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Sample records for joint robot srinivas

  1. Robotic joint experiments under ultravacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Petitjean, L.

    1988-01-01

    First, various aspects of a robotic joint development program, including gearbox technology, electromechanical components, lubrication, and test results, are discussed. Secondly, a test prototype of the joint allowing simulation of robotic arm dynamic effects is presented. This prototype is tested under vacuum with different types of motors and sensors to characterize the functional parameters: angular position error, mechanical backlash, gearbox efficiency, and lifetime.

  2. Joint Robotics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-23

    Kotler , P.M. (1997). Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation, and control. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall...needed to provide needed items. Production needed to be stable so suppliers could more easily meet demand ( Kotler , 1997, pp. 214-215). The Robotics

  3. JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2015-0009 JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots Edwin Olson UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 12/21/2015...SUBTITLE JOMAR: Joint Operations with Mobile Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861114024 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...14. ABSTRACT Under this grant, we formulated and implemented a variety of novel algorithms that address core problems in multi- robot systems. These

  4. Overcoming Robot-Arm Joint Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Kinematic equations allow arm to pass smoothly through singular region. Report discusses mathematical singularities in equations of robotarm control. Operator commands robot arm to move in direction relative to its own axis system by specifying velocity in that direction. Velocity command then resolved into individual-joint rotational velocities in robot arm to effect motion. However, usual resolved-rate equations become singular when robot arm is straightened.

  5. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    PubMed

    Warren, Zachary E; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A; Weitlauf, Amy F; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-11-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms.

  6. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms. PMID:24014194

  7. Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.

  8. A universal six-joint robot controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihn, D. G.; Hsia, T. C.

    1987-01-01

    A general purpose six-axis robotic manipulator controller was designed and implemented to serve as a research tool for the investigation of the practical and theoretical aspects of various control strategies in robotics. A 80286-based Intel System 310 running the Xenix operating servo software as well as the higher level software (e.g., kinematics and path planning) were employed. A Multibus compatible interface board was designed and constructed to handle I/O signals from the robot manipulator's joint motors. From the design point of view, the universal controller is capable of driving robot manipulators equipped with D.C. joint motors and position optical encoders. To test its functionality, the controller is connected to the joint motor D.C. power amplifier of a PUMA 560 arm bypassing completely the manufacturer-supplied Unimation controller. A controller algorithm consisting of local PD control laws was written and installed into the Xenix operating system. Additional software drivers were implemented to allow application programs access to the interface board. All software was written in the C language.

  9. Robotic Joints Support Horses and Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A rehabilitative device first featured in Spinoff 2003 is not only helping human patients regain the ability to walk, but is now helping our four-legged friends as well. The late James Kerley, a prominent Goddard Space Flight Center researcher, developed cable-compliant mechanisms in the 1980s to enable sounding rocket assemblies and robots to grip or join objects. In cable-compliant joints (CCJs), short segments of cable connect structural elements, allowing for six directions of movement, twisting, alignment, and energy damping. Kerley later worked with Goddard s Wayne Eklund and Allen Crane to incorporate the cable-compliant mechanisms into a walker for human patients to support the pelvis and imitate hip joint movement.

  10. Virtual Passive Controller for Robot Systems Using Joint Torque Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a control method based on virtual passive dynamic control that will stabilize a robot manipulator using joint torque sensors and a simple joint model. The method does not require joint position or velocity feedback for stabilization. The proposed control method is stable in the sense of Lyaponov. The control method was implemented on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controller showed good stability robustness to system parameter error and to the exclusion of nonlinear dynamic effects on the joints. The controller enhanced position tracking performance and, in the absence of position control, dissipated joint energy.

  11. Experimental Studies of Joint Flexibility for PUMA 560 Robot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    the robot and plant equipment be set up prior to the programming. With the advent of higher level programming languages such as VAL II and the ...SCHOOL I Monterey, California THESIS EC" ft EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF JOINT FLEXIBILITY FOR PUNA 560 ROBOT by Dennis K. Gonyier March 1987 Thesis Advisor ...9ABSTRACT (ContInUe on revene ff neccual) and odent’ f by block num~ber) This paper investigates flexibility of the PUMA 560 industrial robot arm. The

  12. Estimating anatomical wrist joint motion with a robotic exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Rose, Chad G; Kann, Claudia K; Deshpande, Ashish D; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    Robotic exoskeletons can provide the high intensity, long duration targeted therapeutic interventions required for regaining motor function lost as a result of neurological injury. Quantitative measurements by exoskeletons have been proposed as measures of rehabilitative outcomes. Exoskeletons, in contrast to end effector designs, have the potential to provide a direct mapping between human and robot joints. This mapping rests on the assumption that anatomical axes and robot axes are aligned well, and that movement within the exoskeleton is negligible. These assumptions hold well for simple one degree-of-freedom joints, but may not be valid for multi-articular joints with unique musculoskeletal properties such as the wrist. This paper presents an experiment comparing robot joint kinematic measurements from an exoskeleton to anatomical joint angles measured with a motion capture system. Joint-space position measurements and task-space smoothness metrics were compared between the two measurement modalities. The experimental results quantify the error between joint-level position measurements, and show that exoskeleton kinematic measurements preserve smoothness characteristics found in anatomical measures of wrist movements.

  13. Forward and inverse kinematics of double universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1991-01-01

    A robot wrist consisting of two universal joints can eliminate the wrist singularity problem found on many individual robots. Forward and inverse position and velocity kinematics are presented for such a wrist having three degrees of freedom. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters are derived to find the transforms required for the kinematic equations. The Omni-Wrist, a commercial double universal joint robot wrist, is studied in detail. There are four levels of kinematic parameters identified for this wrist; three forward and three inverse maps are presented for both position and velocity. These equations relate the hand coordinate frame to the wrist base frame. They are sufficient for control of the wrist standing alone. When the wrist is attached to a manipulator arm; the offset between the two universal joints complicates the solution of the overall kinematics problem. All wrist coordinate frame origins are not coincident, which prevents decoupling of position and orientation for manipulator inverse kinematics.

  14. Adaptive torque estimation of robot joint with harmonic drive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhiguo; Li, Yuankai; Liu, Guangjun

    2017-11-01

    Robot joint torque estimation using input and output position measurements is a promising technique, but the result may be affected by the load variation of the joint. In this paper, a torque estimation method with adaptive robustness and optimality adjustment according to load variation is proposed for robot joint with harmonic drive transmission. Based on a harmonic drive model and a redundant adaptive robust Kalman filter (RARKF), the proposed approach can adapt torque estimation filtering optimality and robustness to the load variation by self-tuning the filtering gain and self-switching the filtering mode between optimal and robust. The redundant factor of RARKF is designed as a function of the motor current for tolerating the modeling error and load-dependent filtering mode switching. The proposed joint torque estimation method has been experimentally studied in comparison with a commercial torque sensor and two representative filtering methods. The results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed torque estimation technique.

  15. Simulation of in vivo dynamics during robot assisted joint movement.

    PubMed

    Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Lorenz, Andrea; Wülker, Nikolaus; Walter, Christian

    2014-12-16

    Robots are very useful tools in orthopedic research. They can provide force/torque controlled specimen motion with high repeatability and precision. A method to analyze dissipative energy outcome in an entire joint was developed in our group. In a previous study, a sheep knee was flexed while axial load remained constant during the measurement of dissipated energy. We intend to apply this method for the investigation of osteoarthritis. Additionally, the method should be improved by simulation of in vivo knee dynamics. Thus, a new biomechanical testing tool will be developed for analyzing in vitro joint properties after different treatments. Discretization of passive knee flexion was used to construct a complex flexion movement by a robot and simulate altering axial load similar to in vivo sheep knee dynamics described in a previous experimental study. The robot applied an in vivo like axial force profile with high reproducibility during the corresponding knee flexion (total standard deviation of 0.025 body weight (BW)). A total residual error between the in vivo and simulated axial force was 0.16 BW. Posterior-anterior and medio-lateral forces were detected by the robot as a backlash of joint structures. Their curve forms were similar to curve forms of corresponding in vivo measured forces, but in contrast to the axial force, they showed higher total standard deviation of 0.118 and 0.203 BW and higher total residual error of 0.79 and 0.21 BW for posterior-anterior and medio-lateral forces respectively. We developed and evaluated an algorithm for the robotic simulation of complex in vivo joint dynamics using a joint specimen. This should be a new biomechanical testing tool for analyzing joint properties after different treatments.

  16. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary E.; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction…

  17. Kinematics Simulation Analysis of Packaging Robot with Joint Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. W.; Meng, W. J.; Wang, L. Q.; Cui, G. H.

    2018-03-01

    Considering the influence of joint clearance on the motion error, repeated positioning accuracy and overall position of the machine, this paper presents simulation analysis of a packaging robot — 2 degrees of freedom(DOF) planar parallel robot based on the characteristics of high precision and fast speed of packaging equipment. The motion constraint equation of the mechanism is established, and the analysis and simulation of the motion error are carried out in the case of turning the revolute clearance. The simulation results show that the size of the joint clearance will affect the movement accuracy and packaging efficiency of the packaging robot. The analysis provides a reference point of view for the packaging equipment design and selection criteria and has a great significance on the packaging industry automation.

  18. Diver Relative UUV Navigation for Joint Human-Robot Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    loop response: (10) where Kej is the gain that scales the position error to force . Substituting the measured values for ζ and ων as well as the...Underwater Vehicle; Tethered ; Hovering; Autonomous Underwater Vehicle; Joint human-robot operations; dynamic, uncertain environments 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...4   Figure 3.   The SeaBotix vLBV300 tethered AUV platform (left), and the planar vectored thruster

  19. Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS)-Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Holloway, Sidney E., III

    2006-01-01

    This document represents the final report for the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS) project, funded by the Office of Exploration as part of the Intramural Call for Proposals of 2005. The project was prematurely terminated, without review, as part of an agency-wide realignment towards the development of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and meeting the near-term goals of lunar exploration.

  20. Enabling Interoperable Space Robots With the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur; Dubowsky, Steven; Quinn, Roger; Marzwell, Neville

    2005-01-01

    Robots that operate independently of one another will not be adequate to accomplish the future exploration tasks of long-distance autonomous navigation, habitat construction, resource discovery, and material handling. Such activities will require that systems widely share information, plan and divide complex tasks, share common resources, and physically cooperate to manipulate objects. Recognizing the need for interoperable robots to accomplish the new exploration initiative, NASA s Office of Exploration Systems Research & Technology recently funded the development of the Joint Technical Architecture for Robotic Systems (JTARS). JTARS charter is to identify the interface standards necessary to achieve interoperability among space robots. A JTARS working group (JTARS-WG) has been established comprising recognized leaders in the field of space robotics including representatives from seven NASA centers along with academia and private industry. The working group s early accomplishments include addressing key issues required for interoperability, defining which systems are within the project s scope, and framing the JTARS manuals around classes of robotic systems.

  1. Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanksmore » require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.« less

  2. Experimental Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance Using Accelerometers and Joint Torque Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. The proposed method uses joint torque sensors found in most existing advanced robot designs along with easily locatable, lightweight accelerometers to provide a joint position sensor fault recovery mode. This mode uses the torque sensors along with a virtual passive control law for stability and accelerometers for joint position information. Two methods for conversion from Cartesian acceleration to joint position based on robot kinematics, not integration, are presented. The fault tolerant control method was tested on several joints of a laboratory robot. The controllers performed well with noisy, biased data and a model with uncertain parameters.

  3. A Robotic Therapy Case Study: Developing Joint Attention Skills with a Student on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charron, Nancy; Lewis, Lundy; Craig, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a possible methodology for developing joint attention skills in students with autism spectrum disorder. Co-robot therapy with the humanoid robot NAO was used to foster a student's joint attention skill development; 20-min sessions conducted once weekly during the school year were video recorded and…

  4. HyBAR: hybrid bone-attached robot for joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Mor, A; Jaramaz, B

    2009-06-01

    A number of small bone-attached surgical robots have been introduced to overcome some disadvantages of large stand-alone surgical robots. In orthopaedics, increasing demand on minimally invasive joint replacement surgery has also been encouraging small surgical robot developments. Among various technical aspects of such an approach, optimal miniaturization that maintains structural strength for high speed bone removal was investigated. By observing advantages and disadvantages from serial and parallel robot structures, a new hybrid kinematic configuration was designed for a bone-attached robot to perform precision bone removal for cutting the femoral implant cavity during patellofemoral joint arthroplasty surgery. A series of experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the new robot, especially with respect to accuracy of bone preparation. A miniaturized and rigidly-structured robot prototype was developed for minimally invasive bone-attached robotic surgery. A new minimally invasive modular clamping system was also introduced to enhance the robotic procedure. Foam and pig bone experimental results demonstrated a successful implementation of the new robot that eliminated a number of major design problems of a previous prototype. For small bone-attached surgical robots that utilize high speed orthopaedic tools, structural rigidity and clamping mechanism are major design issues. The new kinematic configuration using hinged prismatic joints enabled an effective miniaturization with good structural rigidity. Although minor problems still exist at the prototype stage, the new development would be a significant step towards the practical use of such a robot.

  5. An all-joint-control master device for single-port laparoscopic surgery robots.

    PubMed

    Shim, Seongbo; Kang, Taehun; Ji, Daekeun; Choi, Hyunseok; Joung, Sanghyun; Hong, Jaesung

    2016-08-01

    Robots for single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) typically have all of their joints located inside abdomen during surgery, whereas with the da Vinci system, only the tip part of the robot arm is inserted and manipulated. A typical master device that controls only the tip with six degrees of freedom (DOFs) is not suitable for use with SPLS robots because of safety concerns. We designed an ergonomic six-DOF master device that can control all of the joints of an SPLS robot. We matched each joint of the master, the slave, and the human arm to decouple all-joint motions of the slave robot. Counterbalance masses were used to reduce operator fatigue. Mapping factors were determined based on kinematic analysis and were used to achieve all-joint control with minimal error at the tip of the slave robot. The proposed master device has two noteworthy features: efficient joint matching to the human arm to decouple each joint motion of the slave robot and accurate mapping factors, which can minimize the trajectory error of the tips between the master and the slave. We confirmed that the operator can manipulate the slave robot intuitively with the master device and that both tips have similar trajectories with minimal error.

  6. Deployable robotic woven wire structures and joints for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahinpoor, MO; Smith, Bradford

    1991-01-01

    Deployable robotic structures are basically expandable and contractable structures that may be transported or launched to space in a compact form. These structures may then be intelligently deployed by suitable actuators. The deployment may also be done by means of either airbag or spring-loaded typed mechanisms. The actuators may be pneumatic, hydraulic, ball-screw type, or electromagnetic. The means to trigger actuation may be on-board EPROMS, programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that trigger actuation based on some input caused by the placement of the structure in the space environment. The actuation may also be performed remotely by suitable remote triggering devices. Several deployable woven wire structures are examined. These woven wire structures possess a unique form of joint, the woven wire joint, which is capable of moving and changing its position and orientation with respect to the structure itself. Due to the highly dynamic and articulate nature of these joints the 3-D structures built using them are uniquely and highly expandable, deployable, and dynamic. The 3-D structure naturally gives rise to a new generation of deployable three-dimensional spatial structures.

  7. A Gait Generation for an Unlocked Joint Failure of the Quadruped Robot with Balance Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C. H.; Min, B. C.; Kim, D. H.

    Assurance of a stability margin for a stabilized gait is the most important issue for the quadruped robot. Although various studies for dynamic stability of the quadruped robot have been studied, problems in which one of the legs has an unlocked joint failure haven’t been relatively studied so far. In this paper, assurance of stability margin for the unlocked joint failure of the quadruped robot is suggested by using gait stabilization and a control method of the moment of inertia. Then, efficiency of BW (balance weight) will be experimentally verified by comparing the two types of robot; one is equipped with the BW, the other is not equipped with BW.

  8. Integrated High-Speed Torque Control System for a Robotic Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A control system for achieving high-speed torque for a joint of a robot includes a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) having a collocated joint processor and high-speed communication bus. The PCBA may also include a power inverter module (PIM) and local sensor conditioning electronics (SCE) for processing sensor data from one or more motor position sensors. Torque control of a motor of the joint is provided via the PCBA as a high-speed torque loop. Each joint processor may be embedded within or collocated with the robotic joint being controlled. Collocation of the joint processor, PIM, and high-speed bus may increase noise immunity of the control system, and the localized processing of sensor data from the joint motor at the joint level may minimize bus cabling to and from each control node. The joint processor may include a field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  9. Modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for better location of joint axis systems in robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Denavit-Hartenberg parameters define the relative location of successive joint axis systems in a robot arm. A recent justifiable criticism is that one of these parameters becomes extremely large when two successive joints have near-parallel rotational axes. Geometrically, this parameter then locates a joint axis system at an excessive distance from the robot arm and, computationally, leads to an ill-conditioned transformation matrix. In this paper, a simple modification (which results from constraining a transverse vector between successive joint rotational axes to be normal to one of the rotational axes, instead of both) overcomes this criticism and favorably locates the joint axis system. An example is given for near-parallel rotational axes of the elbow and shoulder joints in a robot arm. The regular and modified parameters are extracted by an algebraic method with simulated measurement data. Unlike the modified parameters, extracted values of the regular parameters are very sensitive to measurement accuracy.

  10. System Wide Joint Position Sensor Fault Tolerance in Robot Systems Using Cartesian Accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1997-01-01

    Joint position sensors are necessary for most robot control systems. A single position sensor failure in a normal robot system can greatly degrade performance. This paper presents a method to obtain position information from Cartesian accelerometers without integration. Depending on the number and location of the accelerometers. the proposed system can tolerate the loss of multiple position sensors. A solution technique suitable for real-time implementation is presented. Simulations were conducted using 5 triaxial accelerometers to recover from the loss of up to 4 joint position sensors on a 7 degree of freedom robot moving in general three dimensional space. The simulations show good estimation performance using non-ideal accelerometer measurements.

  11. Development of biomimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF waist joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Se-Hoon; Lee, Yun-Jung

    2005-12-01

    This paper presented a novel bio-mimetic quadruped walking robot with 2-DOF (Degree Of Freedom) waist joint, which connects the front and the rear parts of the body. The waist-jointed walking robot can guarantee more stable and more animal-like gait than that of a conventional single-rigid-body walking robot. The developed robot, called ELIRO-II (Eating LIzard RObot version 2), can bend its body from side to side by using 1-DOF passive waist joint while the legs is transferred, thereby increasing the stride and speed of the robot. In addition, ELIRO-II has one more active DOF to bend its body up and down, which increases the mobility in irregular terrain such as slope and stairs. We design the mechanical structure of the robot, which is small and light to have high mobility. This research described characteristics of the 2-DOF waists joint and leg mechanism as well as a hardware and software of the controller of ELIRO-II.

  12. Experiences in the development of rotary joints for robotic manipulators in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priesett, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    European developments in robotics for space applications have resulted in human arm-like manipulators with six or more rotational degrees of freedom. The rotary joints including their own electromechanical actuator and feedback sensors must be very compact units. The specific joint concept is presented as evolved so far. The problems encountered during the first hardware development phases are covered on both component and joint level.

  13. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  14. Bio-inspired flexible joints with passive feathering for robotic fish pectoral fins.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Sanaz Bazaz; Tan, Xiaobo

    2016-05-04

    In this paper a novel flexible joint is proposed for robotic fish pectoral fins, which enables a swimming behavior emulating the fin motions of many aquatic animals. In particular, the pectoral fin operates primarily in the rowing mode, while undergoing passive feathering during the recovery stroke to reduce hydrodynamic drag on the fin. The latter enables effective locomotion even with symmetric base actuation during power and recovery strokes. A dynamic model is developed to facilitate the understanding and design of the joint, where blade element theory is used to calculate the hydrodynamic forces on the pectoral fins, and the joint is modeled as a paired torsion spring and damper. Experimental results on a robotic fish prototype are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the joint mechanism, validate the proposed model, and indicate the utility of the proposed model for the optimal design of joint depth and stiffness in achieving the trade-off between swimming speed and mechanical efficiency.

  15. Image-Guided Surgical Robotic System for Percutaneous Reduction of Joint Fractures.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Giulio; Georgilas, Ioannis; Morad, Samir; Gibbons, Peter; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2017-11-01

    Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues. The authors propose an image-guided surgical robotic system for the percutaneous treatment of knee joint fractures, i.e., the robot-assisted fracture surgery (RAFS) system. It allows simultaneous manipulation of two bone fragments, safer robot-bone fixation system, and a traction performing robotic manipulator. This system has led to a novel clinical workflow and has been tested both in laboratory and in clinically relevant cadaveric trials. The RAFS system was tested on 9 cadaver specimens and was able to reduce 7 out of 9 distal femur fractures (T- and Y-shape 33-C1) with acceptable accuracy (≈1 mm, ≈5°), demonstrating its applicability to fix knee joint fractures. This study paved the way to develop novel technologies for percutaneous treatment of complex fractures including hip, ankle, and shoulder, thus representing a step toward minimally-invasive fracture surgeries.

  16. Optimization of the Robotic Joint Equipped with Epicyloidal Gear and Direct Drive for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seweryn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Ciesielska, Monika; Rybus, Tomasz; Turek, Michal

    2013-09-01

    One of the most critical element in the orbital manipulators are kinematic joints. Joints must be adapted to work in tough conditions of space environment and must ensure the greatest efficiency and work without backlash. At the Space Mechatronics and Robotics Laboratory (LMRS) of the Space Research Centre, PAS our team designed and built a lightweight kinematic pair based on a new concept. The new concept is based on the epicycloid two-stage gearbox with torque motor. In this paper we have focused on optimization of the joint design for space application. The optimization was focused on the minimization of the mass and backlash effects and on maximizing the joint efficiency.

  17. Optimised robot-based system for the exploration of elastic joint properties.

    PubMed

    Frey, M; Burgkart, R; Regenfelder, F; Riener, R

    2004-09-01

    Numerous publications provide measured biomechanical data relating to synovial joints. However, in general, they do not reflect the non-linear elastic joint properties in detail or do not consider all degrees of freedom (DOF), or the quantity of data is sparse. To perform more comprehensive, extended measurements of elastic joint properties, an optimised robot-based approach was developed. The basis was an industrial, high-precision robot that was capable of applying loads to the joint and measuring the joint displacement in 6 DOF. The system was equipped with novel, custom-made control hardware. In contrast to the commonly used sampling rates that are below 100 Hz, a rate of 4 kHz was realised for each DOF. This made it possible to implement advanced, highly dynamic, quasi-continuous closed-loop controllers. Thus oscillations of the robot were avoided, and measurements were speeded up. The stiffness of the entire system was greater than 44 kNm(-1) and 22 Nm deg(-1), and the maximum difference between two successive measurements was less than 0.5 deg. A sophisticated CT-based referencing routine facilitated the matching of kinematic data with the individual anatomy of the tested joint. The detailed detection of the elastic varus-valgus properties of a human knee joint is described, and the need for high spatial resolution is demonstrated.

  18. Robust Control of a Cable-Driven Soft Exoskeleton Joint for Intrinsic Human-Robot Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, C; McDaid, A J

    2017-07-01

    A novel, cable-driven soft joint is presented for use in robotic rehabilitation exoskeletons to provide intrinsic, comfortable human-robot interaction. The torque-displacement characteristics of the soft elastomeric core contained within the joint are modeled. This knowledge is used in conjunction with a dynamic system model to derive a sliding mode controller (SMC) to implement low-level torque control of the joint. The SMC controller is experimentally compared with a baseline feedback-linearised proportional-derivative controller across a range of conditions and shown to be robust to un-modeled disturbances. The torque controller is then tested with six healthy subjects while they perform a selection of activities of daily living, which has validated its range of performance. Finally, a case study with a participant with spastic cerebral palsy is presented to illustrate the potential of both the joint and controller to be used in a physiotherapy setting to assist clinical populations.

  19. Functional impacts of exoskeleton-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke: multi-joint versus single-joint robotic training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability in the world. The activities of upper limb segments are often compromised following a stroke, impairing most daily tasks. Robotic training is now considered amongst the rehabilitation methods applied to promote functional recovery. However, the implementation of robotic devices remains a major challenge for the bioengineering and clinical community. Latest exoskeletons with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) may become particularly attractive, because of their low apparent inertia, the multiple actuators generating large torques, and the fact that patients can move the arm in the normal wide workspace. A recent study published in JNER by Milot and colleagues underlines that training with a 6-DOF exoskeleton impacts positively on motor function in patients being in stable phase of recovery after a stroke. Also, multi-joint robotic training was not found to be superior to single-joint robotic training. Although it is often considered that rehabilitation should start from simple movements to complex functional movements as the recovery evolves, this study challenges this widespread notion whose scientific basis has remained uncertain. PMID:24354518

  20. Adaptive dynamic surface control of flexible-joint robots using self-recurrent wavelet neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2006-12-01

    A new method for the robust control of flexible-joint (FJ) robots with model uncertainties in both robot dynamics and actuator dynamics is proposed. The proposed control system is a combination of the adaptive dynamic surface control (DSC) technique and the self-recurrent wavelet neural network (SRWNN). The adaptive DSC technique provides the ability to overcome the "explosion of complexity" problem in backstepping controllers. The SRWNNs are used to observe the arbitrary model uncertainties of FJ robots, and all their weights are trained online. From the Lyapunov stability analysis, their adaptation laws are induced, and the uniformly ultimately boundedness of all signals in a closed-loop adaptive system is proved. Finally, simulation results for a three-link FJ robot are utilized to validate the good position tracking performance and robustness against payload uncertainties and external disturbances of the proposed control system.

  1. Robotic Enrichment Processing of Roche 454 Titanium Emlusion PCR at the DOE Joint Genome Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Matthew; Wilson, Steven; Bauer, Diane

    2010-05-28

    Enrichment of emulsion PCR product is the most laborious and pipette-intensive step in the 454 Titanium process, posing the biggest obstacle for production-oriented scale up. The Joint Genome Institute has developed a pair of custom-made robots based on the Microlab Star liquid handling deck manufactured by Hamilton to mediate the complexity and ergonomic demands of the 454 enrichment process. The robot includes a custom built centrifuge, magnetic deck positions, as well as heating and cooling elements. At present processing eight emulsion cup samples in a single 2.5 hour run, these robots are capable of processing up to 24 emulsion cupmore » samples. Sample emulsions are broken using the standard 454 breaking process and transferred from a pair of 50ml conical tubes to a single 2ml tube and loaded on the robot. The robot performs the enrichment protocol and produces beads in 2ml tubes ready for counting. The robot follows the Roche 454 enrichment protocol with slight exceptions to the manner in which it resuspends beads via pipette mixing rather than vortexing and a set number of null bead removal washes. The robotic process is broken down in similar discrete steps: First Melt and Neutralization, Enrichment Primer Annealing, Enrichment Bead Incubation, Null Bead Removal, Second Melt and Neutralization and Sequencing Primer Annealing. Data indicating our improvements in enrichment efficiency and total number of bases per run will also be shown.« less

  2. Translational control of a graphically simulated robot arm by kinematic rate equations that overcome elbow joint singularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.; Carzoo, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An operator commands a robot hand to move in a certain direction relative to its own axis system by specifying a velocity in that direction. This velocity command is then resolved into individual joint rotational velocities in the robot arm to effect the motion. However, the usual resolved-rate equations become singular when the robot arm is straightened. To overcome this elbow joint singularity, equations were developed which allow continued translational control of the robot hand even though the robot arm is (or is nearly) fully extended. A feature of the equations near full arm extension is that an operator simply extends and retracts the robot arm to reverse the direction of the elbow bend (difficult maneuver for the usual resolved-rate equations). Results show successful movement of a graphically simulated robot arm.

  3. Human arm joints reconstruction algorithm in rehabilitation therapies assisted by end-effector robotic devices.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Blanco, Andrea; Badesa, Francisco J; Barios, Juan A; Zollo, Loredana; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas

    2018-02-20

    End-effector robots are commonly used in robot-assisted neuro-rehabilitation therapies for upper limbs where the patient's hand can be easily attached to a splint. Nevertheless, they are not able to estimate and control the kinematic configuration of the upper limb during the therapy. However, the Range of Motion (ROM) together with the clinical assessment scales offers a comprehensive assessment to the therapist. Our aim is to present a robust and stable kinematic reconstruction algorithm to accurately measure the upper limb joints using only an accelerometer placed onto the upper arm. The proposed algorithm is based on the inverse of the augmented Jaciobian as the algorithm (Papaleo, et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 53(9):815-28, 2015). However, the estimation of the elbow joint location is performed through the computation of the rotation measured by the accelerometer during the arm movement, making the algorithm more robust against shoulder movements. Furthermore, we present a method to compute the initial configuration of the upper limb necessary to start the integration method, a protocol to manually measure the upper arm and forearm lengths, and a shoulder position estimation. An optoelectronic system was used to test the accuracy of the proposed algorithm whilst healthy subjects were performing upper limb movements holding the end effector of the seven Degrees of Freedom (DoF) robot. In addition, the previous and the proposed algorithms were studied during a neuro-rehabilitation therapy assisted by the 'PUPArm' planar robot with three post-stroke patients. The proposed algorithm reports a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.13cm in the elbow joint location and 1.89cm in the wrist joint location with high correlation. These errors lead to a RMSE about 3.5 degrees (mean of the seven joints) with high correlation in all the joints with respect to the real upper limb acquired through the optoelectronic system. Then, the estimation of the upper limb joints through

  4. Intelligent Control of Flexible-Joint Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Gallegos, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for uncertain rigid-link. flexible.joint manipulators, and presents a new intelligent controller as a solution to this problem. The proposed control strategy is simple and computationally efficient, requires little information concerning either the manipulator or actuator/transmission models and ensures uniform boundedness of all signals and arbitrarily accurate task-space trajectory tracking.

  5. A Framework for a Supervisory Expert System for Robotic Manipulators with Joint-Position Limits and Joint-Rate Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutambara, Arthur G. O.; Litt, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the problem of path planning and control of robotic manipulators which have joint-position limits and joint-rate limits. The manipulators move autonomously and carry out variable tasks in a dynamic, unstructured and cluttered environment. The issue considered is whether the robotic manipulator can achieve all its tasks, and if it cannot, the objective is to identify the closest achievable goal. This problem is formalized and systematically solved for generic manipulators by using inverse kinematics and forward kinematics. Inverse kinematics are employed to define the subspace, workspace and constrained workspace, which are then used to identify when a task is not achievable. The closest achievable goal is obtained by determining weights for an optimal control redistribution scheme. These weights are quantified by using forward kinematics. Conditions leading to joint rate limits are identified, in particular it is established that all generic manipulators have singularities at the boundary of their workspace, while some have loci of singularities inside their workspace. Once the manipulator singularity is identified the command redistribution scheme is used to compute the closest achievable Cartesian velocities. Two examples are used to illustrate the use of the algorithm: A three link planar manipulator and the Unimation Puma 560. Implementation of the derived algorithm is effected by using a supervisory expert system to check whether the desired goal lies in the constrained workspace and if not, to evoke the redistribution scheme which determines the constraint relaxation between end effector position and orientation, and then computes optimal gains.

  6. Design of a Robotic Ankle Joint for a Microspine-Based Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thatte, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Successful robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids necessitates a method of securely anchoring to the surface of these bodies without gravitational assistance. Microspine grip- per arrays that can grasp rock faces are a potential solution to this problem. A key component of a future microspine-based rover will be the ankle used to attach each microspine gripper to the robot. The ankle's purpose is twofold: 1) to allow the gripper to conform to the rock so a higher percentage of microspines attach to the surface, and 2) to neutralize torques that may dislodge the grippers from the wall. Parts were developed using computer aided design and manufactured using a variety of methods including selective laser sintering, CNC milling, and traditional manual machining techniques. Upon completion of the final prototype, the gripper and ankle system was tested to demonstrate robotic engagement and disengagement of the gripper and to determine load bearing ability. The immediate application of this project is to out t the Lemur IIb robot so it can climb and hang from rock walls.

  7. CRUX: A compliant robotic upper-extremity exosuit for lightweight, portable, multi-joint muscular augmentation.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Steven; Pansodtee, Pattawong; Robbins, Ash; Baltaxe-Admony, Leya Breanna; Trombadore, James M; Teodorescu, Mircea; Agogino, Adrian; Kurniawan, Sri

    2017-07-01

    Wearable robots can potentially offer their users enhanced stability and strength. These augmentations are ideally designed to actuate harmoniously with the user's movements and provide extra force as needed. The creation of such robots, however, is particularly challenging due to the underlying complexity of the human body. In this paper, we present a compliant, robotic exosuit for upper extremities called CRUX. This exosuit, inspired by tensegrity models of the human arm, features a lightweight (1.3 kg), flexible multi-joint design for portable augmentation. We also illustrate how CRUX maintains the full range of motion of the upper-extremities for its users while providing multi-DoF strength amplification to the major muscles of the arm, as evident by tracking the heart rate of an individual exercising said arm. Exosuits such as CRUX may be useful in physical therapy and in extreme environments where users are expected to exert their bodies to the fullest extent.

  8. Development of a truss joint for robotic assembly of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed study of mechanical fasteners which were designed to facilitate robotic assembly of structures. Design requirements for robotic structural assembly were developed, taking into account structural properties and overall system design, and four candidate fasteners were designed to meet them. These fasteners were built and evaluated in the laboratory, and the Hammer-Head joint was chosen as superior overall. It had a high reliability of fastening under misalignments of 2.54 mm (0.1 in) and 3 deg, the highest end fixity (2.18), the simplest end effector, an integral capture guide, good visual verification, and the lightest weight (782 g, 1.72 lb). The study found that a good design should incorporate chamfers sliding on chamfers, cylinders sliding on chamfers, and hard surface finishes on sliding surfaces. The study also comments on robot flexibility, sag, hysteresis, thermal expansion, and friction which were observed during the testing.

  9. Dynamic modeling and optimal joint torque coordination of advanced robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hee-Jun

    The development is documented of an efficient dynamic modeling algorithm and the subsequent optimal joint input load coordination of advanced robotic systems for industrial application. A closed-form dynamic modeling algorithm for the general closed-chain robotic linkage systems is presented. The algorithm is based on the transfer of system dependence from a set of open chain Lagrangian coordinates to any desired system generalized coordinate set of the closed-chain. Three different techniques for evaluation of the kinematic closed chain constraints allow the representation of the dynamic modeling parameters in terms of system generalized coordinates and have no restriction with regard to kinematic redundancy. The total computational requirement of the closed-chain system model is largely dependent on the computation required for the dynamic model of an open kinematic chain. In order to improve computational efficiency, modification of an existing open-chain KIC based dynamic formulation is made by the introduction of the generalized augmented body concept. This algorithm allows a 44 pct. computational saving over the current optimized one (O(N4), 5995 when N = 6). As means of resolving redundancies in advanced robotic systems, local joint torque optimization is applied for effectively using actuator power while avoiding joint torque limits. The stability problem in local joint torque optimization schemes is eliminated by using fictitious dissipating forces which act in the necessary null space. The performance index representing the global torque norm is shown to be satisfactory. In addition, the resulting joint motion trajectory becomes conservative, after a transient stage, for repetitive cyclic end-effector trajectories. The effectiveness of the null space damping method is shown. The modular robot, which is built of well defined structural modules from a finite-size inventory and is controlled by one general computer system, is another class of evolving

  10. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  11. Biomechanical effects of robot assisted walking on knee joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Pavithra; Vidhya, S; Li, Junhua; Chew, Effie; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Yu, Haoyong

    2017-07-01

    Since manual rehabilitation therapy can be taxing for both the patient and the physiotherapist, a gait rehabilitation robot has been built to reduce the physical strain and increase the efficacy of the rehabilitation therapy. The prototype of the gait rehabilitation robot is designed to provide assistance while walking for patients with abnormal gait pattern and it can also be used for rehabilitation therapy to restore an individual's normal gait pattern by aiding motor recovery. The Gait Rehabilitation Robot uses gait event based synchronization, which enables the exoskeleton to provide synchronous assistance during walking that aims to reduce the lower-limb muscle activation. This study emphasizes on the biomechanical effects of assisted walking on the lower limb by analyzing the EMG signal, knee joint kinematics data that was collected from the right leg during the various experimental conditions. The analysis of the measured data shows an improved knee joint trajectory and reduction in muscle activity with assistance. The result of this study does not only assess the functionality of the exoskeleton but also provides a profound understanding of the human-robot interaction by studying the effects of assistance on the lower limb.

  12. CT-guided robotically-assisted infiltration of foot and ankle joints.

    PubMed

    Wiewiorski, Martin; Valderrabano, Victor; Kretzschmar, Martin; Rasch, Helmut; Markus, Tanja; Dziergwa, Severine; Kos, Sebastian; Bilecen, Deniz; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    It was our aim to describe a CT-guided robotically-assisted infiltration technique for diagnostic injections in foot and ankle orthopaedics. CT-guided mechatronically-assisted joint infiltration was performed on 16 patients referred to the orthopaedic department for diagnostic foot and ankle assessment. All interventions were performed using an INNOMOTION-assistance device on a multislice CT scanner in an image-guided therapy suite. Successful infiltration was defined as CT localization of contrast media in the target joint. Additionally, pre- and post-interventional VAS pain scores were assessed. All injections (16/16 joints) were technically successful. Contrast media deposit was documented in all targeted joints. Significant relief of pain was noted by all 16 patients (p<0.01). CT-guided robotically-assisted intervention is an exact, reliable and safe application method for diagnostic infiltration of midfoot and hindfoot joints. The high accuracy and feasibility in a clinical environment make it a viable alternative to the commonly used fluoroscopic-guided procedures.

  13. Adaptive output feedback control of flexible-joint robots using neural networks: dynamic surface design approach.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new robust output feedback control approach for flexible-joint electrically driven (FJED) robots via the observer dynamic surface design technique. The proposed method only requires position measurements of the FJED robots. To estimate the link and actuator velocity information of the FJED robots with model uncertainties, we develop an adaptive observer using self-recurrent wavelet neural networks (SRWNNs). The SRWNNs are used to approximate model uncertainties in both robot (link) dynamics and actuator dynamics, and all their weights are trained online. Based on the designed observer, the link position tracking controller using the estimated states is induced from the dynamic surface design procedure. Therefore, the proposed controller can be designed more simply than the observer backstepping controller. From the Lyapunov stability analysis, it is shown that all signals in a closed-loop adaptive system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the simulation results on a three-link FJED robot are presented to validate the good position tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control system against payload uncertainties and external disturbances.

  14. Stochastic estimation of human arm impedance under nonlinear friction in robot joints: a model study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pyung Hun; Kang, Sang Hoon

    2010-05-30

    The basic assumption of stochastic human arm impedance estimation methods is that the human arm and robot behave linearly for small perturbations. In the present work, we have identified the degree of influence of nonlinear friction in robot joints to the stochastic human arm impedance estimation. Internal model based impedance control (IMBIC) is then proposed as a means to make the estimation accurate by compensating for the nonlinear friction. From simulations with a nonlinear Lugre friction model, it is observed that the reliability and accuracy of the estimation are severely degraded with nonlinear friction: below 2 Hz, multiple and partial coherence functions are far less than unity; estimated magnitudes and phases are severely deviated from that of a real human arm throughout the frequency range of interest; and the accuracy is not enhanced with an increase of magnitude of the force perturbations. In contrast, the combined use of stochastic estimation and IMBIC provides with accurate estimation results even with large friction: the multiple coherence functions are larger than 0.9 throughout the frequency range of interest and the estimated magnitudes and phases are well matched with that of a real human arm. Furthermore, the performance of suggested method is independent of human arm and robot posture, and human arm impedance. Therefore, the IMBIC will be useful in measuring human arm impedance with conventional robot, as well as in designing a spatial impedance measuring robot, which requires gearing. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Space suit glove design with advanced metacarpal phalangeal joints and robotic hand evaluation.

    PubMed

    Southern, Theodore; Roberts, Dustyn P; Moiseev, Nikolay; Ross, Amy; Kim, Joo H

    2013-06-01

    One area of space suits that is ripe for innovation is the glove. Existing models allow for some fine motor control, but the power grip--the act of grasping a bar--is cumbersome due to high torque requirements at the knuckle or metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCP). This area in particular is also a major source of complaints of pain and injury as reported by astronauts. This paper explores a novel fabrication and patterning technique that allows for more freedom of movement and less pain at this crucial joint in the manned space suit glove. The improvements are evaluated through unmanned testing, manned testing while depressurized in a vacuum glove box, and pressurized testing with a robotic hand. MCP joint flex score improved from 6 to 6.75 (out of 10) in the final glove relative to the baseline glove, and torque required for flexion decreased an average of 17% across all fingers. Qualitative assessments during unpressurized and depressurized manned testing also indicated the final glove was more comfortable than the baseline glove. The quantitative results from both human subject questionnaires and robotic torque evaluation suggest that the final iteration of the glove design enables flexion at the MCP joint with less torque and more comfort than the baseline glove.

  16. L'espace articulaire de la Robotique Industrielle est un espace vectorielIndustrial Robotics joint space is a vector space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondu, Bertrand

    2003-05-01

    The mathematical modelling of industrial robots is based on the vectorial nature of the n-dimensional joint space of the robot, defined as a kinematic chain with n degrees of freedom. However, in our opinion, the vectorial nature of the joint space has been insufficiently discussed in the literature. We establish the vectorial nature of the joint space of an industrial robot from the fundamental studies of B. Roth on screws. To cite this article: B. Tondu, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  17. Structure Assembly by a Heterogeneous Team of Robots Using State Estimation, Generalized Joints, and Mobile Parallel Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Adhikari, Shaurav; Glassner, Samantha; Kishen, Ashwin; Quartaro, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous robotic assembly by mobile field robots has seen significant advances in recent decades, yet practicality remains elusive. Identified challenges include better use of state estimation to and reasoning with uncertainty, spreading out tasks to specialized robots, and implementing representative joining methods. This paper proposes replacing 1) self-correcting mechanical linkages with generalized joints for improved applicability, 2) assembly serial manipulators with parallel manipulators for higher precision and stability, and 3) all-in-one robots with a heterogeneous team of specialized robots for agent simplicity. This paper then describes a general assembly algorithm utilizing state estimation. Finally, these concepts are tested in the context of solar array assembly, requiring a team of robots to assemble, bond, and deploy a set of solar panel mockups to a backbone truss to an accuracy not built into the parts. This paper presents the results of these tests.

  18. Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  19. Musclelike joint mechanism driven by dielectric elastomer actuator for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Cho, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Hyeong; Yang, Sang Yul; Kim, Youngeun; Kim, Kihyeon; Nguyen, Canh Toan; Phung, Hoa; Tien Hoang, Phi; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an artificial muscle actuator suitable for robotic applications, and to demonstrate the feasibility of applying this actuator to an arm mechanism, and controlling it delicately and smoothly like a human being. To accomplish this, we perform the procedures that integrate the soft actuator, called the single body dielectric elastomer actuator, which is very flexible and capable of high speed operation, and the displacement amplification mechanism called the sliding filament joint mechanism, which mimics the sliding filament model of human muscles. In this paper, we describe the characteristics and control method of the actuation system that consists of actuator, mechanism, and embedded controller, and show the experimental results of the closed-loop position and static stiffness control of the robotic arm application. Finally, based on the results, we evaluate the performance of this application.

  20. Ultrasonic detection technology based on joint robot on composite component with complex surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Juan; Xu, Chunguang; Zhang, Lan

    Some components have complex surface, such as the airplane wing and the shell of a pressure vessel etc. The quality of these components determines the reliability and safety of related equipment. Ultrasonic nondestructive detection is one of the main methods used for testing material defects at present. In order to improve the testing precision, the acoustic axis of the ultrasonic transducer should be consistent with the normal direction of the measured points. When we use joint robots, automatic ultrasonic scan along the component surface normal direction can be realized by motion trajectory planning and coordinate transformation etc. In order tomore » express the defects accurately and truly, the robot position and the signal of the ultrasonic transducer should be synchronized.« less

  1. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  2. Definition of large components assembled on-orbit and robot compatible mechanical joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamsen, J.; Thomas, F.; Finckenor, J.; Spiegel, B.

    1990-01-01

    One of four major areas of project Pathfinder is in-space assembly and construction. The task of in-space assembly and construction is to develop the requirements and the technology needed to build elements in space. A 120-ft diameter tetrahedral aerobrake truss is identified as the focus element. A heavily loaded mechanical joint is designed to robotically assemble the defined aerobrake element. Also, typical large components such as habitation modules, storage tanks, etc., are defined, and attachment concepts of these components to the tetrahedral truss are developed.

  3. A passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots with application to a simplified shuttle RMS arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The main goal is to develop a general theory for the control of flexible robots, including flexible joint robots, flexible link robots, rigid bodies with flexible appendages, etc. As part of the validation, the theory is applied to the control law development for a test example which consists of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS). The performance of the closed loop control system is then compared with the performance of the existing RMS controller to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The theoretical foundation of this new approach to the control of flexible robots is presented and its efficacy is demonstrated through simulation results on the three-link test arm.

  4. A Study on the Propulsive Mechanism of a Double Jointed Fish Robot Utilizing Self-Excitation Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Ohgishi, Norifumi; Ono, Kyosuke

    This paper describes a numerical and experimental study of a double jointed fish robot utilizing self-excitation control. The fish robot is composed of a streamlined body and a rectangular caudal fin. The body length is 280mm and it has a DC motor to actuate its first joint and a potentiometer to detect the angle of its second joint. The signal from the potentiometer is fed back into the DC motor, so that the system can be self-excited. In order to obtain a stable oscillation and a resultant stable propulsion, a torque limiter circuit is employed. From the experiment, it has been found that the robot can stably propel using this control and the maximum propulsive speed is 0.42m/s.

  5. Design of a welded joint for robotic, on-orbit assembly of space trusses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rule, William K.

    1992-12-01

    In the future, some spacecraft will be so large that they must be assembled on-orbit. These spacecraft will be used for such tasks as manned missions to Mars or used as orbiting platforms for monitoring the Earth or observing the universe. Some large spacecraft will probably consist of planar truss structures to which will be attached special purpose, self-contained modules. The modules will most likely be taken to orbit fully outfitted and ready for use in heavy-lift launch vehicles. The truss members will also similarly be taken to orbit, but most unassembled. The truss structures will need to be assembled robotically because of the high costs and risks of extra-vehicular activities. Some missions will involve very large loads. To date, very few structures of any kind have been constructed in space. Two relatively simple trusses were assembled in the Space Shuttle bay in late 1985. Here the development of a design of a welded joint for on-orbit, robotic truss assembly is described. Mechanical joints for this application have been considered previously. Welded joints have the advantage of allowing the truss members to carry fluids for active cooling or other purposes. In addition, welded joints can be made more efficient structurally than mechanical joints. Also, welded joints require little maintenance (will not shake loose), and have no slop which would cause the structure to shudder under load reversal. The disadvantages of welded joints are that a more sophisticated assembly robot is required, weld flaws may be difficult to detect on-orbit, the welding process is hazardous, and welding introduces contamination to the environment. In addition, welded joints provide less structural damping than do mechanical joints. Welding on-orbit was first investigated aboard a Soyuz-6 mission in 1969 and then during a Skylab electron beam welding experiment in 1973. A hand held electron beam welding apparatus is currently being prepared for use on the MIR space station

  6. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms of decision making in joint action: a human-robot interaction study.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Estela; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Louro, Luis; e Silva, Eliana Costa

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a model for action preparation and decision making in cooperative tasks that is inspired by recent experimental findings about the neuro-cognitive mechanisms supporting joint action in humans. It implements the coordination of actions and goals among the partners as a dynamic process that integrates contextual cues, shared task knowledge and predicted outcome of others' motor behavior. The control architecture is formalized by a system of coupled dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of local but connected neural populations. Different pools of neurons encode task-relevant information about action means, task goals and context in the form of self-sustained activation patterns. These patterns are triggered by input from connected populations and evolve continuously in time under the influence of recurrent interactions. The dynamic model of joint action is evaluated in a task in which a robot and a human jointly construct a toy object. We show that the highly context sensitive mapping from action observation onto appropriate complementary actions allows coping with dynamically changing joint action situations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a multi-joint upper limb exoskeleton robot for diagnosis, therapy, and outcome evaluation in neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Kang, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyung-Soon; Wu, Yi-Ning; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-05-01

    Arm impairments in patients post stroke involve the shoulder, elbow and wrist simultaneously. It is not very clear how patients develop spasticity and reduced range of motion (ROM) at the multiple joints and the abnormal couplings among the multiple joints and the multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) during passive movement. It is also not clear how they lose independent control of individual joints/DOFs and coordination among the joints/DOFs during voluntary movement. An upper limb exoskeleton robot, the IntelliArm, which can control the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, was developed, aiming to support clinicians and patients with the following integrated capabilities: 1) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive multi-joint neuromechanical pre-evaluation capabilities aiding multi-joint/DOF diagnosis for individual patients; 2) strenuous and safe passive stretching of hypertonic/deformed arm for loosening up muscles/joints based on the robot-aided diagnosis; 3) (assistive/resistive) active reaching training after passive stretching for regaining/improving motor control ability; and 4) quantitative, objective, and comprehensive neuromechanical outcome evaluation at the level of individual joints/DOFs, multiple joints, and whole arm. Feasibility of the integrated capabilities was demonstrated through experiments with stroke survivors and healthy subjects.

  8. A torsional MRE joint for a C-shaped robotic leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, M. D.; Sun, S. S.; Ning, D. H.; Du, H.; Zhang, S. W.; Li, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Serving to improve stability and energy efficiency during locomotion, in nature, animals modulate their leg stiffness to adapt to their terrain. Now incorporated into many locomotive robot designs, such compliance control can enable disturbance rejection and improved transition between changing ground conditions. This paper presents a novel design of a variable stiffness leg utilizing a magnetorheological elastomer joint in a literal rolling spring loaded inverted pendulum (R-SLIP) morphology. Through the semi-active control of this hybrid permanent-magnet and coil design, variable stiffness is realized, offering a design which is capable of both softening and stiffening in an adaptive sort of way, with a maximum stiffness change of 48.0%. Experimental characterization first serves to assess the stiffness variation capacity of the torsional joint, and through later comparison with force testing of the leg, the linear stiffness is characterized with the R-SLIP-like behavior of the leg being demonstrated. Through the force relationships applied, a generalized relationship for determining linear stiffness based on joint rotation angle is also proposed, further aiding experimental validation.

  9. A New Approach for Human Forearm Motion Assist by Actuated Artificial Joint-An Inner Skeleton Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Teramoto, Kenbu

    In order to help the physical activities of the elderly or physically disabled persons, we propose a new concept of a power-assist inner skeleton robot (i.e., actuated artificial joint) that is supposed to assist the human daily life motion from inside of the human body. This paper presents an implantable 2 degree of freedom (DOF) inner skeleton robot that is designed to assist human elbow flexion-extension motion and forearm supination-pronation motion for daily life activities. We have developed a prototype of the inner skeleton robot that is supposed to assist the motion from inside of the body and act as an actuated artificial joint. The proposed system is controlled based on the activation patterns of the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the user's muscles by applying fuzzy-neuro control method. A joint actuator with angular position sensor is designed for the inner skeleton robot and a T-Mechanism is proposed to keep the bone arrangement similar to the normal human articulation after the elbow arthroplasty. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been evaluated by experiment.

  10. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Catalan, Jose M; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas

    2015-12-04

    This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM) of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints' estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  11. [Robotics].

    PubMed

    Bier, J

    2000-05-01

    Content of this paper is the current state of the art of robots in surgery and the ongoing work on the field of surgical robotics at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery at the Charité. Robots in surgery allows the surgeon to transform the accuracy of the imaging systems directly during the intervention and to plan an intervention beforehand. In this paper firstly the state of the art is described. Subsequently the scientific work at the clinic is described in detail. The paper closes with a outlook for future applications of robotics systems in maxillofacial surgery.

  12. Acquisition of Joint Attention by a Developmental Learning Model based on Interactions between a Robot and a Caregiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yukie; Asada, Minoru; Hosoda, Koh

    This paper presents a developmental learning model for joint attention between a robot and a human caregiver. The basic idea of the proposed model comes from the insight of the cognitive developmental science that the development can help the task learning. The model consists of a learning mechanism based on evaluation and two kinds of developmental mechanisms: a robot's development and a caregiver's one. The former means that the sensing and the actuating capabilities of the robot change from immaturity to maturity. On the other hand, the latter is defined as a process that the caregiver changes the task from easy situation to difficult one. These two developments are triggered by the learning progress. The experimental results show that the proposed model can accelerate the learning of joint attention owing to the caregiver's development. Furthermore, it is observed that the robot's development can improve the final task performance by reducing the internal representation in the learned neural network. The mechanisms that bring these effects to the learning are analyzed in line with the cognitive developmental science.

  13. Development of a revolute-joint robot for the precision positioning of an x-ray detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissner, Curt A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Shu, Deming

    2003-10-01

    This paper profiles the initial phase in the development of a six degree-of-freedom robot, with 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty, for the manipulation of x-ray detectors or test specimens at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). While revolute-joint robot manipulators exhibit a smaller footprint along with increased positioning flexibility compared to Cartesian manipulators, commercially available revolute-joint manipulators do not meet our size, positioning, or environmental specifications. Currently, a robot with 20 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty is functioning at the APS for cryogenic crystallography sample pick-and-place operation. Theoretical, computational and experimental procedures are being used to (1) identify and (2) simulate the dynamics of the present robot system using a multibody approach, including the mechanics and control architecture, and eventually to (3) design an improved version with a 1 μm dynamic positioning uncertainty. We expect that the preceding experimental and theoretical techniques will be useful design and analysis tools as multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators become more prevalent on synchrotron beamlines.

  14. A Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system for multi-joint coordinated upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Li, Waiming; Pang, Mankit; Hu, Junyan; Wei, Xijun; Yang, Bibo; Wai, Honwah; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xiaoling

    2017-04-26

    It is a challenge to reduce the muscular discoordination in the paretic upper limb after stroke in the traditional rehabilitation programs. In this study, a neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and robot hybrid system was developed for multi-joint coordinated upper limb physical training. The system could assist the elbow, wrist and fingers to conduct arm reaching out, hand opening/grasping and arm withdrawing by tracking an indicative moving cursor on the screen of a computer, with the support from the joint motors and electrical stimulations on target muscles, under the voluntary intention control by electromyography (EMG). Subjects with chronic stroke (n = 11) were recruited for the investigation on the assistive capability of the NMES-robot and the evaluation of the rehabilitation effectiveness through a 20-session device assisted upper limb training. In the evaluation, the movement accuracy measured by the root mean squared error (RMSE) during the tracking was significantly improved with the support from both the robot and NMES, in comparison with those without the assistance from the system (P < 0.05). The intra-joint and inter-joint muscular co-contractions measured by EMG were significantly released when the NMES was applied to the agonist muscles in the different phases of the limb motion (P < 0.05). After the physical training, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were captured by the clinical scores, i.e., Modified Ashworth Score (MAS, the elbow and the wrist), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). The EMG-driven NMES-robotic system could improve the muscular coordination at the elbow, wrist and fingers. ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02117089 ; date of registration: April 10, 2014.

  15. Application of a passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots to a simplified Space Shuttle RMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A passivity approach for the control design of flexible joint robots is applied to the rate control of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The system model includes friction and elastic joint couplings modeled as nonlinear springs. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. A regulator approach with link state feedback is employed to define the desired motor state. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller to stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Simulation results show that greatly improved performance was obtained by using the proposed controller over the existing RMS controller.

  16. sEMG-based joint force control for an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton robot.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Baocheng; Sun, Fuchun; Yang, Chenguang; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates two surface electromyogram (sEMG)-based control strategies developed for a power-assist exoskeleton arm. Different from most of the existing position control approaches, this paper develops force control methods to make the exoskeleton robot behave like humans in order to provide better assistance. The exoskeleton robot is directly attached to a user's body and activated by the sEMG signals of the user's muscles, which reflect the user's motion intention. In the first proposed control method, the forces of agonist and antagonist muscles pair are estimated, and their difference is used to produce the torque of the corresponding joints. In the second method, linear discriminant analysis-based classifiers are introduced as the indicator of the motion type of the joints. Then, the classifier's outputs together with the estimated force of corresponding active muscle determine the torque control signals. Different from the conventional approaches, one classifier is assigned to each joint, which decreases the training time and largely simplifies the recognition process. Finally, the extensive experiments are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  17. A New Technique for Compensating Joint Limits in a Robot Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan; Hickman, Andre; Guo, Ten-Huei

    1996-01-01

    A new robust, optimal, adaptive technique for compensating rate and position limits in the joints of a six degree-of-freedom elbow manipulator is presented. In this new algorithm, the unmet demand as a result of actuator saturation is redistributed among the remaining unsaturated joints. The scheme is used to compensate for inadequate path planning, problems such as joint limiting, joint freezing, or even obstacle avoidance, where a desired position and orientation are not attainable due to an unrealizable joint command. Once a joint encounters a limit, supplemental commands are sent to other joints to best track, according to a selected criterion, the desired trajectory.

  18. Modifying upper-limb inter-joint coordination in healthy subjects by training with a robotic exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Tommaso; Guigon, Emmanuel; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Jarrassé, Nathanaël

    2017-06-12

    The possibility to modify the usually pathological patterns of coordination of the upper-limb in stroke survivors remains a central issue and an open question for neurorehabilitation. Despite robot-led physical training could potentially improve the motor recovery of hemiparetic patients, most of the state-of-the-art studies addressing motor control learning, with artificial virtual force fields, only focused on the end-effector kinematic adaptation, by using planar devices. Clearly, an interesting aspect of studying 3D movements with a robotic exoskeleton, is the possibility to investigate the way the human central nervous system deals with the natural upper-limb redundancy for common activities like pointing or tracking tasks. We asked twenty healthy participants to perform 3D pointing or tracking tasks under the effect of inter-joint velocity dependant perturbing force fields, applied directly at the joint level by a 4-DOF robotic arm exoskeleton. These fields perturbed the human natural inter-joint coordination but did not constrain directly the end-effector movements and thus subjects capability to perform the tasks. As a consequence, while the participants focused on the achievement of the task, we unexplicitly modified their natural upper-limb coordination strategy. We studied the force fields direct effect on pointing movements towards 8 targets placed in the 3D peripersonal space, and we also considered potential generalizations on 4 distinct other targets. Post-effects were studied after the removal of the force fields (wash-out and follow up). These effects were quantified by a kinematic analysis of the pointing movements at both end-point and joint levels, and by a measure of the final postures. At the same time, we analysed the natural inter-joint coordination through PCA. During the exposition to the perturbative fields, we observed modifications of the subjects movement kinematics at every level (joints, end-effector, and inter-joint coordination

  19. Operational space trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators endowed with a primary controller of synthetic joint velocity.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Valenzuela, Javier; González-Hernández, Luis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new control algorithm for operational space trajectory tracking control of robot arms is introduced. The new algorithm does not require velocity measurement and is based on (1) a primary controller which incorporates an algorithm to obtain synthesized velocity from joint position measurements and (2) a secondary controller which computes the desired joint acceleration and velocity required to achieve operational space motion control. The theory of singularly perturbed systems is crucial for the analysis of the closed-loop system trajectories. In addition, the practical viability of the proposed algorithm is explored through real-time experiments in a two degrees-of-freedom horizontal planar direct-drive arm. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. End-effector: Joint conjugates for robotic assembly of large truss structures in space: Extended concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. V.; Rasis, E. P.; Shih, H. R.

    1993-01-01

    Results from NASA/HBCU Grant No. NAG-1-1125 are summarized. Designs developed for model fabrication, exploratory concepts drafted, interface of computer with robot and end-effector, and capability enhancement are discussed.

  1. Home-based tele-assisted robotic rehabilitation of joint impairments in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Ren, Yupeng; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    A portable rehabilitation robot incorporating intelligent stretching, robot-guided voluntary movement training with motivating games and tele-rehabilitation was developed to provide convenient and cost-effective rehabilitation to children with cerebral palsy (CP) and extend rehabilitation care beyond hospital. Clinicians interact with the patients remotely for periodic evaluations and updated guidance. The tele-assisted stretching and active movement training was done over 6-week 18 sessions on the impaired ankle of 23 children with CP in their home setting. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using biomechanical measures and clinical outcome measures. After the tele-assisted home robotic rehabilitation intervention, there were significant increases in the ankle passive and active range of motion, muscle strength, a decrease in spasticity, and increases in balance and selective control assessment of lower-extremity.

  2. Evaluation of three force-position hybrid control methods for a robot-based biological joint-testing system.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hong-Jung; Hu, Chih-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Kuo, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2016-06-07

    Robot-based joint-testing systems (RJTS) can be used to perform unconstrained laxity tests, measuring the stiffness of a degree of freedom (DOF) of the joint at a fixed flexion angle while allowing the other DOFs unconstrained movement. Previous studies using the force-position hybrid (FPH) control method proposed by Fujie et al. (J Biomech Eng 115(3):211-7, 1993) focused on anterior/posterior tests. Its convergence and applicability on other clinically relevant DOFs such as valgus/varus have not been demonstrated. The current s1tudy aimed to develop a 6-DOF RJTS using an industrial robot, to propose two new force-position hybrid control methods, and to evaluate the performance of the methods and FPH in controlling the RJTS for anterior/posterior and valgus/varus laxity tests of the knee joint. An RJTS was developed using an industrial 6-DOF robot with a 6-component load-cell attached at the effector. The performances of FPH and two new control methods, namely force-position alternate control (FPA) and force-position hybrid control with force-moment control (FPHFM), for unconstrained anterior/posterior and valgus/varus laxity tests were evaluated and compared with traditional constrained tests (CT) in terms of the number of control iterations, total time and the constraining forces and moments. As opposed to CT, the other three control methods successfully reduced the constraining forces and moments for both anterior/posterior and valgus/varus tests, FPHFM being the best followed in order by FPA and FPH. FPHFM had root-mean-squared constraining forces and moments of less than 2.2 N and 0.09 Nm, respectively at 0° flexion, and 2.3 N and 0.14 Nm at 30° flexion. The corresponding values for FPH were 8.5 N and 0.33 Nm, and 11.5 N and 0.45 Nm, respectively. Given the same control parameters including the compliance matrix, FPHFM and FPA reduced the constraining loads of FPH at the expense of additional control iterations, and thus increased total time, FPA

  3. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  4. Proprioceptive assessment in clinical settings: Evaluation of joint position sense in upper limb post-stroke using a robotic manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Kager, Simone; Budhota, Aamani; Deshmukh, Vishwanath A.; Kuah, Christopher W. K.; Yam, Lester H. L.; Xiang, Liming; Chua, Karen S. G.; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Proprioception is a critical component for motor functions and directly affects motor learning after neurological injuries. Conventional methods for its assessment are generally ordinal in nature and hence lack sensitivity. Robotic devices designed to promote sensorimotor learning can potentially provide quantitative precise, accurate, and reliable assessments of sensory impairments. In this paper, we investigate the clinical applicability and validity of using a planar 2 degrees of freedom robot to quantitatively assess proprioceptive deficits in post-stroke participants. Nine stroke survivors and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Participants’ hand was passively moved to the target position guided by the H-Man robot (Criterion movement) and were asked to indicate during a second passive movement towards the same target (Matching movement) when they felt that they matched the target position. The assessment was carried out on a planar surface for movements in the forward and oblique directions in the contralateral and ipsilateral sides of the tested arm. The matching performance was evaluated in terms of error magnitude (absolute and signed) and its variability. Stroke patients showed higher variability in the estimation of the target position compared to the healthy participants. Further, an effect of target was found, with lower absolute errors in the contralateral side. Pairwise comparison between individual stroke participant and control participants showed significant proprioceptive deficits in two patients. The proposed assessment of passive joint position sense was inherently simple and all participants, regardless of motor impairment level, could complete it in less than 10 minutes. Therefore, the method can potentially be carried out to detect changes in proprioceptive deficits in clinical settings. PMID:29161264

  5. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  6. Feedback control of vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm with rotary and prismatic joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo

    1987-01-01

    A robot with a long extendible flexible arm which can also undergo both vertical translation and rotary motion is considered. First, A distributed-parameter model for the robot arm dynamics is developed. It is found that the extending motion could enhance the arm vibrations. Then, a Galerkin-type approximation based on an appropriate time-dependent basis for the solution space is used to obtain an approximate finite-dimensional model for simulation studies. A feedback control for damping the motion-induced vibrations is derived by considering the time rate-of-change of the total vibrational energy of the flexible arm. The authors conclude with some simulation results for a special case with the proposed control law.

  7. Design of a welded joint for robotic, on-orbit assembly of space trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, W. K.; Thomas, F. P.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design for a weldable truss joint for on-orbit assembly of large space structures is described. The joint was designed for ease of assembly, for structural efficiency, and to allow passage of fluid (for active cooling or other purposes) along the member through the joint. The truss members were assumed to consist of graphite/epoxy tubes to which were bonded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy end fittings for welding on-orbit to truss nodes of the same alloy. A modified form of gas tungsten arc welding was assumed to be the welding process. The joint was designed to withstand the thermal and structural loading associated with a 120-ft diameter tetrahedral truss intended as an aerobrake for a mission to Mars.

  8. Design of a welded joint for robotic, on-orbit assembly of space trusses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rule, W. K.; Thomas, F. P.

    1992-10-01

    A preliminary design for a weldable truss joint for on-orbit assembly of large space structures is described. The joint was designed for ease of assembly, for structural efficiency, and to allow passage of fluid (for active cooling or other purposes) along the member through the joint. The truss members were assumed to consist of graphite/epoxy tubes to which were bonded 2219-T87 aluminum alloy end fittings for welding on-orbit to truss nodes of the same alloy. A modified form of gas tungsten arc welding was assumed to be the welding process. The joint was designed to withstand the thermal and structural loading associated with a 120-ft diameter tetrahedral truss intended as an aerobrake for a mission to Mars.

  9. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the “UCM reference feedback control.” To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque

  10. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-07-01

    Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Descriptive laboratory study. A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, -7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. The mean (±SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60-0.65), flexion (r = 0.64-0.66), lateral (r = 0.57-0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47-0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = -0.42 to -0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = -0.39 to -0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64-0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55-0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = -0.34 to -0.67) and medial knee force (r = -0.58 to -0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior tibial slope would lead to greater magnitude knee joint moments, specifically

  11. Develop virtual joint laboratory for education like distance engineering system for robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinovic, T. S.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinović, M. T.; Malešević, N.; Barz, C.

    2015-06-01

    This paper work with a new system that provides distance learning and online training engineers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and provide web-based system for the handling and control of remote devices via the Internet. Remote devices are currently the industry or mobile robots [13]. For future product development machine in the factory will be included in the system. This article also discusses the current use of virtual reality tools in the fields of science and engineering education. One programming tool in particular, virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is presented in the light of its applications and capabilities in the development of computer visualization tool for education. One contribution of this paper is to present the software tools and examples that can encourage educators to develop a virtual reality model to improve teaching in their discipline. [12] This paper aims to introduce a software platform, called VALIP where users can build, share, and manipulate 3D content in cooperation with the interaction processes in a 3D context, while participating hardware and software devices can be physical and / or logical distributed and connected together via the Internet. VALIP the integration of virtual laboratories to appropriate partners; therefore, allowing access to all laboratories in any of the partners in the project. VALIP provides advanced laboratory for training and research within robotics and production engineering, and thus, provides a great laboratory facilities with only having to invest a limited amount of resources at the local level to the partner site.

  12. Towards disparity joint upsampling for robust stereoscopic endoscopic scene reconstruction in robotic prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiongbiao; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Jayarathne, Uditha L.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Schlacta, Christopher M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) scene reconstruction from stereoscopic binocular laparoscopic videos is an effective way to expand the limited surgical field and augment the structure visualization of the organ being operated in minimally invasive surgery. However, currently available reconstruction approaches are limited by image noise, occlusions, textureless and blurred structures. In particular, an endoscope inside the body only has the limited light source resulting in illumination non-uniformities in the visualized field. These limitations unavoidably deteriorate the stereo image quality and hence lead to low-resolution and inaccurate disparity maps, resulting in blurred edge structures in 3-D scene reconstruction. This paper proposes an improved stereo correspondence framework that integrates cost-volume filtering with joint upsampling for robust disparity estimation. Joint bilateral upsampling, joint geodesic upsampling, and tree filtering upsampling were compared to enhance the disparity accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that joint upsampling provides an effective way to boost the disparity estimation and hence to improve the surgical endoscopic scene 3-D reconstruction. Moreover, the bilateral upsampling generally outperforms the other two upsampling methods in disparity estimation.

  13. [Research of joint-robotics-based design of biomechanics testing device on human spine].

    PubMed

    Deng, Guoyong; Tian, Lianfang; Mao, Zongyuan

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software of a biomechanical robot-based testing device. The bottom control orders, posture and torque data transmission, and the control algorithms are integrated in a unified visual control platform by Visual C+ +, with easy control and management. By using hybrid force-displacement control method to load the human spine, we can test the organizational structure and the force state of the FSU (Functional spinal unit) well, which overcomes the shortcomings due to the separation of the force and displacement measurement, thus greatly improves the measurement accuracy. Also it is esay to identify the spinal degeneration and the load-bearing impact on the organizational structure of the FSU after various types of surgery.

  14. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    PubMed

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  15. Vision-based real-time position control of a semi-automated system for robot-assisted joint fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Giulio; Georgilas, Ioannis; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2016-03-01

    Joint fracture surgery quality can be improved by robotic system with high-accuracy and high-repeatability fracture fragment manipulation. A new real-time vision-based system for fragment manipulation during robot-assisted fracture surgery was developed and tested. The control strategy was accomplished by merging fast open-loop control with vision-based control. This two-phase process is designed to eliminate the open-loop positioning errors by closing the control loop using visual feedback provided by an optical tracking system. Evaluation of the control system accuracy was performed using robot positioning trials, and fracture reduction accuracy was tested in trials on ex vivo porcine model. The system resulted in high fracture reduction reliability with a reduction accuracy of 0.09 mm (translations) and of [Formula: see text] (rotations), maximum observed errors in the order of 0.12 mm (translations) and of [Formula: see text] (rotations), and a reduction repeatability of 0.02 mm and [Formula: see text]. The proposed vision-based system was shown to be effective and suitable for real joint fracture surgical procedures, contributing a potential improvement of their quality.

  16. Kinematic control of robot with degenerate wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Moore, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Kinematic resolved rate equations allow an operator with visual feedback to dynamically control a robot hand. When the robot wrist is degenerate, the computed joint angle rates exceed operational limits, and unwanted hand movements can result. The generalized matrix inverse solution can also produce unwanted responses. A method is introduced to control the robot hand in the region of the degenerate robot wrist. The method uses a coordinated movement of the first and third joints of the robot wrist to locate the second wrist joint axis for movement of the robot hand in the commanded direction. The method does not entail infinite joint angle rates.

  17. Evidence for robots

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. PMID:28534472

  18. Estimating the Mechanical Behavior of the Knee Joint during Crouch Gait: Implications for Real-Time Motor Control of Robotic Knee Orthoses

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Diane L.; Bulea, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with cerebral palsy frequently exhibit crouch gait, a pathological walking pattern characterized by excessive knee flexion. Knowledge of the knee joint moment during crouch gait is necessary for the design and control of assistive devices used for treatment. Our goal was to 1) develop statistical models to estimate knee joint moment extrema and dynamic stiffness during crouch gait, and 2) use the models to estimate the instantaneous joint moment during weight-acceptance. We retrospectively computed knee moments from 10 children with crouch gait and used stepwise linear regression to develop statistical models describing the knee moment features. The models explained at least 90% of the response value variability: peak moment in early (99%) and late (90%) stance, and dynamic stiffness of weight-acceptance flexion (94%) and extension (98%). We estimated knee extensor moment profiles from the predicted dynamic stiffness and instantaneous knee angle. This approach captured the timing and shape of the computed moment (root-mean-squared error: 2.64 Nm); including the predicted early-stance peak moment as a correction factor improved model performance (root-mean-squared error: 1.37 Nm). Our strategy provides a practical, accurate method to estimate the knee moment during crouch gait, and could be used for real-time, adaptive control of robotic orthoses. PMID:27101612

  19. Mechanisms for employment with robotic extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. A protection apparatus is positioned in a joint of the robotic hand, where movement of a link about the joint is driven by a motor. The protection apparatus absorbs torque about the joint caused by an external force. At least a portion of the robotic hand can be covered by an anthropomorphic skin. An apparatus suitable for controlling operation of the robotic hand is also described herein.

  20. Comparison of joint space and end point space robotic training modalities for rehabilitation of interjoint coordination in individuals with moderate to severe impairment from chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a novel robotic modality called Time Independent Functional Training (TIFT) that provides focused retraining of interjoint coordination after stroke. TIFT was implemented on the ARMin III exoskeleton and provides joint space walls that resist movement patterns that are inconsistent with the targeted interjoint coordination pattern. In a single test session, ten moderate to severely impaired individuals with chronic stroke practiced synchronous shoulder abduction and elbow extension in TIFT and also in a comparison mode commonly used in robotic therapy called end point tunnel training (EPTT). In EPTT, error is limited by forces applied to the hand that are normal to the targeted end point trajectory. The completion percentage of the movements was comparable between modes, but the coordination patterns used by subjects differed between modes. In TIFT, subjects performed the targeted pattern of synchronous shoulder abduction and elbow extension, while in EPTT, movements were completed with compensatory strategies that incorporated the flexor synergy (shoulder abduction with elbow flexion) or the extensor synergy (shoulder adduction with elbow extension). There were immediate effects on free movements, with TIFT resulting in larger improvements in interjoint coordination than EPTT. TIFT's ability to elicit normal coordination patterns merits further investigation into the effects of longer duration training.

  1. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  2. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  3. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  4. Robot geometry calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam; Roston, Gerald

    1988-01-01

    Autonomous robot task execution requires that the end effector of the robot be positioned accurately relative to a reference world-coordinate frame. The authors present a complete formulation to identify the actual robot geometric parameters. The method applies to any serial link manipulator with arbitrary order and combination of revolute and prismatic joints. A method is also presented to solve the inverse kinematic of the actual robot model which usually is not a so-called simple robot. Experimental results performed by utilizing a PUMA 560 with simple measurement hardware are presented. As a result of this calibration a precision move command is designed and integrated into a robot language, RCCL, and used in the NASA Telerobot Testbed.

  5. Bio-inspired control of joint torque and knee stiffness in a robotic lower limb exoskeleton using a central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Schrade, Stefan O; Nager, Yannik; Wu, Amy R; Gassert, Roger; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-07-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons are becoming increasingly popular in therapy and recreational use. However, most exoskeletons are still rather limited in their locomotion speed and the activities of daily live they can perform. Furthermore, they typically do not allow for a dynamic adaptation to the environment, as they are often controlled with predefined reference trajectories. Inspired by human leg stiffness modulation during walking, variable stiffness actuators increase flexibility without the need for more complex controllers. Actuation with adaptable stiffness is inspired by the human leg stiffness modulation during walking. However, this actuation principle also introduces the stiffness setpoint as an additional degree of freedom that needs to be coordinated with the joint trajectories. As a potential solution to this issue a bio-inspired controller based on a central pattern generator (CPG) is presented in this work. It generates coordinated joint torques and knee stiffness modulations to produce flexible and dynamic gait patterns for an exoskeleton with variable knee stiffness actuation. The CPG controller is evaluated and optimized in simulation using a model of the exoskeleton. The CPG controller produced stable and smooth gait for walking speeds from 0.4 m/s up to 1.57 m/s with a torso stabilizing force that simulated the use of crutches, which are commonly needed by exoskeleton users. Through the CPG, the knee stiffness intrinsically adapted to the frequency and phase of the gait, when the speed was changed. Additionally, it adjusted to changes in the environment in the form of uneven terrain by reacting to ground contact forces. This could allow future exoskeletons to be more adaptive to various environments, thus making ambulation more robust.

  6. Decentralized Adaptive Control For Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Precise knowledge of dynamics not required. Proposed scheme for control of multijointed robotic manipulator calls for independent control subsystem for each joint, consisting of proportional/integral/derivative feedback controller and position/velocity/acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Independent joint controller compensates for unpredictable effects, gravitation, and dynamic coupling between motions of joints, while forcing joints to track reference trajectories. Scheme amenable to parallel processing in distributed computing system wherein each joint controlled by relatively simple algorithm on dedicated microprocessor.

  7. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  8. Robotic Finger Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  9. Concurrent Path Planning with One or More Humanoid Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a controller and one or more robots each having a plurality of robotic joints. Each of the robotic joints is independently controllable to thereby execute a cooperative work task having at least one task execution fork, leading to multiple independent subtasks. The controller coordinates motion of the robot(s) during execution of the cooperative work task. The controller groups the robotic joints into task-specific robotic subsystems, and synchronizes motion of different subsystems during execution of the various subtasks of the cooperative work task. A method for executing the cooperative work task using the robotic system includes automatically grouping the robotic joints into task-specific subsystems, and assigning subtasks of the cooperative work task to the subsystems upon reaching a task execution fork. The method further includes coordinating execution of the subtasks after reaching the task execution fork.

  10. Influence of the amount of body weight support on lower limb joints' kinematics during treadmill walking at different gait speeds: Reference data on healthy adults to define trajectories for robot assistance.

    PubMed

    Ferrarin, Maurizio; Rabuffetti, Marco; Geda, Elisabetta; Sirolli, Silvia; Marzegan, Alberto; Bruno, Valentina; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2018-06-01

    Several robotic devices have been developed for the rehabilitation of treadmill walking in patients with movement disorders due to injuries or diseases of the central nervous system. These robots induce coordinated multi-joint movements aimed at reproducing the physiological walking or stepping patterns. Control strategies developed for robotic locomotor training need a set of predefined lower limb joint angular trajectories as reference input for the control algorithm. Such trajectories are typically taken from normative database of overground unassisted walking. However, it has been demonstrated that gait speed and the amount of body weight support significantly influence joint trajectories during walking. Moreover, both the speed and the level of body weight support must be individually adjusted according to the rehabilitation phase and the residual locomotor abilities of the patient. In this work, 10 healthy participants (age range: 23-48 years) were asked to walk in movement analysis laboratory on a treadmill at five different speeds and four different levels of body weight support; besides, a trial with full body weight support, that is, with the subject suspended on air, was performed at two different cadences. The results confirm that lower limb kinematics during walking is affected by gait speed and by the amount of body weight support, and that on-air stepping is radically different from treadmill walking. Importantly, the results provide normative data in a numerical form to be used as reference trajectories for controlling robot-assisted body weight support walking training. An electronic addendum is provided to easily access to such reference data for different combinations of gait speeds and body weight support levels.

  11. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  12. Robot cable-compliant devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A cable compliant robotic joint includes two U configuration cross section brackets with their U cross sections lying in different planes, one of their brackets being connected to a robot arm and the other to a tool. Additional angle brackets are displaced from the other brackets at corners of the robotic joint. All the brackets are connected by cable segments which lie in one or more planes which are perpendicular to the direction of tool travel as it approaches a work object. The compliance of the joint is determined by the cable segment characteristics, such as their length, material, angle, stranding, pretwisting, and prestressing.

  13. Walk and roll robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A mobile robotic unit features a main body, a plurality of legs for supporting the main body on and moving the main body in forward and reverse directions about a base surface, and a drive assembly. According to an exemplary embodiment each leg includes a respective pivotal hip joint, a pivotal knee joint, and a wheeled foot adapted to roll along the base surface. Also according to an exemplary embodiments the drive assembly includes a motor operatively associated with the hip and knee joints and the wheeled foot for independently driving pivotal movement of the hip joint and the knee joint and rolling motion of the wheeled foot. The hip joint may include a ball-and-socket-type joint interconnecting top portion of the leg to the main body, such that the hip joint is adapted to pivot said leg in a direction transverse to a forward-and-reverse direction.

  14. Evidence for robots.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  15. Low-Stroke Actuation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Gao, Dalong (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A serial robot includes a base, first and second segments, a proximal joint joining the base to the first segment, and a distal joint. The distal joint that joins the segments is serially arranged and distal with respect to the proximal joint. The robot includes first and second actuators. A first tendon extends from the first actuator to the proximal joint and is selectively moveable via the first actuator. A second tendon extends from the second actuator to the distal joint and is selectively moveable via the second actuator. The robot includes a transmission having at least one gear element which assists rotation of the distal joint when an input force is applied to the proximal and/or distal joints by the first and/or second actuators. A robotic hand having the above robot is also disclosed, as is a robotic system having a torso, arm, and the above-described hand.

  16. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  17. KC-135 materials handling robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Robot dynamics and control will become an important issue for implementing productive platforms in space. Robotic operations will become necessary for man-tended stations and for efficient performance of routine operations in a manned platform. The current constraints on the use of robotic devices in a microgravity environment appears to be due to an anticipated increase in acceleration levels due to manipulator motion and for safety concerns. The objective of this study will be to provide baseline data to meet that need. Most texts and papers dealing with the kinematics and dynamics of robots assume that the manipulator is composed of joints separated by rigid links. However, in recent years several groups have begun to study the dynamics of flexible manipulators, primarily for applying robots in space and for improving the efficiency and precision of robotic systems. Robotic systems which are being planned for implementation in space have a number of constraints to overcome. Additional concepts which have to be worked out in any robotic implementation for a space platform include teleoperation and degree of autonomous control. Some significant results in developing a robotic workcell for performing robotics research on the KC-135 aircraft in preperation for space-based robotics applications in the future were generated. In addition, it was shown that TREETOPS can be used to simulate the dynamics of robot manipulators for both space and ground-based applications.

  18. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  19. Walking Robot Locomotion System Conception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatova, D.; Abadjieva, E.; Abadjiev, V.; Vatzkitchev, Al.

    2014-09-01

    This work is a brief analysis on the application and perspective of using the walking robots in different areas in practice. The most common characteristics of walking four legs robots are presented here. The specific features of the applied actuators in walking mechanisms are also shown in the article. The experience of Institute of Mechanics - BAS is illustrated in creation of Spiroid and Helicon1 gears and their assembly in actuation of studied robots. Loading on joints reductors of robot legs is modelled, when the geometrical and the walking parameters of the studied robot are preliminary defined. The obtained results are purposed for designing the control of the loading of reductor type Helicon in the legs of the robot, when it is experimentally tested.

  20. Human-like Compliance for Dexterous Robot Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Active Electromechanical Compliance (AEC) system that was developed for the Jau-JPL anthropomorphic robot. The AEC system imitates the functionality of the human muscle's secondary function, which is to control the joint's stiffness: AEC is implemented through servo controlling the joint drive train's stiffness. The control strategy, controlling compliant joints in teleoperation, is described. It enables automatic hybrid position and force control through utilizing sensory feedback from joint and compliance sensors. This compliant control strategy is adaptable for autonomous robot control as well. Active compliance enables dual arm manipulations, human-like soft grasping by the robot hand, and opens the way to many new robotics applications.

  1. DEMES rotary joint: theories and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu; Hao, Zhaogang; Li, Mingyu; Huang, Bo; Sun, Lining; Zhao, Jianwen

    2017-04-01

    As a kind of dielectric elastomer actuators, dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by small voltage-induced strains, which make them an attractive candidate for use as biomimetic robotics. Considering the rotary joint is a basic and common component of many biomimetic robots, we have been fabricated rotary joint by DEMES and developed its performances in the past two years. In this paper, we have discussed the static analysis, dynamics analysis and some characteristics of the DEMES rotary joint. Based on theoretical analysis, some different applications of the DEMES rotary joint were presented, such as a flapping wing, a biomimetic fish and a two-legged walker. All of the robots are fabricated by DEMES rotary joint and can realize some basic biomimetic motions. Comparing with traditional rigid robot, the robot based on DEMES is soft and light, so it has advantage on the collision-resistant.

  2. Robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, D

    2000-09-01

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the capability of robotic systems to facilitate and improve manufacturing. As a result, robotics extended to various other domains, including the delivery of health care. Hence, robots have been developed to assist hospital staff, to facilitate laboratory analyses, to augment patient rehabilitation, and even to advance surgical performance. As robotics lead usefulness and gain wider acceptance among the surgical community, the urologist should become familiar with this new interdisciplinary field and its "URobotics" subset: robotics applied to urology. This article reviews the current applications and experience, issues and debates in surgical robotics, and highlights future directions in the field.

  3. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  4. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  5. Interactive robot control system and method of use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having joints, actuators, and sensors, and a distributed controller. The controller includes command-level controller, embedded joint-level controllers each controlling a respective joint, and a joint coordination-level controller coordinating motion of the joints. A central data library (CDL) centralizes all control and feedback data, and a user interface displays a status of each joint, actuator, and sensor using the CDL. A parameterized action sequence has a hierarchy of linked events, and allows the control data to be modified in real time. A method of controlling the robot includes transmitting control data through the various levels of the controller, routing all control and feedback data to the CDL, and displaying status and operation of the robot using the CDL. The parameterized action sequences are generated for execution by the robot, and a hierarchy of linked events is created within the sequence.

  6. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  7. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  8. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  9. A power autonomous monopedal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all

  10. Dexterous Humanoid Robotic Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, a neck, a head, a wrist joint assembly, and a control system. The arms and the neck movably extend from the torso. Each of the arms includes a lower arm and a hand that is rotatable relative to the lower arm. The wrist joint assembly is operatively defined between the lower arm and the hand. The wrist joint assembly includes a yaw axis and a pitch axis. The pitch axis is disposed in a spaced relationship to the yaw axis such that the axes are generally perpendicular. The pitch axis extends between the yaw axis and the lower arm. The hand is rotatable relative to the lower arm about each of the yaw axis and the pitch axis. The control system is configured for determining a yaw angle and a pitch angle of the wrist joint assembly.

  11. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  12. Alocomotino Control Algorithm for Robotic Linkage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    This dissertation describes the development of a control algorithm that transitions a robotic linkage system between stabilized states producing responsive locomotion. The developed algorithm is demonstrated using a simple robotic construction consisting of a few links with actuation and sensing at each joint. Numerical and experimental validation is presented.

  13. An Optimized Trajectory Planning for Welding Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhilong; Wang, Jun; Li, Shuting; Ren, Jun; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Qunchao; Li, Wentao

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve the welding efficiency and quality, this paper studies the combined planning between welding parameters and space trajectory for welding robot and proposes a trajectory planning method with high real-time performance, strong controllability and small welding error. By adding the virtual joint at the end-effector, the appropriate virtual joint model is established and the welding process parameters are represented by the virtual joint variables. The trajectory planning is carried out in the robot joint space, which makes the control of the welding process parameters more intuitive and convenient. By using the virtual joint model combined with the B-spline curve affine invariant, the welding process parameters are indirectly controlled by controlling the motion curve of the real joint. To solve the optimal time solution as the goal, the welding process parameters and joint space trajectory joint planning are optimized.

  14. Compliant Robot Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1992-01-01

    Compliant element for robot wrist accepts small displacements in one direction only (to first approximation). Three such elements combined to obtain translational compliance along three orthogonal directions, without rotational compliance along any of them. Element is double-blade flexure joint in which two sheets of spring steel attached between opposing blocks, forming rectangle. Blocks moved parallel to each other in one direction only. Sheets act as double cantilever beams deforming in S-shape, keeping blocks parallel.

  15. Mechanism design and optimization of a bionic kangaroo jumping robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Zheng, L.; Ge, W. J.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Hopping robots have broad application prospects in the fields of military reconnaissance, field search or life rescue. However, current hopping robots still face the problems of weak jumping ability and load bearing. Inspired by the jumping of kangaroo, we design a Kangaroo hopping robot “Zbot”, which has two degrees of freedom and three joints. The geared five-bar mechanism is used to decouple the knee and ankle joints of the robot. In order to get a bionic performance, the coupling mechanism parameters are optimized. The simulation and experiments show that the robot has an excellent jumping ability and load capacity.

  16. Beyond speculative robot ethics: a vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Arjanna; Smits, Martijntje; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to some promising co-designed robot concepts in which jointly articulated moral guidelines are embedded. With our model, we think to have designed an interesting response on a recent call for a less speculative ethics of technology by encouraging discussions about the quality of positive and negative visions on the future of robotics.

  17. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  18. Rotary Joints With Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Power and data transmitted on many channels. Two different rotary joints equipped with electrical connections between rotating and stationary parts. One joint transmits axial thrust and serves as interface between spinning and nonspinning parts of Galileo spacecraft. Other is scanning (limitedrotation) joint that aims scientific instruments from nonspinning part. Selected features of both useful to designers of robots, advanced production equipment, and remotely controlled instruments.

  19. Robotic Laser Coating Removal System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Materiel Command IRR Internal Rate of Return JTP Joint Test Protocol JTR Joint Test Report LARPS Large Area Robotic Paint Stripping LASER Light...use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air Force...The use of laser paint stripping systems is applicable to depainting activities on large off-aircraft components and weapons systems for the Air

  20. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  1. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots.

    PubMed

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T

    2015-05-28

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  2. Robot Handcontroller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The PER-Force robotic handcontroller provides a sense of touch or "feel" to an operator manipulating robots. The force simulation and wide range of motion greatly enhances the efficiency of robotic and computer operations. The handcontroller was developed for the Space Station by Cybernet Systems Corporation under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Commercial applications include underwater use, underground excavations, research laboratories, hazardous waste handling and in manufacturing operations in which it is unsafe or impractical for humans to work.

  3. Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation: A Robot for Wrist Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Volpe, Bruce T.; Williams, Dustin; Celestino, James; Charles, Steven K.; Lynch, Daniel; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In 1991, a novel robot, MIT-MANUS, was introduced to study the potential that robots might assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent tool for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in movements confined to the exercised joints. This successful proof of principle as to additional targeted and intensive movement treatment prompted a test of robot training examining other limb segments. This paper focuses on a robot for wrist rehabilitation designed to provide three rotational degrees-of-freedom. The first clinical trial of the device will enroll 200 stroke survivors. Ultimately 160 stroke survivors will train with both the proximal shoulder and elbow MIT-MANUS robot, as well as with the novel distal wrist robot, in addition to 40 stroke survivor controls. So far 52 stroke patients have completed the robot training (ongoing protocol). Here, we report on the initial results on 36 of these volunteers. These results demonstrate that further improvement should be expected by adding additional training to other limb segments. PMID:17894265

  4. Robot-aided neurorehabilitation: a robot for wrist rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Volpe, Bruce T; Williams, Dustin; Celestino, James; Charles, Steven K; Lynch, Daniel; Hogan, Neville

    2007-09-01

    In 1991, a novel robot, MIT-MANUS, was introduced to study the potential that robots might assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent tool for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in movements confined to the exercised joints. This successful proof of principle as to additional targeted and intensive movement treatment prompted a test of robot training examining other limb segments. This paper focuses on a robot for wrist rehabilitation designed to provide three rotational degrees-of-freedom. The first clinical trial of the device will enroll 200 stroke survivors. Ultimately 160 stroke survivors will train with both the proximal shoulder and elbow MIT-MANUS robot, as well as with the novel distal wrist robot, in addition to 40 stroke survivor controls. So far 52 stroke patients have completed the robot training (ongoing protocol). Here, we report on the initial results on 36 of these volunteers. These results demonstrate that further improvement should be expected by adding additional training to other limb segments.

  5. Method and System for Controlling a Dexterous Robot Execution Sequence Using State Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Quillin, Nathaniel (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Pfeiffer, Joseph (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot and a controller. The robot includes a plurality of robotic joints, actuators for moving the joints, and sensors for measuring a characteristic of the joints, and for transmitting the characteristics as sensor signals. The controller receives the sensor signals, and is configured for executing instructions from memory, classifying the sensor signals into distinct classes via the state classification module, monitoring a system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the system state. A method for controlling the robot in the above system includes receiving the signals via the controller, classifying the signals using the state classification module, monitoring the present system state of the robot using the classes, and controlling the robot in the execution of alternative work tasks based on the present system state.

  6. Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Anthony R.; Castellanos, Andres E.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Meyers, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the history, development, and current applications of robotics in surgery. Background: Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken using Medline. Articles describing the history and development of surgical robots were identified as were articles reporting data on applications. Results: Several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. Most of these early studies report that robotic surgery is feasible. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding costs and benefits of robotics versus conventional techniques. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is still in its infancy and its niche has not yet been well defined. Its current practical uses are mostly confined to smaller surgical procedures. PMID:14685095

  8. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  9. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  10. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  11. Fast Grasp Contact Computation for a Serial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Shi, Jianying (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system includes a controller and a serial robot having links that are interconnected by a joint, wherein the robot can grasp a three-dimensional (3D) object in response to a commanded grasp pose. The controller receives input information, including the commanded grasp pose, a first set of information describing the kinematics of the robot, and a second set of information describing the position of the object to be grasped. The controller also calculates, in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, a set of contact points between the serial robot and a surface of the 3D object needed for the serial robot to achieve the commanded grasp pose. A required joint angle is then calculated in the 2D plane between the pair of links using the set of contact points. A control action is then executed with respect to the motion of the serial robot using the required joint angle.

  12. Decentralized digital adaptive control of robot motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive scheme is developed for digital control of robot manipulators. The adaptation laws are derived using hyperstability theory, which guarantees asymptotic trajectory tracking despite gross robot parameter variations. The control scheme has a decentralized structure in the sense that each local controller receives only its joint angle measurement to produce its joint torque. The independent joint controllers have simple structures and can be programmed using a very simple and computationally fast algorithm. As a result, the scheme is suitable for real-time motion control.

  13. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  14. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  15. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  16. Extended Task Space Control for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a method of operating a robot in successive sampling intervals to perform a task, the robot having joints and joint actuators with actuator control loops, by decomposing the task into behavior forces, accelerations, velocities and positions of plural behaviors to be exhibited by the robot simultaneously, computing actuator accelerations of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from both behavior forces, accelerations velocities and positions of the current sampling interval and actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, computing actuator velocities and positions of the joint actuators for the current sampling interval from the actuator velocities and positions of the previous sampling interval, and, finally, controlling the actuators in accordance with the actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval. The actuator accelerations, velocities and positions of the current sampling interval are stored for use during the next sampling interval.

  17. Robust tuning of robot control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minis, I.; Uebel, M.

    1992-01-01

    The computed torque control problem is examined for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators because of the dynamics introduced by the joint drive system. The proposed approach to computed torque control combines a computed torque algorithm with torque controller at each joint. Three such control schemes are proposed. The first scheme uses the joint torque control system currently implemented on the robot arm and a novel form of the computed torque algorithm. The other two use the standard computed torque algorithm and a novel model following torque control system based on model following techniques. Standard tasks and performance indices are used to evaluate the performance of the controllers. Both numerical simulations and experiments are used in evaluation. The study shows that all three proposed systems lead to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD controller.

  18. Climbing robot. [caterpillar design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); May, Edward L. (Inventor); Ecklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  19. Synthetic Bursae for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic bursae are under development for incorporation into robot joints that are actuated by motor-driven cables in a manner similar to that of arthropod joints actuated by muscle-driven tendons. Like natural bursae, the synthetic bursae would serve as cushions and friction reducers. A natural bursa is a thin bladder filled with synovial fluid, which serves to reduce friction and provide a cushion between a bone and a muscle or a tendon. A synthetic bursa would be similar in form and function: It would be, essentially, a compact, soft roller consisting of a bladder filled with a non-Newtonian fluid. The bladder would be constrained to approximately constant volume. The synthetic bursa would cushion an actuator cable against one of the members of a robot joint and would reduce the friction between the cable and the member. Under load, the pressure in the bladder would hold the opposite walls of the bladder apart, making it possible for them to move freely past each other without rubbing.

  20. Robot-friendly connector. [space truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F. (Inventor); Vandeberghe, Mark H. (Inventor); Ruiz, Steve C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Robot friendly connectors, which, in one aspect, are truss joints with two parts, a receptacle and a joint, are presented. The joints have a head which is loosely inserted into the receptacle and is then tightened and aligned. In one aspect, the head is a rounded hammerhead which initially is enclosed in the receptacle with sloppy fit provided by the shape, size, and configuration of surfaces on the head and on the receptacle.

  1. Fuzzy logic based robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-01-01

    Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.

  2. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  3. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  4. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  5. Surrogate Robot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-21

    The Surrogate robot Surge, built at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA., is being developed in order to extend humanity reach into hazardous environments to perform tasks such as using environmental test equipment.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  7. Robotic parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Sound, Sara; Berber, Eren

    2015-09-01

    Robotic parathyroidectomy has recently been described. Although the procedure eliminates the neck scar, it is technically more demanding than the conventional approaches. This report is a review of the patients' selection criteria, technique, and outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  9. Intra-operative fiducial-based CT/fluoroscope image registration framework for image-guided robot-assisted joint fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, Giulio; Georgilas, Ioannis; Morad, Samir; Gibbons, Peter; Tarassoli, Payam; Atkins, Roger; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2017-08-01

    Joint fractures must be accurately reduced minimising soft tissue damages to avoid negative surgical outcomes. To this regard, we have developed the RAFS surgical system, which allows the percutaneous reduction of intra-articular fractures and provides intra-operative real-time 3D image guidance to the surgeon. Earlier experiments showed the effectiveness of the RAFS system on phantoms, but also key issues which precluded its use in a clinical application. This work proposes a redesign of the RAFS's navigation system overcoming the earlier version's issues, aiming to move the RAFS system into a surgical environment. The navigation system is improved through an image registration framework allowing the intra-operative registration between pre-operative CT images and intra-operative fluoroscopic images of a fractured bone using a custom-made fiducial marker. The objective of the registration is to estimate the relative pose between a bone fragment and an orthopaedic manipulation pin inserted into it intra-operatively. The actual pose of the bone fragment can be updated in real time using an optical tracker, enabling the image guidance. Experiments on phantom and cadavers demonstrated the accuracy and reliability of the registration framework, showing a reduction accuracy (sTRE) of about [Formula: see text] (phantom) and [Formula: see text] (cadavers). Four distal femur fractures were successfully reduced in cadaveric specimens using the improved navigation system and the RAFS system following the new clinical workflow (reduction error [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. Experiments showed the feasibility of the image registration framework. It was successfully integrated into the navigation system, allowing the use of the RAFS system in a realistic surgical application.

  10. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  11. Robotics in Arthroplasty: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Jacofsky, David J; Allen, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Robotic-assisted orthopedic surgery has been available clinically in some form for over 2 decades, claiming to improve total joint arthroplasty by enhancing the surgeon's ability to reproduce alignment and therefore better restore normal kinematics. Various current systems include a robotic arm, robotic-guided cutting jigs, and robotic milling systems with a diversity of different navigation strategies using active, semiactive, or passive control systems. Semiactive systems have become dominant, providing a haptic window through which the surgeon is able to consistently prepare an arthroplasty based on preoperative planning. A review of previous designs and clinical studies demonstrate that these robotic systems decrease variability and increase precision, primarily focusing on component positioning and alignment. Some early clinical results indicate decreased revision rates and improved patient satisfaction with robotic-assisted arthroplasty. The future design objectives include precise planning and even further improved consistent intraoperative execution. Despite this cautious optimism, many still wonder whether robotics will ultimately increase cost and operative time without objectively improving outcomes. Over the long term, every industry that has seen robotic technology be introduced, ultimately has shown an increase in production capacity, improved accuracy and precision, and lower cost. A new generation of robotic systems is now being introduced into the arthroplasty arena, and early results with unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty have demonstrated improved accuracy of placement, improved satisfaction, and reduced complications. Further studies are needed to confirm the cost effectiveness of these technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Robot-Arm Dynamic Control by Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Tarn, Tzyh J.; Chen, Yilong J.

    1987-01-01

    Feedforward and feedback schemes linearize responses to control inputs. Method for control of robot arm based on computed nonlinear feedback and state tranformations to linearize system and decouple robot end-effector motions along each of cartesian axes augmented with optimal scheme for correction of errors in workspace. Major new feature of control method is: optimal error-correction loop directly operates on task level and not on joint-servocontrol level.

  13. Review on design and control aspects of ankle rehabilitation robots.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Prashant K; Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q

    2015-03-01

    Ankle rehabilitation robots can play an important role in improving outcomes of the rehabilitation treatment by assisting therapists and patients in number of ways. Consequently, few robot designs have been proposed by researchers which fall under either of the two categories, namely, wearable robots or platform-based robots. This paper presents a review of both kinds of ankle robots along with a brief analysis of their design, actuation and control approaches. While reviewing these designs it was observed that most of them are undesirably inspired by industrial robot designs. Taking note of the design concerns of current ankle robots, few improvements in the ankle robot designs have also been suggested. Conventional position control or force control approaches, being used in the existing ankle robots, have been reviewed. Apparently, opportunities of improvement also exist in the actuation as well as control of ankle robots. Subsequently, a discussion on most recent research in the development of novel actuators and advanced controllers based on appropriate physical and cognitive human-robot interaction has also been included in this review. Implications for Rehabilitation Ankle joint functions are restricted/impaired as a consequence of stroke or injury during sports or otherwise. Robots can help in reinstating functions faster and can also work as tool for recording rehabilitation data useful for further analysis. Evolution of ankle robots with respect to their design and control aspects has been discussed in the present paper and a novel design with futuristic control approach has been proposed.

  14. Lower-Limb Rehabilitation Robot Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhabba, E. M.; Shafie, A. A.; Khan, M. R.; Ariffin, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is a general assumption that robotics will play an important role in therapy activities within rehabilitation treatment. In the last decade, the interest in the field has grown exponentially mainly due to the initial success of the early systems and the growing demand caused by increasing numbers of stroke patients and their associate rehabilitation costs. As a result, robot therapy systems have been developed worldwide for training of both the upper and lower extremities. This paper investigates and proposes a lower-limb rehabilitation robot that is used to help patients with lower-limb paralysis to improve and resume physical functions. The proposed rehabilitation robot features three rotary joints forced by electric motors providing linear motions. The paper covers mechanism design and optimization, kinematics analysis, trajectory planning, wearable sensors, and the control system design. The design and control system demonstrate that the proposed rehabilitation robot is safe and reliable with the effective design and better kinematic performance.

  15. The Impact of Robotics on Employment. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Economic Goals and Intergovernmental Policy of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress. First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This document is a transcript of a fact-finding hearing conducted to evaluate the prospective impact of robotics (the use of sophisticated programmable or computer-controlled robots to perform routine and repetitious tasks) on employment in this country. Testimony and prepared reports were given by John Andelin, assistant director of Science,…

  16. Direct adaptive control of a PUMA 560 industrial robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1989-01-01

    The implementation and experimental validation of a new direct adaptive control scheme on a PUMA 560 industrial robot is described. The testbed facility consists of a Unimation PUMA 560 six-jointed robot and controller, and a DEC MicroVAX II computer which hosts the Robot Control C Library software. The control algorithm is implemented on the MicroVAX which acts as a digital controller for the PUMA robot, and the Unimation controller is effectively bypassed and used merely as an I/O device to interface the MicroVAX to the joint motors. The control algorithm for each robot joint consists of an auxiliary signal generated by a constant-gain Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) controller, and an adaptive position-velocity (PD) feedback controller with adjustable gains. The adaptive independent joint controllers compensate for the inter-joint couplings and achieve accurate trajectory tracking without the need for the complex dynamic model and parameter values of the robot. Extensive experimental results on PUMA joint control are presented to confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, in spite of strong interactions between joint motions. Experimental results validate the capabilities of the proposed control scheme. The control scheme is extremely simple and computationally very fast for concurrent processing with high sampling rates.

  17. Robotic acquisition programs: technical and performance challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibadoux, Steven A.

    2002-07-01

    The Unmanned Ground Vehicles/ Systems Joint Project Office (UGV/S JPO) is developing and fielding a variety of tactical robotic systems for the Army and Marine Corps. The Standardized Robotic System (SRS) provides a family of common components that can be installed in existing military vehicles, to allow unmanned operation of the vehicle and its payloads. The Robotic Combat Support System (RCSS) will be a medium sized unmanned system with interchangeable attachments, allowing a remote operator to perform a variety of engineering tasks. The Gladiator Program is a USMC initiative for a small to medium sized, highly mobile UGV to conduct scout/ surveillance missions and to carry various lethal and non-lethal payloads. Acquisition plans for these programs require preplanned evolutionary block upgrades to add operational capability, as new technology becomes available. This paper discusses technical and performance issues that must be resolved and the enabling technologies needed for near term block upgrades of these first generation robotic systems. Additionally, two Joint Robotics Program (JRP) initiatives, Robotic Acquisition through Virtual Environments and Networked Simulations (RAVENS) and Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems (JAUGS), will be discussed. RAVENS and JAUGS will be used to efficiently evaluate and integrate new technologies to be incorporated in system upgrades.

  18. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    PubMed

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  19. Robots that can adapt like animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot `think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  20. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  1. ANYmal - A Highly Mobile and Dynamic Quadrupedal Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-09

    ANYmal - A Highly Mobile and Dynamic Quadrupedal Robot * Marco Hutter1, Christian Gehring2, Dominic Jud1, Andreas Lauber1, C. Dario Bellicoso1...Abstract— This paper introduces ANYmal, a quadrupedal robot that features outstanding mobility and dynamic motion capability. Thanks to novel...compliant joint modules with integrated electronics, the 30 kg, 0.5 m tall robotic dog is torque controllable and very robust against impulsive loads during

  2. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  3. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  4. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Epilogue to Special Issue on Developmental Robotics: Can Experiments with Machines Inform Theory in Infant Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental robotics has forwarded a range of models of development and behaviours. With the variety of systems that have been created, and with some of these approximating prominent human behaviours (e.g. joint attention, word learning, imitation), one may argue that developmental robotics has started to go past robotic models of earwigs…

  6. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  7. The JPL Serpentine Robot: A 12 DOF System for Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paljug, E.; Ohm, T.; Hayati, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Serpentine Robot is a prototype hyper-redundant (snake-like) manipulator system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is designed to navigate and perform tasks in obstructed and constrained environments in which conventional 6 DOF manipulators cannot function. Described are the robot mechanical design, a joint assembly low level inverse kinematic algorithm, control development, and applications.

  8. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  9. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  10. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    DOEpatents

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  11. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  12. Robot gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electronic force-detecting robot gripper for gripping objects and attaching to an external robot arm is disclosed. The gripper comprises motor apparatus, gripper jaws, and electrical circuits for driving the gripper motor and sensing the amount of force applied by the jaws. The force applied by the jaws is proportional to a threshold value of the motor current. When the motor current exceeds the threshold value, the electrical circuits supply a feedback signal to the electrical control circuit which, in turn, stops the gripper motor.

  13. Smooth leader or sharp follower? Playing the mirror game with a robot.

    PubMed

    Kashi, Shir; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number of opportunities for human-robot interactions in various settings, from industry through home use to rehabilitation, creates a need to understand how to best personalize human-robot interactions to fit both the user and the task at hand. In the current experiment, we explored a human-robot collaborative task of joint movement, in the context of an interactive game. We set out to test people's preferences when interacting with a robotic arm, playing a leader-follower imitation game (the mirror game). Twenty two young participants played the mirror game with the robotic arm, where one player (person or robot) followed the movements of the other. Each partner (person and robot) was leading part of the time, and following part of the time. When the robotic arm was leading the joint movement, it performed movements that were either sharp or smooth, which participants were later asked to rate. The greatest preference was given to smooth movements. Half of the participants preferred to lead, and half preferred to follow. Importantly, we found that the movements of the robotic arm primed the subsequent movements performed by the participants. The priming effect by the robot on the movements of the human should be considered when designing interactions with robots. Our results demonstrate individual differences in preferences regarding the role of the human and the joint motion path of the robot and the human when performing the mirror game collaborative task, and highlight the importance of personalized human-robot interactions.

  14. a New Golf-Swing Robot Model Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Inooka, H.

    1998-10-01

    The performance of golf clubs and balls is generally evaluated by using golf-swing robots that conventionally have two or three joints with completely interrelated motion. This interrelation allows the user of this robot to specify only the initial posture and swing velocity of the robot and therefore the swing motion of this type of robot cannot be subtly adjusted to the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs. Consequently, golf-swing robots cannot accurately emulate advanced golfers, and this causes serious problems for the evaluation of golf club performance. In this study, a new golf-swing robot that can adjust its motion to both a specified value of swing velocity and the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs was analytically investigated. This robot utilizes the dynamic interference force produced by its swing motion and by shaft vibration and can therefore emulate advanced golfers and perform highly reliable evaluations of golf clubs.

  15. Vector-algebra approach to extract Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of assembled robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    The Denavit-Hartenberg parameters characterize the joint axis systems in a robot arm and, naturally, appear in the transformation matrices from one joint axis system to another. These parameters are needed in the control of robot arms and in the passage of sensor information along the arm. This paper presents a vector algebra method to determine these parameters for any assembled robot arm. The idea is to measure the location of the robot hand (or extension) for different joint angles and then use these measurements to calculate the parameters.

  16. Measurement of the Robot Motor Capability of a Robot Motor System: A Fitts's-Law-Inspired Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-I; George Lee, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp) to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts's law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly. PMID:23820745

  17. Measurement of the robot motor capability of a robot motor system: a Fitts's-law-inspired approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-I; Lee, C S George

    2013-07-02

    Robot motor capability is a crucial factor for a robot, because it affects how accurately and rapidly a robot can perform a motion to accomplish a task constrained by spatial and temporal conditions. In this paper, we propose and derive a pseudo-index of motor performance (pIp) to characterize robot motor capability with robot kinematics, dynamics and control taken into consideration. The proposed pIp provides a quantitative measure for a robot with revolute joints, which is inspired from an index of performance in Fitts's law of human skills. Computer simulations and experiments on a PUMA 560 industrial robot were conducted to validate the proposed pIp for performing a motion accurately and rapidly.

  18. Research and implementation of a new 6-DOF light-weight robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zihang; Zhang, Tao; Qi, Mingzhong; Ji, Junhui

    2017-06-01

    Traditional industrial robots have some weaknesses such as low payload-weight, high power consumption and high cost. These drawbacks limit their applications in such areas, special application, service and surgical robots. To improve these shortcomings, a new kind 6-DOF light-weight robot was designed based on modular joints and modular construction. This paper discusses the general requirements of the light-weight robots. Based on these requirements the novel robot is designed. The new robot is described from two aspects, mechanical design and control system. A prototype robot had developed and a joint performance test platform had designed. Position and velocity tests had conducted to evaluate the performance of the prototype robot. Test results showed that the prototype worked well.

  19. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  20. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  1. Design and Implementation of a Quadruped Bionic Robot Based on Virtual Prototype Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li

    2017-10-01

    Design out a quadruped bionic robot with nine degrees of freedom. Conduct virtual assembly and trotting gait simulation on the robot by using NX software. Present the angular velocity and angular displacement curves of the diagonal two legs’ hip joints and knee joints, thus to instruct the practical assemble and control of the robot. The fact that the movement effect of the physical model is consistent with the simulation verifies the validity and practicability of virtual assembly and motion simulation. both.

  2. Method and apparatus for calibrating multi-axis load cells in a dexterous robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot having robotic joints, angle sensors adapted for measuring joint angles at a corresponding one of the joints, load cells for measuring a set of strain values imparted to a corresponding one of the load cells during a predetermined pose of the robot, and a host machine. The host machine is electrically connected to the load cells and angle sensors, and receives the joint angle values and strain values during the predetermined pose. The robot presses together mating pairs of load cells to form the poses. The host machine executes an algorithm to process the joint angles and strain values, and from the set of all calibration matrices that minimize error in force balance equations, selects the set of calibration matrices that is closest in a value to a pre-specified value. A method for calibrating the load cells via the algorithm is also provided.

  3. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  4. Trusted Remote Operation of Proximate Emergy Robots (TROOPER): DARPA Robotics Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    sensor in each of the robot’s feet. Additionally, there is a 6-axis IMU that sits in the robot’s pelvis cage. While testing before the Finals, the...Services. Many of the controllers in the autonomic layer have overlapping requirements, such as filtered IMU and force torque data from the robot...the following services during the DRC: • IMU Filtering • Force Torque Filtering • Joint State Publishing • TF (Transform) Broadcasting • Robot Pose

  5. Trusted Remote Operation of Proximate Emergency Robots (TROOPER): DARPA Robotics Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    sensor in each of the robot’s feet. Additionally, there is a 6-axis IMU that sits in the robot’s pelvis cage. While testing before the Finals, the...Services. Many of the controllers in the autonomic layer have overlapping requirements, such as filtered IMU and force torque data from the robot...the following services during the DRC: • IMU Filtering • Force Torque Filtering • Joint State Publishing • TF (Transform) Broadcasting • Robot Pose

  6. Tactile Robotic Topographical Mapping Without Force or Contact Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin; Melko, Joseph; Krajewski, Joel; Cady, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A method of topographical mapping of a local solid surface within the range of motion of a robot arm is based on detection of contact between the surface and the end effector (the fixture or tool at the tip of the robot arm). The method was conceived to enable mapping of local terrain by an exploratory robot on a remote planet, without need to incorporate delicate contact switches, force sensors, a vision system, or other additional, costly hardware. The method could also be used on Earth for determining the size and shape of an unknown surface in the vicinity of a robot, perhaps in an unanticipated situation in which other means of mapping (e.g., stereoscopic imaging or laser scanning with triangulation) are not available. The method uses control software modified to utilize the inherent capability of the robotic control system to measure the joint positions, the rates of change of the joint positions, and the electrical current demanded by the robotic arm joint actuators. The system utilizes these coordinate data and the known robot-arm kinematics to compute the position and velocity of the end effector, move the end effector along a specified trajectory, place the end effector at a specified location, and measure the electrical currents in the joint actuators. Since the joint actuator current is approximately proportional to the actuator forces and torques, a sudden rise in joint current, combined with a slowing of the joint, is a possible indication of actuator stall and surface contact. Hence, even though the robotic arm is not equipped with contact sensors, it is possible to sense contact (albeit with reduced sensitivity) as the end effector becomes stalled against a surface that one seeks to measure.

  7. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  8. An adaptive inverse kinematics algorithm for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.

    1990-01-01

    An adaptive algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics problem for robot manipulators is presented. The algorithm is derived using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) theory and is computationally efficient for online applications. The scheme requires no a priori knowledge of the kinematics of the robot if Cartesian end-effector sensing is available, and it requires knowledge of only the forward kinematics if joint position sensing is used. Computer simulation results are given for the redundant seven-DOF robotics research arm, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm yields accurate joint angle trajectories for a given end-effector position/orientation trajectory.

  9. Dynamic Modelling Of A SCARA Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turiel, J. Perez; Calleja, R. Grossi; Diez, V. Gutierrez

    1987-10-01

    This paper describes a method for modelling industrial robots that considers dynamic approach to manipulation systems motion generation, obtaining the complete dynamic model for the mechanic part of the robot and taking into account the dynamic effect of actuators acting at the joints. For a four degree of freedom SCARA robot we obtain the dynamic model for the basic (minimal) configuration, that is, the three degrees of freedom that allow us to place the robot end effector in a desired point, using the Lagrange Method to obtain the dynamic equations in matrix form. The manipulator is considered to be a set of rigid bodies inter-connected by joints in the form of simple kinematic pairs. Then, the state space model is obtained for the actuators that move the robot joints, uniting the models of the single actuators, that is, two DC permanent magnet servomotors and an electrohydraulic actuator. Finally, using a computer simulation program written in FORTRAN language, we can compute the matrices of the complete model.

  10. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  11. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  12. Movement Characteristics Analysis and Dynamic Simulation of Collaborative Measuring Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    guoqing, MA; li, LIU; zhenglin, YU; guohua, CAO; yanbin, ZHENG

    2017-03-01

    Human-machine collaboration is becoming increasingly more necessary, and so collaborative robot applications are also in high demand. We selected a UR10 robot as our research subject for this study. First, we applied D-H coordinate transformation of the robot to establish a link system, and we then used inverse transformation to solve the robot’s inverse kinematics and find all the joints. Use Lagrange method to analysis UR robot dynamics; use ADAMS multibody dynamics simulation software to dynamic simulation; verifying the correctness of the derived kinetic models.

  13. Flexible robotic actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, Stephen A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Stokes, Adam

    Systems and methods for providing flexible robotic actuators are disclosed. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter include a soft robot capable of providing a radial deflection motions; a soft tentacle actuator capable of providing a variety of motions and providing transportation means for various types of materials; and a hybrid robotic system that retains desirable characteristics of both soft robots and hard robots. Some embodiments of the disclosed subject matter also include methods for operating the disclosed robotic systems.

  14. Visual perception system and method for a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelian, Suhas E. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wells, James W. (Inventor); Mc Kay, Neil David (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot with robotic joints each moveable using an actuator(s), and a distributed controller for controlling the movement of each of the robotic joints. The controller includes a visual perception module (VPM) for visually identifying and tracking an object in the field of view of the robot under threshold lighting conditions. The VPM includes optical devices for collecting an image of the object, a positional extraction device, and a host machine having an algorithm for processing the image and positional information. The algorithm visually identifies and tracks the object, and automatically adapts an exposure time of the optical devices to prevent feature data loss of the image under the threshold lighting conditions. A method of identifying and tracking the object includes collecting the image, extracting positional information of the object, and automatically adapting the exposure time to thereby prevent feature data loss of the image.

  15. Robotic hip arthroscopy in human anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kather, Jens; Hagen, Monika E; Morel, Philippe; Fasel, Jean; Markar, Sheraz; Schueler, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Robotic technology offers technical advantages that might offer new solutions for hip arthroscopy. Two hip arthroscopies were performed in human cadavers using the da Vinci surgical system. During both surgeries, a robotic camera and 5 or 8 mm da Vinci trocars with instruments were inserted into the hip joint for manipulation. Introduction of cameras and working instruments, docking of the robotic system and instrument manipulation was successful in both cases. The long articulating area of 5 mm instruments limited movements inside the joint; an 8 mm instrument with a shorter area of articulation offered an improved range of motion. Hip arthroscopy using the da Vinci standard system appears a feasible alternative to standard arthroscopy. Instruments and method of application must be modified and improved before routine clinical application but further research in this area seems justified, considering the clinical value of such an approach. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. An Integrated Framework for Human-Robot Collaborative Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Weihua; Thobbi, Anand; Gu, Ye

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an integrated learning framework that enables humanoid robots to perform human-robot collaborative manipulation tasks. Specifically, a table-lifting task performed jointly by a human and a humanoid robot is chosen for validation purpose. The proposed framework is split into two phases: 1) phase I-learning to grasp the table and 2) phase II-learning to perform the manipulation task. An imitation learning approach is proposed for phase I. In phase II, the behavior of the robot is controlled by a combination of two types of controllers: 1) reactive and 2) proactive. The reactive controller lets the robot take a reactive control action to make the table horizontal. The proactive controller lets the robot take proactive actions based on human motion prediction. A measure of confidence of the prediction is also generated by the motion predictor. This confidence measure determines the leader/follower behavior of the robot. Hence, the robot can autonomously switch between the behaviors during the task. Finally, the performance of the human-robot team carrying out the collaborative manipulation task is experimentally evaluated on a platform consisting of a Nao humanoid robot and a Vicon motion capture system. Results show that the proposed framework can enable the robot to carry out the collaborative manipulation task successfully.

  17. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  18. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  19. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025017 (26 July 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, speaks in a microphone as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  20. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025034 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  1. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025030 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  2. Space Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-26

    ISS036-E-025012 (26 July 2013) --- From the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he partners with Ames Research Center to remotely control a surface rover in California. The experiment, called Surface Telerobotics, will help scientists plan future missions where a robotic rover could prepare a site on a moon or a planet for a crew.

  3. Robotic Waterblasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Waterblast Research Cell supports development of automated systems that remove thermal protection materials and coatings from space flight hardware. These systems remove expended coatings without harsh chemicals or damaging underlying material. Potential applications of this technology include the removal of coatings from industrial machinery, aircraft, and other large structures. Use of the robot improves worker safety by reducing the exposure of persornel to high-pressure water. This technology is a proactive alternative to hazardous chemical strippers.

  4. Robot Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Paris, France, June, 1982, 519-530. Latoinbe, J. C. "Equipe Intelligence Artificielle et Robotique: Etat d’avancement des recherches," Laboratoire...8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS ,. 545 Technology Square Cambridge

  5. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  6. State-of-the-art robotic devices for ankle rehabilitation: Mechanism and control review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing research interest in exploring use of robotic devices for the physical therapy of patients suffering from stroke and spinal cord injuries. Rehabilitation of patients suffering from ankle joint dysfunctions such as drop foot is vital and therefore has called for the development of newer robotic devices. Several robotic orthoses and parallel ankle robots have been developed during the last two decades to augment the conventional ankle physical therapy of patients. A comprehensive review of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices is presented in this article. Recent developments in the mechanism design, actuation and control are discussed. The study encompasses robotic devices for treadmill and over-ground training as well as platform-based parallel ankle robots. Control strategies for these robotic devices are deliberated in detail with an emphasis on the assist-as-needed training strategies. Experimental evaluations of the mechanism designs and various control strategies of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices are also presented.

  7. Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Goddard's Ritsko Wins 2011 SAVE Award The winner of the 2011 SAVE Award is Matthew Ritsko, a Goddard financial manager. His tool lending library would track and enable sharing of expensive space-flight tools and hardware after projects no longer need them. This set of images represents the types of tools used at NASA. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/people/features/ritsko-save.html The engineering mockup of the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) module is currently on display within the press building at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The RRM mission is a joint effort between NASA and the Canadian Space Agency designed to demonstrate and test the tools, technologies, and techniques needed to robotically refuel satellites in space. Reporters have the opportunity to get a close-up view of the replica module and tools that are a part of the final shuttle mission payload. SSCO engineers test an RRM tool. To learn more about the RRM go to: ssco.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Robotic-Assisted Knee Arthroplasty: An Overview.

    PubMed

    van der List, Jelle P; Chawla, Harshvardhan; Pearle, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty are reliable treatment options for osteoarthritis. In order to improve survivorship rates, variables that are intraoperatively controlled by the orthopedic surgeon are being evaluated. These variables include lower leg alignment, soft tissue balance, joint line maintenance, and tibial and femoral component alignment, size, and fixation methods. Since tighter control of these factors is associated with improved outcomes of knee arthroplasty, several computer-assisted surgery systems have been developed. These systems differ in the number and type of variables they control. Robotic-assisted systems control these aforementioned variables and, in addition, aim to improve the surgical precision of the procedure. Robotic-assisted systems are active, semi-active, or passive, depending on how independently the systems perform maneuvers. Reviewing the robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty systems, it becomes clear that these systems can accurately and reliably control the aforementioned variables. Moreover, these systems are more accurate and reliable in controlling these variables when compared to the current gold standard of conventional manual surgery. At present, few studies have assessed the survivorship and functional outcomes of robotic-assisted surgery, and no sufficiently powered studies were identified that compared survivorship or functional outcomes between robotic-assisted and conventional knee arthroplasty. Although preliminary outcomes of robotic-assisted surgery look promising, more studies are necessary to assess if the increased accuracy and reliability in controlling the surgical variables leads to better outcomes of robotic-assisted knee arthroplasty.

  9. Serpentine Robot Model and Gait Design Using Autodesk Inventor and Simulink SimMechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel; Iman Alamsyah, Mohammad; Erwin; Tan, Sofyan

    2014-03-01

    The authors introduce gaits of a serpentine robot with linear expansion mechanism where the robot varies its length using joints with three degrees of freedom. The 3D model of the serpentine robot is drawed in Autocad Inventor® and exported to SimMechanics® for straighforward modeling of the kinematics. The gaits are important for robots designed to explore ruins of disasters where the working spaces are very tight. For maximum flexibility of the serpentine robot, we adopted a joint design with three parallel actuators, where the joint is capable of linear movement in the forward axis, and rotational movements around two other axes. The designed linear expansion gaits is calculated for forward movement when the robot is posing straight or turning laterally.

  10. Robotic Lobectomy Utilizing the Robotic Stapler.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, Daryl Phillip

    2016-12-01

    A drawback of robotic lobectomy is the inability of the operating surgeon to perform stapler division of the pulmonary vessels and bronchi. With the advent of the robotic stapler, the surgeon is able to control this instrument from the console. The robotic stapler presents certain challenges. This article outlines techniques to use the robotic stapler for the safe and predictable performance of lobectomies. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Eva; Metta, Giorgio; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user's needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions. We argue that the best way to achieve this is using a systematic experimental approach based on behavioral and physiological neuroscience methods such as motion/eye-tracking, electroencephalography, or functional near-infrared spectroscopy embedded in interactive human-robot paradigms. This approach requires understanding how humans interact with each other, how they perform tasks together and how they develop feelings of social connection over time, and using these insights to formulate design principles that make social robots attuned to the workings of the human brain. In this review, we put forward the argument that the likelihood of artificial agents being perceived as social companions can be increased by designing them in a way that they are perceived as intentional agents that activate areas in the human brain involved in social-cognitive processing. We first review literature related to social-cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in human-human interactions, and highlight the importance of perceiving others as intentional agents to activate these social brain areas. We then discuss how attribution of intentionality can positively affect human-robot interaction by (a) fostering feelings of social connection, empathy and prosociality, and by (b) enhancing performance on joint human-robot tasks. Lastly, we describe circumstances under which

  12. Robots As Intentional Agents: Using Neuroscientific Methods to Make Robots Appear More Social

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Eva; Metta, Giorgio; Wykowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Robots are increasingly envisaged as our future cohabitants. However, while considerable progress has been made in recent years in terms of their technological realization, the ability of robots to interact with humans in an intuitive and social way is still quite limited. An important challenge for social robotics is to determine how to design robots that can perceive the user’s needs, feelings, and intentions, and adapt to users over a broad range of cognitive abilities. It is conceivable that if robots were able to adequately demonstrate these skills, humans would eventually accept them as social companions. We argue that the best way to achieve this is using a systematic experimental approach based on behavioral and physiological neuroscience methods such as motion/eye-tracking, electroencephalography, or functional near-infrared spectroscopy embedded in interactive human–robot paradigms. This approach requires understanding how humans interact with each other, how they perform tasks together and how they develop feelings of social connection over time, and using these insights to formulate design principles that make social robots attuned to the workings of the human brain. In this review, we put forward the argument that the likelihood of artificial agents being perceived as social companions can be increased by designing them in a way that they are perceived as intentional agents that activate areas in the human brain involved in social-cognitive processing. We first review literature related to social-cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in human–human interactions, and highlight the importance of perceiving others as intentional agents to activate these social brain areas. We then discuss how attribution of intentionality can positively affect human–robot interaction by (a) fostering feelings of social connection, empathy and prosociality, and by (b) enhancing performance on joint human–robot tasks. Lastly, we describe circumstances under

  13. Design and Performance Analysis of a new Rotary Hydraulic Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yong; Yang, Junhong; Shang, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhuo; Fang, Delei

    2017-07-01

    To improve the driving torque of the robots joint, a wobble plate hydraulic joint is proposed, and the structure and working principle are described. Then mathematical models of kinematics and dynamics was established. On the basis of this, dynamic simulation and characteristic analysis are carried out. Results show that the motion curve of the joint is continuous and the impact is small. Moreover the output torque of the joint characterized by simple structure and easy processing is large and can be rotated continuously.

  14. Miniature surgical robot for laparoendoscopic single-incision colectomy.

    PubMed

    Wortman, Tyler D; Meyer, Avishai; Dolghi, Oleg; Lehman, Amy C; McCormick, Ryan L; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of using a multifunctional miniature in vivo robotic platform to perform a single-incision colectomy. Standard laparoscopic techniques require multiple ports. A miniature robotic platform to be inserted completely into the peritoneal cavity through a single incision has been designed and built. The robot can be quickly repositioned, thus enabling multiquadrant access to the abdominal cavity. The miniature in vivo robotic platform used in this study consists of a multifunctional robot and a remote surgeon interface. The robot is composed of two arms with shoulder and elbow joints. Each forearm is equipped with specialized interchangeable end effectors (i.e., graspers and monopolar electrocautery). Five robotic colectomies were performed in a porcine model. For each procedure, the robot was completely inserted into the peritoneal cavity, and the surgeon manipulated the user interface to control the robot to perform the colectomy. The robot mobilized the colon from its lateral retroperitoneal attachments and assisted in the placement of a standard stapler to transect the sigmoid colon. This objective was completed for all five colectomies without any complications. The adoption of both laparoscopic and single-incision colectomies currently is constrained by the inadequacies of existing instruments. The described multifunctional robot provides a platform that overcomes existing limitations by operating completely within one incision in the peritoneal cavity and by improving visualization and dexterity. By repositioning the small robot to the area of the colon to be mobilized, the ability of the surgeon to perform complex surgical tasks is improved. Furthermore, the success of the robot in performing a completely in vivo colectomy suggests the feasibility of using this robotic platform to perform other complex surgeries through a single incision.

  15. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  16. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  17. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  18. Industrial robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakashan, A.; Mukunda, H. S.; Samuel, S. D.; Colaco, J. C.

    1992-11-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a four degree of freedom industrial manipulator, with three liner axes in the positioning mechanism and one rotary axis in the orientation mechanism. The positioning mechanism joints are driven with dc servo motors fitted with incremental shaft encoders. The rotary joint of the orientation mechanism is driven by a stepping motor. The manipulator is controlled by an IBM 386 PC/AT. Microcomputer based interface cards have been developed for independent joint control. PID controllers for dc motors have been designed. Kinematic modeling, dynamic modeling, and path planning have been carried out to generate the control sequence to accomplish a given task with reference to source and destination state constraints. This project has been sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, and has been executed in collaboration with M/s Larsen & Toubro Ltd, Mysore, India.

  19. Robots remove explosive waste from flooded site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Explosive industrial waste can remain hazardous for years, making remediation extremely dangerous, particularly when using traditional methods involving people and manually operated equipment. The work is even more complex if the waste is submerged. Authorities in 1988 faced an unusual challenge when they decided to clean up a flooded area that had been used for more than 30 years as a dump for explosive materials. They devised an innovative but highly effective solution. Instead of using divers, two robots perform the cleanup while site personnel remain 600 feet away from the restricted area. The robots were developed by Sonsub Environmentalmore » Services Inc. (Houston), which is responsible for their operation. The robots initially located and cleared a small area underwater to set up a metal-processing system, which also was designed by Sonsub. The system is similar to a metal-recycling shredder. The robots then assembled the 25-foot-tall, 20-ton system 60 feet below the surface on the pit floor. A large, surface robot carried sections of the shredder to the cleared area and lowered them, while a smaller, submersible robot guided them into position. This required extreme precision by the smaller robot, which had to ensure that sections mated properly. Both robots now retrieve waste from the pit bottom and feed it into the shredder. The larger robot has a 40-foot jointed arm for lifting up to 1,000 pounds of debris, a manipulator hand for sorting through rock piles and removing small containers, and a grapple for picking up items from the pit floor.« less

  20. Teleoperated Modular Robots for Lunar Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Hornby, Greg; Larchev, Greg; Hancher, Matt; Cannon, Howard; Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Solar system exploration is currently carried out by special purpose robots exquisitely designed for the anticipated tasks. However, all contingencies for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), human habitat preparation, and exploration will be difficult to anticipate. Furthermore, developing the necessary special purpose mechanisms for deployment and other capabilities is difficult and error prone. For example, the Galileo high gain antenna never opened, severely restricting the quantity of data returned by the spacecraft. Also, deployment hardware is used only once. To address these problems, we are developing teleoperated modular robots for lunar missions, including operations in transit from Earth. Teleoperation of lunar systems from Earth involves a three second speed-of-light delay, but experiment suggests that interactive operations are feasible.' Modular robots typically consist of many identical modules that pass power and data between them and can be reconfigured for different tasks providing great flexibility, inherent redundancy and graceful degradation as modules fail. Our design features a number of different hub, link, and joint modules to simplify the individual modules, lower structure cost, and provide specialized capabilities. Modular robots are well suited for space applications because of their extreme flexibility, inherent redundancy, high-density packing, and opportunities for mass production. Simple structural modules can be manufactured from lunar regolith in situ using molds or directed solar sintering. Software to direct and control modular robots is difficult to develop. We have used genetic algorithms to evolve both the morphology and control system for walking modular robots3 We are currently using evolvable system technology to evolve controllers for modular robots in the ISS glove box. Development of lunar modular robots will require software and physical simulators, including regolith simulation, to enable design and test of robot

  1. Feasibility of Synergy-Based Exoskeleton Robot Control in Hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Hada, Yasushi; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a study on exoskeleton robot control based on inter-limb locomotor synergies using a robot control method developed to target hemiparesis. The robot control is based on inter-limb locomotor synergies and kinesiological information from the non-paretic leg and a walking aid cane to generate motion patterns for the assisted leg. The developed synergy-based system was tested against an autonomous robot control system in five patients with hemiparesis and varying locomotor abilities. Three of the participants were able to walk using the robot. Results from these participants showed an improved spatial symmetry ratio and more consistent step length with the synergy-based method compared with that for the autonomous method, while the increase in the range of motion for the assisted joints was larger with the autonomous system. The kinematic synergy distribution of the participants walking without the robot suggests a relationship between each participant's synergy distribution and his/her ability to control the robot: participants with two independent synergies accounting for approximately 80% of the data variability were able to walk with the robot. This observation was not consistently apparent with conventional clinical measures such as the Brunnstrom stages. This paper contributes to the field of robot-assisted locomotion therapy by introducing the concept of inter-limb synergies, demonstrating performance differences between synergy-based and autonomous robot control, and investigating the range of disability in which the system is usable.

  2. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  3. The da Vinci robot.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    One might assume from the title of this paper that the nuances of a complex mechanical robot will be discussed, and this would be correct. On the other hand, the date of the design and possible construction of this robot was 1495, a little more than five centuries ago. The key point in the title is the lack of a trademarked name, as Leonardo was the designer of this sophisticated system. His notes from the Codex Altanticus represent the foundation of this report. English translations of da Vinci's notebooks are currently available. Beginning in the 1950s, investigators at the University of California began to ponder the significance of some of da Vinci's markings on what appeared to be technical drawings. Such markings also occur in his Codex Atlanticus (the largest single collection of da Vinci's sheets, consisting of 1119 separate pages and 481 folios) along with a large number of other mechanical devices. Continuing research at the Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence has yielded a great deal of information about Leonardo's intentions with regard to his mechanical knight. It is now known that da Vinci's robot would have had the outer appearance of a Germanic knight. It had a complex core of mechanical devices that probably was human powered. The robot had two independent operating systems. The first had three degree-of-freedom legs, ankles, knees, and hips. The second had four degrees of freedom in the arms with articulated shoulders, elbows, wrists, and hands. A mechanical analog-programmable controller within the chest provided the power and control for the arms. The legs were powered by an external crank arrangement driving the cable, which connected to key locations near each lower extremity's joints. Da Vinci also is known to have devised a programmable front-wheel-drive automobile with rack-and-pinion suspension mechanisms at age 26. He would recall this device again, when, at age 40, he is thought to have built a programmable automated

  4. Joint swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... of arthritis caused by buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint ( gout ) Arthritis caused by wear ... osteoarthritis ) Arthritis caused by buildup of calcium-type crystals in joints ( pseudogout ) Disorder that involves arthritis and ...

  5. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A miniature humanoid robot known as DARwin-OP, from Virginia Tech Robotics, plays soccer with a red tennis ball for a crowd of students at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  6. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students from Hagerty High School in Oviedo, Fla., participants in FIRST Robotics, show off their robots' capabilities at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  7. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students gather to watch as a DARwin-OP miniature humanoid robot from Virginia Tech Robotics demonstrates its soccer abilities at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  8. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A child gets an up-close look at Charli, an autonomous walking robot developed by Virginia Tech Robotics, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  11. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  12. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  13. Robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Sola, Richard; Kirks, Russell C; Iannitti, David A; Vrochides, Dionisios; Martinie, John B

    2016-01-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is considered one of the most complex and technically challenging abdominal surgeries performed by general surgeons. With increasing use of minimally invasive surgery, this operation continues to be performed most commonly in an open fashion. Open PD (OPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates in published series. Since the early 2000s, use of robotics for PD has slowly evolved. For appropriately selected patients, robotic PD (RPD) has been shown to have less intraoperative blood loss, decreased morbidity and mortality, shorter hospital length of stay, and similar oncological outcomes compared with OPD. At our high-volume center, we have found lower complication rates for RPD along with no difference in total cost when compared with OPD. With demonstrated non-inferior oncologic outcomes for RPD, the potential exists that RPD may be the future standard in surgical management for pancreatic disease. We present a case of a patient with a pancreatic head mass and describe our institution's surgical technique for RPD.

  14. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  15. Robotic Powered Transfer Mechanism modeling on Human Muscle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yukio

    It is considered in engineering that one power source can operate one joint. However, support movement mechanism of living organism is multi joint movement mechanism. Considerably different from mechanical movement mechanism, two pairs of uni-articular muscles and a pair of bi-articular muscles are involved in it. In leg, movements observed in short run including leg idling, heel contact and toeing are operated by bi-articular muscles of the thigh showing strong legs to support body weight. Pursuit of versatility in welfare robot brings its comparison with conventional machinery or industrial robot to the fore. Request for safety and technology allowing elderly people to operate the robot is getting stronger in the society. The robot must be safe when it is used together with other welfare equipment and simpler system avoiding difficult operation has to be constructed. Appearance of recent care and assistance robot is getting similar to human arm in comparison with industrial robot. Being easily able to imagine from industrial robot, mid-heavyweight articulated robot to support 60-70kgf combined with large output motor and reduction gears is next to impossible to be installed in the bath room. This research indicated that upper limb arm and lower limb thigh of human and animals are holding coalitional muscles and movement of uni-artcular muscle and bi-articular muscle conjure the image of new actuators.

  16. Computational structures for robotic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S. G.; Chang, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    The computational problem of inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics of robot manipulators by taking advantage of parallelism and pipelining architectures is discussed. For the computation of inverse kinematic position solution, a maximum pipelined CORDIC architecture has been designed based on a functional decomposition of the closed-form joint equations. For the inverse dynamics computation, an efficient p-fold parallel algorithm to overcome the recurrence problem of the Newton-Euler equations of motion to achieve the time lower bound of O(log sub 2 n) has also been developed.

  17. Feasibility study of robotic neural controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magana, Mario E.

    1990-01-01

    The results are given of a feasibility study performed to establish if an artificial neural controller could be used to achieve joint space trajectory tracking of a two-link robot manipulator. The study is based on the results obtained by Hecht-Nielsen, who claims that a functional map can be implemented to a desired degree of accuracy with a three layer feedforward artificial neural network. Central to this study is the assumption that the robot model as well as its parameters values are known.

  18. Genetic Optimization and Simulation of a Piezoelectric Pipe-Crawling Inspection Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinger, Geoffrey A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the DarwinZk development software, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to design and optimize a pipe-crawling robot for parameters such as mass, power consumption, and joint extension to further the research of the Miniature Inspection Systems Technology (MIST) team. In an attempt to improve on existing designs, a new robot was developed, the piezo robot. The final proposed design uses piezoelectric expansion actuators to move the robot with a 'chimneying' method employed by mountain climbers and greatly improves on previous designs in load bearing ability, pipe traversing specifications, and field usability. This research shows the advantages of GA assisted design in the field of robotics.

  19. A novel methodology to reproduce previously recorded six-degree of freedom kinematics on the same diarthrodial joint.

    PubMed

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Maribeth; Woo, Savio L-Y; Gabriel, Mary T; Kilger, Robert; Debski, Richard E

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel method to more accurately reproduce previously recorded 6-DOF kinematics of the tibia with respect to the femur using robotic technology. Furthermore, the effect of performing only a single or multiple registrations and the effect of robot joint configuration were investigated. A single registration consisted of registering the tibia and femur with respect to the robot at full extension and reproducing all kinematics while multiple registrations consisted of registering the bones at each flexion angle and reproducing only the kinematics of the corresponding flexion angle. Kinematics of the knee in response to an anterior (134 N) and combined internal/external (+/-10 N m) and varus/valgus (+/-5 N m) loads were collected at 0 degrees , 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of flexion. A six axes, serial-articulated robotic manipulator (PUMA Model 762) was calibrated and the working volume was reduced to improve the robot's accuracy. The effect of the robot joint configuration was determined by performing single and multiple registrations for three selected configurations. For each robot joint configuration, the accuracy in position of the reproduced kinematics improved after multiple registrations (0.7+/-0.3, 1.2+/-0.5, and 0.9+/-0.2 mm, respectively) when compared to only a single registration (1.3+/-0.9, 2.0+/-1.0, and 1.5+/-0.7 mm, respectively) (p<0.05). The accuracy in position of each robot joint configuration was unique as significant differences were detected between each of the configurations. These data demonstrate that the number of registrations and the robot joint configuration both affect the accuracy of the reproduced kinematics. Therefore, when using robotic technology to reproduce previously recorded kinematics, it may be necessary to perform these analyses for each individual robotic system and for each diarthrodial joint, as different joints will require the robot to be placed in

  20. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  1. Intelligent, self-contained robotic hand

    DOEpatents

    Krutik, Vitaliy; Doo, Burt; Townsend, William T.; Hauptman, Traveler; Crowell, Adam; Zenowich, Brian; Lawson, John

    2007-01-30

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  2. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOEpatents

    Townsend, William T [Weston, MA

    2011-11-08

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  3. Parents' Judgments of the Acceptability and Importance of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…

  4. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  5. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  6. Optimal accelerometer placement on a robot arm for pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Sanford, Joseph D.; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Das, Sumit K.; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    The performance of robots to carry out tasks depends in part on the sensor information they can utilize. Usually, robots are fitted with angle joint encoders that are used to estimate the position and orientation (or the pose) of its end-effector. However, there are numerous situations, such as in legged locomotion, mobile manipulation, or prosthetics, where such joint sensors may not be present at every, or any joint. In this paper we study the use of inertial sensors, in particular accelerometers, placed on the robot that can be used to estimate the robot pose. Studying accelerometer placement on a robot involves many parameters that affect the performance of the intended positioning task. Parameters such as the number of accelerometers, their size, geometric placement and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are included in our study of their effects for robot pose estimation. Due to the ubiquitous availability of inexpensive accelerometers, we investigated pose estimation gains resulting from using increasingly large numbers of sensors. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed with a two-link robot arm to obtain the expected value of an estimation error metric for different accelerometer configurations, which are then compared for optimization. Results show that, with a fixed SNR model, the pose estimation error decreases with increasing number of accelerometers, whereas for a SNR model that scales inversely to the accelerometer footprint, the pose estimation error increases with the number of accelerometers. It is also shown that the optimal placement of the accelerometers depends on the method used for pose estimation. The findings suggest that an integration-based method favors placement of accelerometers at the extremities of the robot links, whereas a kinematic-constraints-based method favors a more uniformly distributed placement along the robot links.

  7. Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

  8. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  9. Will Robots Save Democracy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dan T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses six warning signals of the decline of democracy; ways in which inflation destroys democracy; how electromechanical workers operate; how robots learn; and how robots will become a more important part of our society in years to come. (CT)

  10. Robotics FAQ Index

    Science.gov Websites

    faqs.org Robotics FAQ Index faqs.org faqs.org - Internet FAQ Archives Robotics FAQ Index [By Updates | Archive Stats | Search | Help] Internet RFC Index Usenet FAQ Index Other FAQs Documents Tools

  11. ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-06

    HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM NORTH ALABAMA GATHER AT THE U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER'S DAVIDSON CENTER FOR THE "ROBOTS TO ROCKET CITY" EVENT SHOWCASING THEIR INDIVIDUAL ROBOTS PRIOR TO LATER COMPETITIONS.

  12. A Novel Concept for Safe, Stiffness-Controllable Robot Links.

    PubMed

    Stilli, Agostino; Wurdemann, Helge A; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2017-03-01

    The recent decade has seen an astounding increase of interest and advancement in a new field of robotics, aimed at creating structures specifically for the safe interaction with humans. Softness, flexibility, and variable stiffness in robotics have been recognized as highly desirable characteristics for many applications. A number of solutions were proposed ranging from entirely soft robots (such as those composed mainly from soft materials such as silicone), via flexible continuum and snake-like robots, to rigid-link robots enhanced by joints that exhibit an elastic behavior either implemented in hardware or achieved purely by means of intelligent control. Although these are very good solutions paving the path to safe human-robot interaction, we propose here a new approach that focuses on creating stiffness controllability for the linkages between the robot joints. This article proposes a replacement for the traditionally rigid robot link-the new link is equipped with an additional capability of stiffness controllability. With this added feature, a robot can accurately carry out manipulation tasks (high stiffness), but can virtually instantaneously reduce its stiffness when a human is nearby or in contact with the robot. The key point of the invention described here is a robot link made of an airtight chamber formed by a soft and flexible, but high-strain resistant combination of a plastic mesh and silicone wall. Inflated with air to a high pressure, the mesh silicone chamber behaves like a rigid link; reducing the air pressure, softens the link and rendering the robot structure safe. This article investigates a number of link prototypes and shows the feasibility of the new concept. Stiffness tests have been performed, showing that a significant level of stiffness can be achieved-up to 40 N reaction force along the axial direction, for a 25-mm-diameter sample at 60 kPa, at an axial deformation of 5 mm. The results confirm that this novel concept to linkages

  13. Tool Changer For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  14. Robotics research projects report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, T.C.

    The research results of the Robotics Research Laboratory are summarized. Areas of research include robotic control, a stand-alone vision system for industrial robots, and sensors other than vision that would be useful for image ranging, including ultrasonic and infra-red devices. One particular project involves RHINO, a 6-axis robotic arm that can be manipulated by serial transmission of ASCII command strings to its interfaced controller. (LEW)

  15. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  16. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Andrew Nick of Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works shows off RASSOR, a robotic miner, at the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  17. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A visitor to the Robot Rocket Rally takes an up-close look at RASSOR, a robotic miner developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  18. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A visitor to the Robot Rocket Rally tries his hand at virtual reality in a demonstration of the Oculus Rift technology, provided by the Open Source Robotics Foundation. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  19. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Students observe as Otherlab shows off a life-size, inflatable robot from its "" program. The demonstration was one of several provided during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  20. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  1. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  2. A family of asymptotically stable control laws for flexible robots based on a passivity approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanari, Leonardo; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    A general family of asymptotically stabilizing control laws is introduced for a class of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. The inherent passivity property of this class of systems and the Passivity Theorem are used to show the closed-loop input/output stability which is then related to the internal state space stability through the stabilizability and detectability condition. Applications of these results include fully actuated robots, flexible joint robots, and robots with link flexibility.

  3. Multi Robot Path Planning for Budgeted Active Perception with Self-Organising Maps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-04

    Multi- Robot Path Planning for Budgeted Active Perception with Self-Organising Maps Graeme Best1, Jan Faigl2 and Robert Fitch1 Abstract— We propose a...optimise paths for a multi- robot team that aims to maximally observe a set of nodes in the environment. The selected nodes are observed by visiting...regions, each node has an observation reward, and the robots are constrained by travel budgets. The SOM algorithm jointly selects and allocates nodes

  4. A discrete decentralized variable structure robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumeh, Zuheir S.

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized trajectory controller for robotic manipulators is designed and tested using a multiprocessor architecture and a PUMA 560 robot arm. The controller is made up of a nominal model-based component and a correction component based on a variable structure suction control approach. The second control component is designed using bounds on the difference between the used and actual values of the model parameters. Since the continuous manipulator system is digitally controlled along a trajectory, a discretized equivalent model of the manipulator is used to derive the controller. The motivation for decentralized control is that the derived algorithms can be executed in parallel using a distributed, relatively inexpensive, architecture where each joint is assigned a microprocessor. Nonlinear interaction and coupling between joints is treated as a disturbance torque that is estimated and compensated for.

  5. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  6. Robotic hand and fingers

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  7. NASA's Intelligent Robotics Group

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    Shareable video highlighting the Intelligent Robotics Group's 25 years of experience developing tools to allow humans and robots to work as teammates. Highlights the VERVE software, which allows researchers to see a 3D representation of the robot's world and mentions how Nissan is using a version of VERVE in the autonomous vehicle research.

  8. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  9. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  10. Novel compliant actuator for wearable robotics applications.

    PubMed

    Claros, M; Soto, R; Rodríguez, J J; Cantú, C; Contreras-Vidal, José L

    2013-01-01

    In the growing fields of wearable robotics, rehabilitation robotics, prosthetics, and walking robots, variable impedance and force actuators are being designed and implemented because of their ability to dynamically modulate the intrinsic viscoelastic properties such as stiffness and damping. This modulation is crucial to achieve an efficient and safe human-robot interaction that could lead to electronically generate useful emergent dynamical behaviors. In this work we propose a novel actuation system in which is implemented a control scheme based on equilibrium forces for an active joint capable to provide assistance/resistance as needed and also achieve minimal mechanical impedance when tracking the movement of the user limbs. The actuation system comprises a DC motor with a built in speed reducer, two force-sensing resistors (FSR), a mechanism which transmits to the FSRs the torque developed in the joint and a controller which regulate the amount of energy that is delivered to the DC motor. The proposed system showed more impedance reduction, by the effect of the controlled contact forces, compared with the ones in the reviewed literature.

  11. Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Robot Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Aghazarian, Hrand; Huntsberger, Terrance; Terrile, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A computer program implements stochastic evolutionary algorithms for planning and optimizing collision-free paths for robots and their jointed limbs. Stochastic evolutionary algorithms can be made to produce acceptably close approximations to exact, optimal solutions for path-planning problems while often demanding much less computation than do exhaustive-search and deterministic inverse-kinematics algorithms that have been used previously for this purpose. Hence, the present software is better suited for application aboard robots having limited computing capabilities (see figure). The stochastic aspect lies in the use of simulated annealing to (1) prevent trapping of an optimization algorithm in local minima of an energy-like error measure by which the fitness of a trial solution is evaluated while (2) ensuring that the entire multidimensional configuration and parameter space of the path-planning problem is sampled efficiently with respect to both robot joint angles and computation time. Simulated annealing is an established technique for avoiding local minima in multidimensional optimization problems, but has not, until now, been applied to planning collision-free robot paths by use of low-power computers.

  12. A Perturbation Approach to Robot Calibration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    J. Y. S., Walker, M. W., and Paul, R. P. C . 1980. On-line Computational Scheme for Mechanical Manipulators. J. Dynamic Systems, Measurement and... Rourke , J. M., Seltzer, D. S., Edsall, A. C ., Lozinski, C . A., and Kenwood, G. J. 1984 (May 21-23). Short- and Long-Term Robot Feedback: Multi-Axis...manipulator with six joints are expanded up to second order in the 24 joint parameters. * Z’S 47 EIIO O INO 5 S BSLEEUNCASSIFIED %.e .. Di~ S/N012

  13. Ceramic joints

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  14. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  15. Smooth leader or sharp follower? Playing the mirror game with a robot

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Shir; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly

    2017-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of opportunities for human-robot interactions in various settings, from industry through home use to rehabilitation, creates a need to understand how to best personalize human-robot interactions to fit both the user and the task at hand. In the current experiment, we explored a human-robot collaborative task of joint movement, in the context of an interactive game. Objective: We set out to test people’s preferences when interacting with a robotic arm, playing a leader-follower imitation game (the mirror game). Methods: Twenty two young participants played the mirror game with the robotic arm, where one player (person or robot) followed the movements of the other. Each partner (person and robot) was leading part of the time, and following part of the time. When the robotic arm was leading the joint movement, it performed movements that were either sharp or smooth, which participants were later asked to rate. Results: The greatest preference was given to smooth movements. Half of the participants preferred to lead, and half preferred to follow. Importantly, we found that the movements of the robotic arm primed the subsequent movements performed by the participants. Conclusion: The priming effect by the robot on the movements of the human should be considered when designing interactions with robots. Our results demonstrate individual differences in preferences regarding the role of the human and the joint motion path of the robot and the human when performing the mirror game collaborative task, and highlight the importance of personalized human-robot interactions. PMID:29036853

  16. Kinematic functions for the 7 DOF robotics research arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, K.; Long, M.; Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    The Robotics Research Model K-1207 manipulator is a redundant 7R serial link arm with offsets at all joints. To uniquely determine joint angles for a given end-effector configuration, the redundancy is parameterized by a scalar variable which corresponds to the angle between the manipulator elbow plane and the vertical plane. The forward kinematic mappings from joint-space to end-effector configuration and elbow angle, and the augmented Jacobian matrix which gives end-effector and elbow angle rates as a function of joint rates, are also derived.

  17. Center of excellence for small robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Carroll, Daniel M.; Laird, Robin T.; Everett, H. R.

    2005-05-01

    The mission of the Unmanned Systems Branch of SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego (SSC San Diego) is to provide network-integrated robotic solutions for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) applications, serving and partnering with industry, academia, and other government agencies. We believe the most important criterion for a successful acquisition program is producing a value-added end product that the warfighter needs, uses and appreciates. Through our accomplishments in the laboratory and field, SSC San Diego has been designated the Center of Excellence for Small Robots by the Office of the Secretary of Defense Joint Robotics Program. This paper covers the background, experience, and collaboration efforts by SSC San Diego to serve as the "Impedance-Matching Transformer" between the robotic user and technical communities. Special attention is given to our Unmanned Systems Technology Imperatives for Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation (RDT&E) of Small Robots. Active projects, past efforts, and architectures are provided as success stories for the Unmanned Systems Development Approach.

  18. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  19. Robotic technology in urology

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-01-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  20. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  1. Design and analysis on robotic arm for serving hazard container

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, Zol Bahri; Kader, Mohamed Mydin M. Abdul; Yi, Khoo Zern; Daud, Mohd Hisam

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents about design, analyses development and fabrication of robotic arm for sorting multi-material. The major problem that urges the initiation of the project is the fact that manufacturing industry is growing at relatively faster rate. Most of the company produce high load robotic arm. Less company creates light weight, and affordable robotic arm. As the result, light weight and affordable robot is developing to cover this issue. Plastic material was used to construct the body of the robotic arm, and an optical sensor was implemented to provide basic recognition of object to be carried. The robotic arm used five servomotors for overall operation; four for its joints, and one for the gripping mechanism. The gripper was designed and fabricated using Perspex due to the light weight and high strength of the material. The operation of the robotic arm was governed by Basic Stamp programming sequence and the device was expected to differentiate material and other objects based on reflective theory, and perform subsequent operations afterwards. The SolidWorks was used to model the detail design of the robotic arm, and to simulate the motion of the device.

  2. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  3. Optimal Control Method of Robot End Position and Orientation Based on Dynamic Tracking Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dalong; Xu, Lijuan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of robot pose positioning and control, this paper proposed a dynamic tracking measurement robot pose optimization control method based on the actual measurement of D-H parameters of the robot, the parameters is taken with feedback compensation of the robot, according to the geometrical parameters obtained by robot pose tracking measurement, improved multi sensor information fusion the extended Kalan filter method, with continuous self-optimal regression, using the geometric relationship between joint axes for kinematic parameters in the model, link model parameters obtained can timely feedback to the robot, the implementation of parameter correction and compensation, finally we can get the optimal attitude angle, realize the robot pose optimization control experiments were performed. 6R dynamic tracking control of robot joint robot with independent research and development is taken as experimental subject, the simulation results show that the control method improves robot positioning accuracy, and it has the advantages of versatility, simplicity, ease of operation and so on.

  4. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human–robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human–robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. PMID:28539483

  5. Elastic robot control - Nonlinear inversion and linear stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to the control of elastic robot systems for space applications using inversion, servocompensation, and feedback stabilization is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. Using an inversion algorithm, a nonlinear decoupling control law u(d) is derived such that in the closed-loop system independent control of joint angles by the three joint torquers is accomplished. For the stabilization of elastic oscillations, a linear feedback torquer control law u(s) is obtained applying linear quadratic optimization to the linearized arm model augmented with a servocompensator about the terminal state. Simulation results show that in spite of uncertainties in the payload and vehicle angular velocity, good joint angle control and damping of elastic oscillations are obtained with the torquer control law u = u(d) + u(s).

  6. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  7. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... both rest and exercise are important. Warm baths, massage, and stretching exercises should be used as often ... Does keeping the joint elevated help? Do medicines, massage, or applying heat reduce the pain? What other ...

  8. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help Related Topics Arthritis Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Joint Problems Basic Facts & ... April 2017 Posted: March 2012 © 2018 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  9. Hypermobile joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypermobility syndrome Images Hypermobile joints References Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Musculoskeletal system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW, eds. ...

  10. Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.

  11. Kinematic control of redundant robots and the motion optimizability measure.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Gruver, W A; Zhang, Q; Yang, Z

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats the kinematic control of manipulators with redundant degrees of freedom. We derive an analytical solution for the inverse kinematics that provides a means for accommodating joint velocity constraints in real time. We define the motion optimizability measure and use it to develop an efficient method for the optimization of joint trajectories subject to multiple criteria. An implementation of the method for a 7-dof experimental redundant robot is present.

  12. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  13. An under-actuated origami gripper with adjustable stiffness joints for multiple grasp modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzeh, Amir; Paik, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Under-actuated robots offer multiple degrees of freedom without much added complexity to the actuation and control. Utilizing adjustable stiffness joints in these robots allows us to control their stable configurations and their mode of interaction with the environment. In this paper, we present the design of tendon-driven robotic origami (robogami) joints with adjustable stiffness. The proposed designs allow us to place joints along any direction in the plane of the robot and in the normal direction to the plane. The layer-by-layer manufacturing of robogamis facilitates the design and manufacturing of robots with different arrangement of joints for different applications. We use thermally activated shape memory polymer to control the joint stiffness. The manufacturing of the polymer layer is compatible with the layer-by-layer manufacturing process of the robogamis which results in scalable and customizable robots. To demonstrate, we prototyped an under-actuated gripper with three fingers and only one input actuation. The grasp mode of the gripper is set by adjusting the configuration of the locked joints and modulating the stiffness of the active joints. We present a model to estimate the configuration and the contact forces of the gripper at different settings that will assist us in design and control of future generation of under-actuated robogamis.

  14. A Modular Soft Robotic Wrist for Underwater Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Kurumaya, Shunichi; Phillips, Brennan T; Becker, Kaitlyn P; Rosen, Michelle H; Gruber, David F; Galloway, Kevin C; Suzumori, Koichi; Wood, Robert J

    2018-04-19

    This article presents the development of modular soft robotic wrist joint mechanisms for delicate and precise manipulation in the harsh deep-sea environment. The wrist consists of a rotary module and bending module, which can be combined with other actuators as part of a complete manipulator system. These mechanisms are part of a suite of soft robotic actuators being developed for deep-sea manipulation via submersibles and remotely operated vehicles, and are designed to be powered hydraulically with seawater. The wrist joint mechanisms can also be activated with pneumatic pressure for terrestrial-based applications, such as automated assembly and robotic locomotion. Here we report the development and characterization of a suite of rotary and bending modules by varying fiber number and silicone hardness. Performance of the complete soft robotic wrist is demonstrated in normal atmospheric conditions using both pneumatic and hydraulic pressures for actuation and under high ambient hydrostatic pressures equivalent to those found at least 2300 m deep in the ocean. This rugged modular wrist holds the potential to be utilized at full ocean depths (>10,000 m) and is a step forward in the development of jointed underwater soft robotic arms.

  15. Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots.

    PubMed

    d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-04-14

    In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., < 1 cm) relative displacements between the APO cuffs and the corresponding body segments (called stability); and (iii) significant increment in the human-robot kinematics discrepancy at the hip flexion-extension joint associated with speed and assistance level increase. APO mechanics and actuation have negligible interference in human locomotion. Human kinematics was not affected by the APO under all tested conditions. In addition, under all tested conditions, there was no relevant relative

  16. A simple 5-DOF walking robot for space station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.; Friedman, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    1991-01-01

    Robots on the NASA space station have a potential range of applications from assisting astronauts during EVA (extravehicular activity), to replacing astronauts in the performance of simple, dangerous, and tedious tasks; and to performing routine tasks such as inspections of structures and utilities. To provide a vehicle for demonstrating the pertinent technologies, a simple robot is being developed for locomotion and basic manipulation on the proposed space station. In addition to the robot, an experimental testbed was developed, including a 1/3 scale (1.67 meter modules) truss and a gravity compensation system to simulate a zero-gravity environment. The robot comprises two flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with a 2 degree of freedom wrist joints and grippers at each end. The grippers screw into threaded holes in the nodes of the space station truss, and enable it to walk by alternately shifting the base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. Present efforts are focused on mechanical design, application of sensors, and development of control algorithms for lightweight, flexible structures. Long-range research will emphasize development of human interfaces to permit a range of control modes from teleoperated to semiautonomous, and coordination of robot/astronaut and multiple-robot teams.

  17. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  18. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  19. The research on visual industrial robot which adopts fuzzy PID control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yifei; Lu, Guoping; Yue, Lulin; Jiang, Weifeng; Zhang, Ye

    2017-03-01

    The control system of six degrees of freedom visual industrial robot based on the control mode of multi-axis motion control cards and PC was researched. For the variable, non-linear characteristics of industrial robot`s servo system, adaptive fuzzy PID controller was adopted. It achieved better control effort. In the vision system, a CCD camera was used to acquire signals and send them to video processing card. After processing, PC controls the six joints` motion by motion control cards. By experiment, manipulator can operate with machine tool and vision system to realize the function of grasp, process and verify. It has influence on the manufacturing of the industrial robot.

  20. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  1. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  2. Roboter in der Raumfahrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirzinger, G.

    (Robots in space)—The paper emphasizes the enormous automation impact in industry caused by microelectronics, a "byproduct" of space-technology. The evolutionary stages of robotic are outlined and it is shown that there are a lot of reasons for more automation, artificial intelligence and robotic in space, too. The telemanipulator concept is compared with the industrial robot concept, both showing up an increasing degree of similarity. The state of the art in sensory systems is discussed. By hand of the typical operations needed in space as rendezvous, assembly and docking the required robot skill is indicated. As a conclusion it is stated that the basic technologies available with industrial robots today could solve a lot of space problems. What remains to do—apart of course from ongoing research—is better integration and adaption of industrial techniques to the need of space technology.

  3. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  4. Robotic surgery update.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, G; Elli, F; Horgan, S

    2004-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques have revolutionized the field of surgery. Telesurgical manipulators (robots) and new information technologies strive to improve upon currently available minimally invasive techniques and create new possibilities. A retrospective review of all robotic cases at a single academic medical center from August 2000 until November 2002 was conducted. A comprehensive literature evaluation on robotic surgical technology was also performed. Robotic technology is safely and effectively being applied at our institution. Robotic and information technologies have improved upon minimally invasive surgical techniques and created new opportunities not attainable in open surgery. Robotic technology offers many benefits over traditional minimal access techniques and has been proven safe and effective. Further research is needed to better define the optimal application of this technology. Credentialing and educational requirements also need to be delineated.

  5. Vulnerable users: deceptive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Emily C.

    2017-07-01

    The Principles of Robotics were outlined by the EPSRC in 2010. They are aimed at regulating robots in the real world. This paper represents a response to principle number four which reads: "Robots are manufactured artefacts. They should not be designed in a deceptive way to exploit vulnerable users; instead their machine nature should be transparent". The following critique questions the principle's validity by asking whether it is correct as a statement about the nature of robots, and the relationship between robots and people. To achieve this, the principle is broken down into the following two main component statements: (1) "Robots should not be designed in a deceptive way to exploit vulnerable users", and, (2) "Machine nature should be transparent". It is argued that both of the component statements that make up this principle are fundamentally flawed because of the undefined nature of the critical terms: "deceptive", "vulnerable", and "machine nature", and that as such the principle as a whole is misleading.

  6. Multigait soft robot

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Robert F.; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A.; Stokes, Adam A.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion. PMID:22123978

  7. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  8. Error modeling and sensitivity analysis of a parallel robot with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xinjun; Zhou, Yanhua

    2014-07-01

    Parallel robots with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions are utilized widely in the field of high speed pick-and-place manipulation. Error modeling for these robots generally simplifies the parallelogram structures included by the robots as a link. As the established error model fails to reflect the error feature of the parallelogram structures, the effect of accuracy design and kinematic calibration based on the error model come to be undermined. An error modeling methodology is proposed to establish an error model of parallel robots with parallelogram structures. The error model can embody the geometric errors of all joints, including the joints of parallelogram structures. Thus it can contain more exhaustively the factors that reduce the accuracy of the robot. Based on the error model and some sensitivity indices defined in the sense of statistics, sensitivity analysis is carried out. Accordingly, some atlases are depicted to express each geometric error's influence on the moving platform's pose errors. From these atlases, the geometric errors that have greater impact on the accuracy of the moving platform are identified, and some sensitive areas where the pose errors of the moving platform are extremely sensitive to the geometric errors are also figured out. By taking into account the error factors which are generally neglected in all existing modeling methods, the proposed modeling method can thoroughly disclose the process of error transmission and enhance the efficacy of accuracy design and calibration.

  9. Framework and Method for Controlling a Robotic System Using a Distributed Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor); Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic system for performing an autonomous task includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of compliant robotic joints, actuators, and other integrated system devices that are controllable in response to control data from various control points, and having sensors for measuring feedback data at the control points. The system includes a multi-level distributed control framework (DCF) for controlling the integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. The DCF has a plurality of first controllers each embedded in a respective one of the integrated system components, e.g., the robotic joints, a second controller coordinating the components via the first controllers, and a third controller for transmitting a signal commanding performance of the autonomous task to the second controller. The DCF virtually centralizes all of the control data and the feedback data in a single location to facilitate control of the robot across the multiple communication networks.

  10. Workspace Safe Operation of a Force- or Impedance-Controlled Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling a robotic manipulator of a force- or impedance-controlled robot within an unstructured workspace includes imposing a saturation limit on a static force applied by the manipulator to its surrounding environment, and may include determining a contact force between the manipulator and an object in the unstructured workspace, and executing a dynamic reflex when the contact force exceeds a threshold to thereby alleviate an inertial impulse not addressed by the saturation limited static force. The method may include calculating a required reflex torque to be imparted by a joint actuator to a robotic joint. A robotic system includes a robotic manipulator having an unstructured workspace and a controller that is electrically connected to the manipulator, and which controls the manipulator using force- or impedance-based commands. The controller, which is also disclosed herein, automatically imposes the saturation limit and may execute the dynamic reflex noted above.

  11. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  12. Industrial robots: Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Iu. G.

    Topics covered include terms, definitions, and classification; operator-directed manipulators; autooperators as used in automated pressure casting; construction and application of industrial robots; and the operating bases of automated systems. Attention is given to adaptive and interactive robots; gripping mechanisms; applications to foundary production, press-forging plants, heat treatment, welding, and assembly operations. A review of design recommendations includes a determination of fundamental structural and technological indicators for industrial robots and a consideration of drive mechanisms.

  13. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Two young visitors get an up-close look at an engineering model of Robonaut 2, complete with a set of legs, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  14. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Bruce Yost of NASA's Ames Research Center discusses a small satellite, known as PhoneSat, during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  15. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Ron Diftler of NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston demonstrates the leg movements of Robonaut 2 during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  16. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  17. Design of active orthoses for a robotic gait rehabilitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Parra, A. C.; Broche, L.; Delisle-Rodríguez, D.; Sagaró, R.; Bastos, T.; Frizera-Neto, A.

    2015-09-01

    An active orthosis (AO) is a robotic device that assists both human gait and rehabilitation therapy. This work proposes portable AOs, one for the knee joint and another for the ankle joint. Both AOs will be used to complete a robotic system that improves gait rehabilitation. The requirements for actuator selection, the biomechanical considerations during the AO design, the finite element method, and a control approach based on electroencephalographic and surface electromyographic signals are reviewed. This work contributes to the design of AOs for users with foot drop and knee flexion impairment. However, the potential of the proposed AOs to be part of a robotic gait rehabilitation system that improves the quality of life of stroke survivors requires further investigation.

  18. Influence of control parameters on the joint tracking performance of a coaxial weld vision system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangl, K. J.; Weeks, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of a series of evaluations of a vision-based welding control sensor for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Robotic Welding System is described. The robotic welding system is presently under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This evaluation determines the standard control response parameters necessary for proper trajectory of the welding torch along the joint.

  19. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  20. Surgical robot for single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyundo; Kwak, Ho-Seong; Lim, Yo-An; Kim, Hyung-Joo

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel surgical robot for single-incision laparoscopic surgeries. The robot system includes the cone-type remote center-of-motion (RCM) mechanism and two articulated instruments having a flexible linkage-driven elbow. The RCM mechanism, which has two revolute joints and one prismatic joint, is designed to maintain a stationary point at the apex of the cone shape. By placing the stationary point on the incision area, the mechanism allows a surgical instrument to explore the abdominal area through a small incision point. The instruments have six articulated joints, including an elbow pitch joint, which make the triangulation position for the surgery possible inside of the abdominal area. The presented elbow pitch structure is similar to the slider-crank mechanism but the connecting rod is composed of a flexible leaf spring for high payload and small looseness error. We verified the payload of the robot is more than 10 N and described preliminary experiments on peg transfer and suture motion by using the proposed surgical robot.

  1. Experiments in Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Multi-Manipulator, Free-Flying Space Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Vincent Wei-Kang

    1992-01-01

    Sophisticated robots can greatly enhance the role of humans in space by relieving astronauts of low level, tedious assembly and maintenance chores and allowing them to concentrate on higher level tasks. Robots and astronauts can work together efficiently, as a team; but the robot must be capable of accomplishing complex operations and yet be easy to use. Multiple cooperating manipulators are essential to dexterity and can broaden greatly the types of activities the robot can achieve; adding adaptive control can ease greatly robot usage by allowing the robot to change its own controller actions, without human intervention, in response to changes in its environment. Previous work in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) have shown the usefulness of a space robot with cooperating manipulators. The research presented in this dissertation extends that work by adding adaptive control. To help achieve this high level of robot sophistication, this research made several advances to the field of nonlinear adaptive control of robotic systems. A nonlinear adaptive control algorithm developed originally for control of robots, but requiring joint positions as inputs, was extended here to handle the much more general case of manipulator endpoint-position commands. A new system modelling technique, called system concatenation was developed to simplify the generation of a system model for complicated systems, such as a free-flying multiple-manipulator robot system. Finally, the task-space concept was introduced wherein the operator's inputs specify only the robot's task. The robot's subsequent autonomous performance of each task still involves, of course, endpoint positions and joint configurations as subsets. The combination of these developments resulted in a new adaptive control framework that is capable of continuously providing full adaptation capability to the complex space-robot system in all modes of operation. The new adaptive control algorithm easily handles free

  2. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  3. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  4. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  5. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics naturalmore » human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.« less

  6. Robotics in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Julie; Patel, Sejal Dharia; Falcone, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, robotic technology has been increasingly incorporated into various industries, including surgery and medicine. This chapter will review the history, development, current applications, and future of robotic technology in reproductive medicine. A literature search was performed for all publications regarding robotic technology in medicine, surgery, reproductive endocrinology, and its role in both surgical education and telepresence surgery. As robotic assisted surgery has emerged, this technology provides a feasible option for minimally invasive surgery, impacts surgical education, and plays a role in telepresence surgery.

  7. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  8. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  10. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  11. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  12. Perspectives of construction robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, M. A.; Gridchin, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This article is an overview of construction robots features, based on formulating the list of requirements for different types of construction robots in relation to different types of construction works.. It describes a variety of construction works and ways to construct new or to adapt existing robot designs for a construction process. Also, it shows the prospects of AI-controlled machines, implementation of automated control systems and networks on construction sites. In the end, different ways to develop and improve, including ecological aspect, the construction process through the wide robotization, creating of data communication networks and, in perspective, establishing of fully AI-controlled construction complex are formulated.

  13. Using conceptual spaces to fuse knowledge from heterogeneous robot platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Zsolt

    2010-04-01

    As robots become more common, it becomes increasingly useful for many applications to use them in teams that sense the world in a distributed manner. In such situations, the robots or a central control center must communicate and fuse information received from multiple sources. A key challenge for this problem is perceptual heterogeneity, where the sensors, perceptual representations, and training instances used by the robots differ dramatically. In this paper, we use Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, a geometric representation with strong roots in cognitive science and psychology, in order to represent the appearance of objects and show how the problem of heterogeneity can be intuitively explored by looking at the situation where multiple robots differ in their conceptual spaces at different levels. To bridge low-level sensory differences, we abstract raw sensory data into properties (such as color or texture categories), represented as Gaussian Mixture Models, and demonstrate that this facilitates both individual learning and the fusion of concepts between robots. Concepts (e.g. objects) are represented as a fuzzy mixture of these properties. We then treat the problem where the conceptual spaces of two robots differ and they only share a subset of these properties. In this case, we use joint interaction and statistical metrics to determine which properties are shared. Finally, we show how conceptual spaces can handle the combination of such missing properties when fusing concepts received from different robots. We demonstrate the fusion of information in real-robot experiments with a Mobile Robots Amigobot and Pioneer 2DX with significantly different cameras and (on one robot) a SICK lidar.ÿÿÿÿ

  14. Humanoid robot Lola: design and walking control.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Thomas; Lohmeier, Sebastian; Ulbrich, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the humanoid robot LOLA, its mechatronic hardware design, simulation and real-time walking control. The goal of the LOLA-project is to build a machine capable of stable, autonomous, fast and human-like walking. LOLA is characterized by a redundant kinematic configuration with 7-DoF legs, an extremely lightweight design, joint actuators with brushless motors and an electronics architecture using decentralized joint control. Special emphasis was put on an improved mass distribution of the legs to achieve good dynamic performance. Trajectory generation and control aim at faster, more flexible and robust walking. Center of mass trajectories are calculated in real-time from footstep locations using quadratic programming and spline collocation methods. Stabilizing control uses hybrid position/force control in task space with an inner joint position control loop. Inertial stabilization is achieved by modifying the contact force trajectories.

  15. The effect of robot dynamics on smoothness during wrist pointing.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Andrew; Pezent, Evan; Bradley, Joshua; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2017-07-01

    The improvement of movement smoothness over the course of therapy is one of the positive outcomes observed during robotic rehabilitation. Although movements are generally robust to disturbances, certain perturbations might disrupt an individual's ability to produce these smooth movements. In this paper, we explore how a rehabilitation robot's inherent dynamics impact movement smoothness during pointing tasks. Able-bodied participants made wrist pointing movements under four different operating conditions. Despite the relative transparency of the device, inherent dynamic characteristics negatively impacted movement smoothness. Active compensation for Coulomb friction effects failed to mitigate the degradation in smoothness. Assessment of movements that involved coupled motions of the robot's joints reduced the bias seen in single degree of freedom movements. When using robotic devices for assessment of movement quality, the impact of the inherent dynamics must be considered.

  16. Online absolute pose compensation and steering control of industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juqing; Wang, Dayong; Fan, Baixing; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2017-03-01

    In-situ intelligent manufacturing for large-volume equipment requires industrial robots with absolute high-accuracy positioning and orientation steering control. Conventional robots mainly employ an offline calibration technology to identify and compensate key robotic parameters. However, the dynamic and static parameters of a robot change nonlinearly. It is not possible to acquire a robot's actual parameters and control the absolute pose of the robot with a high accuracy within a large workspace by offline calibration in real-time. This study proposes a real-time online absolute pose steering control method for an industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser tracking measurement, which adopts comprehensive compensation and correction of differential movement variables. First, the pose steering control system and robot kinematics error model are constructed, and then the pose error compensation mechanism and algorithm are introduced in detail. By accurately achieving the position and orientation of the robot end-tool, mapping the computed Jacobian matrix of the joint variable and correcting the joint variable, the real-time online absolute pose compensation for an industrial robot is accurately implemented in simulations and experimental tests. The average positioning error is 0.048 mm and orientation accuracy is better than 0.01 deg. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible, and the online absolute accuracy of a robot is sufficiently enhanced.

  17. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  18. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  19. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Michael W; Walker, Ian D

    2003-02-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Kinematics and the implementation of an elephant's trunk manipulator and other continuum style robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannan, Michael W.; Walker, Ian D.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, robot manipulators have been a simple arrangement of a small number of serially connected links and actuated joints. Though these manipulators prove to be very effective for many tasks, they are not without their limitations, due mainly to their lack of maneuverability or total degrees of freedom. Continuum style (i.e., continuous "back-bone") robots, on the other hand, exhibit a wide range of maneuverability, and can have a large number of degrees of freedom. The motion of continuum style robots is generated through the bending of the robot over a given section; unlike traditional robots where the motion occurs in discrete locations, i.e., joints. The motion of continuum manipulators is often compared to that of biological manipulators such as trunks and tentacles. These continuum style robots can achieve motions that could only be obtainable by a conventionally designed robot with many more degrees of freedom. In this paper we present a detailed formulation and explanation of a novel kinematic model for continuum style robots. The design, construction, and implementation of our continuum style robot called the elephant trunk manipulator is presented. Experimental results are then provided to verify the legitimacy of our model when applied to our physical manipulator. We also provide a set of obstacle avoidance experiments that help to exhibit the practical implementation of both our manipulator and our kinematic model. c2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Motion synthesis and force distribution analysis for a biped robot.

    PubMed

    Trojnacki, Maciej T; Zielińska, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the method of generating biped robot motion using recorded human gait is presented. The recorded data were modified taking into account the velocity available for robot drives. Data includes only selected joint angles, therefore the missing values were obtained considering the dynamic postural stability of the robot, which means obtaining an adequate motion trajectory of the so-called Zero Moment Point (ZMT). Also, the method of determining the ground reaction forces' distribution during the biped robot's dynamic stable walk is described. The method was developed by the authors. Following the description of equations characterizing the dynamics of robot's motion, the values of the components of ground reaction forces were symbolically determined as well as the coordinates of the points of robot's feet contact with the ground. The theoretical considerations have been supported by computer simulation and animation of the robot's motion. This was done using Matlab/Simulink package and Simulink 3D Animation Toolbox, and it has proved the proposed method.

  2. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  3. Controlling Tensegrity Robots through Evolution using Friction based Actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kothapalli, Tejasvi; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional robotic structures have limitations in planetary exploration as their rigid structural joints are prone to damage in new and rough terrains. In contrast, robots based on tensegrity structures, composed of rods and tensile cables, offer a highly robust, lightweight, and energy efficient solution over traditional robots. In addition tensegrity robots can be highly configurable by rearranging their topology of rods, cables and motors. However, these highly configurable tensegrity robots pose a significant challenge for locomotion due to their complexity. This study investigates a control pattern for successful locomotion in tensegrity robots through an evolutionary algorithm. A twelve-rod hardware model is rapidly prototyped to utilize a new actuation method based on friction. A web-based physics simulation is created to model the twelve-rod tensegrity ball structure. Square-waves are used as control policies for the actuators of the tensegrity structure. Monte Carlo trials are run to find the most successful number of amplitudes for the square-wave control policy. From the results, an evolutionary algorithm is implemented to find the most optimized solution for locomotion of the twelve-rod tensegrity structure. The software pattern coupled with the new friction based actuation method can serve as the basis for highly efficient tensegrity robots in space exploration.

  4. Robust adaptive kinematic control of redundant robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.; Zuck, D. D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a general method for the resolution of redundancy that combines the Jacobian pseudoinverse and augmentation approaches. A direct adaptive control scheme is developed to generate joint angle trajectories for achieving desired end-effector motion as well as additional user defined tasks. The scheme ensures arbitrarily small errors between the desired and the actual motion of the manipulator. Explicit bounds on the errors are established that are directly related to the mismatch between actual and estimated pseudoinverse Jacobian matrix, motion velocity and the controller gain. It is shown that the scheme is tolerant of the mismatch and consequently only infrequent pseudoinverse computations are needed during a typical robot motion. As a result, the scheme is computationally fast, and can be implemented for real-time control of redundant robots. A method is incorporated to cope with the robot singularities allowing the manipulator to get very close or even pass through a singularity while maintaining a good tracking performance and acceptable joint velocities. Computer simulations and experimental results are provided in support of the theoretical developments.

  5. Robot-Assisted Arm Assessments in Spinal Cord Injured Patients: A Consideration of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Albisser, Urs; Rudhe, Claudia; Curt, Armin; Riener, Robert; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Robotic assistance is increasingly used in neurological rehabilitation for enhanced training. Furthermore, therapy robots have the potential for accurate assessment of motor function in order to diagnose the patient status, to measure therapy progress or to feedback the movement performance to the patient and therapist in real time. We investigated whether a set of robot-based assessments that encompasses kinematic, kinetic and timing metrics is applicable, safe, reliable and comparable to clinical metrics for measurement of arm motor function. Twenty-four healthy subjects and five patients after spinal cord injury underwent robot-based assessments using the exoskeleton robot ARMin. Five different tasks were performed with aid of a visual display. Ten kinematic, kinetic and timing assessment parameters were extracted on joint- and end-effector level (active and passive range of motion, cubic reaching volume, movement time, distance-path ratio, precision, smoothness, reaction time, joint torques and joint stiffness). For cubic volume, joint torques and the range of motion for most joints, good inter- and intra-rater reliability were found whereas precision, movement time, distance-path ratio and smoothness showed weak to moderate reliability. A comparison with clinical scores revealed good correlations between robot-based joint torques and the Manual Muscle Test. Reaction time and distance-path ratio showed good correlation with the “Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension” (GRASSP) and the Van Lieshout Test (VLT) for movements towards a predefined position in the center of the frontal plane. In conclusion, the therapy robot ARMin provides a comprehensive set of assessments that are applicable and safe. The first results with spinal cord injured patients and healthy subjects suggest that the measurements are widely reliable and comparable to clinical scales for arm motor function. The methods applied and results can serve as a

  6. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus,more » there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number

  7. Multi-robot control interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Walton, Miles C

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes amore » multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.« less

  8. Heavily loaded joints for assembling aerobrake support trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandel, Hannskarl; Olsson, Nils; Levintov, Boris

    1990-01-01

    The major emphasis was to develop erectable joints for large aerobrake support trusses. The truss joints must be able to withstand the large forces experienced by the truss during the aero-pass, as well as be easily assembled and disassembled on orbit by astronauts or robots. Other important design considerations include; strength, stiffness, and allowable error in strut length. Six mechanical joint designs, as well as a seventh joint design, where a high strength epoxy is injected to make the connection rigid, are presented.

  9. Design of a telerobotic controller with joint torque sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, J. F.; Herndon, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose was to analytically show how to design a joint controller for a telerobotic system when joint torque sensors are available. Other sensors such as actuator position, actuator velocity, joint position, and joint velocity are assumed to be accessible; however, the results will also be useful when only partial measurements are available. The controller presented can be applied to either mode of operation of a manipulator (i.e., teleoperation or robotic). Mechanical manipulators with high levels of friction are assumed. The results are applied to a telerobotic system built for NASA. Very high levels of friction have been reduced using high-gain feedback while avoiding limit cycles.

  10. Path planning for robotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1993-01-01

    A new Potential Fields approach to the robotic path planning problem is proposed and implemented. Our approach, which is based on one originally proposed by Munger, computes an incremental joint vector based upon attraction to a goal and repulsion from obstacles. By repetitively adding and computing these 'steps', it is hoped (but not guaranteed) that the robot will reach its goal. An attractive force exerted by the goal is found by solving for the the minimum norm solution to the linear Jacobian equation. A repulsive force between obstacles and the robot's links is used to avoid collisions. Its magnitude is inversely proportional to the distance. Together, these forces make the goal the global minimum potential point, but local minima can stop the robot from ever reaching that point. Our approach improves on a basic, potential field paradigm developed by Munger by using an active, adaptive field - what we will call a 'flexible' potential field. Active fields are stronger when objects move towards one another and weaker when they move apart. An adaptive field's strength is individually tailored to be just strong enough to avoid any collision. In addition to the local planner, a global planning algorithm helps the planner to avoid local field minima by providing subgoals. These subgoals are based on the obstacles which caused the local planner to fail. A best-first search algorithm A* is used for graph search.

  11. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes.

  12. Robotic radical perineal cystectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy: initial investigation using a purpose-built single-port robotic system.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Matthew J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2017-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of radical perineal cystoprostatectomy using the latest generation purpose-built single-port robotic surgical system. In two male cadavers the da Vinci ® SP1098 Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was used to perform radical perineal cystoprostatectomy and bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND). New features in this model include enhanced high-definition three-dimensional optics, improved instrument manoeuvrability, and a real-time instrument tracking and guidance system. The surgery was accomplished through a 3-cm perineal incision via a novel robotic single-port system, which accommodates three double-jointed articulating robotic instruments, an articulating camera, and an accessory laparoscopic instrument. The primary outcomes were technical feasibility, intraoperative complications, and total robotic operative time. The cases were completed successfully without conversion. There were no accidental punctures or lacerations. The robotic operative times were 197 and 202 min. In this preclinical model, robotic radical perineal cystoprostatectomy and ePLND was feasible using the SP1098 robotic platform. Further investigation is needed to assess the feasibility of urinary diversion using this novel approach and new technology. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Invariant hip moment pattern while walking with a robotic hip exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons hold significant potential for gait assistance and rehabilitation; however, we have a limited understanding of how people adapt to walking with robotic devices. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that people reduce net muscle moments about their joints when robotic assistance is provided. This reduction in muscle moment results in a total joint moment (muscle plus exoskeleton) that is the same as the moment without the robotic assistance despite potential differences in joint angles. To test this hypothesis, eight healthy subjects trained with the robotic hip exoskeleton while walking on a force-measuring treadmill. The exoskeleton provided hip flexion assistance from approximately 33% to 53% of the gait cycle. We calculated the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the average of data from the last 15 minutes of the powered condition and the unpowered condition. After completing three 30-minute training sessions, the hip exoskeleton provided 27% of the total peak hip flexion moment during gait. Despite this substantial contribution from the exoskeleton, subjects walked with a total hip moment pattern (muscle plus exoskeleton) that was almost identical and more similar to the unpowered condition than the hip angle pattern (hip moment RMSD 0.027, angle RMSD 0.134, p<0.001). The angle and moment RMSD were not different for the knee and ankle joints. These findings support the concept that people adopt walking patterns with similar joint moment patterns despite differences in hip joint angles for a given walking speed. PMID:21333995

  14. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Progress, June 2016 issue, explores The Joint Commission’s internal Robust Process Improvement ® program. Read the ... cry for improving our services. It has provided a pulpit from which we structure quality and safety activities and get buy-in from ...

  15. A robot sets a table: a case for hybrid reasoning with different types of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Masoumeh; Pecora, Federico

    2016-09-01

    An important contribution of AI to Robotics is the model-centred approach, whereby competent robot behaviour stems from automated reasoning in models of the world which can be changed to suit different environments, physical capabilities and tasks. However models need to capture diverse (and often application-dependent) aspects of the robot's environment and capabilities. They must also have good computational properties, as robots need to reason while they act in response to perceived context. In this article, we investigate the use of a meta-CSP-based technique to interleave reasoning in diverse knowledge types. We reify the approach through a robotic waiter case study, for which a particular selection of spatial, temporal, resource and action KR formalisms is made. Using this case study, we discuss general principles pertaining to the selection of appropriate KR formalisms and jointly reasoning about them. The resulting integration is evaluated both formally and experimentally on real and simulated robotic platforms.

  16. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  17. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality.

  18. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  19. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  20. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  1. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2018-05-11

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  2. Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    SciTech Connect

    HENSINGER, DAVID M.; JOHNSTON, GABRIEL A.; HINMAN-SWEENEY, ELAINE M.

    2002-10-01

    A distributed reconfigurable micro-robotic system is a collection of unlimited numbers of distributed small, homogeneous robots designed to autonomously organize and reorganize in order to achieve mission-specified geometric shapes and functions. This project investigated the design, control, and planning issues for self-configuring and self-organizing robots. In the 2D space a system consisting of two robots was prototyped and successfully displayed automatic docking/undocking to operate dependently or independently. Additional modules were constructed to display the usefulness of a self-configuring system in various situations. In 3D a self-reconfiguring robot system of 4 identical modules was built. Each module connects to its neighborsmore » using rotating actuators. An individual component can move in three dimensions on its neighbors. We have also built a self-reconfiguring robot system consisting of 9-module Crystalline Robot. Each module in this robot is actuated by expansion/contraction. The system is fully distributed, has local communication (to neighbors) capabilities and it has global sensing capabilities.« less

  3. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  4. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  5. Robotics in endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Klibansky, David; Rothstein, Richard I

    2012-09-01

    The increasing complexity of intralumenal and emerging translumenal endoscopic procedures has created an opportunity to apply robotics in endoscopy. Computer-assisted or direct-drive robotic technology allows the triangulation of flexible tools through telemanipulation. The creation of new flexible operative platforms, along with other emerging technology such as nanobots and steerable capsules, can be transformational for endoscopic procedures. In this review, we cover some background information on the use of robotics in surgery and endoscopy, and review the emerging literature on platforms, capsules, and mini-robotic units. The development of techniques in advanced intralumenal endoscopy (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection) and translumenal endoscopic procedures (NOTES) has generated a number of novel platforms, flexible tools, and devices that can apply robotic principles to endoscopy. The development of a fully flexible endoscopic surgical toolkit will enable increasingly advanced procedures to be performed through natural orifices. The application of platforms and new flexible tools to the areas of advanced endoscopy and NOTES heralds the opportunity to employ useful robotic technology. Following the examples of the utility of robotics from the field of laparoscopic surgery, we can anticipate the emerging role of robotic technology in endoscopy.

  6. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  7. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  8. 2012 FIRST Robotics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-08

    Spectators crew on teams during the 2012 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Bayou Regional Competition March 15-17, 2012, in Kenner, La. Students from 49 high school teams in six states participated in the annual robotics tournament.

  9. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  11. The 50-Minute Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Miram R.

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders built working "robots" (or grasping bars) for remote control use during a unit on simple mechanics. Steps for making a robot are presented, including: cutting the wood, drilling and nailing, assembling the jaws, and making them work. The "jaws," used to pick up objects, illustrate principles of levers. (DH)

  12. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  13. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  14. Robotics: The next step?

    PubMed

    Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2014-02-01

    Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. literature review was based on Medline search using a large variety of search terms, including e.g. robot(ic), randomized, rectal, oesophageal, ergonomics. Review articles on relevant topics are discussed with preference. There is abundant evidence of supremacy in performing complex endoscopic surgery tasks when using the robot in an experimental setting. There is little high-level evidence so far on translation of these merits to clinical practice. Robotic systems may appear helpful in complex gastro-intestinal surgery. Moreover, dedicated computer based technology integrated in telepresence systems opens the way to integration of planning, diagnostics and therapy. The first high tech add-ons such as near infrared technology are under clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from Case Western Reserve University pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  16. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  17. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from The University of Utah pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  18. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    First-time participants from Saginaw Valley State University pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  19. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  20. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from Montana Tech of the University of Montana work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  1. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from The University of Alabama pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  2. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from York College CUNY make adjustments to their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, inside the RobotPits at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  3. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from the University of Arkansas make adjustments to their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. They are in the RobotPits inside the Educator Resource Center. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  4. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from the Illinois Institute of Technology work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  5. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  6. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  7. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, college team members work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  8. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from New York University work on their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  9. Robotic Mining Competition - Setup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-14

    On the first day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, set-up day on May 14, team members from Temple University work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  10. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members and their faculty advisor, far left, from The University of North Carolina at Charlotte pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  11. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from the University of Colorado Boulder work on their robot miner in the RobotPits in the Educator Resource Center on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  12. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from York College CUNY are with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  13. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    First-time participants from the University of Maine, along with their faculty advisor, at far right, are with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  14. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-17

    Team members from the University of Arkansas pause with their robot miner in the RobotPits on the fourth day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 17, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  15. Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville; Aisen, Mindy L.; Volpe, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    Our goal is to apply robotics and automation technology to assist, enhance, quantify, and document neurorehabilitation. This paper reviews a clinical trial involving 20 stroke patients with a prototype robot-aided rehabilitation facility developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, (MIT) and tested at Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY. It also presents our approach to analyze kinematic data collected in the robot-aided assessment procedure. In particular, we present evidence 1) that robot-aided therapy does not have adverse effects, 2) that patients tolerate the procedure, and 3) that peripheral manipulation of the impaired limb may influence brain recovery. These results are based on standard clinical assessment procedures. We also present one approach using kinematic data in a robot-aided assessment procedure. PMID:9535526

  16. Mapping From an Instrumented Glove to a Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to solve the problem of mapping from (1) a glove instrumented with joint-angle sensors to (2) an anthropomorphic robot hand. Such a mapping is needed to generate control signals to make the robot hand mimic the configuration of the hand of a human attempting to control the robot. The mapping problem is complicated by uncertainties in sensor locations caused by variations in sizes and shapes of hands and variations in the fit of the glove. The present mapping algorithm is robust in the face of these uncertainties, largely because it includes a calibration sub-algorithm that inherently adapts the mapping to the specific hand and glove, without need for measuring the hand and without regard for goodness of fit. The algorithm utilizes a forward-kinematics model of the glove derived from documentation provided by the manufacturer of the glove. In this case, forward-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the glove fingertip positions as functions of the sensor readings. More specifically, given the sensor readings, the forward-kinematics model calculates the glove fingertip positions in a Cartesian reference frame nominally attached to the palm. The algorithm also utilizes an inverse-kinematics model of the robot hand. In this case, inverse-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the robot finger-joint angles as functions of the robot fingertip positions. Again, more specifically, the inverse-kinematics model calculates the finger-joint commands needed to place the fingertips at specified positions in a Cartesian reference frame that is attached to the palm of the robot hand and that nominally corresponds to the Cartesian reference frame attached to the palm of the glove. Initially, because of the aforementioned uncertainties, the glove fingertip positions calculated by the forwardkinematics model in the glove Cartesian reference frame cannot be expected to match the robot fingertip positions in the robot

  17. Surrogate: A Body-Dexterous Mobile Manipulation Robot with a Tracked Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Paul (Inventor); Borders, James W. (Inventor); Hudson, Nicolas H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Ma, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Bergh, Charles F. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Robotics platforms in accordance with various embodiments of the invention can be utilized to implement highly dexterous robots capable of whole body motion. Robotics platforms in accordance with one embodiment of the invention include: a memory containing a whole body motion application; a spine, where the spine has seven degrees of freedom and comprises a spine actuator and three spine elbow joints that each include two spine joint actuators; at least one limb, where the at least one limb comprises a limb actuator and three limb elbow joints that each include two limb joint actuators; a tracked base; a connecting structure that connects the at least one limb to the spine; a second connecting structure that connects the spine to the tracked base; wherein the processor is configured by the whole body motion application to move the at least one limb and the spine to perform whole body motion.

  18. Quantitative model validation of manipulative robot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartowisastro, Iman Herwidiana

    This thesis is concerned with applying the distortion quantitative validation technique to a robot manipulative system with revolute joints. Using the distortion technique to validate a model quantitatively, the model parameter uncertainties are taken into account in assessing the faithfulness of the model and this approach is relatively more objective than the commonly visual comparison method. The industrial robot is represented by the TQ MA2000 robot arm. Details of the mathematical derivation of the distortion technique are given which explains the required distortion of the constant parameters within the model and the assessment of model adequacy. Due to the complexity of a robot model, only the first three degrees of freedom are considered where all links are assumed rigid. The modelling involves the Newton-Euler approach to obtain the dynamics model, and the Denavit-Hartenberg convention is used throughout the work. The conventional feedback control system is used in developing the model. The system behavior to parameter changes is investigated as some parameters are redundant. This work is important so that the most important parameters to be distorted can be selected and this leads to a new term called the fundamental parameters. The transfer function approach has been chosen to validate an industrial robot quantitatively against the measured data due to its practicality. Initially, the assessment of the model fidelity criterion indicated that the model was not capable of explaining the transient record in term of the model parameter uncertainties. Further investigations led to significant improvements of the model and better understanding of the model properties. After several improvements in the model, the fidelity criterion obtained was almost satisfied. Although the fidelity criterion is slightly less than unity, it has been shown that the distortion technique can be applied in a robot manipulative system. Using the validated model, the importance of

  19. Intelligent Robotic Systems Study (IRSS), phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Intelligent Robotics Systems Study (IRSS), a generalized robotic control architecture was developed for use with the ProtoFlight Manipulator Arm (PFMA). Based upon the NASREM system design concept, the controller built for the PFMA provides localized position based force control, teleoperation, and advanced path recording and playback capabilities. The PFMA has six computer controllable degrees of freedom (DOF) plus a 7th manually indexable DOF, making the manipulator a pseudo 7 DOF mechanism. Joints on the PFMA are driven via 7 pulse width modulated amplifiers. Digital control of the PFMA is implemented using a variety of single board computers. There were two major activities under the IRSS phase 4 study: (1) enhancement of the PFMA control system software functionality; and (2) evaluation of operating modes via a teleoperation performance study. These activities are described and results are given.

  20. Robots: An Impact on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaesi, LaVon; Maness, Marion

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on robotics and robots, considering impact of robots on the workplace and concerns of the work force. Discusses incorporating robotics into the educational system at all levels, exploring industry-education partnerships to fund introduction of new technology into the curriculum. New funding sources and funding…

  1. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  2. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    A judge for the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge follows a robot on the playing field during the challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Software for Simulating a Complex Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, S. Michael

    2003-01-01

    RoboSim (Robot Simulation) is a computer program that simulates the poses and motions of the Robonaut a developmental anthropomorphic robot that has a complex system of joints with 43 degrees of freedom and multiple modes of operation and control. RoboSim performs a full kinematic simulation of all degrees of freedom. It also includes interface components that duplicate the functionality of the real Robonaut interface with control software and human operators. Basically, users see no difference between the real Robonaut and the simulation. Consequently, new control algorithms can be tested by computational simulation, without risk to the Robonaut hardware, and without using excessive Robonaut-hardware experimental time, which is always at a premium. Previously developed software incorporated into RoboSim includes Enigma (for graphical displays), OSCAR (for kinematical computations), and NDDS (for communication between the Robonaut and external software). In addition, RoboSim incorporates unique inverse-kinematical algorithms for chains of joints that have fewer than six degrees of freedom (e.g., finger joints). In comparison with the algorithms of OSCAR, these algorithms are more readily adaptable and provide better results when using equivalent sets of data.

  4. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  5. Disposable Fluidic Actuators for Miniature In-Vivo Surgical Robotics.

    PubMed

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A

    2017-03-01

    Fusion of robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created new opportunities to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Surgical robotics is advancing from externally actuated systems to miniature in-vivo robotics. However, with miniaturization of electric-motor-driven surgical robots, there comes a trade-off between the size of the robot and its capability. Slow actuation, low load capacity, sterilization difficulties, leaking electricity and transferring produced heat to tissues, and high cost are among the key limitations of the use of electric motors in in-vivo applications. Fluid power in the form of hydraulics or pneumatics has a long history in driving many industrial devices and could be exploited to circumvent these limitations. High power density and good compatibility with the in-vivo environment are the key advantages of fluid power over electric motors when it comes to in-vivo applications. However, fabrication of hydraulic/pneumatic actuators within the desired size and pressure range required for in-vivo surgical robotic applications poses new challenges. Sealing these types of miniature actuators at operating pressures requires obtaining very fine surface finishes which is difficult and costly. The research described here presents design, fabrication, and testing of a hydraulic/pneumatic double-acting cylinder, a limited-motion vane motor, and a balloon-actuated laparoscopic grasper. These actuators are small, seal-less, easy to fabricate, disposable, and inexpensive, thus ideal for single-use in-vivo applications. To demonstrate the ability of these actuators to drive robotic joints, they were modified and integrated in a robotic arm. The design and testing of this surgical robotic arm are presented to validate the concept of fluid-power actuators for in-vivo applications.

  6. Disposable Fluidic Actuators for Miniature In-Vivo Surgical Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion of robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created new opportunities to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Surgical robotics is advancing from externally actuated systems to miniature in-vivo robotics. However, with miniaturization of electric-motor-driven surgical robots, there comes a trade-off between the size of the robot and its capability. Slow actuation, low load capacity, sterilization difficulties, leaking electricity and transferring produced heat to tissues, and high cost are among the key limitations of the use of electric motors in in-vivo applications. Fluid power in the form of hydraulics or pneumatics has a long history in driving many industrial devices and could be exploited to circumvent these limitations. High power density and good compatibility with the in-vivo environment are the key advantages of fluid power over electric motors when it comes to in-vivo applications. However, fabrication of hydraulic/pneumatic actuators within the desired size and pressure range required for in-vivo surgical robotic applications poses new challenges. Sealing these types of miniature actuators at operating pressures requires obtaining very fine surface finishes which is difficult and costly. The research described here presents design, fabrication, and testing of a hydraulic/pneumatic double-acting cylinder, a limited-motion vane motor, and a balloon-actuated laparoscopic grasper. These actuators are small, seal-less, easy to fabricate, disposable, and inexpensive, thus ideal for single-use in-vivo applications. To demonstrate the ability of these actuators to drive robotic joints, they were modified and integrated in a robotic arm. The design and testing of this surgical robotic arm are presented to validate the concept of fluid-power actuators for in-vivo applications. PMID:28070227

  7. Composite Configuration Interventional Therapy Robot for the Microwave Ablation of Liver Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying-Yu; Xue, Long; Qi, Bo-Jin; Jiang, Li-Pei; Deng, Shuang-Cheng; Liang, Ping; Liu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    The existing interventional therapy robots for the microwave ablation of liver tumors have a poor clinical applicability with a large volume, low positioning speed and complex automatic navigation control. To solve above problems, a composite configuration interventional therapy robot with passive and active joints is developed. The design of composite configuration reduces the size of the robot under the premise of a wide range of movement, and the robot with composite configuration can realizes rapid positioning with operation safety. The cumulative error of positioning is eliminated and the control complexity is reduced by decoupling active parts. The navigation algorithms for the robot are proposed based on solution of the inverse kinematics and geometric analysis. A simulation clinical test method is designed for the robot, and the functions of the robot and the navigation algorithms are verified by the test method. The mean error of navigation is 1.488 mm and the maximum error is 2.056 mm, and the positioning time for the ablation needle is in 10 s. The experimental results show that the designed robot can meet the clinical requirements for the microwave ablation of liver tumors. The composite configuration is proposed in development of the interventional therapy robot for the microwave ablation of liver tumors, which provides a new idea for the structural design of medical robots.

  8. [Optimization of end-tool parameters based on robot hand-eye calibration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lilong; Cao, Tong; Liu, Da

    2017-04-01

    A new one-time registration method was developed in this research for hand-eye calibration of a surgical robot to simplify the operation process and reduce the preparation time. And a new and practical method is introduced in this research to optimize the end-tool parameters of the surgical robot based on analysis of the error sources in this registration method. In the process with one-time registration method, firstly a marker on the end-tool of the robot was recognized by a fixed binocular camera, and then the orientation and position of the marker were calculated based on the joint parameters of the robot. Secondly the relationship between the camera coordinate system and the robot base coordinate system could be established to complete the hand-eye calibration. Because of manufacturing and assembly errors of robot end-tool, an error equation was established with the transformation matrix between the robot end coordinate system and the robot end-tool coordinate system as the variable. Numerical optimization was employed to optimize end-tool parameters of the robot. The experimental results showed that the one-time registration method could significantly improve the efficiency of the robot hand-eye calibration compared with the existing methods. The parameter optimization method could significantly improve the absolute positioning accuracy of the one-time registration method. The absolute positioning accuracy of the one-time registration method can meet the requirements of the clinical surgery.

  9. Emergence of Joint Attention through Bootstrap Learning based on the Mechanisms of Visual Attention and Learning with Self-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yukie; Hosoda, Koh; Morita, Akio; Asada, Minoru

    This study argues how human infants acquire the ability of joint attention through interactions with their caregivers from a viewpoint of cognitive developmental robotics. In this paper, a mechanism by which a robot acquires sensorimotor coordination for joint attention through bootstrap learning is described. Bootstrap learning is a process by which a learner acquires higher capabilities through interactions with its environment based on embedded lower capabilities even if the learner does not receive any external evaluation nor the environment is controlled. The proposed mechanism for bootstrap learning of joint attention consists of the robot's embedded mechanisms: visual attention and learning with self-evaluation. The former is to find and attend to a salient object in the field of the robot's view, and the latter is to evaluate the success of visual attention, not joint attention, and then to learn the sensorimotor coordination. Since the object which the robot looks at based on visual attention does not always correspond to the object which the caregiver is looking at in an environment including multiple objects, the robot may have incorrect learning situations for joint attention as well as correct ones. However, the robot is expected to statistically lose the learning data of the incorrect ones as outliers because of its weaker correlation between the sensor input and the motor output than that of the correct ones, and consequently to acquire appropriate sensorimotor coordination for joint attention even if the caregiver does not provide any task evaluation to the robot. The experimental results show the validity of the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the proposed mechanism could explain the developmental mechanism of infants' joint attention because the learning process of the robot's joint attention can be regarded as equivalent to the developmental process of infants' one.

  10. Preliminary research of a novel center-driven robot for upper extremity rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wujing; Zhang, Fei; Yu, Hongliu; Hu, Bingshan; Meng, Qiaoling

    2018-01-19

    Loss of upper limb function often appears after stroke. Robot-assisted systems are becoming increasingly common in upper extremity rehabilitation. Rehabilitation robot provides intensive motor therapy, which can be performed in a repetitive, accurate and controllable manner. This study aims to propose a novel center-driven robot for upper extremity rehabilitation. A new power transmission mechanism is designed to transfer the power to elbow and shoulder joints from three motors located on the base. The forward and inverse kinematics equations of the center-driven robot (CENTROBOT) are deduced separately. The theoretical values of the scope of joint movements are obtained with the Denavit-Hartenberg parameters method. A prototype of the CENTROBOT is developed and tested. The elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension and shoulder adduction/abduction can be realized of the center-driven robot. The angles value of joints are in conformity with the theoretical value. The CENTROBOT reduces the overall size of the robot arm, the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors by setting all motors on the base. It can satisfy the requirements of power and movement transmission of the robot arm.

  11. A New Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm (Denso VP6242)

    PubMed Central

    Dülger, L. Canan; Kapucu, Sadettin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot's joint angles. PMID:27610129

  12. A New Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm (Denso VP6242).

    PubMed

    Almusawi, Ahmed R J; Dülger, L Canan; Kapucu, Sadettin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot's joint angles.

  13. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  14. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, left, listens as Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Robotics Resource Center Director and NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge Judge Ken Stafford points out how the robots navigate the playing field during the challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, right, listens as Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Robotics Resource Center Director and NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge Judge Ken Stafford points out how the robots navigate the playing field during the challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-15

    University of Waterloo (Canada) Robotics Team members test their robot on the practice field one day prior to the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge, Friday, June 15, 2012 at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester, Mass. Teams will compete for a $1.5 million NASA prize to build an autonomous robot that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-14

    A University of Waterloo Robotics Team member tests their robot on the practice field two days prior to the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge, Thursday, June 14, 2012 at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester, Mass. Teams will compete for a $1.5 million NASA prize to build an autonomous robot that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency.

  19. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  20. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  1. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  2. [Robotic laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Langer, D; Pudil, J; Ryska, M

    2006-09-01

    Laparoscopic approach profusely utilized in many surgical fields was enhanced by da Vinci robotic surgical system in range of surgery wards, imprimis in the United States today. There was multispecialized robotic centre program initiated in the Central Military Hospital in Prague in December 2005. Within the scope of implementing the da Vinci robotic system to clinical practice we executed robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We have accomplished elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Operating working group (two doctors, two scrub nurses) had completed certificated foreign training. Both of the surgeons have many years experience of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Operator controlled instruments from the surgeon's console, assistant placed clips on ends of cystic duct and cystic artery from auxiliary port after capnoperitoneum installation. We evacuated gallbladder in plastic bag from abdominal cavity in place of original paraumbilical port. We were exploiting three working arms in all our cases, holding surgical camera, electrocautery hook and Cadiere forceps. We had been observing procedure time, technical complications connected with robotic system, length of hospital stay and complication incidence rate. We managed to finish all operations in laparoscopic way. Group of our patients formed 11 male patients (35.5%) and 20 women (64.5%), mean aged 52.5 years in range of 27 77 years. The average operation procedure lasted 100 minutes, in the group of last 11 patients only 69 minutes. We recorded paraumbilical wound infections in 3 (9.7 %) patients. We had not experienced any technical problems with robotic surgical system. Length of hospital stay was 3 days. Considering our initial experience with robotic lasparoscopic cholecystectomy we evaluate da Vinci robotic surgical system to be safe and sophisticated operating manipulator which however does not substitute the surgeon key-role of controlling position and

  3. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Paul; de Haas, Mirjam; de Jong, Chiara; Baxter, Peta; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children’s language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children’s learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR) for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give. PMID:28303094

  4. A Hexapod Robot to Demonstrate Mesh Walking in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foor, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The JPL Micro-Robot Explorer (MRE) Spiderbot is a robot that takes advantage of its small size to perform precision tasks suitable for space applications. The Spiderbot is a legged robot that can traverse harsh terrain otherwise inaccessible to wheeled robots. A team of Spiderbots can network and can exhibit collaborative efforts to SUCCeSSfUlly complete a set of tasks. The Spiderbot is designed and developed to demonstrate hexapods that can walk on flat surfaces, crawl on meshes, and assemble simple structures. The robot has six legs consisting of two spring-compliant joints and a gripping actuator. A hard-coded set of gaits allows the robot to move smoothly in a zero-gravity environment along the mesh. The primary objective of this project is to create a Spiderbot that traverses a flexible, deployable mesh, for use in space repair. Verification of this task will take place aboard a zero-gravity test flight. The secondary objective of this project is to adapt feedback from the joints to allow the robot to test each arm for a successful grip of the mesh. The end result of this research lends itself to a fault-tolerant robot suitable for a wide variety of space applications.

  5. Effect of Link Flexibility on tip position of a single link robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudan Raju, E.; Siva Rama Krishna, L.; Mouli, Y. Sharath Chandra; Nageswara Rao, V.

    2015-12-01

    The flexible robots are widely used in space applications due to their quick response, lower energy consumption, lower overall mass and operation at high speed compared to conventional industrial rigid link robots. These robots are inherently flexible, so that the kinematics of flexible robots can't be solved with rigid body assumptions. The flexibility in links and joints affects end-point positioning accuracy of the robot. It is important to model the link kinematics with precision which in turn simplifies modelling of dynamics of flexible robots. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of link flexibility on a tip position of a single link robotic arm for a given motion. The joint is assumed to be rigid and only link flexibility is considered. The kinematics of flexible link problem is evaluated by Assumed Modes Method (AMM) using MAT LAB Programming. To evaluate the effect of link flexibility (with and without payload) of robotic arm, the normalized tip deviation is found for flexible link with respect to a rigid link. Finally, the limiting inertia for payload mass is found if the allowable tip deviation is 5%.

  6. Child-Robot Interactions for Second Language Tutoring to Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Paul; de Haas, Mirjam; de Jong, Chiara; Baxter, Peta; Krahmer, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner. We also believe that the first impressions children have about robots are crucial for them to build trust and common ground, which would support child-robot interactions in the long term. We therefore propose a strategy to introduce the robot in a safe way to toddlers. Other features relate to the ability to adapt to individual children's language proficiency, respond contingently, both temporally and semantically, establish joint attention, use meaningful gestures, provide effective feedback and monitor children's learning progress. Technical challenges we observe include automatic speech recognition (ASR) for children, reliable object recognition to facilitate semantic contingency and establishing joint attention, and developing human-like gestures with a robot that does not have the same morphology humans have. We briefly discuss an experiment in which we investigate how children respond to different forms of feedback the robot can give.

  7. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  8. Modelling robot construction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Chris

    1990-01-01

    TROTER's are small, inexpensive robots that can work together to accomplish sophisticated construction tasks. To understand the issues involved in designing and operating a team of TROTER's, the robots and their components are being modeled. A TROTER system that features standardized component behavior is introduced. An object-oriented model implemented in the Smalltalk programming language is described and the advantages of the object-oriented approach for simulating robot and component interactions are discussed. The presentation includes preliminary results and a discussion of outstanding issues.

  9. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  10. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  11. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  12. Robot Rocket Rally

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-03-14

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A torso model of Robonaut 2, identical to R2 already on the International Space Station, is introduced to a crowd of onlookers by Ron Diftler of NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The demonstration was one of several provided during the Robot Rocket Rally. The three-day event at Florida's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is highlighted by exhibits, games and demonstrations of a variety of robots, with exhibitors ranging from school robotics clubs to veteran NASA scientists and engineers. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  13. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  14. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  15. Dexterous programmable robot and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    An anatomically correct, humanlike, mechanical arm and hand is provided that an operator can control to perform with the dexterity and compliance of a human hand. Being humanlike and robotic enhances the device's control and gripper dexterity. Control of the movement of the arm and hand is performed or guided by a 'teach glove' worn by the operator. As he or she performs some hand manipulation, a controller stores signals from sensors on the exoskeleton. The sensors monitor the operator's finger-joint movement positions. These values are later translated into actuator control signals for servomotors, eventually duplicating the operator's movement.

  16. Robotic situational awareness of actions in human teaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, Dave

    2015-06-01

    When robots can sense and interpret the activities of the people they are working with, they become more of a team member and less of just a piece of equipment. This has motivated work on recognizing human actions using existing robotic sensors like short-range ladar imagers. These produce three-dimensional point cloud movies which can be analyzed for structure and motion information. We skeletonize the human point cloud and apply a physics-based velocity correlation scheme to the resulting joint motions. The twenty actions are then recognized using a nearest-neighbors classifier that achieves good accuracy.

  17. Energy harvesting from mouse click of robot finger using piezoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Youngsu; Hong, Jin; Lee, Jaemin; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Keehoon

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from the mouse click motion using a piezoelectric energy transducer. Specifically, we use a robotic finger to realize repeatable mouse click motion. The robotic finger wears a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material as an energy transducer. We propose a model for the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in the finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. Experiments are performed to elucidate the effect of the load resistance and the mouse click motion on energy harvesting.

  18. Kinematic simulation and analysis of robot based on MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shuhua; Li, Jiong

    2018-03-01

    The history of industrial automation is characterized by quick update technology, however, without a doubt, the industrial robot is a kind of special equipment. With the help of MATLAB matrix and drawing capacity in the MATLAB environment each link coordinate system set up by using the d-h parameters method and equation of motion of the structure. Robotics, Toolbox programming Toolbox and GUIDE to the joint application is the analysis of inverse kinematics and path planning and simulation, preliminary solve the problem of college students the car mechanical arm positioning theory, so as to achieve the aim of reservation.

  19. Using advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, G.; Birchmore, F.; Biagtan Pacis, E.; Everett, H. R.

    2006-05-01

    The Technology Transfer project employs a spiral development process to enhance the functionality and autonomy of mobile robot systems in the Joint Robotics Program (JRP) Robotic Systems Pool by converging existing component technologies onto a transition platform for optimization. An example of this approach is the implementation of advanced computer vision algorithms on small mobile robots. We demonstrate the implementation and testing of the following two algorithms useful on mobile robots: 1) object classification using a boosted Cascade of classifiers trained with the Adaboost training algorithm, and 2) human presence detection from a moving platform. Object classification is performed with an Adaboost training system developed at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Computer Vision Lab. This classification algorithm has been used to successfully detect the license plates of automobiles in motion in real-time. While working towards a solution to increase the robustness of this system to perform generic object recognition, this paper demonstrates an extension to this application by detecting soda cans in a cluttered indoor environment. The human presence detection from a moving platform system uses a data fusion algorithm which combines results from a scanning laser and a thermal imager. The system is able to detect the presence of humans while both the humans and the robot are moving simultaneously. In both systems, the two aforementioned algorithms were implemented on embedded hardware and optimized for use in real-time. Test results are shown for a variety of environments.

  20. Use of 3D vision for fine robot motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokshin, Anatole; Litwin, Todd

    1989-01-01

    An integration of 3-D vision systems with robot manipulators will allow robots to operate in a poorly structured environment by visually locating targets and obstacles. However, by using computer vision for objects acquisition makes the problem of overall system calibration even more difficult. Indeed, in a CAD based manipulation a control architecture has to find an accurate mapping between the 3-D Euclidean work space and a robot configuration space (joint angles). If a stereo vision is involved, then one needs to map a pair of 2-D video images directly into the robot configuration space. Neural Network approach aside, a common solution to this problem is to calibrate vision and manipulator independently, and then tie them via common mapping into the task space. In other words, both vision and robot refer to some common Absolute Euclidean Coordinate Frame via their individual mappings. This approach has two major difficulties. First a vision system has to be calibrated over the total work space. And second, the absolute frame, which is usually quite arbitrary, has to be the same with a high degree of precision for both robot and vision subsystem calibrations. The use of computer vision to allow robust fine motion manipulation in a poorly structured world which is currently in progress is described along with the preliminary results and encountered problems.

  1. Miniature in vivo robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavin C; Buettner, Shelby L; Lehman, Amy C; Farritor, Shane M; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2009-05-01

    Robotic surgical systems, such as the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California), have revolutionized laparoscopic surgery but are limited by large size, increased costs, and limitations in imaging. Miniature in vivo robots are being developed that are inserted entirely into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopic and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgical (NOTES) procedures. In the future, miniature camera robots and microrobots should be able to provide a mobile viewing platform. This article discusses the current state of miniature robotics and novel robotic surgical platforms and the development of future robotic technology for general surgery and urology.

  2. Robotized production systems observed in modern plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saverina, A. N.

    1985-09-01

    Robots, robotized lines and sectors are no longer innovations in shops at automotive plants. The widespread robotization of automobile assembly operations is described in general terms. Robot use for machining operation is also discussed.

  3. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    PubMed

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  5. Robotic follow system and method

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  6. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-01-06

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  7. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  8. Robotic aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Duran, Cassidy; Kashef, Elika; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Bismuth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Surgical robotics was first utilized to facilitate neurosurgical biopsies in 1985, and it has since found application in orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and cardiothoracic, general, and vascular surgery. Surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment the physician's ability to treat patients by eliminating hand tremor and enabling dexterous operation inside the patient's body. Surgical robotics systems have enabled surgeons to treat otherwise untreatable conditions while also reducing morbidity and error rates, shortening operative times, reducing radiation exposure, and improving overall workflow. These capabilities have begun to be realized in two important realms of aortic vascular surgery, namely, flexible robotics for exclusion of complex aortic aneurysms using branched endografts, and robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic surgery for occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

  9. Robotics in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Allison; Steele, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, robotic surgery has developed from a futuristic dream to a real, widely used technology. Today, robotic platforms are used for a range of procedures and have added a new facet to the development and implementation of minimally invasive surgeries. The potential advantages are enormous, but the current progress is impeded by high costs and limited technology. However, recent advances in haptic feedback systems and single-port surgical techniques demonstrate a clear role for robotics and are likely to improve surgical outcomes. Although robotic surgeries have become the gold standard for a number of procedures, the research in colorectal surgery is not definitive and more work needs to be done to prove its safety and efficacy to both surgeons and patients. PMID:27746895

  10. Robotics and neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, Narendra; Pesek, Todd; Barnett, Gene H

    2003-12-01

    Ultimately, neurosurgery performed via a robotic interface will serve to improve the standard of a neurosurgeon's skills, thus making a good surgeon a better surgeon. In fact, computer and robotic instrumentation will become allies to the neurosurgeon through the use of these technologies in training, diagnostic, and surgical events. Nonetheless, these technologies are still in an early stage of development, and each device developed will entail its own set of challenges and limitations for use in clinical settings. The future operating room should be regarded as an integrated information system incorporating robotic surgical navigators and telecontrolled micromanipulators, with the capabilities of all principal neurosurgical concepts, sharing information, and under the control of a single person, the neurosurgeon. The eventual integration of robotic technology into mainstream clinical neurosurgery offers the promise of a future of safer, more accurate, and less invasive surgery that will result in improved patient outcome.

  11. Microprocessors, Robotics, and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores several recent technological developments which will have an impact on future technical education. These developments include the revolution in information services, robotics, job changes and eliminations, changing role of the worker, and quality of life. (CT)

  12. Tank-automotive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  13. Robotics in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Saurabh; Gautam, Gagan

    2015-01-01

    Robotic surgery was initially developed to overcome problems faced during conventional laparoscopic surgeries and to perform telesurgery at distant locations. It has now established itself as the epitome of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). It is one of the most significant advances in MIS in recent years and is considered by many as a revolutionary technology, capable of influencing the future of surgery. After its introduction to urology, robotic surgery has redefined the management of urological malignancies. It promises to make difficult urological surgeries easier, safer and more acceptable to both the surgeon and the patient. Robotic surgery is slowly, but surely establishing itself in India. In this article, we provide an overview of the advantages, disadvantages, current status, and future applications of robotic surgery for urologic cancers in the context of the Indian scenario.

  14. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-07-15

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

  15. Robotics and local fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerman, Philip J.

    2005-05-01

    Teams of robots or mixed teams of warfighters and robots on reconnaissance and other missions can benefit greatly from a local fusion station. A local fusion station is defined here as a small mobile processor with interfaces to enable the ingestion of multiple heterogeneous sensor data and information streams, including blue force tracking data. These data streams are fused and integrated with contextual information (terrain features, weather, maps, dynamic background features, etc.), and displayed or processed to provide real time situational awareness to the robot controller or to the robots themselves. These blue and red force fusion applications remove redundancies, lessen ambiguities, correlate, aggregate, and integrate sensor information with context such as high resolution terrain. Applications such as safety, team behavior, asset control, training, pattern analysis, etc. can be generated or enhanced by these fusion stations. This local fusion station should also enable the interaction between these local units and a global information world.

  16. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  17. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  18. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    Team Raptor members from the University of North Dakota College of Engineering and Mines check their robot, named "Marsbot," in the RoboPit at NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  19. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    College team members watch a live display of their mining robots during test runs in the mining arena at NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  20. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    Team members from West Virginia University prepare their mining robot for a test run in a giant sandbox before their scheduled mining run in the arena during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  1. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    Team members from the New York University Tandon School of Engineering transport their robot to the mining arena during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  2. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    College team members prepare to enter the robotic mining arena for a test run during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  3. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    Team members cheer during their robot miner's turn in the mining arena on the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  4. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    During the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, Al Feinberg, left, with Kennedy Space Center's Communication and Public Engagement, and Kurt Leucht, with Kennedy's Engineering Directorate, provide commentary as robot miners dig in the dirt in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  5. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    Team members from the University of Colorado at Boulder pause with their robot miner outside of the mining arena on the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  6. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    The robotic miner from Mississippi State University digs in the mining arena during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  7. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, team members from Temple University prepare their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  8. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, team members prepare their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  9. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    A robotic miner digs in the mining arena during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  10. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, judges watch as a robot miner digs in the dirt in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  11. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, team members from the University of Portland prepare their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  12. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-23

    Team members from Purdue University prepare their uniquely-designed robot miner in the RoboPit at NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  13. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    Members of a college team watch on the monitor as their robot miner digs in the mining arena on the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  14. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, a university team cleans their robot miner after its turn in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  15. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, team members from the University of Portland pause with their robot miner before its turn in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  16. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    Team members from New York University prepare their robot miner for its turn in the mining arena on the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  17. Robotic Mining Competition - Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-16

    On the third day of NASA's 9th Robotic Mining Competition, May 16, two robot miners dig in the dirt in the mining arena at NASA's Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. will use their mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Lunar soil, gravel and rocks, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's deep space missions.

  18. 2017 Robotic Mining Competition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-24

    Twin mining robots from the University of Iowa dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, during NASA's 8th Annual Robotic Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. More than 40 student teams from colleges and universities around the U.S. are using their uniquely-designed mining robots to dig in a supersized sandbox filled with BP-1, or simulated Martian soil, and participate in other competition requirements. The Robotic Mining Competition is a NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate project designed to encourage students in science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM fields. The project provides a competitive environment to foster innovative ideas and solutions that could be used on NASA's Journey to Mars.

  19. LANL robotics site overview

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on robotics applications at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The topics of the paper include the ROBOCAL project to assay all nuclear materials entering and leaving the process floor at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the isotope detector fabrication project, a plutonium dissolution robotic system, a safeguards waste automated measurement instrument, and DNA filter array construction. This report consists of overheads only.

  20. Robotics and general surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.