocean-colour data. The application of the method to satellite remote sensing at any given spatial location depends on the estimates of the concentration of chlorophyll-a, which is an operational index of phytoplankton biomass, and the remote sensing reflectance at different wavelengths in the visible domain. Using our method we have computed the equivalent spherical diameter of phytoplankton cells and the exponent of particle-size spectrum of phytoplankton, and thereby estimated the chlorophyll distribution in different phytoplankton size classes on a global scale. The spatial distribution of the size-spectrum exponent and the biomass fractions of pico-, nano- and micro-phytoplankton estimated are consistent with our current understanding of phytoplankton functional types in the global oceans. The study will enhance our understanding of the distribution and time evolution of phytoplankton size structure in the global oceans.

  11. A comparison of global estimates of marine primary production from ocean color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Schmeltz, Marjorie; Noguchi Aita, Maki; Antoine, David; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Asanuma, Ichio; Aumont, Olivier; Barber, Richard; Behrenfeld, Michael; Bidigare, Robert; Buitenhuis, Erik T.; Campbell, Janet; Ciotti, Aurea; Dierssen, Heidi; Dowell, Mark; Dunne, John; Esaias, Wayne; Gentili, Bernard; Gregg, Watson; Groom, Steve; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Ishizaka, Joji; Kameda, Takahiko; Le Quéré, Corinne; Lohrenz, Steven; Marra, John; Mélin, Frédéric; Moore, Keith; Morel, André; Reddy, Tasha E.; Ryan, John; Scardi, Michele; Smyth, Tim; Turpie, Kevin; Tilstone, Gavin; Waters, Kirk; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2006-03-01

    The third primary production algorithm round robin (PPARR3) compares output from 24 models that estimate depth-integrated primary production from satellite measurements of ocean color, as well as seven general circulation models (GCMs) coupled with ecosystem or biogeochemical models. Here we compare the global primary production fields corresponding to eight months of 1998 and 1999 as estimated from common input fields of photosynthetically-available radiation (PAR), sea-surface temperature (SST), mixed-layer depth, and chlorophyll concentration. We also quantify the sensitivity of the ocean-color-based models to perturbations in their input variables. The pair-wise correlation between ocean-color models was used to cluster them into groups or related output, which reflect the regions and environmental conditions under which they respond differently. The groups do not follow model complexity with regards to wavelength or depth dependence, though they are related to the manner in which temperature is used to parameterize photosynthesis. Global average PP varies by a factor of two between models. The models diverged the most for the Southern Ocean, SST under 10C, and chlorophyll concentration exceeding 1 mg Chl m-3. Based on the conditions under which the model results diverge most, we conclude that current ocean-color-based models are challenged by high-nutrient low-chlorophyll conditions, and extreme temperatures or chlorophyll concentrations. The GCM-based models predict comparable primary production to those based on ocean color: they estimate higher values in the Southern Ocean, at low SST, and in the equatorial band, while they estimate lower values in eutrophic regions (probably because the area of high chlorophyll concentrations is smaller in the GCMs). Further progress in primary production modeling requires improved understanding of the effect of temperature on photosynthesis and better parameterization of the maximum photosynthetic rate.

  12. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1992-03-26

    The deep circulation model developed by Wright and Stocker has been used to represent the latitude-depth distributions of temperature, salinity, radiocarbon and color'' tracers in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Restoring temperature and salinity to observed surface data the model shows a global thermohaline circulation where deep water is formed in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. A parameter study reveals that the high-latitude surface salinity determines the composition of deep water and its flow in the global ocean. Increasing Southern Ocean surface salinity by 0.4 ppt the circulation changes from a present-day mode where North Atlantic Deep Water is one where Antarctic Bottom Water is dominant. An inorganic carbon cycle with surface carbonate chemistry is included, and gas exchange is parameterized in terms of pCO{sub 2} differences. Pre- industrial conditions are achieved by adjusting the basin-mean alkalinity. A classical 2{times}CO{sub 2} experiment yields the intrinsic time scales for carbon uptake of the ocean; they agree with those obtained from simple box models or 3-dimensional ocean general circulation models. Using the estimated industrial anthropogenic input of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere the model requires, consistent with other model studies, an additional carbon flux to match the observed increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2}. We use more realistic surface boundary conditions which reduce sensitivity to freshwater discharges into the ocean. In a glacial-to-interglacial experiment rapid transitions of the deep circulation between two different states occur in conjunction with a severe reduction of the meridional heat flux and sea surface temperature during peak melting. After the melting the conveyor belt circulation restarts.

  13. A Multilayer Dataset of SSM/I-Derived Global Ocean Surface Turbulent Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Shie, Chung-Lin; Atlas, Robert M.; Ardizzone, Joe; Nelkin, Eric; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A dataset including daily- and monthly-mean turbulent fluxes (momentum, latent heat, and sensible heat) and some relevant parameters over global oceans, derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data, for the period July 1987-December 1994 and the 1988-94 annual and monthly-mean climatologies of the same variables is created. It has a spatial resolution of 2.0deg x 2.5deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface air humidity is found to be generally accurate as compared to the collocated radiosonde observations over global oceans. The retrieved wind stress and latent heat flux show useful accuracy as verified against research quality measurements of ship and buoy in the western equatorial Pacific. The 1988-94 seasonal-mean wind stress and latent heat flux show reasonable patterns related to seasonal variations of the atmospheric general circulation. The patterns of 1990-93 annual-mean turbulent fluxes and input variables are generally in good agreement with one of the best global analyzed flux datasets that based on COADS (comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set) with corrections on wind speeds and covered the same period. The retrieved wind speed is generally within +/-1 m/s of the COADS-based, but is stronger by approx. 1-2 m/s in the northern extratropical oceans. The discrepancy is suggested to be mainly due to higher COADS-modified wind speeds resulting from underestimation of anemometer heights. Compared to the COADS-based, the retrieved latent heat flux and sea-air humidity difference are generally larger with significant differences in the trade wind zones and the ocean south of 40degS (up to approx. 40-60 W/sq m and approx. 1-1.5 g/kg). The discrepancy is believed to be mainly caused by higher COADS-based surface air humidity arising from the overestimation of dew point temperatures and from the extrapolation of observed high humidity southward into data-void regions south of 40degS. The retrieved sensible heat flux is generally within +/-5

  14. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M2 often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best.

  15. A Parallel Icosahedral, Higher Order Discontinuous Galerkin, Global Shallow Water Model: Global Ocean Tides and Aquaplanet Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehipour, H.; Stuhne, G.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The development of models of the ocean tides with higher resolution near the coastlines and courser mesh offshore, has been required due to the significant impacts of coastline configuration and bathymetry (associated with sea level rise) on the amplitude and phase of tidal constituents, not only under present conditions but also in the deep past [Griffiths and Peltier GRL 2008, Griffiths and Peltier AMS 2009, Hill et al. JGR 2011]. A global tidal model with enhanced resolution at the poles has been developed by Griffiths and Peltier [2008, 2009], which, although capable of highly resolving polar ocean tides , is based upon a standard structured Arakawa C grid and hence is not capable of resolving coastlines locally. Furthermore the use of a nested modelling approach, although it may enable local spatial refinement [Hill et al. 2011], nevertheless suffers from its inherent dependence on the availability of a global tidal model with necessarily low spatial resolution to provide the open boundary conditions required for the local high resolution model. On the other hand, an unstructured triangulation of the global domain provides a standalone framework that may be employed to study highly resolved regions without relying on secondary models. The first step in the development of the structure we are employing was described in Stuhne and Peltier [Ocean Modeling, 2009]. In further extending this modelling structure we are employing a new discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of the governing equations in order to provide very high order of accuracy while also ensuring that momentum transport is locally conserved [Giraldo et al. JCP 2002]. After validating the 2D shallow water model with several test suites appropriate to aquaplanets [Williamson et al. JCP 1992, Galewsky et al. Tellus 2004, Nair and Lauritzen JCP 2010], the governing equations are extended to include the influence of internal tide drag in the deep ocean as well as the drag in shallow marginal seas

  16. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2016-11-01

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ~53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  17. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons.

    PubMed

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R; Leung, L Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A

    2016-11-25

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961-2008 is ∼53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  18. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    PubMed Central

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    Super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961–2008 is ∼53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes. PMID:27886199

  19. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    DOE PAGES

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, L. Ruby; ...

    2016-11-25

    Here, super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall inmore » places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961–2008 is ~53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.« less

  20. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, L. Ruby; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2016-11-25

    Here, super typhoons (STYs), intense tropical cyclones of the western North Pacific, rank among the most destructive natural hazards globally. The violent winds of these storms induce deep mixing of the upper ocean, resulting in strong sea surface cooling and making STYs highly sensitive to ocean density stratification. Although a few studies examined the potential impacts of changes in ocean thermal structure on future tropical cyclones, they did not take into account changes in near-surface salinity. Here, using a combination of observations and coupled climate model simulations, we show that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper ocean. We further demonstrate that the strengthening effect of this freshening over the period 1961–2008 is ~53% stronger than the suppressive effect of temperature, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

  1. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P A; Norris, R D

    2001-07-26

    The middle of the Cretaceous period (about 120 to 80 Myr ago) was a time of unusually warm polar temperatures, repeated reef-drowning in the tropics and a series of oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) that promoted both the widespread deposition of organic-carbon-rich marine sediments and high biological turnover. The cause of the warm temperatures is unproven but widely attributed to high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. In contrast, there is no consensus on the climatic causes and effects of the OAEs, with both high biological productivity and ocean 'stagnation' being invoked as the cause of ocean anoxia. Here we show, using stable isotope records from multiple species of well-preserved foraminifera, that the thermal structure of surface waters in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean underwent pronounced variability about 100 Myr ago, with maximum sea surface temperatures 3-5 degrees C warmer than today. This variability culminated in a collapse of upper-ocean stratification during OAE-1d (the 'Breistroffer' event), a globally significant period of organic-carbon burial that we show to have fundamental, stratigraphically valuable, geochemical similarities to the main OAEs of the Mesozoic era. Our records are consistent with greenhouse forcing being responsible for the warm temperatures, but are inconsistent both with explanations for OAEs based on ocean stagnation, and with the traditional view (reviewed in ref. 12) that past warm periods were more stable than today's climate.

  2. The Change in Oceanic O2 Inventory Associated with Recent Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeling, Ralph; Garcia, Hernan

    2002-01-01

    Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent argument is presented here in support of this prediction based on observational evidence of the ocean's biogeochemical response to natural warming. On time scales from seasonal to centennial, natural O2 flux/heat flux ratios are shown to occur in a range of 2 to 10 nmol O2 per Joule of warming, with larger ratios typically occurring at higher latitudes and over longer time scales. The ratios are several times larger than would be expected solely from the effect of heating on the O2 solubility, indicating that most of the O2 exchange is biologically mediated through links between heating and stratification. The change in oceanic O2 inventory through the 1990's is estimated to be 0.3 - 0.4 x 10(exp 14) mol O2 per year based on scaling the observed anomalous long-term ocean warming by natural O2 flux/heating ratios and allowing for uncertainty due to decadal variability. Implications are discussed for carbon budgets based on observed changes in atmospheric O2/N2 ratio and based on observed changes in ocean dissolved inorganic carbon.

  3. Sensitivity of Simulated Global Ocean Carbon Flux Estimates to Forcing by Reanalysis Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    Reanalysis products from MERRA, NCEP2, NCEP1, and ECMWF were used to force an established ocean biogeochemical model to estimate air-sea carbon fluxes (FCO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the global oceans. Global air-sea carbon fluxes and pCO2 were relatively insensitive to the choice of forcing reanalysis. All global FCO2 estimates from the model forced by the four different reanalyses were within 20% of in situ estimates (MERRA and NCEP1 were within 7%), and all models exhibited statistically significant positive correlations with in situ estimates across the 12 major oceanographic basins. Global pCO2 estimates were within 1% of in situ estimates with ECMWF being the outlier at 0.6%. Basin correlations were similar to FCO2. There were, however, substantial departures among basin estimates from the different reanalysis forcings. The high latitudes and tropics had the largest ranges in estimated fluxes among the reanalyses. Regional pCO2 differences among the reanalysis forcings were muted relative to the FCO2 results. No individual reanalysis was uniformly better or worse in the major oceanographic basins. The results provide information on the characterization of uncertainty in ocean carbon models due to choice of reanalysis forcing.

  4. A Global Ocean Tide Model From TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimetry: GOT99.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Goddard Ocean Tide model GOT99.2 is a new solution for the amplitudes and phases of the global oceanic tides, based on over six years of sea-surface height measurements by the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter. Comparison with deep-ocean tide-gauge measurements show that this new tidal solution is an improvement over previous global models, with accuracies for the main semidiurnal lunar constituent M2 now below 1.5 cm (deep water only). The new solution benefits from use of prior hydrodynamic models, several in shallow and inland seas as well as the global finite-element model FES94.1. This report describes some of the data processing details involved in handling the altimetry, and it provides a comprehensive set of global cotidal charts of the resulting solutions. Various derived tidal charts are also provided, including tidal loading deformation charts, tidal gravimetric charts, and tidal current velocity (or transport) charts. Finally, low-degree spherical harmonic coefficients are computed by numerical quadrature and are tabulated for the major short-period tides; these are useful for a variety of geodetic and geophysical purposes, especially in combination with similar estimates from satellite laser ranging.

  5. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  6. Atmospheric fluxes of organic N and P to the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Duce, Robert A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Baker, Alex R.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Dentener, Frank J.; Hunter, Keith A.; Liss, Peter S.; Mahowald, Natalie; Okin, Gregory S.; Sarin, Manmohan; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zamora, Lauren M.; Zhu, Tong

    2012-09-01

    The global tropospheric budget of gaseous and particulate non-methane organic matter (OM) is re-examined to provide a holistic view of the role that OM plays in transporting the essential nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus to the ocean. A global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model was used to construct the first global picture of atmospheric transport and deposition of the organic nitrogen (ON) and organic phosphorus (OP) that are associated with OM, focusing on the soluble fractions of these nutrients. Model simulations agree with observations within an order of magnitude. Depending on location, the observed water soluble ON fraction ranges from ˜3% to 90% (median of ˜35%) of total soluble N in rainwater; soluble OP ranges from ˜20-83% (median of ˜35%) of total soluble phosphorus. The simulations suggest that the global ON cycle has a strong anthropogenic component with ˜45% of the overall atmospheric source (primary and secondary) associated with anthropogenic activities. In contrast, only 10% of atmospheric OP is emitted from human activities. The model-derived present-day soluble ON and OP deposition to the global ocean is estimated to be ˜16 Tg-N/yr and ˜0.35 Tg-P/yr respectively with an order of magnitude uncertainty. Of these amounts ˜40% and ˜6%, respectively, are associated with anthropogenic activities, and 33% and 90% are recycled oceanic materials. Therefore, anthropogenic emissions are having a greater impact on the ON cycle than the OP cycle; consequently increasing emissions may increase P-limitation in the oligotrophic regions of the world's ocean that rely on atmospheric deposition as an important nutrient source.

  7. Are Salps A Silver Bullet Against Global Warming And Ocean Acidification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2006-12-01

    solar panel to power communications & provide remote control. Adjacent pumps are connected at the bottom to maintain relative position. If required, periodic seafloor anchoring can maintain absolute position within an ocean basin. Deployment is low cost as the pumps self-deploy when dropped into the ocean from barges. Pumps would not be deployed in ocean shipping channels, regions used by recreational boaters, nor where excessive tides or currents exist. In a global application, 1,340 arrays each 100,000 km2 are needed to cover the 134 million km2 calculated above. Assuming one pump per square km costing 2,000, an investment of 268 billion is needed. Using a five year payback, this investment is recouped if the carbon credit price is 26.80 per ton applied to sequestering 1.96 billion tons per year of carbon. This is not dramatically different from today's carbon credit price of about 15 per ton. Assuming a governmental mandate of carbon sequestration, today's price could easily increase many-fold, making ocean sequestration using forced upwelling economically attractive. Additional benefits of widespread forced upwelling include: 1 Buffering of ocean pH by removing CO2 during photosynthesis; 2 Possible cooling the upper mixed layer upstream from coral reefs to reduce bleaching from ocean hotspots; 3 Possible mitigation of rapid climate change by enhancing the mixing of arctic/Greenland meltwater; 4 Enhancement of wild fish populations; and, 5 Reduced hurricane intensity, achieved by cooling the upper mixed layer upon approach of a tropical storm in high risk regions such as the Gulf of Mexico.

  8. Heat fluxes of the Indian Ocean from a global eddy-resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garternicht, U.; Schott, F.

    1997-09-01

    The output of the global eddy-resolving ¼° ocean model of Semtner/Chervin (run by the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California) has been used to study the oceanic temperature and heat flux in the Indian Ocean. The meridional heat flux in the northern Indian Ocean is at the low end of the observed values. A vertical overturning cell in the upper 500 m is the main contributor to the annual mean meridional heat flux across 5°S, whereas the horizontal gyre circulation, confined to the upper 500 m, dominates north of the equator. The change of monsoon winds is manifested in a reversal of the meridional circulation throughout the whole water column. The most notable result is a strong linear relationship of the meridional temperature flux and the zonal wind stress component north of 20°S. The model's Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow across the section at 120°E accounts for -8.8±5.1 Sv (1 Sv≡106 m3 s-1). A strong interannual variability during the model run of 3 years shows a maximum range of 12 Sv in January/February and a minimum during March through June. The inflow from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean results in a total annual mean temperature flux of -0.9 PW (1 PW≡1015 W). In the model the temperature flux from the Pacific through the Indian Ocean to the south dominates in comparison with the input of solar heat from the northern Indian Ocean.

  9. Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

    SciTech Connect

    Balaguru, Karthik; Foltz, Gregory R.; Leung, Ruby L.; Emanuel, Kerry

    2016-11-25

    The northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean receives a substantial amount of rainfall and, consequently, has some of the freshest surface waters in the global tropics (Cravatte et al.,2009). With the hydrological cycle projected to strengthen in a warming world (Held and Soden, 2006), a corresponding amplification of the near-surface salinity stratification is expected (Cravatte et al. (2009), Durack et al. (2012)}. These changes have the potential to affect the intensity of `super typhoons', violent storms with deep upper-ocean mixing, strong sea surface cooling, and enhanced sensitivity to ocean stratification effects (Vincent et al., 2013). In this study, observations and coupled climate model simulations are used to examine the impacts of a changing hydrological cycle on the near-surface salinity stratification and the intensity of super typhoons in the northwestern Pacific. Analysis of 30 years of observations over the post-satellite period of 1979-2008 shows that the surface ocean freshened considerably at an average rate of about 0.06 psu/decade, causing a strengthening of upper-ocean salinity stratification and a reduction in the magnitude of super typhoon cold wakes. These changes increased the `Dynamic Potential Intensity (DPI)' (Balaguru et al., 2015), a variant of potential intensity that accounts for ocean stratification, for super typhoons. Averaged over the typhoon season and over the region 130E-150E and 5N-25N, the DPI increased at a rate of 0.13 m/s/decade, which is about 23% of the increasing trend due to changes in the upper-ocean thermal structure alone. Further, examination of the 100-year changes from a suite of coupled climate simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario reveals a continued freshening of the upper ocean. These salinity changes act to reduce the magnitudes of cold wakes and increase the DPI for super typhoons by 0.14 m/s/decade throughout the 21st century.

  10. Decadal variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature in shipboard measurements and in a Global Ocean-Atmosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Vikram M.; Delworth, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability was investigated in a 200-yr integration of a global model of the coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulations developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The second 100 yr of SST in the coupled model's tropical Atlantic region were analyzed with a variety of techniques. Analyses of SST time series, averaged over approximately the same subregions as the Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas (GOSTA) time series, showed that the GFDL SST anomalies also undergo pronounced quasi-oscillatory decadal and multidecadal variability but at somewhat shorter timescales than the GOSTA SST anomalies. Further analyses of the horizontal structures of the decadal timescale variability in the GFDL coupled model showed the existence of two types of variability in general agreement with results of the GOSTA SST time series analyses. One type, characterized by timescales between 8 and 11 yr, has high spatial coherence within each hemisphere but not between the two hemispheres of the tropical Atlantic. A second type, characterized by timescales between 12 and 20 yr, has high spatial coherence between the two hemispheres. The second type of variability is considerably weaker than the first. As in the GOSTA time series, the multidecadal variability in the GFDL SST time series has approximately opposite phases between the tropical North and South Atlantic Oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of the tropical Atlantic SST anomalies revealed a north-south bipolar pattern as the dominant pattern of decadal variability. It is suggested that the bipolar pattern can be interpreted as decadal variability of the interhemispheric gradient of SST anomalies. The decadal and multidecadal timescale variability of the tropical Atlantic SST, both in the actual and in the GFDL model, stands out significantly above the background 'red noise' and is coherent within each of the time series, suggesting that specific sets of

  11. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases.

    PubMed

    Watson, Reg A; Nowara, Gabrielle B; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S; Tracey, Sean R; Carter, Chris G

    2015-06-16

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes.

  12. Marine foods sourced from farther as their use of global ocean primary production increases

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Reg A.; Nowara, Gabrielle B.; Hartmann, Klaas; Green, Bridget S.; Tracey, Sean R.; Carter, Chris G.

    2015-01-01

    The growing human population must be fed, but historic land-based systems struggle to meet expanding demand. Marine production supports some of the world's poorest people but increasingly provides for the needs of the affluent, either directly by fishing or via fodder-based feeds for marine and terrestrial farming. Here we show the expanding footprint of humans to utilize global ocean productivity to feed themselves. Our results illustrate how incrementally each year, marine foods are sourced farther from where they are consumed and moreover, require an increasing proportion of the ocean's primary productivity that underpins all marine life. Though mariculture supports increased consumption of seafood, it continues to require feeds based on fully exploited wild stocks. Here we examine the ocean's ability to meet our future demands to 2100 and find that even with mariculture supplementing near-static wild catches our growing needs are unlikely to be met without significant changes. PMID:26079714

  13. Observed and modeled global-ocean turbulence regimes as deduced from surface trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Jenny A. U.; Döös, Kristofer; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Artale, Vincenzo; Coward, Andrew; Brodeau, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to follow up and remember the work on Lagrangian diffusion undertaken by Volfango Rupolo, who died prematurely nearly three years ago. It was within this field that he achieved the highest of creativity, and his rather recent 2007 work Rupolo (2007) is undoubtedly the fullest and most important example. In that paper, he identified the utility of the relationship between the acceleration and velocity time scales of Lagrangian trajectories, and he separated these trajectories into four homogenous classes according to their correlation and dispersal properties. This classification is better known as 'trajectories taxonomy' and can be used to characterize and separate different turbulence regimes in the global ocean (Rupolo, 2007). He showed that the Lagrangian time scales could be obtained from the inverse use of Lagrangian Stochastic Models, and proposed a screening method for rationalizing the data analysis using the time scale relationships, and successfully applied it to both drifter and Argo-float observations. In the present study, his data analysis methods have been extended to study and evaluate trajectories from both surface drifters and an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with different grid resolutions. The drifter data can most accurately be described as quasi-Lagrangian trajectories due to the fact that although the buoy is freely drifting in the horizontal plane, it is anchored at 15 m depth by its drogue, and thus the observed trajectories represent a two-dimensional (2D) approximation of the surrounding flow field. The model trajectories were obtained by analytical computations of the particle advection equation, using the Lagrangian open-source software package TRACMASS, in the near-surface velocity fields from three different configurations of the global NEMO Ocean/Sea-Ice general circulation model. In global-scale ocean modeling, compromises are frequently made in terms of grid resolution and time-averaging of the output

  14. Validation of a global finite element sea-ice ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, R.; Danilov, S.; Schröter, J.

    2009-04-01

    Results from a global Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) are evaluated using a wide range of observational datasets. FESOM's ocean component is a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model using isopycnic diffusion and a Gent-McWilliams scheme to parameterize the effects of sub-gridscale turbulence on tracer distribution. Vertical mixing and convection are parameterized as a function of the Richardson number and the Monin-Obukhov length. A finite element dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice-model with elastic-viscous-plastic rheology has been developed and coupled to the ocean component. The model features a prognostic snow layer but neglects internal heat storage. All model components are discretized on a triangular/tetrahedral grid with a continuous, conforming representation of model variables. The coupled model has been run in a global configuration and forced with NCEP daily atmospheric reanalysis data for 1948-2007. Results are analysed with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. While summer ice extent is underestimated in both hemispheres, winter ice extents are in good agreement with satellite data. Southern Ocean sea ice thickness distribution agrees well with ship-based observations and even quantitatively with data from upwards looking sonars (ULS). Sea ice freezing rates have been validated using repeated salinity profiles from Southern Elephant Seals. Gulf Stream transport is underestimated, but transports of the Kuroshio and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current appear realistic. A comparison of numerical tracer studies to observed CFC distribution indicates that bottom layer ventilation occurs on realistic pathways. Global meridional overturning features a strong Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) cell, while the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) appears to be on the weak side. Besides pure model validation, the study also identifies regions and processes that critically require a locally increased horizontal resolution in order to be represented

  15. The role of the Arabian Sea in the global ocean nitrogen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Six, Katharina D.; Gaye, Birgit; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    2010-05-01

    The Arabian Sea covers only a small area of the world oceans, but has a significant influence on the global cycle of nitrogen. It is one of the three oceanic regions where a mid water oxygen minimum zone has been observed. Under hypoxic conditions the oxygen source used by bacteria to reduce organic matter is nitrate. This leads to the progressive reduction of biologically available nitrogen to elemental nitrogen, the denitrification. The depletion of nitrate, a macro nutrient, affects the biological production, in turn the carbon cycle and, thus, the global climate. In order to preserve the observed global ratio of P to N, the opposite process, the nitrogen fixation, occurring in surface waters, should balance on long times scales the oceanic loss of nitrogen. To date, the oceanic budget of fixed nitrogen is still poorly understood. Neither reliable estimates of the magnitude of the nitrate loss during denitrification in the Arabian Sea and in the world oceans nor knowledge about climate induced variations in the nitrogen cycle are available. This study aims to simulate the global nitrogen cycle with special emphasis on the Arabian Sea. The modelling approach, based on the isotopic signature of nitrate, permits to evaluate the transformations between N-species within the cycle. Therefore, the hypotheses formulated in literature on the occurrence of different mechanisms and their relative rates can be tested. Particular focus is on crucial processes as the denitrification and nitrification. The consideration of the almost parallel isotopic fractionation of oxygen, which is fixed in nitrate, gives additional insight into the rate of nitrification. The study concentrates furthermore on potential climate feedbacks of the nitrogen cycle. The modelling tool is the ocean general circulation model MPIOM (1°x1°, 40 vertical levels) with the biogeochemistry submodel HAMOCC5.1 embedded. Such an instrument offers the unique opportunity of tracking single processes and

  16. Community Observatories: Fostering Ideas that STEM From Ocean Sense: Local Observations. Global Connections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M. S.; Ewing, N.; Hoeberechts, M.; Riddell, D. J.; McLean, M. A.; Brown, J. C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) uses education and communication to inspire, engage and educate via innovative "meet them where they are, and take them where they need to go" programs. ONC data are accessible via the internet allowing for the promotion of programs wherever the learners are located. We use technologies such as web portals, mobile apps and citizen science to share ocean science data with many different audiences. Here we focus specifically on one of ONC's most innovative programs: community observatories and the accompanying Ocean Sense program. The approach is based on equipping communities with the same technology enabled on ONC's large cabled observatories. ONC operates the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories and they collect data on physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of the ocean over long time periods, supporting research on complex Earth processes in ways not previously possible. Community observatories allow for similar monitoring on a smaller scale, and support STEM efforts via a teacher-led program: Ocean Sense. This program, based on local observations and global connections improves data-rich teaching and learning via visualization tools, interactive plotting interfaces and lesson plans for teachers that focus on student inquiry and exploration. For example, students use all aspects of STEM by accessing, selecting, and interpreting data in multiple dimensions, from their local community observatories to the larger VENUS and NEPTUNE networks. The students make local observations and global connections in all STEM areas. The first year of the program with teachers and students who use this innovative technology is described. Future community observatories and their technological applications in education, communication and STEM efforts are also described.

  17. Patterns and Variability in Global Ocean Chlorophyll: Satellite Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson

    2004-01-01

    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 4% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. These trend analyses follow earlier results showing decadal declines in global ocean chlorophyll and primary production. To understand the causes of these changes and trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The model utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. This enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll. A full discussion of the changes and trends, possible causes, modeling approaches, and data assimilation will be the focus of the seminar.

  18. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-22

    sea -ice the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST in the Great Lakes that coverage. may otherwise included in RTG. [7] These differences between MODAS and...and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface temperature (SST) analyses are examined and compared. The 1/81 Modular Ocean Data Analysis...10.1029/2006JC004021, 2007 ore FuN Awtle Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface f!Tr7 1 UTION STATENT-T!T A temperatures over the global

  19. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-11-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes.

  20. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes. PMID:26568024

  1. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-11-16

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes.

  2. Global net community production and the putative net heterotrophy of the oligotrophic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberry, Toby K.; Williams, Peter J. Le B.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    Reconciling rates of organic carbon export from the euphotic zone with the consumption of organic material in the dark ocean remains one of the major quantitative uncertainties of the ocean carbon cycle. Euphotic zone net community production (NCP) provides one broad constraint on export flux and potential carbon drawdown. However, in vitro measurements of NCP consistently suggest that oligotrophic oceans are net heterotrophic, which is inconsistent with evidence of their carbon export to depth. Further, we have been unable to identify organic inputs on a scale to supplement the purported net heterotrophy. Here, we calculate global NCP rates using empirical relationships between in vitro photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R) and a satellite-based productivity model. A low value for global NCP (˜139 ± 325 Tmol C a-1) is found when a single P versus R (PvR) relation is derived from all in vitro data, with areas of net heterotrophy occupying 52% of the surface ocean. If a set of PvR relationships are instead derived by segregating the in vitro data into broad latitudinal zones associated with differing nutrient dynamics, we find a global NCP distribution in better agreement with independent model estimates of particulate carbon export, except in the 10°-40° latitudinal band where negative NCP values remain. Consistency between NCP and particulate export across all latitudes is achieved by applying a single PvR relationship derived using all in vitro data collected outside the 10°-40° latitudinal band. With this model, global NCP is estimated at ˜781 ± 393 Tmol C a-1 and modeled values at well-characterized field sites are in good agreement with non-incubation based in situ measurements. We infer from our results that in vitro NCP data from oligotrophic sites are too low, and suggest that this error is more likely the result of underestimated photosynthesis than overestimated respiration, although the precise physiological nature of the problem remains to be

  3. Transports and budgets of volume, heat, and salt from a global eddy-resolving ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, M.P.; Semtner, A.J. Jr.; Chervin, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    The results from an integration of a global ocean circulation model have been condensed into an analysis of the volume, heat, and salt transports among the major ocean basins. Transports are also broken down between the model`s Ekman, thermocline, and deep layers. Overall, the model does well. Horizontal exchanges of mass, heat, and salt between ocean basins have reasonable values: and the volume of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) transport is in general agreement with what limited observations exist. On a global basis the zonally integrated meridional heat transport is poleward at all latitudes except for the latitude band 30{degrees}S to 45{degrees}S. This anomalous transport is most likely a signature of the model`s inability to form Antarctic Intermediate (AAIW) and Antarctic bottom water (AABW) properly. Eddy heat transport is strong at the equator where its convergence heats the equatorial Pacific about twice as much as it heats the equatorial Atlantic. The greater heating in the Pacific suggests that mesoscale eddies may be a vital mechanism for warming and maintaining an upwelling portion of the global conveyor-belt circulation. The model`s fresh water transport compares well with observations. However, in the Atlantic there is an excessive southward transport of fresh water due to the absence of the Mediterranean outflow and weak northward flow of AAIW. Perhaps the model`s greatest weakness is the lack of strong AAIW and AABW circulation cells. Accurate thermohaline forcing in the North Atlantic (based on numerous hydrographic observations) helps the model adequately produce NADW. In contrast, the southern ocean is an area of sparse observation. Better thermohaline observations in this area may be needed if models such as this are to produce the deep convection that will achieve more accurate simulations of the global 3-dimensional circulation. 41 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  4. NAVSTAR global positioning system applicability to the National Oceanic Satellite System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into the potential for applying NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) user equipment to the spacecraft of the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS). Two widely different navigation goals for NOSS spacecraft are examined: one being moderate accuracy, real-time navigation utilizing the simplest of GPS receivers, and the other being precision vertical displacement measurement over limited arcs utilizing specialized GPS equipment, possibly with ground data processing.

  5. Modeling Abrupt Change in Global Sea Level Arising from Ocean - Ice-Sheet Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, David M

    2011-09-24

    It is proposed to develop, validate, and apply a coupled ocean ice-sheet model to simulate possible, abrupt future change in global sea level. This research is to be carried out collaboratively between an academic institute and a Department of Energy Laboratory (DOE), namely, the PI and a graduate student at New York University (NYU) and climate model researchers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The NYU contribution is mainly in the area of incorporating new physical processes into the model, while the LANL efforts are focused on improved numerics and overall model development. NYU and LANL will work together on applying the model to a variety of modeling scenarios of recent past and possible near-future abrupt change to the configuration of the periphery of the major ice sheets. The project's ultimate goal is to provide a robust, accurate prediction of future global sea level change, a feat that no fully-coupled climate model is currently capable of producing. This proposal seeks to advance that ultimate goal by developing, validating, and applying a regional model that can simulate the detailed processes involved in sea-level change due to ocean ice-sheet interaction. Directly modeling ocean ice-sheet processes in a fully-coupled global climate model is not a feasible activity at present given the near-complete absence of development of any such causal mechanism in these models to date.

  6. Going with the flow: the role of ocean circulation in global marine ecosystems under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    van Gennip, Simon J; Popova, Ekaterina E; Yool, Andrew; Pecl, Gretta T; Hobday, Alistair J; Sorte, Cascade J B

    2016-12-09

    Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced productivity are widely considered to be the major stressors to ocean ecosystems induced by emissions of CO2 . However, an overlooked stressor is the change in ocean circulation in response to climate change. Strong changes in the intensity and position of the western boundary currents have already been observed, and the consequences of such changes for ecosystems are beginning to emerge. In this study, we address climatically induced changes in ocean circulation on a global scale but relevant to propagule dispersal for species inhabiting global shelf ecosystems, using a high-resolution global ocean model run under the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenario. The ¼ degree model resolution allows improved regional realism of the ocean circulation beyond that of available CMIP5-class models. We use a Lagrangian approach forced by modelled ocean circulation to simulate the circulation pathways that disperse planktonic life stages. Based on trajectory backtracking, we identify present-day coastal retention, dominant flow and dispersal range for coastal regions at the global scale. Projecting into the future, we identify areas of the strongest projected circulation change and present regional examples with the most significant modifications in their dominant pathways. Climatically induced changes in ocean circulation should be considered as an additional stressor of marine ecosystems in a similar way to ocean warming or acidification.

  7. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2017-02-01

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2, this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: (1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; (2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; (3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and (4) heat budget analysis shows that the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  8. Assessing the contribution of foraminiferan protists to global ocean carbonate production.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin R

    2008-01-01

    Larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera are prominent and important producers of calcium carbonate in modern tropical environments. With an estimated production of at least 130 million tons of CaCO(3) per year, they contribute almost 5% of the annual present-day carbonate production in the world's reef and shelf areas (0-200 m) and approximately 2.5% of the CaCO(3) of all oceans. Together with non-symbiont-bearing smaller foraminifera, all benthic foraminifera are estimated to annually produce 200 million tons of calcium carbonate worldwide. The majority of foraminiferal calcite in modern oceans is produced by planktic foraminifera. With an estimated annual production of at least 1.2 billion tons, planktic foraminifera contribute more than 21% of the annual global ocean carbonate production. Total CaCO(3) of benthic and planktic foraminifera together amounts to 1.4 billion tons of calcium carbonate per year. This accounts to almost 25% of the present-day carbonate production of the oceans, and highlights the importance of foraminifera within the CaCO(3) budget of the world's oceans.

  9. Simulations of the Arctic Boundary Current in an eddy-resolving global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Y.; Nurser, A. J. G.; Bacon, S.; Coward, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shielded from winds by sea ice and is strongly stratified, resulting in extremely low mixing rates. In this quiescent ocean, currents along the continental shelves become the principal dynamical features of the circulation. Observations and model results suggest the existence of a fast oceanic current in the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC). The current flows counterclockwise (cyclonically) along the shelf break of the Siberian, Alaskan and Canadian Arctic shelves all way around the Arctic Ocean margins, leaving through western Fram Strait, and taking about two decades to complete the circuit (Aksenov et al., 2011). Simulations with an eddy-resolving global 1/12 degree NEMO model show that the ACBC consists of several jets with the fastest flow occurring at the shelf break. We compare the models results with observations and examine mechanisms driving the ACBC. Through the analysis of the NEMO simulations performed with eddy-resolving, eddy-permitting and non-eddying model configurations we investigate the effect of resolution on the current. Reference Aksenov, Y., V. V. Ivanov, A. J. G. Nurser, S. Bacon, I. V. Polyakov, A. C. Coward, A. C. Naveira-Garabato, and A. Beszczynska-Moeller (2011), The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09017, doi:10.1029/2010JC006637.

  10. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  11. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  12. Mechanistic site-based emulation of a global ocean biogeochemical model for parametric analysis and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, J. C. P.; Challenor, P. G.; Yool, A.

    2014-09-01

    Biogeochemical ocean circulation models used to investigate the role of plankton ecosystems in global change rely on adjustable parameters to compensate for missing biological complexity. In principle, optimal parameter values can be estimated by fitting models to observational data, including satellite ocean colour products such as chlorophyll that achieve good spatial and temporal coverage of the surface ocean. However, comprehensive parametric analyses require large ensemble experiments that are computationally infeasible with global 3-D simulations. Site-based simulations provide an efficient alternative but can only be used to make reliable inferences about global model performance if robust quantitative descriptions of their relationships with the corresponding 3-D simulations can be established. The feasibility of establishing such a relationship is investigated for an intermediate complexity biogeochemistry model (MEDUSA) coupled with a widely-used global ocean model (NEMO). A site-based mechanistic emulator is constructed for surface chlorophyll output from this target model as a function of model parameters. The emulator comprises an array of 1-D simulators and a statistical quantification of the uncertainty in their predictions. The unknown parameter-dependent biogeochemical environment, in terms of initial tracer concentrations and lateral flux information required by the simulators, is a significant source of uncertainty. It is approximated by a mean environment derived from a small ensemble of 3-D simulations representing variability of the target model behaviour over the parameter space of interest. The performance of two alternative uncertainty quantification schemes is examined: a direct method based on comparisons between simulator output and a sample of known target model "truths" and an indirect method that is only partially reliant on knowledge of target model output. In general, chlorophyll records at a representative array of oceanic sites

  13. Global Forum: The Burden of Bone and Joint Infections: A Growing Demand for More Resources.

    PubMed

    Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2017-03-01

    The rate and severity of septic complications following joint replacement surgery and the incidence of posttraumatic infections are projected to increase at a faster pace because of a tendency to operate on high-risk patients, including older patients, patients with diabetes, and patients who are immunocompromised or have comorbidities. Musculoskeletal infections are devastating adverse events that may become life-threatening conditions. They create an additional burden on total health-care expenditures, and can lead to functional impairment, long-lasting disability, or even permanent handicap, with the inevitable social and economic burdens. The scientific community should take a more active role to draw public attention to the plight of hundreds of thousands of people across the globe who experience complications, become disabled, and, in some cases, die, and it should highlight what could be achieved if the global community takes decisive steps to improve access, early detection, and appropriate care. However, mitigating the adverse personal, clinical, and socioeconomic effects of these conditions requires increasing financial resources provided by both governments and funding organizations. Furthermore, a targeted action plan from the providers and the professional societies should be put in place so that the burden created by bone and joint infections is included in the agenda for global health-care priorities.

  14. Global oceanic thermo-haline warming trend in an eddy-permitting reanalysis context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricaud, Clement; Garric, Gilles; Ferry, Nicolas; Parent, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    Mercator Ocean, the French ocean forecasting center (www.mercator-ocean.fr), has been developing several operational forecasting systems and reanalysis of the physical and biogeochemical 3D-Ocean. In the framework of the European MyOcean project (www.myocean.eu.org), Mercator has produced global eddy-permitting reanalysis over the altimetry years (1992-2012). They are driven by the ECMWF atmospheric re-analyses ERAinterim at the surface via the CORE bulk formulae without any relaxation. In order to better capture high frequency variability, the atmospheric forcing is sampled to 3H conjointly with a diurnal cycle applied to the downwelling shortwave radiative atmospheric forcing. Those global ¼° reanalysis are based on the NEMO OGCM platform with 75 vertical z-levels. NEMO sea-ice model LIM2 is used with EVP rheology. The assimilation method is a reduced order Kalman filter based on SEEK formulation with bias correction scheme for temperature and salinity and an Incremental Analysis Update. Data assimilated are in situ profiles (CORIOLIS GDAC), REYNOLDS 0.25° AVHRR-only SST, AVISO along track SLA, and Mean Dynamic Topography (CNES-CLS09). Distribution of the 3D thermo-haline content in different layers is evaluated in terms of linear trend and compared favorably to estimations issued from in-situ data base (ARGO network). The 2-dimensional trend of the steric signal, in general agreement with in-situ estimation, is particularly emphasized. A similar experiment performed without assimilation also allowed us to qualify the model and the assimilation components of the reanalysis system.

  15. Global Autocorrelation Scales of the Partial Pressure of Oceanic CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2004-01-01

    A global database of approximately 1.7 million observations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters (pCO2) collected between 1970 and 2003 is used to estimate its spatial autocorrelation structure. The patterns of the lag distance where the autocorrelation exceeds 0.8 is similar to patterns in the spatial distribution of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation indicating that ocean circulation processes play a significant role in determining the spatial variability of pCO2. For example, the global maximum of the distance at which autocorrelations exceed 0.8 averages about 140 km in the equatorial Pacific. Also, the lag distance at which the autocorrelation exceed 0.8 is greater in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream than it is near the Kuroshio, approximately 50 km near the Gulf Stream as opposed to 20 km near the Kuroshio. Separate calculations for times when the sun is north and south of the equator revealed no obvious seasonal dependence of the spatial autocorrelation scales. The pCO2 measurements at Ocean Weather Station (OWS) 'P', in the eastern subarctic Pacific (50 N, 145 W) is the only fixed location where an uninterrupted time series of sufficient length exists to calculate a meaningful temporal autocorrelation function for lags greater than a few days. The estimated temporal autocorrelation function at OWS 'P', is highly variable. A spectral analysis of the longest four pCO2 time series indicates a high level of variability occurring over periods from the atmospheric synoptic to the maximum length of the time series, in this case 42 days. It is likely that a relative peak in variability with a period of 3-6 days is related to atmospheric synoptic period variability and ocean mixing events due to wind stirring. However, the short length of available time series makes identifying temporal relationships between pCO2 and atmospheric or ocean processes problematic.

  16. Monitoring and Predicting the Export and Fate of Global Ocean Net Primary Production: The EXPORTS Field Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exports Science Definition Team

    2016-04-01

    Ocean ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth's carbon cycle and its quantification on global scales remains one of the greatest challenges in global ocean biogeochemistry. The goal of the EXport Processes in the Ocean from Remote Sensing (EXPORTS) science plan is to develop a predictive understanding of the export and fate of global ocean primary production and its implications for the Earth's carbon cycle in present and future climates. NASA's satellite ocean-color data record has revolutionized our understanding of global marine systems. EXPORTS is designed to advance the utility of NASA ocean color assets to predict how changes in ocean primary production will impact the global carbon cycle. EXPORTS will create a predictive understanding of both the export of organic carbon from the euphotic zone and its fate in the underlying "twilight zone" (depths of 500 m or more) where variable fractions of exported organic carbon are respired back to CO2. Ultimately, it is the sequestration of deep organic carbon transport that defines the impact of ocean biota on atmospheric CO2 levels and hence climate. EXPORTS will generate a new, detailed understanding of ocean carbon transport processes and pathways linking upper ocean phytoplankton processes to the export and fate of organic matter in the underlying twilight zone using a combination of field campaigns, remote sensing and numerical modeling. The overarching objective for EXPORTS is to ensure the success of future satellite missions by establishing mechanistic relationships between remotely sensed signals and carbon cycle processes. Through a process-oriented approach, EXPORTS will foster new insights on ocean carbon cycling that will maximize its societal relevance and be a key component in the U.S. investment to understand Earth as an integrated system.

  17. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass has a mean of 8.4 μg C l-1, median of 0.15 μg C l-1 and a standard deviation of 63.46 μg C l-1. The global annual average estimate of epipelagic macrozooplankton, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. Biomass is highest in the tropics, decreasing in the sub-tropics and increasing slightly towards the poles. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted in the most part by the lack of information on the size of the

  18. Distribution of known macrozooplankton abundance and biomass in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, R.; Buitenhuis, E. T.; Le Quéré, C.; Gosselin, M.-P.

    2013-07-01

    Macrozooplankton are an important link between higher and lower trophic levels in the oceans. They serve as the primary food for fish, reptiles, birds and mammals in some regions, and play a role in the export of carbon from the surface to the intermediate and deep ocean. Little, however, is known of their global distribution and biomass. Here we compiled a dataset of macrozooplankton abundance and biomass observations for the global ocean from a collection of four datasets. We harmonise the data to common units, calculate additional carbon biomass where possible, and bin the dataset in a global 1 × 1 degree grid. This dataset is part of a wider effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. Over 387 700 abundance data and 1330 carbon biomass data have been collected from pre-existing datasets. A further 34 938 abundance data were converted to carbon biomass data using species-specific length frequencies or using species-specific abundance to carbon biomass data. Depth-integrated values are used to calculate known epipelagic macrozooplankton biomass concentrations and global biomass. Global macrozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 350 m, has a mean of 8.4 μg C L-1, median of 0.2 μg C L-1 and a standard deviation of 63.5 μg C L-1. The global annual average estimate of macrozooplankton biomass in the top 350 m, based on the median value, is 0.02 Pg C. There are, however, limitations on the dataset; abundance observations have good coverage except in the South Pacific mid-latitudes, but biomass observation coverage is only good at high latitudes. Biomass is restricted to data that is originally given in carbon or to data that can be converted from abundance to carbon. Carbon conversions from abundance are restricted by the lack of information on the size of the organism and/or the absence of taxonomic information. Distribution patterns of global

  19. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  20. Oil spill detection in ocean environment via ultrasonic imaging and spectral fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Nizam U.; Sakla, Adel A.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-08-01

    A novel technique for oil spill detection in an ocean environment from ultrasonic hyperspectral imagery (UHI) using spectral fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (SFJTC) is presented. Since UHI is a new concept and such data are not available, for this work an UHI dataset is created from pure target (oil) and background (sea water) signatures using a linear mixing model. A new SFJTC-based technique for oil spill detection in ocean environment has been developed and tested by using the UHI dataset. To evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, we used the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC. Test results confirm that the proposed technique shows excellent results even in the presence of a large amount of noise in the UHI data.

  1. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration

  2. Global Seasonal Climatologies of Ocean Chlorophyll: Blending In situ and Satellite Data for the CZCS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.

    1999-01-01

    The historical archives of in situ (National Oceanographic Data Center) and satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll data were combined using the blended analysis method of Reynolds [1988] in an attempt to construct an improved climatological seasonal representation of global chlorophyll distributions. The results of the blended analysis differed dramatically from the CZCS representation: global chlorophyll estimates increased 8-35% in the blended analysis depending upon season. Regional differences were even larger, up to 140% in the equatorial Indian Ocean in summer (during the southwest monsoon). Tropical Pacific chlorophyll values increased 25-41%. The results suggested that the CZCS generally underestimates chlorophyll. Regional and seasonal differences in the blended analysis were sufficiently large as to produce a different representation of global chlorophyll distributions than otherwise inferred from CZCS data alone. Analyses of primary production and biogeochemical cycles may be substantially impacted by these results.

  3. A global mass balance analysis of the source of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wania, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Whereas the pervasive and abundant presence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the Arctic marine food chain is clearly established, their origin and transport pathway into the Arctic Ocean are not. Either the atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds, such as the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), or the long-range oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is seen as contributing the bulk of the PFCA input to the Arctic. Here simulations with the zonally averaged global fate and transport model Globo-POP, in combination with historical emission estimates for FTOHs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used to evaluate the relative efficiency and importance of the two transport pathways. Estimates of the emission-independent Arctic Contamination Potential reveal that the oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is more than 10-fold more efficient than the atmospheric degradation of FTOHs in delivering PFCAs to the Arctic, mostly because of the low yield of the reaction. The cumulative historic emissions of FTOHs are lower than those estimated for PFOA alone by a factor of 2-3, further limiting the contribution that precursor oxidation makes to the total PFCAs load in the Arctic Ocean. Accordingly, when fed only with FTOH emissions, the model predicts FTOH air concentrations in agreement with the reported measurements, but yields Arctic seawater concentrations for the PFOA that are 2 orders of magnitude too low. Whereas ocean transport is thus very likely the dominant pathway of PFOA into the Arctic Ocean, the major transport route of longer chain PFCAs depends on the size of their direct emissions relative to those of 10:2 FTOH. The predicted time course of Arctic seawater concentrations is very similar for directly emitted and atmospherically generated PFCAs, implying that neither past doubling times of PFCA concentrations in Arctic marine mammals nor any future time trends are likely to resolve the question of the dominant source of PFCAs.

  4. Recent development of the Met Office operational ocean forecasting system: an overview and assessment of the new Global FOAM forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockley, E. W.; Martin, M. J.; McLaren, A. J.; Ryan, A. G.; Waters, J.; Lea, D. J.; Mirouze, I.; Peterson, K. A.; Sellar, A.; Storkey, D.

    2014-11-01

    The Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) is an operational ocean analysis and forecast system run daily at the Met Office. FOAM provides modelling capability in both deep ocean and coastal shelf sea regimes using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model as its dynamical core. The FOAM Deep Ocean suite produces analyses and 7-day forecasts of ocean tracers, currents and sea ice for the global ocean at 1/4° resolution. Satellite and in situ observations of temperature, salinity, sea level anomaly and sea ice concentration are assimilated by FOAM each day over a 48 h observation window. The FOAM Deep Ocean configurations have recently undergone a major upgrade which has involved the implementation of a new variational, first guess at appropriate time (FGAT) 3D-Var, assimilation scheme (NEMOVAR); coupling to a different, multi-thickness-category, sea ice model (CICE); the use of coordinated ocean-ice reference experiment (CORE) bulk formulae to specify the surface boundary condition; and an increased vertical resolution for the global model. In this paper the new FOAM Deep Ocean system is introduced and details of the recent changes are provided. Results are presented from 2-year reanalysis integrations of the Global FOAM configuration including an assessment of short-range ocean forecast accuracy. Comparisons are made with both the previous FOAM system and a non-assimilative FOAM system. Assessments reveal considerable improvements in the new system to the near-surface ocean and sea ice fields. However there is some degradation to sub-surface tracer fields and in equatorial regions which highlights specific areas upon which to focus future improvements.

  5. A global, high-resolution data set of ice sheet topography, cavity geometry, and ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Arndt, Jan Erik; Savstrup Kristensen, Steen; Mayer, Christoph; Morlighem, Mathieu; Steinhage, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the polar ice sheets by interacting with the ice shelves in Antarctica and with the marine-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland. Given that the flux of warm water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavities is steered by complex bathymetry, a detailed topography data set is an essential ingredient for models that address ice-ocean interaction. We followed the spirit of the global RTopo-1 data set and compiled consistent maps of global ocean bathymetry, upper and lower ice surface topographies, and global surface height on a spherical grid with now 30 arcsec grid spacing. For this new data set, called RTopo-2, we used the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO_2014) as the backbone and added the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean version 3 (IBCAOv3) and the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) version 1. While RTopo-1 primarily aimed at a good and consistent representation of the Antarctic ice sheet, ice shelves, and sub-ice cavities, RTopo-2 now also contains ice topographies of the Greenland ice sheet and outlet glaciers. In particular, we aimed at a good representation of the fjord and shelf bathymetry surrounding the Greenland continent. We modified data from earlier gridded products in the areas of Petermann Glacier, Hagen Bræ, and Sermilik Fjord, assuming that sub-ice and fjord bathymetries roughly follow plausible Last Glacial Maximum ice flow patterns. For the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the floating ice tongue of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier at about 79° N, we incorporated a high-resolution digital bathymetry model considering original multibeam survey data for the region. Radar data for surface topographies of the floating ice tongues of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and Zachariæ Isstrøm have been obtained from the data centres of Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Operation Icebridge (NASA

  6. The Ago Project: Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability. Report for Calendar Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    defining the physical environment of ocean ecosystems. Over 90% of the increased heat content due to global warming of the air/sea/ice climate... coral reef bleaching . In the future, the impacts of a varying climate on the health of the seas and coastal ecosystems will become an increasingly...The Argo Project Global Ocean Observations for Understanding and Prediction of Climate Variability Report for Calendar Year 2005 Dean H

  7. Global biogeophysical interactions between historical deforestation and climate through land surface albedo and interactive ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye

    2017-02-01

    Deforestation is expanding and accelerating into the remaining areas of undisturbed forest, and the quality of the remaining forests is declining today. Assessing the climatic impacts of deforestation can help to rectify this alarming situation. In this paper, how historical deforestation may affect global climate through interactive ocean and surface albedo is examined using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC). Control and anomaly integrations are performed for 1000 years. In the anomaly case, cropland is significantly expanded since AD 1700. The response of climate in deforested areas is not uniform between the regions. In the background of a global cooling of 0.08 °C occurring with cooler surface air above 0.4 °C across 30° N to 75° N from March to September, the surface albedo increase has a global cooling effect in response to global-scale replacement of forests by cropland, especially over northern mid-high latitudes. The northern mid-latitude (30° N-60° N) suffers a prominent cooling in June, suggesting that this area is most sensitive to cropland expansion through surface albedo. Most regions show a consistent trend between the overall cooling in response to historical deforestation and its resulting cooling due to surface albedo anomaly. Furthermore, the effect of the interactive ocean on shaping the climate response to deforestation is greater than that of prescribed SSTs in most years with a maximum spread of 0.05 °C. This difference is more prominent after year 1800 than that before due to the more marked deforestation. These findings show the importance of the land cover change and the land surface albedo, stressing the necessity to analyze other biogeophysical processes of deforestation using interactive ocean.

  8. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  9. Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications.

    PubMed

    Maritorena, Stéphane; Siegel, David A; Peterson, Alan R

    2002-05-20

    Semianalytical (SA) ocean color models have advantages over conventional band ratio algorithms in that multiple ocean properties can be retrieved simultaneously from a single water-leaving radiance spectrum. However, the complexity of SA models has stalled their development, and operational implementation as optimal SA parameter values are hard to determine because of limitations in development data sets and the lack of robust tuning procedures. We present a procedure for optimizing SA ocean color models for global applications. The SA model to be optimized retrieves simultaneous estimates for chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the absorption coefficient for dissolved and detrital materials [a(cdm)(443)], and the particulate backscatter coefficient [b(bp)(443)] from measurements of the normalized water-leaving radiance spectrum. Parameters for the model are tuned by simulated annealing as the global optimization protocol. We first evaluate the robustness of the tuning method using synthetic data sets, and we then apply the tuning procedure to an in situ data set. With the tuned SA parameters, the accuracy of retrievals found with the globally optimized model (the Garver-Siegel-Maritorena model version 1; hereafter GSM01) is excellent and results are comparable with the current Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm for Chl. The advantage of the GSM01 model is that simultaneous retrievals of a(cdm)(443) and b(bp)(443) are made that greatly extend the nature of global applications that can be explored. Current limitations and further developments of the model are discussed.

  10. The G4Foam Experiment: global climate impacts of regional ocean albedo modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Corey J.; Robock, Alan; Xia, Lili; Zambri, Brian; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Reducing insolation has been proposed as a geoengineering response to global warming. Here we present the results of climate model simulations of a unique Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Testbed experiment to investigate the benefits and risks of a scheme that would brighten certain oceanic regions. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CESM CAM4-Chem global climate model was modified to simulate a scheme in which the albedo of the ocean surface is increased over the subtropical ocean gyres in the Southern Hemisphere. In theory, this could be accomplished using a stable, nondispersive foam, comprised of tiny, highly reflective microbubbles. Such a foam has been developed under idealized conditions, although deployment at a large scale is presently infeasible. We conducted three ensemble members of a simulation (G4Foam) from 2020 through to 2069 in which the albedo of the ocean surface is set to 0.15 (an increase of 150 %) over the three subtropical ocean gyres in the Southern Hemisphere, against a background of the RCP6.0 (representative concentration pathway resulting in +6 W m-2 radiative forcing by 2100) scenario. After 2069, geoengineering is ceased, and the simulation is run for an additional 20 years. Global mean surface temperature in G4Foam is 0.6 K lower than RCP6.0, with statistically significant cooling relative to RCP6.0 south of 30° N. There is an increase in rainfall over land, most pronouncedly in the tropics during the June-July-August season, relative to both G4SSA (specified stratospheric aerosols) and RCP6.0. Heavily populated and highly cultivated regions throughout the tropics, including the Sahel, southern Asia, the Maritime Continent, Central America, and much of the Amazon experience a statistically significant increase in precipitation minus evaporation. The temperature response to the relatively modest global average forcing of -1.5 W m-2 is amplified through a series of positive cloud feedbacks, in which more

  11. The G4Foam Experiment: Global climate impacts of regional ocean albedo modification

    DOE PAGES

    Gabriel, Corey J.; Robock, Alan; Xia, Lili; ...

    2017-01-12

    Reducing insolation has been proposed as a geoengineering response to global warming. Here we present the results of climate model simulations of a unique Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Testbed experiment to investigate the benefits and risks of a scheme that would brighten certain oceanic regions. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CESM CAM4-Chem global climate model was modified to simulate a scheme in which the albedo of the ocean surface is increased over the subtropical ocean gyres in the Southern Hemisphere. In theory, this could be accomplished using a stable, nondispersive foam, comprised of tiny, highly reflective microbubbles. Such amore » foam has been developed under idealized conditions, although deployment at a large scale is presently infeasible. We conducted three ensemble members of a simulation (G4Foam) from 2020 through to 2069 in which the albedo of the ocean surface is set to 0.15 (an increase of 150%) over the three subtropical ocean gyres in the Southern Hemisphere, against a background of the RCP6.0 (representative concentration pathway resulting in +6Wm-2 radiative forcing by 2100) scenario. After 2069, geoengineering is ceased, and the simulation is run for an additional 20 years. Global mean surface temperature in G4Foam is 0.6 K lower than RCP6.0, with statistically significant cooling relative to RCP6.0 south of 30°N. There is an increase in rainfall over land, most pronouncedly in the tropics during the June–July–August season, relative to both G4SSA (specified stratospheric aerosols) and RCP6.0. Heavily populated and highly cultivated regions throughout the tropics, including the Sahel, southern Asia, the Maritime Continent, Central America, and much of the Amazon experience a statistically significant increase in precipitation minus evaporation. The temperature response to the relatively modest global average forcing of -1.5 W m-2 is amplified through a series of positive cloud feedbacks, in which more

  12. Turnover time of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the dark global ocean.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Teresa S; Reche, Isabel; Fuentes-Lema, Antonio; Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Calvo, Eva; Álvarez, Marta; Marrasé, Cèlia; Stedmon, Colin A; Álvarez-Salgado, X Antón

    2015-01-29

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest reservoirs of reduced carbon on Earth. In the dark ocean (>200 m), most of this carbon is refractory DOM. This refractory DOM, largely produced during microbial mineralization of organic matter, includes humic-like substances generated in situ and detectable by fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we show two ubiquitous humic-like fluorophores with turnover times of 435±41 and 610±55 years, which persist significantly longer than the ~350 years that the dark global ocean takes to renew. In parallel, decay of a tyrosine-like fluorophore with a turnover time of 379±103 years is also detected. We propose the use of DOM fluorescence to study the cycling of resistant DOM that is preserved at centennial timescales and could represent a mechanism of carbon sequestration (humic-like fraction) and the decaying DOM injected into the dark global ocean, where it decreases at centennial timescales (tyrosine-like fraction).

  13. An analysis of errors in special sensor microwave imager evaporation estimates over the global oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esbensen, S. K.; Chelton, D. B.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.

    1993-01-01

    The method proposed by Liu (1984) is used to estimate monthly averaged evaporation over the global oceans from 1 yr of special sensor microwave imager (SDSM/I) data. Intercomparisons involving SSM/I and in situ data are made over a wide range of oceanic conditions during August 1987 and February 1988 to determine the source of errors in the evaporation estimates. The most significant spatially coherent evaporation errors are found to come from estimates of near-surface specific humidity, q. Systematic discrepancies of over 2 g/kg are found in the tropics, as well as in the middle and high latitudes. The q errors are partitioned into contributions from the parameterization of q in terms of the columnar water vapor, i.e., the Liu q/W relationship, and from the retrieval algorithm for W. The effects of W retrieval errors are found to be smaller over most of the global oceans and due primarily to the implicitly assumed vertical structures of temperature and specific humidity on which the physically based SSM/I retrievals of W are based.

  14. Mixing and entrainment of oceanic overflows: Implications for global climate evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecke, Robert; Chen, Jun; Odier, Philippe; Rivera, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Oceanic overflows are important elements of the Earth's global thermohaline circulation but the mixing and entrainment that occur for such overflows is poorly understood. In particular, as overflow water moves down an inclined slope its stability is governed by the competition between stratification, which stabilizes the flow, and vertical shear, which tends to destabilize the flow. The properties of our laboratory experiment are designed to mimic oceanic overflows to the extent achievable on laboratory-accessible length scales. The flow exits a nozzle and flows along an inclined plane such that there is gravitational forcing of the flowing gravity current. Velocity and density fields are measured simultaneous using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence. The flow structure and dynamics of mixing at different downstream locations are investigated for a different levels of stratification and shear. The role of turbulence is examined by comparing cases of turbulent and laminar gravity currents. The implication of these results for ocean simulations and for understanding global climate are discussed.

  15. Prospects for improving the representation of coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Hyder, Patrick; Ashworth, Mike; Harle, James; Hewitt, Helene T.; Liu, Hedong; New, Adrian L.; Pickles, Stephen; Porter, Andrew; Popova, Ekaterina; Icarus Allen, J.; Siddorn, John; Wood, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Accurately representing coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models represents one of the grand challenges of Earth system science. They are regions of immense societal importance through the goods and services they provide, hazards they pose and their role in global-scale processes and cycles, e.g. carbon fluxes and dense water formation. However, they are poorly represented in the current generation of global ocean models. In this contribution, we aim to briefly characterise the problem, and then to identify the important physical processes, and their scales, needed to address this issue in the context of the options available to resolve these scales globally and the evolving computational landscape.We find barotropic and topographic scales are well resolved by the current state-of-the-art model resolutions, e.g. nominal 1/12°, and still reasonably well resolved at 1/4°; here, the focus is on process representation. We identify tides, vertical coordinates, river inflows and mixing schemes as four areas where modelling approaches can readily be transferred from regional to global modelling with substantial benefit. In terms of finer-scale processes, we find that a 1/12° global model resolves the first baroclinic Rossby radius for only ˜ 8 % of regions < 500 m deep, but this increases to ˜ 70 % for a 1/72° model, so resolving scales globally requires substantially finer resolution than the current state of the art.We quantify the benefit of improved resolution and process representation using 1/12° global- and basin-scale northern North Atlantic nucleus for a European model of the ocean (NEMO) simulations; the latter includes tides and a k-ɛ vertical mixing scheme. These are compared with global stratification observations and 19 models from CMIP5. In terms of correlation and basin-wide rms error, the high-resolution models outperform all these CMIP5 models. The model with tides shows improved seasonal cycles compared to the high-resolution model without

  16. Global population genetic structure and biogeography of the oceanic copepods Eucalanus hyalinus and E. spinifer.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Erica

    2005-11-01

    Although theory dictates that limited gene flow between populations is a necessary precursor to speciation under allopatric and parapatric models, it is currently unclear how genetic differentiation between conspecific populations can arise in open-ocean plankton species. I examined two recently distinguished sympatric, circumglobal sister species, Eucalanus hyalinus and Eucalanus spinifer, for population genetic structure throughout their global biogeographic ranges. Here I show that oceanic zooplankton species can be highly genetically structured on macrogeographic spatial scales, despite experiencing extensive gene flow within features of the large-scale ocean circulation. Mitochondrial DNA analyses of 450 and 383 individuals of E. hyalinus and E. spinifer, respectively, revealed that habitat discontinuities at the boundaries of subtropical gyres in the North and South Pacific, as well as continental land masses, acted as effective barriers to gene flow for both species. However, the impact of specific barriers on population genetic structure varied between the sister species, despite their close phylogenetic relationship and similar circumglobal biogeogeographic distributions. The sister species differed in their oceanographic distributions, with E. spinifer dominating oligotrophic waters of the subtropical gyres and E. hyalinus more abundant along central water mass boundaries and in frontal zones and upwelling systems. This species-specific difference in the oceanographic habitat is an important factor determining the historical and contemporary patterns of dispersal of the two species. I suggest that species-specific ecological differences are likely to be a primary determinant of population genetic structure of open-ocean plankton.

  17. Spurious AMOC trends in global ocean sea-ice models related to subarctic freshwater forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Erik; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus W.

    2013-09-01

    Global ocean sea-ice models with an atmospheric forcing based on bulk formulations of the air-sea fluxes exhibit spurious trends in key flow indices like the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), constraining their use in investigations of multi-decadal ocean variability. To identify the critical model factors affecting the temporal evolution of the AMOC on time scales of up to 60 years, a series of experiments with both eddy-permitting (0.25°) and non-eddying (0.5°) ocean-ice models has been performed, focusing on the influence of artificial choices for the freshwater forcing, in particular the restoring of sea surface salinity towards climatological values. The atmospheric forcing builds on the proposal for Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE), utilizing the refined atmospheric reanalysis products for 1948-2006 compiled by Large and Yeager. Sensitivity experiments with small variations in precipitation (within the observational uncertainty) and sea surface salinity restoring in the subarctic Atlantic produce a wide range of AMOC transports, between upward drifts to more than 22 Sv and nearly-collapsed states with less than 7 Sv, reflecting the excessive role of the salinity feedback in such simulations. In all cases the AMOC is tightly related to the density of the Denmark Strait overflow; changes in that density are governed by the salinity in the Nordic Seas; and in turn, that salinity is strongly affected by the properties of the inflowing North Atlantic water.

  18. Steady-state and transient modeling of tracer and nutrient distributions in the global ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, T.F.; Broecker, W.S.

    1993-03-08

    The balance of stable and decaying tracers was incorporated into a latitude-depth ocean circulation model which resolves the major ocean basin and is coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. The modern distribution of radiocarbon and the analysis of artificial color tracers enabled the census of the deep water masses. We show that good agreement with the observation can be achieved if the surface forcing is modified. The same process could also account for long-term, large-scale changes of the global thermohaline circulation. Uptake rates of carbon are investigated using an inorganic carbon cycle model and performing 2 [times] CO[sub 2]-experiments. We prescribe the industrial evolution of pCO[sub 2] in the atmosphere from 1792 to 1988 and calculate the total flux of carbon into the world ocean. Results are in good agreement with two recent 3-dimensional model simulation. First results using an organic carbon cycle in this model are presented. Changes in the hydrological cycle can stabilize the thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic and enable simulation of climate events resembling the Younger Dryas. By adding the balance of radiocarbon the evolution of its atmospheric concentration is studied during rapid changes of deep ocean ventilation. A resumption of ventilation creates a rapid decrease of atmospheric radiocarbon which is able to mask the natural decay.

  19. Assimilation of oceanic observations in a global coupled Earth system model with the SEIK filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sebastian; Nerger, Lars; Baehr, Johanna

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the assimilation of observed oceanic 3-D temperature and salinity fields into the global coupled Max Planck Institute Earth system model with the SEIK filter from January 1996 to December 2010. Our study is part of an effort to perform and evaluate assimilation and prediction within the same coupled climate model without the use of re-analysis data. We use two assimilation setups, one where oceanic observations over the entire water column are assimilated, and one where only oceanic observations below 50 m depth are assimilated. We compare the results from both assimilations with an unconstrained control experiment. While we do not find significant improvements due to assimilation in terms of the root-mean-square error of simulated temperature, 0-700 m heat content, sea surface height (SSH), and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) against observations, we find the variability in terms of correlation with observations significantly improved due to assimilation, most prominently in the tropical oceans. Improvements over the control experiment are stronger in the sub-50 m assimilation experiment and in integrated quantities (SSH, AMOC).

  20. Survey of the green picoalga Bathycoccus genomes in the global ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vannier, Thomas; Leconte, Jade; Seeleuthner, Yoann; Mondy, Samuel; Pelletier, Eric; Aury, Jean-Marc; de Vargas, Colomban; Sieracki, Michael; Iudicone, Daniele; Vaulot, Daniel; Wincker, Patrick; Jaillon, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Bathycoccus is a cosmopolitan green micro-alga belonging to the Mamiellophyceae, a class of picophytoplankton that contains important contributors to oceanic primary production. A single species of Bathycoccus has been described while the existence of two ecotypes has been proposed based on metagenomic data. A genome is available for one strain corresponding to the described phenotype. We report a second genome assembly obtained by a single cell genomics approach corresponding to the second ecotype. The two Bathycoccus genomes are divergent enough to be unambiguously distinguishable in whole DNA metagenomic data although they possess identical sequence of the 18S rRNA gene including in the V9 region. Analysis of 122 global ocean whole DNA metagenome samples from the Tara-Oceans expedition reveals that populations of Bathycoccus that were previously identified by 18S rRNA V9 metabarcodes are only composed of these two genomes. Bathycoccus is relatively abundant and widely distributed in nutrient rich waters. The two genomes rarely co-occur and occupy distinct oceanic niches in particular with respect to depth. Metatranscriptomic data provide evidence for gain or loss of highly expressed genes in some samples, suggesting that the gene repertoire is modulated by environmental conditions. PMID:27901108

  1. Modeling the Natural Biogeochemical Cycle of Mercury in the Global Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Jaegle, L.; Thompson, L.; Emerson, S. R.; Deutsch, C. A.; Trossman, D. S.; Shao, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) because of its large reservoir mass and re-emission flux via evasion. The currently available Hg models, including 2D slab, 1D column and 0D box model cannot fully resolve the marine Hg cycle because of the lack of the proper spatial resolution. In this work, we have implemented Hg biogeochemistry in a state-of-the-art 3D offline ocean tracer model (OFFTRAC). OFFTRAC simulates the evolution of three Hg species (Hg0aq, HgIIaq and HgPaq), which are diffused and advected in the ocean. Hg0aq and HgII aq are interconverted in the surface ocean via parameterized photochemical and biological redox processes. The partitioning between HgIIaq and HgPaq depends on the local levels of particulate organic carbon (POC). The sinking of HgPaq is parameterized by coupling with the nutrient phosphorous cycle simulated in OFFTRAC. The reduction of HgIIaq to Hg0aq in the anaerobic subsurface water is proportional to the remineralizaiton of POC. OFFTRAC is coupled to a global simulation of the natural atmospheric Hg cycle in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. The GEOS-Chem simulation includes a geogenic source and provides the atmospheric deposition flux of HgII to the ocean and atmospheric Hg0 concentrations. The riverine input of Hg is calculated based on the climatological monthly mean fresh water discharge from continental to ocean and the average soil concentrations near the river mouth. The results show that the riverine input enhances Hg concentrations at surface by a factor of 2-3 near large river mouths and nearby coastal regions. The riverine input approximately doubles surface Hg concentration over the Arctic because of the small basin volume. In the deep ocean, which is not influenced by anthropogenic emissions, the model results (1.1±0.3 pM) generally agree with the observed present-day total Hg concentration profiles (1.4±0.9 pM). In the surface ocean, observations show average total Hg

  2. Evaluation of Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment products on South Florida nested simulations with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki H.; Peng, Ge; Kang, Heesook; Hogan, Patrick J.; Smedstad, Ole-Martin; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2009-02-01

    The South Florida Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (SoFLA-HYCOM) encompasses a variety of coastal regions (the broad Southwest Florida shelf, the narrow Atlantic Keys shelf, the shallow Florida Bay, and Biscayne Bay) and deep regions (the Straits of Florida), including Marine Protected Areas (the Florida Keys Marine Sanctuary and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve). The presence of the strong Loop Current/Florida Current system and associated eddies connects the local and basin-wide dynamics. A multi-nested approach has been developed to ensure resolution of coastal-scale processes and proper interaction with the large scale flows. The simulations are free running and effects of data assimilation are introduced through boundary conditions derived from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment products. The study evaluates the effects of boundary conditions on the successful hindcasting of circulation patterns by a nested model, applied on a dynamically and topographically complex shelf area. Independent (not assimilated) observations are employed for a quantitative validation of the numerical results. The discussion of the prevailing dynamics that are revealed in both modeled and observed patterns suggests the importance of topography resolution and local forcing on the inner shelf to middle shelf areas, while large scale processes are found to dominate the outer shelf flows. The results indicate that the successful hindcasting of circulation patterns in a coastal area that is characterized by complex topography and proximity to a large scale current system requires a dynamical downscaling approach, with simulations that are nested in a hierarchy of data assimilative outer models.

  3. Adaptive wavelet simulation of global ocean dynamics using a new Brinkman volume penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevlahan, N. K.-R.; Dubos, T.; Aechtner, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to easily enforce solid-wall boundary conditions in the presence of complex coastlines, we propose a new mass and energy conserving Brinkman penalization for the rotating shallow water equations. This penalization does not lead to higher wave speeds in the solid region. The error estimates for the penalization are derived analytically and verified numerically for linearized one-dimensional equations. The penalization is implemented in a conservative dynamically adaptive wavelet method for the rotating shallow water equations on the sphere with bathymetry and coastline data from NOAA's ETOPO1 database. This code could form the dynamical core for a future global ocean model. The potential of the dynamically adaptive ocean model is illustrated by using it to simulate the 2004 Indonesian tsunami and wind-driven gyres.

  4. Seasonal variability of eddy kinetic energy in a global high-resolution ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, Jan K.; Böning, Claus W.; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Scheinert, Markus

    2015-11-01

    A global ocean model with 1/12° horizontal resolution is used to assess the seasonal cycle of surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE). The model reproduces the salient features of the observed mean surface EKE, including amplitude and phase of its seasonal cycle in most parts of the ocean. In all subtropical gyres of the Pacific and Atlantic, EKE peaks in summer down to a depth of ˜350 m, below which the seasonal cycle is weak. Investigation of the possible driving mechanisms reveals the seasonal changes in the thermal interactions with the atmosphere to be the most likely cause of the summer maximum of EKE. The development of the seasonal thermocline in spring and summer is accompanied by stronger mesoscale variations in the horizontal temperature gradients near the surface which corresponds, by thermal wind balance, to an intensification of mesoscale velocity anomalies toward the surface.

  5. Global ocean tide models on the eve of Topex/Poseidon

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Some existing global ocean tide models that can provide tide corrections to Topex/Poseidon altimeter data are described. Emphasis is given to the Schwiderski and Cartwright-Ray models, as these are the most comprehensive, highest resolution models, but other models that will soon appear are mentioned. Differences between models for M[sub 2] often exceed 10 cm over vast stretches of the ocean. Comparisons to 80 selected pelagic and island gauge measurements indicate the Schwiderski model is more accurate for the major solar tides, Cartwright-Ray for the major lunar tides. The adequacy of available tide models for studying basin-scale motions is probably marginal at best. The subject, however, is in a state of flux, and one may expect rapid advancement over the next several years.

  6. Global Abundance and Temperature Constraints via Joint Spectroscopic Phase Curve Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, Michael R.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob; Kreidberg, Laura; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic thermal emission phase curves can provide us with a global view of an exoplanet's atmosphere. Different wavelengths probe different atmospheric depths whereas different phases probe different planetary longitudes. This in essence allows us to reconstruct the "3D" thermal and compositional structure of these atmospheres. In this contribution I will discuss the application of powerful atmospheric retrieval approaches to spectroscopic phase curve data, specifically the WFC3+Spitzer IRAC observations of the hot-Jupiter WASP-43b. First I will show the variation in thermal structures and molecular abundances with phase, assuming each phase is independent. Secondly, I will present a new framework for performing a joint retrieval on multiple phases simultaneously. In such a framework, I will test, via Bayesian hypothesis testing, a variety of assumptions. For instance, can the absorption features across all phases be explained with a global metallicity and C-to-O ratio under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium? Can chemical quenching perturb the abundances on the cooler phases more than the hotter phases? Can we tell the difference? Can a global thermal structure "shape" explain all phases or is there structure variation with phase? Answering such questions are critical to understanding the complex interactions of atmospheric dynamics, chemical processes, and radiative energy balance in exoplanet atmospheres.

  7. Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N; Sen Gupta, Alex; England, Matthew H

    2005-08-23

    The anthropogenic introduction of exotic species is one of the greatest modern threats to marine biodiversity. Yet exotic species introductions remain difficult to predict and are easily misunderstood because knowledge of natural dispersal patterns, species diversity, and biogeography is often insufficient to distinguish between a broadly dispersed natural population and an exotic one. Here we compare a global molecular phylogeny of a representative marine meroplanktonic taxon, the moon-jellyfish Aurelia, with natural dispersion patterns predicted by a global biophysical ocean model. Despite assumed high dispersal ability, the phylogeny reveals many cryptic species and predominantly regional structure with one notable exception: the globally distributed Aurelia sp.1, which, molecular data suggest, may occasionally traverse the Pacific unaided. This possibility is refuted by the ocean model, which shows much more limited dispersion and patterns of distribution broadly consistent with modern biogeographic zones, thus identifying multiple introductions worldwide of this cryptogenic species. This approach also supports existing evidence that (i) the occurrence in Hawaii of Aurelia sp. 4 and other native Indo-West Pacific species with similar life histories is most likely due to anthropogenic translocation, and (ii) there may be a route for rare natural colonization of northeast North America by the European marine snail Littorina littorea, whose status as endemic or exotic is unclear.

  8. Eocene global warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Philip F; Norris, Richard D; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Bolton, Clara T; Gibbs, Samantha

    2011-03-17

    'Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced global warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (∼65-34 million years (Myr) ago). The most extreme hyperthermal was the ∼170 thousand year (kyr) interval of 5-7 °C global warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary carbon reservoirs, and other, comparatively modest, hyperthermals have also been linked to the release of sedimentary carbon. Here we show, using new 2.4-Myr-long Eocene deep ocean records, that the comparatively modest hyperthermals are much more numerous than previously documented, paced by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit and have shorter durations (∼40 kyr) and more rapid recovery phases than the PETM. These findings point to the operation of fundamentally different forcing and feedback mechanisms than for the PETM, involving redistribution of carbon among Earth's readily exchangeable surface reservoirs rather than carbon exhumation from, and subsequent burial back into, the sedimentary reservoir. Specifically, we interpret our records to indicate repeated, large-scale releases of dissolved organic carbon (at least 1,600 gigatonnes) from the ocean by ventilation (strengthened oxidation) of the ocean interior. The rapid recovery of the carbon cycle following each Eocene hyperthermal strongly suggests that carbon was re-sequestered by the ocean, rather than the much slower process of silicate rock weathering proposed for the PETM. Our findings suggest that these pronounced climate warming events were driven not by repeated releases of carbon from buried sedimentary sources, but, rather, by patterns of surficial carbon redistribution familiar from younger intervals of Earth history.

  9. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40–70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered ‘marginal’ for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on

  10. Interhemispheric Changes in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content and Their Link to Global Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, H.; Lee, S. K.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. The effect of eddies on the NH (SH) poleward of 30° is opposite with heat flux divergence (convergence), which must be balanced by sinking (rising) motion, consistent with a poleward (equatorward) displacement of the jet stream and mean storm track. The mechanism described here could easily be interpreted for the case of strong SAMHT, with the reverse influence on the interhemispheric atmospheric circulation and monsoons. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  11. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

    2013-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40-70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered 'marginal' for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral

  12. The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land system model, Spectral Version 2: FGOALS-s2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qing; Lin, Pengfei; Zhou, Tianjun; Liu, Yimin; Yu, Yongqiang; Wu, Guoxiong; He, Bian; He, Jie; Li, Lijuan; Li, Jiandong; Li, Yangchun; Liu, Hailong; Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaocong; Wang, Zaizhi; Wu, Bo; Wu, Tongwen; Xu, Yongfu; Yu, Haiyang; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Linjiong

    2013-05-01

    The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model, Spectral Version 2 (FGOALS-s2) was used to simulate realistic climates and to study anthropogenic influences on climate change. Specifically, the FGOALS-s2 was integrated with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to conduct coordinated experiments that will provide valuable scientific information to climate research communities. The performances of FGOALS-s2 were assessed in simulating major climate phenomena, and documented both the strengths and weaknesses of the model. The results indicate that FGOALS-s2 successfully overcomes climate drift, and realistically models global and regional climate characteristics, including SST, precipitation, and atmospheric circulation. In particular, the model accurately captures annual and semi-annual SST cycles in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the main characteristic features of the Asian summer monsoon, which include a low-level southwestern jet and five monsoon rainfall centers. The simulated climate variability was further examined in terms of teleconnections, leading modes of global SST (namely, ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO), and changes in 19th-20th century climate. The analysis demonstrates that FGOALS-s2 realistically simulates extra-tropical teleconnection patterns of large-scale climate, and irregular ENSO periods. The model gives fairly reasonable reconstructions of spatial patterns of PDO and global monsoon changes in the 20th century. However, because the indirect effects of aerosols are not included in the model, the simulated global temperature change during the period 1850-2005 is greater than the observed warming, by 0.6°C. Some other shortcomings of the model are also noted.

  13. Local Observations, Global Connections: An Educational Program Using Ocean Networks Canada's Community-Based Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Hoeberechts, M.; Ewing, N.; Davidson, E.; Riddell, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Schools on Canada's west coast and in the Canadian Arctic are participating in the pilot year of a novel educational program based on analyzing, understanding and sharing ocean data collected by cabled observatories. The core of the program is "local observations, global connections." First, students develop an understanding of ocean conditions at their doorstep through the analysis of community-based observatory data. Then, they connect that knowledge with the health of the global ocean by engaging with students at other schools participating in the educational program and through supplemental educational resources. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data on their computers anywhere around the globe, in near real-time. In addition to the large NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories off the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, ONC has been installing smaller, community-based cabled observatories. Currently two are installed: one in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut and one at Brentwood College School, on Mill Bay in Saanich Inlet, BC. Several more community-based observatories are scheduled for installation within the next year. The observatories support a variety of subsea instruments, such as a video camera, hydrophone and water quality monitor and shore-based equipment including a weather station and a video camera. Schools in communities hosting an observatory are invited to participate in the program, alongside schools located in other coastal and inland communities. Students and teachers access educational material and data through a web portal, and use video conferencing and social media tools to communicate their findings. A series of lesson plans

  14. Prediction of In Vivo Knee Joint Loads Using a Global Probabilistic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navacchia, Alessandro; Myers, Casey A.; Rullkoetter, Paul J.; Shelburne, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal models are powerful tools that allow biomechanical investigations and predictions of muscle forces not accessible with experiments. A core challenge modelers must confront is validation. Measurements of muscle activity and joint loading are used for qualitative and indirect validation of muscle force predictions. Subject-specific models have reached high levels of complexity and can predict contact loads with surprising accuracy. However, every deterministic musculoskeletal model contains an intrinsic uncertainty due to the high number of parameters not identifiable in vivo. The objective of this work is to test the impact of intrinsic uncertainty in a scaled-generic model on estimates of muscle and joint loads. Uncertainties in marker placement, limb coronal alignment, body segment parameters, Hill-type muscle parameters, and muscle geometry were modeled with a global probabilistic approach (multiple uncertainties included in a single analysis). 5–95% confidence bounds and input/output sensitivities of predicted knee compressive loads and varus/valgus contact moments were estimated for a gait activity of three subjects with telemetric knee implants from the “Grand Challenge Competition.” Compressive load predicted for the three subjects showed confidence bounds of 333 ± 248 N, 408 ± 333 N, and 379 ± 244 N when all the sources of uncertainty were included. The measured loads lay inside the predicted 5–95% confidence bounds for 77%, 83%, and 76% of the stance phase. Muscle maximum isometric force, muscle geometry, and marker placement uncertainty most impacted the joint load results. This study demonstrated that identification of these parameters is crucial when subject-specific models are developed. PMID:26720096

  15. Neodymium in the oceans: a global database, a regional comparison and implications for palaeoceanographic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Flierdt, Tina; Griffiths, Alexander M.; Lambelet, Myriam; Little, Susan H.; Stichel, Torben; Wilson, David J.

    2016-11-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater has been used extensively to reconstruct ocean circulation on a variety of time scales. However, dissolved neodymium concentrations and isotopes do not always behave conservatively, and quantitative deconvolution of this non-conservative component can be used to detect trace metal inputs and isotopic exchange at ocean-sediment interfaces. In order to facilitate such comparisons for historical datasets, we here provide an extended global database for Nd isotopes and concentrations in the context of hydrography and nutrients. Since 2010, combined datasets for a large range of trace elements and isotopes are collected on international GEOTRACES section cruises, alongside classical nutrient and hydrography measurements. Here, we take a first step towards exploiting these datasets by comparing high-resolution Nd sections for the western and eastern North Atlantic in the context of hydrography, nutrients and aluminium (Al) concentrations. Evaluating those data in tracer-tracer space reveals that North Atlantic seawater Nd isotopes and concentrations generally follow the patterns of advection, as do Al concentrations. Deviations from water mass mixing are observed locally, associated with the addition or removal of trace metals in benthic nepheloid layers, exchange with ocean margins (i.e. boundary exchange) and/or exchange with particulate phases (i.e. reversible scavenging). We emphasize that the complexity of some of the new datasets cautions against a quantitative interpretation of individual palaeo Nd isotope records, and indicates the importance of spatial reconstructions for a more balanced approach to deciphering past ocean changes. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  16. Problems and prospects of creating a global land-ocean seismic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, D. G.; Kuzin, I. P.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Roginsky, K. A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discussed the advantages and limitations of seismic signal detection on the ocean bottom. The need to create long-term seismic monitoring systems in areas of industrial development on the shelf and continental slope, as well as in areas with high seismic and tsunami hazards, is justified. The results of employing broadband bottom seismographs during expeditions of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS) are described. Autonomous broadband bottom seismographs with operational communication via satellite or radio channels are proposed for creating a global marine seismic network.

  17. Fractal analysis on Enceladus: a global ocean underneath the icy crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Simioni, Emanuele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Plumes of water have been observed erupting from Enceladus' south polar terrain providing direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface, that could be considered global or just a small body of water concentrated at its south pole. Gravity data collected during the spacecraft's several close flyby over the south polar region determined that the icy shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick extending from the south pole up to 50°S (Iess et al. 2014). The hypothesis of a global ocean beneath the icy crust has been raised even in a recent paper of Thomas et al. (2015) thanks to the measurements of the very slight wobble that Enceladus displays as it orbits Saturn. In this work we support the hypothesis of the presence of an ocean layer using the fractal percolation theory. This method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from the south polar terrain up to the north pole. The spatial distribution of fractures on Enceladus has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. We mapped the fractures on Enceladus surface based on April 2010 global mosaic from Cassini mission and applied the fractal method firstly to the south polar terrain finding indeed a fractal correlation of fractures and providing an ice shell thickness of ~40 km. Then, we analyzed fractures of four different regions around the equator and around the north pole inferring an overall ice shell thickness ranging from 35 to 45 km. Our results are in agreement with the gravity observations (Iess et al., 2014) and the mechanical models

  18. A Comparison of Latent Heat Fluxes over Global Oceans for Four Flux Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Nelkin, Eric; Ardizzone, Joe; Atlas, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of global energy and water cycle variability, and to improve model simulations of climate variations, it is vital to have accurate latent heat fluxes (LHF) over global oceans. Monthly LHF, 10-m wind speed (U10m), 10-m specific humidity (Q10h), and sea-air humidity difference (Qs-Q10m) of GSSTF2 (version 2 Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes) over global Oceans during 1992-93 are compared with those of HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data), NCEP (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis). The mean differences, standard deviations of differences, and temporal correlation of these monthly variables over global Oceans during 1992-93 between GSSTF2 and each of the three datasets are analyzed. The large-scale patterns of the 2yr-mean fields for these variables are similar among these four datasets, but significant quantitative differences are found. The temporal correlation is higher in the northern extratropics than in the south for all variables, with the contrast being especially large for da Silva as a result of more missing ship data in the south. The da Silva has extremely low temporal correlation and large differences with GSSTF2 for all variables in the southern extratropics, indicating that da Silva hardly produces a realistic variability in these variables. The NCEP has extremely low temporal correlation (0.27) and large spatial variations of differences with GSSTF2 for Qs-Q10m in the tropics, which causes the low correlation for LHF. Over the tropics, the HOAPS LHF is significantly smaller than GSSTF2 by approx. 31% (37 W/sq m), whereas the other two datasets are comparable to GSSTF2. This is because the HOAPS has systematically smaller LHF than GSSTF2 in space, while the other two datasets have very large spatial variations of large positive and negative LHF differences with GSSTF2 to cancel and to produce smaller regional-mean differences. Our analyses suggest that the GSSTF2 latent heat flux

  19. NASA/GSFC Research Activities for the Global Ocean Carbon Cycle: A Prospectus for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W. W.; Behrenfield, M. J.; Hoge, F. E.; Esaias, W. E.; Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.; McClain, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    There are increasing concerns that anthropogenic inputs of carbon dioxide into the Earth system have the potential for climate change. In response to these concerns, the GSFC Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes has formed the Ocean Carbon Science Team (OCST) to contribute to greater understanding of the global ocean carbon cycle. The overall goals of the OCST are to: 1) detect changes in biological components of the ocean carbon cycle through remote sensing of biooptical properties, 2) refine understanding of ocean carbon uptake and sequestration through application of basic research results, new satellite algorithms, and improved model parameterizations, 3) develop and implement new sensors providing critical missing environmental information related to the oceanic carbon cycle and the flux of CO2 across the air-sea interface. The specific objectives of the OCST are to: 1) establish a 20-year time series of ocean color, 2) develop new remote sensing technologies, 3) validate ocean remote sensing observations, 4) conduct ocean carbon cycle scientific investigations directly related to remote sensing data, emphasizing physiological, empirical and coupled physical/biological models, satellite algorithm development and improvement, and analysis of satellite data sets. These research and mission objectives are intended to improve our understanding of global ocean carbon cycling and contribute to national goals by maximizing the use of remote sensing data.

  20. The role of low temperature alteration of the oceanic crust in global carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, L. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Parrish, R. R.; Austin-Giddings, W.; Dosso, S. E.; Moore, A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of low-temperature (10's of degrees Celsius) seafloor alteration in the long-term carbon cycle has received far less attention than the parallel process on the continents of 'chemical weathering'. This difference in the amount of study of these two sinks for CO2 degassed from the solid Earth does not appear to be based on their relative importance to global C-cycling. A large amount of CO2 is precipitated as carbonate minerals in the upper oceanic crust and this appears to be largely due to in situ alkalinity generation due to reactions within the oceanic crust [1,2]. Better understanding of the role of this CO2 sink in the global carbon cycle requires better constraints on: (i) the controls on alkalinity production during low-temperature alteration of the upper oceanic crust; and (ii) when in the life cycle of a piece of crust most low-temperature reaction occurs. Alkalinity production due to low-temperature alteration of the oceanic crust appears to have varied over the last 160 Myr [3], but whether this reflects differences in ocean composition or ocean bottom temperature is unclear. New data, largely from the Troodos ophiolite, are being collected to determine the reactions involved in alkalinity generation and how these vary as a function of the environmental conditions. To this end, a new suite of volcanic glass major and trace element data have been collected to determine the protolith composition; this is required in computing alkalinity generation from the altered rock compositions. Overall the data collection (bulk-rock compositions, carbonate O-isotopes) is designed to allow us to determine the roles of protolith composition and fluid temperature in alkalinity generation. Sample processing is underway and these new data will be presented. Understanding the timing of low-T alteration of the oceanic crust is important in understanding the impacts of this process on global geochemical cycling. We are applying novel dating approaches to this problem

  1. Recent development of the Met Office operational ocean forecasting system: an overview and assessment of the new Global FOAM forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockley, E. W.; Martin, M. J.; McLaren, A. J.; Ryan, A. G.; Waters, J.; Lea, D. J.; Mirouze, I.; Peterson, K. A.; Sellar, A.; Storkey, D.

    2013-11-01

    The Forecast Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) is an operational ocean analysis and forecast system run daily at the Met Office. FOAM provides modelling capability in both deep ocean and coastal shelf seas regimes using the NEMO ocean model as its dynamical core. The FOAM Deep Ocean suite produces analyses and 7 day forecasts of ocean tracers, currents and sea ice for the global ocean at 1/4° resolution and at 1/12° resolution in the North Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Satellite and in-situ observations of temperature, salinity, sea level anomaly and sea ice concentration are assimilated by FOAM each day over a 48 h observation window. The FOAM Deep Ocean configurations have recently undergone a major upgrade which has involved: the implementation of a new variational, first guess at appropriate time 3D-Var, assimilation scheme (NEMOVAR); coupling to a different, multi-thickness-category, sea ice model (CICE); the use of CORE bulk formulae to specify the surface boundary condition; and an increased vertical resolution for the global model. In this paper the new FOAM Deep Ocean system is introduced and details of the recent changes are provided. Results are presented from 2 yr reanalysis integrations of the Global FOAM configuration including an assessment of forecast accuracy. Comparisons are made with both the previous FOAM system and a non-assimilative FOAM system. Assessments reveal considerable improvements in the new system to the near-surface ocean and sea ice fields. However there is some degradation to sub-surface tracer fields and in equatorial regions which highlight specific areas upon which to focus future improvements.

  2. Iron-light colimitation in a global ocean biogeochemical model and the sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to dust deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickelsen, L.; Oschlies, A.

    2012-12-01

    The iron hypothesis of glacial-interglacial cycles states that glacial increases in the deposition of dust enhanced the concentrations of the micronutrient iron in the ocean where it triggered phytoplankton growth and thus CO2 uptake. Indeed, iron fertilization experiments find that phytoplankton needs iron in particular for nitrate uptake, light harvesting, synthesis of chlorophyll and in the electron transport chain of photosynthesis. Previous global biogeochemical models used to extrapolate results from local culture and field experiments have suggested that the sensitivity of ocean biogeochemistry to changes in dust deposition is too low to account for the observed glacial-interglacial changes of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here we show that this sensitivity is increased significantly when iron-light colimitation, i.e. the impact of iron on light harvesting capabilities and chlorophyll synthesis, is explicitly considered in a global biogeochemical ocean model. Iron-light colimitation increases the shift of export production to higher latitudes at high dust deposition and amplifies iron limitation at low dust deposition. Our results suggest that iron fertilization by increased dust deposition may explain a substantially larger portion of the observed past CO2 variability than thought previously. Our results emphasize the role of iron as a key limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in the ocean, with a high potential for changes in oceanic iron supply affecting the global carbon cycle and climate.

  3. Long-Term Predictions of Global Climate Using the Ocean Conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Many have attributed the Great Ocean Conveyor as a major driver of global climate change over millennia as well as a possible explanation for shorter (multidecadal) oscillations. The conveyor is thought to have a cycle time on the order of 1000 years, however recent research has suggested that it is much faster than previously believed (about 100 years). A faster conveyor leads to the possibility of the conveyor's role in even shorter oscillations such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The conveyor is primarily density driven. In this study the salty outflow of the Red Sea is used to predict its behavior ten years into the future. A successful model could lead to a long-term prediction (ten years) of El Ninos, Atlantic hurricane season intensity, as well as global temperature and precipitation patterns.

  4. Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Indian Ocean tsunami response.

    PubMed

    Chretien, Jean-Paul; Glass, Jonathan S; Coldren, Rodney C; Noah, Donald L; Hyer, Randall N; Gaydos, Joel C; Malone, Joseph L

    2006-10-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) identifies and addresses DoD vulnerabilities to emerging infections through a global network of partners. Following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, DoD-GEIS facilitated the DoD medical response and coordination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization. DoD-GEIS partners in Southeast Asia (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; and Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand) rapidly conducted health assessments and established surveillance for communicable diseases that threatened survivors. Preexisting collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and host countries was critical for the DoD-GEIS tsunami response.

  5. Global Ocean Nowcast/Forecast SST's from Multi-model Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Spindler, T.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple global SST nowcasts/forecasts are now available from various ocean operational systems (OOS). It can also be safely assumed that these systems have complementary predictive skills. There is also now well-documented literature that shows combining multiple forecasts using simple combinations can help substantially increase accuracy (or reduce error) of such forecasts (Clemen, 1989, Galmarini et al., 2004). Daily global nowcast SST fields from five different OOS (HYCOM, FOAM, CFS, RTOFS & MERCATOR) are used for investigation of ensemble techniques. The employed techniques include weighted means, clustering algorithms (Hartigan, 1975; Arthur and Vassilivitski, 2006) and operational consensus forecasts (Woodcock & Engel, 2005). Preliminary results are presented and discussed along with their limitations. Other alternatives to building ensembles including forecasts from prior run cycles of the same OOS will also be considered.

  6. BOUSSOLE: A Joint CNRS-INSU, ESA, CNES, and NASA Ocean Color Calibration and Validation Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, David; Chami, Malik; Claustre, Herve; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Morel, Andre; Becu, Guislain; Gentili, Bernard; Louis, Francis; Ras, Josephine; Roussier, Emmanuel; Scott, Alec J.; Tailliez, Dominique; Hooker, Stanford B.; Guevel, Pierre; Deste, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril; Adams, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the Bouee pour l'acquisition de Series Optiques a Long Terme (BOUSSOLE) project, the primary objectives of which are to provide a long-term time series of optical properties in support of a) calibration and validation activities associated with satellite ocean color missions, and b) bio-optical research in oceanic waters. The following are included in the report: 1) an introduction to the rationale for establishing the project; 2) a definition of vicarious calibration and the specific requirements attached to it; 3) the organization of the project and the characteristics of the measurement site--in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 4) a qualitative overview of the collected data; 5) details about the buoy that was specifically designed and built for this project; 6) data collection protocols and data processing techniques; 7) a quantitative summary of the collected data, and a discussion of some sample results, including match-up analyses for the currently operational ocean color sensors, namely MERIS, SeaWiFS, and MODIS; and 8) preliminary results of the vicarious radiometric calibration of MERIS, including a tentative uncertainty budget. The results of this match-up analysis allow performance comparisons of various ocean color sensors to be performed, demonstrating the ability of the BOUSSOLE activity, i.e., combining a dedicated platform and commercial-off-the-shelf instrumentation, to provide data qualified to monitor the quality of ocean color products on the long term.

  7. Evidence for Global Biogeochemical Changes During the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Them, T. R., II; Gill, B. C.; Gröcke, D. R.; Selby, D. S.; Martindale, R. C.; Caruthers, A. H.; Tulsky, E. T. T.

    2015-12-01

    The global versus regional nature of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE; ~183 million years ago) has been heavily debated over the course of the last decade. Several lines of geochemical evidence support a significant perturbation to the carbon cycle and redox-sensitive elemental cycles across this interval. It is thought that these represent feedbacks to the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province. These include: elevated atmospheric pCO2, an enhanced greenhouse effect and hydrologic cycle leading to increased weathering rates, dissociation of biogenic methane clathrates, and widespread ocean anoxia. Despite evidence for these global phenomena, the overwhelming majority of stratigraphic successions studied are located in Europe. The global magnitude of these biogeochemical perturbations has been challenged, with some considering that this event was regional to Europe, and others suggesting that the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) itself is not a reliable stratigraphic marker. In order to test these competing hypotheses, we have generated a geochemical dataset to reconstruct paleoceanographic and paleoclimatological changes across the T-OAE from western North America. The Toarcian strata in western Alberta consist primarily of organic-rich calcareous siltstones and shales. These deposits represent ideal sedimentary facies to reconstruct environmental changes through the use of geochemical proxy data, especially those that use redox-sensitive transition metals. Ammonite biostratigraphy suggests a nearly continuous sequence from the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian. The organic carbon isotopes show the prominent negative CIE interpreted to relate to the release of isotopically depleted carbon at the onset of the T-OAE. Pyrite sulfur weight percentages increase across the CIE and remain elevated, and iron speciation data suggest the development of anoxic conditions. Initial osmium isotope compositions become more radiogenic during the CIE

  8. Distribution of microbial terpenoid lipid cyclases in the global ocean metagenome.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ann; Rusch, Douglas B

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial terpenoid lipids known as hopanoids are fundamental tools for interpreting ancient microbial communities. Their degradation products, the hopanes, are found in sedimentary rocks throughout the geologic record. These compounds are presumed to be analogous to the sterols of eukaryotes, yet although the eukaryotic requirement for sterols is universal, hopanoid biosynthetic capacity is not ubiquitous among marine bacteria. Among the 9.8 million shotgun reads from the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition, 148 contain putative coding sequence for bacterial squalene-hopene cyclases (SHCs). SHCs encoded by alpha-Proteobacteria potentially related to Rhodospirillaceae dominate these hits, especially in the open ocean and in tropical regions. Planctomycetes and beta-Proteobacteria contribute more SHC-encoding sequences, and therefore presumably more hopanoid production, to coastal and temperate environments. Although sequences nominally related to alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria outnumber other taxa in marine and coastal environments, there is large phylogenetic distance between GOS sequences and known species. Assuming that the environments sampled here are broadly representative of a wide range of surface ocean climates, depositional settings and temporal periods, the data suggest a fundamental function for Proteobacteria in the development of the geologic record of hopanes.

  9. Intercomparison and validation of the mixed layer depth fields of global ocean syntheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Takahiro; Fujii, Yosuke; Kuragano, Tsurane; Kamachi, Masafumi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Masuda, Shuhei; Sato, Kanako; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Hernandez, Fabrice; Ferry, Nicolas; Guinehut, Stéphanie; Martin, Matthew J.; Peterson, K. Andrew; Good, Simon A.; Valdivieso, Maria; Haines, Keith; Storto, Andrea; Masina, Simona; Köhl, Armin; Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Yin, Yonghong; Shi, Li; Alves, Oscar; Smith, Gregory; Chang, You-Soon; Vernieres, Guillaume; Wang, Xiaochun; Forget, Gael; Heimbach, Patrick; Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong

    2015-05-01

    Intercomparison and evaluation of the global ocean surface mixed layer depth (MLD) fields estimated from a suite of major ocean syntheses are conducted. Compared with the reference MLDs calculated from individual profiles, MLDs calculated from monthly mean and gridded profiles show negative biases of 10-20 m in early spring related to the re-stratification process of relatively deep mixed layers. Vertical resolution of profiles also influences the MLD estimation. MLDs are underestimated by approximately 5-7 (14-16) m with the vertical resolution of 25 (50) m when the criterion of potential density exceeding the 10-m value by 0.03 kg m-3 is used for the MLD estimation. Using the larger criterion (0.125 kg m-3) generally reduces the underestimations. In addition, positive biases greater than 100 m are found in wintertime subpolar regions when MLD criteria based on temperature are used. Biases of the reanalyses are due to both model errors and errors related to differences between the assimilation methods. The result shows that these errors are partially cancelled out through the ensemble averaging. Moreover, the bias in the ensemble mean field of the reanalyses is smaller than in the observation-only analyses. This is largely attributed to comparably higher resolutions of the reanalyses. The robust reproduction of both the seasonal cycle and interannual variability by the ensemble mean of the reanalyses indicates a great potential of the ensemble mean MLD field for investigating and monitoring upper ocean processes.

  10. Quantification of A Tropical Missing Source From Ocean For The Carbonyl Sulfide Global Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Le; Worden, John; Campbell, Elliott; Kulawik, Susan; Lee, Meemong; Montzka, Stephen; Berry, Joe; Baker, Ian; Denning, Scott; Kawa, Randy; Bian, Huisheng; Yung, Yuk

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) surface fluxes contributes to the understanding of both sulfur cycle and carbon cycle. Although the major sources and sinks of OCS are well recognized, the uncertainties of individual types of the fluxes remain large. With the understanding of a large underestimate of ecosystem uptake, it suggests a large missing ocean source over tropical region to compensate the increased sink. However before AURA Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES) OCS data is released, no direct measurements have been taken to test this hypothesis. In this study, we performed a flux inversion to update the fluxes from TES OCS. Then we compared three experimental GEOS-Chem forward model runs driven by different fluxes based on TES inversion to HIPPO aircraft estimates in free troposphere and also to NOAA near surface observations. The TES data supports the hypothesis that a large source from tropical ocean is missing in the current OCS global budget and suggests that the source is even larger than that proposed in Berry et al., (2013). Consequently, it leads to a larger land uptake and increase the estimates of GPP. TES data also suggests the missing oceanic source is not symmetric about equator. It is strong and distributed further north of the equator (to 40°N) but weak and narrow south of the equator (to 20°S).

  11. Global Ocean Evaporation Increases Since 1960 in Climate Reanalyses: How Accurate Are They?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Roberts, Jason B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    AGCMs w/ Specified SSTs (AMIPs) GEOS-5, ERA-20CM Ensembles Incorporate best historical estimates of SST, sea ice, radiative forcing Atmospheric "weather noise" is inconsistent with specified SST. Instantaneous Sfc fluxes can be wrong sign (e.g. Indian Ocean Monsoon, high latitude oceans). Averaging over ensemble members helps isolate SST-forced signal. Reduced Observational Reanalyses: NOAA 20CR V2C, ERA-20C, JRA-55C Incorporate observed Sfc Press (20CR), Marine Winds (ERA-20C) and rawinsondes (JRA-55C) to recover much of true synoptic or weather w/o shock of new sat obs. Comprehensive Reanalyses (MERRA-2) Full suite of observational constraints- both conventional and remote sensing. But... substantial uncertainties owing to evolving satellite observing system. Multi-source Statistically Blended OAFlux, LargeYeager Blend reanalysis, satellite, and ocean buoy information. While climatological biases are removed, non-physical trends or variations in components remain. Satellite Retrievals GSSTF3, SeaFlux, HOAPS3... Global coverage. Retrieved near sfc wind speed, & humidity used with SST to drive accurate bulk aerodynamic flux estimates. Satellite inter-calibration, spacecraft pointing variations crucial. Short record ( late 1987-present). In situ Measurements ICOADS, IVAD, Res Cruises VOS and buoys offer direct measurements. Sparse data coverage (esp south of 30S. Changes in measurement techniques (e.g. shipboard anemometer height).

  12. A generalized model of pelagic biogeochemistry for the global ocean ecosystem. Part I: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, M.; Pinardi, N.; Masina, S.

    2007-01-01

    The set of equations for global ocean biogeochemistry deterministic models have been formulated in a comprehensive and unified form in order to use them in numerical simulations of the marine ecosystem for climate change studies (PELAGOS, PELAgic biogeochemistry for Global Ocean Simulations). The fundamental approach stems from the representation of marine trophic interactions and major biogeochemical cycles introduced in the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). Our theoretical formulation revisits and generalizes the stoichiometric approach of ERSEM by defining the state variables as Chemical Functional Families (CFF). CFFs are further subdivided into living, non-living and inorganic components. Living CFFs are the basis for the definition of Living Functional Groups, the biomass-based functional prototype of the real organisms. Both CFFs and LFGs are theoretical constructs which allow us to relate measurable properties of marine biogeochemistry to the state variables used in deterministic models. This approach is sufficiently generic that may be used to describe other existing biomass-based ecosystem model.

  13. Seasonal and Inter-Annual Changes in the Distribution of Dominant Phytoplancton Groups in the Global Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severine, A.; Cyril, M.; Yves, D.; Laurent, B.; Hubert, L.

    2006-12-01

    The fate of fixed organic carbon in the ocean strongly varies with the phytoplankton group that makes photosynthesis. The monitoring of phytoplankton groups in the global ocean is thus of primary importance to evaluate and improve ocean carbon models. A new method (PHYSAT; Alvain et al., 2005) enables to distinguish between four different groups from space using SeaWiFS ocean color measurements. In addition to these four initial phytoplankton groups, which are diatoms, Prochlorococcus, Synecochoccus and haptophytes, we show that PHYSAT is also capable of identifying blooms of phaeocystis and coccolithophorids. Daily global SeaWiFS level-3 data from September 1997 to December 2004 were processed using PHYSAT. We present here the first monthly mean global climatology of the dominant phytoplankton groups. The seasonal cycle is discussed, with particular emphasis on the succession of phytoplankton groups during the North Atlantic spring bloom and on the coexistence of large phaeocystis and diatoms blooms during winter in the Austral Ocean. We also present the inter-annual variability for the 1998-2004 period. The contribution of diatoms to the total chlorophyll is highly variable (up to a factor of two) from one year to the other in both Atlantic and Austral Oceans, suggesting a significant variability in organic carbon export by diatoms in these regions. On the opposite, the phaeocystis contribution is less variable in the Austral Ocean.

  14. Assessment of the hindcast, nowcast and forecast capabilities of the Mercator-Ocean high resolution ocean forecasting system in the Global and Atlantic and Mediterranean basins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Tranchant, Benoît.; Bourdallé-Badie, Romain; Le Galloudec, Olivier; Greiner, Eric; Benkiran, Mounir; Derval, Corine; Testut, Charles-Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the European project GMES/MyOcean, Mercator-Ocean has been designing a hierarchy of ocean analysis and forecasting systems based on numerical models of the ocean and data assimilation methods. Since April 2008, Mercator-Ocean runs an Atlantic and Mediterranean system at 1/12° between 20°S and 80°N. Since a few months, a global system, with the same horizontal and vertical resolution (50 levels on the vertical with a surface refinement), runs also in an operational mode. These two systems are eddy resolving. The ocean and sea ice models are based on the NEMO code. The data assimilation algorithm is a reduced order Kalman filter using 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error covariance. The system assimilates conjointly altimeter data, SST and in situ observations (temperature and salinity profiles, including ARGO data) in order to provide the initial conditions required for numerical ocean prediction. The main characteristics of the assimilation system are (i) the background error covariances calculated from a free oceanic simulation, (ii) the adaptive error variance, (iii) the use of the localization technique and (iv) the use of the IAU (Incremental Analysis Update) procedure where analysis increments are inserted at every time step over the same period as the data assimilation window. The real time operation of these systems produce each week realistic 3-dimensional oceanic conditions (temperature, salinity, currents,…) two weeks back in time (hindcast and nowcast) and a one or two weeks forecast, driven at the surface by atmospheric conditions from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). Moreover, the Atlantic and Mediterranean system is operated daily to produce 7 days ocean forecasts with daily updates of the ECMWF atmospheric forcing. A new version of the regional system is planned to replace soon the actual one with many improvements concerning the ocean model and the assimilation scheme

  15. A new global interior ocean mapped climatology: the 1° × 1° GLODAP version 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, Siv K.; Key, Robert M.; Olsen, Are; van Heuven, Steven; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Jeansson, Emil; Ishii, Masao; Perez, Fiz F.; Suzuki, Toru; Watelet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972-2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).

  16. Lithium contents and isotopic compositions of ferromanganese deposits from the global ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chan, L.-H.; Hein, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility of using lithium isotopes in marine ferromanganese deposits as an indicator of paleoceanographic conditions and seawater composition, we analyzed samples from a variety of tectonic environments in the global ocean. Hydrogenetic, hydrothermal, mixed hydrogenetic–hydrothermal, and hydrogenetic–diagenetic samples were subjected to a two-step leaching and dissolution procedure to extract first the loosely bound Li and then the more tightly bound Li in the Mn oxide and Fe oxyhydroxide. Total leachable Li contents vary from 2 by coulombic force. Hence, the abundant Li in hydrothermal deposits is mainly associated with the dominant phase, MnO2. The surface of amorphous FeOOH holds a slightly positive charge and attracts little Li, as demonstrated by data for hydrothermal Fe oxyhydroxide. Loosely sorbed Li in both hydrogenetic crusts and hydrothermal deposits exhibit Li isotopic compositions that resemble that of modern seawater. We infer that the hydrothermally derived Li scavenged onto the surface of MnO2 freely exchanged with ambient seawater, thereby losing its original isotopic signature. Li in the tightly bound sites is always isotopically lighter than that in the loosely bound fraction, suggesting that the isotopic fractionation occurred during formation of chemical bonds in the oxide and oxyhydroxide structures. Sr isotopes also show evidence of re-equilibration with seawater after deposition. Because of their mobility, Li and Sr in the ferromanganese crusts do not faithfully record secular variations in the isotopic compositions of seawater. However, Li content can be a useful proxy for the hydrothermal history of ocean basins. Based on the Li concentrations of the globally distributed hydrogenetic and hydrothermal samples, we estimate a scavenging flux of Li that is insignificant compared to the hydrothermal flux and river input to the ocean.

  17. Linking nutrient loading and oxygen in the coastal ocean: A new global scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Daniel C.; Harrison, John A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an exponential spread of low-oxygen regions in the coastal ocean due at least in-part to enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs. As oxygen deprivation is a major stressor on marine ecosystems, there is a great need to quantitatively link shifts in nutrient loading with changes in oxygen concentrations. To this end, we have developed and here describe, evaluate, and apply the Coastal Ocean Oxygen Linked to Benthic Exchange And Nutrient Supply (COOLBEANS) model, a first-of-its-kind, spatially explicit (with 152 coastal segments) model, global model of coastal oxygen and nutrient dynamics. In COOLBEANS, benthic oxygen demand (BOD) is calculated using empirical models for aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and sulfate reduction, while oxygen supply is represented by a simple parameterization of exchange between surface and bottom waters. A nutrient cycling component translates shifts in riverine nutrient inputs into changes in organic matter delivery to sediments and, ultimately, oxygen uptake. Modeled BOD reproduces observations reasonably well (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.71), and estimates of exchange between surface and bottom waters correlate with stratification. The model examines sensitivity of bottom water oxygen to changes in nutrient inputs and vertical exchange between surface and bottom waters, highlighting the importance of this vertical exchange in defining the susceptibility of a system to oxygen depletion. These sensitivities along with estimated maximum hypoxic areas that are supported by present day nutrient loads are consistent with existing hypoxic regions. Sensitivities are put into context by applying historic changes in nitrogen loading observed in the Gulf of Mexico to the global coastal ocean, demonstrating that such loads would drive many systems anoxic or even sulfidic.

  18. A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, André; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Brotas, Vanda; Groom, Steve; Grant, Michael; Taberner, Malcolm; Antoine, David; Arnone, Robert; Balch, William M.; Barker, Kathryn; Barlow, Ray; Bélanger, Simon; Berthon, Jean-François; Beşiktepe, Şükrü; Brando, Vittorio; Canuti, Elisabetta; Chavez, Francisco; Claustre, Hervé; Crout, Richard; Frouin, Robert; García-Soto, Carlos; Gibb, Stuart W.; Gould, Richard; Hooker, Stanford; Kahru, Mati; Klein, Holger; Kratzer, Susanne; Loisel, Hubert; McKee, David; Mitchell, Brian G.; Moisan, Tiffany; Muller-Karger, Frank; O'Dowd, Leonie; Ondrusek, Michael; Poulton, Alex J.; Repecaud, Michel; Smyth, Timothy; Sosik, Heidi M.; Twardowski, Michael; Voss, Kenneth; Werdell, Jeremy; Wernand, Marcel; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    A compiled set of in situ data is important to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite-data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT, GeP&CO), span between 1997 and 2012, and have a global distribution. Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectral remote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectral inherent optical properties and spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients. The data were from multi-project archives acquired via the open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directly from data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenisation, quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to the original data, other than averaging of observations that were close in time and space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversion to a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed for validation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in text format. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principal investigator) were preserved throughout the work and made available in the final table. Using all the data in a validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. By making available the metadata, it is also possible to analyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.854832 (Valente et al., 2015).

  19. Neodymium in the oceans: a global database, a regional comparison and implications for palaeoceanographic research

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Alexander M.; Lambelet, Myriam; Little, Susan H.; Stichel, Torben; Wilson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater has been used extensively to reconstruct ocean circulation on a variety of time scales. However, dissolved neodymium concentrations and isotopes do not always behave conservatively, and quantitative deconvolution of this non-conservative component can be used to detect trace metal inputs and isotopic exchange at ocean–sediment interfaces. In order to facilitate such comparisons for historical datasets, we here provide an extended global database for Nd isotopes and concentrations in the context of hydrography and nutrients. Since 2010, combined datasets for a large range of trace elements and isotopes are collected on international GEOTRACES section cruises, alongside classical nutrient and hydrography measurements. Here, we take a first step towards exploiting these datasets by comparing high-resolution Nd sections for the western and eastern North Atlantic in the context of hydrography, nutrients and aluminium (Al) concentrations. Evaluating those data in tracer–tracer space reveals that North Atlantic seawater Nd isotopes and concentrations generally follow the patterns of advection, as do Al concentrations. Deviations from water mass mixing are observed locally, associated with the addition or removal of trace metals in benthic nepheloid layers, exchange with ocean margins (i.e. boundary exchange) and/or exchange with particulate phases (i.e. reversible scavenging). We emphasize that the complexity of some of the new datasets cautions against a quantitative interpretation of individual palaeo Nd isotope records, and indicates the importance of spatial reconstructions for a more balanced approach to deciphering past ocean changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry’.

  20. Astronomical constraints on global carbon-cycle perturbation during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Montañez, Isabel P.; Liu, Zhonghui; Ma, Lifeng

    2017-03-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) was a major disturbance in global carbon cycling and transient climate disruption, triggered by a pulse of volcanic CO2. Although this well-studied perturbation to the ocean-atmosphere system offers a unique opportunity to better understand abrupt climate change in response to CO2-forcing, the origin, evolution and duration of the event are still debated due in large part to the temporal resolution of existing OAE2 records and uncertainty over the duration of the overall perturbation and C cycle shifts within it. Here we report coupled magnetic susceptibility (MS) and carbon-isotope time-series of ∼2.5 to 5 ± 0.5kyr resolution from an expanded OAE2 interval from southern Tibet, China. MS cyclicity indicates short eccentricity modulation, permitting the construction of a high-precision orbital timescale which, when integrated with the high resolution δ13Ccarb record, fully constrains the timing and nature of onset through recovery of OAE2, revealing finer-scale structure than previously recognized. Abrupt coupled shifts in δ13Ccarb and MS, and changing phase relationships in-step with transitions between high and low long eccentricity, indicate orbitally linked changes in marine carbon cycling and monsoon dynamics superimposed on repeated wholesale oceanographic changes. In particular, the high-resolution Tibetan record reveals dynamic shifts in the phasing relationship of MS and δ13 C, which suggests that the initiation of ocean anoxia was probably not orbitally forced. This finding is in sharp contrast with the paradigm of orbitally forced ocean anoxia. Conversely, the new record suggests that termination of anoxia was likely orbitally forced and superimposed on a dramatic oceanographic change.

  1. Extensive genetic diversity and endemism across the global range of the oceanic copepod Pleuromamma abdominalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Junya; Tsuda, Atsushi; Goetze, Erica

    2015-11-01

    Many oceanic zooplankton species have been described as cosmopolitan in distribution; however, recent molecular work has detected species complexity with highly divergent genetic lineages within several of these taxa. To further resolve the species complexity within these ecologically-important and widespread species, we performed both molecular and morphological analyses of the oceanic copepod Pleuromamma abdominalis using a comprehensive collection of material from 944 individuals collected at 46 sites across the global ocean. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequences detected eighteen divergent evolutionary lineages within P. abdominalis, with an additional four singleton specimens that were also genetically divergent. Two phylogenetically distinct groups, PLAB1 and PLAB2, were supported by concordant sequence variation in the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU). Within PLAB1, two mtCOI clades, 1a-1 and 1b-1 were observed, and each clade contained geographically distinct sub-clades 1a-2 and 1b-2. PLAB2 was composed of sixteen well-supported mtCOI clades (2a-2p) as well as four singletons. High genetic divergence among the mtCOI lineages within both PLAB1 and PLAB2, ranging between 9.2-11.2% and 4.3-18.9% K2P distances respectively, suggests the presence of additional species within these groups. Significant differences were observed in the presence and shape of antennule spines of adult females between sympatric clades with genetic distances greater than 5.7-7.0% (K2P). The biogeographic distributions of mtCOI clades indicated greater specialization to particular oceanographic provinces than observed in the nominal species P. abdominalis, with mtCOI clades ranging from antitropical in subtropical waters of all three ocean basins (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian; clade 1b-1 and 2a) to taxa that are endemic to a particular ocean region, for example restricted to equatorial waters of the Atlantic Ocean (clade 1b

  2. Revisiting ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection: a global carbon budget perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, Fabian; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    In this study we look beyond the previously studied effects of oceanic CO2 injections on atmospheric and oceanic reservoirs and also account for carbon cycle and climate feedbacks between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. Considering these additional feedbacks is important since backfluxes from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere in response to reducing atmospheric CO2 can further offset the targeted reduction. To quantify these dynamics we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to simulate direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean as a means of emissions mitigation during a high CO2 emission scenario. In three sets of experiments with different injection depths, we simulate a 100-year injection period of a total of 70 GtC and follow global carbon cycle dynamics over another 900 years. In additional parameter perturbation runs, we varied the default terrestrial photosynthesis CO2 fertilization parameterization by ±50 % in order to test the sensitivity of this uncertain carbon cycle feedback to the targeted atmospheric carbon reduction through direct CO2 injections. Simulated seawater chemistry changes and marine carbon storage effectiveness are similar to previous studies. As expected, by the end of the injection period avoided emissions fall short of the targeted 70 GtC by 16-30 % as a result of carbon cycle feedbacks and backfluxes in both land and ocean reservoirs. The target emissions reduction in the parameter perturbation simulations is about 0.2 and 2 % more at the end of the injection period and about 9 % less to 1 % more at the end of the simulations when compared to the unperturbed injection runs. An unexpected feature is the effect of the model's internal variability of deep-water formation in the Southern Ocean, which, in some model runs, causes additional oceanic carbon uptake after injection

  3. Calibrating a global three-dimensional biogeochemical ocean model (MOPS-1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriest, Iris; Sauerland, Volkmar; Khatiwala, Samar; Srivastav, Anand; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Global biogeochemical ocean models contain a variety of different biogeochemical components and often much simplified representations of complex dynamical interactions, which are described by many ( ≈ 10 to ≈ 100) parameters. The values of many of these parameters are empirically difficult to constrain, due to the fact that in the models they represent processes for a range of different groups of organisms at the same time, while even for single species parameter values are often difficult to determine in situ. Therefore, these models are subject to a high level of parametric uncertainty. This may be of consequence for their skill with respect to accurately describing the relevant features of the present ocean, as well as their sensitivity to possible environmental changes. We here present a framework for the calibration of global biogeochemical ocean models on short and long timescales. The framework combines an offline approach for transport of biogeochemical tracers with an estimation of distribution algorithm (Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy, CMA-ES). We explore the performance and capability of this framework by five different optimizations of six biogeochemical parameters of a global biogeochemical model, simulated over 3000 years. First, a twin experiment explores the feasibility of this approach. Four optimizations against a climatology of observations of annual mean dissolved nutrients and oxygen determine the extent to which different setups of the optimization influence model fit and parameter estimates. Because the misfit function applied focuses on the large-scale distribution of inorganic biogeochemical tracers, parameters that act on large spatial and temporal scales are determined earliest, and with the least spread. Parameters more closely tied to surface biology, which act on shorter timescales, are more difficult to determine. In particular, the search for optimum zooplankton parameters can benefit from a sound knowledge of

  4. Decadal trends in global pelagic ocean chlorophyll: A new assessment integrating multiple satellites, in situ data, and models

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Watson W; Rousseaux, Cécile S

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying change in ocean biology using satellites is a major scientific objective. We document trends globally for the period 1998–2012 by integrating three diverse methodologies: ocean color data from multiple satellites, bias correction methods based on in situ data, and data assimilation to provide a consistent and complete global representation free of sampling biases. The results indicated no significant trend in global pelagic ocean chlorophyll over the 15 year data record. These results were consistent with previous findings that were based on the first 6 years and first 10 years of the SeaWiFS mission. However, all of the Northern Hemisphere basins (north of 10° latitude), as well as the Equatorial Indian basin, exhibited significant declines in chlorophyll. Trend maps showed the local trends and their change in percent per year. These trend maps were compared with several other previous efforts using only a single sensor (SeaWiFS) and more limited time series, showing remarkable consistency. These results suggested the present effort provides a path forward to quantifying global ocean trends using multiple satellite missions, which is essential if we are to understand the state, variability, and possible changes in the global oceans over longer time scales. PMID:26213675

  5. Decadal trends in global pelagic ocean chlorophyll: A new assessment integrating multiple satellites, in situ data, and models.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Watson W; Rousseaux, Cécile S

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying change in ocean biology using satellites is a ma