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Sample records for jojoba simmondsia chinensis

  1. Survey of the arthropods on jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, J.D.; Frommer, S.I.

    1980-02-01

    Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), a plant native to southwestern North America, has become of economic interest due to the various industrial uses of the unique liquid wax found in its seeds. In a survey of arthropods associated with sylvatic jojoba in California and Arizona, we collected 106 species of insects and mites. Of these, 50 are phytophagous, 29 are parasitic, and 18 are predaceous. Most of the phytophagous species are also known to feed on plants other than jojoba; several of these are notorious generalists. The bionomics of the 4 commonest phytophagous species, Asphondylia n. sp. (Cecidomyiidae), Epinotia kasloana (Olethreutidae), Periploca n. sp. (Walshiidae), and Incisitermes fruticavus (Kalotermitidae) are summarized briefly. None of the phytophagous species were observed to cause extensive damage to sylvatic jojoba. The numerous parasitic and predaceous arthropods probably account for the natural control of many of them. These relationships should be kept in mind when planning future commercial plantations of jojoba.

  2. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  3. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    SciTech Connect

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  4. [Chemical composition and content of antiphysiological factors of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) residual meal].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, F; Sanginés, G L; Torreblanca, R A; Grande, M L; Carranco, J M

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial plant with an interesting economic value by processing it for liquid wax production. By pressing of jojoba seeds, by-product which has been called "residual meal" has been obtained, and because of its high protein content, it would be a great interest to evaluate it as animal feedstuff. The results of this study showed the following. Both seed and residual meal were analyzed in regard to their chemical proximal composition: crude protein 14.03 and 25.24%; ether extract, 48.89 and 14.73%; crude fiber, 10.03 and 10.07%; ash, 1.59 and 4.72, and nitrogen-free extract, 25.46 and 45.25, the limiting amino acids being methionine, lysine and isoleucine. The trypsin inhibitor factors were 13.747 and 11,197 TIU/g; and hemagglutinins and saponins were negative for both samples. Cyanogenic glucosides were positive in both samples. It was concluded that jojoba residual meal is an alternative as an adequate feedstuff in those regions where jojoba is produced. Nevertheless, prior to consumption it must be treated so as to eliminate the toxic factors.

  5. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  6. Isolation and identification of molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine from jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Léon, Fabian; Van Boven, Maurits; de Witte, Peter; Busson, Roger; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2004-03-10

    A mixture of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been isolated by column chromatography from a jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) extract. The molecular species of both classes could be separated and isolated by C18 reversed phase HPLC. The two major compounds were identified by 1D and 2D (1)H and (13)C NMR, by MS, and by GC-MS as 1-oleoyl-3-lysophosphatidylcholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine. Eight other molecular species of LPC and four other molecular species of PC could be assigned by comparison of the mass spectra of the isolated compounds with the spectra of the two major compounds. Complete characterization of the individual molecular species was achieved by GC and GC-MS analysis of the fatty acyl composition from the isolated compounds. The PC/LPC proportion in the phospholipid mixture from three different samples is 1.6 +/- 0.1. LPC is considered to be an important bioactive compound; the results of this study suggest further research for the evaluation of potential health benefits of jojoba meal phospholipids.

  7. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  8. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  9. Jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis) in the diet of broiler breeder pullets: physiological and endocrinological effects.

    PubMed

    Arnouts, S; Buyse, J; Cokelaere, M M; Decuypere, E

    1993-09-01

    The present studies evaluated the ability of jojoba meal (JO) to inhibit feed intake of broiler breeder pullets to limit body weight gain as recommended by the breeder company. A first experiment, using graded levels of JO supplementation (0 to 12%), was conducted to establish appropriate JO supplementation. Adequate reduction of growth rate was obtained with 4% JO supplementation. However, notwithstanding their similar growth rate, 4% JO chickens consumed considerably more feed compared with feed-restricted chickens. The dose-dependent impairment of feed intake with increasing levels of JO supplementation was also associated with increased plasma growth hormone and thyroxine and with decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and triiodothyronine concentrations compared with 0% JO chickens. A second experiment included a pair-fed group. Notwithstanding their similar feed intake, 4% JO chickens gained significantly less body weight compared with their pair-fed counterparts. The 4% JO chickens also had a longer feed transit time per kilogram body weight. Again, circulating levels of the somatotrophic and thyrotrophic hormones were altered according to the dietary treatment. From all these observations, it was concluded that the growth retardation caused by JO supplementation was provoked by an inhibition of appetite linked with the simmondsin content of JO as well as by other antinutritional compounds affecting digestibility.

  10. Noncyanogenic Cyanoglucoside Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors from Simmondsia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Bayoumi, Soad A L; Al-Wahaibi, Lamya H; Li, Li; Sayed, Hanaa M; Abdelkader, Mohamed S A; El-Gamal, Ali A; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Jingyu; Zhang, Lixin; Liu, Xueting

    2016-04-15

    Two new noncyanogenic cyanoglucoside dimers, simmonosides A and B (1 and 2), were identified from the aqueous extract of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) leaves. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples of noncyanogenic cyanoglucoside dimers containing a unique four-membered ring, representing novel dimerization patterns at α,β-unsaturated carbons of a nitrile group in 1 and γ,δ-unsaturated carbons in 2. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit promising COX-2 inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 13.5 and 11.4 μM, respectively.

  11. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    PubMed

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  12. Identification of 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin and pinitol alpha-D-galactosides in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Van Boven, M; Leyssen, T; Busson, R; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2001-09-01

    The isolation and identification of two pinitol alpha-D-galactosides from jojoba meal are described. The products were isolated by a combination of preparative HPLC on silica gel and TLC on amino silica gel and were identified by MS, NMR spectroscopy, and chemical derivatization as 5-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol and 2-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. The same preparative HPLC method on silica gel allowed a new simmondsin derivative to be isolated and identified as 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin mainly by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  13. Molecular analysis of RAPD DNA based markers: their potential use for the detection of genetic variability in jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L Schneider).

    PubMed

    Amarger, V; Mercier, L

    1995-01-01

    We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for the discrimination between two jojoba clones at the genomic level. Among a set of 30 primers tested, a simple reproducible pattern with three distinct fragments for clone D and two distinct fragments for clone E was obtained with primer OPB08. Since RAPD products are the results of arbitrarily priming events and because a given primer can amplify a number of non-homologous sequences, we wondered whether or not RAPD bands, even those of similar size, were derived from different loci in the two clones. To answer this question, two complementary approaches were used: i) cloning and sequencing of the amplification products from clone E; and ii) complementary Southern analysis of RAPD gels using cloned or amplified fragments (directly recovered from agarose gels) as RFLP probes. The data reported here show that the RAPD reaction generates multiple amplified fragments. Some fragments, although resolved as a single band on agarose gels, contain different DNA species of the same size. Furthermore, it appears that the cloned RAPD products of known sequence that do not target repetitive DNA can be used as hybridization probes in RFLP to detect a polymorphism among individuals.

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Jojoba Oil Methyl Ester as Biodiesel and as Blend Components in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis L.) produces seeds that contain around 50 to 60 weight percent of inedible long-chain wax esters that are suitable as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. A Jojoba oil methyl ester (JME) was prepared in effort to evaluate an important fuel propertie...

  15. Salinity inhibits post transcriptional processing of chloroplast 16S rRNA in shoot cultures of jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis).

    PubMed

    Mizrahi-Aviv, Ela; Mills, David; Benzioni, Aliza; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2005-03-01

    Chloroplast metabolism is rapidly affected by salt stress. Photosynthesis is one of the first processes known to be affected by salinity. Here, we report that salinity inhibits chloroplast post-transcriptional RNA processing. A differentially expressed 680-bp cDNA, containing the 3' sequence of 16S rRNA, transcribed intergenic spacer, exon 1 and intron of tRNA(Ile), was isolated by differential display reverse transcriptase PCR from salt-grown jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis) shoot cultures. Northern blot analysis indicated that although most rRNA appears to be fully processed, partially processed chloroplast 16S rRNA accumulates in salt-grown cultures. Thus, salinity appears to decrease the processing of the rrn transcript. The possible effect of this decreased processing on physiological processes is, as yet, unknown.

  16. Oligomerization of jojoba oil in super-critical carbon dioxide (green solvent) for different applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, non-polluting, and relatively harmless to the environment. Approximately 80% of the global plant oil and fat production is from vegetable oil, whereas 20% is from animal origin (share decreasing). Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a perennial sh...

  17. Molecular characterization of the fatty alcohol oxidation pathway for wax-ester mobilization in germinated jojoba seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WE) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidised to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and ...

  18. Jojoba in dermatology: a succinct review.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, N; Yaghoobi, R; Ghassemi, M R; Kazerouni, A; Rafeie, E; Jamshydian, N

    2013-12-01

    Phytomedicine has been successfully used in dermatology horizon for thousands of years. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a long-lived, drought resistant, perennial plant with interesting economic value as it is processed for liquid wax production. The jojoba plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. The liquid wax is an important substrate for a variety of industrial applications and is used in skin treatment preparations. The oil from the jojoba plant is the main biological source of wax esters and has a multitude of potential applications. The review of literatures suggest that jojoba has anti-inflammatory effect and it can be used on a variety of skin conditions including skin infections, skin aging, as well as wound healing. Moreover, jojoba has been shown to play a role in cosmetics formulas such as sunscreens and moisturizers and also enhances the absorption of topical drugs. The intention of the review is to summarize the data regarding the uses of jojoba in dermatology for readers and researchers.

  19. Anti-Herpetic Activity of Callissia fragrans and Simmondsia chinensis Leaf Extracts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral activity of Callissia fragrans and Simnondsia chinensis aquatic and ethanol leaf extracts, as well as purified fractions from these extracts was studied against herpetic viruses in vitro. Ethanol extract of C. fragrans effectively inhibited the infection of Vero cells by HSV-1, HSV-2 in vitro, while its aquatic extract inhibited only VZV. Although S. chinensis leaf extract strongly inhibited all studied viruses, the selectivity index of this extract was very low, due to its high toxicity. However, the majority of its fractions showed low toxicity and higher antiviral activity and therefore very high SI. Strong interactions between virus and extracts were found. PMID:20700398

  20. An efficient and reproducible indirect shoot regeneration from female leaf explants of Simmondsia chinensis, a liquid-wax producing shrub.

    PubMed

    Bala, Raman; Beniwal, Vijay Singh; Laura, Jitender Singh

    2015-04-01

    Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a perennial, dioecious, drought resistant and multipurpose seed oil crop grown in arid and semi-arid conditions throughout the world. A reproducible and more efficient method for indirect shoot organogenesis from female leaf explants has been standardized. The leaf explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone produced the highest frequency of callus compared with 1.5 mg l(-1) IBA. Maximum proliferation of callus was observed on MS medium containing a combination of 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D with 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. For shoot differentiation, the proliferated callus was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (1.0-4.0 mg l(-1)) along with 40 mg l(-1) adenine sulphate as additive or in combination with α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Optimum shoots differentiated from callus was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) BAP and 0.2 mg l(-1) NAA. On this medium, 100 % cultures were responded with an average number of 14.44 shoots per explant with their mean length of 4.78 cm. In vitro rooting (6.22 roots per explant) was achieved on half strength MS medium containing 2 % sucrose with 3.0 mg l(-1) IBA and 300 mg l(-1) activated charcoal (AC). Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under control conditions and acclimatized under field conditions with 90 % success rate. The present protocol is highly efficient, reproducible and economically viable for large scale production of female plants.

  1. In vitro propagation of jojoba.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Berta E; Apóstolo, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.) is a nontraditional crop in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetative propagation can be achieved by layering, grafting, or rooting semi-hardwood cuttings, but the highest number of possible propagules is limited by the size of the plants and time of the year. Micropropagation is highly recommended strategy for obtaining jojoba elite clones. For culture initiation, single-node explants are cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with Gamborg's vitamins (B5), 11.1 μM BA (N(6)-benzyl-adenine), 0.5 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), and 1.4 μM GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Internodal and apical cuttings proliferate on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 4.4 μM BA. Rooting is achieved on MS medium (half strength mineral salt) amended with B5 vitamins and 14.7 μM IBA during 7 days and transferred to develop in auxin-free rooting medium. Plantlets are acclimatized using a graduated humidity regime on soil: peat: perlite (5:1:1) substrate. This micropagation protocol produces large numbers of uniform plants from selected genotypes of jojoba. PMID:23179687

  2. In vitro propagation of jojoba.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Berta E; Apóstolo, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schn.) is a nontraditional crop in arid and semi-arid areas. Vegetative propagation can be achieved by layering, grafting, or rooting semi-hardwood cuttings, but the highest number of possible propagules is limited by the size of the plants and time of the year. Micropropagation is highly recommended strategy for obtaining jojoba elite clones. For culture initiation, single-node explants are cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with Gamborg's vitamins (B5), 11.1 μM BA (N(6)-benzyl-adenine), 0.5 μM IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), and 1.4 μM GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Internodal and apical cuttings proliferate on MS medium containing B5 vitamins and 4.4 μM BA. Rooting is achieved on MS medium (half strength mineral salt) amended with B5 vitamins and 14.7 μM IBA during 7 days and transferred to develop in auxin-free rooting medium. Plantlets are acclimatized using a graduated humidity regime on soil: peat: perlite (5:1:1) substrate. This micropagation protocol produces large numbers of uniform plants from selected genotypes of jojoba.

  3. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    PubMed

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  4. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  5. Molecular characterization of the fatty alcohol oxidation pathway for wax-ester mobilization in germinated jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajangam, Alex S; Gidda, Satinder K; Craddock, Christian; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M; Eastmond, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WEs) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very-long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidized to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FADH) before they can be β-oxidized. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of genes for each of these two activities. Jojoba FAO and FADH are 52% and 68% identical to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FAO3 and ALDH3H1, respectively. The genes are expressed most strongly in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings following germination, but transcripts can also be detected in vegetative tissues. Proteomic analysis indicated that the FAO and FADH proteins can be detected on wax bodies, but they localized to the endoplasmic reticulum when they were expressed as amino-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Recombinant jojoba FAO and FADH proteins are active on very-long-chain fatty alcohol and fatty aldehyde substrates, respectively, and have biochemical properties consistent with those previously reported in jojoba cotyledons. Coexpression of jojoba FAO and FADH in Arabidopsis enhanced the in vivo rate of fatty alcohol oxidation more than 4-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that jojoba FAO and FADH constitute the very-long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation pathway that is likely to be necessary for efficient WE mobilization following seed germination.

  6. Molecular Characterization of the Fatty Alcohol Oxidation Pathway for Wax-Ester Mobilization in Germinated Jojoba Seeds1[W

    PubMed Central

    Rajangam, Alex S.; Gidda, Satinder K.; Craddock, Christian; Mullen, Robert T.; Dyer, John M.; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is the only plant species known to use liquid wax esters (WEs) as a primary seed storage reserve. Upon germination, WE hydrolysis releases very-long-chain fatty alcohols, which must be oxidized to fatty acids by the sequential action of a fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO) and a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FADH) before they can be β-oxidized. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of genes for each of these two activities. Jojoba FAO and FADH are 52% and 68% identical to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FAO3 and ALDH3H1, respectively. The genes are expressed most strongly in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings following germination, but transcripts can also be detected in vegetative tissues. Proteomic analysis indicated that the FAO and FADH proteins can be detected on wax bodies, but they localized to the endoplasmic reticulum when they were expressed as amino-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Recombinant jojoba FAO and FADH proteins are active on very-long-chain fatty alcohol and fatty aldehyde substrates, respectively, and have biochemical properties consistent with those previously reported in jojoba cotyledons. Coexpression of jojoba FAO and FADH in Arabidopsis enhanced the in vivo rate of fatty alcohol oxidation more than 4-fold. Taken together, our data suggest that jojoba FAO and FADH constitute the very-long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation pathway that is likely to be necessary for efficient WE mobilization following seed germination. PMID:23166353

  7. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  8. Aminopeptidase activity from germinated jojoba cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R; Storey, R

    1985-11-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline.The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg(2+) or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-beta-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence.

  9. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  10. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  11. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  13. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  14. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based radiometric assay for acyl-CoA:alcohol transacylase from jojoba.

    PubMed

    Garver, W S; Kemp, J D; Kuehn, G D

    1992-12-01

    Acyl-CoA:alcohol transacylase catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of storage liquid wax esters from acyl-CoA fatty acids and fatty alcohols in a limited number of microbes, algae, and Simmondsia chinensis Link (jojoba). An improved and automated method of enzyme assay for this catalyst from cotyledons of jojoba is described. The assay method uses reversed-phase C18 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate the labeled C30:1 liquid wax product, [14C]-dodecanyl-octadecenoate, from the unreacted substrate, [14C]octadecenoyl-CoA (oleyl-CoA), and other components produced from enzymes present in the crude homogenate of jojoba cotyledons, including [14C]-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid) and [14C]octadecenol (oleyol). Methods are also described for microscale chemical synthesis in one vessel of 14C-radiolabeled substrates and products for the transacylase. These labeled reagents are required to confirm the HPLC separations of reaction products. The radioactive components are quantitated using an on-line flow-through scintillation detector enabling sensitive and precise analysis of the reaction products.

  15. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  16. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms. PMID:16461689

  17. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  18. Combined low temperature-high light effects on gas exchange properties of jojoba leaves.

    PubMed

    Loreto, F; Bongi, G

    1989-12-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider) is an important crop in desert climates. A relatively high frequency of periods of chilling and high photon flux density (PFD) in this environment makes photoinhibition likely, resulting in a reduction of assimilation capacity in overwintering leaves. This could explain the low net photosynthesis found in shoots from the field (4-6 micromoles per square meter per second) when compared to greenhouse grown plants (12-15 micromoles per square meter per second). The responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to changes in absorbed PFD and in substomatal partial pressure of CO(2) were measured on jojoba leaves recovering from chilling temperature (4 degrees C) in high or low PFD. No measurable gas exchange was found immediately after chilling in either high or low PFD. For leaves chilled in low PFD, the original quantum yield was restored after 24 hours. The time course of recovery from chilling in high PFD was much longer. Quantum yield recovered to 60% of its original value in 72 hours but failed to recover fully after 1 week. Measurements of PSII chlorophyll fluorescence at 77 K showed that the reduced quantum yield was caused by photoinhibition. The ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence fell from a control level of 0.82 to 0.41 after the photoinhibitory treatment and recovery was slow. We also found a large increase in net assimilation rate and little closure of stomata as CO(2) was increased from ambient partial pressure of 35 to 85 pascals. For plants grown in full light, the increase in net assimilation rate was 100%. The photosynthetic response at high CO(2) concentration may constitute an ecological advantage of jojoba as a crop in the future.

  19. Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase and expression of its cDNA in high erucic acid rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Metz, J G; Pollard, M R; Anderson, L; Hayes, T R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes.

  20. Purification of a Jojoba Embryo Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase and Expression of Its cDNA in High Erucic Acid Rapeseed

    PubMed Central

    Metz, James G.; Pollard, Michael R.; Anderson, Lana; Hayes, Thomas R.; Lassner, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant produces esters of long-chain alcohols and fatty acids (waxes) as a seed lipid energy reserve. This is in contrast to the triglycerides found in seeds of other plants. We purified an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) from developing embryos and cloned the cDNA encoding the enzyme. Expression of a cDNA in Escherichia coli confers FAR activity upon those cells and results in the accumulation of fatty alcohols. The FAR sequence shows significant homology to an Arabidopsis protein of unknown function that is essential for pollen development. When the jojoba FAR cDNA is expressed in embryos of Brassica napus, long-chain alcohols can be detected in transmethylated seed oils. Resynthesis of the gene to reduce its A plus T content resulted in increased levels of alcohol production. In addition to free alcohols, novel wax esters were detected in the transgenic seed oils. In vitro assays revealed that B. napus embryos have an endogenous fatty acyl-coenzyme A: fatty alcohol acyl-transferase activity that could account for this wax synthesis. Thus, introduction of a single cDNA into B. napus results in a redirection of a portion of seed oil synthesis from triglycerides to waxes. PMID:10712526

  1. Photoaffinity Labeling of Developing Jojoba Seed Microsomal Membranes with a Photoreactive Analog of Acyl-Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) (Identification of a Putative Acyl-CoA:Fatty Alcohol Acyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Shockey, J. M.; Rajasekharan, R.; Kemp, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, Link) is the only plant known that synthesizes liquid wax. The final step in liquid wax biosynthesis is catalyzed by an integral membrane enzyme, fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):fatty alcohol acyltransferase, which transfers an acyl chain from acyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol to form the wax ester. To purify the acyltransferase, we have labeled the enzyme with a radioiodinated, photoreactive analog of acyl-CoA, 12-[N-(4-azidosalicyl)amino] dodecanoyl-CoA (ASD-CoA). This molecule acts as an inhibitor of acyltransferase activity in the dark and as an irreversible inhibitor upon exposure to ultraviolet light. Oleoyl-CoA protects enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Photolysis of microsomal membranes with labeled ASD-CoA resulted in strong labeling of two polypeptides of 57 and 52 kD. Increasing concentrations of oleoyl-CoA reduced the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide dramatically, whereas the labeling of the 52-kD polypeptide was much less responsive to oleoyl-CoA. Also, unlike the other polypeptide, the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide was enhanced considerably when photolyzed in the presence of dodecanol. These results suggest that a 57-kD polypeptide from jojoba microsomes may be the acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase. PMID:12228351

  2. Photoaffinity Labeling of Developing Jojoba Seed Microsomal Membranes with a Photoreactive Analog of Acyl-Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) (Identification of a Putative Acyl-CoA:Fatty Alcohol Acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Shockey, J. M.; Rajasekharan, R.; Kemp, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, Link) is the only plant known that synthesizes liquid wax. The final step in liquid wax biosynthesis is catalyzed by an integral membrane enzyme, fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):fatty alcohol acyltransferase, which transfers an acyl chain from acyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol to form the wax ester. To purify the acyltransferase, we have labeled the enzyme with a radioiodinated, photoreactive analog of acyl-CoA, 12-[N-(4-azidosalicyl)amino] dodecanoyl-CoA (ASD-CoA). This molecule acts as an inhibitor of acyltransferase activity in the dark and as an irreversible inhibitor upon exposure to ultraviolet light. Oleoyl-CoA protects enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Photolysis of microsomal membranes with labeled ASD-CoA resulted in strong labeling of two polypeptides of 57 and 52 kD. Increasing concentrations of oleoyl-CoA reduced the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide dramatically, whereas the labeling of the 52-kD polypeptide was much less responsive to oleoyl-CoA. Also, unlike the other polypeptide, the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide was enhanced considerably when photolyzed in the presence of dodecanol. These results suggest that a 57-kD polypeptide from jojoba microsomes may be the acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase.

  3. Genetic diversity analysis among male and female Jojoba genotypes employing gene targeted molecular markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers.

    PubMed

    Heikrujam, Monika; Kumar, Jatin; Agrawal, Veena

    2015-09-01

    To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype "MS F" (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes "Q104 F" (SCoT) and "82-18 F" (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, "32 M" (CBDP) and "MS M" (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while "58-5 M" (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups, one group consisting of

  4. Genetic diversity analysis among male and female Jojoba genotypes employing gene targeted molecular markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers

    PubMed Central

    Heikrujam, Monika; Kumar, Jatin; Agrawal, Veena

    2015-01-01

    To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype “MS F” (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes “Q104 F” (SCoT) and “82–18 F” (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, “32 M” (CBDP) and “MS M” (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while “58-5 M” (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups

  5. The struggles of jojoba

    SciTech Connect

    Shani, A.

    1995-05-01

    In the 1950s jojoba oil was suggested as a substitute for sperm whale oil because of the similarities between the oils. The suggestion was accepted by US authorities, who were looking for ways to increase income for Native Americans on reservations. Unfortunately, the plantations were established without any botanical or agronomic preparation and proved unprofitable. The poor seed yields--barely 300--400 kg/ha--are ultimately traceable to the dioecious nature of the plant: one-half of the seeds yield male shrubs, which do not produce seeds and develop more rapidly than the females, taking over most of the field unless removed in time. Even after early culling of male shrubs and replacement with female shrubs was instituted, it was impossible to improve seed yields beyond 400--600 kg/ha. Disappointment in this new agroindustrial crop was so strong that today there is no US Federal support for research and development in jojoba. Only in Israel was there a gradual increase in jojoba cultivation, culminating in a great leap forward in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It took some 20--25 years of selection and improvement to obtain female plants and lines producing 3,000--3,500 kg/ha of seeds, close to twice the current rate of yield in the US. This botanical work was accompanied by agronomical studies of drip irrigation and fertilization regimes as well as agrotechnical studies, which eventually led to the design of a special mechanical harvester. Based on an almond pick-up system, the harvester collects up to 90% of the seeds from the ground. Chemical studies were also carried out on the raw wax, its derivatives, and potential applications. Extensive research and development as well as full domestication of the jojoba plant occurred in this 25-year period. The paper gives facts about jojoba, its chemical aspects, by-products from jojoba, the current marketplace and future trends.

  6. Biodiesel from non-food alternative feed-stock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a potential feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production, Jojoba oil was extracted from Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) plant seeds that contained around 50-60 wt.%, which were explored as non-food alternative feedstocks. Interestingly, Jojoba oil has long-chain wax esters and is not a typical trigly...

  7. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of the salt-regulated jojoba ScRab cDNA encoding a small GTP-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi-Aviv, Ela; Mills, David; Benzioni, Aliza; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2002-10-01

    Salt stress results in a massive change in gene expression. An 837 bp cDNA designated ScRab was cloned from shoot cultures of the salt tolerant jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis). The cloned cDNA encodes a full length 200 amino acid long polypeptide that bears high homology to the Rab subfamily of small GTP binding proteins, particularly, the Rab5 subfamily. ScRab expression is reduced in shoots grown in the presence of salt compared to shoots from non-stressed cultures. His6-tagged ScRAB protein was expressed in E. coli, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein bound radiolabelled GTP. The unlabelled guanine nucleotides GTP, GTP gamma S and GDP but not ATP, CTP or UTP competed with GTP binding.

  9. Gas chromatographic analysis of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, M; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2000-09-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of simmondsins and simmondsin ferulates in jojoba meal, in detoxified jojoba meal, in jojoba meal extracts, and in animal food mixtures.

  10. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    PubMed

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  11. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  12. Study of jojoba oil aging by FTIR.

    PubMed

    Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Gaydou, V; Joachim, J; Kister, J

    2009-05-29

    As the jojoba oil was used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, dietetic food, animal feeding, lubrication, polishing and bio-diesel fields, it was important to study its aging at high temperature by oxidative process. In this work a FT-MIR methodology was developed for monitoring accelerate oxidative degradation of jojoba oils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate various samples according to their origin and obtaining process, and to differentiate oxidative conditions applied on oils. Two spectroscopic indices were calculated to report simply the oxidation phenomenon. Results were confirmed and deepened by multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square method (MCR-ALS). It allowed identifying chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment according to a SIMPLISMA pretreatment.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1160 - Jojoba oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jojoba oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1160 Jojoba oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide and spray tank adjuvant jojoba oil is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  14. Preparation of Jojoba Oil Ester Derivatives for Biodiesel Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of the increase in commodity vegetable oil prices, it is imperative that non-food oils should be considered as alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jojoba oil is unusual in that it is comprised of wax esters as opposed to the triglycerides found in typical vegetable oils. A...

  15. Biochemical characterization and substrate specificity of jojoba fatty acyl-CoA reductase and jojoba wax synthase.

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Wax esters are used in industry for production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The only natural source of wax esters is jojoba oil. A much wider variety of industrial wax esters-containing oils can be generated through genetic engineering. Biotechnological production of tailor-made wax esters requires, however, a detailed substrate specificity of fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) and wax synthases (WS), the two enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis. In this study we have successfully characterized the substrate specificity of jojoba FAR and jojoba WS. The genes encoding both enzymes were expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activity of tested enzymes was confirmed by in vivo studies and in vitro assays using microsomal preparations from transgenic yeast. Jojoba FAR exhibited the highest in vitro activity toward 18:0-CoA followed by 20:1-CoA and 22:1-CoA. The activity toward other 11 tested acyl-CoAs was low or undetectable as with 18:2-CoA and 18:3-CoA. In assays characterizing jojoba WS combinations of 17 fatty alcohols with 14 acyl-CoAs were tested. The enzyme displayed the highest activity toward 14:0-CoA and 16:0-CoA in combination with C16-C20 alcohols as well as toward C18 acyl-CoAs in combination with C12-C16 alcohols. 20:1-CoA was efficiently utilized in combination with most of the tested alcohols.

  16. Schisandra chinensis, Schisandra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Schisandra (Schizandra) or magnolia vine [Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, Schisandraceae] is a vine native to northeastern Asia. The deciduous vine is often found in shad...

  17. Cyclopentapeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Huang, Maobo; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yuqing; Zeng, Guangzhi; He, Wenjun; Tan, Ninghua

    2015-07-01

    A new cyclopentapeptide dianthin I (1), together with two known ones pseudostellarin A (2) and heterophyllin J (3), was isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis. The structure of 1 was elucidated as cyclo-(Gly(1)-L-Phe(2)-L-Pro(3)-L-Ser(4)-L-Phe(5)) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  18. New crops for arid lands. [Jojoba; Buffalo gourd; Bladderpod; Gumweed

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential of arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1160 - Jojoba oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... insecticide and spray tank adjuvant jojoba oil is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw agricultural commodities when applied at the rate of 1.0% or less of the final spray in...

  20. Environmental Consequences of an Industry Based on Harvesting the Wild Desert Shrub Jojoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kennith E.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the economic and agricultural issues surrounding the cultivation of desert plants, principally the jojoba, as a source of fuel. The article examines the environmental impacts of an industry based on arid-region cultivation of such plants. (RE)

  1. Evaluation of jojoba meal as a potential supplement in the diet of broiler breeder females during laying.

    PubMed

    Vermaut, S; De Coninck, K; Bruggeman, V; Onagbesan, O; Flo, G; Cokelaere, M; Decuypere, E

    1999-05-01

    1. This study was undertaken to investigate whether jojoba meal can be used as a food supplement during the laying period of chickens. 2. The size of eggs laid were smaller and the overall production rate was lower compared to control birds on food without jojoba meal supplementation. Furthermore, both ovary and oviduct weights were lower in jojoba fed birds. 3. This lowering of egg size and production rate was caused by factors present in jojoba which interfere with follicle growth, yolk deposition, progesterone production and the follicular maturation processes, resulting in the ovulation of smaller follicles and a lower ovulation rate.

  2. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  3. Reproductive performance of rats treated with defatted jojoba meal or simmondsin before or during gestation.

    PubMed

    Cokelaere, M; Daenens, P; Decuypere, E; Flo, G; Kühn, E; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S

    1998-01-01

    The effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance parameters of defatted jojoba meal and pure simmondsin, an extract from jojoba meal, were compared in female Wistar rats. Rats fed 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal (equivalent to 0.15% simmondsin) for 8 weeks before conception showed a similar reduction in food intake (about 20%) and a similar growth retardation compared with controls. Both treatments induced a reduction in the number of corpora lutea on gestation day 16: this effect could be ascribed to the lower food intake before conception because it was also observed in rats pair-fed to the treated ones. Rats given feed containing 0.15% simmondsin or 3% defatted jojoba meal during days 1-16 of gestation showed a similar reduction in food intake relative to controls. Foetal and placental weights were reduced, relative to controls, to a similar extent in both groups, and the reductions were slightly greater than in the corresponding pair-fed groups. We conclude that the effects on food intake, growth and reproductive performance that were seen after feeding rats defatted jojoba meal were due to the simmondsin content of the meal. The simmondsin induced reduction in food intake and probably also a relative protein shortage.

  4. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  5. Lactobacillus arizonensis sp. nov., isolated from jojoba meal.

    PubMed

    Swezey, J L; Nakamura, L K; Abbott, T P; Peterson, R E

    2000-09-01

    Five strains of simmondsin-degrading, lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented jojoba meal. These isolates were facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped organisms. They grew singly and in short chains, produced lactic acid but no gas from glucose, and did not exhibit catalase activity. Growth occurred at 15 and 45 degrees C. All strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, D-ribose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose. Some strains fermented L-(-)-arabinose and L-rhamnose. D-Xylose was not fermented and starch was not hydrolysed. The mean G+C content of the DNA was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA established that the isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA reassociation of 45% or less was obtained between the new isolates and the reference strains of species with G+C contents of about 48 mol%. The isolates were differentiated from other homofermentative Lactobacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence divergence, DNA relatedness, stereoisomerism of the lactic acid produced, growth temperature and carbohydrate fermentation. The data support the conclusion that these organisms represent strains of a new species, for which the name Lactobacillus arizonensis is proposed. The type strain of L. arizonensis is NRRL B-14768T (= DSM 13273T).

  6. New dicyclopeptides from Dianthus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Yu-Qing; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; He, Wen-Jun; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2014-05-01

    One new dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-N-methyl Glu-L-N-methyl Glu) (1), together with one new natural dicyclopeptide cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-methyl Glu ester) (2), and two known dicyclopeptides cyclo-(L-methyl Glu ester-L-Glu) (3), and cyclo-(L-Glu-L-Glu) (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus chinensis L. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods.

  7. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to…

  8. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system. PMID:16305174

  9. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  10. Unidentified Factors in Jojoba Meal Prevent Oviduct Development in Broiler Breeder Females.

    PubMed

    Vermaut; Onagbesan; Bruggeman; Verhoeven; Berghman; Flo; Cokelaere; Decuypere

    1998-01-19

    Supplementation of feed with jojoba meal, as a means for autonomous feed restriction, was successful in depressing feed intake and controlling body weight of broiler breeder pullets to the extent recommended by the breeder company. However, these broiler breeders never produced eggs. At the level of ovary, normal follicle development and maturation did occur. A considerable number of ovulations occurred which were not followed by oviposition. After ovulation, the ova could not be captured by the oviduct, because of the small size of the oviduct, resulting in "internal laying". The virtual absence of oviduct development cannot be explained presently but it must be due to some yet unidentified factor(s) in jojoba meal which prevent(s) the normal development of the oviduct. These factors may be acting by abnormally increasing plasma progesterone or triiodothyronin levels and/or directly by themselves interfering with oviduct development. The nature of these factors requires further investigations.

  11. Structural characterization of novel L-galactose-containing oligosaccharide subunits of jojoba seed xyloglucans.

    PubMed

    Hantus, S; Pauly, M; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P; York, W S

    1997-10-28

    Jojoba seed xyloglucan was shown to be a convenient source of biologically active xyloglucan oligosaccharides that contain both L- and D-galactosyl residues [E. Zablackis et al., Science, 272 (1996) 1808-1810]. Oligosaccharides were isolated by liquid chromatography of the mixture of oligosaccharides generated by treating jojoba seed xyloglucan with a beta-(1-->4)-endoglucanase. The purified oligosaccharides were reduced with NaBH4, converting them to oligoglycosyl alditol derivatives that were structurally characterized by a combination of mass spectrometry and 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. This analysis established that jojoba xyloglucan oligosaccharides contain the novel side-chain [alpha-L-Gal p-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xyl p-(1-->6)-], which is structurally homologous to the fucose-containing side-chain [alpha-L-Fucp-(1-->2)-beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xyl p-(1-->6)-] found in other biologically active xyloglucan oligosaccharides.

  12. Temporal patterns in Homalodisca spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) oviposition on southern California citrus and jojoba.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahaibi, Ali K; Morse, Joseph G

    2010-02-01

    A detailed study of the distribution of egg masses of Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) and H. liturata Ball was done across a 2-yr period (2001-2003) on six host plants in southern California (Marsh grapefruit, Lisbon lemon, Washington navel, Dancy tangerine, rough lemon, and jojoba in Riverside; jojoba in Desert Center). The majority of egg masses in Riverside belonged to H. vitripennis (84-100%), whereas in Desert Center, all Homalodisca egg masses were H. liturata. Oviposition in Riverside occurred in two discrete periods, a late winter and spring period (mid-February to late May), followed by a short interval of very low oviposition during most of June, and then a summer period (late June to late September) followed by a relatively long period of very low oviposition in fall and early winter (October to mid-February). Levels of oviposition during the late winter-spring period were similar to those during the summer despite an observed larger population of adults during the latter period. Moreover, egg clutch size for H. vitripennis was generally greater in spring than during summer and was generally higher than that for H. liturata, especially on Riverside jojoba. Larger egg clutch size was seen on grapefruit than on lemon, navel, and tangerine during summer. There appeared to be temporal host shifts in oviposition; most evident was the shift from relatively high rates of oviposition on lemon and tangerine in late winter-early spring to relatively higher rates of oviposition on grapefruit and navel during summer.

  13. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl este...

  14. New crops for arid lands. [Bladderpod, gumweed, guayule, jojoba, and buffalo gourd

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, C.W.

    1984-09-28

    Five plants are described that could be grown commercially under arid conditions. Once the most valuable component has been obtained from each plant (rubber from guayule; seed oil from jojoba, buffalo gourd, and bladderpod; and resin from gumweed), the remaining material holds potential for useful products as well as fuel. It is difficult to realize the full potential or arid land plants, however, because of the complexities of developing the necessary agricultural and industrial infrastructure simultaneously. To do so, multicompany efforts or cooperative efforts between government and the private sector will be required. 20 references.

  15. Polyamide microcapsules containing jojoba oil prepared by inter-facial polymerization.

    PubMed

    Persico, P; Carfagna, C; Danicher, L; Frere, Y

    2005-08-01

    Jojoba oil containing polyamide microcapsules having diameter of approximately 5 microm were prepared by inter-facial polycondensation by direct method (oil-in-water). Qualitative effects of both the formulation and the process parameters on microcapsules characteristics were investigated by SEM observations. Morphological analysis showed the dependence of the external membrane compactness on the chemical nature of the water-soluble polyamine and the oil-soluble acid polychloride: 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and terephthaloyl dichloride (TDC) were found to favour the production of smooth and dense surfaces. The use of ultrasonic irradiations during the dispersion step to get a further reduction of microcapsules size was also evaluated.

  16. Hemolytic activity of aqueous extract of Livistona chinensis fruits.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Kaur, G

    2008-02-01

    Livistona chinensis is used as an anticancer agent in traditional Chinese medicine. In vitro, the extracts of fruits and seeds of L. chinensis are known to possess antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Here we report the presence of phenolic compounds in L. chinensis fruits which show hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of phenolics is limited to an acid-precipitable fraction. Further, presence of proteins and lipids abrogated the hemolytic activity indicating astringent and membrane damaging activities as mechanisms of hemolysis. In conclusion, the hemolytic activity of phenolics in L. chinensis fruits is due to astringent and membrane damaging activities. PMID:17949877

  17. A new caffeate compound from Nardostachys chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-peng; Wang, Zhong-ping; Zheng, Hong-hong; Xu, Yan-tong; Zhu, Yani; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hong-hua

    2016-01-01

    A new caffeate compound, (E)-erythro-syringylglyceryl caffeate (1), was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis Batal., together with nine known phenolic compounds, including (+)-licarin A (2), naringenin 4', 7-dimethyl ether (3), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4), caraphenol A (5), Z-miyabenol C (6), protocatechuic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 2, 5 and 6 from Nardostachys genus.

  18. Triterpenoids from the roots of Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Peng; Pi, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2009-08-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the hepatoprotective AcOEt fraction of the roots of Actinidia chinensis, together with eight known 12-en-28-oic acids of oleanane or ursane type, 3-10. The two new compounds were elucidated as 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28,30-olide (1) and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28,30-olide (2), on the basis of spectroscopic (IR, NMR, and MS) analyses. The chemotaxonomic significances of some triterpenoids were also discussed.

  19. A new caffeate compound from Nardostachys chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-peng; Wang, Zhong-ping; Zheng, Hong-hong; Xu, Yan-tong; Zhu, Yani; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Hong-hua

    2016-01-01

    A new caffeate compound, (E)-erythro-syringylglyceryl caffeate (1), was isolated from the roots and rhizomes of Nardostachys chinensis Batal., together with nine known phenolic compounds, including (+)-licarin A (2), naringenin 4', 7-dimethyl ether (3), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4), caraphenol A (5), Z-miyabenol C (6), protocatechuic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), gallic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and physicochemical properties. Furthermore, this is the first report of compounds 2, 5 and 6 from Nardostachys genus. PMID:27405169

  20. Belamcandae chinensis rhizome--a review of phytochemistry and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Dorota; Matkowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma, is a rhizome of Iris domestica (syn. Belamcanda chinensis). Under the Chinese name she gan, it is extensively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and other East Asian phytotherapy systems. Recently, the monograph of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma has been included in the European Pharmacopeia. This review provides a comprehensive summary and systematizes the literature data on ethnobotanical uses, chemical constituents and biological effects of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma and its components. The main group of phytochemicals identified in the dried rhizoma are polyphenols such as isoflavones, xanthone glycosides, stilbenes, simple phenols and quinones. Another characteristic class of substances are triterpenopid iridals. The most typical traditional usage of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma is for healing respiratory diseases but most of pharmacological research so far has been focused on isoflavones and their estrogenic properties. In pharmacological research, it has been mainly considered as a source of tectorigenin--a phytoestrogene with therapeutic potential in hormone-dependent cancer. The most active isoflavones are tectoridin, tectorigenin and irigenin. The available literature indicates that Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma can prevent excessive oxidation of biomolecules based on various antioxidant mechanisms: transition metal ions reduction, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, free radicals scavenging. The other biological activities proven by a number of in vitro studies include: antimutagenic,anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, hypoglycemic. In conclusion, the knowledge about Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma has been growing rapidly in the recent years,but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of its bioactivity, therapeutic value, and roles played by each of the numerous phytochemicals.

  1. A jojoba beta-Ketoacyl-CoA synthase cDNA complements the canola fatty acid elongation mutation in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Lassner, M W; Lardizabal, K; Metz, J G

    1996-02-01

    beta-Ketoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (KCS) catalyzes the condensation of malonyl-CoA with long-chain acyl-CoA. This reaction is the initial step of the microsomal fatty acyl-CoA elongation pathway responsible for formation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, or fatty acids with chain lengths > 18 carbons). Manipulation of this pathway is significant for agriculture, because it is the basis of conversion of high erucic acid rapeseed into canola. High erucic acid rapeseed oil, used as an industrial feedstock, is rich in VLCFAs, whereas the edible oil extracted from canola is essentially devoid of VLCFAs. Here, we report the cloning of a cDNA from developing jojoba embryos involved in microsomal fatty acid elongation. The jojoba cDNA is homologous to the recently cloned Arabidopsis FATTY ACID ELONGATION1 (FAE1) gene that has been suggested to encode KCS. We characterize the jojoba enzyme and present biochemical data indicating that the jojoba cDNA does indeed encode KCS. Transformation of low erucic acid rapeseed with the jojoba cDNA restored KCS activity to developing embryos and altered the transgenic seed oil composition to contain high levels of VLCFAs. The data reveal the key role KCS plays in determining the chain lengths of fatty acids found in seed oils.

  2. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  3. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  4. Novel jojoba oil-based emulsion gel formulations for clotrimazole delivery.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Mostafa; Hady, Seham Abdel; Hammad, Mohammed; Mortada, Nahed

    2011-03-01

    Jojoba oil-based emulgel formulations were prepared using different concentrations of various gelling agents, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934 P and combination of both. The prepared emulgels were physically evaluated for their stability after temperature cycle test, centrifugation and long-term shelf storage for 1 year at room temperature. The in vitro release at 37 °C was studied to define the effect of the concentration and type of the gelling agent. A comparison between the formulated emulgels and two commercially available products, Candistan® and Canesten® creams, was carried out to judge their efficacy and stability. The prepared emulgels exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with little or no thixotropy. Four emulgels showed excellent stability as they demonstrated consistent rheological model under different treatment conditions. The in vitro release test showed variation in the extent of percent drug released. The drug release from the commercial preparation was lower than some of the prepared emulgel formulae. One formula containing combination of the two gelling agents (HPMC and Carbopol 934 P), showed excellent stability and high extent of clotrimazole release was microbiologically evaluated against Candida albicans using cylinder and plate method. The selected formula showed superior antimycotic activity compared to the commercially available formulation. Further in vivo animal studies for the obtained stable formula is recommended. PMID:21225383

  5. Novel jojoba oil-based emulsion gel formulations for clotrimazole delivery.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Mostafa; Hady, Seham Abdel; Hammad, Mohammed; Mortada, Nahed

    2011-03-01

    Jojoba oil-based emulgel formulations were prepared using different concentrations of various gelling agents, such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934 P and combination of both. The prepared emulgels were physically evaluated for their stability after temperature cycle test, centrifugation and long-term shelf storage for 1 year at room temperature. The in vitro release at 37 °C was studied to define the effect of the concentration and type of the gelling agent. A comparison between the formulated emulgels and two commercially available products, Candistan® and Canesten® creams, was carried out to judge their efficacy and stability. The prepared emulgels exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior with little or no thixotropy. Four emulgels showed excellent stability as they demonstrated consistent rheological model under different treatment conditions. The in vitro release test showed variation in the extent of percent drug released. The drug release from the commercial preparation was lower than some of the prepared emulgel formulae. One formula containing combination of the two gelling agents (HPMC and Carbopol 934 P), showed excellent stability and high extent of clotrimazole release was microbiologically evaluated against Candida albicans using cylinder and plate method. The selected formula showed superior antimycotic activity compared to the commercially available formulation. Further in vivo animal studies for the obtained stable formula is recommended.

  6. Diet of Chinese skink, Eumeces chinensis: is prey size important?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Yong

    2006-06-01

    The diet of the skink, Eumeces chinensis (Lacertilia: Scincidae), in Xiamen (Amoy), China was examined using stomach analysis during April and May, and its selection of prey size was tested by feeding trials. Insects (primarily Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera), gastropods and arachnids constituted most of the E. chinensis diet, but earthworms, leeches, crustaceans and fish were also consumed. In the field, male skinks ate more prey items that were 11-20 mm in length than other size classes. When presented with a choice of different-sized prey in the laboratory, male E. chinensis exhibited a strong preference for prey items 11-20 mm in length over other size classes. The relationship between prey size and handling time was exponential, indicating that there is an upper limit to the ability of E. chinensis to process prey. Mean energy intake for handling different-sized prey showed that selection of midsizeclass prey items would provide male E. chinensis with the most energy-efficient prey option. These results indicate that prey size selection in E. chinensis favors maximization of rates of energy intake, which is in agreement with optimal foraging theory. PMID:21395993

  7. Draft genome of the kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengxiong; Ding, Jian; Deng, Dejing; Tang, Wei; Sun, Honghe; Liu, Dongyuan; Zhang, Lei; Niu, Xiangli; Zhang, Xia; Meng, Meng; Yu, Jinde; Liu, Jia; Han, Yi; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Danfeng; Cao, Shuqing; Wei, Zhaojun; Cui, Yongliang; Xia, Yanhua; Zeng, Huaping; Bao, Kan; Lin, Lin; Min, Ya; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Min; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yunye; Sui, Yuan; Li, Guangwei; Sun, Hanju; Yue, Junyang; Sun, Jiaqi; Liu, Fangfang; Zhou, Liangqiang; Lei, Lin; Zheng, Xiaoqin; Liu, Ming; Huang, Long; Song, Jun; Xu, Chunhua; Li, Jiewei; Ye, Kaiyu; Zhong, Silin; Lu, Bao-Rong; He, Guanghua; Xiao, Fangming; Wang, Hui-Li; Zheng, Hongkun; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin C content. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. The assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 Mb and contains 39,040 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-genome duplication events. Both recent duplication events occurred after the divergence of kiwifruit from tomato and potato and have contributed to the neofunctionalization of genes involved in regulating important kiwifruit characteristics, such as fruit vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid metabolism. As the first sequenced species in the Ericales, the kiwifruit genome sequence provides a valuable resource not only for biological discovery and crop improvement but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the asterid lineage. PMID:24136039

  8. Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

    1993-09-01

    Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

  9. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals--epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant.

  10. Draft genome of the kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxiong; Ding, Jian; Deng, Dejing; Tang, Wei; Sun, Honghe; Liu, Dongyuan; Zhang, Lei; Niu, Xiangli; Zhang, Xia; Meng, Meng; Yu, Jinde; Liu, Jia; Han, Yi; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Danfeng; Cao, Shuqing; Wei, Zhaojun; Cui, Yongliang; Xia, Yanhua; Zeng, Huaping; Bao, Kan; Lin, Lin; Min, Ya; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Min; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Yunye; Sui, Yuan; Li, Guangwei; Sun, Hanju; Yue, Junyang; Sun, Jiaqi; Liu, Fangfang; Zhou, Liangqiang; Lei, Lin; Zheng, Xiaoqin; Liu, Ming; Huang, Long; Song, Jun; Xu, Chunhua; Li, Jiewei; Ye, Kaiyu; Zhong, Silin; Lu, Bao-Rong; He, Guanghua; Xiao, Fangming; Wang, Hui-Li; Zheng, Hongkun; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is an economically and nutritionally important fruit crop with remarkably high vitamin C content. Here we report the draft genome sequence of a heterozygous kiwifruit, assembled from ~140-fold next-generation sequencing data. The assembled genome has a total length of 616.1 Mb and contains 39,040 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that the kiwifruit has undergone an ancient hexaploidization event (γ) shared by core eudicots and two more recent whole-genome duplication events. Both recent duplication events occurred after the divergence of kiwifruit from tomato and potato and have contributed to the neofunctionalization of genes involved in regulating important kiwifruit characteristics, such as fruit vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid metabolism. As the first sequenced species in the Ericales, the kiwifruit genome sequence provides a valuable resource not only for biological discovery and crop improvement but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the asterid lineage.

  11. Belamcandae chinensis rhizome--a review of phytochemistry and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Dorota; Matkowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma, is a rhizome of Iris domestica (syn. Belamcanda chinensis). Under the Chinese name she gan, it is extensively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine and other East Asian phytotherapy systems. Recently, the monograph of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma has been included in the European Pharmacopeia. This review provides a comprehensive summary and systematizes the literature data on ethnobotanical uses, chemical constituents and biological effects of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma and its components. The main group of phytochemicals identified in the dried rhizoma are polyphenols such as isoflavones, xanthone glycosides, stilbenes, simple phenols and quinones. Another characteristic class of substances are triterpenopid iridals. The most typical traditional usage of Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma is for healing respiratory diseases but most of pharmacological research so far has been focused on isoflavones and their estrogenic properties. In pharmacological research, it has been mainly considered as a source of tectorigenin--a phytoestrogene with therapeutic potential in hormone-dependent cancer. The most active isoflavones are tectoridin, tectorigenin and irigenin. The available literature indicates that Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma can prevent excessive oxidation of biomolecules based on various antioxidant mechanisms: transition metal ions reduction, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, free radicals scavenging. The other biological activities proven by a number of in vitro studies include: antimutagenic,anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, hypoglycemic. In conclusion, the knowledge about Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma has been growing rapidly in the recent years,but there are still significant gaps in our understanding of its bioactivity, therapeutic value, and roles played by each of the numerous phytochemicals. PMID:26347953

  12. Inhibitory effects of Schisandra chinensis on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun-Peng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jin-Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Schisandra chinensis is a well-known traditional medicinal herb. Acetaminophen is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and overdose of acetaminophen was the most frequent cause of acute liver failure. However, no studies have demonstrated the role of Schisandra chinensis in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure to the best of our knowledge. In this study, an acute liver injury model was established in mice using acetaminophen. The protective role of Schisandra chinensis was detected by histopathological analysis, and measurement of the serum transaminase levels and hepatic Cyp activity levels in the mouse model. Subsequently, hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of the mouse model. The cell cycle, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species were determined using flow cytometry. Cell proliferation and 26S proteasome activity were determined using spectrophotometry. Schisandra chinensis was found to resist acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity by protecting mitochondria and lysosomes and inhibiting the phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. These findings provide a novel application of Schisandra chinensis against acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

  13. Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).

    PubMed Central

    Vukusic, P.; Wootton, R. J.; Sambles, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

  14. Transpiration rates of urban trees, Aesculus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Hua; Ren, Yufen; Gao, Fuyuan; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Transpiration patterns of Aesculus chinensis in relation to explanatory variables in the microclimatic, air quality, and biological phenomena categories were measured in Beijing, China using the thermal dissipation method. The highest transpiration rate measured as the sap flux density of the trees took place from 10:00 am to 13:00 pm in the summer and the lowest was found during nighttime in the winter. To sort out co-linearity, principal component analysis and variation and hierarchical partitioning methods were employed in data analyses. The evaporative demand index (EDI) consisting of air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and atmospheric ozone (O3), explained 68% and 80% of the hourly and daily variations of the tree transpiration, respectively. The independent and joint effects of EDI variables together with a three-variable joint effect exerted the greatest influences on the variance of transpiration rates. The independent effects of leaf area index and atmospheric O3 and their combined effect exhibited minor yet significant influences on tree transpiration rates.

  15. Biological and Phytopharmacological Descriptions of Litchi Chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Eswar Kumar; Putta, Swathi

    2016-01-01

    Plants remain a vital source of drugs and at present, much emphasis is given to nutraceuticals. Herbal medicines have been the basis of treatment and cure for various diseases and physiological conditions in the traditional methods practiced such as ayurveda and homeopathy. Litchi chinensis belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is well-known in the Indian traditional system for its traditional uses. The parts of the plant used are leaves, flowers, fruits, seed, pulp, and pericarp. All parts of the plant are rich sources of phytochemicals––epicatechin; procyanidin A2 and procyanidin B2; leucocyanidin; cyanidin glycoside, malvidin glycoside, and saponins; butylated hydroxytoluene; isolariciresinol; kaempferol; rutin; and stigmasterol. In the present review, we explore the lychee's description, traditional medicinal uses, and phytoconstituents, and investigate the pharmacological activities in various parts of the lychee to show its importance in ethanopharmacology. This is so that this review can serve as a ready-to-use material for further research on the plant. PMID:27041875

  16. [Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources.

  17. [Study on the active components of Nardostachys chinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lan, Zhou; Dong, Xiao-ping; Deng, Yun; Hu, Xiao-mei; Peng, Teng; Guo, Ping

    2007-01-01

    To study on the active components of Nardostachys chinensis Batal, the compounds were isolated and purified by chromatographic methods, with their structures identified by spectral analysis and comparison with published data. 9 compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as acaciin, ursolie acid, octacosanol, kanshone A, nardosinonediol, nardosinone, aristolen-9beta-ol, oleanolic acid and beta-sitosterol. Acaciin, ursolie acid and octacosanol were obtained from Nardostachys chinensis Batal. for the first time. Acaciin and ursolie are the active components of antihiotics and anti-inflammatory.

  18. [Cold resistance of Pistacia chinensis and Koelreuteria integrifoliola].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xian-Bin; Dong, Qian; Li, Xu-Xin; Lu, Bing-She

    2011-05-01

    Taking one-year-old dormant shoots of Pistacia chinensis and Koelreuteria integrifoliola as test materials and the shoots of northern indigenous tree species K. paniculata as the control, the changes of their membrane-lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzyme activity, and organic osmoregulatory substance content under artificial cooling were studied, aimed to analyze the differences of the three tree species in cold resistance. With the decrease of temperature, the ion leakage percentage of the three tree species increased in S-shape, and the SOD and POD activities decreased after an initial increase. The MDA, soluble protein, and soluble sugar contents of K. integrifoliola and K. paniculata under decreasing temperature decreased after an initial increase, while those of P. chinensis had an increasing trend. The semi-lethal temperature (LT50 ) of K. paniculata, K. integrifoliola, and P. chinensis calculated by the Logistic equation of ion leakage percentage was -27.2 degrees C, -23.7 degrees C, and -27.0 degrees C, respectively. Among the three tree species, K. paniculata had the strongest cold resistance, followed by P. chinensis, and K. integrifoliola. PMID:21812286

  19. SCAR marker for sex identification of Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Yang, X; Li, R

    2014-02-28

    Pistacia chinensis Bunge is a dioecious plant that originated in China, and its sex cannot be identified at the early stage of cultivation by only its appearance. Recent studies show that the seed of P. chinensis is an ideal feedstock for biofuel production. To guide the cultivation of this energy plant scientifically, a new method is urgently needed to identify the sex of P. chinensis seedlings. In this paper, from 21 random-amplified polymorphic DNA primers and 20 inter-simple sequence repeat primers, 2 sex-specific primers (S1 and S281) were identified that can amplify female-specific fragments of 473 and 1242 bp, respectively. However, only 1 fragment (FS281) was converted successfully into a sequence-characterized amplified region marker using S281-1 and S281-2 primers. When the annealing temperature was 64°C, a 636-bp specific sequence appeared in all female specimens but was absent in all the male samples tested. This study will offer some clues to sex selection in P. chinensis plantations.

  20. The biosynthetic products of chinese insect medicine, Aspongopus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Jiang, Hai-Long; Yang, Jun-Li; Crews, Phillip; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A new oxazole (1) was obtained from chinese insect medicine Aspongopus chinensis, along with three known N-acetyldopamine derivatives (2–4). Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. The possible biosynthetic pathways of the isolated compounds are discussed. Cytotoxicities of those compounds against 10 selected cancer cells were measured in vitro. PMID:22430116

  1. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: transcriptome analysis of Arma chinensis fed on artificial diet and Chinese oak silk moth Antheraea pernyi pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The insect predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou), is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Life history parameters were not as good for A. chinensis when reared on an artificial diet compared to Chinese oak silk moth p...

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese oriental vole Eothenomys chinensis (Rodentia: Arvicolinae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengzhong; Hao, Haibang; Liu, Shaoying; Liu, Yang; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2012-04-01

    The Chinese oriental vole (Eothenomys chinensis) belongs to subfamily Arvicolinae, which is endemic to the mountains in southwest China. E. chinensis and other Arvicoline species display a number of features that make them ideal for evolutionary studies of speciation and the role of Quaternary glacial cycles on diversification. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of E. chinensis was sequenced. It was determined to be 16,362 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of E. chinensis and other 19 rodents were used for phylogenetic analyses. Trees constructed using three different phylogenetic methods (Bayesian, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood) showed a similar topology demonstrating that E. chinensis was clustered in subfamily arvicolinae--formed a solid monophyletic group being sister to the subfamily Cricetinae. And the trees also suggested that E. chinensis is a sister to the genus Microtus and Proedromys.

  3. Hynobiidae origin in middle Cretaceous corroborated by the new mitochondrial genome of Hynobius chinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Da; Xu, Tianjun; Sun, Yuena

    2015-08-01

    Hynobius chinensis was first described by Günther in the nineteenth century. At present, the origins of the extinct Hynobius chinensis on the Zhoushan Island (Hynobius chinensis-ZI) remain a mystery. It is the only species of family Hynobiidae on the Zhoushan Island. However, there is very little empirical evidence regarding Hynobius chinensis-ZI phylogenetic relationship, and when or how did its ancestors colonized the island. Here, we used mitochondrial genome data to recover the phylogeny of family Hynobiidae. Results suggested that the origin of Hynobiidae was most likely in Middle Cretaceous (~112.9 Mya), and some Hynobius species of Taiwan and Japan diverged earlier than that of the mainland of China. Hynobius chinensis-ZI diverged from its closest living relative (Hynobius yiwuensis) around 6.5 Mya, and Hynobius chinensis-ZI was isolated on Zhoushan Island since the postglacial transgression in Holocene period.

  4. Hynobiidae origin in middle Cretaceous corroborated by the new mitochondrial genome of Hynobius chinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Da; Xu, Tianjun; Sun, Yuena

    2015-08-01

    Hynobius chinensis was first described by Günther in the nineteenth century. At present, the origins of the extinct Hynobius chinensis on the Zhoushan Island (Hynobius chinensis-ZI) remain a mystery. It is the only species of family Hynobiidae on the Zhoushan Island. However, there is very little empirical evidence regarding Hynobius chinensis-ZI phylogenetic relationship, and when or how did its ancestors colonized the island. Here, we used mitochondrial genome data to recover the phylogeny of family Hynobiidae. Results suggested that the origin of Hynobiidae was most likely in Middle Cretaceous (~112.9 Mya), and some Hynobius species of Taiwan and Japan diverged earlier than that of the mainland of China. Hynobius chinensis-ZI diverged from its closest living relative (Hynobius yiwuensis) around 6.5 Mya, and Hynobius chinensis-ZI was isolated on Zhoushan Island since the postglacial transgression in Holocene period. PMID:25813862

  5. Polyprenols from the needles of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhui; Wang, Yanbin; Qian, Hua; Zhao, Yunpeng; Liu, Bentong; Fu, Chengxin

    2012-07-01

    Polyprenols with various pharmacological activities were first isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei, which is native to China, and were identified by a high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), (13)C NMR and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The taxus polyprenols (TPs) had two maxima of polyprenol-17 and polyprenol-21 and different from polyprenols distributed in other plant species. A reversed-phase HPLC method with a simple gradient elution was established, and the proposed combined peak area method for the quantification of polyprenols was verified. The analysis indicated that TPs were present in the old needles at levels as high as 3% and that T. chinensis var. mairei could be an alternative botanical source for the extraction of polyprenols.

  6. Distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin in Fenneropenaeus chinensis larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao; Chang, Zhiqiang

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the distribution and elimination of Norfloxacin (NFLX) in Fenneropenaeus chinensis ovary and egg and newly hatched larvae. Mature parental shrimp were exposed to 4 or 10 mg L-1 NFLX for 2 or 5 d. Ovary and eggs of the shrimp were sampled after spawning in order to detect NFLX residue using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that NFLX residue accumulated in F. chinensis eggs after the parental exposure, with the highest residue detected in ovary. To examine the fate of NFLX residue in larvae, we further determined the concentration of NFLX residue in F. chinensis eggs and larvae at 4 different developmental stages after 24-h exposure. From the newly metamorphosed larvae (0 h post-metamorphosis, h.p.m), samples were taken at different time intervals to 72 h.p.m. HPLC assay showed that the concentrations of NFLX residue in zoea exposed to 4 and 10 mg L-1 NFLX were the highest at 1.5 h, i.e., 0.332 and 0.454 μg g-1, respectively. At the two NFLX exposure levels, the elimination time of half NFLX (half life) in nauplius was 45.36 and 49.85 h, respectively, followed by that in zoea (31.68 and 33.13 h), mysis larvae (42.24 and 47.28 h) and postlarvae (24.48 and 30.96 h). Both NFLX exposure levels had a germicidal effect. The distribution and elimination of NFLX residue in F. chinensis tissue, eggs and larvae correlated well with the drug exposure level. The disappearance of NFLX residue coincided with the larval growth, and the half-life of NFLX decreased with the larval development.

  7. Distinct distribution of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, and a new final host record for D. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Maiko; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    This study dealt with the morphological and molecular identification of Dicrocoelium flukes obtained from Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) in the twelve districts of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Dicrocoelium dendriticum and D. chinensis were exclusively detected in the western, and coastal and eastern areas of Iwate Prefecture, respectively. This geographically distinct occurrence of the two Dicrocoelium species would be associated with the distribution of the final hosts, sika deer for D. chinensis and Japanese serow for D. dendriticum. This study also reports that Capricornis crispus is a new final host of D. chinensis. PMID:24998394

  8. Meiotic chromosome pairing behaviour of natural tetraploids and induced autotetraploids of Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Datson, Paul M; Manako, Kelvina I; Murray, Brian G

    2014-03-01

    Non-preferential chromosome pairing was identified in tetraploid Actinidia chinensis and a higher mean multivalent frequency in pollen mother cells was found in colchine-induced tetraploids of A. chinensis compared with naturally occurring tetraploids. Diploid and tetraploid Actinidia chinensis are used for the development of kiwifruit cultivars. Diploid germplasm can be exploited in a tetraploid breeding programme via unreduced (2n) gametes and chemical-induced chromosome doubling of diploid cultivars and selections. Meiotic chromosome behaviour in diploid A. chinensis 'Hort16A' and colchicine-induced tetraploids from 'Hort16A' was analysed and compared with that in a diploid male and tetraploid males of A. chinensis raised from seeds sourced from the wild in China. Both naturally occurring and induced tetraploids formed multivalents, but colchicine-induced tetraploids showed a higher mean multivalent frequency in the pollen mother cells. Lagging chromosomes at anaphase I and II were observed at low frequencies in the colchicine-induced tetraploids. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in tetraploid A. chinensis, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of crosses between A. chinensis (4x) and A. arguta (4x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the tetraploid A. chinensis parent. PMID:24306317

  9. Toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhongxiu; Li, Jian; Li, Jitao; Tan, Zhijun; Ren, Hai; Zhao, Fazhen

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the inductive effect of Alexandrium tamarense, a toxic dinoflagellate producing paralytic shellfish poison, on oxidative stress and apoptosis in hepatopancreas of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The individuals of F. chinensis were exposed to 200 and 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense with their superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and caspase gene ( FcCasp) expression in hepatopancreas determined at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. In addition, apoptosis in hepatopancreas of F. chinensis at 96 h after exposure was determined through terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The hepatopancreatic SOD and GST activities of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense showed a bell-shaped response to exposure time. The hepatopancreatic MDA concentration of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense increased gradually from 48 to 96 h, and such a trend corresponded to the decrease of GST activity. The hepatopancreatic FcCasp transcript abundance of F. chinensis exposed to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense was positively and linearly correlated to MDA concentration. Results of TUNEL assay showed that exposure to 1000 cells mL-1 of A. tamarense induced apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of F. chinensis. Our study revealed that A. tamarense exposure influenced the antioxidative status of F. chinensis and caused lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in the hepatopancreas of shrimp.

  10. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  11. Inhibitory Activities of Palmatine from Coptis chinensis Against Helicobactor pylori and Gastric Damage.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joohee; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Choon-Sik

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important factor of gastric disease in clinical practice. Moreover, smoking, stress and a poor diet may be additive factors for gastric damage. With these factors, increasing infection of H. pylori triggers gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. To develop a new protective agent, we are concerned with plant-derived extract. The extract of Coptis chinensis (C. chinensis) and its constituents were investigated to assess their protective activities against gastric damage. The C. chinensis extract showed a scavenging effect against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, inhibition of H. pylori colonization and antiulcerogenic activities in rat. In particular, palmatine derived from C. chinensis was found to be the novel protective agent. It is better than the C. chinensis extract, berberine, a well-known constituent of C. chinensis. We suggest that palmatine from the root cortex of C. chinensis may be a good candidate for the development of new pharmaceuticals to prevent gastric disease.

  12. Distribution of Two bioactive compounds in flowers of Trollius chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming; An, Yan-Nan; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi; Sun, Zhen-Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive procedure was established, which combined a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the simultaneous quantification of 2″-O-β-L-galactopyranosylorientin (OGA) and veratric acid and a gravimetric analysis for the determination of the mass fraction of the floral parts (calyx, corolla, stalk, stamens and pistils and ovary) of Trollius chinensis, to investigate the distribution and identify the enriched floral part(s) of these two compounds in the flowers. The calculated mean distributions of OGA in calyx, corolla, stamens and pistils, stalk and ovary were 83.62, 7.76, 4.35, 2.92 and 1.35%, respectively, whereas those of veratric acid in the corresponding floral parts were 46.41, 9.01, 18.41, 4.11 and 22.06%, respectively, indicating the uneven and noncorresponding distribution of these two compounds. This study extends the application of the HPLC assay and favors the production of OGA and veratric acid from the flowers of T. chinensis in addition to the benefits of breeding, cultivation and utilization of these flowers.

  13. Absorption and translocation of nitrogen in rhizomes of Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongsheng; Liu, Huajie; Song, Youhong

    2011-03-15

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant species in the Inner Mongolia steppe, northern China. Plant growth in northern China grassland is often limited by low soil nitrogen availability. The objective of this study is to investigate whether rhizomes of Leymus chinensis are involved in the contribution of N uptake. The N concentration, (15)N concentration and (15)N proportion in roots, rhizomes and shoots after 48 h exposure of roots (L(root)) and rhizomes (L(rhizo)) separately and roots and rhizomes together (L(r+r)) to 0.1 mM (15)NH (4)(15)NO(3) solution were measured using root-splitting equipment and stable isotope ((15)N) techniques, respectively. The N content and dry mass were not affected by the labeling treatment. In contrast, the (15)N concentration in shoots, rhizomes and roots was significantly increased by the labeling in rhizomes, indicating that the inorganic nitrogen was absorbed via rhizomes from the solution and can be transported to other tissues, with preference to shoots rather than roots. Meanwhile, the absolute N absorption and translocation among compartments were also calculated. The N absorption via rhizomes was much smaller than via roots; however, the uptake efficiency per surface unit via rhizomes was greater than via roots. The capacity and high efficiency to absorb N nutrient via rhizomes enable plants to use transient nutrient supplies in the top soil surface. PMID:21290454

  14. Costs of mating and egg production in female Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Shin-Ichi; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2003-09-01

    Costs of reproduction include the costs of mating and egg production. Specific techniques such as irradiation or genetic mutation have been used to divide the expense into costs of mating and egg production in previous studies. We tried to divide the costs in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), which needs some kinds of bean as an oviposition substrate. Mated females that were not allowed to lay eggs had a shorter life span than virgin females, but they had a longer life span than mated females that were allowed to lay eggs. The results showed two independent significant costs, mating and egg production, on the life span in C. chinensis. Costs of mating, however, include the costs of sexual harassment by males and copulation itself, and we need further studies to divide the costs. The present method for dividing the cost of reproduction into costs of mating and egg production can be applied to a broad taxonomic range of insect species, and thus it will be a useful model system for inter-specific comparisons of costs of mating and egg production.

  15. Nutrigenomics in Arma chinensis: Transcriptome Analysis of Arma chinensis Fed on Artificial Diet and Chinese Oak Silk Moth Antheraea pernyi Pupae

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Deyu; Coudron, Thomas A.; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Mengqing; Chen, Hongyin

    2013-01-01

    Background The insect predator, Arma chinensis, is capable of effectively controlling many pests, such as Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Our previous study demonstrated several life history parameters were diminished for A. chinensis reared on an artificial diet compared to a natural food source like the Chinese oak silk moth pupae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis health are unclear. So we utilized transcriptome information to better understand the impact of the artificial diet on A. chinensis at the molecular level. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 4.79 and 4.70 Gb of the transcriptome from pupae-fed and artificial diet-fed A. chinensis libraries, respectively, and a de novo transcriptome assembly was performed (Trinity short read assembler). This resulted in 112,029 and 98,724 contigs, clustered into 54,083 and 54,169 unigenes for pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis, respectively. Unigenes from each sample’s assembly underwent sequence splicing and redundancy removal to acquire non-redundant unigenes. We obtained 55,189 unigenes of A. chinensis, including 12,046 distinct clusters and 43,143 distinct singletons. Unigene sequences were aligned by BLASTx to nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG (E-value <10−5), and further aligned by BLASTn to nt (E-value <10−5), retrieving proteins of highest sequence similarity with the given unigenes along with their protein functional annotations. Totally, 22,964, 7,898, 18,069, 15,416, 8,066 and 5,341 unigenes were annotated in nr, nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO, respectively. We compared gene expression variations and found thousands of genes were differentially expressed between pupae-fed and diet-fed A. chinensis. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides abundant genomic data and offers comprehensive sequence information for studying A. chinensis. Additionally, the physiological roles of the

  16. Rapid multiplication of wedelia chinensis (osbeck) merr - a valuable medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Balu, S

    1995-07-01

    Stem-cuttings of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr. Were treated with different concentrations of IBA and GA. The results indicate that 100 ppm IBA treatment greatly enhances root production and quick establishment of the stem-cuttings. PMID:22556724

  17. Growth inhibition and apoptotic effects of total flavonoids from Trollius chinensis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhua; Tian, Qingqing; An, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Dried flowers of Trollius chinensis have long been used as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to reduce the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The present study further investigated the influence of T. chinensis flavonoids on the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells and observed clear inhibitory effects within the concentration range of 0.0991–1.5856 mg/ml. Apoptosis was triggered by T. chinensis flavonoids treatment that was evaluated by differential interference contrast software, the Hoechst 33258 method, scanning electron microscopy, hematoxylin/eosin staining and laser confocal light microscopy. Cells treated with T. chinensis flavonoids selectively reduced bcl-2 and NF-κB expression and increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicating that the inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred through activation of a mitochondrial pathway. Taken together, the results confirmed the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to inhibit cell proliferation.

  18. [Effect of red and blue spectrum on photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Kun

    2008-07-01

    Photosynthesis physiological characteristics of two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were studied under different red and blue light excitation by LED red and blue lamp-house. Photosynthesis did not carry on under red and blue light of 50 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). When red and blue light intensity was increased, photosynthesis rate, stoma limit value and transpiration rate of the two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis were all increased. But photosynthesis rate stopped increasing under red and blue light of 1 150 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis and of 907 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis, which is known as light saturation. And the effect of blue light on photosynthesis became weaker than red light under higher light intensity. Increasing light intensity can promote plant photosynthesis rate in the range of low light intensity. But when light intensity reaches light saturation, photosynthesis rate does not increases but decreases. Because though light quantum numbers is increasing, the numbers of coloring mater does not change and is saturated. On the other hand, when the light intensity is of light saturation, the stoma limit value was increased and the transpiration rate was decreased in order to reduce water waste. When light intensity reaches the value that plant can bear, the plant will automatically close stoma in order to decrease transpiration and to save water. Plant balances every physiological index and makes sure that physiology damage is the least and production is the greatest. Although grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis has lower stoma limit and higher water waste, it also has higher photosynthesis rate than yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis. And the photosynthesis capability and physiology adaptation of grey-green ecotype Leymus chinensis is greater than that of yellow-green ecotype Leymus chinensis.

  19. [Bacteria community in different aged Coptis chinensis planting soil revealed by PCR-DGGE analysis].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yuan; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Han-jun; Song, San-duo; Yu, Xiu-mei; Dong, Zhen-huan; Tang, Xue; Zhong, Yu-zhou

    2015-08-01

    In order to reveal the cause of disease occurred in the process of Coptis chinensis growth, this paper studied the bacterial species diversity index of different aged rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil planting normal or sick C. chinensis by using PCR-DGGE technique. The representative DGGE bands were chosen to be cloned, and sequenced, the phylogeny were constructed. The results showed that the bacterial communities were very different between the normal and diseased soil samples of C. chinensis, and the diversity index (H) of diseased soil samples were higher than that of normal soil samples. Sequencing analysis of representative cloned DGGE bands showed that the unculturable bacteria were the dominant groups, and bacteria belonged to genus Bacillus, Acidovorax, Acinetobacter, uncultured Kluyvera, and uncultured Comamonas were also existing, but the reported plant pathogenic bacteria were not found in the C. chinensis planting soil. The density and brightness of clone band d in diseased soil samples was higher than that in normal soil sample, and sequencing analysis showed that it belonged to genus Acidovorax. Obviously, during the process of C. chinensis growth, the rhizospheric bacteria population changed, and the quantity of bacteria belong Acidovorax increased, which probably resulted in the disease occurred during C. chinensis growth.

  20. Antibacterial activity in Actinidia chinensis, Feijoa sellowiana and Aberia caffra.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Vuotto, M L; Violante, U; Sorbo, S; Martone, G; Castaldo-Cobianchi, R

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of extracts from various parts of plants (leaves, fruits and stems) was studied in Actinidia chinensis, Feijoa sellowiana and Aberia caffra. These are tropical plants used for food. The fruits (subdivided into skin, pulp and seeds), leaves and stems were separately extracted and tested, in triplicate, against eight Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. All the extracts, except from the leaves of A. caffra, showed activity against all the strains employed. Inhibition of bacterial growth was tested against Na-cefotaxime, benzyl penicillin and tetracycline. The antibiotic activity of fruit resides essentially in the seeds. The antibacterial activity of extracts from vegetative plant parts was generally less active that from fruit extracts. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for all the extracts and showed exclusively bacteriostatic activity.

  1. [Network analysis of ethanol precipitation process for Schisandrae chinensis fructus].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Zhu, Jie-Qiang; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Kang, Li-Yuan; Li, Zheng

    2014-09-01

    A set of central composite design experiments were designed by using four factors which were ethanol amount, ethanol concentration, refrigeration temperature and refrigeration time. The relation between these factors with the target variables of the retention rate of schizandrol A, the soluble solids content, the removal rate of fructose and the removal rate of glucose were analyzed with Bayesian networks, and ethanol amount and ethanol concentration were found as the critical process parameters. Then a network model was built with 2 inputs and 4 outputs using back propagation artificial neural networks which was optimized by genetic algorithms. The R2 and MSE from the training set were 0.983 8 and 0.001 1. The R2 and MSE from the test set were 0.975 9 and 0.001 8. The results showed that network analysis method could be used for modeling of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus ethanol precipitation process and identify critical operating parameters. PMID:25522613

  2. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiachao; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Xin

    2005-07-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15 folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55°C and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+, EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  3. Chromosome behavior of heat shock induced triploid in Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2003-09-01

    Triploidy was induced in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by 30±0.5°C heat shock treatment (initiated at 20 min after fertilization) for 10 min to inhibit the release of PB2 at 18.0°C. The highest triploid rate obtained was 84.5% in nauplius stage. The effect of heat shock treatment on meiosis and cleavage of eggs was investigated in this work aimed to establish efficient procedures for triploid induction and to gain understanding of the mechanism of triploid production. Three pronuclei that could be observed in the treated eggs under fluorescence microscope developed into triploid embryos. Some abnormal chromosome behavior was observed in heat shocked eggs.

  4. [Quality characteristic comparison of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from different place].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-fena; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Dina-kun; Tan, Pena; Zhang, Hai-zhu; Li, Bao-cai; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The contents of schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, schisandrin A , schisandrin B, schisandrin C in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF) were determined simultaneously by HPLC. Collect 100-seed weight, color, pulp content, longitude and latitude of SCF of different batches were collected. SIMCA-P and SPSS were applied to make PLS-DA analysis of 24 batches of SCF and correlation analysis of relevant parameters. According to the 13 parameters, SCF from three different places of origin could be distinguished effectively. It was found that the content of chemical component of SCF increased with latitude and longitude first, and then decrease. The results provide some theoretical basis for study of SCF genuineness and traditional method of identifying just from experience. PMID:26790284

  5. Purification, characterization and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharide from Cipangopaludina chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qingping; Jiao, Yunpeng; Zhao, Xirong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qianghua; Jiang, Changxing

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we investigated the purification, preliminary characterization and immunostimulatory activity in vivo of polysaccharide from Cipangopaludina chinensis (CCPS). Firstly, crude CCPS was prepared by hot water extraction. And the crude CCPS was sequentially purified by chromatography of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, resulting in two purified fractions of CCPS-1 and CCPS-2. We found the two fractions were homogeneous heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of rhamnose and glucose with the average molecular weight of 226 and 235 kDa, respectively. CCPS-2 was quite different from CCPS-1. It had much higher content of uronic acid and sulfuric radical. For immunostimulatory activity in vivo, crude CCPS could significantly increase the thymus and spleen indices, enhance the macrophage function, and increase the level of serum hemolysin in cyclophosphamide-treated mice, suggesting CCPS had a potent immunostimulatory activity and could be explored as a potential natural immunomodulatory agent.

  6. [Quality characteristic comparison of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus from different place].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong-fena; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Dina-kun; Tan, Pena; Zhang, Hai-zhu; Li, Bao-cai; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The contents of schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, schisandrin A , schisandrin B, schisandrin C in Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF) were determined simultaneously by HPLC. Collect 100-seed weight, color, pulp content, longitude and latitude of SCF of different batches were collected. SIMCA-P and SPSS were applied to make PLS-DA analysis of 24 batches of SCF and correlation analysis of relevant parameters. According to the 13 parameters, SCF from three different places of origin could be distinguished effectively. It was found that the content of chemical component of SCF increased with latitude and longitude first, and then decrease. The results provide some theoretical basis for study of SCF genuineness and traditional method of identifying just from experience.

  7. An EPR line shape study of anisotropic rotational reorientation and slow tumbling in liquid and frozen jojoba oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J. S.; Al-Rashid, W. A.

    Spin probe investigation of jojoba oil was carried out by electron paramagnetic rresonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The spin probe used was 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone- N-oxide. The EPR line shape studies were carried out in the lower temperature range of 192 to 275 K to test the applicability of the stochastic Liouville theory in the simulation of EPR line shapes where earlier relaxation theories do not apply. In an earlier study, this system was analysed by employing rotational diffusion at the fast-motional region. The results show that PD-Tempone exhibits asymmetric rotational diffusion with N = 3.3 at an axis z'= Y in the plane of the molecule and perpendicular to the NO bond direction. In this investigation we have extended the temperature range to lower temperatures and observed slow tumbling EPR spectra. It is shown that the stochastic Liouville method can be used to simulate all but two of the experimentally observed EPR spectra in the slow-motional region and details of the slow-motional line shape are sensitive to the anisotropy of rotation and showed good agreement for a moderate jump model. From the computer simulation of EPR line shapes it is found that the information obtained on τ R, and N in the motional-narrowing region can be extrapolated into the slow-tumbling region. It is also found that ln (τ R) is linear in 1/ T in the temperature range studied and the resulting activation energy for rotation is 51 kJ/mol. The two EPR spectra at 240 and 231 K were found to exhibit the effects of anisotropic viscosity observed by B IRELL for nitroxides oriented in tubular cavities in inclusion crystals in which the molecule is free to rotate about the long axis but with its rotation hindered about the other two axes because of the cavity geometry. These results proved that the slow-tumbling spectra were very sensitive to the effects of anisotropy in the viscosity.

  8. Prevailing triple infection with Wolbachia in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Natsuko; Ijichi, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2002-02-01

    Prevailing triple infection with three distinct Wolbachia strains was identified in Japanese populations of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. When a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was conducted using universal primers for ftsZ and wsp, Wolbachia was detected in all the individuals examined, 288 males and 334 females from nine Japanese populations. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of cloned wsp gene fragments from single insects revealed that three types of wsp sequences coexist in the insects. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the wsp sequences unequivocally demonstrated that C. chinensis harbours three phylogenetically distinct Wolbachia, tentatively designated as wBruCon, wBruOri and wBruAus, respectively. Diagnostic PCR analysis using specific primers demonstrated that, of 175 males and 235 females from nine local populations, infection frequencies with wBruCon, wBruOri and wBruAus were 100%, 96.3% and 97.0%, respectively. As for the infection status of individuals, triple infection (93.7%) dominated over double infection (6.1%) and single infection (0.2%). The amounts of wBruCon, wBruOri and wBruAus in field-collected adult insects were analysed by using a quantitative PCR technique in terms of wsp gene copies per individual insect. Irrespective of original populations, wBruCon and wBruOri (107 -108 wsp copies/insect) were consistently greater in amount than wBruAus (106 -107 wsp copies/insect), suggesting that the population sizes of the three Wolbachia strains are controlled, although the mechanism is unknown. Mating experiments suggested that the three Wolbachia cause cytoplasmic incompatibility at different levels of intensity.

  9. Allelopathic potential of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nornasuha; Ismail B., S.

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic potential of the aqueous leaf extract and leaf debris (incorporated into the soil) of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on the germination indices and growth as well as the allelopathic effect response index of Brassica chinensis. Three concentrations each of the aqueous leaf extract (12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 g/L) and leaf debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) were used in the experiments. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications, and the experiment was conducted twice. The aqueous leaf extracts of both species significantly inhibited all growth parameters of B. chinensis at 50.0 g/L concentration by more than 50% (compared to that by the control). In contrast, the leaf debris of both species at most of the concentrations showed significant stimulatory effects on all growth parameters of B. chinensis. However, M. micrantha leaf debris showed no significant effect on the fresh weight of B. chinensis at all concentrations. The total germination percentage of B. chinensis was significantly decreased as concentration of the aqueous leaf extracts of both species increased. The aqueous leaf extract of both species at concentrations higher than 25.0 g/L, significantly reduced the initial speed of germination as well as the cumulative speed of germination of B. chinensis. The allelopathic effect response index was negative for both species, indicating that the extracts of both species have inhibitory effects on the germination and seedling growth of B. chinensis. Results from the study suggested that the leaves of C. odorata and M. micrantha have phytotoxic properties and have potential for use directly or indirectly on susceptible weeds, and thereby reducing the use of chemical pesticides.

  10. Clonal Patch Size and Ramet Position of Leymus chinensis Affected Reproductive Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive allocation is critically important for population maintenance and usually varies with not only environmental factors but also biotic ones. As a typical rhizome clonal plant in China's northern grasslands, Leymus chinensis usually dominates the steppe communities and grows in clonal patches. In order to clarify the sexual reproductive allocation of L. chinensis in the process of the growth and expansion, we selected L. chinensis clonal patches of a range of sizes to examine the reproductive allocation and allometric growth of the plants. Moreover, the effects of position of L. chinensis ramets within the patch on their reproductive allocation were also examined. Clonal patch size and position both significantly affected spike biomass, reproductive tiller biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio. From the central to the marginal zone, both the spike biomass and reproductive tiller biomass displayed an increasing trend in all the five patch size categories except for reproductive tiller biomass in 15–40m2 category. L. chinensis had significantly larger SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio in marginal zone than in central zone of clonal patches that are larger than 15 m2 in area. Regression analysis showed that the spike biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio were negatively correlated with clonal patch size while patch size showed significantly positive effect on SEED/SPIKE biomass ratio, but the reproductive tiller biomass and SEED/TILLER biomass ratio were not dependent on clonal patch size. The relationships between biomass of spike and reproductive tiller, between mature seed biomass and spike biomass and between mature seed biomass and reproductive tiller biomass were significant allometric for all or some of patch size categories, respectively. The slopes of all these allometric relationships were significantly different from 1. The allometric growth of L. chinensis is patch size-dependent. This finding will be helpful for developing appropriate practices for

  11. Effects of hydroperiod duration on developmental plasticity in tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    FAN, Xiao-Li; LIN, Zhi-Hua; WEI, Jie

    2014-01-01

    While developmental plasticity can facilitate evolutionary diversification of organisms, the effects of water levels as an environmental pressure on tiger frogs remains unclear. This study clarifies the relationship by studying the responses of tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., constant low water levels, constant high water levels, increasing water levels, decreasing water levels, rapid changes in water levels and gradual fluctuations in water levels) in a laboratory setting. ANOVA analysis showed that none of the water level treatments had any significant effect on the total length, body mass, or developmental stages of H. chinensis tadpoles half way through development (11 days old). Tadpoles raised in rapidly fluctuating water levels had protracted metamorphosis, whereas tadpoles raised under low and gradually fluctuating water levels had shortened metamorphosis. None of the water level treatments had a significant effect on the snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass of H. chinensis tadpoles at Gosner stage 42, or on the body mass of tadpoles at Gosner stage 45. However, the tadpoles raised in high levels and rapidly fluctuating water levels, significantly larger SVL at Gosner stage 45, while ones under gradually fluctuating water levels had smaller SVL than the other groups. Time to metamorphosis was positively correlated with body size (SVL) at metamorphosis in H. chinensis tadpoles. H. chinensis tadpoles under constant low water level had the highest mortality rate among all the treatments (G-test). Moreover, ANOVA and ACNOVA (with body length as the covariate) indicated that water levels had no significant effect on either the morphology (i.e. head length, head width, forelimb length, hindlimb length and body width) or the jumping ability of juvenile H. chinensis. These results suggest that the observed accelerated metamorphosis and high mortality of H. chinensis tadpoles under decreasing water level treatment was

  12. Effects of hydroperiod duration on developmental plasticity in tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-Li; Lin, Zhi-Hua; Wei, Jie

    2014-03-01

    While developmental plasticity can facilitate evolutionary diversification of organisms, the effects of water levels as an environmental pressure on tiger frogs remains unclear. This study clarifies the relationship by studying the responses of tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., constant low water levels, constant high water levels, increasing water levels, decreasing water levels, rapid changes in water levels and gradual fluctuations in water levels) in a laboratory setting. ANOVA analysis showed that none of the water level treatments had any significant effect on the total length, body mass, or developmental stages of H. chinensis tadpoles half way through development (11 days old). Tadpoles raised in rapidly fluctuating water levels had protracted metamorphosis, whereas tadpoles raised under low and gradually fluctuating water levels had shortened metamorphosis. None of the water level treatments had a significant effect on the snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass of H. chinensis tadpoles at Gosner stage 42, or on the body mass of tadpoles at Gosner stage 45. However, the tadpoles raised in high levels and rapidly fluctuating water levels, significantly larger SVL at Gosner stage 45, while ones under gradually fluctuating water levels had smaller SVL than the other groups. Time to metamorphosis was positively correlated with body size (SVL) at metamorphosis in H. chinensis tadpoles. H. chinensis tadpoles under constant low water level had the highest mortality rate among all the treatments (G-test). Moreover, ANOVA and ACNOVA (with body length as the covariate) indicated that water levels had no significant effect on either the morphology (i.e. head length, head width, forelimb length, hindlimb length and body width) or the jumping ability of juvenile H. chinensis. These results suggest that the observed accelerated metamorphosis and high mortality of H. chinensis tadpoles under decreasing water level treatment was

  13. Isolation of three dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from in vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.--the first report.

    PubMed

    Szopa, A; Kisiel, W; Ekiert, H; Szewczyk, A

    2015-05-01

    Three dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans: deoxyschizandrin (1), gomisin A (2) and schizandrin (3) were isolated from biomass extracts of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. shoot-differentiating callus cultures. The mentioned lignans were not isolated earlier from in vitro cultures of this plant species. This is the first report concerning on isolation of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from in vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis.

  14. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chouychai, Waraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation.

  15. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients. PMID:25140348

  16. Dietary Uptake of Wedelia chinensis Extract Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Li-Ting; Lin, Wen-Ching; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Shu-Hui; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Scope Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF) orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12) revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) was not toxic to mice. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:23734189

  17. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Chouychai, Waraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation. PMID:23360012

  18. Propagule Pressure and Climate Contribute to the Displacement of Linepithema humile by Pachycondyla chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Eleanor Spicer; Silverman, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Identifying mechanisms governing the establishment and spread of invasive species is a fundamental challenge in invasion biology. Because species invasions are frequently observed only after the species presents an environmental threat, research identifying the contributing agents to dispersal and subsequent spread are confined to retrograde observations. Here, we use a combination of seasonal surveys and experimental approaches to test the relative importance of behavioral and abiotic factors in determining the local co-occurrence of two invasive ant species, the established Argentine ant (Linepithema humile Mayr) and the newly invasive Asian needle ant (Pachycondyla chinensis Emery). We show that the broader climatic envelope of P. chinensis enables it to establish earlier in the year than L. humile. We also demonstrate that increased P. chinensis propagule pressure during periods of L. humile scarcity contributes to successful P. chinensis early season establishment. Furthermore, we show that, although L. humile is the numerically superior and behaviorally dominant species at baits, P. chinensis is currently displacing L. humile across the invaded landscape. By identifying the features promoting the displacement of one invasive ant by another we can better understand both early determinants in the invasion process and factors limiting colony expansion and survival. PMID:23409164

  19. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jin-shuang; Sun, Cheng-zhen; Zhang, Shu-ning; Hou, Xi-lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis. PMID:27507974

  20. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  1. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of Stauntonia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chen; Ning, Wu; Ying, Liu; Hao, Gao; Hua-Jin, Dong; Rui-Bin, Su; Xin-Sheng, Yao; Jin, Li

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Stauntonia chinensis (S. chinensis) and the possible action mechanisms of effective fractions. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of S. chinensis extracts, including the 60% EtOH extract (YMG), the n-BuOH extract (YMGB) and the aqueous residue (YMGW) of YMG, and the fractions from YMGB (YMGB1~YMGB7) were investigated by using the mouse acetic acid-induced writhing test and the rat formalin test. The effect of these extracts on the PGE2 production was tested as well. In the mouse acetic acid-induced writhing test and the rat formalin test, YMGW and YMGB displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting that they were the active ingredients of YMG. Among the fractions isolated from YMGB, YMGB1, YMGB3, YMGB4 and YMGB6 were the main active ingredients producing anti-nociceptive activity and YMGB3, YMGB5, YMGB6 and YMGB7 were the main active ingredients producing anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, YMGW, YMGB and its separations reduced the production of PGE2, which might be the mechanism of them producing anti-inflammatory activity. These results demonstrated the active ingredients of S. chinensis producing anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which is valuable to validate the substance basis of S. chinensis's pharmacological actions.

  2. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Teale, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest. PMID:26241651

  3. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  4. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis. PMID:27507974

  5. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  6. Preparation and characterization of colon-targeted particles of Pulsatilla chinensis saponins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhua; Guan, Yongmei; Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Ying; Yang, Ming; Liu, Hongning

    2015-02-01

    Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat ulcerative colitis. This study prepared and characterized colon-targeted particles of P. chinensis saponins by particle design. Most of the P. chinensis saponins in the composite particles were coated with Eudragit S100, as seen in SEM micrographs; meanwhile, the characteristic diffraction peaks in X-RD, surface wettability, and particle size distribution of the composite particles were basically the same as those of Eudragit S100. These results suggested that the mechanochemical process could be used to prepare colon-targeted particles with core-shell structures with the drug coated by the excipient; the results also showed similar surface characteristics in the coating. PMID:25920249

  7. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  8. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  9. Biochemical and structural characterisation of dehydroquinate synthase from the New Zealand kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Mittelstädt, Gerd; Negron, Leonardo; Schofield, Linley R; Marsh, Ken; Parker, Emily J

    2013-09-15

    One of the novel aspects of kiwifruit is the presence of a high level of quinic acid which contributes to the flavour of the fruit. Quinic acid metabolism intersects with the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of primary and secondary aromatic metabolites. The gene encoding the enzyme which catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway, dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), from the New Zealand kiwifruit Actinidia chinensis was identified, cloned and expressed. A. chinensis DHQS was activated by divalent metal ions, and was found to require NAD(+) for catalysis. The protein was crystallised and the structure was solved, revealing a homodimeric protein. Each monomer has a NAD(+) binding site nestled between the distinct N- and C-terminal domains. In contrast to other microbial DHQSs, which show an open conformation in the absence of active site ligands, A. chinensis DHQS adopts a closed conformation. This is the first report of the structure of a DHQS from a plant source.

  10. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems.

  11. [Acute Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Daphnia carinata].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizome and preparations were widely used for the treatment of fish diseases in aquaculture. the acute toxicological effect of CRE on lethal, movement and phototaxis was studied on Daphnia carinata monoclone as a test animal in the present experiment. The results showed that CRE was acute toxic to this animal and alkaloids berberine concentrations in CRE changed in the following sequence: half lethal > half inhibitory > limitable, which led to a significant change in phototaxis index of Daphnia carinata. The concentration of CRE for the significant change in phototaxis index was 4.27 mg x L(-1), which was lower than the concentration in water to cure the fish diseases and this conclusion indicated an ecological risk of this antibiotic to Daphnia carinata in aquaculture. In addition, the concentration of CRE in phototaxis index was changed from 30.62 times at 48th hour to 36.51 times at 24th hour that were lower than half lethal concentration. Detecting phototaxis index was easy and only 3 hours was required, so utilizing the quickly change of Daphnia carinata phototaxis can be an effective method to monitor the toxicity effect of CRE on Daphnia carinata. The abuse of rhizome or preparations in aquaculture might destroy the aquatic food chain, resulting in an imbalance of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26841628

  12. Characterization and preparation of oligomeric procyanidins from Litchi chinensis pericarp.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yong; Zheng, Yan; Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Shuyi; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and prepare A-type oligomeric procyanidins from litchi pericarp (Litchi chinensis Baila). The variety of oligomeric procyanidins was characterized by LC-ESI-MS analysis. There were (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, twelve dimers and six trimers of procyanidins were found in litchi pericarp extracts, and A-type procyanidins were much more abundant than B-type procyanidins. The main flavan-3-ol monomer and oligomeric procyanidins in litchi pericarp were (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-epicatechin- (4β-8)-epicatechin). Procyanidin A1 (epicatechin-(4β-8, 2β-O-7)-catechin) was identified by NMR in litchi pericarp for the first time. (-)-Epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins were prepared by the combination of AB-8 column chromatography and Toyopearl HW-40S column chromatography. The results showed that each fraction predominantly owned a single compound and gave a high yield with (-)-epicatechin, A-type dimers (A1 and A2) and trimer, suggesting a useful method to obtain pure (-)-epicatechin and A-type oligomeric procyanidins. PMID:27282208

  13. Neuroprotective Activity of Coptisine from Coptis chinensis (Franch)

    PubMed Central

    Friedemann, Thomas; Schumacher, Udo; Tao, Yi; Leung, Alexander Kai-Man; Schröder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Coptis chinensis rhizomes (CR) are one important ingredient of traditional Chinese herbal formulas such as San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang which is used for treatment of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggest that the extract of CR might be a potential therapeutic agent for amelioration of neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress. In the present study we aimed at revealing the main active compound(s) of the CR extract and at investigating the mechanism of action. Four main alkaloids of the CR extract (berberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine) were selected for this study. Results showed that out of those alkaloids only pretreatment with coptisine significantly attenuated tert-butylhydroperoxide induced reduction of cell viability, increased rate of apoptosis, and declined mitochondrial membrane potential. Elisa assay and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) gene expression was downregulated by coptisine, which could explain the neuroprotective effect, hypothetically, by strengthening the thioredoxin defense system against oxidative stress and attenuation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (Ask1) mediated apoptotic signaling. A comparison between coptisine and CR extract identified coptisine as the main single component responsible for the neuroprotective effect. Based on the results the CR extract and coptisine are promising candidate agents for prevention or improvement of diabetic neuropathy and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26229546

  14. Inhibition of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) Activity by constituents of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Hui; Cui, Li; An, Li-Bin; Li, Wen-Tao; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wu, Xue; Wang, Li-Xuan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Structure-activity relationship for the inhibition of Schisandra chinensis's ingredients toward (Uridine-Diphosphate) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) activity was performed in the present study. In vitro incubation system was employed to screen the inhibition capability of S. chinensis's ingredients, and in silico molecular docking method was carried out to explain possible mechanisms. At 100 μM of compounds, the activity of UGTs was inhibited by less than 90% by schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisandrin, schisandrin C, schisantherin A, gomisin D, and gomisin G. Schisandrin A exerted strong inhibition toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3, with the residual activity to be 7.9% and 0% of control activity. Schisanhenol exhibited strong inhibition toward UGT2B7, with the residual activity to be 7.9% of control activity. Gomisin J of 100 μM inhibited 91.8% and 93.1% of activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, respectively. Molecular docking prediction indicated different hydrogen bonds interaction resulted in the different inhibition potential induced by subtle structure alteration among schisandrin A, schisandrin, and schisandrin C toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3: schisandrin A > schisandrin > schisandrin C. The detailed inhibition kinetic evaluation showed the strong inhibition of gomisin J toward UGT1A9 with the inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki ) to be 0.7 μM. Based on the concentrations of gomisin J in the plasma of the rats given with S. chinensis, high herb-drug interaction existed between S. chinensis and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A9-mediated metabolism. In conclusion, in silico-in vitro method was used to give the inhibition information and possible inhibition mechanism for S. chinensis's components toward UGTs, which guide the clinical application of S. chinensis.

  15. [Study on relieving effects of exogenous SNP, Spd on Belamcanda chinensis under salt-alkalline stress].

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Ping; He, Ping; Duan, Cai-Xu; Yang, Mou

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to provide the theoretical basis for exploiting and utilization of salt-alkaline soil and cultivating Belamcanda chinensis. In this study, we exerted exogenous substances SNP, Spd to relieve the damage of the mixing salt-alkaline stress on B. chinensis seedling which is NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 four kinds of salt molar ratio of 9: 1: 9: 1, salt concentration of 100 mmol x L(-1). The result illustrated that high pH stress is a major factor caused the salt-alkaline stress, the interaction between time and the concentration of each, treatment was observed, what is more, there are synergies between the salt and alkali stress. The content of B. chinensis seedling leaves' membrane peroxidation index (MDA, O2-*) and metabolites (soluble protein, soluble sugars, organic acids) are showing an upward trend in varying degrees under 100 mmol x L(-1) salt-alkaline stress. It is effective to reduce the content of MDA and O2-*. and improve the levels of metabolites, in which the SNP (0.05 mmol x L(-1)) and Spd (0.5 mmol x L(-1)) to alleviate damage effects is the best. Therefore we can hold the conclusion that SNP and Spd can effectively mitigate the damage of B. chinensis seedling on salt-alkaline stress, improve the resistance ability of B. chinensis seedling which can provide the scientific basis for the utilization of salt-alkaline soil, and the cultivation of B. chinensis.

  16. Inhibition of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) Activity by constituents of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Hui; Cui, Li; An, Li-Bin; Li, Wen-Tao; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wu, Xue; Wang, Li-Xuan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Structure-activity relationship for the inhibition of Schisandra chinensis's ingredients toward (Uridine-Diphosphate) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) activity was performed in the present study. In vitro incubation system was employed to screen the inhibition capability of S. chinensis's ingredients, and in silico molecular docking method was carried out to explain possible mechanisms. At 100 μM of compounds, the activity of UGTs was inhibited by less than 90% by schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisandrin, schisandrin C, schisantherin A, gomisin D, and gomisin G. Schisandrin A exerted strong inhibition toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3, with the residual activity to be 7.9% and 0% of control activity. Schisanhenol exhibited strong inhibition toward UGT2B7, with the residual activity to be 7.9% of control activity. Gomisin J of 100 μM inhibited 91.8% and 93.1% of activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, respectively. Molecular docking prediction indicated different hydrogen bonds interaction resulted in the different inhibition potential induced by subtle structure alteration among schisandrin A, schisandrin, and schisandrin C toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3: schisandrin A > schisandrin > schisandrin C. The detailed inhibition kinetic evaluation showed the strong inhibition of gomisin J toward UGT1A9 with the inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki ) to be 0.7 μM. Based on the concentrations of gomisin J in the plasma of the rats given with S. chinensis, high herb-drug interaction existed between S. chinensis and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A9-mediated metabolism. In conclusion, in silico-in vitro method was used to give the inhibition information and possible inhibition mechanism for S. chinensis's components toward UGTs, which guide the clinical application of S. chinensis. PMID:26084208

  17. [Study on relieving effects of exogenous SNP, Spd on Belamcanda chinensis under salt-alkalline stress].

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Ping; He, Ping; Duan, Cai-Xu; Yang, Mou

    2014-12-01

    The study is aimed to provide the theoretical basis for exploiting and utilization of salt-alkaline soil and cultivating Belamcanda chinensis. In this study, we exerted exogenous substances SNP, Spd to relieve the damage of the mixing salt-alkaline stress on B. chinensis seedling which is NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 four kinds of salt molar ratio of 9: 1: 9: 1, salt concentration of 100 mmol x L(-1). The result illustrated that high pH stress is a major factor caused the salt-alkaline stress, the interaction between time and the concentration of each, treatment was observed, what is more, there are synergies between the salt and alkali stress. The content of B. chinensis seedling leaves' membrane peroxidation index (MDA, O2-*) and metabolites (soluble protein, soluble sugars, organic acids) are showing an upward trend in varying degrees under 100 mmol x L(-1) salt-alkaline stress. It is effective to reduce the content of MDA and O2-*. and improve the levels of metabolites, in which the SNP (0.05 mmol x L(-1)) and Spd (0.5 mmol x L(-1)) to alleviate damage effects is the best. Therefore we can hold the conclusion that SNP and Spd can effectively mitigate the damage of B. chinensis seedling on salt-alkaline stress, improve the resistance ability of B. chinensis seedling which can provide the scientific basis for the utilization of salt-alkaline soil, and the cultivation of B. chinensis. PMID:25911800

  18. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil. PMID:27451748

  19. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  20. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil.

  1. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  2. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis), a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9–10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy. PMID:27257681

  3. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  4. Isolation and analysis of α-expansin genes in the tree Anthocephalus chinensis (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, K X; Liu, M Q; Pian, R Q; Liu, S S; Chen, X Y

    2013-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall-associated proteins that induce wall extension and relax stress by disrupting noncovalent bonds between cellulose microfibrils and cross-linking glycan chains, thereby promoting wall creep. Anthocephalus chinensis is a very fast-growing economically important tree found mainly in South Asia. Sixteen cDNAs, designated AcEXPA1 to AcEXPA16 (GenBank accession Nos. FJ417847, JF922686-JF922700) with corresponding genomic DNA sequences (GenBank accession Nos. GQ228823, JF922701-JF922715), were isolated by amplifying conserved domain binding with genomic walking and RACE techniques from four differential growth tissues in A. chinensis. These α-expansin homologues were highly conserved in size and sequence; they had the same sequence structures as an N-terminal signal peptide, three exons and two introns. Their amino acid alignment showed that A. chinensis expansin genes are divided into three subgroups: A, B and C. This study is the first report on expansin genes from A. chinensis. It will be used for a tissue-specific expression model and for studying the relationship between expansin genes, growth rate and wood quality of the xylem in this fast-growing tree.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  8. First report of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on Mesona chinensis in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jellywort (Mesona chinensis Benth) is a herbaceous plant in the Lamiaceae Family. The plant is referred to as ‘Xiancao’ (Weed from Angels) in Chinese and is primarily used to make grass jelly, a popular refreshing drink. Currently, Xiancao cultivation is a fast growing industry with a high profit ma...

  9. A meridic diet for continuous rearing of Arma chinensis (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An artificial diet comprised of pig liver and tuna fish but devoid of insect components was developed for the predator Arma chinensis (Fallou), which is capable of effectively controlling Colorado potato beetle, cotton bollworm, and mirid bugs. Weight and body length of eggs and adults were lower a...

  10. Rhizomes help the forage grass Leymus chinensis to adapt to the salt and alkali stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na₂SO₄ = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO₃ : Na₂CO₃ = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na(+) contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K(+) content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na(+) content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na(+). However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na(+) transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis. PMID:25121110

  11. Rhizomes help the forage grass Leymus chinensis to adapt to the salt and alkali stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junfeng; Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Ying; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis has extensive ecological adaptability and can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. The knowledge about tolerance mechanisms of L. chinensis could be base for utilization of saline-alkaline soils and grassland restoration and rebuilding. Two neutral salts (NaCl : Na₂SO₄ = 9 : 1) and two alkaline salts (NaHCO₃ : Na₂CO₃ = 9 : 1) with concentration of 0, 100, and 200 mmol/L were used to treat potted 35-day-old seedlings with rhizome growth, respectively. After 10 days, the biomass and number of daughter shoots all decreased, with more reduction in alkali than in salt stress. The rhizome biomass reduced more than other organs. The number of daughter shoots from rhizome was more than from tillers. Under both stresses, Na(+) contents increased more in rhizome than in other organs; the reduction of K(+) content was more in underground than aerial tissue. Anion ions or organic acids were absorbed to neutralize cations. Na(+) content in stem and leaf increased markedly in high alkalinity (200 mmol/L), with accumulation of soluble sugar and organic acids sharply. Rhizomes help L. chinensis to adapt to saline and low alkaline stresses by transferring Na(+). However, rhizomes lost the ability to prevent Na(+) transport to aerial organs under high alkalinity, which led to severe growth inhibition of L. chinensis.

  12. Comparative studies on polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Schisandra chinensis leaves and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Crișan, Gianina; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Raita, Oana; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Toiu, Anca; Oprean, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material), followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material). Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material), but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  13. [Effect of fibrous root extract of Coptis chinensis on soil microbes and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-Bo; He, Lin-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    Coptis chinensis is widely used as Chinese medicine herbs and serious soil problems occur after continual cultivation of this medicinal plant. In the preset experiment, fibrous root extract of C. chinensis (REC) was added into soil to study the effect of REC on microbes and enzyme activity in soil. The results showed that both bacteria and actinomycetes decreased by about 2 times in contrast to fungi, which increased by about 3 folds. Phosphorus bacteria, potassium bacteria, azotobacter, ammonia bacteria, and nitrifying bacteria were also reduced significantly by REC, suggesting the inhibition of nitrogen biofixation and supply, mobilization of phosphorus and potassium, ad plant growth promotion as REC added into soil. There were multiple influences of REC on soil enzyme activities. Invertase activity was stimulated, while urease was inhibited and dehydrogenase unchanged by REC, indicating the interference of biochemical reactions in soil. In addition, type and total content of phosphorus lipid fatty acids (PLFAs) , the signature of microbes, decreased while the ratio of bacterium to fungus PLFAs increased as REC increased in soil, which suggested that fungi increased relatively with bacteria decreased thereby leading to easy occurrence of crop fungus diseases following cultivation of C. chinensis. The decrease in diversity and evenness indexes of microbial community in soil by REC indicated soil ecosystem deterioration and reduction of microbial groups and densities in soil. Therefore, allelopathic chemicals released from the roots of C. chinensis could change microbial community structure and resulted in serious soil problems by continual cropping of this medicinal plant. PMID:25775794

  14. Simultaneous determination of nine lignans from Schisandra chinensis extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in rat plasma, urine, and gastrointestinal tract samples: application to the pharmacokinetic study of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Jin; Lee, Hee Ju; Kim, Chul Young; Han, Sun-Young; Chin, Young-Won; Choi, Young Hee

    2014-10-01

    The fruit of Schisandra chinensis is a well-known herbal medicine and dietary supplement due to a variety of biological activities including antihepatotoxic and antihyperlipidemic activities. However, the simultaneous validation methodology and pharmacokinetic investigation of nine lignans of S. chinensis extract in biological samples have not been proved yet. Thus, the present study was undertaken to develop the proper sample preparation method and simultaneous analytical method of schisandrol A, gomisin J, schisandrol B, tigloylgomisin H, angeloylgomisin H, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, gomisin N, and schisandrin C in the hexane-soluble extract of S. chinensis to apply for the pharmacokinetic study in rats. All intra- and interprecisions of nine lignans were below 13.7% and accuracies were 85.1-115% and it is enough to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters after both intravenous and oral administration of hexane-soluble extract of S. chinensis to rats.

  15. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins between male and female plants in Pistacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Erhui; Wu, Xiaolin; Shi, Jiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Pistacia chinensis is a strict dioecious plant with male and female flowers in individuals. In China, P. chinensis is widely planted for biodiesel oil due to high oil content in seeds. In practice it requires to grow more female plants for biodiesel production. At present, there are still no reliable methods for sex determination during the long juvenile stage of this species. In order to develop protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis, proteomic approach was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between male and female plants. Vegetative organs (leaf and stem) rather than reproductive organs/tissues were used for protein extraction so as to develop protein markers which can be used in siblings before flowering. Protein was extracted using a phenol-based protocol. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis, a total of 10 protein spots were found to be differentially expressed in leaf and stem between both sexes, of which 7 were successfully identified by mass spectrometry and matched to 6 functional proteins such as NB-ARC domain containing protein, light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein, asorbate peroxidase (APX), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2, temperature-induced lipocalin (TIL) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK). The sex-related difference displayed in a tissue-specific way, especially in stem. PGK existed in high abundance in stem phloem in the female, but was almost not detected in the male; APX and two TIL species were highly abundant in the stem of male plants, while their abundance was much lower in female plants. Moreover, these abundance differences were further confirmed in individual plants. Hence, it is assumed that APX, PGK and TIL might be promising candidates to serve as protein molecular markers for sex determination in P. chinensis. Our results form the basis for a further understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of sex determination in P. chinensis.

  16. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  17. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Coptis chinensis in MPP[Formula: see text] and MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Thomas; Ying, Yue; Wang, Weigang; Kramer, Edgar R; Schumacher, Udo; Fei, Jian; Schröder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Coptis chinensis is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine alone or in combination with other herbs to treat diseases characterized by causing oxidative stress including inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, there is emerging evidence that Coptis chinensis is effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis in vitro and in vivo using MPP[Formula: see text] and MPTP models of Parkinson's disease. MPP[Formula: see text] treated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used as a cell model of Parkinson's disease. A 24[Formula: see text]h pre-treatment of the cells with the watery extract of Coptis chinensis significantly increased cell viability, as well as the intracellular ATP concentration and attenuated apoptosis compared to the MPP[Formula: see text] control. Further experiments with the main alkaloids of Coptidis chinensis, berberine, coptisine, jaterorrhizine and palmatine revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main active compounds responsible for the observed neuroprotective effect. However, the full extract of Coptis chinensis was more effective than the tested single alkaloids. In the MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease, Coptis chinensis dose-dependently improved motor functions and increased tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra compared to the MPTP control. Based on the results of this work, Coptis chinensis and its main alkaloids could be considered potential candidates for the development of new treatment options for Parkinson's disease. PMID:27430912

  19. The effect of atmospheric humidity on photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency of leaves of several plant species.

    PubMed

    Rawson, H M; Begg, J E; Woodward, R G

    1977-01-01

    The effect of humidity on the gas exchange of leaves of the dicotyledons soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (L.) Schneider), and saltbush (Atriplex halimus L.) and the monocotyledons wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) was examined under conditions of adequate soil moisture in a controlled environment. Photosynthesis and stomatal and internal diffusion resistances of whole, attached, single leaves were not affected by changes in humidity as the vapour pressure deficit between the leaf and atmosphere ranged from 8 to 27 mb. Transpiration increased linearly with increasing vapour pressure deficit. Whole plants of barley exhibited a different response. As humidity was increased, photosynthesis increased, transpiration expressed per unit of vapour pressure difference increased, and diffusion resistances became smaller. Reasons for the different behaviour of single leaves and whole plants are suggested. An index for water use efficiency, expressed per millibar of vapour pressure deficit, was calculated for single leaves of each species used in the experiments. This showed that water use efficiency was highest in the C4 xerophytes and lowest in the C3 mesophytes. The effect of environment on water use efficiency is examined using data from the literature. PMID:24419571

  20. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles. PMID:23923639

  1. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  2. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    PubMed

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  3. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value. PMID:24066539

  4. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer. PMID:27499175

  5. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer. PMID:27499175

  6. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  7. Growth inhibition and apoptotic effects of total flavonoids from Trollius chinensis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhua; Tian, Qingqing; An, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Dried flowers of Trollius chinensis have long been used as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to reduce the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The present study further investigated the influence of T. chinensis flavonoids on the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 cells and observed clear inhibitory effects within the concentration range of 0.0991–1.5856 mg/ml. Apoptosis was triggered by T. chinensis flavonoids treatment that was evaluated by differential interference contrast software, the Hoechst 33258 method, scanning electron microscopy, hematoxylin/eosin staining and laser confocal light microscopy. Cells treated with T. chinensis flavonoids selectively reduced bcl-2 and NF-κB expression and increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicating that the inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred through activation of a mitochondrial pathway. Taken together, the results confirmed the ability of T. chinensis flavonoids to inhibit cell proliferation. PMID:27602105

  8. Accumulation of microcystins in a dominant Chironomid Larvae (Tanypus chinensis) of a large, shallow and eutrophic Chinese lake, Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qingju; Su, Xiaomei; Steinman, Alan D.; Cai, Yongjiu; Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been numerous studies on microcystin (MC) accumulation in aquatic organisms recently, the bioaccumulation of MCs in relatively small sized organisms, as well as potential influencing factors, has been rarely studied. Thus, in this study, we investigated the bioaccumulation of three MC congeners (-LR, -RR and -YR) in the chironomid larvae of Tanypus chinensis (an excellent food source for certain fishes), the potential sources of these MCs, and potentially relevant environmental parameters over the course of one year in Lake Taihu, China. MC concentrations in T. chinensis varied temporally with highest concentrations during the warmest months (except August 2013) and very low concentrations during the remaining months. Among the three potential MC sources, only intracellular MCs were significantly and positively correlated with MCs in T. chinensis. Although MC concentrations in T. chinensis significantly correlated with a series of physicochemical parameters of water column, cyanobacteria species explained the most variability of MC accumulation, with the rest primarily explained by extraMC-LR. These results indicated that ingestion of MC-producing algae of cyanobacteria accounted for most of the MC that accumulated in T. chinensis. The high MC concentrations in T. chinensis may pose a potential health threat to humans through trophic transfer.

  9. Characterisation of proanthocyanidins from Schisandra chinensis seed coats by UPLC-QTOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ting; Hu, Gao-Sheng; Wang, An-Hua; Hong, Yu; Jia, Jing-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this article, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed to detect the chemical structures of proanthocyanidins (PAs) from seed coats of Schisandra chinensis. The cleavage pathways of the compounds were revealed. The structures of S. chinensis PAs, including two monomers, two B-type procyanidin dimers, three B-type procyanidin trimers, one mixed trimer and one B-type procyanidin tetramer, were confirmed. These nine compounds were detected in seed coats for the first time. The structures were identified by comparing their maximum absorption wavelengths, HPLC retention times and ESI-MS with those of authentic standards, or tentatively identified by MS/MS determination along with MetaboLynx(TM) software.

  10. BcMF21 is important for pollen development and germination in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Yu, Youjian; Dong, Heng; Yao, Lina; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-01-01

    Brassica campestris Male Fertility 21 (BcMF21) was previously isolated from the flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and expressed specifically in tapetum and microspores during the meiosis stage and the uninucleate stage of microspore development. Here, we used antisense RNA technology to knock down the expression level of BcMF21 in B. campestris and analyzed the phenotype of the transgenic plants. Alexander staining and scanning electron microscope revealed sterility and exine deformities in the mature pollen grains of BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic plants. The germination furrow of the BcMF21 antisense RNA transgenic pollen was covered by lipid like materials. The pollen tubes burst and could not grow normally in vitro. Therefore, we presented here BcMF21 might be an important gene for pollen development and germination.

  11. [ILs-HPLC simultanesous determination of five alkaloids in phellodenddri chinensis cortex].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Hui-Fen; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Xiao-Hui

    2014-10-01

    A RP-HPLC method was established for simultaneous determination of phellodendrine hydrochloride (PH1), magnoflorine hydrochloride (MH), jatrorrhizine hydrochloride (JH), palmatine hydrochloride (PH2) and berberine hydrochloride (BH) in Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex by using ionic liquids as mobile phase additives. The separation was performed on a Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection. The effect of extraction solvent, detection wavelength, length of alkyl chain on different imidazolium ionic liquids and concentration of ionic liquids on the separation and determination of alkaloids were investigated. Ionic liquid, [BMIm] BF4, can obviously improve the resolution and peak shape. This ILs-HPLC method is simple, rapid, and reliable, which can be used for determination of alkaloids in Phellodenddri Chinensis Cortex. PMID:25612445

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Wang, Kai; Tan, Yan-ling; Xing, Lian-xi

    2016-01-01

    We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder. The total length of the R. chinensis is 15,925 bp with 65.27% A + T content. It consists of 13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and an A + T-rich control region. All the protein-coding genes used ATN as start codon. But the stop codons were TAA, TAG, and an incomplete termination codon (T) abutting an adjacent tRNA gene. The A + T-rich control region was 1125 bp in length with 67.02% A + T content.

  13. Anti-septic activity of α-cubebenoate isolated from Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kook, Minsoo; Lee, Sung Kyun; Kim, Sang Doo; Lee, Ha Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening, infectious, systemic inflammatory disease. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of α-cubebenoate, a novel compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis against polymicrobial sepsis in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental model. Administration of α-cubebenoate strongly enhanced survival in the CLP model. α-cubebenoate administration also markedly blocked CLP-induced lung inflammation and increased bactericidal activity by enhancing phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide generation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and neutrophils. Expression of two important inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, was strongly increased in the CLP model, and this was dramatically blocked by α-cubebenoate. Lymphocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 activation, which are associated with immune paralysis during sepsis, were markedly attenuated by α-cubebenoate. Taken together, our findings indicate that α-cubebenoate, a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, is a powerful potential anti-septic agent.

  14. Venturia chinensis sp. nov., a new venturialean ascomycete from Khingan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Dou, Zhipeng; Zhou, Yupei; He, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    A new species of Venturia (V. chinensis) is described and illustrated from the leaves of Lonicera praeflorens collected from Lesser Khingan Mountains, the northeast China. It is characterized by habitat saprobic; ascomata small-sized, solitary or scattered, superficial, subglobose to citriform, wall black, papillate, ostiolate, covered with setae; peridium thin; hamathecium evanescent in mature ascomata; asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, oblong to obclavate, with or without a short, knob-like pedicel; ascospores ellipsoidal, olivaceous pale brown, 1-septate, ascospore wall thin, smooth. Comparisons of V. chinensis with V. lonicerae (another species on Lonicera caerulea) and other species of Venturia lead to the conclusion that collected taxon is new. Its relationships with other species of Venturia are discussed based on morphology and 28S nrDNA and ITS nrDNA sequence comparisons. PMID:27579008

  15. [Prey selection by tiger frog larvae (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) of two sympatric anuran species' tadpoles].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Lin, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Ren-You; Chen, Shi-Tong

    2013-06-01

    We examined the prey selection and behavioral responses of tiger frog Hoplobatrachus chinensis larvae exposed to unpalatable and palatable sympatric prey tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus and Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found that after a short exposure to the toxic toad tadpoles B. melanostictus, predators may learn to decrease going after unpalatable prey, subsequently it seems they may express short-term behavioral memory in order to avoid the toxic prey. In general, H. chinensis showed no preference for either any of the two prey species, which may be the result of P. nigromaculatus using behavioral performance and chemical defense as antipredatation strategies. These results facilitate further investigation of other aspects of the behavioral ecology of these three anuran species and hint at some potentially interesting possibilities of memory in choice of prey which may suggest further study.

  16. Modified CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 expression correlates with altered branching in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Ledger, Susan E; Janssen, Bart J; Karunairetnam, Sakuntala; Wang, Tianchi; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-11-01

    • CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE (CCD) genes have been demonstrated to play an integral role in the control of branch development in model plants, including Arabidopsis, pea (Pisum sativum), petunia (Petunia hybrida) and rice (Oryza sativa). • Actinidia chinensis is a woody perennial plant grown for commercial production of kiwifruit. CCD7 and CCD8 genes were isolated from A. chinensis and these genes are predominantly expressed in the roots of kiwifruit. AcCCD7 and AcCCD8 were able to complement the corresponding Arabidopsis mutants max3 and max4. The function of AcCCD8 in branch development was determined in transgenic kiwifruit plants containing an RNAi construct for AcCCD8. • Reduction in expression of AcCCD8 correlated with an increase in branch development and delayed leaf senescence. • The CCD pathway for control of branch development is conserved across a wide range of species, including kiwifruit, a woody perennial.

  17. Highly oxygenated triterpenoids from the roots of Schisandra chinensis and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun; Nan, Zhi-Biao

    2016-01-01

    A new highly oxygenated triterpenoid, schinchinenlactone D (1), and three known compounds (2-4) were isolated from the roots of Schisandra chinensis. Their structures were determined by combining the spectroscopic analysis with the theoretical computations. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-4 were evaluated, and compound 3 exhibits the most significant activity in the inhibition of NO production with an IC50 value of 10.6 μM.

  18. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-01-01

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration. PMID:27173306

  19. [Effects of Litchi chinensis Defoliation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-xiong; Jiang, Chen-chun; Li, Jin-weiz; Wang, Xiao-ju

    2015-05-01

    The growth and physiology of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were determined by the pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry when exposed to different concentrations of Litchi chinensis defoliation extract for 15 d. The growth, maximal efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII) of PSII photochemistry, photosynthesis efficiency (α) , maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax) and light saturation coefficient (Ik) were used to evaluate the growth and photosynthesis in M. aeruginosa. It was found that the extract of L. chinensis defoliation stored for 5 days significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. After a long time of exposure, stimulation effect disappeared gradually. Fv/Fm fluorescence parameters, YII and alpha changed from negative correlation to positive correlation or kept positive correlation with the extract of L. chinensis defoliation, which might affect the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at early time or help the cyanobacterium to survive in the stress environment by improving the efficiency of light energy. Ik, rETRmax and the content of algal chlorophyll-a changed from negative to significant negative correlation with the extract. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the peak intensities of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence were only about one third in 2.0 g · L(-1) extract treatment when compared to the 1.2 g · L(-1) extract treatment on day 15. At the same time, the peak intensity of humic acid fluorescence was weaker than that on day 1. Further study showed that the EC50 of algal growth was smaller than that of the traditional crops straw, which might achieve good effect to control the growth of algae with lower concentration of L. chinensis defoliation extract due to its strong allelopathy. PMID:26314111

  20. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  1. Genetic structure of the threatened Hopea chinensis in the Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Trang, N T P; Triest, L

    2016-01-01

    Hopea chinensis Hand-Mazz (synonym H. hongayensis Tardieu), is a wind and insect pollinated species. It is a threatened species known only from two locations: Quang Ninh (Vietnam) and Guangxi (China). As an endemic species, it is worth preserving both for dipterocarp biodiversity, as well as for its medicinal use and economic importance as a fine wood. The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of H. chinensis was investigated, using natural populations distributed throughout the Ba Mun and Cai Lim islands, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. A total of 65 alleles were detected. The adult allelic richness was higher than that found in juveniles and seedlings in both populations. Inbreeding was found to be significant in Ba Mun adults (F(ST) = 0.139), as well as in Cai Lim juveniles and seedlings (F(ST) = 0.283 and 0.345, respectively). Evidence of a bottleneck could be detected in the juveniles and seedlings of the Cai Lim population. A Bayesian analysis and F(ST) values suggested high genetic differentiation among the age classes of the Ba Mun and Cai Lim populations. Whereas the adults of the Ba Mun population showed evidence of inbreeding, the next generations showed more potential heterozygotes. In contrast, the adults in the Cai Lim population showed no significant inbreeding, but the observed heterozygosity in the next generation was lower than expected, suggesting significant inbreeding. The H. chinensis populations on islands are developed well and showed re-generation under good condition. Thus, the forestry protector should conserve and protect the natural spatial structure of H. chinensis on each island as their natural habitats and keep them through natural regeneration.

  2. [Effects of Litchi chinensis Defoliation on Growth and Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-xiong; Jiang, Chen-chun; Li, Jin-weiz; Wang, Xiao-ju

    2015-05-01

    The growth and physiology of bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were determined by the pulse amplitude modulated fluorimetry when exposed to different concentrations of Litchi chinensis defoliation extract for 15 d. The growth, maximal efficiency (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII) of PSII photochemistry, photosynthesis efficiency (α) , maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax) and light saturation coefficient (Ik) were used to evaluate the growth and photosynthesis in M. aeruginosa. It was found that the extract of L. chinensis defoliation stored for 5 days significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a concentration-dependent way. After a long time of exposure, stimulation effect disappeared gradually. Fv/Fm fluorescence parameters, YII and alpha changed from negative correlation to positive correlation or kept positive correlation with the extract of L. chinensis defoliation, which might affect the photosynthesis of M. aeruginosa at early time or help the cyanobacterium to survive in the stress environment by improving the efficiency of light energy. Ik, rETRmax and the content of algal chlorophyll-a changed from negative to significant negative correlation with the extract. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that the peak intensities of tryptophan and tyrosine fluorescence were only about one third in 2.0 g · L(-1) extract treatment when compared to the 1.2 g · L(-1) extract treatment on day 15. At the same time, the peak intensity of humic acid fluorescence was weaker than that on day 1. Further study showed that the EC50 of algal growth was smaller than that of the traditional crops straw, which might achieve good effect to control the growth of algae with lower concentration of L. chinensis defoliation extract due to its strong allelopathy.

  3. Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains for effectiveness of Leymus chinensis silage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, X J; Zhao, M M; Yu, Z

    2014-10-01

    Five LAB strains were evaluated using the acid production ability test, morphological observation, Gram staining, physiological, biochemical and acid tolerance tests. All five strains (LP1, LP2, LP3, LC1 and LC2) grew at pH 4·0, and LP1 grew at 15°C. Strains LP1, LP2 and LP3 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, whereas LC1 and LC2 were classified as Lactobacillus casei by sequencing 16S rDNA. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants (PS and CL) were added to native grass and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. for ensiling. All five isolated strains decreased the pH and ammonia nitrogen content, increased the lactic acid content and LP1, LP2 and LP3 increased the acetic content and lactic/acetic acid ratio of L. chinensis silage significantly. The five isolated strains and two commercial inoculants decreased the butyric acid content of the native grass silage. LP2 treatment had lower butyric acid content and ammonia nitrogen content than the other treatments. The five isolated strains improved the quality of L. chinensis silage. The five isolated strains and the two commercial inoculants were not effective in improving the fermentation quality of the native grass silage, but LP2 performed better comparatively. Significance and impact of the study: Leymus chinensis is an important grass in China and Russia, being the primary grass of the short grassland 'steppe' regions of central Asia. However, it has been difficult to make high-quality silage of this species because of low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC). Isolating and evaluating lactic acid bacteria strains will be helpful for improving the silage quality of this extensively grown species. PMID:24888497

  4. Observations on the ovulating process of the red flagellated shrimp Acetes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiu

    1986-12-01

    Acetes chinensis always ovulate in the dark at night. Two to five hours before ovulation, the mature oocytes change from white to orange. In the meantime, meiosis of the oocytes occurs, and reaches the metaphase just prior to ovulation. If ovarian colour change starts in the dark at night but ovulation does not start by break of dawn, ovulation will be inhibited and meiosis of the cells will be blocked.

  5. Intra-specific variation in female remating in Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Matsumura, Fumi

    2004-05-01

    The effects of mating duration on female remating (exp. 1) and under different male densities (exp. 2) were examined in two strains of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis and in one strain of the bruchid beetle, C. maculatus. In experiment 1, the frequency of female remating was markedly different between the two strains of C. chinensis. Females of the jC strain, reared long-term in the laboratory, did not remate after being allowed to mate freely (=monogamy), whereas females of the isC strain, recently established from the field, showed high remating frequencies (=polyandry). In both strains, the frequency of female remating increased after the duration of the first mating was deliberately shortened. The relation between mating duration and remating frequency was significantly different, however, between the two strains. In a closely related species, C. maculatus, which manifests polyandry, this relation was more similar to that of the field-derived (=isC) than to that of the laboratory-derived (=jC) strain of C. chinensis. The reasons for the inter-strain variation observed in the remating frequencies of C. chinensis are also discussed. In experiment 2, the mating duration of the three strains was compared under different male densities. Only the lab-derived strain demonstrated a significantly shorter mating duration when one female was placed together with five males than when paired with one male. The shorter mating duration (approximately 26 s) was similar to that of females allowed to remate in the monogamous strain in experiment 1.

  6. Optimization of microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Hu, Haobin; Zhang, Yang

    2015-05-01

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method had been developed, which was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and orthogonal test design, to enhance the extraction of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. The optimum conditions were as follows: microwave irradiation time of 10 min, extraction pH of 4.21, extraction temperature of 47.58°C, extraction time of 3h and enzyme concentration of 1.5% (wt% of S. chinensis powder) for cellulase, papain and pectinase, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS was 7.38 ± 0.21%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods including heat-refluxing extraction (HRE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) for extracting CPS by RSM were further compared. Results indicated MAEE method had the highest extraction yields of CPS at lower temperature. It was indicated that the proposed approach in this study was a simple and efficient technique for extraction of CPS in S. chinensis Baill.

  7. Smashing Tissue Extraction of Five Lignans From the Fruit of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Song, Haiyan; Yang, Yingjie; Zhou, Hongli; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Schisandra chinensis is one of the most famous herbal medicines in China, Korea and Japan. It has been widely used as a tonic, sedative, anti-aging and astringent agent. Lignans are one of its main bioactive components. The classical methods for extracting lignans, however, were tedious and energy-consuming. With the aim to develop an effective extraction method of lignans, the smashing tissue extraction (STE) technique was adopted and optimized in this study. Extraction conditions of STE have been optimized by the response surface methodology based on the Box-Behnken design. Results showed that 75% aqueous ethanol was the optimal extraction solvent, and the other optimal conditions were as follows: extraction voltage of 180 V, extraction time of 1 min, solid-liquid ratio of 1 : 19 and sample particle size of 120 mesh. Under these optimized conditions, the total content of the five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) in S. chinensis collected from Baishan City located in the northeast of China was 13.89 ± 0.014 mg/g, which was well matched with the value predicted by the model. Other techniques, including heat reflux, Soxhlet, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction, were further compared. Results suggested that STE had the highest extraction efficiency of lignans with the shortest time. It indicates that the approach proposed in this study is a simple and efficient technique for the extraction of lignans in S. chinensis.

  8. Baseline Survey of Root-Associated Microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W.; Wu, Jianqiang; Hoffman, Angela; Cheng, Junwen; Qiu, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU) identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis. PMID:25821956

  9. Baseline survey of root-associated microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W; Wu, Jianqiang; Hoffman, Angela; Cheng, Junwen; Qiu, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU) identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.

  11. Mortality estimate of Chinese mystery snail, Bellamya chinensis (Reeve, 1863) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.

  12. Identification of gene expression profile during fertilization in Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jianxia; Qiu, Lin; Miao, Ying; Yao, Lina; Cao, Jiashu

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization is controlled by a complex gene regulatory network. To study the fertilization mechanism, we determined time courses of the four developmental stages of fertilization in Chinese cabbage pak-choi (Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis) by cytological observation. We then used the Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray to characterize the gene expression profiles of pollinated and unpollinated pistils in B. campestris subsp. chinensis. The result showed 44 up-regulated genes and 33 down-regulated genes in pollinated pistils compared with unpollinated pistils. Gene ontology analysis identified 20% of the up-regulated genes as belonging to the category of cell wall metabolism. We compared the up-regulated genes in pollinated pistils with previously identified pollen development related genes. Ten genes were found to be in common, which were termed as continuously expressed genes, in the two processes in the present article. Their expression patterns during pollen development and fertilization processes were then verified by RT-PCR. One of the continuously expressed genes, the homologous gene of At3g01270 in B. campestris subsp. chinensis, was confirmed as specifically expressed in microspores and pollinated pistils by using in situ hybridization. The potential biological functions of the other continuously expressed genes were also discussed. PMID:23379337

  13. Content and Color Stability of Anthocyanins Isolated from Schisandra chinensis Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunhui; Yang, Lei; Yang, Fengjian; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a multivariate study based on Box-Behnken Design was used to evaluate the influence of three major variables affecting the performance of the extraction process of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins. The optimum parameters were 5.5 h extraction time; 1:19 solid-liquid ratio and 260 r/min stirring rate, respectively. The extraction yield of anthocyanins was 29.06 mg/g under the optimum conditions. Moreover, many factors on the impact of heating, ultrasound, microwave treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on content and color stability of anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis fruit were investigated. The results show that thermal degradation reaction of anthocyanins complies with the first order reaction kinetics, and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9950 at 40–80 °C. Ultrasound and microwave treatment has little effect on the stability of anthocyanins, and the extraction time of ultrasound and microwave should be no more than 60 min and 5 min, respectively. The anthocyanins degradation effect of UVC ultraviolet radiation is greater than UVA and UVB; after 9 h ultraviolet radiation, the anthocyanins content degradation of UVC is 23.9 ± 0.7%, and the ΔE* was changed from 62.81 to 76.52 ± 2.3. Through LC-MS analysis, the major composition of Schisandra chinensis anthocyanins was cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. PMID:23203065

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M. Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V.; Davy, Marcus W.; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D.; Rikkerink, Erik H.

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis ‘Hort16A’ is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase–leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ plants in two laboratory experiments. PMID:26571404

  15. In vitro and in vivo Bone-Forming Activity of Saururus chinensis Extract.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Hee; Choi, Sik-Won; Park, Sang-Joon; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Hwang, Kyu-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-07-01

    Bone is maintained by osteoclast-mediated resorption and osteoblast-mediated formation. Recently, anti-osteoporotic activity of Saururus chinensis extract (SCE) and anti-osteoclastogenic activity of its components have been reported, but the effect of SCE on bone formation has not been studied well. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether Saururus chinensis SCE exhibits in vitro osteogenic and in vivo bone-forming activity. extract strongly enhanced the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. In vitro osteogenic activity of SCE was accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7 and BMP-9 mRNA. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of SCE. Moreover, the BMP dependency and the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of SCE were confirmed by the treatment of noggin, an antagonist of BMP. Saururus chinensis extract also exhibited to induce runt-related transcription factor 2 activation at the high concentration. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of SCE was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its use for bone formation. In conclusion, we suggested that in vivo anti-osteoporotic activity of SCE could be because of its dual action in bone, anti-osteoclastogenic and anabolic activity.

  16. Differential contribution of frugivorous birds to dispersal patterns of the endangered Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Fang, Shu-bo; Li, Xin-hai; An, Shu-qing; Lu, Chang-hu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of forest generalists and specialists to the dispersal pattern of tree species is not well understood. Specialists are considered low-quality dispersers because their dispersal distance is often short. However, disregard for seed deposition site may result in underestimation of the dispersal quality of specialists. The present study estimated the contribution of generalist and specialist species to the dispersal patterns of the endangered Chinese yew (Taxus chinensis) in a subtropical patchy forest in Southeast China. A relatively diverse assemblage of frugivorous birds visited T. chinensis source trees, and specialist Hypsipetes leucocephalus and generalist Urocissa erythrorhyncha were by far the highest-quantity dispersers. Considering dispersal effectiveness, the quantity aspect of effectiveness differed between the specialist assemblage and generalist assemblage; the contribution of specialists to the quantity part of effectiveness was significantly higher than that of generalists despite the relatively low diversity of specialists. After foraging, both specialist H. leucocephalus and generalist U. erythrorhyncha significantly contributed to the number of seedlings, and their contributions to seedling recruitment did not differ with regard to quality. Our results highlight the ability of T. chinensis to recruit an effective disperser assemblage in patchy habitats, thus increasing its persistence in this disturbed habitat.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding.

    PubMed

    Hill, M Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V; Davy, Marcus W; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D; Rikkerink, Erik H

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis 'Hort16A' canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase-leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis 'Hort16A' plants in two laboratory experiments. PMID:26571404

  18. Baseline survey of root-associated microbes of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Guiling; Wilson, Iain W; Wu, Jianqiang; Hoffman, Angela; Cheng, Junwen; Qiu, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) a diterpenoid is one of the most effective anticancer drugs identified. Biosynthesis of taxol was considered restricted to the Taxus genera until Stierle et al. discovered that an endophytic fungus isolated from Taxus brevifolia could independently synthesize taxol. Little is known about the mechanism of taxol biosynthesis in microbes, but it has been speculated that its biosynthesis may differ from plants. The microbiome from the roots of Taxus chinensis have been extensively investigated with culture-dependent methods to identify taxol synthesizing microbes, but not using culture independent methods.,Using bar-coded high-throughput sequencing in combination with a metagenomics approach, we surveyed the microbial diversity and gene composition of the root-associated microbiomefrom Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. High-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 187 fungal OTUs which is higher than any previously reported fungal number identified with the culture-dependent method, suggesting that T. chinensis roots harbor novel and diverse fungi. Some operational taxonomic units (OTU) identified were identical to reported microbe strains possessing the ability to synthesis taxol and several genes previously associated with taxol biosynthesis were identified through metagenomics analysis. PMID:25821956

  19. No genetic correlation between the sexes in mating frequency in the bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Harano, T; Miyatake, T

    2007-09-01

    Female multiple mating, which is common in animals, may have evolved not in response to fitness advantages to females but as a genetic corollary to selection on males to mate frequently. This nonadaptive hypothesis assumes a genetic correlation between females and males in mating frequency, which has received a few empirical investigations. We tested this hypothesis by observing the correlated response in male mating frequency in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis to artificial selection on female propensity to remate. Compared to control females, females from lines selected for increased or decreased female propensity to remate had, respectively, higher or lower mating frequency measured by the number of mating within a given period. This indicates that female receptivity to remating is genetically correlated with female mating frequency, and thus the artificial selection for female propensity to remate influenced female mating frequency. In contrast, males from the selected lines that diverged in female mating frequency did not vary significantly in their mating frequency. These results indicate that there is no genetic correlation between the sexes in mating frequency in C. chinensis. This study shows that the reason why females in C. chinensis remate despite suffering fitness costs cannot be explained by indirect selection resulting from selection on males to mate multiple times.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia. PMID:26707213

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Bark in Response to Armoured Scale Insect (Hemiberlesia lataniae) Feeding.

    PubMed

    Hill, M Garry; Wurms, Kirstin V; Davy, Marcus W; Gould, Elaine; Allan, Andrew; Mauchline, Nicola A; Luo, Zhiwei; Ah Chee, Annette; Stannard, Kate; Storey, Roy D; Rikkerink, Erik H

    2015-01-01

    The kiwifruit cultivar Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A' is resistant to the polyphagous armoured scale insect pest Hemiberlesia lataniae (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). A cDNA microarray consisting of 17,512 unigenes selected from over 132,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was used to measure the transcriptomic profile of the A. chinensis 'Hort16A' canes in response to a controlled infestation of H. lataniae. After 2 days, 272 transcripts were differentially expressed. After 7 days, 5,284 (30%) transcripts were differentially expressed. The transcripts were grouped into 22 major functional categories using MapMan software. After 7 days, transcripts associated with photosynthesis (photosystem II) were significantly down-regulated, while those associated with secondary metabolism were significantly up-regulated. A total of 643 transcripts associated with response to stress were differentially expressed. This included biotic stress-related transcripts orthologous with pathogenesis related proteins, the phenylpropanoid pathway, NBS-LRR (R) genes, and receptor-like kinase-leucine rich repeat signalling proteins. While transcriptional studies are not conclusive in their own right, results were suggestive of a defence response involving both ETI and PTI, with predominance of the SA signalling pathway. Exogenous application of an SA-mimic decreased H. lataniae growth on A. chinensis 'Hort16A' plants in two laboratory experiments.

  2. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  3. ESP-102, a Combined Herbal Extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, Changes Synaptic Plasticity and Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rat Hippocampus Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Choi, Ga-Young; Lee, Seok; Park, Tae-Suk; Lee, Cheol-Won; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Young-Choong; Kim, Sang Seong; Lee, Sung-Ok; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ESP-102, an extract from Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, has been used as herbal medicine and dietary supplement in Korea. Despite the numerous bioactivities in vitro and in vivo studies, its effects on neuronal networks remain elusive. To address the neuronal effect, we examined synaptic plasticity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture with multielectrode array. Our results showed an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), indicating the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), in the presence of ESP-102. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of ESP-102 was also tested by application of scopolamine to the hippocampal slice. Interestingly, ESP-102 competitively antagonized the preventative LTP effect induced by scopolamine. The scopolamine-induced reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and GluR-2 expression was also rescued by ESP-102. In terms of mode of action, ESP-102 appears to act on the presynaptic region independent of AMPA/NMDA receptors. Based on these findings, ESP-102 can be suggested as a novel herbal ingredient with memory enhancing as well as neuroprotective effects. PMID:27298627

  4. Rhizome Severing Increases Root Lifespan of Leymus chinensis in a Typical Steppe of Inner Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Wenming; Xun, Fen; Li, Yang; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Linghao

    2010-01-01

    Background Root lifespan is an important trait that determines plants' ability to acquire and conserve soil resources. There have been several studies investigating characteristics of root lifespan of both woody and herbaceous species. However, most of the studies have focused on non-clonal plants, and there have been little data on root lifespan for clonal plants that occur widely in temperate grasslands. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effects of rhizome severing on overall root lifespan of Leymus chinensis, a clonal, dominant grass species in the temperate steppe in northern China, in a 2-year field study using modified rhizotron technique. More specifically, we investigated the effects of rhizome severing on root lifespan of roots born in different seasons and distributed at different soil depths. Rhizome severing led to an increase in the overall root lifespan from 81 to 103 days. The increase in root lifespan exhibited spatial and temporal characteristics such that it increased lifespan for roots distributed in the top two soil layers and for roots born in summer and spring, but it had no effect on lifespan of roots in the deep soil layer and born in autumn. We also examined the effect of rhizome severing on carbohydrate and N contents in roots, and found that root carbohydrate and N contents were not affected by rhizome severing. Further, we found that root lifespan of Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, two dominant, non-clonal species in the temperate steppe, was significantly longer (118 d) than that of L. chinensis (81 d), and this value became comparable to that of L. chinensis under rhizome severing (103 d). Conclusions/Significance We found that root lifespan in dominant, clonal L. chinensis was shorter than for the dominant, non-clonal species of S. krylovii and A. frigida. There was a substantial increase in the root lifespan of L. chinensis in response to severing their rhizomes, and this increase in root lifespan exhibited

  5. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling reveals long noncoding RNA expression and alternative splicing regulation during fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. Previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit RNA-Seq libraries of A. chinensis cv. 'Hongyang' at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening...

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of Saururus chinensis aerial parts in murine macrophages via induction of heme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue; Kim, Inhye; Jeong, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill. is a perennial plant distributed throughout Northeast Asia and its roots have been widely used as a traditional medicine for hepatitis, asthma, pneumonia, and gonorrhea. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an extract of S. chinensis of the aerial parts (rather than the root), and the signaling pathway responsible for this effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. The subfraction 4 (SCF4) from the n-hexane layer of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. chinensis exhibited the highest nitrite-inhibitory activity. SCF4 significantly inhibited the production of nitrite and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. SCF4 caused significant phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt, which subsequently induced the nuclear translocation of p-p65 nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2. SCF4 also suppressed the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1). The heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin attenuated the inhibitory effect of SCF4 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitrite production and expression of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and p-STAT1. We identified sauchinone as the active compound in S. chinensis extract and SCF4. Sauchinone was shown to significantly inhibit nitrite production and inflammatory mediators expression via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. These results suggest that S. chinensis extract, SCF4, and its active compound, sauchinone, could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:26553125

  7. Resistance of Faba Bean and Pea Germplasm to Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Its Relationship With Quality Components.

    PubMed

    Duan, Can-Xing; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Ren, Gui-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan

    2014-10-01

    In total, 339 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and 100 pea (Pisum sativum L.) accessions were screened for their ability to resist Callosobruchus chinensis L. in free choice laboratory tests. Four, 15, and 43 faba bean varieties were highly resistant, resistant, and moderately resistant to C. chinensis, respectively. Three immune, three highly resistant, and six resistant accessions were discovered among the pea germplasm. The faba bean and pea varieties presented a hundred-kernel weight reduction varied from 0.18 to 35.36% for faba bean varieties and 0 to 56.53% for pea varieties. Varieties with brown and black seed color had significantly fewer wormholes and higher C. chinensis resistance than varieties with light-color seeds. Resistance to C. chinensis showed a significant, positive correlation with catechin, total polyphenol, and γ-aminobutyric acid contents, but a significant, negative correlation with oligosaccharide content. Correlation coefficients (r) between infestation rate of faba bean and total phenol, catechin, and oligosaccharide contents were -0.9723, -0.8071, and 0.7631, respectively. The values of r for pea resistance and total phenol, catechin, and oligosaccharide content were -0.8846, -0.7666, and 0.8308, respectively. The results suggest that quality components in faba bean and pea have a great role in resistance against C. chinensis.

  8. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  9. Seasonal variation and gender pattern of phenolic and flavonoid contents in Pistacia chinensis Bunge inflorescences and leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lele; Yang, Minglei; Gao, Junlan; Jin, Shan; Wu, Zhengyan; Wu, Lifang; Zhang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Pistacia chinensis Bunge (P. chinensis) is a deciduous and dioecious perennial arbor of the family Anacardiaceae that flowers from March to April and bears fruit from September to October. There are three rapidly growing stages in the annual growth process of P. chinensis. However, the knowledge of the secondary metabolites related to P. chinensis gender and growth season remains scant. In this study, HPLC was used to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the content of the catechin hydrate, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol contents in male and female tree inflorescences and leaves. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also detected using a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the contents of these compounds fluctuated with seasons and they reached the highest levels in nascent leaves. The fluctuations of these compounds followed different pathways of evolution, by increasing or decreasing in male and female trees throughout the whole growth process because they had their own biological functions. Moreover, the extracts exhibited DPPH radical scavenging bioactivity and showed no significant cytotoxicity towards 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Together, these results demonstrated that P. chinensis has great potential as an antioxidant medicine, and the best harvest time is in the spring. PMID:26717010

  10. Ecophysiology of two Sonoran Desert evergreen shrubs during extreme drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent drought across the arid Southwest US may be especially problematic for evergreen desert species that maintain leaves through dry periods. In July, 2002 we compared the ecophysiogical performance of the microphyllous creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) to broadleaved jojoba (Simmondisa chinensis...

  11. The protective effects of Schisandra chinensis fruit extract and its lignans against cardiovascular disease: a review of the molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jung Nyeo; Cho, Minsoo; So, Insuk; Jeon, Ju-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SCE) has traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Advances in scientific knowledge and analytical technologies provide opportunities for translational research involving S. chinensis; such research may contribute to future drug discovery. To date, emerging experimental evidence supports the therapeutic effects of the SCE or its bioactive lignan ingredients in cardiovascular disease, unraveling the mechanistic basis for their pharmacological actions. In the present review, we highlight SCE and its lignans as promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against cardiovascular disease. Moreover, we offer novel insight into future challenges and perspective on S. chinensis research to future clinical investigations and healthcare strategies.

  12. Isolation and purification of orientin and vitexin from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Jie-Yun; Xu, Dan; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Xie, Zhi-Sheng; Xu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Orientin and vitexin are the two main bioactive compounds in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, a rapid method was established for the isolation and purification of orientin and vitexin from T. chinensis Bunge using high-speed counter-current chromatography in one step, with a solvent system of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4:1:5, v/v/v). A total of 9.8 mg orientin and 2.1 mg vitexin were obtained from 100 mg of the ethyl acetate extract, with purities of 99.2% and 96.0%, respectively. Their structures were identified by UV, MS and NMR. The method was efficient and convenient, which could be used for the preparative separation of orientin and vitexin from T. chinensis Bunge.

  13. Genetic variation among wild and cultivated populations of the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, W; Yang, C-F; Chen, J-M; Guo, Y-H

    2008-07-01

    To examine if the cultivation process has reduced the genetic variation of modern cultivars of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Coptis chinensis, the levels and distribution of genetic variation was investigated using ISSR markers. A total of 214 C. chinensis individuals from seven wild and three cultivated populations were included in the study. Seven ISSR primers were used and a total of 91 DNA fragments were scored. The levels of genetic diversity in cultivated populations were similar as those in wild populations (mean PPL = 65.2% versus PPL = 52.4%, mean H = 0.159 versus H = 0.153 and mean I = 0.255 versus I = 0.237), suggesting that cultivation did not seriously influence genetic variation of present-day cultivated populations. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that wild populations and cultivated populations were not separated into two groups. The coefficient of genetic differentiation between a cultivar and its wild progenitor was 0.066 (G(st)), which was in good accordance with the result by amova analysis (10.9% of total genetic variation resided on the two groups), indicating that cultivated populations were not genetically differentiated from wild progenitors. For the seven wild populations, a significant genetic differentiation among populations was found using amova analysis (45.9% of total genetic variation resided among populations). A number of causes, including genetic drift and inbreeding in the small and isolated wild populations, the relative limited gene flow between wild populations (N(m) = 0.590), and high gene flow between cultivars and their wild progenitors (N(m) = 7.116), might have led to the observed genetic profiles of C. chinensis.

  14. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  15. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from some common spices against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the essential oil from seven common spices, Anethum graveolens, Cuminum cyminum, Illicium verum, Myristica fragrans, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum and Trachyspermum ammi was isolated and its insecticidal, oviposition, egg hatching and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger apparatus. These essential oils caused death of adults and larvae of Callosobruchus chinensis when fumigated. The 24-h LC(50) values against the adults of the insect were 8.9 mul, 10.8 mul, 11.0 mul, 12.5 mul, 13.6 mul, 14.8 mul and 15.6 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils respectively. On the other hand, against larval stage these values were 6.4 mul, 7.9 mul, 8.9 mul, 11.1 mul, 11.7 mul, 12.2 mul and 13.5 mul for N. sativa, A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi respectively. These essential oils reduced the oviposition potential, egg hatching rate, pupal formation and emergence of adults of F(1) progeny of the insect when fumigated with sublethal concentrations. These essential oils also caused chronic toxicity as the fumigated insects caused less damage to the stored grains. The essential oil of N. sativa was found most effective against all the different stages of the Callosobruchus chinensis followed by A. graveolens, C. cyminum, I. verum, P. nigrum, M. fragrans and T. ammi oils. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. The toxic and developmental inhibitory effects may be due to suffocation and inhibition of various biosynthetic processes of the insects at different developmental stages. PMID:18270466

  16. Effect of Galla chinensis on the In Vitro Remineralization of Advanced Enamel Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2010-01-01

    Aim The effect of Galla chinensis on de-/re-mineralization of advanced enamel lesions was investigated by using micro-CT in a prolonged in vitro experiment. Methodology Baseline mineral contents of sound enamels were first analyzed. Then lesions were produced in an acidic buffer solution (2.2 mmol·L−1 Ca(NO3)2, 2.2 mmol·L−1 KH2PO4, and pH=4.5) for 21 days, with thrice daily three-minute treatments, divided into four groups: Group A, 4 000 ppm crude aqueous extract of Galla chinensis (GCE); Group B, 4 000 ppm gallic acid; Group C, 1 000 ppm F aq. (as NaF, positive control); Group D, deionized water (negative control). Next, the blocks were immersed in a remineralization solution (1.5 mmol·L−1 CaCl2, 0.9 mmol·L−1 KH2PO4, 0.1 ppm F, and pH=7.0) for 200 days. Mineral loss (ML) in each region of interest(ROI) and integrated mineral loss (IML) of the lesions were calculated (comparing with baseline mineral content of sound enamel) at different time points. Results After 21 days demineralization, fluoride treatment showed a statistically significant demineralization-inhibiting effect among the four groups, and after 200 days of remineralization, mineral content recovery was ordered (lowest to highest) as A=Cchinensis in enhancing the remineralization of dental caries is different from fluoride. PMID:20690414

  17. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies. PMID:27137193

  18. Environmental and human health risks of antimicrobials used in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming; Chang, Zhiqiang; Van den Brink, Paul J; Li, Jian; Zhao, Fazhen; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the environmental fate of antimicrobials applied in Fenneropenaeus chinensis aquaculture production in China and to assess their potential risks for surrounding aquatic ecosystems, for the promotion of antimicrobial resistance in target and non-target bacteria and for consumers eating shrimp products that contain antimicrobial residues. For this, we first used the results of an environmental monitoring study performed with the antimicrobial sulfamethazine to parameterize and calibrate the ERA-AQUA model, a mass balance model suited to perform risk assessments of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture ponds. Next, a scenario representing F. chinensis production in China was built and used to perform risk assessments for 21 antimicrobials which are regulated for aquaculture in China. Results of the model calibration showed a good correspondence between the predicted and the measured sulfamethazine concentrations, with differences within an order of magnitude. Results of the ecological risk assessment showed that four antimicrobials (levofloxacin, sarafloxacin, ampicillin, sulfadiazine) are expected to have adverse effects on primary producers, while no short-term risks were predicted for invertebrates and fish exposed to farm wastewater effluents containing antimicrobial residues. Half of the evaluated antimicrobials showed potential to contribute to antimicrobial resistance in bacteria exposed to pond water and farm effluents. A withdrawal period of three weeks is recommended for antimicrobials applied via oral administration to F. chinensis in order to comply with the current national and international toxicological food safety standards. The results of this study indicate the need to improve the current regulatory framework for the registration of aquaculture antimicrobials in China and suggest compounds that should be targeted in future aquaculture risk assessments and environmental monitoring studies.

  19. Phytochemical investigation of sesquiterpenes from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Venkanna, A; Siva, B; Poornima, B; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Prasad, K Rajendra; Reddy, K Ashok; Reddy, G Bhanu Prakash; Babu, K Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis led to the isolation of four new sesquiterpenes (1-4); their structures were determined by a combination of NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectroscopic techniques. In addition, all these isolates were screened for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, Caco-2, Hela, Lncap, Hep G2 and MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines. Results indicated that compounds 2 and 3 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against Caco2 cell lines with IC50 values of 17.10 μg/mM and 16.46 μg/mM, respectively.

  20. Bioactive diterpenoids from Trigonostemon chinensis: Structures, NO inhibitory activities, and interactions with iNOS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Peng, Maoqin; Sun, Xiaocong; Liu, Xingyu; Tong, Ling; Su, Guochen; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Lee, Dongho; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2016-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation to obtain new NO inhibitors led to the isolation of two new (1 and 2) and four known (3-6) diterpenoids from Trigonostemon chinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analyses, and the absolute configurations of new compounds were established by experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells of these diterpenoids were evaluated, and all of the compounds showed inhibitory effects. The interactions of bioactive compounds with iNOS protein were also studied by molecular docking. PMID:27570243

  1. Genomic organization and promoter analysis of a transcriptional repressor gene from Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaofang; Shen, Shanrui; Gao, Huan; Yan, Binlun

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced genomic sequences from a Fenneropenaeus chinensis transcriptional repressor gene, FcTR. The FcTR gene is 2,671 bp in length and has four exons and three introns. The 873 bp promoter contains several transcription factor binding sites, including a TATA box and a cyclic AMP-responsive element. Promoter deletion analysis using a luciferase reporter gene identified regulatory elements. Challenge with white spot syndrome virus increased expression from the promoter-deletion constructs. These results suggest that FcTR might play an important role in the shrimp immune response.

  2. [Responses of Arma chinensis cold tolerance to rapid cold hardening and underlying physiological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Peng; Song, Li-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Chen, Yue-Qu; Zuo, Tong-Tong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4 degrees C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15 degrees C for 4 h to 10 degrees C for 4 h, and finally to 4 degrees C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10 degrees C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10 degrees C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was averagely 58.3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C) or treated with cooling at 15 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8.9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was -15.6 degrees C, which was averagely 1.3 degrees C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61.8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h increased by 2.82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and

  3. [Molecular cloning of Tupaia belangeri chinensis neuropeptide Y and homology comparison with other analogues from primates].

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Lv, Long-Bao; Lai, Ren

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been payed to tree shrews for their close phylogenetic relationship with primates, small size, and short reproductive cycle. Especially, they are considered as excellent experiential animals for medicine or/and disease research. A nucleotide sequence encoding neuropeptide Y(NPY) precursor has been cloned from the cDNA library of Tupaia belangeri chinensis. Sequence alignment revealed that the sequence homology with primate NPY was up to 96.9%. The phylogenetic analysis based on NPY precursor sequence revealed that the tree shrew has a close relationship with primates.

  4. Characterization of a Septobasidium sp. Associated with Felt Disease of Schisandra chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Lee, Jong-Jin; Park, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Jeong-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Extensive disease surveys performed during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in Schisandra chinensis orchards resulted in the finding of a Septobasidium sp. associated with felt disease. The fungus was characterized to be symbiotic with a scale insect (Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli). Morphological and molecular characteristics of the Septobasidium isolates were investigated. The isolates were morphologically and phylogenetically close to S. bogoriense. We tentatively describe this isolate as a Septobasidium sp., mainly because of the limited amount of information available on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of Septobasidium spp. PMID:27103856

  5. [Responses of Arma chinensis cold tolerance to rapid cold hardening and underlying physiological mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Peng; Song, Li-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Chen, Yue-Qu; Zuo, Tong-Tong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Rapid cold hardening can enhance the cold tolerance of some insects. To explore the effects of different cold hardening induction temperature on the cold tolerance of Arma chinensis and related physiological mechanisms, the 3rd generation A. chinensis adults reared indoor were treated with cooling at 15, 10, and 4 degrees C for 4 h, respectively, or with gradual cooling from 15 degrees C for 4 h to 10 degrees C for 4 h, and finally to 4 degrees C for 4 h. The super-cooling point, water content, and the contents of low molecular carbohydrates, glycerol, and amino acids of the adults after cooling and the adults cold tolerance at 0, -5, and -10 degrees C were measured by thermocouple, high performance liquid chromatography, and other analytical techniques. When exposed at -10 degrees C after cooling, the survival rate of the adults treated with gradual cooling or treated with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was averagely 58.3%, while that of the adults reared at room temperature (25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C) or treated with cooling at 15 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 4 h decreased significantly, with an average of 8.9%. The super-cooling point of the adults treated with gradual cooling or with cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h was -15.6 degrees C, which was averagely 1.3 degrees C lower than that of the other treatments. The water content of the adults had no significant difference among all treatments, with an average of 61.8%, but the glucose, sorbitolum, glycerol, Ala, and Glu contents in treatments gradual cooling and cooling at 4 degrees C for 4 h increased by 2.82-fold, 2.65-fold, 3.49-fold, 51.3%, and 80.2%, while the fucose, mannose, and Pro contents decreased by 68.4%, 52.2%, and 30.2%, respectively, as compared with the other treatments. The fructose content showed no significant difference among all treatments. It was suggested that rapid cool hardening had a critical temperature to induce the physiological metabolism process of adult A. chinensis, and

  6. Gymnothelignans A-O: conformation and absolute configuration analyses of lignans bearing tetrahydrofuran from Gymnotheca chinensis.

    PubMed

    He, Dahai; Ding, Lisheng; Xu, Hongxi; Lei, Xinxiang; Xiao, Hongping; Zhou, Yan

    2012-10-01

    Fifteen new lignans, gymnothelignans A-O (1-15), bearing tetrahydrofuran with variable conformations belonging to three potentially related skeletons were isolated from Gymnotheca chinensis Decne. The structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Absolute configurations were assigned using X-ray single-crystal diffraction and chemical transformations. Moreover, by the homology, compounds 1-11 and eupomatilones were confirmed to have uniform R-configuration at C-5. However, a synthesized congener has long been mistaken as 5-epimer of eupomatilone-6. This work provides guidance for the absolute configuration establishment of the subeupomatilone family with trans-H-4-H-5 configuration.

  7. Intra-specific variation in strategic ejaculation according to level of polyandry in Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2005-11-01

    Optimal sperm allocation should differ according to the level of polyandry within a population, because the risk of sperm competition depends on the re-mating frequency of females. We compared the number of sperm ejaculated by males into the female reproductive organ between strains with different levels of polyandry in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) when males were reared in different larval densities in a bean. The results showed that males derived from a population with a higher level of polyandry increased ejaculatory expenditure when they were reared under higher larval densities. We discuss the evolutionary correlation of ejaculatory expenditure to the level of polyandry.

  8. Short communication: effects of replacing part of corn silage and alfalfa hay with Leymus chinensis hay on milk production and composition.

    PubMed

    Yan, R; Chen, S; Zhang, Xian; Han, J; Zhang, Y; Undersander, D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of replacing part of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa hay (AH) with Leymus chinensis hay on milk production and composition. Twenty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a randomized block design for a 14-week period and 2 treatments. Treatments were (dry matter basis): (1) Non-Leymus chinensis hay diet (NLC; 35% CS, 15% AH) and (2) added Leymus chinensis hay diet (ALC; 30% CS, 10% AH, 10% Leymus chinensis hay). Adding Leymus chinensis hay increased neutral detergent fiber content and in vitro digestibility of the diet. Cows receiving the ALC diet had higher dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, lactose yield, solids-not-fat yield, and milk fat content compared with those fed the NLC diet. Somatic cell counts of cows decreased in the ALC compared with the NLC treatment. Cis-11 18:1 and 18:2 contents in milk increased, whereas trans-9 and cis-9 18:1 fatty acid contents decreased. Trans-9, cis-11 conjugated linoleic acid content was not influenced by adding Leymus chinensis hay to the diet. Leymus chinensis hay can be used to replace part of CS and AH in diets of dairy cows to get higher milk yield and good milk quality.

  9. Simulation of semi-arid biomass plantations and irrigation using the WRF-NOAH model - a comparison with observations from Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2014-05-01

    A 10 × 10 km irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel to simulate diurnal energy balances during the summer of 2012 (JJA). The goal is to examine daytime horizontal flux gradients between plantation and desert. Simulations were carried out within the coupled WRF-NOAH atmosphere/land surface model. MODIS land surface data was adjusted by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by adding a controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme to NOAH. Two model cases studies were compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates the irrigated plantation. Control simulates the existing land surface, where the predominant land surface is bare desert soil. Central to the study is parameter validation against land surface observations from a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with desert observations, and Impact with Jojoba observations. Model evapotranspiration was validated with two Penman-Monteith estimates based on the observations. Control simulates daytime desert conditions with a maximum deviation for surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) of 0.2 °C, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.25 hPa, wind speed (U) of 0.5 m s-1, surface radiation (Rn) of 25 W m-2, soil heat flux (G) of 30 W m-2 and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) of 1.5 °C. Impact simulates irrigated vegetation conditions with a maximum deviation for T2 of 1-1.5 °C, VPD of 0.5 hPa, U of 0.5 m s-1, Rn of 50 W m-5, G of 40 W m-2 and ST5 of 2 °C. Latent heat curves in Impact correspond closely with Penman-Monteith estimates, and magnitudes of 160 W m-2 over the plantation are usual. Sensible heat fluxes, are around 450 W m-2 and are at least 100-110 W m-2 higher than the surrounding desert. This surplus is driven by reduced albedo and high surface resistance, and demonstrates that high evaporation rates may not occur over Jojoba if irrigation is optimized. Furthermore, increased daytime T2 over plantations

  10. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  11. Performance of Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis flower dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemalatha, K. V.; Karthick, S. N.; Justin Raj, C.; Hong, N.-Y.; Kim, S.-K.; Kim, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    The natural dyes carotenoid and anthocyanin were extracted from Kerria japonica and Rosa chinensis, respectively, using a simple extraction technique without any further purification. They were then used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and their characteristics were studied. The ranges of short-circuit current (JSC) from 0.559 to 0.801 (mA/cm2), open-circuit voltage (VOC) from 0.537 to 0.584 V, and fill factor from 0.676 to 0.705 were obtained for the DSSCs made using the extracted dyes. Sugar molecules were added externally to the dye for stabilization and to increase the conversion efficiency. The efficiencies of the K. japonica and R. chinensis dyes were 0.22% and 0.29%, respectively; after the addition of sugar, the efficiency increased to 0.29% for K. japonica and decreased to 0.27% for R. chinensis. Thus, the addition of sugar molecules increased the conversion efficiency slightly with the carotenoid dye of K. japonica, while there was no considerable change with the anthocyanin of R. chinensis. This paper briefly discusses the simple extraction technique of these natural dyes and their performance in DSSCs.

  12. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  13. Isolation and purification of schisandrol A from the stems of Schisandra chinensis and cytotoxicity against human hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Guohui; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schisandrol A, a lignan with anticancer effects, is one of the representative components that identifies Schisandra chinensis. Objective: A method for purifying schisandrol A from the stems of S. chinensis was established using an octadecylsilyl (ODS) column combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: Crude extracts obtained from the stems of S. chinensis using 70% ethanol were separated on an AB-8 macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. After 70% methanol was used in an ODS column separation, preparative HPLC was used for subsequent purification. The structure was identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance. HepG2 and Bel-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were used for toxicological evaluation. Results: 21.4 mg of schisandrol A with a purity of 95.2% were collected. The cytotoxicity of the ODS-purified sample and schisandrol A were significantly stronger than that of a resin-purified sample. Conclusion: Schisandrol A was successfully extracted from the stems of S. chinensis and separated with an ODS column combined with preparative HPLC. The samples obtained during the purification process showed different levels of cytotoxicity on the HepG2 and Bel-7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. PMID:25709222

  14. Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of Fenneropenaeus chinensis populations, as revealed by the analysis of mitochondrial control region sequences.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao Yu; Li, Yu Long; Shi, Wei; Kong, Jie

    2010-04-01

    Genetic variation and evolutionary demography of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were investigated using sequence data of the complete mitochondrial control region (CR). Fragments of 993 bp of the CR were sequenced for 93 individuals from five localities over most of the species' range in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. There were 84 variable sites defining 68 haplotypes. Haplotype diversity levels were very high (0.95 ± 0.03-0.99 ± 0.02) in F. chinensis populations, whereas those of nucleotide diversity were moderate to low (0.66 ± 0.36%-0.84 ± 0.46%). Analysis of molecular variance and conventional population statistics (F(ST) ) revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the range of F. chinensis. Mismatch distribution, estimates of population parameters and neutrality tests revealed that the significant fluctuations and shallow coalescence of mtDNA genealogies observed were coincident with estimated demographic parameters and neutrality tests, in implying important past-population size fluctuations or range expansion. Isolation with Migration (IM) coalescence results suggest that F. chinensis, distributed along the coasts of northern China and the Korean Peninsula (about 1000 km apart), diverged recently, the estimated time-split being 12,800 (7,400-18,600) years ago.

  15. Metabolomics analysis reveals variation in Schisandra chinensis cetabolites from different origins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinan; Li, Fen; Huang, Fengjie; Xie, Guoxiang; Wei, Runmin; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis), an important herbal medicine, is mainly distributed in the northeast of China. Its phytochemical compositions, which depend on geographical origin, climatic conditions and cultural practices, may vary largely among Wu Wei Zi from different areas. In this study, we applied a comprehensive metabolite profiling approach using GC-TOF-MS, ultra-performance LC (UPLC) quadrupole TOF (QTOF) MS and inductively coupled plasma MS to systematically investigate the metabolite variations of S. chinensis from four different areas including Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Jilin, and Shanxi of China. A total of 65 primary metabolites, 35 secondary metabolites and 64 inorganic elements were identified. Several primary metabolites, including shikimic acid and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, were abundant in those located in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. Besides, bioactive lignans are also highly abundant in those from northeastern China than those from northwestern China. Inorganic elements varied significantly among the different locations. Our results suggested that the metabolite profiling approach using GC-TOF-MS, ultra-performance LC quadrupole TOF MS, and inductively coupled plasma MS is a robust and reliable method that can be effectively used to explore subtle variations among plants from different geographical locations.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel BcMF14 gene from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Nie, Chuanpeng; Cao, Jiashu

    2011-03-01

    A putative RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)-like gene (GenBank accession number EF523517), named BcMF14, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a cDNA-AFLP differential fragment exclusively expressed in fertile line. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) discovered that BcMF14 was prominently expressed in stage four and five flower buds of fertile line, no expression in vegetative structures or in sterility line. Detailed RT-PCR illuminated its strong expression in stamens. Successful suppression of BcMF14 gene expression greatly reduced the normal pollen grains. The frequency of abnormal pollen grains was 48.95% in the mutant with many shriveled pollen grains with irregular shape and some larger ones with deep hollows along the germination ditch. Pollen germination was stopped because of the severely twisted pollen tubes. These results demonstrate a potential role of the BcMF14 gene in the development of male gametogenesis in Chinese cabbage.

  17. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'). Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric). Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom. PMID:22204446

  18. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis during flower blooming in Rosa chinensis 'Pallida'.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Min; Jian, Hongying; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Li, Shubin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Ningning; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Qigang; Tang, Kaixue

    2014-04-25

    Rosa chinensis 'Pallida' (Rosa L.) is one of the most important ancient rose cultivars originating from China. It contributed the 'tea scent' trait to modern roses. However, little information is available on the gene regulatory networks involved in scent biosynthesis and metabolism in Rosa. In this study, the transcriptome of R. chinensis 'Pallida' petals at different developmental stages, from flower buds to senescent flowers, was investigated using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo assembly generated 89,614 clusters with an average length of 428bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, 62.9% of total clusters were annotated. Out of these annotated transcripts, 25,705 and 37,159 sequences were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. The dataset provides information on transcripts putatively associated with known scent metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression (DGE) was obtained using RNA samples from flower bud, open flower and senescent flower stages. Comparative DGE and quantitative real time PCR permitted the identification of five transcripts encoding proteins putatively associated with scent biosynthesis in roses. The study provides a foundation for scent-related gene discovery in roses.

  19. [Reclamation of the plant regeneration efficiency of Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis var.Parachinensis].

    PubMed

    Yu, X L; Cao, J S; Xu, S Y

    2001-06-01

    This investigation has developed an efficient and fast method for plant regeneration from petiole of cotyledon explants of Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis Makino var. parachinensis Tsen et Lee. A medium was designed for B. campestris subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis to obtain the high frequency of shoot regeneration, which contained BAP 2 mg/L, NAA 0.75-1.0 mgL and 7.5 mg/L AgNO3 solution to the half of NH4+ concentration's MS basic medium. 60 mL/L coconut milk were added to all of media. In this method, frequency of shoot regeneration of "youqing caixin" reached as high as 91.2% and the number of shoots per explant reached as high as 4.7 plants. The result showed that there was a positive correlation between frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant. The little shoots could be observed five days after inoculation and were formed directly. The inducing rate of roots of the shoots reached as high as 100% and the rate of viability of transferred mature plant reached higher than 95%. The regeneration period from petiole with cotyledon to a seedling was shorten to about 49 days. Factors influencing in vitro explant regeneration were studied. PMID:12549111

  20. [Cytological observation on intergeneric hybrid between Brassica. Chinensis and Crambe abyssinica].

    PubMed

    Tang, Tian-Ze; Niu, Ying-Ze; Shui, Hong-Xia

    2006-02-01

    The intergeneric hybrid from a cross between Brassica. Chinensis and Crambe abyssinica was observed with 2n=55 chromosomes in the original progenies. After several generations of in-vitro propagation by tissue culture, the chromosomes of the intergeneric hybrid were remarkably reduced, varying from 25 to 28, averaged at 26.In meiosis of the PMC of the hybrid, the average configuration of chromosome pairing was 0.06 III + 11.26 II + 3.80 I. The number of bivalents varied from 8 to 13. The majority of PMC cells showed 10 II, 11 II and 12 II bivalents with frequencies of 24.58%, 23.91% and 30.98% respectively. The number of univalents varied from 0 to 8. The reduction of chromosomes in the hybrid and the high numbers of bivalents were possibly due to the chromosome of Crambe abyssinica eliminating and the genome of Brassica. Chinensis doubling in the hybrid cells. Triade cells, chromosome lagging, and chromosome bridges were observed in anaphase II.

  1. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from fibrous roots of Coptis chinensis on two leguminous species].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2013-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the allelopathic effects of Coptis chinensis fibrous root extracts (CRE) on the germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in order to alleviate the allelopathic effects and increase land productivity. The seeds of both garden pea (P. sativum) and broad been (V. faba) were germinated in CRE solution of various concentrations, the germination rate, seedling growth and related physiological indexes were measured. The result indicated that there were no significant effects of CRE in low concentrations on seed germination, including both the rate and index, and seed vitality and membrane permeability. With the increment of CRE concentrations, however, the high seed membrane permeability and germination inhibition were observed. For example, the germination rates were reduced by 23.4% (P. sativum) and 9.5% (V. faba), respectively, in CRE solution with 800 mg . L-1. Simultaneously, soluble sugars and the free amino acids in the seeds were lower than those in the control (without CRE) after soaking seeds in CRE solutions. In addition, the seedling growth and nitrate reductase activity were stimulated by CRE at low concentrations in contrast to high concentrations which behaved otherwise and inhibited the nutrient utilization in endosperm. Therefore, the large amount of allelochemicals released from the roots and remains of C. chinensis in soils could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of legumes, which may lead to decrease even fail crop yields after growing this medical plant.

  2. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries

    PubMed Central

    Clearwater, Michael J.; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T. Grant

    2012-01-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’) exhibiting a pre-harvest ‘shrivel’ disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (Da) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high Da. Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in Da. Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to Da-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined. PMID:22155631

  3. Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Enhui; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Gao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunpeng; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Wuren; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Song, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75 μg·mL−1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:25587343

  4. Purification, antioxidant and immunological activities of polysaccharides from Actinidia Chinensis roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wuxia; Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dongdong; Dong, Dongqi; Mu, Haibo; Ye, Xin-Shan; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-01-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides (ACPS1 and ACPS2) were isolated from the roots of Actinidia Chinensis by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephacryl S300 chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization was conducted by physicochemical property, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ACPS1, with an average molecular weight of 5.58 × 10(5) Da, was mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 1.48:4.28:4.30:1.00:17.83. ACPS2, with a high average molecular weight of 1.23 × 10(6) Da, mainly contained rhamnose, arabinose and galactose in a molar ratio of approximately 1.00:2.33:6.61. Both ACPS1 and ACPS2 exhibited the remarkable antioxidant activity to scavenge the DPPH radical and significant protective effects on H2O2-induced HEK 293 cells death in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, in vitro immunomodulatory activities of the two polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that treatment with 50-300 μg/mL of the samples could increase NO production and phagocytic activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The present results suggested that the two polysaccharides from Actinidia Chinensis may be potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents for preparing functional foods and nutraceuticals applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Pigments in the fruit of red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis and Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Montefiori, Mirco; McGhie, Tony K; Costa, Guglielmo; Ferguson, A Ross

    2005-11-30

    Kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa) generally have fruit with yellow or green flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes also have red pigments, usually restricted to the inner pericarp but varying in intensity and in distribution within the fruit. Carotenoids, chorophylls, and anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit pericarp of such red-fleshed kiwifruit selections. Pigments were analyzed by HPLC and identified by comparison with authentic standards and by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to obtain a tentative identification of the major anthocyanins in red-fleshed kiwifruit. The yellow and green colors of the outer fruit pericarp are due to different concentrations and proportions of carotenoids and chlorophylls. The red color found mainly in the inner pericarp is due to anthocyanins. In the A. chinensis genotypes tested the major anthocyanin was cyanidin 3-O-xylo(1-2)-galactoside, with smaller amounts of cyanidin 3-O-galactoside. In the A. deliciosa genotypes analyzed, cyanidin 3-O-xylo(1-2)-galactoside was not detected; instead, the major anthocyanins identified were cyanidin 3-O-galactoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. However, the two species did not differ consistently in anthocyanin composition.

  6. Vascular functioning and the water balance of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) berries.

    PubMed

    Clearwater, Michael J; Luo, Zhiwei; Ong, Sam Eng Chye; Blattmann, Peter; Thorp, T Grant

    2012-03-01

    Indirect evidence suggests that water supply to fleshy fruits during the final stages of development occurs through the phloem, with the xylem providing little water, or acting as a pathway for water loss back to the plant. This inference was tested by examining the water balance and vascular functioning of ripening kiwifruit berries (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'Hort16A') exhibiting a pre-harvest 'shrivel' disorder in California, and normal development in New Zealand. Dye labelling and mass balance experiments indicated that the xylem and phloem were both functional and contributed approximately equally to the fruit water supply during this stage of development. The modelled fruit water balance was dominated by transpiration, with net water loss under high vapour pressure deficit (D(a)) conditions in California, but a net gain under cooler New Zealand conditions. Direct measurement of pedicel sap flow under controlled conditions confirmed inward flows in both the phloem and xylem under conditions of both low and high D(a). Phloem flows were required for growth, with gradual recovery after a step increase in D(a). Xylem flows alone were unable to support growth, but did supply transpiration and were responsive to D(a)-induced pressure fluctuations. The results suggest that the shrivel disorder was a consequence of a high fruit transpiration rate, and that the perception of complete loss or reversal of inward xylem flows in ripening fruits should be re-examined.

  7. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    PubMed

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration.

  8. Functional and expression analyses of two kinds of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases in a glycinebetaine-hyperaccumulating graminaceous halophyte, Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Asumi; Kono-Ozaki, Keiko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Takabe, Teruhiro; Takabe, Tetsuko

    2015-01-01

    Glycinebetaine (GB) is an important compatible solute for salinity tolerance in many plants. In this study, we analyzed the enzymatic activity and the expression level of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), an important enzyme that catalyzes the last step in the GB synthesis in Leymus chinensis, a GB-hyperaccumulating graminaceous halophyte, and compared with those of barley, a graminaceous glycophyte. We have isolated cDNAs for two BADH genes, LcBADH1 and LcBADH2. LcBADH1 has a putative peroxisomal signal peptide (PTS1) at its C-terminus, while LcBADH2 does not have any typical signal peptide. Using immunofluorescent labeling, we showed that BADH proteins were localized to the cytosol and dot-shaped organelles in the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of L.chinensis leaves. The affinity of recombinant LcBADH2 for betaine aldehyde was comparable to other plant BADHs, whereas recombinant LcBADH1 showed extremely low affinity for betaine aldehyde, indicating that LcBADH2 plays a major role in GB synthesis in L. chinensis. In addition, the recombinant LcBADH2 protein was tolerant to NaCl whereas LcBADH1 wasn't. The kinetics, subcellular and tissue localization of BADH proteins were comparable between L. chinensis and barley. The activity and expression level of BADH proteins were higher in L. chinensis compared with barley under both normal and salinized conditions, which may be related to the significant difference in the amount of GB accumulation between two plants.

  9. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins from Tupistra chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Limin; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-01-01

    Tupistra chinensis is widely distributed in southwestern China and its rhizome is a famous folk medicine for the treatment of carbuncles and pharyngitis. Its chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory constituents has been carried out in this study. Twenty-three polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins, including nine novels, were isolated and identified. The new spirostanol saponins were elucidated as spirost-25(27)-en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), spirost-25(27)- en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,3α,5β-triol (12), spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3α,4β,5β,6β-pentol (13), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,2β,3β,5β-tetraol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), (25R)-5β-spirostan- 1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), (25R)-5β- spirostan-1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (19), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (20). The antiproliferative effects against seven human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compounds 17, 19 and 21 exhibited potential antiproliferative activities against all of human cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 21 showed significant inhibition on NO production with IC50 values of 11.5 μM. These results showed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the dried rhizomes of T. chinensis have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities and T. chinensis might be used as anticancer and.anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:27530890

  10. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activity of Wood Vinegar from Litchi chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jyh-Ferng; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Liang, Ming-Tsai; Gao, Zi-Jie; Wu, Yuh-Wern; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar. Antioxidant activities of the acids were investigated from the aspects of 1,1-Diphyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenging capacity, superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity, and reducing power. The pyroligneous acid exhibited high antioxidant activity which was comparable to the reference standards (vitamin C and butylated hydroxyl toluene) at the same dose with IC50 values of 36.5 ppm calculated by the DPPH radical scavenging assay, 38.38 g Trolox equivalent/100 g DW by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and 67.9 by the reducing power analysis. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion and microdilution methods against a group of clinically antibiotic resistant isolates. The major components exhibited broad spectrum inhibition against all the bacterial strains with a range of disc inhibition zoon between 15-19 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bactericide concentration against the test strains was ranging in 0.95-3.80 μL/100 μL and 1.90-3.80 μL/100 μL, respectively. Most of the antibiotic resistant strains were more susceptible to the wood vinegar than the non-antibiotic resistant strain except the strain of ornithine resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the chemical profile, it was considered that the strongest antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Litchi chinensis wood vinegar was due to its highly phenolic compositions. This study revealed that the Litchi

  11. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins from Tupistra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Limin; Yi, Xiaomin; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2016-01-01

    Tupistra chinensis is widely distributed in southwestern China and its rhizome is a famous folk medicine for the treatment of carbuncles and pharyngitis. Its chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory constituents has been carried out in this study. Twenty-three polyhydroxylated spirostanol saponins, including nine novels, were isolated and identified. The new spirostanol saponins were elucidated as spirost-25(27)-en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), spirost-25(27)- en-1β,2β,3β,4β,5β-pentol-2-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (2), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,3α,5β-triol (12), spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3α,4β,5β,6β-pentol (13), spirost-25(27)-en- 1β,2β,3β,5β-tetraol-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-1β,3β-diol- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (17), (25R)-5β-spirostan- 1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (18), (25R)-5β- spirostan-1β,3β-diol-3-O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (19), 5β-spirost-25(27)-en-3β-ol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (20). The antiproliferative effects against seven human cancer cell lines and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were assayed for all the isolated compounds. Compounds 17, 19 and 21 exhibited potential antiproliferative activities against all of human cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 21 showed significant inhibition on NO production with IC50 values of 11.5 μM. These results showed that the spirostanol saponins isolated from the dried rhizomes of T. chinensis have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities and T. chinensis might be used as anticancer and.anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:27530890

  12. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred.

  13. Effect of periphyton community structure on heavy metal accumulation in mystery snail (Cipangopaludina chinensis): a case study of the Bai River, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingguo; Shan, Baoqing; Tang, Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The ratio of metal:P stoichiometry was used to identify the accumulation pathways of heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) from periphyton to snails Cipangopaludina chinensis Gray (C. chinensis) in the Bai River watershed. The results showed that periphyton communities were mainly composed of two types of algae, filamentous green algae and unicellular diatoms. The proportion of unicellular diatoms in the periphyton community is a key factor that influences metal accumulation in C. chinensis. The V, Cr, Co, Ni, and Cd content of C. chinensis increased steadily as the corresponding metal content of periphyton increased, but Cu and Pb in the snail did not increase in the periphyton. Mechanisms of V, Cr, and Ni accumulation were found to be related to the proportion of diatoms, while Cd and Pb accumulation were dependent on the physiological characteristics of C. chinensis. The accumulation of Cu in C. chinensis was closely related to their grazing behavior. The metal: P stoichiometry revealed that Cr, Ni, and Cd can reduce the potential ecological risks associated with increased P inputs to the ecosystem. V and Co were considered to be relatively safe, regardless of the periphyton P content. Finally, Pb may not be prone to transfer to higher trophic levels, and may pose the lowest ecological risks of the studied heavy metals, but Cu can cause potential ecological risks when eutrophication has occurred. PMID:23520840

  14. Chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis): a chromosome-specific marker for chromosome identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Pin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, cytogenetic and genomic data is limited in the organism partly because the chromosomes are difficult to isolate and analyze. In this study, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the chromosomes of F. chinensis. The 5S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of F. chinensis was isolated, cloned and then used as a hybridization probe. The results show that the 5S rDNA was located on one pair of homologous chromosomes in F. chinensis. In addition, triploid shrimp were used to evaluate the feasibility of chromosome identification using FISH and to validate the method. It was confirmed that 5S rDNA can be used as a chromosome-specific probe for chromosome identification in F. chinensis. The successful application of FISH in F. chinensis shows that chromosome-specific probes can be developed and this finding will facilitate further research on the chromosomes of penaeid shrimps.

  15. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested.

  16. Antioxidant properties of pyroligneous acid obtained by thermochemical conversion of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Li, Wei; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development of renewable resources is a major challenge globally. Biomass is an important renewable energy source and an alternative to fossil fuels. Pyrolysis of biomass is a promising method for simultaneous production of biochar, bio-oil, pyroligneous acid (PA), and gaseous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis process and products yields of Schisandra chinensis fruits with different pyrolysis powers. The obtained PA was extracted with organic solvents, including ethyl formate, dichloromethane, methanol and tetrahydrofuran. The antioxidant activities, including the free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power, of the PA extracts were investigated. The synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were used as positive controls. A dichloromethane extract of PA showed excellent antioxidant properties compared to the other extracts. The chemical compositions of the PA extracts were determined by GC-MS, and further proved that the dichloromethane extract had the best antioxidant characteristics among the extracts tested. PMID:25514224

  17. An immunostimulatory polysaccharide (SCP-IIa) from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tang, Jinbao; Wang, Xiaoke; Sun, Fengxiang; Liang, Shujuan

    2012-04-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide named SCP-IIa was isolated from the water extract of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill by means of ethanol precipitation, deproteination, anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. The molecular weight of SCP-IIa was ascertained via HPLC, and immuno-modulating effect was evaluated using the immunosuppressed model induced by cyclophosphamide. SCP-IIa was a homogeneous form of polysaccharide, with an average molecular weight of approximately 7700 Da. The detected parameters showed that SCP-IIa increased the thymus and spleen indices, as well as the pinocytic activity of the peritoneal macrophages in immunosuppressed mice. The splenocyte proliferation assay showed that SCP-IIa, in combination with Con A or LPS, positively affected splenocyte proliferation. Moreover, the polysaccharide promoted hemolysin formation. The results suggested that SCP-IIa was involved in immunomodulatory effects leading to the exploration for SCP-IIa as a potential immunostimulant.

  18. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  19. Effects of temperature on mating duration, sperm transfer and remating frequency in Callosobruchus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Masako; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2009-02-01

    Insect body temperature is usually determined by ambient temperature. Therefore, most biochemical and physiological processes underlying behavioural patterns are temperature dependent. Mating duration is also dependent on temperature, and therefore temperature should influence on sperm transfer and female remating frequency. In the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, we found negative relationships between ambient temperature and mating duration, sperm transfer and sperm transfer duration. Female remating frequency at lower temperature (17 degrees C) was lower than at other temperatures (25 degrees C and 33 degrees C). The physiological and behavioural significance of these results is discussed. The number of ejaculated sperm was significantly lower at 33 degrees C than at 17 degrees C; the effect of temperature on sperm transfer is discussed in relation to the intensity of female refusal behaviour directed against males.

  20. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jung; Jo, Suzy; Ryu, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Guemsan; Ryu, Mi Heon; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit is widely used to treat skin diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of S. chinensis (MESC) on 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) in mice. The effects of MESC on ear thickness and weight, histopathological changes, immune cell filtration and cytokine production were investigated in DNFB-induced CD mice. Topical application of MESC effectively inhibited ear swelling (30 or 300 μg on the left ear, P<0.001; 30 μg on the right ear, P<0.001). MESC also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 μg/ear, P<0.05 and 300 μg/ear, P<0.001, respectively) and immune cell infiltration (100 μg/ear, P<0.05; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, MESC suppressed increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (100 or 300 μg/ear, P<0.05), interferon (INF)-γ (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (300 μg/ear, P<0.05) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001). These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MESC are mediated by the reduced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1, and that MESC has potential use for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  1. Characterization of a male sterile related gene BcMF15 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Aimei; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Ye, Wanzhi

    2009-02-01

    Data from cDNA-AFLP analysis based on the genome-wide transcriptional profiling on the flower buds of the male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, indicated that mutation of the MMC gene resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. A transcript-derived fragment specifically accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was isolated, and the corresponding full-length cDNA and DNA was subsequently amplified. Bioinformatical analyses of this gene named BcMF15 (GenBank accession number EF600901) showed that it encoded a protein with 103 amino acids. The BcMF15 had a 88% nucleotide similarity to a lipid transfer protein-like gene. Moreover, sequence prediction indicated that BcMF15 might encode a membrane protein with a signal peptide at the N-terminus. Meanwhile, six domains were predicted in the deduced BcMF15 protein, such as the AAI domain existing in some crucial proteins of pollen development-preferential, signal peptide, transmembrane domain, vWF domain, ZnF_C4 domain, and Tryp_alpha_amyl domain. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis by RT-PCR indicated that BcMF15 was exclusively expressed in the fertile line, which indicated this gene is male sterile related. Phylogenetic analysis in Cruciferae revealed that the BcMF15 was relative conservative in evolution. We suppose BcMF15 may be a critical molecule in the transmembrane transportation and signal transduction during microspore development.

  2. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9-1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5-1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5-1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions.

  3. Chemical Discrimination of Cortex Phellodendri amurensis and Cortex Phellodendri chinensis by Multivariate Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Han, Ying; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuhong; Meng, Xiangcai; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: As herbal medicines have an important position in health care systems worldwide, their current assessment, and quality control are a major bottleneck. Cortex Phellodendri chinensis (CPC) and Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) are widely used in China, however, how to identify species of CPA and CPC has become urgent. Materials and Methods: In this study, multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigation of chemical discrimination of CPA and CPC. Results: Principal component analysis showed that two herbs could be separated clearly. The chemical markers such as berberine, palmatine, phellodendrine, magnoflorine, obacunone, and obaculactone were identified through the orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis, and were identified tentatively by the accurate mass of quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers for discrimination of CPA and CPC. Of them, phellodenrine is significantly higher in CPC than that of CPA, whereas obacunone and obaculactone are significantly higher in CPA than that of CPC. Conclusion: The present study proves that multivariate analysis approach based chemical analysis greatly contributes to the investigation of CPA and CPC, and showed that the identified chemical markers as a whole should be used to discriminate the two herbal medicines, and simultaneously the results also provided chemical information for their quality assessment. SUMMARY Multivariate analysis approach was performed to the investigate the herbal medicineThe chemical markers were identified through multivariate analysis approachA total of 29 components can be used as the chemical markers. UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based multivariate analysis method for the herbal medicine samples Abbreviations used: CPC: Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, CPA: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis, PCA: Principal component analysis, OPLS-DA: Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, BPI: Base peaks ion

  4. Effects of temperature on the immature development of the stone leek leafminer Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Tran, D H; Ridland, P M; Takagi, M

    2007-02-01

    The effect of nine constant temperatures (15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 30, 32.5, and 35 degrees C) on the development of the stone leek leafminer, Liriomyza chinensis (Kato), on Japanese bunching onion, Allium fistulosum L., was studied in the laboratory. Developmental times for immature stages were inversely proportional to temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C but increased at 32.5 degrees C. Total developmental times from egg to adult emergence decreased from 69.6 to 17.1 d for temperatures from 15 to 30 degrees C, with pupae requiring more time for development than the combined egg and larva stages. Both linear and nonlinear (Logan equation VI) models provided a reliable fit of development rates versus temperature for all immature stages. The lower developmental thresholds that were estimated from linear regression equations for the egg, first, second, and third instars, total larva, egg-larval, pupa, and total combined immature stages were 12.1, 10.6, 13.6, 8, 9.6, 11.3, 11.2, and 11.4 degrees C, respectively. The degree-day accumulation was calculated as 312.5 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. By fitting the nonlinear models to the data, the upper and optimal temperatures for egg, larva, pupa, and total immature stages were calculated as 37.8 and 31.7, 34.9 and 30.1, 35.8 and 30.6, and 35.0 and 30.9 degrees C, respectively. These data are useful for predicting population dynamics of L. chinensis under field conditions and determining the maximum proportion of susceptible individuals for facilitating improved timing of application of control measures. PMID:17349114

  5. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  6. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.9–1.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.5–1.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.5–1.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  7. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  8. Embryogenesis and plant regeneration of pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis) via in vitro isolated microspore culture.

    PubMed

    Cao, M Q; Li, Y; Liu, F; Doré, C

    1994-05-01

    Isolated microspores of various populations of three varieties of the Chinese cabbage pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) were cultivated in vitro on NLN82 medium (Lichter 1982) and embryos and plantlets obtained with nine cultivars. The best embryo yield per bud was 57.4. A 33°C one day heat treatment was generally necessary to induce embryogenesis. Analysis of ploidy level through flow cytometry for two cultivars indicated that haploids were present.

  9. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  10. [Response of phytolith in Leymus chinensis to the simulation of global warming and nitrogen deposition on Songnen grassland, China].

    PubMed

    Jie, Dong-meir; Ge, Yong; Guo, Ji-xun; Liu, Hong-mei

    2010-08-01

    Using infrared radiator and applying nitrogen on Leymus chinensis community on Songnen grassland to simulate global warming and nitrogen deposition, phytolith was extracted from L. chinensis, the morphology and content of phytolith were analyzed. Phytolith in L. chinensis were classified into 4 main classes and 12 subclasses, as well as some small phytolith fragments. Of all the phytolith types, the hat-shaped take as much as 70%. The hat-shaped with spire and hat-shaped with flat peak may have different growth mechanisms from the echinate hat-shaped, and the point-shaped phytolith is more sensitive to N deposition. Compared with control check (CK), the warming treatment seemed to promote the growth of phytolith (increased the length and width 0.1-2.6 microm), while the N deposition treatment had an effect of inhibition on the growth of phytolith (decreased the length and width 0.1-1.4 microm), and when warming and N deposition mixed, in this treatment the effect of inhibition caused by N deposition declined. Hollow elongate (46% of elongate) was observed only in N deposition treatment, and the content of other types (elongate, point-shaped, hat-shaped excluded) increased to 10%, it was supposed, as L. chinensis is the dominant species in Songnen grassland, the effect of N deposition might be more significant than warming on such grassland, and warming could mitigate the affection of N deposition. Phytolith was sensitive to the change of environmental factors, this study provided an experimental evidence for phytolith as a reliable proxy indicator for paleo-environment.

  11. Identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Bunn, Barry J.; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2012-01-01

    Flowers of the kiwifruit species Actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (GDP). The tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. Contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (E,E)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (E)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool. Using a genomics-based approach, a single gene (AcNES1) was identified in an A. chinensis expressed sequence tag library that had significant homology to known floral terpene synthase enzymes. In vitro characterization of recombinant AcNES1 revealed it was an enzyme that could catalyse the conversion of FDP and GDP to the respective (E)-nerolidol and linalool terpene alcohols. Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer. Real-time PCR analysis indicated peak expression of AcNES1 correlated with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers. This result, together with subcellular protein localization to the cytoplasm, indicated that AcNES1 was acting as a (S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase in A. chinensis flowers. The synthesis of high (E,E)-farnesol levels appears to compete for the available pool of FDP utilized by AcNES1 for sesquiterpene biosynthesis and hence strongly influences the accumulation and emission of (E)-nerolidol in A. chinensis flowers. PMID:22162874

  12. Persistence and dissipation of chlorpyrifos in Brassica chinensis, lettuce, celery, asparagus lettuce, eggplant, and pepper in a greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg(-1)) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg(-1)). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg(-1)) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg(-1) (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were <0.01 (eggplant fruit), <0.01 (pepper fruit), 0.56 (lettuce), 0.97 (brassica chinensis), 1.47 (asparagus lettuce), and 3.50 mg kg(-1) (celery), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables.

  13. Persistence and Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Brassica Chinensis, Lettuce, Celery, Asparagus Lettuce, Eggplant, and Pepper in a Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Meng-Xiao; Jiang, Wayne W.; Wang, Jia-Lei; Jian, Qiu; Shen, Yan; Liu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The residue behavior of chlorpyrifos, which is one of the extensively used insecticides all around the world, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables was subjected to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Two analytical methods were developed using gas chromatography equipped with a micro-ECD detector (LOQ = 0.05 mg kg−1) and liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry (LOQ = 0.01 mg kg−1). The initial foliar deposited concentration of chlorpyrifos (mg kg−1) on the six vegetables followed the increasing order of brassica chinensischinensis) to 74.0±5.9 mg kg−1 (pepper plant). At pre-harvest interval 21 days, the chlorpyrifos residues in edible parts of the crops were <0.01 (eggplant fruit), <0.01 (pepper fruit), 0.56 (lettuce), 0.97 (brassica chinensis), 1.47 (asparagus lettuce), and 3.50 mg kg−1 (celery), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos were found to be 7.79 (soil), 2.64 (pepper plants), 3.90 (asparagus lettuce), 3.92 (lettuce), 5.81 (brassica chinensis), 3.00 (eggplant plant), and 5.45 days (celery), respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soil and the six selected plants was different, indicating that the persistence of chlorpyrifos residues strongly depends upon leaf characteristics of the selected vegetables. PMID:24967589

  14. Identification, functional characterization, and regulation of the enzyme responsible for floral (E)-nerolidol biosynthesis in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Bunn, Barry J; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Atkinson, Ross G

    2012-03-01

    Flowers of the kiwifruit species Actinidia chinensis produce a mixture of sesquiterpenes derived from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and monoterpenes derived from geranyl diphosphate (GDP). The tertiary sesquiterpene alcohol (E)-nerolidol was the major emitted volatile detected by headspace analysis. Contrastingly, in solvent extracts of the flowers, unusually high amounts of (E,E)-farnesol were observed, as well as lesser amounts of (E)-nerolidol, various farnesol and farnesal isomers, and linalool. Using a genomics-based approach, a single gene (AcNES1) was identified in an A. chinensis expressed sequence tag library that had significant homology to known floral terpene synthase enzymes. In vitro characterization of recombinant AcNES1 revealed it was an enzyme that could catalyse the conversion of FDP and GDP to the respective (E)-nerolidol and linalool terpene alcohols. Enantiomeric analysis of both AcNES1 products in vitro and floral terpenes in planta showed that (S)-(E)-nerolidol was the predominant enantiomer. Real-time PCR analysis indicated peak expression of AcNES1 correlated with peak (E)-nerolidol, but not linalool accumulation in flowers. This result, together with subcellular protein localization to the cytoplasm, indicated that AcNES1 was acting as a (S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase in A. chinensis flowers. The synthesis of high (E,E)-farnesol levels appears to compete for the available pool of FDP utilized by AcNES1 for sesquiterpene biosynthesis and hence strongly influences the accumulation and emission of (E)-nerolidol in A. chinensis flowers.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two octopods Cistopus chinensis and Cistopus taiwanicus: revealing the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus within the order Octopoda.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rubin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two species of Cistopus, namely C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus, and conducted a comparative mt genome analysis across the class Cephalopoda. The mtDNA length of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus are 15706 and 15793 nucleotides with an AT content of 76.21% and 76.5%, respectively. The sequence identity of mtDNA between C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus was 88%, suggesting a close relationship. Compared with C. taiwanicus and other octopods, C. chinensis encoded two additional tRNA genes, showing a novel gene arrangement. In addition, an unusual 23 poly (A) signal structure is found in the ATP8 coding region of C. chinensis. The entire genome and each protein coding gene of the two Cistopus species displayed notable levels of AT and GC skews. Based on sliding window analysis among Octopodiformes, ND1 and DN5 were considered to be more reliable molecular beacons. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 protein-coding genes revealed that C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus form a monophyletic group with high statistical support, consistent with previous studies based on morphological characteristics. Our results also indicated that the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus is closer to Octopus than to Amphioctopus and Callistoctopus. The complete mtDNA sequence of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus represent the first whole mt genomes in the genus Cistopus. These novel mtDNA data will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within Octopodiformes and enriching the resource of markers for systematic, population genetic and evolutionary biological studies of Cephalopoda.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two octopods Cistopus chinensis and Cistopus taiwanicus: revealing the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus within the order Octopoda.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rubin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of two species of Cistopus, namely C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus, and conducted a comparative mt genome analysis across the class Cephalopoda. The mtDNA length of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus are 15706 and 15793 nucleotides with an AT content of 76.21% and 76.5%, respectively. The sequence identity of mtDNA between C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus was 88%, suggesting a close relationship. Compared with C. taiwanicus and other octopods, C. chinensis encoded two additional tRNA genes, showing a novel gene arrangement. In addition, an unusual 23 poly (A) signal structure is found in the ATP8 coding region of C. chinensis. The entire genome and each protein coding gene of the two Cistopus species displayed notable levels of AT and GC skews. Based on sliding window analysis among Octopodiformes, ND1 and DN5 were considered to be more reliable molecular beacons. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 protein-coding genes revealed that C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus form a monophyletic group with high statistical support, consistent with previous studies based on morphological characteristics. Our results also indicated that the phylogenetic position of the genus Cistopus is closer to Octopus than to Amphioctopus and Callistoctopus. The complete mtDNA sequence of C. chinensis and C. taiwanicus represent the first whole mt genomes in the genus Cistopus. These novel mtDNA data will be important in refining the phylogenetic relationships within Octopodiformes and enriching the resource of markers for systematic, population genetic and evolutionary biological studies of Cephalopoda. PMID:24358345

  17. Effects of triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Lijie; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Jiachen; Jiao, Xinyao; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Yanqun; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathological development of alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. We found that the administration of triterpenoid attenuated alcohol-induced oxidative stress in multiple organs including liver. Moreover, the impaired liver function and histological changes resulted from alcohol consumption was improved by triterpenoid treatment. Finally, we found that pretreatment with triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis to alcohol-fed rats increased the expression level of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) while inhibited the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in liver microsomes. Further assays revealed that the microsomal activity of HO-1 was accordingly induced whereas CYP2E1 was suppressed in rats received triterpenoid intervention. Our findings suggest that triterpenoid from Schisandra chinensis may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury through ameliorating oxidative stress in rats.

  18. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb.

    PubMed

    Li, Renying; Zhou, Zhigao; Xie, Xiaojin; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yaohong; Xu, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF), cow manure (COM) and chicken manure (CHM), on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb) in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM) significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05). By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg(-1) Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU) by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg(-1) Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018-9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level. PMID:27399753

  20. The microgeographical patterns of morphological and molecular variation of a mixed ploidy population in the species complex Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Li, Dawei; Yan, Ling; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy and hybridization are thought to have significant impacts on both the evolution and diversification of the genus Actinidia, but the structure and patterns of morphology and molecular diversity relating to ploidy variation of wild Actinidia plants remain much less understood. Here, we examine the distribution of morphological variation and ploidy levels along geographic and environmental variables of a large mixed-ploidy population of the A. chinensis species complex. We then characterize the extent of both genetic and epigenetic diversity and differentiation exhibited between individuals of different ploidy levels. Our results showed that while there are three ploidy levels in this population, hexaploids were constituted the majority (70.3%). Individuals with different ploidy levels were microgeographically structured in relation to elevation and extent of niche disturbance. The morphological characters examined revealed clear difference between diploids and hexaploids, however tetraploids exhibited intermediate forms. Both genetic and epigenetic diversity were high but the differentiation among cytotypes was weak, suggesting extensive gene flow and/or shared ancestral variation occurred in this population even across ploidy levels. Epigenetic variation was clearly correlated with changes in altitudes, a trend of continuous genetic variation and gradual increase of epigenomic heterogeneities of individuals was also observed. Our results show that complex interactions between the locally microgeographical environment, ploidy and gene flow impact A. chinensis genetic and epigenetic variation. We posit that an increase in ploidy does not broaden the species habitat range, but rather permits A. chinensis adaptation to specific niches.

  1. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renying; Zhou, Zhigao; Xie, Xiaojin; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yaohong; Xu, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF), cow manure (COM) and chicken manure (CHM), on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb) in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM) significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05). By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU) by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg−1 Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018–9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level. PMID:27399753

  2. Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Uptake and Translocation of Lead in Brassica chinensis and Potential Health Risk of Pb.

    PubMed

    Li, Renying; Zhou, Zhigao; Xie, Xiaojin; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yaohong; Xu, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil, especially in soils used for vegetable production, where intensive organic fertilization is applied. The present study examined the effects of DOM derived from commercial organic fertilizers (COF), cow manure (COM) and chicken manure (CHM), on uptake and translocation of lead (Pb) in Brassica chinensis in a pot experiment. The results indicate that DOM derived from CHM (DOMCHM) significantly increased Pb concentrations in roots of B. chinensis (p < 0.05). By contrast, there was no significant increase in shoot Pb concentration for all the DOM treatments except the high DOMCHM treatment in the soil with 800 mg·kg(-1) Pb. Consistent with the Pb concentrations in shoots, translocation factor of Pb from soil to shoot and specific lead uptake (SLU) by B. chinensis were significantly increased for the high DOMCHM treatment in the high Pb soil, but not for other DOM treatments. Based on the results of this study, the application of DOM to the soil with 800 mg·kg(-1) Pb could result in an increase in total Pb annually ingested by the inhabitants of Nanjing City in the range of 2018-9640 kg, with the highest estimates resulting from the high DOMCHM treatment. This study suggests the risk may rise under some conditions as indicated in the high DOMCHM treatment and high Pb pollution level.

  3. Beneficial effects of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis on biochemical and hematological parameters in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sellamuthu, Periyar Selvam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Kandasamy, Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Salacia chinensis L. is a traditional Southeast Asian herbal medicine and used in the treatment of diabetes. To investigate the antidiabetic properties of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis and its beneficial effect on toxicological and hematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mangiferin was orally treated with the dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days to diabetic rats. Biochemical (blood glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine), toxicological (AST, ALT and ALP) and hematological parameters (red and white blood cells) and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups with mangiferin and glibenclamide. Mangiferin treated diabetic rats significantly (p<0.05) lowered the level of blood glucose, in addition, altered the levels of biochemical parameters including urea, uric acid, and creatinine. Toxicological parameters including AST, ALT and ALP were also significantly reduced after treatment with mangiferin in diabetic rats. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved through the administration of mangiferin. Thus, our results indicate that mangiferin present in S. chinensis possesses antidiabetic properties and nontoxic nature against chemically induced diabetic rats. Further experimental investigations are warrant to make use of its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethno-medicinal usage. PMID:24374436

  4. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26847610

  5. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis. PMID:26787544

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T.

  7. Transcriptional response of two metallothionein genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) and histological changes in Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) exposed to three trace metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Zhitao; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the transcriptional responses of two metallothionein (MT) genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) in various tissues (brain, optic lobe, Malpighian tubules, fat bodies, foregut, gastric caeca, midgut and hindgut) of Oxya chinensis (Thunberg) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) after exposed to the trace metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) for 48h. The study revealed that the exposure of O. chinensis to each of the three metals at the median lethal concentration (LC50) or lower concentration(s) up-regulated the transcriptions of both OcMT1 and OCMT2 in the eight tissues except for OcMT1 and OcMT2 with Cd in brain and gastric caeca, respectively, and OcMT2 with Cu in gastric caeca. These results suggested that the exposure of O. chinensis to the metals may enhance MT biosynthesis that protects tissues by binding these metals in various tissues. To examine possible histopathological effect of the metals, we examined the histological changes in the fat bodies after O. chinensis was exposed to each of these metals at LC50. The exposure of Cd significantly reduced the size and number of adipocytes as compared with the control. However, such an effect was not observed in O. chinensis exposed to either Cu or Zn. These results suggested that fat bodies might be either significantly affected by Cd or play a crucial role in detoxification of excessive trace metals. PMID:26159299

  8. Low Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Variation in the Endangered Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Inferences About the Role of Balancing Selection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyang; Lin, Wenzhi; Zhou, Ruilian; Gui, Duan; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping

    2016-03-01

    It has been widely reported that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is under balancing selection due to its immune function across terrestrial and aquatic mammals. The comprehensive studies at MHC and other neutral loci could give us a synthetic evaluation about the major force determining genetic diversity of species. Previously, a low level of genetic diversity has been reported among the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) using both mitochondrial marker and microsatellite loci. Here, the expression and sequence polymorphism of 2 MHC class II genes (DQB and DRB) in 32 S. chinensis from PRE collected between 2003 and 2011 were investigated. High ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates, codon-based selection analysis, and trans-species polymorphism (TSP) support the hypothesis that balancing selection acted on S. chinensis MHC sequences. However, only 2 haplotypes were detected at either DQB or DRB loci. Moreover, the lack of deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg expectation at DRB locus combined with the relatively low heterozygosity at both DQB locus and microsatellite loci suggested that balancing selection might not be sufficient, which further suggested that genetic drift associated with historical bottlenecks was not mitigated by balancing selection in terms of the loss of MHC and neutral variation in S. chinensis. The combined results highlighted the importance of maintaining the genetic diversity of the endangered S. chinensis.

  9. Egg Parasitoids of Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Northwestern Mexico, with Description of a New Species of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Bernal, Julio S.

    2009-01-01

    Nine species of Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae parasitic on eggs of Proconiini sharpshooters (Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) were collected in northwestern Mexico in relation to neoclassical biological control efforts against glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), in California. Gonatocerus chula Triapitsyn and Bernal sp. n., which belongs to the ater species group of Gonatocerus Nees (Mymaridae), is described. Specimens of G. chula sp. n. were reared from eggs of the smoke-tree sharpshooter, Homalodisca liturata Ball, on jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. K. Schneider] leaves collected in central Sonora state, Mexico. Also given are new data on other egg parasitoids of Homalodisca spp. and Oncometopia spp. in Sinaloa and Sonora states, Mexico, including Gonatocerus atriclavus Girault, G. morrilli (Howard), and G. novifasciatus Girault, and the Trichogrammatidae Burksiella sp(p)., Ittys sp., Pseudoligosita sp., Ufens ceratus Owen, and U. principalis Owen. For the first time, a species of Ittys is recorded from eggs of Proconiini, and U. principalis from Mexico. Colonies of G. atriclavus, G. novifasciatus and Pseudoligosita sp. were successfully established in a quarantine laboratory at University of California, Riverside, on eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. These three parasitoid species had never been reared under laboratory conditions. In addition, seven species of Proconiini were collected in central and northwestern Mexico: Cyrtodisca major (Signoret), Homalodisca insolita (Walker), H. liturata Ball, Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior (Walker), O. sp. cf. trilobata Melichar, O. (Similitopia) sp., and Phera centrolineata (Signoret). Oncometopia sp. cf. clarior, O. sp. cf. trilobata, and O. (Similitopia) sp. appeared to be undescribed species. PMID:19611244

  10. Surface structure and properties of plant seed oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Tzen, J T; Huang, A H

    1992-04-01

    Storage triacylglycerols (TAG) in plant seeds are present in small discrete intracellular organelles called oil bodies. An oil body has a matrix of TAG, which is surrounded by phospholipids (PL) and alkaline proteins, termed oleosins. Oil bodies isolated from mature maize (Zea mays) embryos maintained their discreteness, but coalesced after treatment with trypsin but not with phospholipase A2 or C. Phospholipase A2 or C exerted its activity on oil bodies only after the exposed portion of oleosins had been removed by trypsin. Attempts were made to reconstitute oil bodies from their constituents. TAG, either extracted from oil bodies or of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, in a dilute buffer were sonicated to produce droplets of sizes similar to those of oil bodies; these droplets were unstable and coalesced rapidly. Addition of oil body PL or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with or without charged stearylamine/stearic acid, or oleosins, to the medium before sonication provided limited stabilization effects to the TAG droplets. High stability was achieved only when the TAG were sonicated with both oil body PL (or dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine) and oleosins of proportions similar to or higher than those in the native oil bodies. These stabilized droplets were similar to the isolated oil bodies in chemical properties, and can be considered as reconstituted oil bodies. Reconstituted oil bodies were also produced from TAG of a 1:2 molar mixture of triolein and trilinolein, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, and oleosins from rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), rapeseed (Brassica napus), soybean (Glycine max), or jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). It is concluded that both oleosins and PL are required to stabilize the oil bodies and that oleosins prevent oil bodies from coalescing by providing steric hindrance. A structural model of an oil body is presented. The current findings on seed oil bodies could be extended to the intracellular storage lipid

  11. Two metallothionein genes in Oxya chinensis: molecular characteristics, expression patterns and roles in heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  12. Two Metallothionein Genes in Oxya chinensis: Molecular Characteristics, Expression Patterns and Roles in Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaoming; Wu, Haihua; Kou, Lihua; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jianzhen; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2014-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. In the present study, we cloned two MT genes (OcMT1 and OcMT2) from Oxya chinensis, analyzed the expression patterns of the OcMT transcripts in different tissues and at varying developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), evaluated the functions of these two MTs using RNAi and recombinant proteins in an E. coli expression system. The full-length cDNAs of OcMT1 and OcMT2 encoded 40 and 64 amino acid residues, respectively. We found Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys and Cys-X-Y-Z-Cys motifs in OcMT1 and OcMT2. These motifs might serve as primary chelating sites, as in other organisms. These characteristics suggest that OcMT1 and OcMT2 may be involved in heavy metal detoxification by capturing the metals. Two OcMT were expressed at all developmental stages, and the highest levels were found in the eggs. Both transcripts were expressed in all eleven tissues examined, with the highest levels observed in the brain and optic lobes, followed by the fat body. The expression of OcMT2 was also relatively high in the ovaries. The functions of OcMT1 and OcMT2 were explored using RNA interference (RNAi) and different concentrations and treatment times for the three heavy metals. Our results indicated that mortality increased significantly from 8.5% to 16.7%, and this increase was both time- and dose-dependent. To evaluate the abilities of these two MT proteins to confer heavy metal tolerance to E. coli, the bacterial cells were transformed with pET-28a plasmids containing the OcMT genes. The optical densities of both the MT-expressing and control cells decreased with increasing concentrations of CdCl2. Nevertheless, the survival rates of the MT-overexpressing cells were higher than those of the controls. Our results suggest that these two genes play important roles in heavy metal detoxification in O. chinensis. PMID:25391131

  13. [High performance preparation and structural confirmation of lignans from Schisandrae chinensis fructus by using HSCCC combined with ESI-MSn method].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Li; Pi, Zi-feng; Hu, Xiu-Li; Song, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to high performance separate and prepare lignans from Schisandrae chinensis fructus. The solvent system is composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9 : 1 : 5 : 5) and n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (9 : 1 : 9 : 5), speed is at 900 r.min-1, and flow rate is at 2.0 mL.min-1. Five fractions from Schisandrae chinensis fructus extract were separated and prepared with one HSCCC process. They were identified as schisandrin, gomisin J, schisandrol B, schisantherin A and deoxyschizandrin by electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn), respectively. Their contents were obtained in 98.74%, 94.32%, 99.53%, 94.23% and 98.68% by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), separately. The rapid and simple method can be applied for the preparation of lignans from Schisandrae chinensis fructus.

  14. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  15. Identification of key structural characteristics of Schisandra chinensis lignans involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Jiří; Páchniková, Gabriela; Carnecká, Martina; Porubová Koubíková, Ludmila; Adámková, Lenka; Humpa, Otakar; Smejkal, Karel; Slaninová, Iva

    2014-10-24

    The aim of the present study was to determine the structural requirements for dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans essential for P-glycoprotein inhibition. Altogether 15 structurally related lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis or prepared by modification of their backbone were investigated, including three pairs of enantiomers. P-Glycoprotein inhibition was quantified using a doxorubicin accumulation assay in human promyelotic leukemia HL60/MDR cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. A preliminary quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed three main structural features involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition: a 1,2,3-trimethoxy moiety, a 6-acyloxy group, and the absence of a 7-hydroxy group. The most effective inhibitors, (-)-gomisin N (1) and (+)-deoxyschizandrin [(+)-2], were selected for further evaluation of their effects. Both these lignans restored the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in HL60/MDR cells and when combined with a subtoxic concentration of this compound increased the proportion of G2/M cells significantly, which is a usual response to treatment with this anticancer drug.

  16. Effects of Selenylation Modification on Antioxidative Activities of Schisandra chinensis Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chanjuan; Chen, Jin; Hou, Ranran; Liu, Jie; Li, Xiuping; Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Cui; Wang, Deyun; Lu, Yu; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    The selenylation modification of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) was conducted by the HNO3-Na2SeO3 method respectively under nine conditions according to L9(34) orthogonal design. Nine selenizing SCPs, sSCP1-sSCP9, were obtained, and their antioxidant activities were compared. In vitro test, the free radical-scavenging rates of nine sSCPs were determined for DPPH., .OH and ABTS+. sSCP1 presented the most significant effect, and could inhibit the nonenzymatic protein glycation. In vivo test, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sSCP1 and SCP, the serum contents of CAT, SOD and MDA were determined. The result showed that as compared with the SCP group, the SOD and CAT activities were significantly or numerically raised and MDA content was significantly or numerically lowered in the sSCP1 group. These results indicate that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the antioxidant and antiglycative activity of SCP in vitro or in vivo. sSCP1 possesses the best efficacy and its modification conditions can be as optimal modification conditions that were 200 mg of Na2SeO3 for 500 mg of SCP, reaction temperature of 50°C and reaction time of 6 h.

  17. Antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide in a renal cell carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hai-Ming; Liu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Chun-Ying

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of the Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides (SCP) in selected renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and evaluate its potential mechanism of action. In vitro, endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by Caki-1 was blockaded in response to SCP treatment for 48h. In vivo, a significant tumor growth inhibition effect was observed after SCP administration for 4 weeks. Moreover, SCP treatment decreased the level of VEGF, CD31 and CD34 in RCC tumor tissues. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly; the expression of Bax and p53 increased; and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically in transplanted tumor tissues following SCP administration. These results indicated that the potential mechanisms involved by which SCP exerted its antitumor and antiangiogenic activity might be associated with the up-regulation of Bax and p53, downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as the reduction of VEGF, CD31 and CD34 in xenografted tumors. These findings demonstrated that the SCP is a potential antitumor agent for RCC treatment.

  18. Comprehensive chemical analysis of Schisandra chinensis by HPLC-DAD-MS combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitao; Lai, Hongwu; Jia, Xinyue; Liu, Jiushi; Zhang, Zhao; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Jin; Song, Junbin; Wu, Chongming; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen

    2013-09-15

    The fruit of Schisandra chinensis, namely "Wuweizi" in China, is a well-known herbal medicine and health food. In this paper, an accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry was developed for quality evaluation of Wuweizi. Nine lignans, including schisandrol A, schisandrol B, angeloylgomisin H, gomisin G, schisantherin A, schisanhenol, schisandrin A, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C were determined simultaneously in forty-three batches of Wuweizi samples collected from different localities. Thirty-six common peaks were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned by comparing their mass spectrometric data with reference compounds, self-established compound library and published literatures. And the thirty-six common peaks were selected as characteristic peaks to assess the similarity of chromatographic fingerprinting of these Wuweizi samples. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis and principal components analysis were successfully applied to demonstrate the variability of these Wuweizi samples. The results indicated the content of nine investigated lignans varied greatly among the samples, and samples collected from different localities could be discriminated. Furthermore, schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisandrin B, and schisandrin C were found to chemical marker for evaluating the quality of Wuweizi.

  19. Homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction of the active constituents from fruits of Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Zhang, Hanqi

    2012-01-27

    Homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction (HILME) was developed for the extraction of schizandrin, schisantherin A and deoxyschizandrin from Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)MIM][BF(4)]) aqueous solution was used as extraction solvent, and ammonium hexafluorophosphate ([NH(4)][PF(6)]) was used as ion-pairing agent. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)MIM][PF(6)]), which is barely soluble in water, was formed in situ, and was used as sample solution. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for separation and determination of the analytes. The calibration curve showed good linear relationship (r>0.9998). The recoveries were between 69.71% and 88.33% with RSDs lower than 4.86%. External standard method was adopted in the proposed method, and internal standard method was applied for the evaluation of the proposed method. The two methods were compared and the results indicated that the proposed method was acceptable and simple. The HILME is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction. There was no obvious difference in the extraction yields of active constitutions obtained by the three extraction methods.

  20. Identification and preliminary analysis of a new PCP promoter from Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Huizhi; Cao, Jiashu

    2008-12-01

    The promoter of Brassica campestris Male Fertile 5 (BcMF5), a pollen coat protein member, class A (PCP-A) gene family, was isolated from Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis Makino (Chinese cabbage-pak-choi) by Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced Polymerase Chain Reaction (TAIL-PCR). Sequence analysis suggested that the 605-bp promoter of BcMF5 appears to be a pollen promoter. In an attempt to confirm the promoter activity of BcMF5 promoter, -609 to +3 bp and -377 to +3 bp fragments of the upstream sequence of BcMF5 were inserted at the site upstream of the coding region of the uidA gene in the sense orientation to construct two deletion expression vectors. Transient expression analysis in onion epidermal cells by particle bombardment showed that both -609 to +3 bp and -377 to +3 bp fragments of BcMF5 promoter were capable of driving beta-glucuronidase gene expression. Furthermore, by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method, Arabidopsis transgenic Kan(R) plants were obtained. GUS assay analysis revealed that the promoter of BcMF5 induced gene expression at the early stage of anther development and drove high levels of GUS expression in anther walls, upper regions of petals, pollen, and pollen tubes in the middle and late stage of anther development, but did not drive any expression in sepals and pistils.

  1. Genotypic variation of the glucosinolate profile in pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Melanie; Zrenner, Rita; Krumbein, Angelika; Glatt, Hansruedi; Schreiner, Monika

    2013-02-27

    Thirteen different pak choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) cultivars were characterized regarding their glucosinolate profile analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS. The identified glucosinolates were subjected to principal component analysis, and three distinct groups of pak choi sprouts were identified. Group differences were marked mainly by variations in the aliphatic glucosinolate profile such as differing levels of 3-butenyl glucosinolate and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl glucosinolate as well as by their varying proportional ratios. In addition, the three groups of pak choi sprouts varied by the presence or absence of 2-hydroxy-4-pentenyl glucosinolate and in level and composition of butyl glucosinolates. This classification is reflected by relative mRNA expression level of 2-oxoacid-dependent dioxygenase. As in sprouts, the major glucosinolates in mature leaves were found to be the aliphatic glucosinolates. However, unlike in sprouts, an additional aliphatic glucosinolate, 5-methylsulfinylpentyl glucosinolate, was detected as characteristic ontogenetic variation in mature leaves in 12 of the 13 pak choi cultivars analyzed.

  2. An intensive understanding of vacuum infiltration transformation of pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hengjian; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Fan

    2008-08-01

    Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis), a kind of Chinese cabbage, is an important vegetable in Asian countries. Agrobacterium mediated in planta vacuum infiltration transformation has been performed in pakchoi since 1998, but a detailed study on this technique was lacking. Pakchoi plants 40-50 days old with inflorescences were vacuum infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 harboring the binary vector pBBBast-gus-intron. The transformation frequency in the harvested seeds mainly varied from 1 x 10(-4) to 3 x 10(-4) over several years, and it was lower than the frequency in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformants were obtained from both the upper and the lower parts of the infiltrated plants with or without an elongated inflorescence. Stained ovules and pollen grains were found in the unopened flower 13 days post-infiltration, which was about 0.5-1 mm in diameter at infiltration time with an open ovary as revealed by paraffin sections. Histochemical assays revealed that Agrobacteria were more abundant in the flower tissue than in stem and leaf tissues at all times after infiltration despite the sharp decrease of live Agrobacteria in plant 14 days post infiltration as revealed by the colony forming units on the Agrobacteria culture medium. The results of vacuum infiltration transformation of pakchoi and Arabidopsis thaliana were compared and a strategy to optimize the transformation conditions to increase the transformation frequency in pakchoi was discussed.

  3. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers’ attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species. PMID:27526102

  4. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (<3 m in depth) of the reservoir, then the total adult population in this impoundment is estimated to be 253,570 snails, and the total Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  5. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  6. Purification and identification of a clotting protein from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Peng, Hongni; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-09-01

    The clotting protein (CP) plays important and diverse roles in crustaceans, such as coagulation and lipid transportation. A clotting protein was purified from the hemolymph of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis (named as Fc-CP) with Q sepharose HP anion-exchange chromatography and phenyl sepharose HP hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Fc-CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase in shrimp hemocytes. The molecular mass of Fc-CP was 380 kDa under non-reducing conditions and 190 kDa under reducing conditions as was determined with SDS-PAGE. CP exists as disulfide-linked homodimers and oligomers. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Fc-CP was identical to that of shrimps including Penaeus monodon, Farfantepenaeus paulensis and Litopenaeus vannamei; and similar to that of other decapods. The purified Fc-CP was digested with trypsin and verified on an ABI 4700 matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results will aid to better understanding the coagulation mechanism of shrimp hemolymph.

  7. A protocol of homozygous haploid callus induction from endosperm of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Lin; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Jia-Yin; Bu, Feng-Jiao; Lin, Tao; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Xiong, Xing-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Obtainment and characterization of the novel endosperm callus of Taxus chinensis Rehd. var. mairei are valuable for haploid breeding, genome, and functional genome in Taxus. Callus was obtained by hydropriming with sterile water for 3 days and suitable medium composition. The highest callus induction (70.89 %) and lower browning ratio (7.95 %) were obtained from Gamborg (B5) medium supplemented with 30 g l(-1) of sucrose, 2.5 mg l(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), 0.5 mg l(-1) of 6-benzylademine (6-BA) and 7 g l(-1) of agar under dark conditions. The auxin of 2,4-D had a better efficiency of callus induction than naphthylacetic acid, and over 1 mg l(-1) of 6-BA was inhibitory to the callogensis of endosperm. The endosperm callus was haploid which was detectable by the flow cytometry. The genome block of homozygosity of callus was homozygous which was indicated by PCR-based SNP marks. The homozygous haploid of endosperm callus in vitro culture may be useful tools for taxoid-metabolism of gene engineering and bio-fermentation engineering. PMID:27350901

  8. [Salinization-alkalization of Leymus chinensis grassland in Songnen Plain of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dao-Wei; Li, Qiang; Song, Yan-Tao; Wang, Xue-Zhi

    2011-06-01

    Field survey and site study were conducted to approach the process and causes of salinization-alkalization of Leymus chinensis grassland in Songnen Plain, and to examine the hypothesis of soil disturbance-bareness. In the grassland, surface soil (0-30 cm) had a lower salt content, while deeper soil (> 30 cm) was in adverse. Thereby, the grassland was defined as soil-salted grassland. There was an increasing salt content in surface soil. This process was called as soil salinization-alkalization, and the grassland under the salinization:alkalization was named as alkali-salinized grassland. The leading reason for the surface soil salinization-alkalization was that the surface soil originally with low salt content was disturbed and lost away, subsurface soil rich in salt emerged as new surface soil, and the salt in deeper soil layers accumulated in the new surface soil and other soil layers. Secondary halophyte communities formed on the surface-soil-disturbed new bare land, but the communities had no succession sequence. The degradation process of the grassland was soil degradation first, followed by vegetation degradation, halophyte invasion, and successive evolution from nearly primitive condition.

  9. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Young; Kang, Ki Sung; Yokozawa, Takako; Park, Jeong Hill

    2009-03-01

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavenging and ferrous ion chelating activities of four isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Coptis chinensis Franch were studied for the identification of their structural characteristics to scavenge *OH. The *OH was generated via Fe(II)-catalazed Fenton reaction in this study and the reliable measurement of *OH scavenging activities of isoquinoline alkaloids were achieved using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry method. At the 1 mM concentration, berberrubine (85%) showed the strongest *OH scavenging activity and the next were in the decreasing order of coptisine (79%), berberine (23%), and palmatine (22%). The ferrous ion chelating effects of the alkaloids showed similar pattern with their *OH scavenging effects. These results suggest that *OH scavenging effects of the alkaloids were closely related to their ferrous ion chelating activities. In addition, metal chelating functional groups such as hydroxy group at C-9 and methylenedioxy group at C-9 and C-10 were thought to contribute to the *OH scavenging activities of the isoquinoline alkaloids.

  10. Plants Can Benefit from Herbivory: Stimulatory Effects of Sheep Saliva on Growth of Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jushan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Bonser, Stephen P.; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Yifa; Gao, Ying; Teng, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants. Methodology/Principal Findings The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management. PMID:22235277

  11. The Trophic Significance of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis, in Western Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Chou, Lien-Siang; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-01-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have attracted considerable attention due to their critically endangered status and related conservation issues, but their trophic relationships and ecological significance in coastal ecosystems are poorly understood. For instance, this species is noticeably more abundant in the Xin-Huwei River Estuary (Ex) of Western Taiwan than in the nearby Zhuoshui River Estuary (Ez), though it is unclear why the distribution shows such partitioning. To explore this topic, we conducted field surveys seasonally for two years from 2012 to 2013 and constructed Ecopath models of Ex, Ez, and an offshore site (Dm) to compare energy flow within the food webs. Model comparisons showed that the availability of food resources was the main factor influencing the biomass of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins. Specifically, its more frequent occurrence in Ex can be attributed to greater phytoplankton production and greater biomasses of macroinvertebrates and prey fish than in the other two areas. An increase in fishing activity might decrease the food availability and, consequently, the biomass of the dolphins. Although the decline in the dolphin population would increase the biomass of some prey fish species, local fishermen might not necessarily benefit from the decline due to the concurrent decrease of highly valued crabs and shrimp. Collectively, our work suggests that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin is a keystone species in tropical coastal waters of Taiwan, and thereby exhibit a disproportional large ecological impact given their relatively low abundance. PMID:27780252

  12. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m−2 s−1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  13. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m‑2 s‑1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  15. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  16. Structural characterization and anti-tumor effects of an inulin-type fructan from Atractylodes chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Dan; Liu, Chang; Wu, Xiong-Zhi; Dong, Cai-Xia; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A fructan (ACPS-1) with a molecular weight of 11.2 kDa was isolated from Atractylodes chinensis rhizome and characterized by chemical derivatization, HPLC, GC-MS, FT-IR, and NMR. Structural analyses revealed that ACPS-1 is predominately composed of fructose and a small amount of glucose and a polymerization degree of about 53. The fructan was deduced to be an inulin-type fructan containing a linear backbone composed of (2→1)-linked β-d-Fruf residues. The in vitro antitumor activity of ACPS-1 was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines, including a cervical cancer cell line (Hela), two liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2 and 7721), and an ovarian carcinoma cell line (Skov3). Results showed that ACPS-1 could significantly inhibit Hela, HepG2, and 7721 cell proliferation, especially HepG2, for which the fructan showed a proliferative inhibition rate as high as 87.40%. This result suggests that ACPS-1 may have anticancer potentiality against hepatocellular carcinoma and warrants further investigation.

  17. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  18. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis): Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Yu-Cheng; Chuang, Laurence Zsu-Hsin; Chen, Chih-How

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS) population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis) has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH), a type of marine protected area (MPA) for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species. PMID:27526102

  19. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  20. Biosorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solutions by Litchi chinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Flores-Garnica, Jonathan Gonzalo; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2013-05-01

    The potential of Litchi chinensis seeds (LCS) for biosorption of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch systems in terms of kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics. Experimental data showed that the biosorption capacity of LCS was dependent on operating variables such as solution pH, initial Ni(II) concentration, contact time, and temperature. The optimum pH value for Ni(II) biosorption was 7.5. Significant enhancement of Ni(II) biosorption was observed by increasing initial metal concentration and temperature. Modeling of sorption kinetics showed good agreement of experimental data with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. According to this isotherm model, the maximum Ni(II) biosorption capacity of LCS is 66.62 mg g(-1). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption of Ni(II) ions is an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Results indicate that LCS can be used as an effective and environmentally friendly biosorbent to detoxify Ni(II)-polluted wastewaters.

  1. A transmission electron microscopy investigation: the membrane complex in spermatogenesis of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Shaoqin; Guo, Mingshen; Liu, Guirong; Mu, Shumei

    2008-01-01

    The transforming characteristics of the membrane complex in spermatogenesis of Fenneropenaeus chinensis have been studied by using transmission electron microscopy. Two types of membrane complex have been investigated based on their sources: one originating from nucleus and the other from cytoplasm. The first one, consisted of annular structures, monolayer membrane blebs, and double or multi-lamellar membrane vesicles, emerges in the primary spermatocyte, then diffuses with the nuclear membrane and finally enters the cytoplasm. This type of membrane complex seems to play an important role in the materials transfusion from nucleus to cytoplasm, and it mainly exists inside the primary spermatocyte with some inside the secondary spermatocyte. The latter, originated from cytoplasm, is formed during the anaphase of spermiogenesis. It also exists in mature sperm, locating at both sides of the nucleus under the acrosomal cap. This type of membrane complex mainly comprises rings of convoluted membrane pouches, together with mitochondria, annular lamina bodies, fragments of endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane and some nuclear particles. It releases vesicles and particles into the acrosomal area during the formation of the perforatorium, suggesting a combined function of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi’s mechanism. PMID:19002849

  2. Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi)

    SciTech Connect

    Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )

    1993-03-01

    Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis cv Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Positively selected genes of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) locomotion system

    PubMed Central

    Yu, FAN; Dan-Dan, YU; Yong-Gang, YAO

    2014-01-01

    While the recent release of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) genome has made the tree shrew an increasingly viable experimental animal model for biomedical research, further study of the genome may facilitate new insights into the applicability of this model. For example, though the tree shrew has a rapid rate of speed and strong jumping ability, there are limited studies on its locomotion ability. In this study we used the available Chinese tree shrew genome information and compared the evolutionary pattern of 407 locomotion system related orthologs among five mammals (human, rhesus monkey, mouse, rat and dog) and the Chinese tree shrew. Our analyses identified 29 genes with significantly high ω (Ka/Ks ratio) values and 48 amino acid sites in 14 genes showed significant evidence of positive selection in the Chinese tree shrew. Some of these positively selected genes, e.g. HOXA6 (homeobox A6) and AVP (arginine vasopressin), play important roles in muscle contraction or skeletal morphogenesis. These results provide important clues in understanding the genetic bases of locomotor adaptation in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:24866495

  4. Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

    2014-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells.

  5. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  6. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  8. The Protective Effect of Stauntonia Chinensis Polysaccharide on CCl4-induced Acute Liver Injuries in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Xiong, Qingming; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Shirong; Zhu, Lihua; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Stauntonia chinensis polysaccharides (SCP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver injuries in mice. Methods: Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the pathological model group, and the SCP group. The SCP group was further divided into three subgroups based on SCP treatment: Low dosage (50 mg/kg), medium dosage (100 mg/kg) and high dosage (200 mg/kg). After being fed for 7 days, mixed-edible-oil solution was intraperitoneally injected into the control group, while the other two groups were injected with 0.15% CCl4 mixed with mixed-edible-oil. Sera were collected from mice 24 h later to determine the activity of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). Mice were then sacrificed to prepare liver homogenate. Levels of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined. Pathological changes in livers were also analyzed. Results: SCP significantly reduced the ALT activity in the serum and inhibited the decrease of serum GSH, GSH-PX and SOD and rose the levels of MDA and NO (P<0.05-0.01). This lessened the pathological damage to the liver tissues. Conclusion: SCP protects against CCl4-induced acute liver injuries in mice. PMID:24711744

  9. Oocyte Degeneration Associated with Follicle Cells in Female Mactra chinensis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Chung, Ee-Yung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oocyte degeneration in the oocyte, and the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are described to clarify the reproductive mechanism on oocyte degeneration of Mactra chinensis using cytological methods. Commonly, the follicle cells are attached to the oocyte. Follicle cells play an important role in oocyte degeneration. In particular, the functions of follicle cells during oocyte degeneration are associated with phagocytosis and the intracellular digestion of products. In this study, morphologically similar degenerated phagosomes (various lysosomes), which were observed in the degenerated oocytes, appeared in the follicle cells. After the spawning of the oocytes, the follicle cells were involved in oocyte degeneration through phagocytosis by phagolysosomes. Therefore, it can be assumed that follicle cells reabsorb phagosomes from degenerated oocytes. In this study, the presence of lipid granules, which occurred from degenerating yolk granules, gradually increased in degenerating oocytes. The function of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen in the cytoplasm, which can be employed by the vitellogenic oocyte. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, the follicle cells of this species are involved in the lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the reabsorption of phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves. PMID:25949203

  10. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:25419600

  11. Optimization of Phenolic Antioxidant Extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) Pulp Using Random-Centroid Optimazation Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Yu, Xiong; Jing, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield were considered in the RCO program. Three sets of optimum proposed factor values were obtained corresponding to three extraction targets respectively. The set of optimum proposed factor values for polyphenol extraction given was chosen in further experiments as following: liquid and solid ratio (v/w) 8, ethanol 67.3% (v/v), initial pH 1.75, temperature 55 °C for 4 h and extraction repeated for 4 times. The Wuweizi polyphenol extract (WPE) was obtained with a yield of 16.37 mg/g and composition of polyphenols 1.847 mg/g, anthocyanins 0.179 mg/g, sugar 9.573 mg/g and protein 0.327 mg/g. The WPE demonstrated high scavenging activities against DPPH radicals. PMID:22016656

  12. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Taxus chinensis var. mairei fruits and its antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Zhao; Li, Chunying; Yang, Lei; Yao, Liping; Fu, Yujie; He, Xin; Shi, Kunming; Lu, Zhicheng

    2015-04-01

    The simultaneous ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) method is potentially useful for the extraction of polysaccharides from Taxus chinensis var. mairei fruits (TCFPs). In this study, we used a response surface methodology to identify optimal TCFPs extraction conditions. Optimal parameters were determined as follows: a liquid to raw material ratio of 33 mL/g, an extraction time of 10 min, a microwave power level of 560 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Under the optimized conditions, TCFPs yields obtained by UMAE were 4.33 ± 0.15%, a 1.79-fold increase compared with conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE). In addition, the extraction time used in UMAE was shorter than that required for HRE: 10 versus 90 min. UMAE is therefore a rapid and efficient method for the extraction of TCFPs. The inhibitory effect of TCFPs on S180 tumor growth in vivo was also studied. The tumor inhibition rate of TCFPs was 76.33%, indicating a tumor-inhibiting effect. Analysis of organ weights demonstrated that TCFPs exhibited no toxicity to liver, kidney, spleen, heart, or lung relative to a positive control group. TCFPs thus show antitumor activity with no organ toxicity.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  14. Effects of Selenylation Modification on Antioxidative Activities of Schisandra chinensis Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Chanjuan; Chen, Jin; Hou, Ranran; Liu, Jie; Li, Xiuping; Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Cui; Wang, Deyun; Lu, Yu; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    The selenylation modification of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) was conducted by the HNO3–Na2SeO3 method respectively under nine conditions according to L9(34) orthogonal design. Nine selenizing SCPs, sSCP1–sSCP9, were obtained, and their antioxidant activities were compared. In vitro test, the free radical-scavenging rates of nine sSCPs were determined for DPPH., .OH and ABTS+. sSCP1 presented the most significant effect, and could inhibit the nonenzymatic protein glycation. In vivo test, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sSCP1 and SCP, the serum contents of CAT, SOD and MDA were determined. The result showed that as compared with the SCP group, the SOD and CAT activities were significantly or numerically raised and MDA content was significantly or numerically lowered in the sSCP1 group. These results indicate that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the antioxidant and antiglycative activity of SCP in vitro or in vivo. sSCP1 possesses the best efficacy and its modification conditions can be as optimal modification conditions that were 200 mg of Na2SeO3 for 500 mg of SCP, reaction temperature of 50°C and reaction time of 6 h. PMID:26230941

  15. Genetic diversity of Capsicum chinensis (Solanaceae) accessions based on molecular markers and morphological and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Finger, F L; Lannes, S D; Schuelter, A R; Doege, J; Comerlato, A P; Gonçalves, L S A; Ferreira, F R A; Clovis, L R; Scapim, C A

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the genetic diversity of 49 accessions of the hot pepper species Capsicum chinensis through analyses of 12 physicochemical traits of the fruit, eight multi-categorical variables, and with 32 RAPD primers. Data from the physicochemical traits were submitted to analysis of variance to estimate the genetic parameters, and their means were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. The matrices from the individual and combined distance were estimated by multivariate analyses before applying Tocher's optimization method. All physicochemical traits were examined for genetic variability by analysis of variance. The responses of these traits showed more contribution from genetic than from environmental factors, except the percentage of dry biomass, content of soluble solids and vitamin C level. Total capsaicin had the greatest genetic divergence. Nine clusters were formed from the quantitative data based on the generalized distance of Mahalanobis, using Tocher's method; four were formed from the multi-categorical data using the Cole-Rodgers coefficient, and eight were formed from the molecular data using the Nei and Li coefficient. The accessions were distributed into 14 groups using Tocher's method, and no significant correlation between pungency and origin was detected. Uni- and multivariate analyses permitted the identification of marked genetic diversity and fruit attributes capable of being improved through breeding programs. PMID:20882481

  16. Cytotoxic metabolites from Perenniporia tephropora, an endophytic fungus from Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Shang; Hu, Chang-Ling; Han, Ting; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Ma, Xue-Qin; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Based on bioactivity-oriented isolation, the EtOAc extract of a culture broth of the endophytic fungus Perenniporia tephropora Z41 from Taxus chinensis var. mairei, with strong anti-Pyricularia oryzae activity, afforded a new sesquiterpenoid, perenniporin A (1), together with three known compounds, ergosterol (2), rel-(+)-(2aR,5R,5aR,8S,8aS,8bR)-decahydro-2,2,5,8-tetramethyl-2H-naphtho[1,8-bc]genfuran-5-ol (3), and albicanol (4). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds and the EtOAc extract of P. tephropora Z41 (EPT) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, SMMC-7721, and PANC-1). EPT demonstrated significant cytotoxicity with IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 15 μg/mL. Compound 2 was the most cytotoxic constituent against the tested cell lines with IC(50) values of 1.16, 11.63, and 11.80 μg/mL, respectively, while compounds 1, 3, and 4 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC(50) values ranging from 6 to 58 μg/mL. We conclude that the endophytic fungus P. tephropora is a promising source of novel and cytotoxic metabolites. PMID:22660771

  17. Effects of Selenylation Modification on Antioxidative Activities of Schisandra chinensis Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chanjuan; Chen, Jin; Hou, Ranran; Liu, Jie; Li, Xiuping; Gao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Cui; Wang, Deyun; Lu, Yu; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-01-01

    The selenylation modification of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide (SCP) was conducted by the HNO3-Na2SeO3 method respectively under nine conditions according to L9(34) orthogonal design. Nine selenizing SCPs, sSCP1-sSCP9, were obtained, and their antioxidant activities were compared. In vitro test, the free radical-scavenging rates of nine sSCPs were determined for DPPH., .OH and ABTS+. sSCP1 presented the most significant effect, and could inhibit the nonenzymatic protein glycation. In vivo test, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sSCP1 and SCP, the serum contents of CAT, SOD and MDA were determined. The result showed that as compared with the SCP group, the SOD and CAT activities were significantly or numerically raised and MDA content was significantly or numerically lowered in the sSCP1 group. These results indicate that selenylation modification can significantly enhance the antioxidant and antiglycative activity of SCP in vitro or in vivo. sSCP1 possesses the best efficacy and its modification conditions can be as optimal modification conditions that were 200 mg of Na2SeO3 for 500 mg of SCP, reaction temperature of 50°C and reaction time of 6 h. PMID:26230941

  18. Biology and Conservation of the Taiwanese Humpback Dolphin, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Y; Riehl, Kimberly N; Klein, Michelle N; Javdan, Shiva; Hoffman, Jordan M; Dungan, Sarah Z; Dares, Lauren E; Araújo-Wang, Claryana

    2016-01-01

    The humpback dolphins of the eastern Taiwan Strait were first discovered scientifically in 2002 and since then have received much research attention. We reviewed all information published in peer-reviewed scientific journals on these dolphins and where appropriate and available, peer-reviewed scientific workshop reports and graduate theses were also examined. Recent evidence demonstrated that this population warranted recognition as a subspecies, Sousa chinensis taiwanensis. It is found in a highly restricted and linear strip of coastal waters along central western Taiwan. Numbering fewer than 80 individuals and declining, five main threats (fisheries interactions, habitat loss and degradation, loss of freshwater to estuaries within their habitat, air and water pollution, and noise) threaten the future existence of this subspecies. These dolphins have cultural and religious importance and boast the highest level of legal protection for wildlife in Taiwan. However, despite enormous efforts by local and international non-governmental groups urging immediate conservation actions, there have been no real government efforts to mitigate any existing threats; instead, some of these threats have worsened. Based on recent studies, we suggest the IUCN Red List status be revised to Critically Endangered CR 2a(ii); D for the subspecies. PMID:26790889

  19. [Establishment of high frequency regeneration via leaf explants of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis)].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xupeng; Luo, Keming; Zhou, Yue; Wu, Xiuhua; Yang, Li; Tang, Shaohu

    2013-11-01

    A high efficient in vitro regeneration protocol was developed from leaf explants of the female 'Red Sun' kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) and the multiplication coefficient and rooting rate of adventitious buds were also optimized. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The results show that the adventitious buds developing directly from explants tissue were noticed after 30 d of culture. The maximum regeneration frequency of adventitious buds is 100% and 18.67 shoots was observed in each leaf explants when MS medium was supplemented with 3.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA. The optimal culture medium for bud multiplication is MS+2.0 mg/L BA+1.0 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L GA3 and the multiplication coefficient reached 8.63. On the rooting medium with 1/2 MS+0.8 mg/L IBA for 15 d, the adventitious plantlets were transferred into matrix perlite supplied with 1/2 MS liquid medium for 15 d and the rooting rate reached 100%. 95 out of 98 plantlets (96.94%) survived acclimatization, producing healthy plants in the greenhouse. Taken together, a highly efficient regeneration method via leaf explants of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit was successfully established. This protocol may be useful for micropropagation and genetic transformation studies of 'Red Sun' kiwifruit.

  20. Effects of Schisandra chinensis extracts on cough and pulmonary inflammation in a cough hypersensitivity guinea pig model induced by cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shan; Nie, Yi-chu; Gan, Zhen-yong; Liu, Xiao-dong; Fang, Zhang-fu; Zhong, Bo-nian; Tian, Jin; Huang, Chu-qin; Lai, Ke-fang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2015-05-13

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in prescription medications for the treatment of chronic cough. However, the material basis of S. chinensis in relieving cough has not been completely elucidated yet. This study established a guinea pig model of cough hypersensitivity induced by 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, to evaluate the antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of three S. chinensis extracts. And then the function of four lignans in reducing expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was examined using A549 cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The results demonstrated that both ethanol extract (EE) and ethanol-water extract (EWE) of S. chinensis, but not water extract (WE), significantly reduced the cough frequency enhanced by 0.4M citric acid solution in these cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Meanwhile, pretreatment with EE and EWE both significantly attenuated the CS-induced increase in infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and total inflammatory cells, as well as pulmonary MDA, TNF-α, and IL-8, while remarkably increased activities of pulmonary SOD and GSH. According to H&E and immunofluorescence staining assays, airway epithelium hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, inflammatory cells infiltration, as well as expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1, were significantly attenuated in animals pretreatment with 1g/kg EE. Moreover, four lignans of EE, including schizandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin and γ-schisandrin, significantly inhibited CSE-induced expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and NOS3, as well as NO release in A549 cells. In conclusion, S. chinensis reduces cough frequency and pulmonary inflammation in the CS-induced cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Lignans may be the active components.

  1. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, A.; Ghannadi, A.; Mohebi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents. PMID:25657780

  2. A Continuous Procedure Based on Column Chromatography to Purify Anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis by a Macroporous Resin plus Gel Filtration Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yue, Daran; Yang, Lei; Liu, Shouxin; Li, Jian; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui

    2016-02-06

    In our previous study, as natural food colorants and antioxidants, the color and content stabilities of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) anthocyanins were investigated. In this work, the purification process parameters of S. chinensis anthocyanins using a macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography were evaluated. The optimized parameters of static adsorption and desorption were as follows. The selected resin is HPD-300 (nonpolar copolymer styrene type resin), and the anthocyanins adsorption saturation capacity of HPD-300 resin was 0.475 mg/g dry resin. Adsorption time was 4 h, and 0.517 mg/mL of S. chinensis anthocyanins was adsorbed on the resin column with a flow rate of 39 mL/h (3 BV/h). After adsorption, the anthocyanins were completely desorpted with 2.5 BV of 90% (v/v) ethanol solution, and the desorption flow rate was 13 mL/h (1 BV/h). After purification by dynamic adsorption and desorption, the anthocyanins content in the effluent increased from 47.6 mg/g to 128.4 mg/g, the purity of anthocyanins increased six-fold from 5.08% to 30.43%, and the anthocyanins recovery was 96.5%. The major constituent of S. chinensis anthocyanins was isolated with Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration chromatography, and it was detected by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) as cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. After purification using the HPD-300 resin, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins were increased 1.2-fold (FRAP) and 1.7-fold (ABTS).

  3. A Continuous Procedure Based on Column Chromatography to Purify Anthocyanins from Schisandra chinensis by a Macroporous Resin plus Gel Filtration Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yue, Daran; Yang, Lei; Liu, Shouxin; Li, Jian; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, as natural food colorants and antioxidants, the color and content stabilities of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) anthocyanins were investigated. In this work, the purification process parameters of S. chinensis anthocyanins using a macroporous resin and gel filtration chromatography were evaluated. The optimized parameters of static adsorption and desorption were as follows. The selected resin is HPD-300 (nonpolar copolymer styrene type resin), and the anthocyanins adsorption saturation capacity of HPD-300 resin was 0.475 mg/g dry resin. Adsorption time was 4 h, and 0.517 mg/mL of S. chinensis anthocyanins was adsorbed on the resin column with a flow rate of 39 mL/h (3 BV/h). After adsorption, the anthocyanins were completely desorpted with 2.5 BV of 90% (v/v) ethanol solution, and the desorption flow rate was 13 mL/h (1 BV/h). After purification by dynamic adsorption and desorption, the anthocyanins content in the effluent increased from 47.6 mg/g to 128.4 mg/g, the purity of anthocyanins increased six-fold from 5.08% to 30.43%, and the anthocyanins recovery was 96.5%. The major constituent of S. chinensis anthocyanins was isolated with Bio-Gel P2 gel filtration chromatography, and it was detected by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) as cyanidin-3-O-xylosylrutinoside. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of S. chinensis anthocyanins were investigated. After purification using the HPD-300 resin, the antioxidant activities of anthocyanins were increased 1.2-fold (FRAP) and 1.7-fold (ABTS). PMID:26861279

  4. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  5. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun

    2015-02-01

    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis. PMID:25212813

  6. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  7. Fine structure and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuemei; Zhang, Chunni; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Lingfei; Dai, Wu

    2013-11-01

    The pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of pear in China, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercing-sucking mouthparts. The ultrastructural morphology and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the adult were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The piercing-sucking mouthparts of C. chinensis are composed of a three-segmented labium with a deep groove in the anterior side, a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and a pyramid-shaped labrum. Proximal to the labium, the stylet fascicle forms a large loop within a membranous crumena. Mandibles, with more than ten teeth on the external convex region, can be seen on the distal extremity. Smooth maxillary stylets are interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal. One dendritic canal housing 2 dendrites is also found in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, four types of sensilla basiconica, single as well as groups of sensilla campaniformia, and oval flattened sensilla occur in different locations on the labium, whereas a kind of sensilla basiconica is at the junction of the labrum and anteclypeus. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia, always present with denticles, are present on the middle labial segment. Three types of sensilla basiconica, two types of sensilla trichodea and two oval flattened sensilla are located on the distal labial segment. The mouthpart morphology and abundance of sensilla located on the labium in C. chinensis are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of their taxonomic and putative functional significance.

  8. Structure-activity relationship study of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis on lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Han, Na; Yao, Xuechun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis to their anti-inflammatory activities, series of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated and assessed by testing their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 mouse microglia. It was found, for the first time, that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans which have S-biphenyl and methylenedioxy groups strongly inhibited LPS-induced microglia activation. The methoxy group on the cyclooctadiene introduced more effectiveness, but the presence of an acetyl group on the cyclooctadiene or hydroxyl group on C-7 decreased the inhibitory activity.

  9. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis and their inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Yang, Zhiyou; Yao, Xuechun; Wang, Hua; Han, Na; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Four dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, schisanchinins A-D, and 10 known compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including MS, UV and IR, NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC). The stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the biphenyl configuration were determined using NOESY, as well as analysis of CD spectra. In vitro activity assays showed that 11 of the 14 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in primary murine BV2 microglia cells.

  10. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  11. Likely Age-Related Hearing Loss (Presbycusis) in a Stranded Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The hearing of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, was measured. The age of this animal was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a noninvasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. The results showed that the high-frequency hearing cutoff frequency of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of a conspecific younger individual ~13 year old. The lower high-frequency hearing range in the older dolphin was explained as a likely result of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). PMID:26611012

  12. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  13. [Effect of flooding disturbance on aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis grassland--a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengwen; Zhu, Tingcheng

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of flooding disturbance on the net primary productivity of Songnen steppe, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on Sanjiadian State-owned Rangeland in Da'an city, Jilin Province, which was partly flooded in 1998. The study site was located in the south Songnen plain of Northeastern China, dominated by Leymus chinensis grassland. An extensively mild slope with flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) was taken as the study site. Two flooded transects coded FL and FH which was respectively subjected to 3 and 9 months of flooding were designed, and an un-flooded one coded CK at a relatively higher elevation was set as a control. Before flooding occurred in 1998, the slope had an almost uniform soil and L. chinensis dominated vegetation. Each transect was 0.2 hm2 (100 m x 20 m) in size, and the two flooded transects were almost paralleled each other, with the longer sides of them perpendicular to the retrieving direction of floodwater. In each transect twenty 1 m2 sized quadrats were randomly chosen to survey the community structure and the aboveground biomass. Comparative analyses were made on the dynamics of soil water, soil N and P, and species composition of grassland communities that occurred in responses to flooding disturbance. The results showed that the lightly and heavily flooded transects had a significantly larger aboveground biomass than the control, with the increase of 89.54% and 113.45%, respectively. The heavily flooded transect had a slightly but insignificantly larger aboveground biomass than the lightly flooded one, indicating that on flooded sites, water was not the limiting factor of the aboveground biomass. The acute changes of soil water caused by flooding led to the changes of soil nutrients and species assemblages, which would impact community biomass. Just as the case for aboveground biomass, the soil water contents of the two flooded transects were significantly larger than that of control

  14. Evoked-potential audiogram of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Cros, Emilie; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Zhitao; Fang, Liang; Chen, Yuefei; Kong, Fanming

    2012-09-01

    An evoked-potential audiogram was measured for an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) living in the dolphinarium of Nanning Zoo, China. Rhythmic 20 ms pip trains composed of cosine-enveloped 0.25 ms tone pips at a pip rate of 1 kHz were presented as sound stimuli. The dolphin was trained to remain still at the water surface and to wear soft latex suction-cup EEG electrodes used to measure the animal's envelope-following evoked potentials to the sound stimuli. Responses to 1000 rhythmic 20 ms pip trains for each amplitude/frequency combination were averaged and analysed using a fast Fourier transform to obtain an evoked auditory response. The hearing threshold was defined as the zero crossing point of the response input-output function using linear regression. Fourteen frequencies ranging from 5.6 to 152 kHz were studied. The results showed that most of the thresholds were lower than 90 dB re. 1 μPa (r.m.s.), covering a frequency range from 11.2 to 128 kHz, and the lowest threshold of 47 dB was measured at 45 kHz. The audiogram, which is a function of hearing threshold versus stimulus carrier frequency, presented a U-shape with a region of high hearing sensitivity (within 20 dB of the lowest threshold) between approximately 20 and 120 kHz. At frequencies lower than this high-sensitivity region, thresholds increased at a rate of approximately 11 dB octave(-1) up to 93 dB at 5.6 kHz. The thresholds at high frequencies above 108 kHz increased steeply at a rate of 130 dB octave(-1) up to 127 dB at 152 kHz.

  15. Acute and joint toxicity of three agrochemicals to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles

    PubMed Central

    WEI, Li; SHAO, Wei-Wei; DING, Guo-Hua; FAN, Xiao-Li; YU, Miao-Ling; LIN, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We studied acute and joint toxicity of three different agrochemicals (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam) to Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) tadpoles with the method of stability water tests. Results showed that the three agrochemicals increased tadpole mortality. For acute toxicity, the LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam exposure were 5.37, 4.90 and 4.68 mg/L; 0.035, 0.025 and 0.021 mg/L; 1.74, 1.45 and 1.29 mg/L, respectively. The safety concentrations (SC) of chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide-abamectin and penoxsulam to the tadpoles were 1.23, 0.30 and 0.003 mg/L, respectively. Based on these findings, chlorantraniliprole and penoxsulam were moderately toxic, while flubendiamide-abamectin was highly toxic. All pairwise joint toxicity tests showed moderate toxicity. The LC50 values after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure were 7.08, 6.61 and 6.03 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+penoxsulam, with corresponding values of 2.455, 2.328 and 2.183 mg/L for chlorantraniliprole+flubendiamide-abamectin, and 1.132, 1.084 and 1.050 mg/L for penoxsulam+flubendiamide-abamectin, with safe concentrations of 1.73, 0.63 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. For toxic evaluations of pairwise combinations of the three agrochemicals, only the joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide-abamectin after 24 h was found to be synergistic, whereas all other tests were antagonistic. Our findings provide valuable information on the toxic effects of agrochemicals on amphibians and how various types of agrochemicals can be reasonably used in agricultural areas. PMID:25017745

  16. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  17. Antioxidant Enzymes Regulate Reactive Oxygen Species during Pod Elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.− and.OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of.OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.− was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.− decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of.OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells. PMID:24503564

  18. Flavonoids and its derivatives from Callistephus chinensis flowers and their inhibitory activities against alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoshu; Liu, Zhenting; Bi, Xiuli; Liu, Jingxin; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes play an important role for the treatment of diabetes. One of the therapeutic methods for decreasing of postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard absorption of glucose by the inhibition of carbohydrate- hydrolysing enzymes, such as α-glucosidase, in the digestive organs. To investigate the therapeutic potential of compounds from natural sources, Callistephus chinensis flowers (CCF) were tested for inhibition of α-glucosidase, and acarboes was used as the positive control. The 70 % ethanol extract of CCF exhibited significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 8.14 μg/ml. The stepwise polarity fractions of CCF were tested further for in vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exhibited the most significant inhibitory activity. Eight pure compounds, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-β-D- glucoside, kaempferol, hyperin, naringenin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol-7-O-β-D- glucoside, were isolated (using enzyme assay-guide fractionation method) from the EtOAc fraction. Among these, quercetin was the most active one (IC50 values 2.04 μg/ml), and it appears that the inhibiting percentages are close to acarbose (IC50 values 2.24 μg/ml), the positive control, on α-glucosidase inhibition. HPLC/UV analysis indicated that the major components of CCF are kaempferol, hyperin and quercetin. The presented results revealed that CCF containing these eight flavonoids could be a useful natural source in the development of a novel α-glucosidase inhibitory agent against diabetic complications. PMID:27298611

  19. Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LU-FEI; LUO, FENG; XUE, CHAO-RAN; DENG, MENG; CHEN, CHEN; WU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27073642

  20. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  1. Influence of food type on specific dynamic action of the Chinese skink Eumeces chinensis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Chong; Ji, Xiang; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ma, Xiao-Mei

    2005-01-01

    We used the Chinese skink (Eumeces chinensis) as an experimental model to study influence of food type on specific dynamic action (SDA) of feeding. Thirty-three adult males collected from a natural population were divided equally into three (one control and two experimental) groups. We starved all skinks at 30 degrees C for 3 days and then provided the experimental skinks with a single meal consisting of either mealworms or meat [the flesh of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)]. Food ingested by skinks of the two experimental groups differed in lipid content and lean dry mass but not in total dry mass and energy. Defecation following feeding occurred slightly earlier in skinks ingesting mealworms (mean=41.7 h) than in those ingesting meat (mean=47.7 h), but the difference was not significant. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures showed that temporal variation in oxygen consumption over 72 h after feeding was evident in the experimental skinks but not in the control ones. Oxygen consumption was higher in the experimental skinks than in the control ones during the time interval between 4.5 and 36 h after feeding. The peak metabolic rate was greater but occurred later in skinks ingesting meat than in those ingesting mealworms. The estimated amounts of oxygen consumed by mealworm-fed, meat-fed and unfed skinks at 30 degrees C over 72 h after feeding were 356.5, 393.8 and 295.2 mL, respectively. Our results provide a support for the previous prediction that SDA is affected by types of food ingested by animals as skinks ingesting mealworms and meat differed in the time to reach a peak metabolic rate, the level of the peak metabolic rate and the magnitude of the SDA effect. PMID:15664324

  2. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis). A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yang, Xiaohan; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-07-04

    BACKGROUND: Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. RESULTS: The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. CONCLUSIONS: This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species.

  3. Vegetative Storage Protein in Litchi chinensis, a Subtropical Evergreen Fruit Tree, Possesses Trypsin Inhibitor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei-Min; Peng, Shi-Qing; Wang, Xu-Chu; Shi, Min-Jing; Chen, Yue-Yi; Hu, Zheng-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are commonly bioactive in herbaceous plants but few VSPs with bioactivity have been identified in trees. In addition, information on the characterization of VSPs in evergreen trees is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the VSPs with bioactivity in evergreen trees. Methods The VSP in lychee (Litchi chinensis), an evergreen fruit tree, was characterized by a combination of cytological, biochemical and molecular biological techniques. Key Results The VSP in lychee was a 22-kDa protein. It accumulated in the large central vacuoles of protein-storing cells (PSCs) in two distinguishable forms, granular and floccular. The PSCs were of a novel type. The 22-kDa protein is distributed in mature leaves, bark tissues of branches, trunk and large roots, paralleling the distribution of PSCs. Its homologues were present in mature seed. During young shoot development and fruiting, the 22-kDa protein decreased apparently, suggesting a nitrogen-storage function. The 22-kDa protein had several isoforms encoded by a small multigene family. One gene member, LcVSP1, was cloned. The LcVSP1 had no intron and contained a 675 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 225 amino acids. LcVSP1 was homologous to Kunitz trypsin inhibitors. The 22-kDa protein inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin, but had no inhibitory effect on subtilisin. Conclusions Lychee is rich in a 22-kDa VSP with trypsin inhibitor activity. The VSP plays an important role in nitrogen storage while its possible defensive function remains to be elucidated. PMID:17913726

  4. Antioxidant enzymes regulate reactive oxygen species during pod elongation in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Lin, Zhifang; Guan, Lanlan; Gaughan, Gerald; Lin, Guizhu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has focused on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell wall loosening and cell extension in plant vegetative growth, but few studies have investigated ROS functions specifically in plant reproductive organs. In this study, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed in Pisum sativum and Brassica chinensis pods at five developmental stages. In juvenile pods, the high levels of O2.- and .OH indicates that they had functions in cell wall loosening and cell elongation. In later developmental stages, high levels of .OH were also related to increases in cell wall thickness in lignified tissues. Throughout pod development, most of the O2.- was detected on plasma membranes of parenchyma cells and outer epidermis cells of the mesocarp, while most of the H2O2 was detected on plasma membranes of most cells throughout the mesocarp. This suggests that these sites are presumably the locations of ROS generation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) apparently contributed to ROS accumulation in pod wall tissues. Furthermore, specifically SOD and POD were found to be associated with pod growth through the regulation of ROS generation and transformation. Throughout pod development, O2.- decreases were associated with increased SOD activity, while changes in H2O2 accumulation were associated with changes in CAT and POD activities. Additionally, high POD activity may contribute to the generation of(.)OH in the early development of pods. It is concluded that the ROS are produced in different sites of plasma membranes with the regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and that substantial ROS generation and accumulation are evident in cell elongation and cell wall loosening in pod wall cells.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis): A Dominant Perennial Grass of the Eurasian Steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuangyan; Huang, Xin; Yan, Xueqing; Liang, Ye; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xianjun; Ma, Xingyong; Zhang, Lexin; Cai, Yueyue; Ma, Tian; Cheng, Liqin; Qi, Dongmei; Zheng, Huajun; Yang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Gongshe

    2013-01-01

    Background Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel.] is an important perennial forage grass across the Eurasian Steppe and is known for its adaptability to various environmental conditions. However, insufficient data resources in public databases for sheepgrass limited our understanding of the mechanism of environmental adaptations, gene discovery and molecular marker development. Results The transcriptome of sheepgrass was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We assembled 952,328 high-quality reads into 87,214 unigenes, including 32,416 contigs and 54,798 singletons. There were 15,450 contigs over 500 bp in length. BLAST searches of our database against Swiss-Prot and NCBI non-redundant protein sequences (nr) databases resulted in the annotation of 54,584 (62.6%) of the unigenes. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis assigned 89,129 GO term annotations for 17,463 unigenes. We identified 11,675 core Poaceae-specific and 12,811 putative sheepgrass-specific unigenes by BLAST searches against all plant genome and transcriptome databases. A total of 2,979 specific freezing-responsive unigenes were found from this RNAseq dataset. We identified 3,818 EST-SSRs in 3,597 unigenes, and some SSRs contained unigenes that were also candidates for freezing-response genes. Characterizations of nucleotide repeats and dominant motifs of SSRs in sheepgrass were also performed. Similarity and phylogenetic analysis indicated that sheepgrass is closely related to barley and wheat. Conclusions This research has greatly enriched sheepgrass transcriptome resources. The identified stress-related genes will help us to decipher the genetic basis of the environmental and ecological adaptations of this species and will be used to improve wheat and barley crops through hybridization or genetic transformation. The EST-SSRs reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and for the molecular breeding of sheepgrass and other Poaceae species. PMID:23861841

  6. Quality profile of litchi ( Litchi chinensis) cultivars from India and effect of radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B. B.; Narayan Parte, Madan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2010-09-01

    Litchi ( Litchi chinensis) is a non-climacteric tropical fruit. The fruit has a short shelf-life making its marketing difficult. Physical, biochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China' were studied. The effect of gamma radiation processing and low temperature storage on the above parameters was evaluated to standardize the optimal process parameters for shelf-life extension of litchi. Physical and biochemical parameters analyzed included weight, moisture, pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, total and reducing sugar, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and flavonoid content. Weight, moisture content, and pH in the fresh fruit ranged between 21-26 g, 74-77%, and 3.7-4.4, respectively, whereas, total and reducing sugar ranged 10-15, and 10-13 g%, respectively. In 'Shahi' vitamin C content was found to be around 17-19 mg%, whereas, in 'China' it was 22-28 mg%. Flavonoid content was in the range of 26-34 μg catechin equivalents/g of fresh fruit. Total surface and internal bacterial load was around 4 and 3 log cfu/g, respectively. Surface yeast-mold count (YMC) was ˜3 log cfu/g whereas internal YMC was ˜2 log cfu/g. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Treatment at 0.5 kGy did not significantly affect the quality parameters of the fruit. Treated fruits retained the "good" organoleptic rating during storage. Thus, radiation treatment (0.5 kGy) in combination with low temperature (4 °C) storage achieved a shelf-life of 28 days for litchi fruit.

  7. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR-2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V-positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1-cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose-dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  8. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Park, J H

    2013-12-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  9. Necessity of high temperature for the dormancy release of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Shao, Xing-Hua; Deng, Xin-Jie; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Jia, Lin-Yan; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yue; Xu, Ling

    2012-09-15

    Winter dormancy has been extensively studied in many plants, while much less information is available for summer dormancy. Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis is characterized by a prolonged period of summer dormancy during the annual cycle. In the present study, we characterized the nature of dormancy in the controlled growth conditions and investigated the effects of temperature and ethylene on dormancy release. Cessation of growth and senescence of aerial tissues occurred even under conditions favorable for growth, suggesting an endo-dormancy process. Bulbs failed to sprout when they were exposed to low storage temperatures, while high temperature treatment preceding low storage temperatures, or heating interruption during low storage temperatures, could make bulbs sprouting. These results suggest that high temperatures are necessary for endo-dormancy release. Ethylene application during a later storage stage showed an obvious accelerative effect on bulb sprouting, whereas ethylene application during the middle stage had no effect on sprouting. The biological progression of dormancy was further studied through cytological and physiological analyses. Under natural conditions, the ethylene level was reduced to trace amounts with the transition and progression of dormancy. A transient peak in ethylene release was found when the plugged plasmodesmata (PD) began to re-open and flower initiation began. The most common PD possessed electron-dense deposits in endo-dormancy. These data indicate that endo-dormancy ends when flower initiation begins and ethylene peak occurs. Ethylene application had no effect on dormancy release, while it hastened sprouting only after the release from endo-dormancy by high temperature.

  10. Cloning and characterization of Rap GTPase from the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qian; Zhou, Jing; Jia, Yu-Ping; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2012-01-01

    Ras-related protein Rap GTPase has been implicated in cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and cell junction formation. The first shrimp Rap cDNA (FcRap) was recently identified from the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The full length of FcRap is 1013 bp, with a 561 bp open reading frame that encodes a 186 amino acid protein. FcRap has a calculated molecular mass of 20.90 kDa and pI of 6.37. Phylogenetic analysis shows that FcRap and other Rap proteins are clustered into one group. Results from the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction show that FcRap could be detected mainly in the hemocytes, hepatopancreas, stomach, and gills, whereas a relatively lower expression level could be detected in the heart and intestines. FcRap in the hemocytes was upregulated 2h post Vibrio challenge, and it was upregulated 2h post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, and peaked at 6h before it declined at 12h. No variation in the FcRap transcript was observed in the gills under the Vibrio challenge, but it was initially downregulated 2h post WSSV challenge, and then it was upregulated and peaked at 6h before it was eventually went down at 12h. The rFcRap protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21DE3. The pull-down analysis showed that rFcRap protein could interact with VP28, an envelope protein of WSSV. The probable roles of Rap GTPase in shrimp innate immunity are presented for the first time.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Based on Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Liu, Yifei; Zeng, Shaohua; Xiao, Gong; Wang, Gan; Wang, Ying; Peng, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. 'Hongyang') is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'Hongyang' from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement. PMID:26301713

  12. Cytosine Methylation Alteration in Natural Populations of Leymus chinensis Induced by Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingjie; Yang, Xuejiao; Wang, Huaying; Shi, Fengxue; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jushan; Li, Linfeng; Wang, Deli; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and warming+nitrogen (N) addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML) indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid adaptation by

  13. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  14. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Based on Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Xiao, Gong; Wang, Gan; Wang, Ying; Peng, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. ‘Hongyang’) is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of ‘Hongyang’ from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39–54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement. PMID:26301713

  15. Chemical Structure and Immunomodulating Activities of an α-Glucan Purified from Lobelia chinensis Lour.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Bao, Wan-Rong; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Wang, Shun-Chun; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of its FT-IR, high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. The backbone of BP1 consists of →₆α-d-Glcp¹→6,3α-d-Glcp¹→(₆α-d-Glcp¹)x-6,3α-d-Glcp¹-(₆α-d-Glcp¹)y→. The side chains were terminal α-d-Glcp¹→ and α-d-Glcp¹→ (₆α-d-Glcp¹)z→₄α-d-Glcp¹→₃α-d-Glcp¹→₄α-d-Glcp¹→ (x + y + z = 5), which are attached to the backbone at O-3 of 3,6α-d-Glcp¹. The results of the effect of BP1 on mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 indicate that BP1 enhances the cell proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Because the inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 blocks the BP1-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, we hypothesize that α-glucan BP1 activates TLR4, which mediates the above-mentioned immunomodulating effects. PMID:27314319

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Development and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) Based on Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Liu, Yifei; Zeng, Shaohua; Xiao, Gong; Wang, Gan; Wang, Ying; Peng, Ming; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. 'Hongyang') is a promising commercial cultivar due to its nutritious value and unique flesh color, derived from vitamin C and anthocyanins. In this study, we obtained transcriptome data of 'Hongyang' from seven developmental stages using Illumina sequencing. We mapped 39-54 million reads to the recently sequenced kiwifruit genome and other databases to define gene structure, to analyze alternative splicing, and to quantify gene transcript abundance at different developmental stages. The transcript profiles throughout red kiwifruit development were constructed and analyzed, with a focus on the biosynthesis and metabolism of compounds such as phytohormones, sugars, starch and L-ascorbic acid, which are indispensable for the development and formation of quality fruit. Candidate genes for these pathways were identified through MapMan and phylogenetic analysis. The transcript levels of genes involved in sucrose and starch metabolism were consistent with the change in soluble sugar and starch content throughout kiwifruit development. The metabolism of L-ascorbic acid was very active, primarily through the L-galactose pathway. The genes responsible for the accumulation of anthocyanin in red kiwifruit were identified, and their expression levels were investigated during kiwifruit development. This survey of gene expression during kiwifruit development paves the way for further investigation of the development of this uniquely colored and nutritious fruit and reveals which factors are needed for high quality fruit formation. This transcriptome data and its analysis will be useful for improving kiwifruit genome annotation, for basic fruit molecular biology research, and for kiwifruit breeding and improvement.

  17. (Methylsulfanyl)alkanoate ester biosynthesis in Actinidia chinensis kiwifruit and changes during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Matich, Adam J; Marsh, Ken B; Nicolau, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Four 3-(methylsulfanyl)propionate esters, ethyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enoate, two 2-(methylsulfanyl)acetate esters and their possible precursors 2-(methylsulfanyl)ethanol, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanol and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal were quantified from the headspace of Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A' kiwifruit pulp by GC-MS-TOF analysis. The majority of these compounds were specific for eating-ripe fruit and their levels increased in parallel with the climacteric rise in ethylene, accumulating towards the very soft end of the eating firmness. No ethylene production could be observed after long-term storage (4-6 months) at 1.5 degrees C and the levels of all methylsulfanyl-volatiles, except methional, declined by 98-100% during that period. This depletion of (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate-esters after prolonged cold storage points towards little flavour impact of these compounds on commercial 'Hort 16A' kiwifruits. However, ethyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propionate is suggested to be odour active in ripe 'Hort 16A' fruit that has not been stored. Gene expression measured by q-RT PCR of six ripening-specific alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) expressed sequence tags and (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate-ester production of cell-free extracts were also significantly decreased after prolonged cold storage. However, (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate-ester synthesis of cell-free extracts and AAT gene transcript levels could be recovered by ethylene treatment after five months at 1.5 degrees C indicating that the biosynthesis of (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate-esters in 'Hort 16A' kiwifruit is likely to depend on ethylene-regulated AAT-gene expression. That the composition but not the concentration of (methylsulfanyl)alkanoate-esters in fresh fruit could be restored after ethylene treatment suggests that substrate availability might also have an impact on the final levels of these volatiles.

  18. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jin; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yang, Woo Seok; Park, Jae Gwang; Kim, Han Gyung; Chung, Woo-Jae; Yoon, Keejung; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. PMID:25878717

  19. Continuous nitrogen application differentially affects growth, yield,and nitrogen use efficiency of Leymus chinensis in two saline–sodic soils of Northeastern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. (Poaceae) is a dominant plant in the Western Songnen plain of Northeastern China, Soil salinization and alkalization, nitrogen deficiency and current management practices have resulted in grassland degradation in the region. The objective of this study was to investig...

  20. Micelle-mediated extraction of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Yong; Shin, Yong-Jun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Seung Hyun; Han, Sang Beom; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2014-08-01

    Micelle-mediated extraction offers a convenient alternative to conventional extraction systems. A new method based on micelle-mediated extraction was developed for the separation and determination of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Various experimental conditions using the micelle-mediated method were investigated to evaluate the extraction process. Ethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080), a non-ionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether, was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Shiseido Capcell Pak C18 analytical column (250 × 4.6mm i.d., 5 µm particle diameter), detected by ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm. The isocratic elution was achieved with a mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (70:30:0.1) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method was optimized and fully validated against dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (schizandrin, gomisin A and gomisin N). With 15% Genapol X-080, a liquid to solid ratio of 100:1 (mL/g) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 60 min, the extraction percentage of total dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans reached the highest value. The non-ionic surfactant Genapol X-080 solution is an effective alternative for the extraction of bioactive lignans from S. chinensis.

  1. Ethanol Extract of Dianthus chinensis L. Induces Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Nho, Kyoung Jin; Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus chinensis L. is used to treat various diseases including cancer; however, the molecular mechanism by which the ethanol extract of Dianthus chinensis L. (EDCL) induces apoptosis is unknown. In this study, the apoptotic effects of EDCL were investigated in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Treatment with EDCL significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis. This induction was associated with chromatin condensation, activation of caspases, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. However, apoptosis induced by EDCL was attenuated by caspase inhibitor, indicating an important role for caspases in EDCL responses. Furthermore, EDCL did not alter the expression of bax in HepG2 cells but did selectively downregulate the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xl, resulting in an increase in the ratio of bax:bcl-2 and bax:bcl-xl. These results support a mechanism whereby EDCL induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and caspase activation in HepG2 cells.

  2. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-01

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources.

  3. BcMF13, a new reproductive organ-specific gene from Brassica rapa. ssp. chinensis, affects pollen development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun

    2008-06-01

    A transcript-derived fragment (GenBank accession number DN237920.1) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis) was isolated and further investigated. The full length DNA and cDNA of the fragment were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene, BcMF13, encodes a protein of 73 amino acids and is interrupted by an intron of 106 bp (GenBank accession number EF158459). Southern blot analysis revealed that BcMF13 could be a single-copy gene in the Chinese cabbage genome. Sequence blast analysis showed that BcMF13 was a new gene. In EST database, those sequences share 96-98% identity with BcMF13 cDNA all came from flower buds, microspores, anthers of Brassica, which proved BcMF13 homologs closely related to the development of male gametogenesis in Brassica. RT-PCR discovered that it is exclusively expressed in stage four and five flower buds of fertile line, strongly expressed in stamens. Successful suppression of BcMF13 gene expression by RNA antisense strategy greatly reduced the normal pollen grains, suggesting that BcMF13 was essential in pollen development in Brassica.

  4. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  5. Functional analysis of a novel male fertility CYP86MF gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis makino).

    PubMed

    Cao, J S; Yu, X L; Ye, W Z; Lu, G; Xiang, X

    2006-01-01

    In our earlier work, a cytochrome P450 CYP86MF gene was isolated from floral bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L.) by mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). To unravel the biological function of CYP86MF gene, the antisense fragment from the CYP86MF gene was transferred into Chinese cabbage pak-choi (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee). Out of 22 plants transformed with the antisense gene constructed from the CYP86MF, 20 reached to flowering stage. Morphological investigations showed that the transgenic plants developed the normal floral organ. However, they remained self-infertile, even when artificial self-pollination was performed in the bud stage. Pollen germination test indicated that the pollen from the transgenic line TB-2 could not germinate normally. Further physiological, biochemical and cytological analyses showed that only significant difference was detectable in contents of the endogenous hormones, and a layer of unknown material adhered to the surface of microspore. The present studies thus provided valuable clues for understanding the biological function of the CYP86C subfamily genes. Furthermore, our studies also demonstrate a novel method for obtaining artificial male sterility line of Chinese cabbage.

  6. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  7. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  8. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Protein Phosphatase 5 from the Cantharidin-Producing Blister Beetle, Epicauta chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi’en; Lü, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases which has been recognized in regulation of diverse cellular processes. A cDNA fragment encoding PP5 (EcPP5) was cloned and characterized from the cantharidin-producing blister beetle, E. chinensis. EcPP5 contains an open reading frame of 1500 bp that encodes a protein of 56.89 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 88% and 68% identities to the PP5 of Tribolium castaneum and humans, respectively. Analysis of the primary sequence shows that EcPP5 has three TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) motifs at its N-terminal region and contains a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domain. RT-PCR reveals that EcPP5 is expressed in all developmental stages and in different tissues. The recombinant EcPP5 (rEcPP5) was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein exhibited phosphatase activity towards pNPP (p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and phosphopeptides, and its activity can be enhanced by arachidonic acid. In vitro inhibition study revealed that protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, norcantharidin and endothall, inhibited its activity. Further, protein phosphatase activity of total soluble protein extract from E. chinensis adults could be impeded by these inhibitors suggesting there might be some mechanism to protect this beetle from being damaged by its self-produced cantharidin. PMID:24351830

  9. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  10. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minyi; Duan, Renyan; Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M) and degenerate patch (D). To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D) of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1) Different species (or functional groups) had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2) Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment) only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3) Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4) The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D' and H') were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale. PMID:26998409

  11. Lemmas induce dormancy but help the seed of Leymus chinensis to resist drought and salinity conditions in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jixiang; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Na; Wang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant grass in the Songnen grassland of Northern China. The lower germination caused by the presence of lemmas has proved to be an obstacle for the use of the seeds of this plant by humans. However, it is still unknown if the lemmas have other ecological roles such as resisting drought and saline conditions. Three experiments were designed to investigate the ecological roles of the lemmas in Leymus chinensis seeds. The results showed that lemmas significantly improved the amount of water uptake and slowed down the dehydration rate of the seeds under dry conditions. Likewise, the lemmas induced seed dormancy, and removal of the lemmas improved the germination at all temperatures. Although germination percentage of the seeds without lemmas were higher than that of seeds with lemmas under salinity stress, the recovery and total percentage were significantly lower than the seeds with lemmas, especially at 400 mM stress. These results suggest that the lemmas play a vital function in water uptake, dehydration and salt tolerance during the germination stage of the seeds as a response to adverse environmental conditions. Although lemmas showed a dormancy effect, if we want to plant this species in salinity soil in Northeast China, the approach of removing the lemmas by artificial means and improving the seed germination percentage is not feasible. PMID:26855854

  12. Antioxidant effects of the orientin and vitexin in Trollius chinensis Bunge in D-galactose-aged mice.

    PubMed

    An, Fang; Yang, Guodong; Tian, Jiaming; Wang, Shuhua

    2012-11-25

    Total flavonoids are the main pharmaceutical components of Trollius chinensis Bunge, and orientin and vitexin are the monomer components of total flavonoids in Trollius chinensis Bunge. In this study, an aged mouse model was established through intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose for 8 weeks, followed by treatment with 40, 20, or 10 mg/kg orientin, vitexin, or a positive control (vitamin E) via intragastric administration for an additional 8 weeks. Orientin, vitexin, and vitamin E improved the general medical status of the aging mice and significantly increased their brain weights. They also produced an obvious rise in total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels in the serum, and the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATP enzyme, and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATP enzyme in the liver, brain and kidneys. In addition, they significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels in the liver, brain and kidney and lipofuscin levels in the brain. They also significantly improved the neuronal ultrastructure. The 40 mg/kg dose of orientin and vitexin had the same antioxidant capacity as vitamin E. These experimental findings indicate that orientin and vitexin engender anti-aging effects through their antioxidant capacities. PMID:25368632

  13. Anti-neuro-inflammatory effects of Nardostachys chinensis in lipopolysaccharide-and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Geuntae

    2016-05-01

    Excessive microglial cell activation is related to the progression of chronic neuro-inflammatory disorders. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by the NFE2-related factor (Nrf-2) pathway is a key regulator of neuro-inflammation. Nardostachys chinensis is used as an anti-malarial, anti-nociceptive, and neurotrophic treatment in traditional Asian medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of N. chinensis (EN) on the anti-neuro-inflammatory effects mediated by HO-1 up-regulation in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that EN suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production and induced HO-1 transcription and translation through Nrf-2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. EN markedly inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Furthermore, EN protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect neuronal toxicity mediated by LPS- and LTA-treated microglial cells. These results suggested that EN impairs LPS- and LTA-induced neuro-inflammatory responses in microglial cells and confers protection against indirect neuronal damage to HT22 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EN could be used as a natural anti-neuro-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. PMID:27478097

  14. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins. PMID:26428773

  15. Physiological profiles associated with ceasing growth of unfertilized eggs produced by unmated queens in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ganghua; Liu, Long; Sun, Pengdong; Wu, Yao; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Xiongwen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Reticulitermes chinensis, a close relative of R. speratus with asexual queen succession, unfertilized eggs can be produced but do not hatch as larvae. To explain this phenomenon, we analyzed the physiological differences between unfertilized eggs/unmated queens and fertilized eggs/mated queens. Fertilized eggs had significantly lower quantities of five amino acids (Cys, Met, Ile, Leu and Tyr), Ca, protein and cholesterol during development. The higher levels of four trace elements (Na, K, Zn and Fe) in fertilized eggs and their lower levels in mated queens indicated that mated queens might transfer these trace elements to fertilized eggs to aid development. The higher levels of Mn, triglycerides and serotonin in mated queens and higher levels of Mn and glucose in fertilized eggs suggested that these substances are very important for normal ovarian and embryonic growth. The different expression of three reproductive genes (vtg 1, rab 11 and JHE 1) suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of ovarian and embryonic growth. Overall, changes in these physiological indices may substantially affect ovarian and embryonic growth and inhibit development of unfertilized eggs in R. chinensis. PMID:27215326

  16. Two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Yan; Liu, Zhigang; Zhou, Hongli; Hu, Haobin

    2014-08-01

    A method for two-steps extraction of essential oil, polysaccharides and lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill had been established. Firstly, S. chinensis was extracted by hydro-distillation, the extracted solution was separated from the water-insoluble residue and precipitated by adding dehydrated alcohol after the essential oil was collected, and then the precipitate as polysaccharide was collected. Finally, second extraction was performed to obtained lignans from the water-insoluble residue with ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) method. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the UMAE parameters, the optimal conditions were as follows: microwave power 430W, ethanol concentration 84%, particle size of sample 120-mesh sieves, ratio of water to raw material 15 and extraction time 2.1min. Under these optimized conditions, the total extraction yields of five lignans (Schisandrol A, Schisantherin A, Deoxyschisandrin, Schisandrin B and Schisandrin C) had reached 14.22±0.135mg/g. Compared with the traditional method of direct extraction of different bioactive components in respective procedure, the extraction yields of polysaccharides and the five lignans had reached 99% and 95%, respectively. The mean recoveries of the 5 lignan compounds and polysaccharides were 97.75-101.08% and their RSD value was less than 3.88%.The approach proposed in this study not only improved the extraction yield of lignans, but also elevated the utilization of Schisandra resources. PMID:24755113

  17. Aqueous two-phase system coupled with ultrasound for the extraction of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis (turcz.) Baill.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y X; Han, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, L H; Zhou, L L

    2013-01-01

    In this study the potential use of an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasound for the extraction of lignans from Schisandra chinensis seeds was evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The main bioactive components, schizandrin (SA), schisantherin A (SAA) and deoxyschizandrin (DSA) were selected as markers. The partitioning behavior of lignans in different salt-types of ATPS was compared. The optimization ATPS of 25% (w/w) (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and 19% (w/w) ethanol were selected based on their higher upper phase partitioning coefficient (>74) and the recovery (>93%) for three markers. Using the optimized ATPS solvent, the RMS results showed 20:1 of solvent:solid, 800 W and 61.1 min were the optimal ultrasound assisted extraction conditions, under which 13.10mg/g SA, 1.87 mg/g SAA and 1.84 mg/g DSA were recovered in the upper phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the lower phase. Compared with 80% ethanol (v/v) ultrasonic extraction, similar yields were obtained, but the present method exhibited higher extraction purity for the selective extraction of lignans from S. chinensis seeds.

  18. Species presence frequency and diversity in different patch types along an altitudinal gradient: Larix chinensis Beissn in Qinling Mountains (China)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Minyi; Wang, Shixiong; Wang, Zhigao; Fan, Weiyi

    2016-01-01

    Forest communities are mosaic systems composed of patches classified into four different developmental patch types: gap patch (G), building patch (B), mature patch (M) and degenerate patch (D). To study the mechanisms maintaining diversity in subalpine coniferous forests, species presence frequency and diversity in the four distinct patch types (G, B, M and D) of Larix chinensis conifer forests at three altitudinal gradients in the Qinling Mountains were analyzed. Our results were as follows: (1) Different species (or functional groups) had distinct presence frequencies in the four different patch types along the altitudinal gradient; (2) Some species or functional groups (species groups sharing similar traits and responses to the environment) only occurred in some specific patches. For seed dispersal, species using wind mainly occurred in G and D, while species using small animals mainly occurred in B and M; (3) Species composition of adjacent patch types was more similar than non-adjacent patch types, based on the lower β diversity index of the former; (4) The maximum numbers of species and two diversity indices (D′ and H′) were found in the middle altitudes. Various gap-forming processes and dispersal limitation may be the two major mechanisms determining species diversity in Larix chinensis coniferous forests at the patch scale. PMID:26998409

  19. Whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhitao; Fang, Liang; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2013-04-01

    Broadband recording systems were adapted to characterize the whistle characteristics of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China. A total of 4630 whistles were recorded, of which 2651 with legible contours and relatively good signal-to-noise ratios were selected for statistical analysis. Of the six tonal types (i.e., flat, down, rise, convex, U-shaped, and sine), flat (N = 1426; 39.45%) was the most predominant, followed by down (N = 754; 23.35%) and rise (N = 489; 12.34%). The whistles showed a short duration (mean ± SD: 370.19 ± 285.61 ms; range: 29-2923 ms), a broad frequency range (fundamental contour ranged from 0.52 to 33 kHz), and two harmonics (mean ± SD: 1.90 ± 2.74, with the maximum frequency of harmonics beyond 96 kHz). Whistles without gaps and stairs accounted for 76.7% and 86.4%, respectively. No significant interspecies differences in frequency parameters were observed compared with S. teuszii, which is inconsistent with morphological taxonomies but confirms phylogenetic results, thus suggesting a close relation between Chinese S. chinensis and Atlantic S. teuszii. Significant intra- and interspecific differences in the genus Sousa were also observed, indicating that animal vocalization may not be limited by genetically determined traits but could also be a function of local habitat adaptation.

  20. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  1. Physiological profiles associated with ceasing growth of unfertilized eggs produced by unmated queens in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ganghua; Liu, Long; Sun, Pengdong; Wu, Yao; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Xiongwen; Huang, Qiuying

    2016-01-01

    In Reticulitermes chinensis, a close relative of R. speratus with asexual queen succession, unfertilized eggs can be produced but do not hatch as larvae. To explain this phenomenon, we analyzed the physiological differences between unfertilized eggs/unmated queens and fertilized eggs/mated queens. Fertilized eggs had significantly lower quantities of five amino acids (Cys, Met, Ile, Leu and Tyr), Ca, protein and cholesterol during development. The higher levels of four trace elements (Na, K, Zn and Fe) in fertilized eggs and their lower levels in mated queens indicated that mated queens might transfer these trace elements to fertilized eggs to aid development. The higher levels of Mn, triglycerides and serotonin in mated queens and higher levels of Mn and glucose in fertilized eggs suggested that these substances are very important for normal ovarian and embryonic growth. The different expression of three reproductive genes (vtg 1, rab 11 and JHE 1) suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of ovarian and embryonic growth. Overall, changes in these physiological indices may substantially affect ovarian and embryonic growth and inhibit development of unfertilized eggs in R. chinensis. PMID:27215326

  2. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-01

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22018714

  3. Response of antioxidative enzymes to arsenic-induced phytotoxicity in leaves of a medicinal daisy, Wedelia chinensis Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Tulika; Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wedelia chinensis Merrill (Asteraceae) is a medicinally important herb, grown abundantly in soils contaminated with heavy metals, including toxic metalloid arsenic (As). The leaves have immense significance in treatment of various ailments. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether the edible/usable parts experience oxidative stress in the form of membrane damage during As exposure or not. Materials and Methods: Responses of seven antioxidant enzymes were studied in leaves under 20 mg/L of As treatment in pot experiment. Results: When compared to control, activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbatereductase, dehydroascorbatereductase, glutathione reductase, and gluathione peroxidase had increased, while the catalase level reduced and ascorbate peroxidase activity changed non-significantly in As-treated seedlings. This suggested overall positive response of antioxidant enzymes to As-induced oxidative stress. Although hydrogen peroxide content increased, level of lipid peroxidation and magnitude of membrane damage was quite normal, leading to normal growth (dry weight of shoot) of plant under Astreatment. Conclusion: W.chinensis is tolerant of As-toxicity, and thus, can be grown in As-contaminated zones. PMID:24082737

  4. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides.

  5. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals.

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of a C-type lectin-like protein from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis).

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaofang; Kong, Jie; Wang, Qingyin; Wang, Weiji; Meng, Xianhong

    2013-03-01

    A C-type lectin-like protein was cloned and characterized from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and named as FcCTL. The results indicated that the full length cDNA of 859 bp had an open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 220 amino acids with one carbohydrate-recognition domain, six conserved Cys and one key motif EPGD. The theoretical molecular weight and pI of mature protein was 25.3 kDa and 5.4. Sequence comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of FcCTL showed varied identity of 26-34, 34, 31 and 30 % with those of F. chinensis, Portunus trituberculatus, Tetraodon nigroviridis, Penaeus monodon, respectively. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that FcCTL was expressed highest in hepatopancreas of normal shrimp, and it's expression was up-regulated in hepatopancreas and gills post white spot syndrome virus challenge. The purified recombinant FcCTL showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. And the hemagglutinating activity of rFcCTL could be completely inhibited by GlcNAc (5 μg/ml), LPS (2.5 μg/ml), D-galactose (100 mM) and maltose (100 mM). These data suggested that FcCTL might play an important role in shrimp immune and would be helpful to better understand the innate immunity mechanism of shrimp. PMID:23192616

  7. Growth inhibition in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) growth exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2009-04-30

    The toxicity and effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), an endocrine disruptor, on the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) were studied. Etiolation occurred on leaves of Chinese cabbage plant treated with 50mg/L of DBP for 42 d. DBP even below 1mg/L had a significant effect on the concentration of chlorophyll in Chinese cabbage and the biomass showed a severe decrease under treatment with more than 30 mg/L of DBP. At a concentration below 1mg/L of DBP, no significant difference in accumulation was found, but treatments with concentration exceeding 10, 30, 50 and 100mg/L all resulted in significant accumulation of DBP. Six protein spots extracted from leaf tissue of DBP-treated Chinese cabbage displaying a differential expression are shown in 2-DE maps. According to proteome level studies, three protein spots were found to increase and were identified, respectively, as acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (acyl-ACP desaturase), root phototropism protein 3 (RPT3) and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR). The other three protein spots were found to decrease and were identified respectively as dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) and ATP synthase subunit beta. The key finding is that the other closely related plant, Bok choy (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis), the subspecies of Chinese cabbage, respond differently to the same chemicals. PMID:18678443

  8. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-01

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  9. Characterization of an immune deficiency homolog (IMD) in shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Ren, Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-12-01

    The immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathway mediates immunity against Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Recent studies show that the IMD pathway also involves in antiviral innate immune responses. The functions of the pathway in crustacean immunity are largely unknown. In this paper, two IMDs (FcIMD and PcIMD), one of the key elements of the IMD pathway, were identified from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Both proteins have a death domain located at the C-terminal. FcIMD was mainly expressed in the gills and stomach and PcIMD was mainly detected in the heart, hepatopancreas, and stomach. FcIMD peaked in hemocytes at 12 h after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge and it peaked in the gills at 6 h after WSSV challenge, but it was decreased at 2 h and kept the low level to 24 h in hemocytes and no obviously change in gill after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. PcIMD first decreased in hemocytes at 2 h and peaked at 12 h in hemocytes after V. anguillarum challenge. It was also upregulated in gill after bacterial challenge, peaked at 2 h, and decreased at 6 h, and then gradually increased at 12-24 h. PcIMD has no significant change in hemocytes and gill after WSSV challenge. Western blot analysis detected FcIMD protein in all tissues, and immunocytochemical analysis localized FcIMD in the cytoplasm of hemocytes. RNA interference analysis showed that the IMD pathway was involved in regulating the expression of three kinds AMP genes, including crustins, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and lysozymes, in shrimp and crayfish. They are Cru 1, Cru 2, ALF 1, ALF 2 and Lys 1 in crayfish, and Cru1, Cru 3, ALF 6, ALF 8, and Lys2 in shrimp. These results suggest that although IMD distribution and expression patterns have some differences, the IMD pathway may have conserved function for AMP regulation in shrimp and crayfish immunity against Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. [Responses of ecosystem carbon budget to increasing nitrogen deposition in differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia, China].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yu-Chun; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-She; Xiao, Sheng-Sheng; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Quo, Shu-Fang; He, Yun-Long; Yan, Zhong-Qing; Wang, Li-Qin

    2015-02-01

    Based on a field manipulative nitrogen (N) addition experiment, the effects of atmospheric N deposition level change on the plant biomass and net primary productivity (NPP), soil respiration (Rs) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were investigated respectively in 2009 and 2010 in two differently degraded Leymus chinensis steppes in Inner Mongolia of China, and the difference in the response of NEE to equal amount of N addition [10 g x (M2 x a)(-1), MN] between the two steppes was also discussed. The results indicated that for the light degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site A) , the average plant aboveground biomass (AGB) in MN treatment were 21.5% and 46.8% higher than those of CK in these two years. But for the moderate degraded Leymus chinensis steppe (site B), the N addition decreased the plant AGB and ANPP in 2009, while showed positive effects in 2010. N addition increased the belowground biomass (BGB) of the both sites and belowground NPP (BNPP) of site B in both years, but decreased the BNPP of site A in 2010. The increase of N input in the two steppes did not change the seasonal variation of Rs. The cumulative annual soil C emissions in MN treatment in site A showed an increase of about 14.6% and 25.7% of those in the CK respectively for these two years, while were decreased by about 10.4% and 11.3%, respectively in site B. The NEE of MN treatments, expressed by C, for the two steppes were 59.22 g x (m2 x a)(1) and 166.68 g x (m2 x a)(-1), as well as 83.27 g x (m2 x a)(-1) and 117.47 g x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively in these two years. The increments in NEE originated from N addition for these two years were 15.79 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 82.94 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site A and 74.54 g x (M2 x a)(-1) and 101.23 g x (M2 x a)(-1) in site B. The N input per unit could obtain greater C sink effect in the steppe with lower initial N level.

  11. Isolation and anti-hepatitis B virus activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yongbo; Li, Xifeng; Du, Xue; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Weiguang; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jijun; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong

    2015-08-01

    Seven lignans with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton, termed schinlignans A-G, and a 6,7-seco-homolignan, schischinone, together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, COSY, and HMBC experiments). The stereochemistry at the chiral centers and the biphenyl moiety, were determined using ROESY, as well as via interpretation of their ECD spectra. Schinlignan G and methylgomisin O exhibited potent anti-hepatitis B virus activity against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 5.13 and 5.49μgmL(-1), respectively.

  12. Sulfur decreases cadmium translocation and enhances cadmium tolerance by promoting sulfur assimilation and glutathione metabolism in Brassica chinensis L.

    PubMed

    Liang, Taishuai; Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Kang, Jingquan; Pang, Hongxi; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the ameliorative role of sulfur (S) in protecting plants against cadmium (Cd) toxicity by using two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars with different Cd tolerance levels. The exposure of pakchoi seedlings to 100μM Cd inhibited plant growth, increased superoxide content, enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, and induced Cd accumulation in the roots and shoots. Application of S to Cd-stressed plants alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress by promoting the capacity of the ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle, enhanced S assimilation by increasing the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and o-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), and decreased Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots by enhancing phytochelatins (PCs) biosynthesis. Results suggested that S reversed Cd-induced growth inhibition and oxidative stress by restraining Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots and upregulating S assimilation and GSH metabolism, including the AsA-GSH cycle and PCs synthesis. PMID:26513528

  13. Sulfur decreases cadmium translocation and enhances cadmium tolerance by promoting sulfur assimilation and glutathione metabolism in Brassica chinensis L.

    PubMed

    Liang, Taishuai; Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Kang, Jingquan; Pang, Hongxi; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the ameliorative role of sulfur (S) in protecting plants against cadmium (Cd) toxicity by using two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars with different Cd tolerance levels. The exposure of pakchoi seedlings to 100μM Cd inhibited plant growth, increased superoxide content, enhanced membrane lipid peroxidation, and induced Cd accumulation in the roots and shoots. Application of S to Cd-stressed plants alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress by promoting the capacity of the ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle, enhanced S assimilation by increasing the activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and o-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), and decreased Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots by enhancing phytochelatins (PCs) biosynthesis. Results suggested that S reversed Cd-induced growth inhibition and oxidative stress by restraining Cd translocation from the roots to the shoots and upregulating S assimilation and GSH metabolism, including the AsA-GSH cycle and PCs synthesis.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of native Leymus chinensis grasslands along a 1000 km longitudinal precipitation gradient in northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Yuan, S.; Guo, C.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles respond to the variability of precipitation can help us assess the effects of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystem structure and function. We investigated the contributions of aboveground biomass, litter, root, soil and microbial communities to ecosystem C and N processes at 14 sites along a 1000 km precipitation gradient in native Leymus chinensis grasslands of northeastern China. The results show that aboveground biomass C and N increased gradually, while no significant regional trends in litter and root biomass were found with increasing mean annual precipitation (MAP) along the gradient. Soil respiration increased first and then decreased from the dry to mesic sites, which could be ascribed to the relative changes in temperature, soil fungal : bacterial biomass and N availability. Surprisingly, N mineralization varied only slightly along the gradient, likely due to the decreases of soil organic matter quality (i.e., C : N). Stepwise regression models indicated regional soil C and N content positively correlated with MAP and clay content. Overall, C and N sequestration increased 3.2- and 1.8-fold with increasing MAP in terms of C and N storage in aboveground biomass, roots, litter and soil. It was concluded from the current study that regional precipitation variability strongly influences ecosystem C and N dynamics. The ecosystem C and N sequestration are primarily modulated by annual precipitation and soil texture, while the C and N turnover are largely controlled by microbial community composition, temperature and soil quality in L. chinensis grasslands across the large-scale precipitation gradient.

  15. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. PMID:26470216

  16. Mesona Chinensis Benth extract prevents AGE formation and protein oxidation against fructose-induced protein glycation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesona chinensis Benth (Chinese Mesona), an economically significant agricultural plant, is the most widely consumed as an herbal beverage in Southeast Asia and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of Mesona chinensis (MC) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and protein oxidation in an in vitro model of fructose-mediated protein glycation. Methods The content of total polyphenolic compounds was measured by using Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Antiglycation activity was determined using the formation of AGE fluorescence intensity, Nϵ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), the level of fructosamine, and the formation of amyloid cross β-structure. The protein oxidation was examined using the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group. Results Our results revealed that the content of total polyphenolic compound in MC extract was 212.4 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract. MC extract (0.25-1.00 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescence AGEs in fructose-glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) during 4 weeks of study. Furthermore, MC extract also decreased the level of Nϵ-CML, fructosamine, and amyloid cross β-structure in fructose-glycated BSA. While the total thiol group was elevated and the protein carbonyl content was decreased in BSA incubated with fructose and MC extract. Conclusions The extract of MC inhibits fructose-mediated protein glycation and protein oxidation. This edible plant could be a natural rich source of antiglycation agent for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complication. PMID:24708679

  17. Purification of six lignans from the stems of Schisandra chinensis by using high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Huang, Guohui; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-11-01

    A method for the preparative purification of lignans from Schisandra chinensis was established using a combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The crude extracts obtained from S. chinensis by using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. A two-phase solvent system consisting of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:1:1:1, v/v) was used for HSCCC, and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (50:50, v/v) was used for preparative HPLC. The results obtained using HSCCC were compared with those obtained using preparative HPLC, and their advantages were further integrated to improve the separation efficiency. Six known lignans were identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C NMR analyses; the purities of all the compounds were more than 91%.

  18. Construction of a muscle cDNA library of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and sequence analysis of the troponin I gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jitao; Chen, Ping; Li, Jian; Liu, Ping; He, Yuying; Wang, Qingyin

    2010-03-01

    A muscle cDNA library of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) was constructed with the SMART™ cDNA Library Construction Kit. The titer of optimal primary library was 7.7×105 pfu mL-1 and that of the amplified library was 3.0×109 pfu mL-1. The percentages of the recombinant clones of primary and amplified libraries were over 98%. The insert sizes were longer than 400 bp with an average of 1000 bp. A positive clone containing a 794 bp insert was sequenced and identified encoding fast skeletal troponin I gene. This library provided a useful resource for the functional genomic research of F. chinensis.

  19. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus disease of the Chinese penaeid, Penaeus Chinensis I. Purification of the virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxing; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Jinxing; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Ying; Song, Qingyun

    1993-06-01

    The viral discase of penaeids is indistinet but highly dangerous because their symptoms are often masked by some secondary ones. In order to gain knowledge on how to prevent the occurrence and spread of this viral disease, diagnostic studies on the early phase of the hepatopancreatic parvo-like viral (HPV) disease of cultured Penaeus chinensis was conducted using ummuno-serological techniques. The purification of HPV was successfully done by density gradient ultracentrifugation of cane sugar.

  20. Organic acids on the growth, anatomical structure, biochemical parameters and heavy metal accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Lin; Huang, Su-Zhen; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Jiu-Zhou; Gu, Ji-Guang

    2013-08-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the growth, anatomical structure, physiological responses and lead (Pb) accumulation of Iris lactea var. chinensis seedling growing in Pb mine tailings for 30 days were studied. Results showed that the dry weights (DW) of roots decreased significantly under both levels of CA. The DWs of leaves and roots treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA decreased significantly and were 23 and 54 %, respectively, lower than those of the control. The tolerant indexes of I. lactea var. chinensis under all treatments of organic acids were lower than control. The root tip anatomical structure was little affected under the treatments of 2 mmol/kg CA and 2 mmol/kg EDTA compared with control. However, the formation of photosynthesizing cells was inhibited by the treatment of 2 mmol/kg EDTA. The concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in the leaves treated with 2 mmol/kg EDTA significantly decreased. Higher CA level and lower EDTA level could trigger the synthesis of ascorbic acid and higher level of EDTA could trigger the synthesis of glutathione. CA and EDTA could promote Pb accumulation of I. lactea var. chinensis and Pb concentration in the leaves and roots at 2 mmol/kg EDTA treatment increased significantly and reached to 160.44 and 936.08 μg/g DW, respectively, and 1.8 and 1.6 times higher than those of the control. The results indicated that I. lactea var. chinensis could be used to remediate Pb tailing and the role of EDTA in promoting Pb accumulation was better than CA did.

  1. From the traditional Chinese medicine plant Schisandra chinensis new scaffolds effective on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase resistant to non-nucleoside inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijia; Grandi, Nicole; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Mandas, Daniela; Corona, Angela; Piano, Dario; Esposito, Francesca; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is still an extremely attractive pharmaceutical target for the identification of new inhibitors possibly active on drug resistant strains. Medicinal plants are a rich source of chemical diversity and can be used to identify novel scaffolds to be further developed by chemical modifications. We investigated the ability of the main lignans from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. fruits, commonly used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, to affect HIV-1 RT functions. We purified 6 lignans from Schisandra chinensis fruits and assayed their effects on HIV-1 RT and viral replication. Among the S. chinensis fruit lignans, Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin selectively inhibited the HIV-1 RT-associated DNA polymerase activity. Structure activity relationship revealed the importance of cyclooctadiene ring substituents for efficacy. In addition, Schisandrin B was also able to impair HIV-1 RT drug resistant mutants and the early phases of viral replication. We identified Schisandrin B and Deoxyschizandrin as new scaffold for the further development of novel HIV-1 RT inhibitors.

  2. Identification of flavonoid glycosides in Rosa chinensis flowers by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Qing, Lin-Sen; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Jian-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liang, Jian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liao, Xun

    2012-08-01

    Flowers of Rosa chinensis are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in food industry. Flavonoid glycosides are believed to be the major components in R. chinensis that are responsible for its antioxidant activities. In this work, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for analysis of flavonoid glycosides presented in ethyl acetate extract of dried R. chinensis flowers. Twelve flavonoid glycosides were separated and detected. By comparing the retention times, UV spectra, and tandem MS fragments with those of respective authentic compounds, eight flavonoid glycosides were unequivocally identified. Although the other four were also identified as flavonoid glycosides, the glycosylation positions could not be determined due to lack of authentic compounds. Fortunately, the glycosylation effects were clearly observed in the (13)C NMR spectrum of the extract. The detailed structural information was, therefore, obtained to identify the four flavonoid glycosides as quercetin-3-O-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-D-xyloside, kaempferol-3-O-D-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-D-(6″-coumaroyl)-galactoside. These flavonoid glycosides were detected and identified for the first time in this botanic material. This work reports on the first use of (13)C NMR of a mixture to enhance a rapid HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The proposed analytical protocol was validated with a mixture of authentic flavonoid glycosides.

  3. Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides in Rosa chinensis Flowers by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry in Combination with 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Lin-Sen; Xue, Ying; Zhang, Jian-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liang, Jian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liao, Xun

    2012-01-01

    Flowers of Rosa chinensis are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in food industry. Flavonoid glycosides are believed to be the major components in R. chinensis that are responsible for its antioxidant activities. In this work, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC- MS/MS) method was developed for analysis of flavonoid glycosides presented in ethyl acetate extract of dried R. chinensis flowers. Twelve flavonoid glycosides were separated and detected. By comparing the retention times, UV spectra, and tandem MS fragments with those of respective authentic compounds, eight flavonoid glycosides were unequivocally identified. Although the other four were also identified as flavonoid glycosides, the glycosylation positions could not be determined due to lack of authentic compounds. Fortunately, the glycosylation effects were clearly observed in the 13C NMR spectrum of the extract. The detailed structural information was, therefore, obtained to identify the four flavonoid glycosides as quercetin-3-O-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-D-xyloside, kaempferol-3-O-D-xyloside and quercetin-3-O-D-(6″-coumaroyl)-galactoside. These flavonoid glycosides were detected and identified for the first time in this botanic material. This work reports on the first use of 13C NMR of a mixture to enhance a rapid HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The proposed analytical protocol was validated with a mixture of authentic flavonoid glycosides. PMID:22749452

  4. [Transpiration of Brassica chinensis L. in a plastic greenhouse covered with insect-proof nets in lower reaches of Yangtze River: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yao, Yi-ping; Luo, Wei-hong; Dai, Jian-feng; Hu, Ning; Xu, Rui; Han, Xian-bo; Zhang, Hong-ju

    2009-09-01

    With the climate data inside and outside a plastic greenhouse as driving variables, and the greenhouse structure, insect-proof net material, and characteristic breadth and leaf area index of Brassica chinensis L. as parameters; a canopy transpiration model for greenhouse B. chinensis was established, based on Penmam-Monteith transpiration model. This established model was validated by the experimental data of independent samples in a single greenhouse. The results showed that in lower reaches of Yangtze River, the vent discharge coefficient (Cd) of greenhouse covered with 20-, 25-, and 28- mesh insect-proof nets was 0.771, 0.758 and 0.736, and the wind pressure coefficient (Cw) was 0.33, 0.37, and 0.39, respectively. The determination coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured canopy transpiration rate for the sunny, cloudy, and overcast days in summer was 0.95, 0.91, and 0.94, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 0.018, 0.014, and 0.015 g x m(-2) x s(-1), and relative prediction error (RE) was 14.27%, 18.05%, and 15.80%, respectively, suggesting that this model could better predict the transpiration rate of B. chinensis in the plastic greenhouse covered with insect-proof nets in lower reaches of Yangtze River.

  5. Variations in the natural ¹⁵N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

    2014-11-26

    To further investigate the method of using δ(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the δ(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the δ(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the δ(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The δ(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High δ(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a δ(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical

  6. Studies on South-east Asian fireflies: Abscondita, a new genus with details of life history, flashing patterns and behaviour of Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae).

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesley; Fu, Xinhua; Lambkin, Christine; Jeng, Ming-Luen; Faust, Lynn; Wijekoon, M C D; Li, Daiqin; Zhu, Tengfui

    2013-01-01

    Abscondita, a new genus of fireflies from South-east Asia, is described from males and females of Abs. anceyi (Olivier 1883), Abs. cerata (Olivier 1911), Abs. chinensis (L. 1767), Abs. perplexa (Walker 1858), Abs. promelaena (Walker 1858) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier 1883), all transferred from Luciola Laporte. Both L. dubia Olivier 1903 and L. dejeani Gemminger 1870 are synonymised with Luciola perplexa (Walker), and L. aegrota Olivier 1891 and L. melaspis Bourgeois 1909 with L. promelaena Walker. Females are characterised by their bursa plates. Larvae are associated and described for Abs. anceyi (Olivier), Abs. chinensis (L.) and Abs. terminalis (Olivier). Taxonomic issues regarding the identification of species with very similar colouration of pale dorsum and black tipped elytra are addressed and in some cases resolved. A neotype for Luciola chinensis (L.) is erected and Luciola praeusta (Kiesenwetter 1874) is synonymised with L. chinensis (L.). Descriptions of life histories, biology and flashing patterns of populations of Abs. chinensis and Abs. terminalis from central China are included. A bs. terminalis is the first Asian firefly known to possess multiple flash trains where males are documented to display with repeating flash trains.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of schisandrin B from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill seeds: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y B; Wang, L H; Zhang, D Y; Zhou, L L; Guo, Y X

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a process consisting of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, silica-gel column chromatography and crystallization to optimize pilot scale recovery of schisandrin B (SAB) from Schisandra chinensis seeds. The effects of five independent variables including liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, ultrasonic power, extraction time, and temperature on the SAB yield were evaluated with fractional factorial design (FFD). The FFD results showed that the ethanol concentration was the only significant factor for the yield of SAB. Then, with the liquid-solid ratio 5 (mL/g) and ultrasonic power 600 W, the other three parameters were further optimized by means of response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results revealed that the optimal conditions consisted of 95% ethanol, 60 °C and 70 min. The average experimental SAB yield under the optimum conditions was found to be 5.80 mg/g, which was consistent with the predicted value of 5.83 mg/g. Subsequently, a silica gel chromatographic process was used to prepare the SAB-enriched extract with petroleum ether/acetone (95:5, v/v) as eluents. After final crystallization, 1.46 g of SAB with the purity of 99.4% and the overall recovery of 57.1% was obtained from 400 g seeds powder. This method provides an efficient and low-cost way for SAB purification for pharmaceutical industrial applications.

  8. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kyla M; Moore, Caroline E; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K Gary; Woods, Leslie W; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-11-01

    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning.

  9. Widdrol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Juniperus chinensis, inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Soojung; Yun, Hee Jung; Jeong, Hyun Young; Oh, You Na; Park, Hyun-Jin; Yun, Seung-Geun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kwon, Hyun Ju

    2015-09-01

    Widdrol is an odorous compound derived from Juniperus chinensis that is widely used in traditional medicine to treat fever, inflammation and cancer. It was previously reported that widdrol has antitumor activity by apoptosis induction in cancer cells in vitro. However, its anti-angiogenic activity remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the anti‑angiogenic activity of widdrol and the molecular mechanisms involved. Widdrol inhibited cell proliferation via G1 phase arrest induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it was associated with a decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and an increased expression of p21, a CDK inhibitor. Widdrol significantly inhibited the cell migration and tube formation of HUVECs using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. The results showed that widdrol suppressed phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream proteins, such as AKT, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Moreover, widdrol effectively reduced tumor growth and blood vessel formation in colon tumor xenograft mice. Collectively, these results suggested that widdrol may act as a potential anti-angiogenic agent by inhibiting vessel sprouting and growth, which may have implications for angioprevention.

  10. Anticholinesterase and β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitory Compounds from the Heartwood of Juniperus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-01-01

    Two new compounds (2, 3) and 20 known compounds (1, 4-22) were isolated from the heartwood of Juniperus chinensis LINNE (Cupressaceae), and their structures were elucidated as 9'-methoxycalocedrin (1); α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (2); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2-styrylchromone (3); cedrol (4); widdrol (5); savinin (6); calocedrin (7); 10-oxowiddrol (8); 12-hydroxywiddrol (9); (+)-naringenin (10); vanillic acid methyl ester (11); (+)-taxifolin (12); (+)-aromadendrin (13); kaempferol (14); quercetin (15); (7S,8R)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8- hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol (16); styraxlignolide C (17); protocatechuic acid (18); vanillic acid (19); (7R,8S)-dihydro-3'-methoxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (20); (7S,8S)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (21); and (+)-catechin (22) on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compounds (2, 3) exhibited good inhibitory activities against β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), with IC50 values of 6.25, and 11.91 µM, respectively.

  11. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:25622257

  12. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations. PMID:26627759

  13. Separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids from Trollius chinensis Bunge by high speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanhua; Liang, Yizeng; Ren, Dabing; Qiu, Ximin; Li, Xi

    2015-09-15

    In this work, eleven compounds were successfully separated from Trollius chinensis Bunge by using a two-step high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method. NRTL-SAC (nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient) method, a newly developed solvent system selection strategy, was applied to screening the suitable biphasic liquid systems. Hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (3:7:3:7, v/v) solvent system was used in the first step, while the hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:2:1:2, 1:4:1:4, 1:9:1:9, v/v) systems were employed in the second step. The chemical structures of the separated compounds were identified by UV, high resolution ESI-MS and MS/MS data. The separated compounds are 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (1), vanillic acid (2), orientin (3), vitexin (4), veratric acid (5), 2″-O-(3‴, 4‴-dimethoxybenzoyl) orientin (6), 2″-O-feruloylorientin (7), 2″-O-feruloylvitexin (8), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) vitexin (9), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertiajaponin (10), 2″-O-(2‴-methylbutyryl) isoswertisin (11). The results demonstrate that HSCCC is a powerful tool for the separation of compounds from extremely complex samples.

  14. Purification of two triterpenoids from Schisandra chinensis by macroporous resin combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Meng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    A method for preparative purification of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid from Schisandra chinensis (SC) was established using a combination of macroporous absorption resin column separation and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The crude extracts obtained from SC using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. The 70% ethanol fraction was used as the sample for separation of the two triterpenoids by HSCCC. The two-phase solvent system used for HSCCC separation was chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (10:0.5:7:4, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. Corosolic acid (16.4 mg) of 96.3% purity and nigranoic acid (9.5 mg) of 98.9% purity were obtained in a one-step HSCCC separation from 100 mg of the sample. The structures of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid were identified by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C-NMR.

  15. Comparative Proteomics and Expression Analysis of Five Genes in Epicauta chinensis Larvae from the First to Fifth Instar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins’ function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins’ expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels. PMID:24586908

  16. Effect of tea polyphenols on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenrong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Shen, Yanwen; Duan, Xuewu; Jiang, Yuemin

    2014-10-20

    To understand the potential of application of tea polyphenols to the shelf life extension and quality maintenance of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, the fruits were dipped into a solution of 1% tea phenols for 5 min before cold storage at 4 °C. Changes in browning index, contents of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, O2.- production rate and H2O2 content, levels of relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were measured after 0, 10, 20 and 30 days of cold storage. The results showed that application of tea polyphenols markedly delayed pericarp browning, alleviated the decreases in contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and ascorbic acid, and maintained relatively high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins of litchi fruit after 30 days of cold storage. Meanwhile, the treatment reduced the increases in relative leakage rate and lipid peroxidation content, delayed the increases in both O2.- production rate and H2O2 contents, and increased SOD activity but reduced POD activity throughout this storage period. These data indicated that the delayed pericarp browning of litchi fruit by the treatment with tea polyphenols could be due to enhanced antioxidant capability, reduced accumulations of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and improved membrane integrity.

  17. The dynamic growth exhibition and accumulation of cadmium of Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-10-25

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2-3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5-4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health.

  18. Comparative proteomics and expression analysis of five genes in Epicauta chinensis larvae from the first to fifth instar.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiurong; Wang, Dun; Lv, Shumin; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Blister beetle is an important insect model for both medicinal and pure research. Previous research has mainly focused on its biology and biochemistry, but very little data is yet available in the molecular biology. This study uses differential proteomics technology to analyze the soluble proteins extracted from each of the 5 instars larvae of Epicauta chinensis. 42 of the differentially-expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Some of these proteins' function and their expression profiles are analyzed. Our analysis revealed dynamics regulation of the following proteins: Axin-like protein pry-1 (APR-1), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), vitellogenin (Vg) and lysozyme C (Lmz-S). APR-1 negatively regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Its overexpression could result in embryo, leg, eye and ovary ectopica or malformation. DLD catalyzes the pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, the latter is the starting material of juvenile hormone (JH) and ipsdienol biosynthesis through the MVA pathway in insects. While Vg synthesis can be regulated by JH and stimulated by food factors. So DLD may affect the synthesis of JH, ipsdienol and Vg indirectly. The activity of lysozyme is an indicator of the immunity. Nutrition/food should be taken into account for its potential role during the development of larva in the future. Among the five genes and their corresponding proteins' expression, only hsc70 gene showed a good correspondence with the protein level. This reflects the fluctuating relationship between mRNA and protein levels.

  19. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  20. Anticolitic Effect of the Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptidis chinensis (AC-mix) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Hyam, Supriya R; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2013-09-30

    During a screening program to search the anticolitic herbal medicines, 80% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA) was found to potently inhibit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated colonic macrophages, followed by that of the rhizome of C. chinensis (CC). AA also potently inhibited TNBS-induced colitic markers, shortening of the colon and increase of macroscopic score, myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, in mice. The synergistic effect of CC against the anticolitic effect of AA was investigated. CC synergistically inhibited the anticolitic effect of AA. AC-mix (AA+CC, 1:1) potently inhibited them. AC-mix also inhibited the activation of NF-κB, as well as the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. The effects of AC-mix against oxazolone-induced colitis were investigated in mice. AC-mix also potently inhibited oxazolone-induced inflammatory markers, colon shortening, macroscopic score, myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. Overall, the anti-colitic effect of AC-mix was superior to that of mesalazine. Based on these findings, AC-mix may improve colitis by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  2. Cholesterol induces lipoprotein lipase expression in a tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linqiang; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Yunhai; Liao, Shasha; Wu, Xiaoyun; Chang, Qing; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are indispensible to investigate the pathogenesis and treatments of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Altered cholesterol metabolism has been implicated into the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Here, using high fat, cholesterol and cholate diet (HFHC), we generated a novel tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) model of NAFLD, which displayed dyslipidemia with increased levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), but decreased level of triglycerides (TG). Liver histopathology and genes expression indicated that HFHC diet successfully induced liver steatosis to inflammation and fibrosis progressively within 10 weeks. Moreover, HFHC induced the transcriptional expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) in the liver, but repressed the expression of LDL receptor, and the endogenous synthesis pathway and excretion of cholesterol. Notably, Poloxamer 407 (P-407) inhibition of LPL improved the severity of steatosis and reduced inflammation. These results illustrated that LPL plays an important role in cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD, and the tree shrew may be a valuable animal model for further research into NAFLD. PMID:26522240

  3. Virus-derived small RNAs in the penaeid shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis during acute infection of the DNA virus WSSV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Yumiao; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Yang, Hui; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are two classes of small RNAs (sRNAs) that are critical for virus-host interplay via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. One virus-derived siRNA and numerous miRNAs has been reported for the double-stranded DNA virus white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), however, the expression profiles of these different types of sRNAs have not been assessed. Here, by sequencing the sRNAs and mRNAs of WSSV-infected Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), we found that the viral transcripts were universally targeted by WSSV-derived siRNAs, supporting a pivotal role for RNAi in the anti-viral immunity of shrimp. The genesis of WSSV-derived siRNAs was associated with long RNA structures. Moreover, by separating miRNAs from siRNAs, 12 WSSV miRNAs were identified. Investigation of conserved viral miRNA targets in different host species indicated the involvement of viral miRNAs in host immune responses. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the role of the RNAi pathway in the interplay between DNA viruses and crustaceans. PMID:27349643

  4. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in native Leymus chinensis grasslands along a 1000 km longitudinal transect in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-08-01

    The unprecedented variations in global precipitation regime could profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystem structure and function, with consequent feedback to climatic change. However, little is known about complexity in precipitation effects on grassland ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes at regional scales. We investigated the patterns of shoot and root biomass, litter mass, soil C and N content, microbial community composition and C and N mineralization at 18 sites along a 1000 km precipitation gradient in native Leymus chinensis grasslands of northeastern China. The results show that, with increasing mean annual precipitation (MAP), the biomass of total plant, shoot and litter gradually increased while root biomass remained nearly constant along the gradient. Surprisingly, both soil C and N mineralization rates showed quadratic relationships with MAP, likely due to the relative changes in temperature, soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass and N availability. Although soil total C and N content presented sustained increases with water availability, heavy fractions of C and N content reached stable and saturated phases in mesic sites. Overall, ecosystem C and N sequestration enhanced with water availability in terms of C and N storage in shoot, root, litter, and soil along the precipitation gradient. It was concluded from the current study that regional precipitation regime and the indirect effects of precipitation on changes in soil properties and microbial communities would strongly influence on ecosystem C and N dynamics. The temperate grasslands of northeastern China could be utilized as significant ecosystem C and N sinks in the context of mitigating climate change.

  5. [Effects of organic fertilization on arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) on arsenic-contaminated red soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Fang; Geng, Zhi-Xi; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment with arsenic-contaminated red soil was conducted to study the effects of applying pig dung and chicken manure on the growth and arsenic absorption of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis), and on soil available arsenic. Applying pig dung and chicken manure to the arsenic-contaminated red soil increased the biomass of pakchoi to some extent. Comparing with the control, applying pig dung increased the pakchoi biomass significantly (P < 0.05). The soil available arsenic content after applying pig dung increased by 394.9%-1033.6% (P < 0.05), and that after applying chicken manure increased by 30.4%-94.1%. Organic fertilization promoted the arsenic absorption of pakchoi, with the arsenic uptake after applying pig dung increased by 20.7%-53.9%. The application of pig dung and chicken manure to arsenic-contaminated red soil could somewhat increase the soil available arsenic content and the arsenic uptake by crops, and thus, increase the risks of agricultural product quality and environment.

  6. Promoting Effects of a Single Rhodopseudomonas palustris Inoculant on Plant Growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under Low Fertilizer Input

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-01-01

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×106 CFU g−1 soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

  7. Effect of substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Zhuang; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xingzhi

    2016-08-01

    Substrate is a critical environmental factor affecting the activity of bivalves. To examine the effect of the substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi), a series of short-term experiments were conducted using a variety of substrates with different ratios of sand to mud. The experimental group cultured without substrate showed poor survival, with all juveniles died after day 20. The juveniles cultured in mud without sand showed a lower survival rate (25.54% ± 0.40% on day 45) than those in other groups. The juveniles cultured in sand without mud, or the mixtures of sand and mud with a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, exhibited modest survival at day 45. Maximal weight gain rate ( WGR), shell length growth rate ( LGR), and specific growth rate ( SGR) were observed when the sand concentration was 61.97%, 77.69%, and 64.64%, respectively. As the fast growth and high survival were observed when the sand to mud ratio was 1:1 (50% sand) and 2:1 (67% sand), a sand concentration of more than 50% is optimal. The optimal concentration of sand in the substrate for rearing juvenile sunray surf clams was 67% which resulted in the fastest growth and highest survival. These results can be used to developing a nursery/farming technique of improving the yield of sunray surf clams.

  8. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD. PMID:27659689

  9. Comparison of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) whistles from two areas of western Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jordan M; Ponnampalam, Louisa S; Araújo, Claryana C; Wang, John Y; Kuit, Sui Hyang; Hung, Samuel K

    2015-11-01

    Differences in the acoustic variables of whistles emitted by Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from two coastal locations along western Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Duration, frequency, and frequency modulation variables were extracted from and used to characterize recordings of free-ranging humpback dolphins that were made using a broadband towed hydrophone. A total of 960 whistles from Matang Mangroves and 823 whistles from Langkawi Island were used in analyses. The whistles of Malaysian humpback dolphins covered frequencies from 1231 to 27 120 Hz with durations from 0.010-1.575 s. Significant multivariate differences were found in whistles emitted between locations. Significant differences were also found between dolphins of the two locations in their whistle duration, frequency modulation, and all frequency variables except for minimum frequency, which is likely under morphological constraints. The differences in whistles may be related to adaptations to the local acoustic habitat or unique whistles may have developed due to social interactions within each location, or broader scale differences resulting from geographic separation between the locations.

  10. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made.

  11. A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2008-11-01

    Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

  12. The Dynamic Growth Exhibition and Accumulation of Cadmium of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) Grown in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in leafy vegetables was compared with other vegetables. Pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) is a leafy vegetable consumed in Taiwan and its safety for consumption after growing in contaminated soils is a public concern. A pot experiment (50 days) was conducted to understand the dynamic accumulation of Cd by pak choi grown in artificially contaminated soils. The edible parts of pak choi were sampled and analyzed every 2–3 days. The dry weight (DW) of pak choi was an exponential function of leaf length, leaf width, and chlorophyll content. The accumulation of Cd increased when the soil Cd concentration was raised, but was kept at a constant level during different growth stages. Pak choi had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = ratio of the concentration in the edible parts to that in the soils), at values of 3.5–4.0. The consumption of pak choi grown in soils contaminated at levels used in this study would result in the ingestion of impermissible amounts of Cd and could possibly have harmful effects on health. PMID:24284350

  13. Identification and characterization of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Wu, Yong; Xu, Ling; Fan, Yu; Peng, Li; Xu, Min; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-07-01

    In mammals, the toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in initiating innate immune responses against pathogens. Comparison of the TLRs in different mammals may help in understanding the TLR-mediated responses and developing of animal models and efficient therapeutic measures for infectious diseases. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small mammal with a close relationship to primates, is a viable experimental animal for studying viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we characterized the TLRs genes (tTLRs) in the Chinese tree shrew and identified 13 putative TLRs, which are orthologs of mammalian TLR1-TLR9 and TLR11-TLR13, and TLR10 was a pseudogene in tree shrew. Positive selection analyses using the Maximum likelihood (ML) method showed that tTLR8 and tTLR9 were under positive selection, which might be associated with the adaptation to the pathogen challenge. The mRNA expression levels of tTLRs presented an overall low and tissue-specific pattern, and were significantly upregulated upon Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. tTLR4 and tTLR9 underwent alternative splicing, which leads to different transcripts. Phylogenetic analysis and TLR structure prediction indicated that tTLRs were evolutionarily conserved, which might reflect an ancient mechanism and structure in the innate immune response system. Taken together, TLRs had both conserved and unique features in the Chinese tree shrew. PMID:26923770

  14. Purification of two triterpenoids from Schisandra chinensis by macroporous resin combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lijie; Li, Bin; Liu, Xiuying; Meng, Xianjun

    2014-10-01

    A method for preparative purification of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid from Schisandra chinensis (SC) was established using a combination of macroporous absorption resin column separation and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The crude extracts obtained from SC using 70% ethanol were separated on a macroporous resin column and then eluted with a graded ethanol series. The 70% ethanol fraction was used as the sample for separation of the two triterpenoids by HSCCC. The two-phase solvent system used for HSCCC separation was chloroform-n-butanol-methanol-water (10:0.5:7:4, v/v/v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase of HSCCC. Corosolic acid (16.4 mg) of 96.3% purity and nigranoic acid (9.5 mg) of 98.9% purity were obtained in a one-step HSCCC separation from 100 mg of the sample. The structures of corosolic acid and nigranoic acid were identified by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and (13)C-NMR. PMID:24220992

  15. Laboratory evaluation of seven pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes against a stored grain insect pest, Pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Shahina; Javed, Salma

    2009-12-01

    Seven Pakistani strains of entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were tested against last instar and adult stages of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). These nematodes included Steinernema pakistanense Shahina, Anis, Reid and Maqbool (Ham 10 strain); S. asiaticum Anis, Shahina, Reid and Rowe (211 strain); S. abbasi Elawad, Ahmad and Reid (507 strain); S. siamkayai Stock, Somsook and Reid (157 strain); S. feltiae Filipjev (A05 strains); Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (1743 strain); and H. indica Poinar, Karunakar and David (HAM-64 strain). Activity of all strains was determined at four different nematode densities in Petri dishes and in concrete containers. A significant nematode density effect was detected for all nematode species tested. Overall, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, S. siamkayai, and S. pakistanense were among those that showed the highest virulence to pulse beetle larvae and adults. For all nematode species, the last larval stage of the pulse beetle seems to be more susceptible than the adult. LC(50) values in Petri dish and concrete containers were 14-340 IJs/larvae and 41-441 IJs/larvae, respectively, and 59-1376 IJs/adult and 170-684/adult, respectively. PMID:22736823

  16. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  18. Preparation of magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction and analysis of salicylic acid in Actinidia chinensis.

    PubMed

    You, Qing-Ping; Peng, Mi-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Guo, Jun-Fang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Compounds with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds (e.g., salicylic acid) have weak intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between them and functional monomers in the imprinting process. Consequently, the corresponding molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have no specific adsorption ability. Here, the first magnetic dummy MIPs (MDMIPs) based on benzonic acid as dummy template are successfully developed and evaluated with respect to the applications in selective enrichment and analysis of salicylic acid from complex mixtures. Various parameters affecting absorption/desorption were evaluated for achieving optimal recovery and reducing nonspecific interactions. The prepared MDMIPs showed high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, rapid kinetic binding (40 min) and magnetic separation (5 s), high reproducibility (RSD< 4 % for batch-to-batch evaluation), and stability (only 4 % decrease after 6 cycles). Owing to the efficacy in specific binding and removal of interference, trace level salicylic acid was quantified (0.2 μg/g of fresh mass) in Actinidia chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  19. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  20. Enhancing shelf life of litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit through integrated approach of surface coating and gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Neha; Joshi, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Surendra; Rajput, Sanjay; Khandal, R. K.

    2013-04-01

    India and China account for 91% of the world's litchi (Litchi chinensis) production. Although India is the second largest producer of litchi, its contribution to export is insignificant. Litchi being non-climacteric fruit possesses poor shelf life and fruit quality declines rapidly after harvest. Present investigation was an attempt to enhance shelf life of litchi fruit var. rose scented with integrated treatments of 1% NaCl solution, 2% wax solution and gamma radiation. Out of all, 1% NaCl coated+irradiated samples, proved out to be the best with enhanced shelf life of 24 days at 4 °C (shelf life at ambient temperature without any treatment being 3-4 days). Various biochemical parameters were tested and organoleptic evaluation was done to judge the acceptability of the stored litchi samples. TSS, vitamin C, total & reducing sugar content was found in range of 14.17-15.42°Bx; 35.67-57.88 mg/100 gm pulp weight, 12.44-14.06% and 9.41-11.91%. Organoleptic evaluation for different parameters ranged from 5.92 to 7.72 (fair-good) at 24th day of storage. Radiation dose of 1 kGy was found to be the only effective dose in which enhanced shelf life was achieved without any deterioration of various quality attributes.

  1. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  2. A comparative karyological study of the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, Phasianidae) and California quail (Callipepla californica, Odontophoridae).

    PubMed

    Shibusawa, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    We conducted comparative chromosome painting and chromosome mapping with chicken DNA probes against the blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis, CCH) and California quail (Callipepla californica, CCA), which are classified into the Old World quail and the New World quail, respectively. Each chicken probe of chromosomes 1-9 and Z painted a pair of chromosomes in the blue-breasted quail. In California quail, chicken chromosome 2 probe painted chromosomes 3 and 6, and chicken chromosome 4 probe painted chromosomes 4 and a pair of microchromosomes. Comparison of the cytogenetic maps of the two quail species with those of chicken and Japanese quail revealed that there are several intrachromosomal rearrangements, pericentric and/or paracentric inversions, in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 between chicken and the Old World quail. In addition, a pericentric inversion was found in chromosome 8 between chicken and the three quail species. Ordering of the Z-linked DNA clones revealed the presence of multiple rearrangements in the Z chromosomes of the three quail species. Comparing these results with the molecular phylogeny of Galliformes species, it was also cytogenetically supported that the New World quail is classified into a different clade from the lineage containing chicken and the Old World quail. PMID:15218246

  3. Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Northern Beibu Gulf, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyao; Xu, Xinrong; Jefferson, Thomas A; Olson, Paula A; Qin, Qiurong; Zhang, Hongke; He, Liwen; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    There has been very little previous research on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Beibu Gulf of southern China. Here, we report on the population size, habitat and ecology, threats, and overall conservation status of this putative population. 'Population size' was estimated based on photo-identification mark/recapture analysis. It was estimated to number a total of 398-444 individuals (95% CI: 393-506), with two apparently distinct groups in the Dafengjiang-Nanliujiang Estuary and at Shatian-Caotan. Movements of dolphins in the Beibu Gulf appear to be limited, with high site fidelity. These dolphins were found to occur mainly in shallow coastal waters near estuaries. The main threats are fisheries interactions (including by-catch), vessel traffic, mariculture operations, dolphin-watching tourism, and habitat degradation (including marine construction activities and large-scale land reclamation). Although the conservation status of this putative population has been considered to be better than that of other populations of the species in more northern areas of China, there is still reason for strong concern about its future, and several management recommendations are made. PMID:26790890

  4. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

  5. Influence of mannan oligosaccharide, Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Li, Qundao; Du, Juan; Liu, Yuqin; Liu, Shengwang; Shan, Anshan

    2006-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation with Ligustrum lucidum (LL, 10 g/kg), Schisandra chinensis (SC, 10 g/kg), LL (10 g/kg) + mannan oligosaccharides (MOS, 50 mg/kg), or SC (10 g/kg) + MOS (50 mg/kg) on growth performance and parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers. The results showed that feeding LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS had no significant effect on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly decreased malondialdehyde concentration in serum, thigh, and heart of broilers. In addition, glutathione reductase activity of heart and sera of the birds were significantly elevated by supplementation LL, SC, LK + MOS, or SC + MOS. Furthermore, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly improved antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus and lymphocyte proliferation of broilers (p < 0.05). Whereas, no cooperating effect between LL (or SC) and MOS on antioxidant status and immunity of broilers were found. PMID:17236706

  6. Downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by a water extract of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill fruit in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Park, Sang Rul; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Gi-Young

    2013-09-01

    Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.

  7. [Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding key enzyme gene (dxr) of the non-MVA pathway in Taxus chinensis cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Ping; Yu, Long-Jiang; Liu, Zhi; Li, Mo-Yi; Xiang, Fu; Yang, Qin

    2004-07-01

    Two distinct routes (classical mevalonate pathway and a novel mevalonate-independent pathway) are utilized by plants for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor of isoprenoids (Fig. 1). Present researches indicated that taxol was synthesized mainly via non-mevalonate pathway, but not genetic evidence was showed. The second step in non-mevalonate pathway involves an intramolecular rearrangement and subsequent reduction of deoxyxylulose phosphate to yield 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate, and 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) with responsibility for this reaction was considered as a key enzyme. As a tool for the isolation of genes in terpenoid biosynthesis in plants, total RNA was prepared from Taxus chinensis suspension cells, a cell type highly specialized for diterpene (taxol). A reverse transcription-PCR strategy based on the design of degenerated oligonucleotides was developed for isolating the gene encoding a gymnosperm homolog of this enzyme from Taxus chinensis. Through sequence analysis by Blast P online, the resulting cDNA showed highly homologous to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerases, with 95% identification compared with Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9XFS9), 94% with Mentha x piperita (Q9XESO), 80% with Synechococcus elongatus (Q8DK30), 78% with Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Q55663) and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Q8YP49), and 73% with Synechococcus leopoliensis (Q9RKT1). Deduced amino acid sequences were also analyzed by PROSITE, ClustalX (1.81) and Phylio (3.6 alpha), and data present evidence for the existence of this deoxyxyluose phosphate reductoisomerase in Taxus chinensis. This is the first report of the dxr gene cloned from gymnosperm. PMID:15968987

  8. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (<30m deep), coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics, and feeds mainly on small fishes. It has a similar reproductive biology to other large dolphins, occurs mostly in small groups, and generally has individual movements of about 50-200km(2). Major threats throughout the range include entanglement in fishing nets (primarily gillnets) and habitat destruction/degradation, although in some more industrialized areas, vessel traffic, and environmental contamination from organochlorines are also serious issues. Conservation management is largely lacking in most parts of the species' range, although there has been significant (though still inadequate) attention in some parts of China (e.g. Hong Kong and adjacent areas, and Taiwan). Much greater efforts are needed toward conservation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats.

  9. The Influence of Precipitation Regimes and Elevated CO2 on Photosynthesis and Biomass Accumulation and Partitioning in Seedlings of the Rhizomatous Perennial Grass Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuolin; Zhang, Yuting; Yu, Dafu; Zhang, Na; Lin, Jixiang; Zhang, Jinwei; Tang, Jiahong; Wang, Junfeng; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant, rhizomatous perennial C3 species in the grasslands of Songnen Plain of Northern China, and its productivity has decreased year by year. To determine how productivity of this species responds to different precipitation regimes, elevated CO2 and their interaction in future, we measured photosynthetic parameters, along with the accumulation and partitioning of biomass. Plants were subjected to combinations of three precipitation gradients (normal precipitation, versus normal ± 40%) and two CO2 levels (380±20 µmol mol-1,760±20 µmol mol-1) in controlled-environment chambers. The net photosynthetic rate, and above-ground and total biomass increased due to both elevated CO2 and increasing precipitation, but not significantly so when precipitation increased from the normal to high level under CO2 enrichment. Water use efficiency and the ratio of root: total biomass increased significantly when precipitation was low, but decreased when it was high under CO2 enrichment. Moreover, high precipitation at the elevated level of CO2 increased the ratio between stem biomass and total biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation was higher at the low level of precipitation than with normal or high precipitation. The results suggest that at ambient CO2 levels, the net photosynthetic rate and biomass of L. chinensis increase with precipitation, but those measures are not further affected by additional precipitation when CO2 is elevated. Furthermore, CO2 may partly compensate for the negative effect of low precipitation on the growth and development of L. chinensis. PMID:25093814

  10. The influence of precipitation regimes and elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation and partitioning in seedlings of the rhizomatous perennial grass Leymus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuolin; Zhang, Yuting; Yu, Dafu; Zhang, Na; Lin, Jixiang; Zhang, Jinwei; Tang, Jiahong; Wang, Junfeng; Mu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Leymus chinensis is a dominant, rhizomatous perennial C3 species in the grasslands of Songnen Plain of Northern China, and its productivity has decreased year by year. To determine how productivity of this species responds to different precipitation regimes, elevated CO2 and their interaction in future, we measured photosynthetic parameters, along with the accumulation and partitioning of biomass. Plants were subjected to combinations of three precipitation gradients (normal precipitation, versus normal ± 40%) and two CO2 levels (380 ± 20 µmol mol(-1),760 ± 20 µmol mol(-1)) in controlled-environment chambers. The net photosynthetic rate, and above-ground and total biomass increased due to both elevated CO2 and increasing precipitation, but not significantly so when precipitation increased from the normal to high level under CO2 enrichment. Water use efficiency and the ratio of root: total biomass increased significantly when precipitation was low, but decreased when it was high under CO2 enrichment. Moreover, high precipitation at the elevated level of CO2 increased the ratio between stem biomass and total biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation was higher at the low level of precipitation than with normal or high precipitation. The results suggest that at ambient CO2 levels, the net photosynthetic rate and biomass of L. chinensis increase with precipitation, but those measures are not further affected by additional precipitation when CO2 is elevated. Furthermore, CO2 may partly compensate for the negative effect of low precipitation on the growth and development of L. chinensis.

  11. Re-assessment of the Conservation Status of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Using the IUCN Red List Criteria.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Thomas A; Smith, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    The IUCN Red List designation of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is re-assessed in light of its newly recognized taxonomic status (it has recently been separated into three species) and findings that humpback dolphins along the coast of Bangladesh, and possibly eastern India, are phylogenetically distinct from other members of the Sousa genus. Sousa chinensis is found in Southeast/South Asia (in both the Indian and Pacific oceans), from at least the southeastern Bay of Bengal east to central China, and then south to the Indo-Malay Archipelago. There are no global population estimates, and the sum of available abundance estimates add up to about 5700 individuals, although only a portion of the range has been covered by surveys. This species occurs in shallow (<30m deep), coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics, and feeds mainly on small fishes. It has a similar reproductive biology to other large dolphins, occurs mostly in small groups, and generally has individual movements of about 50-200km(2). Major threats throughout the range include entanglement in fishing nets (primarily gillnets) and habitat destruction/degradation, although in some more industrialized areas, vessel traffic, and environmental contamination from organochlorines are also serious issues. Conservation management is largely lacking in most parts of the species' range, although there has been significant (though still inadequate) attention in some parts of China (e.g. Hong Kong and adjacent areas, and Taiwan). Much greater efforts are needed toward conservation of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins to stop apparent declines, and to lower the species' extinction risk. Sousa chinensis meets the IUCN Red List requirements for Vulnerable (under criteria A4cd), with fisheries bycatch and habitat loss/degradation being the main pervasive threats. PMID:26790886

  12. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-15

    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

  13. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant’s aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland’s agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation

  14. Pathways of Leymus chinensis Individual Aboveground Biomass Decline in Natural Semiarid Grassland Induced by Overgrazing: A Study at the Plant Functional Trait Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiliang; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xinhong; Li, Xinle; Hu, Jing; Shi, Hongxiao; Guo, Fenghui; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Natural grassland productivity, which is based on an individual plant's aboveground biomass (AB) and its interaction with herbivores, can obviously affect terrestrial ecosystem services and the grassland's agricultural production. As plant traits have been linked to both AB and ecosystem success, they may provide a useful approach to understand the changes in individual plants and grassland productivity in response to grazing on a generic level. Unfortunately, the current lack of studies on how plant traits affect AB affected by herbivores leaves a major gap in our understanding of the mechanism of grassland productivity decline. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the paths of overgrazing-induced decline in the individual AB of Leymus chinensis (the dominant species of meadow-steppe grassland in northern China) on a plant functional trait scale. Using a paired-sampling approach, we compared the differences in the functional traits of L. chinensis in long-term grazing-excluded and experimental grazing grassland plots over a continuous period of approximately 20 years (located in meadow steppe lands in Hailar, Inner Mongolia, China). We found a highly significant decline in the individual height and biomass (leaf, stem, and the whole plant) of L. chinensis as a result of overgrazing. Biomass allocation and leaf mass per unit area were significantly affected by the variation in individual size. Grazing clearly enhanced the sensitivity of the leaf-to-stem biomass ratio in response to variation in individual size. Moreover, using a method of standardized major axis estimation, we found that the biomass in the leaves, stems, and the plant as a whole had highly significant allometric scaling with various functional traits. Also, the slopes of the allometric equations of these relationships were significantly altered by grazing. Therefore, a clear implication of this is that grazing promotes an asymmetrical response of different plant functional traits to variation in

  15. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay. PMID:21800546

  16. Preventive effect of gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis on angiotensin II-induced hypertension via an increased nitric oxide bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byeong Hyeok; Lee, Seung Jin; Choi, Young Whan; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2015-03-01

    Gomisin J (GJ) is a small molecular weight lignan found in Schisandra chinensis and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In this study, the authors investigated the effect of GJ on blood pressure (BP) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive mice. In addition, we determined the relative potencies of gomisin A (GA) and GJ with respect to vasodilatory activity and antihypertensive effects. C57/BL6 mice infused s.c. with Ang II (2 μg kg(-1) min(-1) for 2 weeks) showed an increase in BP and a decrease in plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. In the thoracic aortas of Ang II-induced hypertensive mice, a decrease in vascular NO was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, these alterations in BP, plasma concentrations of NO metabolites and in the vascular productions of NO and ROS in Ang II-treated mice were reversed by the co-administration of GJ (1 and 3 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). In in vitro studies, Ang II decreased the cellular concentration of NO, which was accompanied by a reduction in phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in ROS production. These eNOS phosphorylation and ROS production changes in Ang II-treated cells were also reversed by GJ pretreatment (0-3 μg ml(-1)). Interestingly, the vasodilatory and antihypertensive effects of GJ were more prominent than those of GA. Collectively, an increase in BP in mice treated with Ang II was markedly attenuated by GJ, which was attributed to the preservations of vascular NO bioavailability and eNOS function, and to the inhibition of ROS production in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice.

  17. The construction of a genetic linkage map of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Geng, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jingyi; Wang, Qian; Ban, Qingyu; Hou, Xilin

    2009-08-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino) is one of the most important vegetables in eastern China. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 127 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and the DH population was derived from a commercial hybrid "Hanxiao" (lines SW-13 x L-118). Out of the 614 polymorphic markers, 43.49% were not assigned to any of the linkage groups(LGs). Chi-square tests showed that 42.67% markers were distorted from expected Mendelian segregation ratios, and the direction of distorted segregation was mainly toward the paternal parent L-118. After sequentially removing the markers that had an interval distance smaller than 1 cM from the upper marker, the overall quality of the linkage map was increased. Two hundred and sixty-eight molecular markers were mapped into 10 LGs, which were anchored to the corresponding chromosome of the B. rapa reference map based on common simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The map covers 973.38 cM of the genome and the average interval distance between markers was 3.63 cM. The number of markers on each LG ranged from 18 (R08) to 64 (R07), with an average interval distance within a single LG from 1.70 cM (R07) to 6.71 cM (R06). Among these mapped markers, 169 were sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers, 50 were SSR markers and 49 were random amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. With further saturation to the LG, the current map offers a genetic tool for loci analysis for important agronomic traits.

  18. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (<3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; <4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit ) and the asymptotic growing period (>3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  19. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG‑63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR‑2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V‑positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1‑cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose‑dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration‑dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  20. New Insights on Drought Stress Response by Global Investigation of Gene Expression Changes in Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pincang; Liu, Panpan; Yuan, Guangxiao; Jia, Junting; Li, Xiaoxia; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Ma, Tian; Liu, Gongshe; Cheng, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Water is a critical environmental factor that restricts the geographic distribution of plants. Sheepgrass [Leymus chinensis, (Trin.) Tzvel] is an important forage grass in the Eurasia Steppe and a close germplasm for wheat and barley. This native grass adapts well to adverse environments such as cold, salinity, alkalinity and drought, and it can survive when the soil moisture may be less than 6% in dry seasons. However, little is known about how sheepgrass tolerates water stress at the molecular level. Here, drought stress experiment and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in three pools of RNA samples (control, drought stress, and rewatering). We found that sheepgrass seedlings could still survive when the soil water content (SWC) was reduced to 14.09%. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 7320 genes exhibited significant responses to drought stress. Of these DEGs, 2671 presented opposite expression trends before and after rewatering. Furthermore, ~680 putative sheepgrass-specific water responsive genes were revealed that can be studied deeply. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that stress-associated genes were activated extensively by drought treatment. Interestingly, cold stress-related genes were up-regulated greatly after drought stress. The DEGs of MAPK and calcium signal pathways, plant hormone ABA, jasmonate, ethylene, brassinosteroid signal pathways, cold response CBF pathway participated coordinatively in sheepgrass drought stress response. In addition, we identified 288 putative transcription factors (TFs) involved in drought response, among them, the WRKY, NAC, AP2/ERF, bHLH, bZIP, and MYB families were enriched, and might play crucial and significant roles in drought stress response of sheepgrass. Our research provided new and valuable information for understanding the mechanism of drought tolerance in sheepgrass. Moreover, the identification of genes involved in drought response can facilitate the genetic improvement of