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Sample records for jonathan stop global

  1. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  2. An Interview with Jonathan Piel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Diane J.

    1992-01-01

    This transcript of an interview with Jonathan Piel, editor of "Scientific American," discusses communication between scientists and readers; scientific research publications and the publishing industry; universities as research publishers; library budget reductions and purchasing decisions; electronic publishing; NREN (National Research…

  3. NonStop University: Characteristics of a Global Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NonStop University is an online university community application service designed, developed, and deployed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to serve the computer product training needs of 2,500 staff members in more than 50 countries. By identifying a set of learner characteristics that supported a set of key elements while using technology and focusing on…

  4. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are an…

  5. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  6. The challenge of sustaining effectiveness over time: the case of the global network to stop tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Quissell, Kathryn; Walt, Gill

    2016-04-01

    Where once global health decisions were largely the domain of national governments and the World Health Organization, today networks of international organizations, governments, private philanthropies and other entities are actively shaping public policy. However, there is still limited understanding of how global networks form, how they create institutions, how they promote and sustain collective action, and how they adapt to changes in the policy environment. Understanding these processes is crucial to understanding their effectiveness: whether and how global networks influence policy and public health outcomes. This study seeks to address these gaps through the examination of the global network to stop tuberculosis (TB) and the factors influencing its effectiveness over time. Drawing from ∼ 200 document sources and 16 interviews with key informants, we trace the development of the Global Partnership to Stop TB and its work over the past decade. We find that having a centralized core group and a strategic brand helped the network to coalesce around a primary intervention strategy, directly observed treatment short course. This strategy was created before the network was formalized, and helped bring in donors, ministries of health and other organizations committed to fighting TB-growing the network. Adaptations to this strategy, the creation of a consensus-based Global Plan, and the creation of a variety of participatory venues for discussion, helped to expand and sustain the network. Presently, however, tensions have become more apparent within the network as it struggles with changing internal political dynamics and the evolution of the disease. While centralization and stability helped to launch and grow the network, the institutionalization of governance and strategy may have constrained adaptation. Institutionalization and centralization may, therefore, facilitate short-term success for networks, but may end up complicating longer-term effectiveness.

  7. Possible global strategies for stopping polio vaccination and how they could be harmonized.

    PubMed

    Cochi, S L; Sutter, R W; Aylward, R B

    2001-01-01

    One of the challenges of the polio eradication initiative over the next few years will be the formulation of an optimal strategy for stopping poliovirus vaccination after global certification of polio eradication has been accomplished. This strategy must maximize the benefits and minimize the risks. A number of strategies are currently under consideration, including: (i) synchronized global discontinuation of use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); (ii) regional or subregional coordinated OPV discontinuation; and (iii) moving from trivalent to bivalent or monovalent OPV. Other options include moving from OPV to global use of IPV for an interim period before cessation of IPV use (to eliminate circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus, if necessary) or development of new OPV strains that are not transmissible. Each of these strategies is associated with specific advantages (financial benefits for OPV discontinuation) and disadvantages (cost of switch to IPV) and inherent uncertainties (risk of continued poliovirus circulation in certain populations or prolonged virus replication in immunodeficient persons). An ambitious research agenda addresses the remaining questions and issues. Nevertheless, several generalities are already clear. Unprecedented collaboration between countries, regions, and indeed the entire world will be required to implement a global OPV discontinuation strategy Regulatory approval will be needed for an interim bivalent OPV or for monovalent OPV in many countries. Manufacturers will need sufficient lead time to produce sufficient quantities of IPV Finally, the financial implications for any of these strategies need to be considered. Whatever strategy is followed it will be necessary to stockpile supplies of a poliovirus-containing vaccine (most probably all three types of monovalent OPV), and to develop contingency plans to respond should an outbreak of polio occur after stopping vaccination.

  8. Unexpected events induce motor slowing via a brain mechanism for action-stopping with global suppressive effects.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2013-11-20

    When an unexpected event occurs in everyday life (e.g., a car honking), one experiences a slowing down of ongoing action (e.g., of walking into the street). Motor slowing following unexpected events is a ubiquitous phenomenon, both in laboratory experiments as well as such everyday situations, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that unexpected events recruit the same inhibition network in the brain as does complete cancellation of an action (i.e., action-stopping). Using electroencephalography and independent component analysis in humans, we show that a brain signature of successful outright action-stopping also exhibits activity following unexpected events, and more so in blocks with greater motor slowing. Further, using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability, we show that an unexpected event has a global motor suppressive effect, just like outright action-stopping. Thus, unexpected events recruit a common mechanism with outright action-stopping, moreover with global suppressive effects. These findings imply that we can now leverage the considerable extant knowledge of the neural architecture and functional properties of the stopping system to better understand the processing of unexpected events, including perhaps how they induce distraction via global suppression.

  9. Digital Learning Network Event with Robotics Engineer Jonathan Rogers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robotics engineer Jonathan Rogers and Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem participate in a Digital Learning Network educational event, answering questions from students at Montgomery Middle School in...

  10. Jonathan Taft: dentistry's great forgotten hero.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest figures in the development of the dental profession to the high status it enjoys today is all but forgotten. Jonathan Taft was dean of the second dental school in the world and wrote the most important clinical textbook of his time, one that was reprinted in many editions over a quarter of a century. Later appointed dean of the new University of Michigan Dental School, he instituted innovations in admission requirements and course of study that were copied by all subsequent schools and are the standards adhered to today. The editor of one of the most important dental journals for 44 years, a record unmatched to this day, he set the standards for modern dental periodical literature that have done so much to elevate dentistry that today it stands on a par with medicine as a truly science-based profession. He served dentistry in many capacities: president of the American Dental Association, founder of the National Association of Dental Faculties, and founder of the National Association of Dental Examiners. Over his lifetime, he published almost 200 professional papers and probably attended and lectured at more dental meetings than anyone of his day and since. His memory should be resurrected, and the profession must be made aware of the great debt it owes to this intrepid fighter for a better dental profession.

  11. Implementing the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2011–2015 – Optimizing Allocations and the Global Fund’s Contribution: A Scenario Projections Study

    PubMed Central

    Korenromp, Eline L.; Glaziou, Philippe; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Floyd, Katherine; Hosseini, Mehran; Raviglione, Mario; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), including antiretroviral treatment (ART) during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need – an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8–12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa − with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. Conclusions/Significance These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and disease

  12. WHO's End TB Strategy: From stopping to ending the global TB epidemic.

    PubMed

    Uplekar, Mukund; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The 67th World Health Assembly of 2014 adopted the "End TB Strategy" with a vision of making the world free of tuberculosis (TB) and with the goal of ending the global TB epidemic by the year 2035. World Health Organization's "End TB Strategy" captures this holistic response in its four principles and three pillars. The three high-level indicators of the "End TB Strategy" - reductions in TB deaths, reductions in the TB incidence rate and the percentage of TB patients and their households experiencing catastrophic costs - are relevant to all countries.

  13. Decision-making interventions to stop the global atrial fibrillation-related stroke tsunami.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Joshua O; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Ibañez, Agustin; Doocy, Shannon; Lip, Gregory Yh; Sposato, Luciano A

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects 33.5 million people worldwide and its prevalence is expected to double by 2050 because of the aging population. Atrial fibrillation confers a 5-fold higher risk of ischemic stroke compared to sinus rhythm. We present our view of the role of shared medical decision-making to combat global underutilization of oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients. Oral anticoagulation underuse is widespread as it is present within atrial fibrillation patients of all risk strata and in countries across all income levels. Reasons for oral anticoagulation underuse include but are probably not limited to poor risk stratification, over-interpretation of contraindications, and discordance between physician prescription preferences and actual administration. By comparing a catastrophic event to the consequences of atrial fibrillation related strokes, it may help physicians and patients understand the negative outcomes associated with oral anticoagulation under-utilization and the magnitude to which oral anticoagulations neutralize atrial fibrillation burden.

  14. Attacking Apartheid Education: An interview with Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jonathan Kozol. Topics discussed include: (1) On the root causes of school resegregation; (2) On strategies for solving the problem; (3) On guaranteeing education for all; (4) On forcing opponents of integration into the open; (5) On mechanisms for promoting integration; (6) On scripted curricula in…

  15. Savage Exaggerations: Worshiping the Cosmology of Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.

    2006-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has made a good living talking with students. His books chronicle travels among poor, minority children, most of them African Americans in struggling public schools. In the four decades that Kozol, now 70, has been writing books--11 so far--his message has hardly wavered: minority children are unsuccessful because rich, white…

  16. The Ties that Bind: A Response to Jonathan Jansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In his critique of academic writing about and public consumption of government policy and law, Jonathan Jansen uses his argument of the symbolic functions of education law and education policy as a basis for explaining the lack of progress in achieving equity and justice under "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) in the United States and…

  17. [Jonathan Swift's scientific contribution on his "Gulliver's Travels"].

    PubMed

    Miranda C, Marcelo; Pérez J, Carolina; Slachevsky Ch, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Jonathan Swift is one of the most celebrated satirist writers in literature. His well-known "Gulliver's Travels", apart from being a serious human being criticism, contains many interesting ana unrecognized comments about medical and other scientific facts. Swift made what seems to be the first account of a dementing illness in the elderly; his description fits well with what we now know as Alzheimer's disease. He also described a condition now called synaesthesia, a very interesting phenomenon that may contribute to creativity. In this paper, we review aspects of his life and reveal these amazing descriptions as samples of Swift's extraordinary power of observation.

  18. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745): master satirist, eccentric dean and frustrated lover.

    PubMed

    Carter, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Jonathan Swift, Irish author and poet, became an Anglican Dean with a macabre interest in medicine. He wrote 'Verses on the Death of Dr Swift' predicting how his death would be received in Dublin and London.

  19. The Next Stop of One-Stop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouman, Penny; Gomber, Gerri; Higgs, Ronnie; Westman, Craig

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the migration of the best practices of a one-stop setup to a communication center allowing for a one-stop shop experience via phone. Specifically, the article describes how enrollment managers at Ferris State University chose elements of their one-stop student service center to migrate into the Enrollment Services…

  20. How to stop drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to stop; Alcohol use - how to stop; Alcoholism - how to stop ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Rethinking Drinking. Updated ... . Accessed October 27, 2016. O'Connor PG. Alcohol ...

  1. Texture, Textuality and Political Discourse: A Study of Lexical Cohesion in Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address, May, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enyi, Amaechi Uneke; Chitulu, Mark Ononiwu

    2015-01-01

    This study, entitled, "Texture and textuality in Political Discourse: A Study of Cohesive Devices in President Goodluck Jonathan's Inaugural Address-May, 2011" was an analysis of the lexical cohesive devices employed by Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in crafting his May, 2011's Presidential Inaugural Address (PIA). Guided by the…

  2. The Devil in Mr. Smith: A Conversation with Jonathan Z. Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan Z.; Pearson, Thomas; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Jensen, Tim; Fujiwara, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    This interview was recorded in November 2012 in Jonathan Z. Smith's Hyde Park graystone. Professor Smith offers insights into how he thinks about his classroom teaching and his students' learning through descriptions of various assignments and classroom activities he has developed over more than forty years of teaching. The discussion…

  3. Loss, Failure, and an Awful Reputation: A Response to Jonathan Silin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Clare

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author responds to Jonathan Silin's article "At a Loss: Scared and Excited", and in doing so, takes up his ideas around the generative potential of loss. She uses these notions of loss to illuminate how, in one diverse school community in Australia, loss, failure and an "awful reputation" have opened up…

  4. The Scholarship of Jonathan Silin: A Reading through the Lens of Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshaber, Susan

    2013-01-01

    While Jonathan Silin's ideas have challenged early childhood educators to think seriously about the relationship between developmentalism and revisioning early education, they have done much more than this. They also challenge us to know who we are and how our identities might be enacted in our teacher-selves, whether in the classroom with young…

  5. Political Identity and Moral Education: A Response to Jonathan Haidt's "The Righteous Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    In "The Righteous Mind," Jonathan Haidt claims that liberals have a narrower moral outlook than conservatives--they are concerned with fairness and relief of suffering, which Haidt sees as individualistic values, while conservatives care about authority and loyalty too, values concerned with holding society together. I question…

  6. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. Methods We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Findings Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low

  7. Automobile Stopping Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

  8. Stopping Speech Suppresses the Task-Irrelevant Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Weidong; Oldenkamp, Caitlin L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    Some situations require one to quickly stop an initiated response. Recent evidence suggests that rapid stopping engages a mechanism that has diffuse effects on the motor system. For example, stopping the hand dampens the excitability of the task-irrelevant leg. However, it is unclear whether this "global suppression" could apply across wider motor…

  9. One Stop Career Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patricia

    With the aid of a U.S. Department of Labor grant, a number of one-stop career centers are being developed or have been implemented in California. A one-stop career center is a physical and electronic site where comprehensive services to job seekers and employers are available. These services include the following: assessment and eligibility…

  10. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  11. Field trip stop descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen sites within the channeled scabland were selected as stops with the dual aim of visiting locations critical to the arguments for a catastrophic flood origin of the scablands, as well as permitting an examination of the variability in both erosional and depositional features. The stop locations are plotted on a generalized geologic map and their coordinates are given in table form.

  12. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  13. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  14. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  15. Monitoring methods and predictive models for water status in Jonathan apples.

    PubMed

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Căpraru, Adina-Mirela; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Volf, Irina; Chiruţă, Ciprian

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of water status in Jonathan apples was performed for 20 days. Loss moisture content (LMC) was carried out through slow drying of wholes apples and the moisture content (MC) was carried out through oven drying and lyophilisation for apple samples (chunks, crushed and juice). We approached a non-destructive method to evaluate LMC and MC of apples using image processing and multilayer neural networks (NN) predictor. We proposed a new simple algorithm that selects the texture descriptors based on initial set heuristically chosen. Both structure and weights of NN are optimised by a genetic algorithm with variable length genotype that led to a high precision of the predictive model (R(2)=0.9534). In our opinion, the developing of this non-destructive method for the assessment of LMC and MC (and of other chemical parameters) seems to be very promising in online inspection of food quality.

  16. Jonathan Rosen: building a dynamic union-based health and safety program.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jonathan; McLaughlin, Kaci; Slatin, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Rosen has spent more than 30 years building union-based health and safety programs. In the 1970s he was a union activist. In 1980 he became a union health and safety committee chair at a Milwaukee manufacturing firm. Following that, he had a nearly 20-year career with the New York State Public Employees Federation (PEF). He trained as an industrial hygienist and developed a highly regarded public sector union-based health and safety program. PEF's Health and Safety Department supported a network of union health and safety committees. Program accomplishments included innovative work on workplace violence prevention, indoor environmental quality, infectious diseases, and ergonomics. Mr. Rosen promoted collaboration among unions, helped support new activists, advocated tirelessly for injured workers, and formed an effective alliance with researchers. Rosen discusses essential strategies for mobilizing union members and gaining commitment to health and safety from unions, employers, and policy makers.

  17. A Persistent Reformer: Jonathan Kozol's Work to Promote Equality in America. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has been a leading educational critic and social activist since 1967 when "Death at an Early Age," his book about racism in Boston's schools, was published and won a National Book Award. Since then, Kozol has written eleven more books which focus on such issues as segregation in schools and society, poverty, inequitable school…

  18. Teaching Eighteenth-Century Poetic Satire with a Competency-Based Approach: Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modia, María Jesús Lorenzo; Álvarez, Begoña Lasa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to analyse the teaching of literature with a competency-based approach. This is exemplified by means of a thorough study of a poetic duel between two relevant eighteenth-century writers, Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and more specifically, by means of the satires entitled respectively "The Lady's…

  19. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    PubMed

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  20. Quick stop device

    DOEpatents

    Hipwell, Roger L.; Hazelton, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    A quick stop device for abruptly interrupting the cutting of a workpiece by a cutter is disclosed. The quick stop device employs an outer housing connected to an inner workpiece holder by at least one shear pin. The outer housing includes an appropriate shank designed to be received in the spindle of a machine, such as a machine tool. A cutter, such as a drill bit, is mounted in a stationary position and the workpiece, mounted to the workpiece holder, is rotated during engagement with the cutter. A trigger system includes at least one spring loaded punch disposed for movement into engagement with the workpiece holder to abruptly stop rotation of the workpiece holder. This action shears the shear pin and permits continued rotation of the spindle and outer housing without substantially disturbing the chip root formed during cutting.

  1. Sneaky light stop

    DOE PAGES

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  2. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  3. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  4. Stopping the Bottle

    MedlinePlus

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  5. Time to Stop Quarreling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    1981-01-01

    Education, it is suggested, ranks low in order of priority during an economic crunch and has lost much of its aura. Management and employees in education must stop fighting each other, organize, rally constituencies, and defend the traditional American commitment to education. (Author/MLW)

  6. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day.

  7. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  8. Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864) and his recognition of conduction aphasia in 1834.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    2011-03-01

    In 1833 an accomplished 26-year-old linguist suffered a non-paralytic stroke. After he recovered, though he could utter a variety of syllables with ease, he spoke an unintelligible jargon that caused him to be mistaken as a foreigner. He was examined repeatedly over the course of a year by Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864), a Dublin physician and professor of materia medica, who found that the patient understood whatever was said to him, that he could read and write fluently, but had difficulty repeating words read to him or in reading aloud. Osborne recommended that he learn to speak English, his natural language, de novo and over 8 months measured his considerable improvement. To explain the patient's singular difficulty in repeating spoken words Osborne argued it was 'highly probable that, having been conversant with five languages, the muscular apparatus ranged among them, forming a kind of polyglot jargon [that was] wholly unintelligible' and the patient was 'unable to penetrate into and select the contents of the store according as the [words] were required'. The discrepancy between comprehension and repetition was later termed conduction aphasia.

  9. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  10. Stem cells - A very short introduction Jonathan Slack Stem cells - A very short introduction Oxford University Press 144pp £7.99 9780199603381 9780199603381 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2012-10-31

    The latest addition to this popular pocket-book series from Oxford University Press is by Jonathan Slack, a prominent researcher and director of the Stem Cell Institute at the University of Minnesota in the United States.

  11. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-03-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops.

  12. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  13. Stop the World from Spinning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Stop the World from Spinning Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... Children / Smartphone App for Voice Disorders / Stop the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall ...

  14. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  15. Deciding where to Stop Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydgat, Ilse; Stevens, Michael; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether speakers strategically decide where to interrupt their speech once they need to stop. We conducted four naming experiments in which pictures of colored shapes occasionally changed in color or shape. Participants then merely had to stop (Experiment 1); or they had to stop and resume speech (Experiments 2-4). They…

  16. Baryon stopping probes deconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Stopping and baryon transport in central relativistic Pb + Pb and Au + Au collisions are reconsidered with the aim to find indications for the transition from hadronic to partonic processes. At energies reached at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ( √{s_{NN}} = 6.3-17.3 GeV) and at RHIC (62.4 GeV) the fragmentation-peak positions as obtained from the data depend linearly on the beam rapidity and are in agreement with earlier results from a QCD-based approach that accounts for gluon saturation. No discontinuities in the net-proton fragmentation peak positions occur in the expected transition region from partons to hadrons at 6-10GeV. In contrast, the mean rapidity loss is predicted to depend linearly on the beam rapidity only at high energies beyond the RHIC scale. The combination of both results offers a clue for the transition from hard partonic to soft hadronic processes in baryon stopping. NICA results could corroborate these findings.

  17. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  18. Stop and Look Detection Algorithm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    cookie cutter, the target leaves datum on a random fixed course at constant velocity, the searcher travels at constant velocity and the searcher stops and...stops and looks for the target at predeter- mined search points. a. Detection is deterministic, i.e., cookie cutter. v-I po...deterministic, i.e., cookie cutter.’ 170 PRINT’ 3) The searcher begins searching at time late with constant velocity.’ *190 PRINT’ 4) The target leaves datum

  19. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  20. The Effects of Prompting and Feedback on Drivers' Stopping at Stop Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John; Hackett, Stacey; Gravina, Nicole; Lebbon, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Complete stops at a high-traffic intersection on the campus of a public university were increased with a prompting and consequence intervention. Data were collected at two opposing stop signs (Stop A and Stop B); however, the intervention was implemented only at Stop A. During the intervention, a volunteer stood next to Stop A holding a poster…

  1. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin

    2016-11-01

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1Z and {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1h . However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{b}}_1W and {overset{˜ }{b}}_1to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi- W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  2. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  3. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  4. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Jr., Robert

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  5. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  6. Mixing stops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find that they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.

  7. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  8. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaneets, Roman Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  9. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  10. The calcaneo-stop procedure.

    PubMed

    Usuelli, F G; Montrasio, U Alfieri

    2012-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities. Arthroereisis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, the calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. It is designed for pediatric treatment. Results similar to endorthesis procedure are reported. Theoretically the procedure can be applied to adults if combined with other procedures to obtain a stable plantigrade foot, but medium-term follow up studies are missing.

  11. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  12. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  13. On the Natural History of Preaspirated Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation makes two contributions, one empirical, the other theoretical. Empirically, the dissertation deepens our understanding of the lifecycle and behavior of the preaspirated stop, an extremely rare phonological feature. I show that in most confirmed cases, preaspirated stops develop from earlier voiceless geminate stops, less commonly…

  14. Quality of "Glottal" Stops in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; van As-Brooks, C. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of "glottal" stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized "glottal" stops in abutting words…

  15. On Predicting the Glottal Stop in Hualapai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folarin, Antonia Y.

    Based on the unsubstantiated conclusion of many Hualapai analysts that the glottal stop is one of the phonemes of the language, this paper argues that the glottal stop is for the most part predictable. Data are presented to show the instability as well as the predictability of the glottal stop, and rules are presented, based on the Sound Pattern…

  16. GPM's Last Stop Before Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Art Azarbarzin, NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission project manager, and Mashahiro Kojima, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's GPM/DPR project manager, reflect on the long journey ...

  17. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-10-15

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  18. Evidence for capacity sharing when stopping.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D

    2015-09-01

    Research on multitasking indicates that central processing capacity is limited, resulting in a performance decrement when central processes overlap in time. A notable exception seems to be stopping responses. The main theoretical and computational accounts of stop performance assume that going and stopping do not share processing capacity. This independence assumption has been supported by many behavioral studies and by studies modeling the processes underlying going and stopping. However, almost all previous investigations of capacity sharing between stopping and going have manipulated the difficulty of the go task while keeping the stop task simple. In the present study, we held the difficulty of the go task constant and manipulated the difficulty of the stop task. We report the results of four experiments in which subjects performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the go response if invalid signals occurred. In the consistent-mapping condition, the valid signal stayed the same throughout the whole experiment; in the varied-mapping condition, the valid signal changed regularly, so the demands on the rule-based system remained high. We found strong dependence between stopping and going, especially in the varied-mapping condition. We propose that in selective stop tasks, the decision to stop or not will share processing capacity with the go task. This idea can account for performance differences between groups, subjects, and conditions. We discuss implications for the wider stop-signal and dual-task literature.

  19. Stopping clinical trials by design.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, John

    2004-11-01

    Before any clinical trial begins, a detailed trial protocol must be prepared. The authority of the trial results will depend on the quality of this document. In many protocols, a key component is a plan for a series of interim analyses of the accumulating trial data, and a 'stopping rule' based on them. Such a rule might be intended to prevent participants from continuing to receive a drug that already seems to be unsafe, or to allow a successful drug to become generally available as soon as sufficient evidence of its advantages has been collected. There has been considerable misunderstanding of these rules, and controversies associated with them. Here, I discuss why this might be, and what can be done to promote their successful and beneficial use in the future.

  20. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, traumatic injuries worldwide are responsible for over 5 million deaths annually. Post-traumatic bleeding caused by traumatic injury-associated coagulopathy is the leading cause of potentially preventable death among trauma patients. Despite these facts, awareness of this problem is insufficient and treatment options are often unclear. The STOP the Bleeding Campaign therefore aims to increase awareness of the phenomenon of post-traumatic coagulopathy and its appropriate management by publishing European guidelines for the management of the bleeding trauma patient, by promoting and monitoring the implementation of these guidelines and by preparing promotional and educational material, organising activities and developing health quality management tools. The campaign aims to reduce the number of patients who die within 24 hours after arrival in the hospital due to exsanguination by a minimum of 20% within the next 5 years. PMID:23635083

  1. Antiproton stopping in atomic targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2015-08-01

    Stopping powers of antiprotons in H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe targets are calculated using a semiclassical time-dependent convergent close-coupling method. The helium target is treated using both frozen-core and multiconfiguration approximations. The electron-electron correlation of the target is fully accounted for in both cases. Double ionization and ionization with excitation channels are taken into account using an independent-event model. The Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atom wave functions are described in a model of six p -shell electrons above a frozen Hartree-Fock core with only one-electron excitations from the outer p shell allowed. Results obtained for helium in the multiconfiguration treatment are in better agreement with experimental measurements than other theories.

  2. Urban and rural differences in older drivers' failure to stop at stop signs.

    PubMed

    Keay, Lisa; Jasti, Srichand; Munoz, Beatriz; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Duncan, Donald D; Baldwin, Kevin; Bandeen-Roche, Karen J; Gower, Emily W; West, Sheila K

    2009-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine visual and cognitive predictors for older drivers' failure to stop at stop signs. 1425 drivers aged between ages 67 and 87 residing in Salisbury Maryland were enrolled in a longitudinal study of driving. At baseline, the participants were administered a battery of vision and cognition tests, and demographic and health questionnaires. Five days of driving data were collected with a Driving Monitoring System (DMS), which obtained data on stop signs encountered and failure to stop at stop signs. Driving data were also collected 1 year later (round two). The outcome, number of times a participant failed to stop at a stop sign at round two, was modeled using vision and cognitive variables as predictors. A negative binomial regression model was used to model the failure rate. Of the 1241 who returned for round two, 1167 drivers had adequate driving data for analyses and 52 did not encounter a stop sign. In the remaining 1115, 15.8% failed at least once to stop at stop signs, and 7.1% failed to stop more than once. Rural drivers had 1.7 times the likelihood of not stopping compared to urban drivers. Amongst the urban participants, the number of points missing in the bilateral visual field was significantly associated with a lower failure rate. In this cohort, older drivers residing in rural areas were less likely to stop at stop-sign intersections than those in urban areas. It is possible that rural drivers frequent areas with less traffic and better visibility, and may be more likely to take the calculated risk of not stopping. In this cohort failure to stop at stop signs was not explained by poor vision or cognition. Conversely in urban areas, those who have visual field loss appear to be more cautious at stop signs.

  3. Compression and extraction of stopped muons.

    PubMed

    Taqqu, D

    2006-11-10

    Efficient conversion of a standard positive muon beam into a high-quality slow muon beam is shown to be achievable by compression of a muon swarm stopped in an extended gas volume. The stopped swarm can be squeezed into a mm-size swarm flow that can be extracted into vacuum through a small opening in the stop target walls. Novel techniques of swarm compression are considered. In particular, a density gradient in crossed electric and magnetic fields is used.

  4. New stopping criteria for iterative root finding

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajsen, Jorgen L.

    2014-01-01

    A set of simple stopping criteria is presented, which improve the efficiency of iterative root finding by terminating the iterations immediately when no further improvement of the roots is possible. The criteria use only the function evaluations already needed by the root finding procedure to which they are applied. The improved efficiency is achieved by formulating the stopping criteria in terms of fractional significant digits. Test results show that the new stopping criteria reduce the iteration work load by about one-third compared with the most efficient stopping criteria currently available. This is achieved without compromising the accuracy of the extracted roots. PMID:26064544

  5. Stopping of Ions in Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The stopping of ions in solids is due to the energy loss as a result of the resistance to ion passage of the electronic and ionic nuclei in the material. When an ion penetrates a solid, it experiences a number of collisions. Energetic charged particles interact with both electrons and atoms in materials. Kinetic energy transfers to atoms can result in displacement of atoms from their original sites; thereby forming atomic-scale defects in the structure. Energy transfers to the target electrons (either bound or free) produces electron-hole pairs that can result in charging of pre-existing defects, localized electronic excitations, rupture of covalent and ionic bonds, enhanced defect and atomic diffusion, increased free energy, changes in phase transformation dynamics, as well as formation of atomic-scale defects. Such atomic collisions and ionization processes can modify the physical and chemical behavior of nanomaterials. This box will discuss irradiation-induced defect, address nanostructure engineering and radiation effects in nanomaterials, as well as the scientific challenges of ion-solid interactions.

  6. All in One Stop? The Accessibility of Work Support Programs at One-Stop Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Elise; Kubo, Hitomi; Frank, Abbey

    The accessibility of work support programs at one-stop centers was examined in a study during which 33 telephone directors or managers of one-stop centers in 22 states were interviewed by telephone. The interviews established the existence of extensive differences between one-stop centers from the standpoint of all aspects of their operation,…

  7. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a)...

  9. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a)...

  11. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about its... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  19. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop request. 38.37 Section 38.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers...

  20. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop request. 38.37 Section 38.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers...

  1. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  2. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  3. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  4. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  5. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  6. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  7. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation.

  8. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  9. STOP-IT: Windows executable software for the stop-signal paradigm.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D; Stevens, Michaël A

    2008-05-01

    The stop-signal paradigm is a useful tool for the investigation of response inhibition. In this paradigm, subjects are instructed to respond as fast as possible to a stimulus unless a stop signal is presented after a variable delay. However, programming the stop-signal task is typically considered to be difficult. To overcome this issue, we present software called STOP-IT, for running the stop-signal task, as well as an additional analyzing program called ANALYZE-IT. The main advantage of both programs is that they are a precompiled executable, and for basic use there is no need for additional programming. STOP-IT and ANALYZE-IT are completely based on free software, are distributed under the GNU General Public License, and are available at the personal Web sites of the first two authors or at expsy.ugent.be/tscope/stop.html.

  10. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors.

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  12. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  13. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  14. Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D. J.; Sutter, R. W.; Dowdle, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1988 reported polio cases worldwide have declined by about 85% and the number of known or suspected polioendemic countries has decreased from over 120 to less than 50. With eradication of poliomyelitis approaching, issues potentially affecting when and how vaccination against poliovirus can be stopped become extremely important. Because of the potential risks and benefits inherent in such a decision, the best available science, a risk-benefit analysis, contingency plans, a stock pile of poliovirus vaccines, and the endorsement by the global policy-making committees will all be needed before vaccination can be discontinued. The scientific basis for stopping polio immunization has been reviewed by WHO. This Round Table article summarizes the current state of knowledge, provides an update on the processes and timelines for certification, containment, and stopping vaccination, and highlights some of the unanswered scientific questions that will be addressed by further research. These include whether transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could be sustained so that poliomyelitis could re-emerge in a future unvaccinated population and whether prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus from individuals with immune deficiencies could be a mechanism through which this could occur. PMID:10812731

  15. Inhibitory motor control based on complex stopping goals relies on the same brain network as simple stopping.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Much research has modeled action-stopping using the stop-signal task (SST), in which an impending response has to be stopped when an explicit stop-signal occurs. A limitation of the SST is that real-world action-stopping rarely involves explicit stop-signals. Instead, the stopping-system engages when environmental features match more complex stopping goals. For example, when stepping into the street, one monitors path, velocity, size, and types of objects and only stops if there is a vehicle approaching. Here, we developed a task in which participants compared the visual features of a multidimensional go-stimulus to a complex stopping-template, and stopped their go-response if all features matched the template. We used independent component analysis of EEG data to show that the same motor inhibition brain network that explains action-stopping in the SST also implements motor inhibition in the complex-stopping task. Furthermore, we found that partial feature overlap between go-stimulus and stopping-template led to motor slowing, which also corresponded with greater stopping-network activity. This shows that the same brain system for action-stopping to explicit stop-signals is recruited to slow or stop behavior when stimuli match a complex stopping goal. The results imply a generalizability of the brain's network for simple action-stopping to more ecologically valid scenarios.

  16. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #16: POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE FOR THE UNITED STATES, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORT OF THE HEALTH SECTOR OF THE U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health sector assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with EPA's Global Change Research Program. The report was produced by a Health Sector Work Group, co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan Patz (Johns Hopkins University) and Dr. Michael McGeehin (CDC), and this report ...

  17. Stop-catalyzed baryogenesis beyond the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Andrey; Perelstein, Maxim; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Winslow, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Nonminimal supersymmetric models that predict a tree-level Higgs mass above the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) bound are well motivated by naturalness considerations. Indirect constraints on the stop sector parameters of such models are significantly relaxed compared to the MSSM; in particular, both stops can have weak-scale masses. We revisit the stop-catalyzed electroweak baryogenesis (EWB) scenario in this context. We find that the LHC measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates already rule out the possibility of stop-catalyzed EWB. We also introduce a gauge-invariant analysis framework that may generalize to other scenarios in which interactions outside the gauge sector drive the electroweak phase transition.

  18. Next Stop Adulthood: Tips for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Next Stop Adulthood: Tips For Parents Ages & Stages ...

  19. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  20. English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bauld, Linda; Hiscock, Rosemary; Dobbie, Fiona; Aveyard, Paul; Coleman, Tim; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; McRobbie, Hayden; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The UK is a global leader in stop-smoking support—providing free behavioral support and cessation medication via stop smoking services (SSS) without charge to smokers. This study aimed to explore the client and service characteristics associated with abstinence 52 weeks after quitting. A prospective cohort study of 3057 SSS clients in nine different areas of England who began their quit attempt between March 2012 and March 2013 was conducted. Important determinants of long-term quitting were assessed through quit rates and multivariable logistic regression. Our results showed that the overall weighted carbon monoxide validated quit rate for clients at 52 weeks was 7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6–9.0). The clients of advisors, whose main role was providing stop-smoking support, were more likely to quit long-term than advisors who had a generalist role in pharmacies or general practices (odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (95% CI 1.2–4.6)). Clients were more likely to achieve abstinence through group support than one-to-one support (OR 3.4 (95% CI 1.7–6.7)). Overall, one in thirteen people who set a quit date with the National Health Service (NHS) Stop-Smoking Service maintain abstinence for a year. Improving abstinence is likely to require a greater emphasis on providing specialist smoking cessation support. Results from this study suggest that over 18,000 premature deaths were prevented through longer-term smoking cessation achieved by smokers who accessed SSS in England from March 2012 to April 2013, but outcomes varied by client characteristic and the type of support provided. PMID:27886140

  1. Optional stopping: no problem for Bayesians.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2014-04-01

    Optional stopping refers to the practice of peeking at data and then, based on the results, deciding whether or not to continue an experiment. In the context of ordinary significance-testing analysis, optional stopping is discouraged, because it necessarily leads to increased type I error rates over nominal values. This article addresses whether optional stopping is problematic for Bayesian inference with Bayes factors. Statisticians who developed Bayesian methods thought not, but this wisdom has been challenged by recent simulation results of Yu, Sprenger, Thomas, and Dougherty (2013) and Sanborn and Hills (2013). In this article, I show through simulation that the interpretation of Bayesian quantities does not depend on the stopping rule. Researchers using Bayesian methods may employ optional stopping in their own research and may provide Bayesian analysis of secondary data regardless of the employed stopping rule. I emphasize here the proper interpretation of Bayesian quantities as measures of subjective belief on theoretical positions, the difference between frequentist and Bayesian interpretations, and the difficulty of using frequentist intuition to conceptualize the Bayesian approach.

  2. The structure of Hindi stop consonants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kushagra; Tiwari, Nachiketa

    2016-11-01

    The pronunciation of stop consonants varies markedly with age, gender, accent, etc. Yet by extracting appropriate cues common to these varying pronunciations, it is possible to correctly identify the spoken consonant. In this paper, the structure underlying Hindi stop consonants is presented. This understanding may potentially be used as a "recipe" for their artificial synthesis. Hindi alphabet stops were analyzed for this purpose. This alphabet has an organized and comprehensive inventory of stop consonants, and its consonants invariably terminate with the neutral vowel schwa. While the former consideration makes the findings potentially applicable to many languages including English, the latter rationale helped reduce the endeavor's analytical complexity. The alphabet has velar, palatal, retroflex, dental and bilabial stops in voiceless-unaspirated, voiceless-aspirated, voiced-unaspirated, voiced-aspirated, and nasal flavors. It is shown that additive combinations of relatively simple acoustic functions can be used to generate most of the 20 non-nasal stops. This work will potentially help speech therapists improve diagnosis and rectification of speech and hearing disabilities, speed up electronic communication of audio data, and improve voice recognition.

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Abundant Stop Codon Readthrough

    PubMed Central

    Jungreis, Irwin; Kellis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Translational stop codon readthrough emerged as a major regulatory mechanism affecting hundreds of genes in animal genomes, based on recent comparative genomics and ribosomal profiling evidence, but its evolutionary properties remain unknown. Here, we leverage comparative genomic evidence across 21 Anopheles mosquitoes to systematically annotate readthrough genes in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and to provide the first study of abundant readthrough evolution, by comparison with 20 Drosophila species. Using improved comparative genomics methods for detecting readthrough, we identify evolutionary signatures of conserved, functional readthrough of 353 stop codons in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and of 51 additional Drosophila melanogaster stop codons, including several cases of double and triple readthrough and of readthrough of two adjacent stop codons. We find that most differences between the readthrough repertoires of the two species arose from readthrough gain or loss in existing genes, rather than birth of new genes or gene death; that readthrough-associated RNA structures are sometimes gained or lost while readthrough persists; that readthrough is more likely to be lost at TAA and TAG stop codons; and that readthrough is under continued purifying evolutionary selection in mosquito, based on population genetic evidence. We also determine readthrough-associated gene properties that predate readthrough, and identify differences in the characteristic properties of readthrough genes between clades. We estimate more than 600 functional readthrough stop codons in mosquito and 900 in fruit fly, provide evidence of readthrough control of peroxisomal targeting, and refine the phylogenetic extent of abundant readthrough as following divergence from centipede. PMID:27604222

  4. Galvanic etch stop for Si in KOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, E. J.; French, P. J.; Xia, X. H.; Kelly, J. J.

    2004-08-01

    Etch stops and etch-stopping techniques are essential 'tools' for 2D and 3D MEMS devices. Until now, use of a galvanic etch stop (ES) for micromachining in alkaline solutions was usually prohibited due to the large Au:Si area needed and/or high oxygen content required to achieve the ES. We report a new galvanic ES which requires a Au:exposed silicon area ratio of only ~1. Thus for the first time a practical galvanic ES for KOH has been achieved. The ES works by adding small amounts of sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, to KOH solutions. Essentially the NaOCl increases the oxygen content in the KOH etchant. The dependancy of the galvanic ES on KOH concentration and temperature is investigated. Also, we report on the effects of the added NaOCl on etch rates. SEM images are used to examine the galvanically etch-stopped membranes and their surface morphology. For 33% KOH solutions the galvanic etch stop worked well, producing membranes with uniform thickness ~6 µm (i.e. slightly greater than the deposited epilayer). For 20% KOH solutions, the galvanic etch stop still worked, but the resulting membranes were a little thicker (~10 µm).

  5. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  6. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  7. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  8. Why does continental convergence stop

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.

  9. Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

  10. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  11. What makes a stopping rule sexist?

    PubMed

    Altmann, M

    1990-01-01

    "Parents' decisions to have children are modeled by a simple stopping rule that describes the probability of having another child as a function of the number of boys and girls already born to the parents. Because the stopping rule depends on the sex of the offspring, the rule may introduce a correlation between sex of offspring and the number of siblings the offspring has. When this is coupled with a correlation between number of siblings and well-being, a correlation between sex and well-being may emerge despite equal treatment of the two sexes within each family. The author provides sufficient conditions on a stopping rule for it to be sexist in the sense that the average well-being of one sex is higher than that of the other sex." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  12. Electronic stopping power of aluminum crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Campillo, I.; Pitarke, J.M.; Eguiluz, A.G. |

    1998-10-01

    {ital Ab initio} calculations of the electronic energy loss of ions moving in aluminum crystal are presented, within linear-response theory, from a realistic description of the one-electron band structure and a full treatment of the dynamical electronic response of valence electrons. For the evaluation of the density-response function we use the random-phase approximation and, also, a time-dependent extension of local-density-functional theory. We evaluate both position-dependent and random stopping powers, for a wide range of projectile velocities. Our results indicate that at low velocities band-structure effects slightly enhance the stopping power. At velocities just above the threshold velocity for plasmon excitation, the stopping power of the real solid is found to be smaller than that of jellium electrons, corrections being of about 10{percent}. This reduction can be understood from sum rule arguments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Stopping is not an option: the evolution of unstoppable motion elements (primitives).

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Ronen; Chaim, Eliyahu; Flash, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Stopping performance is known to depend on low-level motion features, such as movement velocity. It is not known, however, whether it is also subject to high-level motion constraints. Here, we report results of 15 subjects instructed to connect four target points depicted on a digitizing tablet and stop "as rapidly as possible" upon hearing a "stop" cue (tone). Four subjects connected target points with straight paths, whereas 11 subjects generated movements corresponding to coarticulation between adjacent movement components. For the noncoarticulating and coarticulating subjects, stopping performance was not correlated or only weakly correlated with motion velocity, respectively. The generation of a straight, point-to-point movement or a smooth, curved trajectory was not disturbed by the occurrence of a stop cue. Overall, the results indicate that stopping performance is subject to high-level motion constraints, such as the completion of a geometrical plan, and that globally planned movements, once started, must run to completion, providing evidence for the definition of a motion primitive as an unstoppable motion element.

  14. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  15. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-18

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S.cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E.coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  16. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S. cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E. coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  17. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of lubricating plugs are disposed in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are disposed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  18. Effects of Stop-Signal Probability in the Stop-Signal Paradigm: The N2/p3 Complex Further Validated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramautar, J.R.; Kok, A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of frequency of occurrence of stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Presenting stop signals less frequently resulted in faster reaction times to the go stimulus and a lower probability of inhibition. Also, go stimuli elicited larger and somewhat earlier P3 responses when stop signals occurred…

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Traffic on Driver Stopping and Turn Signal Use at a Stop Sign: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela R.; Austin, John; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, Louis E.

    2007-01-01

    The current analyses of observational data found that oncoming traffic substantially affected driver stopping patterns and turn signal use at the target stop sign. The percentage of legal stops and turn signal use by drivers in the presence and absence of traffic was analyzed using a multi-element design. The results showed that legal stops were…

  20. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Plum, Michael A; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lu, Wei; McTeer, Stephen Mark

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  1. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  3. A new stopping rule for surveys.

    PubMed

    Wagner, James; Raghunathan, Trivellore E

    2010-04-30

    Non-response is a problem for most surveys. In the sample design, non-response is often dealt with by setting a target response rate and inflating the sample size so that the desired number of interviews is reached. The decision to stop data collection is based largely on meeting the target response rate. A recent article by Rao, Glickman, and Glynn (RGG) suggests rules for stopping that are based on the survey data collected for the current set of respondents. Two of their rules compare estimates from fully imputed data where the imputations are based on a subset of early responders to fully imputed data where the imputations are based on the combined set of early and late responders. If these two estimates are different, then late responders are changing the estimate of interest. The present article develops a new rule for when to stop collecting data in a sample survey. The rule attempts to use complete interview data as well as covariates available on non-responders to determine when the probability that collecting additional data will change the survey estimate is sufficiently low to justify stopping data collection. The rule is compared with that of RGG using simulations and then is implemented using data from a real survey.

  4. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  5. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  6. Five Reasons To Stop Saying "Good Job."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2001-01-01

    Offers five reasons to stop use of positive social reinforcement, or praise, with young children. Maintains that praise manipulates children by taking advantage of their need for adult approval and exploits that dependence for adult convenience, creates "praise junkies," steals the child's pride in his or her own accomplishment, reduces interest…

  7. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  8. Sex between men in the context of HIV: The AIDS 2008 Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture in health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jorge; Izazola-Licea, Jose Antonio; Beyrer, Chris

    2008-12-24

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been among the most affected populations by HIV since the AIDS pandemic was first identified in the 1980s. Evidence from a wide range of studies show that these men remain at the highest risk for HIV acquisition in both developed and developing countries, and that despite three decades of evidence of their vulnerability to HIV, they remain under-served and under-studied. Prevention strategies targeted to MSM are markedly under-funded in most countries, leading to limited access to health services including prevention, treatment, and care. We explore the global epidemic among MSM in 2008, the limited funding available globally to respond to these epidemics, and the human rights contexts and factors which drive HIV spread and limit HIV responses for these men.What do we mean by the term MSM? MSM is a construct from the 1990s that tries to capture behavior and not identity. It was crafted to avoid stigmatizing and culturally laden terms such as gay or bisexual, which do not capture the wide diversity of orientations, sexual practices, cultures, and contextual settings in which male same-sex behaviors occur, and where HIV transmission and acquisition risks are centered. MSM includes both gay and non-gay identified men, bisexual men, and MSM who identify themselves as heterosexuals. It also includes men engaging in "situational" sex between men, such as can occur in prisons, schools, militaries or other environments; and it includes male sex workers who may be of any orientation but are often at very high risk for HIV. MSM may include some biologically male transgender persons, though some do not identify as male. And MSM includes a wide array of traditional and local terms worldwide-with enormous cultural diversity in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere. We use the term MSM here at its most inclusive.

  9. Sex between men in the context of HIV: The AIDS 2008 Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture in health and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been among the most affected populations by HIV since the AIDS pandemic was first identified in the 1980s. Evidence from a wide range of studies show that these men remain at the highest risk for HIV acquisition in both developed and developing countries, and that despite three decades of evidence of their vulnerability to HIV, they remain under-served and under-studied. Prevention strategies targeted to MSM are markedly under-funded in most countries, leading to limited access to health services including prevention, treatment, and care. We explore the global epidemic among MSM in 2008, the limited funding available globally to respond to these epidemics, and the human rights contexts and factors which drive HIV spread and limit HIV responses for these men. What do we mean by the term MSM? MSM is a construct from the 1990s that tries to capture behavior and not identity. It was crafted to avoid stigmatizing and culturally laden terms such as gay or bisexual, which do not capture the wide diversity of orientations, sexual practices, cultures, and contextual settings in which male same-sex behaviors occur, and where HIV transmission and acquisition risks are centered. MSM includes both gay and non-gay identified men, bisexual men, and MSM who identify themselves as heterosexuals. It also includes men engaging in "situational" sex between men, such as can occur in prisons, schools, militaries or other environments; and it includes male sex workers who may be of any orientation but are often at very high risk for HIV. MSM may include some biologically male transgender persons, though some do not identify as male. And MSM includes a wide array of traditional and local terms worldwide–with enormous cultural diversity in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere. We use the term MSM here at its most inclusive. PMID:19108725

  10. The light stop quark with small stop-neutralino difference in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Carena, Marcela S.; Freitas, A.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Kluge, Hannelies

    2005-12-01

    The MSSM can explain electro-weak symmetry breaking if one scalar top quark (stop) is light. In addition, in this framework, the neutralino is a good dark matter candidate and for small stop-neutralino mass differences dm{sub i} = 30 GeV, co-annihilation plays an important role to match the results from WMAP and SDSS for the relic density in the universe. In this scenario, the stops mainly decays into charm and neutralino, making its discovery difficult at hadron colliders due to background and trigger limitations. They present results for the discovery reach of the ILC for a DM candidate as low as 0(5 GeV) based on a realistic experimental simulation. Moreover, the stop parameters could be measured with high precision.

  11. Stopping power of mylar and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, A.P.; Harikumar, V.; Nath, N.

    1994-12-31

    The energy losses of O and Ti ions in 2 {mu}m mylar foil and Al ions in carbon foil (75.5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were measured. As a new approach, recoil ions produced in heavy ion scattering (ERDA) were utilized in these measurements. The energy loss of recoil ions was measured by keeping two surface barrier detectors, with and without the mylar foil, at the same recoil angle, with their gains matched before the experiment with pulsers. Different energies of the secondary beam could be selected by changing the target. The experimental stopping powers are compared with value obtained using various theoretical models as well as semi empirical model and TRIM simulation code. LSS theory is used for low velocity case and Bethe formula for high velocity case. In the intermediate velocity region, suitable modifications of Bethe formula and Braggs rule for stopping power of compound (Mylar) has been used.

  12. Stop codon reassignments in the wild.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Natalia N; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Rubin, Edward M

    2014-05-23

    The canonical genetic code is assumed to be deeply conserved across all domains of life with very few exceptions. By scanning 5.6 trillion base pairs of metagenomic data for stop codon reassignment events, we detected recoding in a substantial fraction of the >1700 environmental samples examined. We observed extensive opal and amber stop codon reassignments in bacteriophages and of opal in bacteria. Our data indicate that bacteriophages can infect hosts with a different genetic code and demonstrate phage-host antagonism based on code differences. The abundance and diversity of genetic codes present in environmental organisms should be considered in the design of engineered organisms with altered genetic codes in order to preclude the exchange of genetic information with naturally occurring species.

  13. [Medical criteria of delaying or stopping imprisonment].

    PubMed

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Sliwka, Karol

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the subject's ability to undergo imprisonment and determining whether there are any reasons for delaying or stopping imprisonment, has become a serious problem. Currently the Polish system lacks clear and homogenous opinionating criteria, and the available sources provide only general guidelines. This results in a great deal of discrepancy between opinions and evaluations made in similar cases. This work attempts to define and illustrate the criteria of the Executive Penal Code that are used in evaluating whether imprisonment is to be delayed or stopped. The authors have also provided examples of illnesses that would illustrate those definitions/criteria and came up with a suggested procedure of decision-making to be applied to such cases.

  14. Phonon stop bands in amorphous superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblinger, O.; Mebert, J.; Dittrich, E.; Döttinger, S.; Eisenmenger, W.; Santos, P. V.; Ley, L.

    1987-06-01

    In periodically layered media the phonon-dispersion relation shows energy ranges in which phonon propagation is not possible. The existence of such phonon stop bands in crystalline superlattices has been observed in work by V. Narayanamurti, H. L. Störmer, M. A. Chin, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 2012 (1979)]. In this Communication we report the observation of phonon stop bands in amorphous superlattices. The filter characteristic of these amorphous superlattices is much sharper than in the case of the crystalline superlattices studied earlier. The investigated superlattices have been prepared by alternating evaporation of Si and SiO2 layers as well as by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H films in a glow-discharge reactor.

  15. Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.

  16. Finite Optimal Stopping Problems: The Seller's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmati, Mehdi; Smith, J. Cole

    2011-01-01

    We consider a version of an optimal stopping problem, in which a customer is presented with a finite set of items, one by one. The customer is aware of the number of items in the finite set and the minimum and maximum possible value of each item, and must purchase exactly one item. When an item is presented to the customer, she or he observes its…

  17. Pattern Playback revisited: Unvoiced stop consonant perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefte, Michael; Kluender, Keith R.

    2005-10-01

    Among the most influential publications in speech perception is Liberman, Delattre, and Cooper's [Am. J. Phys. 65, 497-516 (1952)] report on the identification of synthetic, voiceless stops generated by the Pattern Playback. Their map of stop consonant identification shows a highly complex relationship between acoustics and perception. This complex mapping poses a challenge to many classes of relatively simple pattern recognition models which are unable to capture the original finding of Liberman et al. that identification of /k/ was bimodal for bursts preceding front vowels but otherwise unimodal. A replication of this experiment was conducted in an attempt to reproduce these identification patterns using a simulation of the Pattern Playback device. Examination of spectrographic data from stimuli generated by the Pattern Playback revealed additional spectral peaks that are consistent with harmonic distortion characteristic of tube amplifiers of that era. Only when harmonic distortion was introduced did bimodal /k/ responses in front-vowel context emerge. The acoustic consequence of this distortion is to add, e.g., a high-frequency peak to midfrequency bursts or a midfrequency peak to a low-frequency burst. This likely resulted in additional /k/ responses when the second peak approximated the second formant of front vowels. Although these results do not challenge the main observations made by Liberman et al. that perception of stop bursts is context dependent, they do show that the mapping from acoustics to perception is much less complex without these additional distortion products.

  18. Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husseyin, Sema; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclocopter system can use two or more rotating blades to create lift, propulsion and control. This system is explored for its use in a mission to Venus. Cyclocopters are not limited to speed and altitude and can provide 360 degrees of vector thrusting which is favorable for good maneuverability. The novel aspect of this study is that no other cyclocopter configuration has been previously proposed for Venus or any (terrestrial or otherwise) exploration application where the cyclocopters rotating blades are stopped, and act as fixed wings. The design considerations for this unique planetary aerial vehicle are discussed in terms of implementing the use of a cyclorotor blade system combined with a fixed wing and stopped rotor mechanism. This proposed concept avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional-rotor stopped-rotor concepts and accounts for the high temperature, pressure and atmospheric density present on Venus while carrying out the mission objectives. The fundamental goal is to find an ideal design that implements the combined use of cyclorotors and fixed wing surfaces. These design concepts will be analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics tool RotCFD for aerodynamic assessment. Aspects of the vehicle design is 3D printed and tested in a small water tunnel or wind tunnel.

  19. The acoustic qualities of Embera Katio stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Gisella Teresa Velez

    Embera Katío is a Chocó language of Colombia. This thesis presents the results of an acoustic analysis of the stops as produced by speakers from the departments of Córdoba and Antioquia. The analysis of the stops allows me to establish more conclusively their actual physical correlates and corresponding phonological categories. Five male adult native speakers of Embera Katío were recorded on location. Each one pronounced sixty-one words in a constant sentential frame, five times each. The utterances were analyzed acoustically, measuring duration, formant onset time, pre-voicing, and burst. Analysis of the data verifies that Embera Katío has three series of stops: aspirated, unaspirated and voiced. There are clear indications of systematic variation between the Katío of Córdoba and the Katío of Antioquia. As found in other languages, duration of the closure is the longest for bilabials and the shortest for velars. Conversely, FOT is the shortest for bilabials and the longest for velars. A preceding nasal vowel correlates with longer duration and shorter FOT. The most significant finding that differs from widespread tendencies in the world's languages is the fact that stress correlates with shorter FOT.

  20. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droese, C.; Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lautenschläger, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Schweikhard, L.; Simon, V. V.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a 219Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of 219Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  1. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  2. Ion Stopping Powers and CT Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, Michael F.; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W.

    2010-10-01

    One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed.

  3. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: New Hope for Stopping HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.27 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips New Hope for Stopping HIV Testing and Medical Care ... AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and early death. There's new hope today for stopping HIV in the US. ...

  5. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or leave... Recreation Center, Holbrook Pond, Fort Stewart, or at the Private Vehicle Storage area at Hunter...

  6. Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164006.html Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds ... When they learn they're pregnant, most American women stop drinking alcohol, a new study shows. Researchers ...

  7. Effect of varying deep stop times and shallow stop times on precordial bubbles after dives to 25 msw (82 fsw).

    PubMed

    Bennett, P B; Marroni, A; Cronje, F J; Cali-Corleo, R; Germonpre, P; Pieri, M; Bonuccelli, C; Leonardi, M G; Balestra, C

    2007-01-01

    In our previous research, a deep 5-min stop at 15 msw (50 fsw), in addition to the typical 3-5 min shallow stop, significantly reduced precordial Doppler detectable bubbles (PDDB) and "fast" tissue compartment gas tensions during decompression from a 25 msw (82 fsw) dive; the optimal ascent rate was 10 msw (30 fsw/min). Since publication of these results, several recreational diving agencies have recommended empirical stop times shorter than the 5 min stops that we used, stops of as little as 1 min (deep) and 2 min (shallow). In our present study, we clarified the optimal time for stops by measuring PDDB with several combinations of deep and shallow stop times following single and repetitive open-water dives to 25 msw (82 fsw) for 25 mins and 20 minutes respectively; ascent rate was 10 msw/min (33 fsw). Among 15 profiles, stop time ranged from 1 to 10 min for both the deep stops (15 msw/50 fsw) and the shallow stops (6 msw/20 fsw). Dives with 2 1/2 min deep stops yielded the lowest PDDB scores--shorter or longer deep stops were less effective in reducing PDDB. The results confirm that a deep stop of 1 min is too short--it produced the highest PDDB scores of all the dives. We also evaluated shallow stop times of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 min while keeping a fixed time of 2.5 min for the deep stop; increased times up to 10 min at the shallow stop did not further reduce PDDB. While our findings cannot be extrapolated beyond these dive profiles without further study, we recommend a deep stop of at least 2 1/2 mins at 15 msw (50 fsw) in addition to the customary 6 msw (20 fsw) for 3-5 mins for 25 meter dives of 20 to 25 minutes to reduce PDDB.

  8. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations.

    PubMed

    Nitta, H; Muroki, C; Nambu, M

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  9. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, H.; Muroki, C.; Nambu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  10. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  11. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel oil service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  12. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... time before final payment under this contract. (c) If a stop-work order is not canceled and the work... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated...

  13. Sensitivity to Phonological Universals: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamási, Katalin; Berent, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that syllables like "bdam" (with stop-stop clusters) are less preferred than "bzam" (with stop-fricative combinations). Here, we demonstrate that English speakers manifest similar preferences despite no direct experience with either structure. Experiment 1 elicited syllable count for auditory…

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation...

  15. Some New Results on Stopping Power for Fast Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Helmut

    2009-03-10

    Using our large collection of experimental stopping power data, we compare these data with various theories and stopping codes, in order to judge the quality of both data and theories. We discuss the influence of the state of aggregation of the target upon stopping power, and the importance of choosing the best value of the ionization potential of water for medical applications.

  16. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  17. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  18. Post-Stop-Signal Adjustments: Inhibition Improves Subsequent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Performance in the stop-signal paradigm involves a balance between going and stopping, and one way that this balance is struck is through shifting priority away from the go task, slowing responses after a stop signal, and improving the probability of inhibition. In 6 experiments, the authors tested whether there is a corresponding shift in…

  19. Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D

    2009-05-01

    The stop-signal paradigm is very useful for the study of response inhibition. Stop-signal performance is typically described as a race between a go process, triggered by a go stimulus, and a stop process, triggered by the stop signal. Response inhibition depends on the relative finishing time of these two processes. Numerous studies have shown that the independent horse-race model of Logan and Cowan [Logan, G.D., Cowan, W.B., 1984. On the ability to inhibit thought and action: a theory of an act of control. Psychological Review 91, 295-327] accounts for the data very well. In the present article, we review the independent horse-race model and related models, such as the interactive horse-race model [Boucher, L., Palmeri, T.J., Logan, G.D., Schall, J.D., 2007. Inhibitory control in mind and brain: an interactive race model of countermanding saccades. Psychological Review 114, 376-397]. We present evidence that favors the independent horse-race model but also some evidence that challenges the model. We end with a discussion of recent models that elaborate the role of a stop process in inhibiting a response.

  20. Stop feeling: inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    PubMed Central

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Cohen, Noga; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion. PMID:23503817

  1. Synthetic gene design with a large number of hidden stops.

    PubMed

    Phan, Vinhthuy; Saha, Sudip; Pandey, Ashutosh; Wong, Tit-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Hidden stops are nucleotide triples TAA, TAG and TGA that appear on the second and third reading frames of a protein coding gene. Recent studies suggested the important role of hidden stops in preventing misread of mRNA. We study the problem of designing protein-encoding genes with large number of hidden stops under several biological constraints. With simple constraints, redesigned genes have provable maximal number of hidden stops. With more complex constraints, redesigned genes still have many more hidden stops than wild-type genes. We showed that redesigned genes have a distinct positional advantage in assisting early termination of frame-shifts.

  2. Plasmon damping and proton stopping in jellium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinner, Andreas; Bachlechner, Martina E.; Böhm, Helga M.

    1994-07-01

    Two-pair excitations in a homogeneous electron gas are investigated within screened second order perturbation theory. Based on a suggestion by Ichimaru [K. Utsumi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 5203] an additional method of obtaining the effective interelectron interaction is presented. A closer inspection of the basic equation, rewritten as a selfconsistency problem, justifies the use of static screening within this model. Fit formulae for all main results are made available. Finally, an application of these calculations to the problem of proton stopping in aluminium is presented, which is in good agreement with the experiment.

  3. Cytokinin Transporters: GO and STOP in Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joohyun; Lee, Youngsook; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Martinoia, Enrico

    2017-03-31

    Cytokinins are phytohormones essential for cytokinesis and many other physiological and developmental processes in planta. Long-distance transport and intercellular transport have been postulated. For these processes, the existence of cytokinin transporters has been suggested. Recently, a transporter loading the xylem (AtABCG14) and another for cellular import (AtPUP14) have been discovered. AtABCG14 participates in the xylem loading process of cytokinins and contributes to the positive regulation of shoot growth. The cellular importer AtPUP14 is required to suppress cytokinin signaling. A role of a transporter as stop signal is a new paradigm for a hormone transporter.

  4. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  5. [How to stop hormone replacement therapy?].

    PubMed

    Polo, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is indicated for the treatment of menopausal and urogenital symptoms. The therapy is recommended to be started at the lowest effective dose for a minimum period of time. Discontinuation of the therapy or at least reduction of the dose should be considered yearly. The treatment can be stopped immediately or gradually. The risk of recurrence of menopausal symptoms is equal for both techniques of cessation. Furthermore, the number of those having restarted the therapy does not differ between cessation techniques. A woman is thus able to choose her own cessation technique. Immediate cessation is often successful, whereby complicated instructions for drug reduction are avoided.

  6. Cluster Ion Stopping and Fragmentation for ICF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, C.; Tahir, N. A.

    Cluster ion beam with energy in the several tens of keV/a.m.u. range are considered as a novel direct driver for a simple fusion pellet made of Deuterium + Tritium fuel surrounded by a Lithium pusher. The driver-pellet interaction is calculated through the hypothesis of maximum multifragmentation followed by highly correlated ion debris motion. One thus gets enhanced stopping and ablation pressure in the hundreds Mbar range. An implosion is then completed in 5 nsec. Indirect drive is also considered.

  7. A Class of Solvable Stopping Games

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Luis H. R.

    2008-12-15

    We consider a class of Dynkin games in the case where the underlying process evolves according to a one-dimensional but otherwise general diffusion. We establish general conditions under which both the value and the saddle point equilibrium exist and under which the exercise boundaries characterizing the saddle point strategy can be explicitly characterized in terms of a pair of standard first order necessary conditions for optimality. We also analyze those cases where an extremal pair of boundaries exists and investigate the overall impact of increased volatility on the equilibrium stopping strategies and their values.

  8. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  9. When to stop propranolol for infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lei; Gu, Yifei; Yu, Zhang; Ying, Hanru; Qiu, Yajing; Ma, Gang; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-02-22

    There is no definitive conclusion regarding the optimal timing for terminating propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). A total of 149 patients who underwent detailed color Doppler ultrasound examination were included in this study. The characteristics and propranolol treatment of all patients were summarized and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the lesion regression rate. Among the 149 patients, 38 were assigned to the complete regression group, and 111 were assigned to the partial regression group. The age at which propranolol treatment started, duration of follow-up after treatment discontinuation and rate of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. The duration of oral propranolol treatment was shorter in the complete regression group. The age at which propranolol was terminated was younger in the complete regression group, and this group had a lower recurrence rate. Propranolol is safe and effective for the treatment of IHs that require intervention, but it should be stopped at an appropriate time, which is determined primarily by the lesion regression rate after propranolol treatment. Ultrasound is helpful in determining when to stop propranolol for IH.

  10. A One-Stop Carpal Tunnel Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reid, MJ; David, LA; Nicholl, JE

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION By December 2008, 90% of referrals requiring hospital admission will need to be seen and treated within the 18-week patient pathway. Previously, patients within our trust with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome had to wait 3 months to see a specialist in clinic and, once assessed, would have to wait up to a further 6 months for an open carpal tunnel decompression under local anaesthetic (OCTD/LA). We set up a one-stop clinic, where patients would have their out-patient consultation and surgery on the same day. We evaluated the clinic in order to assess whether it led to reduced waiting times whilst maintaining good clinical outcome and patient satisfaction. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were selected on the basis of the standard referral letter alone. Those selected were then assessed by a single surgeon in the clinic. The patients deemed appropriate underwent an OCTD/LA and were discharged the same day. Patients were followed up with a patient satisfaction and Boston questionnaire. RESULTS Forty-six patients underwent 63 OCTD/LA, waiting an average of 2.2 months (9 weeks) from referral. There was high patient satisfaction and improvement in symptoms following treatment in the clinic. CONCLUSIONS We believe a one-stop carpal tunnel clinic can be an efficient and cost-effective way of treating this common condition. PMID:19220947

  11. Randomly stopped sums: models and psychological applications

    PubMed Central

    Smithson, Michael; Shou, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as “life distributions” such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets. PMID:25426090

  12. When to stop propranolol for infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Gu, Yifei; Yu, Zhang; Ying, Hanru; Qiu, Yajing; Ma, Gang; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-01

    There is no definitive conclusion regarding the optimal timing for terminating propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). A total of 149 patients who underwent detailed color Doppler ultrasound examination were included in this study. The characteristics and propranolol treatment of all patients were summarized and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the lesion regression rate. Among the 149 patients, 38 were assigned to the complete regression group, and 111 were assigned to the partial regression group. The age at which propranolol treatment started, duration of follow-up after treatment discontinuation and rate of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. The duration of oral propranolol treatment was shorter in the complete regression group. The age at which propranolol was terminated was younger in the complete regression group, and this group had a lower recurrence rate. Propranolol is safe and effective for the treatment of IHs that require intervention, but it should be stopped at an appropriate time, which is determined primarily by the lesion regression rate after propranolol treatment. Ultrasound is helpful in determining when to stop propranolol for IH. PMID:28225076

  13. Sequential stopping for high-throughput experiments.

    PubMed

    Rossell, David; Müller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In high-throughput experiments, the sample size is typically chosen informally. Most formal sample-size calculations depend critically on prior knowledge. We propose a sequential strategy that, by updating knowledge when new data are available, depends less critically on prior assumptions. Experiments are stopped or continued based on the potential benefits in obtaining additional data. The underlying decision-theoretic framework guarantees the design to proceed in a coherent fashion. We propose intuitively appealing, easy-to-implement utility functions. As in most sequential design problems, an exact solution is prohibitive. We propose a simulation-based approximation that uses decision boundaries. We apply the method to RNA-seq, microarray, and reverse-phase protein array studies and show its potential advantages. The approach has been added to the Bioconductor package gaga.

  14. Box 1: Stopping of Ions in Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    The stopping of ions in solids is due to the energy loss as a result of the resistance to ion passage by the electrons and atomic nuclei in the material. When an ion penetrates a solid, it experiences a number of collisions. Energetic charged particles interact with both electrons and atoms in materials. Kinetic energy transfers to atoms can result in displacement of atoms from their original sites, thereby forming atomic-scale defects in the structure. Energy transfers to the target electrons (either bound or free) produce electron-hole pairs that can result in charging of pre-existing defects, localized electronic excitations, rupture of covalent and ionic bonds, enhanced defect and atomic diffusion, increased free energy, changes in phase transformation dynamics, as well as formation of atomic-scale defects.

  15. Stop outbreak of SARS with infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yigang M.

    2004-04-01

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as Atypical Pneumonia in mainland China) caused 8422 people affected and resulting in 918 deaths worldwide in half year. This disease can be transmitted by respiratory droplets or by contact with a patient's respiratory secretions. This means it can be spread out very rapidly through the public transportations by the travelers with the syndrome. The challenge was to stop the SARS carriers traveling around by trains, airplanes, coaches and etc. It is impractical with traditional oral thermometers or spot infrared thermometers to screen the tens of travelers with elevated body temperature from thousands of normal travelers in hours. The thermal imager with temperature measurement function is a logical choice for this special application although there are some limitations and drawbacks. This paper discusses the real SARS applications of industrial infrared cameras in China from April to July 2003.

  16. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H. James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Rubin, Edward

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  17. The Stop Smoking Before Surgery Program

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Seaton, Cherisse L.; Viney, Nancy; Stolp, Sean; Krueckl, Sandra; Holm, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the impact of a Stop Smoking Before Surgery (SSBS) program in a health authority where responsibility for surgical services is shared by health professionals in regional centers and outlying communities. Methods: A between-subjects, pre-post mixed method program evaluation was conducted. Elective surgery patients at 2 Northern Canadian hospitals were recruited and surveyed at 2 time points: pre-SSBS implementation (n = 150) and 1 year post-SSBS implementation (n = 90). In addition, semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of participants (n = 18). Results: Participants who received information about stopping smoking before surgery post-SSBS implementation were more likely than expected to have reduced their smoking, χ2(1, 89) = 10.62, P = .001, and had a significantly higher Awareness of Smoking-Related Perioperative Complications score than those that were advised to quit smoking prior to SSBS implementation (U = 1288.0, P < .001). Being advised by a health care professional was the second strongest predictor of whether or not participants reduced their smoking before surgery post-SSBS implementation. However, there was no significant change in the number of participants who reported being advised to quit smoking before surgery between groups. Conclusion: Providing surgery-specific resources to increase awareness of and support for surgery-specific smoking cessation had limited success in this rural context. Additional strategies are needed to ensure that every surgical patient who smokes receives information about the benefits of quitting for surgery and is aware of available cessation resources. PMID:26385995

  18. Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the National Stop Transmission of Polio program, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46,437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  19. Flexible implementations of group sequential stopping rules using constrained boundaries.

    PubMed

    Burington, Bart E; Emerson, Scott S

    2003-12-01

    Group sequential stopping rules are often used during the conduct of clinical trials in order to attain more ethical treatment of patients and to better address efficiency concerns. Because the use of such stopping rules materially affects the frequentist operating characteristics of the hypothesis test, it is necessary to choose an appropriate stopping rule during the planning of the study. It is often the case, however, that the number and timing of interim analyses are not precisely known at the time of trial design, and thus the implementation of a particular stopping rule must allow for flexible determination of the schedule of interim analyses. In this article, we consider the use of constrained stopping boundaries in the implementation of stopping rules. We compare this approach when used on various scales for the test statistic. When implemented on the scale of boundary crossing probabilities, this approach is identical to the error spending function approach of Lan and DeMets (1983).

  20. Stopping power, its meaning, and its general characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, Mitio

    1995-06-01

    This essay presents remarks on the meaning of stopping, power and of its magnitude. More precisely, the first set of remarks concerns the connection of stopping power with elements of particle-transport theory, which describes particle transport and its consequences in full detail, including its stochastic aspects. The second set of remarks concerns the magnitude of the stopping power of a material and its relation with the material`s electronic structure and other properties.

  1. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  2. Should the pill be stopped preoperatively?

    PubMed

    Sue-Ling, H; Hughes, L E

    1988-02-13

    Many women are now advised not to take birth control pills from 4 to 6 weeks before elective surgery out of concern over serious thromboembolic complications. However, stopping the pill may lead to unwanted pregnancies, and drug prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis carries risk of morbidity. A study in the 1970s of more than 60,000 British women showed a 4 to 6-fold increase in the relative risk of spontaneous venous thrombosis in young women taking the pill. However, the incidence of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis was remarkably low--43 cases in 23,000 women taking the pill (0.19%) compared with 8 cases in 23,000 women not taking it (0.035%). Since 1968, when the 2 studies were commenced, only 5 deaths (3 of current users and 2 of past users) from pulmonary embolism have been reported. Epidemiological studies have relied almost entirely on cases diagnosed clinically. The clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis after surgery in young women taking the pill (12/1244, 0.96%) was about twice that of women not taking the pill (22/4359, 0.5%), but this difference was not statistically significant. The literature showed 3 studies conducted on young women taking the pill in which Iodine 125 fibrinogen scans were used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis after surgery. The incidences of thrombosis in patients taking the pill were 4.6% in patients who underwent gynecological operations for benign disease, nil in 99 patients who underwent various abdominal operations, and 20% in 33 patients who had emergency appendectomies. Present evidence indicates that the risk to young women of becoming pregnant from stopping the pill or of developing side effects from prophylaxis may be greater than the risk of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis. It is important to define the true incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis so that a rational policy can be adopted. Until such time, the routine use of prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis in women on the pill is probably

  3. Implementation of Seismic Stops in Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Simos, N.; Wang, Y.K.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station-Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent Linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEZLER,P.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  5. Fronting, Voicing, and Stopping: Natural or English-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coberly, Mary Schramm

    Patterns which partly resemble the proposed "fronting,""voicing," and "stopping" tendencies exist to a statistically significant degree in David Olmsted's large sample of child speech. Instead of the "voicing" pattern that has been suggested, however, voiced stops seem to be favored word-initially, but voiced fricatives are favored word-finally.…

  6. One-Stop Career Centers. ERIC Digest No. 208.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Since the introduction of one-stop employment systems, many states have attempted to merge traditional employment and training services to provide consolidated programs and easier customer access to services. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), passed in 1998, requires the formation of locally based one-stop service delivery systems to deliver…

  7. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery driving forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery driving forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  9. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel...

  10. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel...

  11. [Loosening of a Calcaneo-Stop Screw after Trampolining].

    PubMed

    Trieb, K; Fingernagel, T; Petershofer, A; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common malalignment in the paediatric population. Arthroereisis with a calcaneo-stop screw is an effective surgical procedure for treating juvenile flexible flatfoot after conservative measures have been fully exploited. In the present report, we describe the case of a loosening of a calcaneo-stop screw in a 12-year-old youth after excessive trampolining.

  12. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  13. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Accelerate-stop distance. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000... airplane from a standing start to VEF with all engines operating; (2) Accelerate the airplane from VEF to V1, assuming the critical engine fails at VEF; and (3) Come to a full stop from the point at which...

  14. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Accelerate-stop distance. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000... airplane from a standing start to VEF with all engines operating; (2) Accelerate the airplane from VEF to V1, assuming the critical engine fails at VEF; and (3) Come to a full stop from the point at which...

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of the switch clearly identified; (d) Have a nameplate that identifies the system controlled; and (e) Be arranged so that damage to the switch or cable automatically stops the equipment controlled....

  16. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  17. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  18. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  19. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  20. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  1. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  2. The Glottal Stop in Siamese: Predictability in Phonological Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandour, Jack

    1974-01-01

    It is asserted that the glottal stop in Thai must be present in underlying forms, even though it could be derived by phonological rule. It is argued that unless the glottal stop is present in the underlying form, certain linguistically significant generalizations are either obscured or lost altogether. (RM)

  3. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of the switch clearly identified; (d) Have a nameplate that identifies the system controlled; and (e) Be arranged so that damage to the switch or cable automatically stops the equipment controlled....

  5. Stop Consonant Productions of Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an acoustic examination of the obstruent stops produced by Korean-English bilingual children in connection with the question of whether bilinguals establish distinct categories of speech sounds across languages. Stop productions were obtained from ninety children in two age ranges, five and ten years:…

  6. Putting it All Together: Has One-Stop Shopping Arrived?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the current state of "one-stop shopping" for telecom services. Discusses regulatory obstacles; administrative problems with single billing; and resistance of telecom providers to change. Concludes that the leading one-stop shopping providers will be individual carriers who offer cost savings. (AEF)

  7. Higgs-stoponium mixing near the stop-antistop threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chung, Hee Sok; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model contain additional heavy neutral Higgs bosons that are coupled to heavy scalar top quarks (stops). This system exhibits interesting field theoretic phenomena when the Higgs mass is close to the stop-antistop production threshold. Existing work in the literature has examined the digluon-to-diphoton cross section near threshold and has focused on enhancements in the cross section that might arise either from the perturbative contributions to the Higgs-to-digluon and Higgs-to-diphoton form factors or from mixing of the Higgs boson with stoponium states. Near threshold, enhancements in the relevant amplitudes that go as inverse powers of the stop-antistop relative velocity require resummations of perturbation theory and/or nonperturbative treatments. We present a complete formulation of threshold effects at leading order in the stop-antistop relative velocity in terms of nonrelativistic effective field theory. We give detailed numerical calculations for the case in which the stop-antistop Green's function is modeled with a Coulomb-Schrödinger Green's function. We find several general effects that do not appear in a purely perturbative treatment. Higgs-stop-antistop mixing effects displace physical masses from the threshold region, thereby rendering the perturbative threshold enhancements inoperative. In the case of large Higgs-stop-antistop couplings, the displacement of a physical state above threshold substantially increases its width, owing to its decay width to a stop-antistop pair, and greatly reduces its contribution to the cross section.

  8. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  9. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-22

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced.

  10. Stopping rules in Bayesian adaptive threshold estimation.

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío; García-Pérez, Miguel A

    2005-01-01

    Threshold estimation with sequential procedures is justifiable on the surmise that the index used in the so-called dynamic stopping rule has diagnostic value for identifying when an accurate estimate has been obtained. The performance of five types of Bayesian sequential procedure was compared here to that of an analogous fixed-length procedure. Indices for use in sequential procedures were: (1) the width of the Bayesian probability interval, (2) the posterior standard deviation, (3) the absolute change, (4) the average change, and (5) the number of sign fluctuations. A simulation study was carried out to evaluate which index renders estimates with less bias and smaller standard error at lower cost (i.e. lower average number of trials to completion), in both yes-no and two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) tasks. We also considered the effect of the form and parameters of the psychometric function and its similarity with the model function assumed in the procedure. Our results show that sequential procedures do not outperform fixed-length procedures in yes-no tasks. However, in 2AFC tasks, sequential procedures not based on sign fluctuations all yield minimally better estimates than fixed-length procedures, although most of the improvement occurs with short runs that render undependable estimates and the differences vanish when the procedures run for a number of trials (around 70) that ensures dependability. Thus, none of the indices considered here (some of which are widespread) has the diagnostic value that would justify its use. In addition, difficulties of implementation make sequential procedures unfit as alternatives to fixed-length procedures.

  11. VOT of American English stops with prosodic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Mark

    2003-04-01

    It is known that in a word-medial bisyllabic sequence, a stop beginning a stressed syllable (e.g., /p/ in póodle) has a much longer voice-onset time (VOT) than following an unstressed syllable (e.g., /p/ in strípper). The current study investigates VOT of stops in unstressed syllables not immediately following the primary stressed syllable in the word, e.g., before the primary word stress (the /p/ in Winnepegósis, the /k/ in baccaláureate), and after the primary word stress (the /p/ in Óedipus, the /k/ in américan). A set of 42 test words were recorded in carrier phrases spoken by 4 native speakers of American English. In bisyllabic words, word initial or stressed-syllable initial stops (e.g., póodle, appéal) averaged 63 ms while following unstressed stops (e.g., strípper) averaged 25 ms. Stops in unstressed syllables preceding the primary stressed syllable (e.g., Winnepegósis) averaged 32 ms while those stops in following unstressed syllables (e.g., Óedipus) averaged 41 ms. To account for these results, we need at least four VOT levels. Also interesting is the interaction between stop place /p/ vs /k/ and position: Óedipus has the same VOT as américan while Winnepegósis and baccaláureate differ significantly.

  12. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Shao, Sichen; Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-08-27

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5-3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination.

  13. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381

  14. From Stopping to Viscosity in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Brent W.; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-26

    Stopping in heavy ion collisions is investigated with the aim of learning about the shear viscosity of nuclear matter. Boltzmann equation simulations are compared to available data on stopping in the energy range of 20-117 MeV/nucleon. Stopping observables used include momentum anisotropy and linear momentum transfer. The data show that modeling the transport with free nucleon-nucleon cross-sections is inaccurate and reduced cross-sections are required. Reduction of the cross-sections produces an increase in the shear viscosity of nuclear matter, compared to calculations based on free cross-sections.

  15. An Analysis of Stopping Criteria in Artificial Neural Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    I’AD-A278 491(1 AN ANALYSIS OF STOPPING CRITERIA IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS THESIS Bruce Kostal Captain, USAF AFIT/GST/ENS/94M 07 D I ELECTE APR...ANALYSIS OF STOPPING CRITERIA IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS THESIS Bruce Kostal Captain, USAF AFIT/GST/ENS/94M-07 ETIC ELECTE 94-12275 APR2 1994 U Approved...for public release; distributi6 unlimited D94󈧮i •6 AFIT/GST/ENS/94M-07 AN ANALYSIS OF STOPPING CRITERIA IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS THESIS

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation.

  17. Statistics of Infima and Stopping Times of Entropy Production and Applications to Active Molecular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Izaak; Roldán, Édgar; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We study the statistics of infima, stopping times, and passage probabilities of entropy production in nonequilibrium steady states, and we show that they are universal. We consider two examples of stopping times: first-passage times of entropy production and waiting times of stochastic processes, which are the times when a system reaches a given state for the first time. Our main results are as follows: (i) The distribution of the global infimum of entropy production is exponential with mean equal to minus Boltzmann's constant; (ii) we find exact expressions for the passage probabilities of entropy production; (iii) we derive a fluctuation theorem for stopping-time distributions of entropy production. These results have interesting implications for stochastic processes that can be discussed in simple colloidal systems and in active molecular processes. In particular, we show that the timing and statistics of discrete chemical transitions of molecular processes, such as the steps of molecular motors, are governed by the statistics of entropy production. We also show that the extreme-value statistics of active molecular processes are governed by entropy production; for example, we derive a relation between the maximal excursion of a molecular motor against the direction of an external force and the infimum of the corresponding entropy-production fluctuations. Using this relation, we make predictions for the distribution of the maximum backtrack depth of RNA polymerases, which follow from our universal results for entropy-production infima.

  18. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  19. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung W; Grady, Matthew W; Dodd, Barbara G

    2010-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing. The predicted standard error reduction stopping rule (PSER) uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was compared to that of the minimum standard error stopping rule and a modified version of the minimum information stopping rule in a series of simulated adaptive tests, drawn from a number of item pools. Results indicate that the PSER makes efficient use of CAT item pools, administering fewer items when predictive gains in information are small and increasing measurement precision when information is abundant.

  2. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  3. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel oil service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  5. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel oil service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  6. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with all engines operating; (2) Accelerate the airplane from VEF to V1, assuming the critical engine... Accelerate-stop distance. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than...

  7. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  9. Relative stopping powers for atomic and molecular ions in carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, Malcolm F.

    1986-03-01

    Electronic stopping powers of carbon for atomic and molecular nitrogen ions have been calculated using semi-classical free electron scattering from Herman-Skillman potentials, parametrized to include an adjustable exponential screening factor F( tv, Z), representing atomic ions. For molecular ions, aligned along the beam direction and having velocity 1.2 a.u., the stopping powers for individual atomic components were calculated as a function of internuclear separation. Screening factors for the two centers of force were assumed to decrease linearly from the value at zero internuclear separation, equivalent to that of a silicon ion, to that for nitrogen ions at large separations. Results are consistent with the diminishment of average stopping power per atomic ion which has been observed for beam-aligned nitrogen molecular ions. Similar calculations for molecular hydrogen in carbon agree with the enhancement of stopping power which has been observed. Evidence of nonlinear effects is indicated.

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  11. Stop search with acceptable fine-tuning in Susy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćiçi, Ali; Ün, Cem Salih; Kirca, Zerrin

    2017-02-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the forefront candidates for the models beyond the Standard Model (SM) in resolving the gauge hierarchy problem by proposing new supersymmetric partners for the SM fields. In SUSY, stop, the supersymmetric partner of top quark, is of a special importance, since it cancels the largest quadratic contributions to the Higgs boson mass from top quark loop. Despite heavy stop mass requirement from the Higgs boson searches and fine-tuning demands, it is still possible to find stops of mass about a few hundred GeV, even as light as top quark. In this study, we search for light stop solutions within the SUSY Grand Unified Theory (GUT) models in light of acceptable fine-tuning and current experimental constraints. Afterwards, we analyze the possible signals through which the implications can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments.

  12. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Within 20 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, a stop sign, yield sign, or traffic control... quarters. (h) No driver will use a parking lot, sidewalk, fire lane, or vacant property to drive on...

  13. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Within 20 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, a stop sign, yield sign, or traffic control... quarters. (h) No driver will use a parking lot, sidewalk, fire lane, or vacant property to drive on...

  14. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Within 20 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, a stop sign, yield sign, or traffic control... quarters. (h) No driver will use a parking lot, sidewalk, fire lane, or vacant property to drive on...

  15. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress /Stop Target Behavioral Response Laboratory... SUPPRESS /STOP Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression capabilities (ability

  16. Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options through Personnel Flow Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Policy Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling Stephen D. Brady NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Assessing Stop-Loss Policy...Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling Stephen D. Brady Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Approved for public release

  17. Stop of magnetic flux movement in levitating superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyak, B. M.; Zakharov, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A phenomenon of magnetic relaxation stopping in a levitating superconductor was studied. It was experimentally shown that magnetic flux creep (diffusion of flux lines to regions with lower vortex density) is absent in magnetic suspension of the superconductor. Magnetic relaxation arises, when a rigid constraint that fixes a position of the superconductor relative to a magnet is imposed on a levitating object. It is assumed that oscillations of magnetic structure, which is due to free oscillations of the levitating superconductor, stop magnetic relaxation.

  18. The frequentist implications of optional stopping on Bayesian hypothesis tests.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Adam N; Hills, Thomas T

    2014-04-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is the most commonly used statistical methodology in psychology. The probability of achieving a value as extreme or more extreme than the statistic obtained from the data is evaluated, and if it is low enough, the null hypothesis is rejected. However, because common experimental practice often clashes with the assumptions underlying NHST, these calculated probabilities are often incorrect. Most commonly, experimenters use tests that assume that sample sizes are fixed in advance of data collection but then use the data to determine when to stop; in the limit, experimenters can use data monitoring to guarantee that the null hypothesis will be rejected. Bayesian hypothesis testing (BHT) provides a solution to these ills because the stopping rule used is irrelevant to the calculation of a Bayes factor. In addition, there are strong mathematical guarantees on the frequentist properties of BHT that are comforting for researchers concerned that stopping rules could influence the Bayes factors produced. Here, we show that these guaranteed bounds have limited scope and often do not apply in psychological research. Specifically, we quantitatively demonstrate the impact of optional stopping on the resulting Bayes factors in two common situations: (1) when the truth is a combination of the hypotheses, such as in a heterogeneous population, and (2) when a hypothesis is composite-taking multiple parameter values-such as the alternative hypothesis in a t-test. We found that, for these situations, while the Bayesian interpretation remains correct regardless of the stopping rule used, the choice of stopping rule can, in some situations, greatly increase the chance of experimenters finding evidence in the direction they desire. We suggest ways to control these frequentist implications of stopping rules on BHT.

  19. Top polarization in stop production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Godbole, R. M.; Hartgring, L.; Niessen, I.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the expected polarization of the top produced in the decay of a scalar top quark, widetilde{t}to twidetilde{χ}_i^0,i=1-2 . The phenomenology is quite interesting, since the expected polarization depends both on the mixing in the stop and neutralino sectors and on the mass differences between the stop and the neutralino. We find that a mixed stop behaves almost like a right-handed stop due to the larger hypercharge that enters the stop/top/gaugino coupling and that these polarisation effects disappear, when {m_{{{{{widetilde{t}}}_1}}}}≈ {m_t}+{m_{{widetilde{χ}_i^0}}} . After a discussion on the expected top polarization from the decay of a scalar top quark, we focus on the interplay of polarization and kinematics at the LHC. We discuss different probes of the top polarization in terms of lab-frame observables. We find that these observables faithfully reflect the polarization of the parent top-quark, but also have a non-trivial dependence on the kinematics of the stop production and decay process. In addition, we illustrate the effect of top polarization on the energy and transverse momentum of the decay lepton in the laboratory frame. Our results show that both spectra are softened substantially in case of a negatively polarized top, particularly for a large mass difference between the stop and the neutralino. Thus, the search strategies, and the conclusions that can be drawn from them, depends not just on the mass difference {m_{{widetilde{t}}}}-{m_{{widetilde{χ}_i^0}}} due to the usual kinematic effects but also on the effects of top polarization on the decay kinematics the extent of which depends in turn on the said mass difference.

  20. Stop identity cue as a cue to language identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castonguay, Paula Lisa

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether language membership could potentially be cued by the acoustic-phonetic detail of word-initial stops and retained all the way through the process of lexical access to aid in language identification. Of particular interest were language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops. Experiment 1 consisted of an interlingual homophone production task. The purpose of this study was to examine how word-initial stop consonants differ in terms of acoustic properties in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF) interlingual homophones. The analyses from the bilingual speakers in Experiment 1 indicate that bilinguals do produce language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that closure duration, voice onset time, and burst spectral SD may provide cues to language identity in CE and CF stops. Experiment 2 consisted of a Phoneme and Language Categorization task. The purpose of this study was to examine how stop identity cues, such as VOT and closure duration, influence a listener to identify word-initial stop consonants as belonging to Canadian English (CE) or Canadian French (CF). The RTs from the bilingual listeners in this study indicate that bilinguals do perceive language-specific differences in CE and CF word-initial stops, and that voice onset time may provide cues to phoneme and language membership in CE and CF stops. Experiment 3 consisted of a Phonological-Semantic priming task. The purpose of this study was to examine how subphonetic variations, such as changes in the VOT, affect lexical access. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that language-specific cues, such as VOT, affects the composition of the bilingual cohort and that the extent to which English and/or French words are activated is dependent on the language-specific cues present in a word. The findings of this study enhanced our theoretical understanding of lexical structure and lexical access in bilingual speakers

  1. Studies of Electronic Stopping Powers Using Time of Flight Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2004-06-01

    Determination of electronic stopping powers using Time of Flight (ToF) spectrometry have been demonstrated by measuring energy loss of He, O, and Al particles based on a ToF Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) set-up. In transmission geometry, the energy loss of the particles in self-supported stopping foils of C, Si and SiC is measured over a continuous range of energies using the ToF spectrometer. This study emphasizes the difference of the stopping power determination with and without dependence on the Si detector calibration over a wide energy range. By calibrating the Si detector for each channel over the measured energy region, the improved approach eliminates much of the error associated with pulsed height defects and measurement uncertainties of less than 4% are achieved. Stopping powers from this study are compared with limited experimental data from the literature and SRIM (The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) 2000 and 2003 predictions. In general, the predicted values are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and an improved accuracy of SRIM 2003 over SRIM 2000 can be observed in some cases. Furthermore, Braggs rule is valid in SiC for O and Al over the energy region studied.

  2. Stopping Disease-Modifying Therapy in Nonrelapsing Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are of benefit only in people with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Thus, safely stopping DMTs in people with secondary progressive MS may be possible. Methods: Two groups of patients with MS were studied. Group A consisted of 77 patients with secondary progressive MS and no evidence of acute central nervous system inflammation for 2 to 20 years. These patients were advised to stop DMTs. Group B consisted of 17 individuals with RMS who stopped DMTs on their own. Both groups were evaluated at treatment cessation and for a minimum of 1 year thereafter. Multiple variables were assessed to determine those that predicted recurrent acute disease. Results: Nine patients in group A (11.7%) and ten patients in group B (58.8%) had recurrent acute disease, almost always within 1 to 2 years of stopping treatment. The only variable of significance in group A distinguishing stable and relapsing patients was age (P = .0003), with relapsing patients being younger. Group B patients were younger and had significantly lower Expanded Disability Status Scale scores than group A, with no significant differences in age between relapsed and stable patients. Conclusions: The DMTs can be stopped safely in older patients with MS (≥7 decades) with no evidence of acute disease for 2 years or longer, with an almost 90% probability of remaining free of acute recurrence. The high proportion of untreated patients with RMS experiencing recurrent acute disease is consistent with published data. PMID:28243181

  3. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ~10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ~20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z1 with Z2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high.

  4. Perception of the English intrusive stops by Korean listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong-Im

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment examining Korean listeners' perception of English intrusive stops in nasal-obstruent clusters. The experiment tests (1) how often intrusive stops are perceived; (2) how language-specific syllable structure constraints influence the perception, given the fact that Korean does not allow consonant clusters in syllable onsets and codas; (3) whether even the perception of phonetic variables like intrusive stops, not phonemes, could be improved by learning. Ninety English non-words with a monosyllable structure of CVC1C2 were created, where C1=/m,n,N/, and C2=/p,k,s/. The stimuli including additional 90 filler items were recorded by three native English speakers and one representative data among them was given to three groups of native Korean listeners in terms of their English proficiency. Each was asked to monitor the target sounds [Warner and Weber, J. Phonetics 29, 23-52 (2001)]. The preliminary results show that identification of intrusive stops in English is totally dependent on Korean syllable structure, so even stimuli with strong acoustic cues were misparsed. Nonetheless, there's a high correlation between perception of intrusive stops and listeners' English proficiency, showing the possibility of the improvement of perception by learning.

  5. Simulations of the fission-product stopping efficiency in IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Jansson, K.; Lantz, M.; Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Gustavsson, C.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Penttilä, H.; Tarrío, D.; Wiberg, S.; Österlund, M.; Pomp, S.

    2015-05-01

    At the Jyväskylä Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility, independent fission yields are measured employing the Penning-trap technique. Fission products are produced, e.g. by impinging protons on a uranium target, and are stopped in a gas-filled chamber. The products are collected by a flow of He gas and guided through a mass separator to a Penning trap, where their masses are identified. This work investigates how fission-product properties, such as mass and energy, affect the ion stopping efficiency in the gas cell. The study was performed using the Geant4 toolkit and the SRIM code. The main results show a nearly mass-independent ion stopping with regard to the wide spread of ion masses and energies, with a proper choice of uranium target thickness. Although small variations were observed, in the order of 5%, the results are within the systematic uncertainties of the simulations. To optimize the stopping efficiency while reducing the systematic errors, different experimental parameters were varied; for instance material thicknesses and He gas pressure. Different parameters influence the mass dependence and could alter the mass dependencies in the ion stopping efficiency.

  6. Stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded quantum walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Zhang, Peng; Xue, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The stopping time of a one-dimensional bounded classical random walk (RW) is defined as the number of steps taken by a random walker to arrive at a fixed boundary for the first time. A quantum walk (QW) is a non-trivial generalization of RW, and has attracted a great deal of interest from researchers working in quantum physics and quantum information. In this paper, we develop a method to calculate the stopping time for a one-dimensional QW. Using our method, we further compare the properties of stopping time for QW and RW. We find that the mean value of the stopping time is the same for both of these problems. However, for short times, the probability for a walker performing a QW to arrive at the boundary is larger than that for a RW. This means that, although the mean stopping time of a quantum and classical walker are the same, the quantum walker has a greater probability of arriving at the boundary earlier than the classical walker. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11222430, 11434011, and 11474049), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB922104), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant No. 16XNLQ03).

  7. Bayesian parametric estimation of stop-signal reaction time distributions.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V; Logan, Gordon D; Brown, Scott D; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-11-01

    The cognitive concept of response inhibition can be measured with the stop-signal paradigm. In this paradigm, participants perform a 2-choice response time (RT) task where, on some of the trials, the primary task is interrupted by a stop signal that prompts participants to withhold their response. The dependent variable of interest is the latency of the unobservable stop response (stop-signal reaction time, or SSRT). Based on the horse race model (Logan & Cowan, 1984), several methods have been developed to estimate SSRTs. None of these approaches allow for the accurate estimation of the entire distribution of SSRTs. Here we introduce a Bayesian parametric approach that addresses this limitation. Our method is based on the assumptions of the horse race model and rests on the concept of censored distributions. We treat response inhibition as a censoring mechanism, where the distribution of RTs on the primary task (go RTs) is censored by the distribution of SSRTs. The method assumes that go RTs and SSRTs are ex-Gaussian distributed and uses Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to obtain posterior distributions for the model parameters. The method can be applied to individual as well as hierarchical data structures. We present the results of a number of parameter recovery and robustness studies and apply our approach to published data from a stop-signal experiment.

  8. Microstrip Triband Bandstop Fitler with Sharp Stop Band Skirts and Independently Controllable Second Stop Band Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact planar triband bandstop filter (TBBSF) with compact size and high selectivity. The structure of the filter incorporates two folded trisection stepped-impedance resonators (TSSIRs). One of these resonators is designed to operate at the first and third center frequencies and the other resonator is designed to operate at the second center frequency of the proposed filter. To achieve a compact size filter, alternating impedance lines of the resonators are folded widthwise and also one resonator is embedded within another. Theoretical analysis and design procedures are described, including the synthesis equations for each resonator. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the filter provides flexibility to tune the second center frequency and control the corresponding bandwidth without changing the first and third stop band response. Additionally, several reflection zeros (RZs) are introduced in the pass band to improve its flatness. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design method, both the first and second order TBBSFs were designed, simulated, and fabricated, with center frequencies of 1.92 GHz, 3.55 GHz, and 5.5 GHz. PMID:25019098

  9. The variable-criteria sequential stopping rule: generality to unequal sample sizes, unequal variances, or to large ANOVAs.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Douglas A

    2010-11-01

    The variable-criteria sequential stopping rule (SSR) is a method for conducting planned experiments in stages after the addition of new subjects until the experiment is stopped because the p value is less than or equal to a lower criterion and the null hypothesis has been rejected, the p value is above an upper criterion, or a maximum sample size has been reached. Alpha is controlled at the expected level. The table of stopping criteria has been validated for a t test or ANOVA with four groups. New simulations in this article demonstrate that the SSR can be used with unequal sample sizes or heterogeneous variances in a t test. As with the usual t test, the use of a separate-variance term instead of a pooled-variance term prevents an inflation of alpha with heterogeneous variances. Simulations validate the original table of criteria for up to 20 groups without a drift of alpha. When used with a multigroup ANOVA, a planned contrast can be substituted for the global F as the focus for the stopping rule. The SSR is recommended when significance tests are appropriate and when the null hypothesis can be tested in stages. Because of its efficiency, the SSR should be used instead of the usual approach to the t test or ANOVA when subjects are expensive, rare, or limited by ethical considerations such as pain or distress.

  10. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  11. Ab initio electronic stopping power of protons in bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukri, Abdullah Atef; Bruneval, Fabien; Reining, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The electronic stopping power is a crucial quantity for ion irradiation: it governs the deposited heat, the damage profile, and the implantation depth. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. Here we develop a fully ab initio computational scheme based on linear response time-dependent density-functional theory to predict the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. We show that the calculated RESP compares well with experimental data, when at full convergence, with the inclusion of the core states and of the exchange correlation. We evaluate the unexpectedly limited magnitude of the nonlinear terms in the RESP by comparing with other approaches based on the time propagation of time-dependent density-functional theory. Finally, we check the validity of a few empirical rules of thumbs that are commonly used to estimate the electronic stopping power.

  12. Current Advances and Pressing Problems in Studies of Stopping

    PubMed Central

    Schall, Jeffrey D.; Godlove, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The stop-signal task probes agents’ ability to inhibit responding. A well-known race model affords estimation of the duration of the inhibition process. This powerful approach has yielded numerous insights into the neural circuitry underlying response control, the specificity of inhibition across effectors and response strategies, and executive processes such as performance monitoring. Translational research between human and non-human primates has been particularly useful in this venture. Continued progress with the stop-signal paradigm is contingent upon appreciating the dynamics of entire cortical and subcortical neural circuits and obtaining neurophysiological data from each node in the circuit. Progress can also be anticipated on extensions of the race model to account for selective stopping; we expect this will entail embedding behavioral inhibition in the broader context of executive control. PMID:22749788

  13. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  15. Stopping Power and Range of Ions in Matter

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-19

    SRIM is a group of programs which calculate the stopping and range of ions (10ev - 2 GeV/amu) into matter. TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) is the most comprehensive program included. Trim will accept complex targets made of compound materials with up to eight layers, each with different materials. It will calculate both the final 3d distribution of the inner ions and also all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion''s energy loss; target damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production. All targets atom cascades in the target are followed in detail. It can be used for physics of recoil cascades, physics of sputtering, the stopping of ions in compounds and stopping power for ions in gases; This included radiation damage from neutron , electrons, and photons.

  16. Micellar kinetics of a fluorosurfactant through stopped-flow NMR.

    PubMed

    Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István; Stilbs, Peter

    2006-02-28

    19F NMR chemical shifts and transverse relaxation times T2 were measured as a function of time after quick stopped-flow dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium perfluorooctanoate (NaPFO) with water. Different initial concentrations of micellar solution and different proportions of mixing were tested. Previous stopped-flow studies by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) detection indicated a slow (approximately 10 s) micellar relaxation kinetics in NaPFO solutions. In contrast, no evidence of any comparable slow (>100 ms) relaxation process was found in our NMR studies. Possible artifacts of stopped-flow experiments are discussed as well as differences between NMR and SAXS detection methods. Upper bounds on the relative weight of a slow relaxation process are given within existing kinetic theories of micellar dissolution.

  17. Unconditional Schauder decompositions and stopping times in the Lebesgue-Bochner spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullender, Stuart F.; Labuschagne, Coenraad C. A.

    2007-12-01

    We extend Troitsky's study of martingales in Banach lattices to include stopping times. Results from the theory of unconditional Schauder decompositions and multipliers are used to derive an optional stopping theorem for unbounded stopping times. We also apply these techniques to convergent nets of stopped processes, as well as to unconditional Schauder decompositions in vector-valued Lp-spaces (1

  18. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? A A A Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  19. 20 CFR 662.410 - How is the One-Stop operator selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the One-Stop operator selected? 662... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.410 How is the One-Stop operator selected? (a) The Local Board, with the agreement of the chief...

  20. 20 CFR 662.210 - What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other entities may serve as One-Stop... LABOR DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.210 What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?...

  1. 20 CFR 662.230 - What are the responsibilities of the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... One-Stop partners? 662.230 Section 662.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop...-Stop partners? All required partners must: (a) Make available to participants through the...

  2. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  3. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  4. A new look at Higgs constraints on stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, JiJi; Reece, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    We present a simple new way to visualize the constraints of Higgs coupling measurements on light stops in natural SUSY scenarios beyond the MSSM, which works directly in the plane of stop mass eigenvalues (with no need to make assumptions about mixing angles). For given stop mass eigenvalues, the smallest value of X t that can bring the correction to the h → gg and h → γγ couplings into agreement with data is computed. Requiring that this X t is consistent — i.e. that the chosen mass eigenvalues can be the outcome of diagonalizing a matrix with a given off-diagonal term — rules out the possibility that both stops have a mass below ≈ 400 GeV. Requiring that X t is not fine-tuned for agreement with the data shows that neither stop can be lighter than ≈ 100 GeV. These constraints are interesting because, unlike direct searches, they apply no matter how stops decay, and suggest a minimum electroweak fine-tuning of between a factor of 5 and 10. We show that a multi-parameter fit can slightly weaken this conclusion by allowing a large Higgs coupling to b-quarks, but only if a second Higgs boson is within reach of experiment. Certain models, like R-symmetric models with Dirac gauginos, are much more strongly constrained because they predict negligible X t . We illustrate how the constraints will evolve given precise measurements at future colliders (HL-LHC, ILC, and TLEP), and comment on the more difficult case of Folded Supersymmetry.

  5. Electronic stopping power for heavy ions in hot targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You-Nian; Ma, Teng-Cai; Gong, Ye

    1993-03-01

    An investigation on the electronic stopping power and the effective charge for a heavy ion in a hot target is made using linear-response dielectric theory. The charge distribution of the electrons bound to a projectile is determined by the Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model [Phys. Rev. B 25, 3631 (1982)]. Some analytical expressions of the electronic stopping power and the effective charge are obtained in the limits of the low and high velocities, respectively. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data for high-velocity ions.

  6. Stop-and-go sign algorithms for blind equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    1991-12-01

    Stop-and-go adaptation rules that are used to improve the blind convergence characteristics of the conventional and sign decision-directed algorithms are proposed and examined. They are based on the so-called Sato and Godard type errors which are commonly used in blind deconvolution applications. The convergence rates achieved by different algorithms with QAM type constellations are compared. Also, optimal values for the parameters that are used in the Sato and Godard errors and their effect to the convergence of the stop-and-go schemes are investigated by means of analysis and computer simulations.

  7. Revisiting stopping rules for iterative methods used in emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongbin; Renaut, Rosemary A

    2011-07-01

    The expectation maximization algorithm is commonly used to reconstruct images obtained from positron emission tomography sinograms. For images with acceptable signal to noise ratios, iterations are terminated prior to convergence. A new quantitative and reproducible stopping rule is designed and validated on simulations using a Monte-Carlo generated transition matrix with a Poisson noise distribution on the sinogram data. Iterations are terminated at the solution which yields the most probable estimate of the emission densities while matching the sinogram data. It is more computationally efficient and more accurate than the standard stopping rule based on the Pearson's χ(2) test.

  8. Robust Optimal Stopping-Time Control for Nonlinear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.A.; Chudoung, J.; Day, M.V.

    2002-10-01

    We formulate a robust optimal stopping-time problem for a state-space system and give the connection between various notions of lower value function for the associated games (and storage function for the associated dissipative system) with solutions of the appropriate variational inequality (VI) (the analogue of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs equation for this setting). We show that the stopping-time rule can be obtained by solving the VI in the viscosity sense and a positive definite supersolution of the VI can be used for stability analysis.

  9. Correlated stopping of Coulomb clusters in a dense jellium target

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, C. )

    1995-01-01

    The strongly correlated stopping of [ital N] pointlike charges organized in clusters with a regular geometry is thoroughly investigated at high velocity as a linear and binary superposition of the stopping of a dicluster polarized with respect to the overall drift velocity. For [ital N][ge]3, [ital a] priori unexpected [ital N]-body and collective behaviors are identified in terms of variations for the target electron density, cluster topology, charge distribution, and projectile velocity. The target is featured as a homogeneous and dense electron jellium quantified with the Wigner coupling parameters [ital r][sub [ital S

  10. Stopping power of an electron gas with anisotropic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelemelia, O. V.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    A general theory of motion of a heavy charged particle in the electron gas with an anisotropic velocity distribution is developed within the quantum-field method. The analytical expressions for the dielectric susceptibility and the stopping power of the electron gas differs in no way from well-known classic formulas in the approximation of large and small velocities. Stopping power of the electron gas with anisotropic temperature in the framework of the quantum-field method is numerically calculated for an arbitrary angle between directions of the motion of the projectile particle and the electron beam. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the dielectric model approach.

  11. A movable stop mechanism for the SIRE telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, R. E.; Poulsen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A movable stop mechanism (MSM) designed to activate flaps that change the size and shape of a telescope aperture stop on command is described. Operating at the cryogenic temperatures of the optical system, it consists primarily of a rotary solenoid that drives (activates) dual four-bar linkages in synchronism that in turn rotate the butterfly flaps into position. The design, performance characteristics, and testing of this mechanism are discussed. Specific problems that occurred during testing and the solutions that were adopted are also described.

  12. Nonlinear stopping of heavy clusters in matter: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2007-05-01

    When impacting on a solid, heavy cluster atoms are stopped less then equi-velocity atoms. Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study this so-called clearing-the-way effect systematically for the exemplary case of Au n clusters ( n = 1-402) bombarding a solid Ar target with energies in the range of Eat = 10-1000 eV/atom. We find that cluster stopping is reduced by a factor n- β with respect to that of equi-velocity atoms. The exponent β decreases from 0.46 at Eat = 10 eV/atom to 0.17 at Eat = 1000 eV/atom.

  13. Substorm onset: Current sheet avalanche and stop layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    A new scenario is presented for the onset of a substorm and the nature of the breakup arc. There are two main components, current sheet avalanche and stop layer. The first refers to an earthward flow of plasma and magnetic flux from the central current sheet of the tail, triggered spontaneously or by some unknown interaction with an auroral streamer or a suddenly appearing eastward flow at the end of the growth phase. The second offers a mechanism to stop the flow abruptly at the interface between magnetosphere and tail and extract momentum and energy to be partially processed locally and partially transmitted as Poynting flux toward the ionosphere. The stop layer has a width of the order of the ion inertial length. The different dynamics of the ions entering freely and the magnetized electrons create an electric polarization field which stops the ion flow and drives a Hall current by which flow momentum is transferred to the magnetic field. A simple formalism is used to describe the operation of the process and to enable quantitative conclusions. An important conclusion is that by necessity the stop layer is also highly structured in longitude. This offers a natural explanation for the coarse ray structure of the breakup arc as manifestation of elementary paths of energy and momentum transport. The currents aligned with the rays are balanced between upward and downward directions. While the avalanche is invoked for explaining the spontaneous substorm onset at the inner edge of the tail, the expansion of the breakup arc for many minutes is taken as evidence for a continued formation of new stop layers by arrival of flow bursts from the near-Earth neutral line. This is in line with earlier conclusions about the nature of the breakup arc. Small-scale structure, propagation speed, and energy flux are quantitatively consistent with observations. However, the balanced small-scale currents cannot constitute the substorm current wedge. The source of the latter must be

  14. Ion-beam-enhanced adhesion in the electronic stopping region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. E.; Qiu, Y.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams in the electronic stopping region to improve the adhesion of insulators to other materials is described. In particular, the bonding of Au films to Teflon, ferrite, and SiO2 was improved by bombarding them with He and Cl, respectively. Improvements in bonding were also observed for Au on glass, Au and Cu on sapphire, and Si3N4 on Si. The mechanism is apparently associated with sputtering and track forming processes occurring in the electronic stopping region. Some applications are discussed.

  15. Experimental studies of the stopping powers of various types of matter for protons and helium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Potetyunko, G.N.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental studies of the stopping powers of various types of matter for protons and helium ions are reviewed. The experimental methods of determining the stopping power are analyzed and the ranges where they are applicable are discussed. A comparison is made with the experimental data cited in the most commonly used tables of stopping powers. Empirical formulas for the stopping power and the rule of additivity of the stopping powers of multicomponent matter are discussed.

  16. Tax Administration: One Stop Service: A New Concept of Assistance for Taxpayers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-28

    adopted a new customer assistance initiative known as ’ One Stop Service’. Today, One Stop Service is a concept and not yet a reality. One Stop Service...inquiries through a single contact with the agency. One Stop Service is new and can be expected to experience some growing pains. For example, IRS telephone...sites are implementing One Stop Service at different rates. GAO found several things IRS needs to address as it moves forward. These include (1

  17. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  18. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. (a... the distances necessary to— (i) Accelerate the airplane from a standing start with all engines operating to VEF for takeoff from a dry runway; (ii) Allow the airplane to accelerate from VEF to...

  19. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. (a... the distances necessary to— (i) Accelerate the airplane from a standing start with all engines operating to VEF for takeoff from a dry runway; (ii) Allow the airplane to accelerate from VEF to...

  20. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. (a... the distances necessary to— (i) Accelerate the airplane from a standing start with all engines operating to VEF for takeoff from a dry runway; (ii) Allow the airplane to accelerate from VEF to...

  1. 14 CFR 25.109 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.109 Accelerate-stop distance. (a... the distances necessary to— (i) Accelerate the airplane from a standing start with all engines operating to VEF for takeoff from a dry runway; (ii) Allow the airplane to accelerate from VEF to...

  2. 75 FR 21505 - Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 279 Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, DoD. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense published a final rule on April 16, 2010 (75 FR...

  3. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  4. Body Cooling Little Help to Kids When Heart Stops: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... no advantage over normal temperature control in treating infants and children whose hearts suddenly stop beating, a new study suggests. The ... compared to actively maintaining a normal temperature in infants and children experiencing cardiac arrest in a hospital," he said in a ...

  5. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  6. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human experimentation, light, paintball, obscuration...HAIL/WARN AND - SUPPRESS /STOP Poster Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...warning to a driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression

  7. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Emery, Sherry L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users. PMID:25286168

  8. STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome: Developing a Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Rivera, Mary

    This paper discusses the social-therapeutic approach to preventing abusive behavior, and describes the implementation of specific STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (ABS) projects in New York City, New York. The projects' goal is to empower people to continually develop throughout their lifespans. Basic tenants include the following: (1) emotions are…

  9. Role of premature stop codons in bacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tit-Yee; Fernandes, Sanjit; Sankhon, Naby; Leong, Patrick P; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2008-10-01

    When the stop codons TGA, TAA, and TAG are found in the second and third reading frames of a protein-encoding gene, they are considered premature stop codons (PSC). Deinococcus radiodurans disproportionately favored TGA more than the other two triplets as a PSC. The TGA triplet was also found more often in noncoding regions and as a stop codon, though the bias was less pronounced. We investigated this phenomenon in 72 bacterial species with widely differing chromosomal GC contents. Although TGA and TAG were compositionally similar, we found a great variation in use of TGA but a very limited range of use of TAG. The frequency of use of TGA in the gene sequences generally increased with the GC content of the chromosome, while the frequency of use of TAG, like that of TAA, was inversely proportional to the GC content of the chromosome. The patterns of use of TAA, TGA and TAG as real stop codons were less biased and less influenced by the GC content of the chromosome. Bacteria with higher chromosomal GC contents often contained fewer PSC trimers in their genes. Phylogenetically related bacteria often exhibited similar PSC ratios. In addition, metabolically versatile bacteria have significantly fewer PSC trimers in their genes. The bias toward TGA but against TAG as a PSC could not be explained either by the preferential usage of specific codons or by the GC contents of individual chromosomes. We proposed that the quantity and the quality of the PSC in the genome might be important in bacterial evolution.

  10. 75 FR 19878 - Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... this information to the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) for payment. Except as noted in... Appropriations Act. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: LTC Brigitte Williams, (703) 614-3973. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This action provides for Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay as authorized and appropriated in...

  11. View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue. Buildings No. 36, 37, 38, and 35, from to right. Foothill Avenue at center rear. Looking east-northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  13. Thought Stopping And Covert Assertion In The Treatment Of Phobias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, David C.

    1973-01-01

    The present paper describes a method combining thought stopping and covert assertion and reports its application in six case histories the majority of which would usually be classified as phobic rather than obsessional. The paper reports successful followups. (Author/LA)

  14. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    PubMed

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period.

  15. Unemployment Insurance in the One-Stop System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeffrey; Dickinson, Katherine P.; Fedrau, Ruth; Lazarin, Melissa

    To assess the current connections between the Unemployment Insurance (UI) and One-Stop (OS) systems, case studies were conducted of eight states and eight local areas. Findings indicated the major factor that influenced UI's role in the OS design was whether the state took initial claims by telephone or in-person; UI played differing roles in…

  16. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  17. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.692...

  18. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  19. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi

    PubMed Central

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring ‘stop locations’ (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants’ GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period. PMID:26901663

  20. 66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (left side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. 67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (right side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Ribisl, Kurt M; Emery, Sherry L; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-10-03

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  3. The S.T.O.P. Sign Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the S.T.O.P. Sign Technique, a method developed to assist individuals meet the challenge of successfully making or choosing a more appropriate behavioral response. Proposes that the technique has a rather broad application in working with individuals, couples, or families. (GCP)

  4. In Praise of One-Stop Shopping for Student Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinais, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers a "one-stop shopping" model of student services for higher education campuses that utilizes a relational database with distributed access which allows counselors to access, input, and modify a variety of student information. Institutional benefits include increased student enrollment/retention and institutional reputation. Students benefit…

  5. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.692...

  6. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.692...

  7. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections.

    PubMed

    Muttart, Jeffrey W; Peck, Louis R; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L; Manning, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum.

  8. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Muttart, Jeffrey W.; Peck, Louis R.; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P.; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L.; Manning, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  9. Implementation of hysteroscopy in an infertility clinic: The one-stop uterine diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Meier, R; Dhont, N; Mestdagh, G; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) has demonstrated that we can differentiate the uterus in 3 important functional areas. Exploration of the uterus in the infertile patient should implement the evaluation of the endometrium, the Junctional zone myometrium (JZ), the outer myometrium and the cervical canal. Especially the JZ myometrium should receive our close attention in the exploration and treatment of the infertile patient. MRI cannot be implemented as a screening examination but also limiting the imaging of the womb to a 2 or 3 D ultrasound exam only does not meet the scientific requirements of sensitivity and specificity. Modern ambulatory uterine diagnosis in a one-stop approach includes transvaginal ultrasound, fluid mini Hysteroscopy, contrast sonography and endomyometrial tissue sampling. Transvaginal Ultrasound being the gold standard for global uterine screening has a cardinal importance for diagnosis of myometrial disorders and uterine congenital malformations whereas hysteroscopy remains the gold standard for the evaluation of the endometrium and cervical canal. The major challenge remains to perform a tissue sampling of the endo-myometrium in an ambulatory, patient friendly and reliable way for which the newly designed Trophy hysteroscope provide a satisfactory answer. This one-stop approach opens a total new and advanced dimension to the screening, diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathology in the infertile patient.

  10. Monoclonal antibody to microtubule-associated STOP protein: affinity purification of neuronal STOP activity and comparison of antigen with activity in neuronal and nonneuronal cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Pirollet, F; Rauch, C T; Job, D; Margolis, R L

    1989-01-24

    Microtubules, ordinarily cold-labile structures, are made entirely resistant to cold temperature by the presence of substoichiometric amounts of STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide), a microtubule-associated protein. We have produced a monoclonal antibody which specifically recognizes a 145-kDa protein previously implicated in STOP activity in rat brain extracts. An antibody affinity column removes both the 145-kDa protein and STOP activity from solution. A urea eluate from the affinity column contains the 145-kDa protein and exhibits substantial STOP activity. We conclude the 145-kDa protein accounts for all measurable STOP activity in rat neuronal extracts. For this work, we have developed an assay of microtubule cold stability which is generally applicable to the detection of STOP activity in various tissues. Using this assay, we show STOP activity is most abundant in neuronal tissue but is detectable in all tissues tested, with the exception of heart muscle. In all tissues that we have examined, STOP activity elutes as a single peak from heparin affinity columns, and in common with brain STOP, all activity is Ca2+-calmodulin sensitive. The monoclonal antibody recognizes the 145-kDa STOP in rat neuronal extracts but reacts with no protein in active fractions from other tissue. A similar, but not identical, analogue of brain STOP thus appears to be widespread in mammalian tissues.

  11. Global Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Glaziou, Philippe; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) killed 1.3 million people in 2012. Alongside HIV, it remains a top cause of death from an infectious disease. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and showing whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments. This article provides a short overview of sources of data to estimate TB disease burden; presents estimates of TB incidence, prevalence, and mortality in 2012 and an assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; analyzes trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and considers prospects for elimination of TB after 2015. PMID:25359550

  12. Global warming stops in Altai and Northern Mongolia in 2010-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.

    2010-03-01

    We studied the cores of bottom sediments of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [1] and Lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [2]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with spatial resolution 0.1 mm using synchrotron radiation [3]. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change.We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: annual T = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2750, 1500, 1015, 825, 615, 500, 375, 325, 290, 230, 215, 203, 190, 157, 135, 109, 88, 65, 48, 37, 24 and 10 years. The sum of 22 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature with the coefficient +0.87 (for more than 3000 points). 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 09-05-13505 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 92 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [2] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the Lake Telmen Basin . . . // Quaternary Research 59 (2003) 353-363 [3] A. Daryin et all. Use of a scanning XRF analysis on SR beams from VEPP-3 storage ...// Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005) 255-258.

  13. The screening and stopping coefficients of slow light ions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, E A; Arista, N R

    2010-01-13

    We present a theoretical approach to study the screening charge density n(s)(r) and the respective stopping coefficient Q for hydrogen and helium at the low velocity limit. An electron gas, with electronic density n(e), is used to represent the conduction or valence electrons of the target material. Solving numerically the Schrödinger radial equation, for a given potential V (r), the phase shifts δ(l) and the corresponding stopping coefficient Q are calculated as a function of n(e). The cusp condition and the Friedel sum rule are imposed on the charge density n(r) = n(s)(r)+n(e) at the origin and to the phase shifts, respectively. The results are compared with density functional calculations and with available experimental results.

  14. Early stopping of aerospace medical trials: application of sequential principles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K V; Powell, M R; Waligora, J M

    1994-06-01

    A two-period, crossover trial was conducted in the hypobaric chamber on human subjects to compare the influence of inflight exercise (experimental) and restricted activity (control) on altitude decompression sickness (DCS) during simulated extravehicular activities. Out of 39 pairs (total of 78 exposures), 4 cases of DCS occurred under control and 5 occurred under experimental conditions. Analysis of the crossover results showed that the P values for differences in DCS occurrence was 0.56. Under these circumstances, it was necessary to decide whether additional information would be obtained by accruing more subjects. This problem was examined by using a skew sequential design in which the "stopping rule" was based on an alpha of 0.05 (one-sided) and power of 80%. The result of this analysis was in favor of the null hypothesis, and the trial was terminated. The authors recommend the use of similar stopping rules in aerospace trials to optimize sample size without compromising statistical validity.

  15. Electronic Stopping Power in LiF from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, J. M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Artacho, Emilio

    2007-12-07

    Using time-dependent density-functional theory we calculate from first principles the rate of energy transfer from a moving proton or antiproton to the electrons of an insulating material, LiF. The behavior of the electronic stopping power versus projectile velocity displays an effective threshold velocity of {approx}0.2 a.u. for the proton, consistent with recent experimental observations, and also for the antiproton. The calculated proton/antiproton stopping-power ratio is {approx}2.4 at velocities slightly above the threshold (v{approx}0.4 a.u.), as compared to the experimental value of 2.1. The projectile energy loss mechanism is observed to be extremely local.

  16. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  17. [One-stop outpatient cardiology clinics: 10 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Falces, Carlos; Sadurní, Josep; Monell, Joan; Andrea, Rut; Ylla, Miquel; Moleiro, Angels; Cantillo, Jordi

    2008-05-01

    A one-stop outpatient cardiology clinic was set up at the Vic General Hospital in Spain in 1996. The aims were to provide patients with a rapid response, and to ensure that, on the same day, they saw a specialist and were referred for any relevant investigations required, primarily echocardiography, exercise testing, and Holter monitoring. We report experience from 10 years of follow-up, involving 19,515 consultations. The mean waiting time for a consultation was 3 days. We analyzed the reasons for the consultations, the investigations carried out, and the reductions in follow-up visits and hospital admissions. Primary care physicians' level of satisfaction was increased by this approach. The one-stop clinic proved feasible in clinical practice and proved robust during the follow-up period. This clinical model was beneficial for patients, was highly acceptable to primary care physicians, reduced the need for patients to contact the hospital, and, possibly, reduced hospital admissions.

  18. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  19. Stopping and transport of fast electrons in superdense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Okabayashi, A.; Habara, H.; Yabuuchi, T.; Iwawaki, T.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2013-08-15

    Studied is the stopping and transport of relativistic fast electrons in the vicinity of compressed dense plasma core relevant to fast ignition. Electromagnetic cascade Monte-Carlo is coupled to 2D-PIC simulation. The 2D PIC simulates input electron energy spectrum and angular dependence. The electron energy distributions after passing through the plasma core are calculated at different viewing angles, which well agree with the experiment below several MeV energy range. The implications of calculated results as to collisional damping on several MeV electrons are discussed with the theory based on the stopping power model. The spatial distribution of plasma temperature is also estimated via deposited energy by fast electrons, showing the strong heating at the core surface.

  20. Cavity-free plasmonic nanolasing enabled by dispersionless stopped light

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Tim; Hamm, Joachim M.; Page, A. Freddie; Wuestner, Sebastian; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    When light is brought to a standstill, its interaction with gain media increases dramatically due to a singularity in the density of optical states. Concurrently, stopped light engenders an inherent and cavity-free feedback mechanism, similar in effect to the feedback that has been demonstrated and exploited in large-scale disordered media and random lasers. Here we study the spatial, temporal and spectral signatures of lasing in planar gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic structures at near-infrared frequencies and show that the stopped-light feedback mechanism allows for nanolasing without a cavity. We reveal that in the absence of cavity-induced feedback, the subwavelength lasing mode forms dynamically as a phase-locked superposition of quasi dispersion-free waveguide modes. This mechanism proves remarkably robust against interface roughness and offers a new route towards nanolasing, the experimental realization of ultra-thin surface emitting lasers, and cavity-free active quantum plasmonics. PMID:25230337

  1. Multiview coding mode decision with hybrid optimal stopping model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiesong; Kwong, Sam; Wang, Hanli; Wang, Zhou; Pan, Zhaoqing; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-04-01

    In a generic decision process, optimal stopping theory aims to achieve a good tradeoff between decision performance and time consumed, with the advantages of theoretical decision-making and predictable decision performance. In this paper, optimal stopping theory is employed to develop an effective hybrid model for the mode decision problem, which aims to theoretically achieve a good tradeoff between the two interrelated measurements in mode decision, as computational complexity reduction and rate-distortion degradation. The proposed hybrid model is implemented and examined with a multiview encoder. To support the model and further promote coding performance, the multiview coding mode characteristics, including predicted mode probability and estimated coding time, are jointly investigated with inter-view correlations. Exhaustive experimental results with a wide range of video resolutions reveal the efficiency and robustness of our method, with high decision accuracy, negligible computational overhead, and almost intact rate-distortion performance compared to the original encoder.

  2. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-01

    Searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ˜ 1 and significances often well beyond 5 σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] signature, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb-1. By 300 fb-1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the "stealth" point at {m}_{overline{t}}={m}_t and potentially overlapping with limits from toverline{t} cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  3. Stopping light by an air waveguide with anisotropic metamaterial cladding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tian; Zhao, Junming; Feng, Yijun

    2009-01-05

    We present a detailed study of oscillating modes in a slab waveguide with air core and anisotropic metamaterial cladding. It is shown that, under specific dielectric configurations, slow and even stopped electromagnetic wave can be supported by such an air waveguide. We propose a linearly tapped waveguide structure that could lead the propagating light to a complete standstill. Both the theoretical analysis and the proposed waveguide have been validated by full-wave simulation based on finite-difference time-domain method.

  4. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    SciTech Connect

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-22

    In this study, searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ~ 1 and significances often well beyond 5σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a ET, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the ET and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in ET measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb–1. By 300 fb–1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the “stealth” point at m = mt and potentially overlapping with limits from tt¯ cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  5. Inelastic stopping for deuterons in warm Al plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin; Liu, Chun-Lei; Liu, Ling; Wang, Jian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    The inelastic stopping is studied for deuterons in the Al plasmas with a fixed density 0.02 g cm-3 at 7 different temperatures from 2.7 to 64 eV within the projectile energy range from 100 keV u-1 to 10 MeV u-1 from our model (He and Wang 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 063111). All the results are compared in detail with those from the isolated ion model where all the bound electrons are assumed in the ground state and the target ions are in almost the same charge states as those in the plasmas. The relativistic plane wave Born approximation is tested by much improved methods and found to be able to describe well the inelastic processes in the plasmas. The relevant result of the inelastic stopping is found to reflect the joint effect of the transition probability, electron occupation number and transition energy. It is found that the transitions of the deeply bound states play a dominant role to the inelastic stopping in the two models. The results due to all the excitation and de-excitation and those due to all the ionization and three body recombination in the plasmas are usually lower and higher than those for the corresponding isolated ions, respectively. It is demonstrated that models with target ions in the ground state could agree well with experiments in plasmas at a high enough projectile energy provided by a proper choice of the charge state of the target ion. The obvious difference between our model and Casas et al's model (Casas et al 2013 Phys. Rev. E 88 033102) is seen for the stopping with the projectile energy around 100 keV u-1 due to the different physical picture underlying them, which is helpful to probe which model proves more reliable in future experiments.

  6. Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Flatt, Robert J.; Scherer, George W.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

  7. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  8. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    DOE PAGES

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; ...

    2016-03-22

    In this study, searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ~ 1 and significances often well beyond 5σ.more » The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a ET, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the ET and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in ET measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb–1. By 300 fb–1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the “stealth” point at mt¯ = mt and potentially overlapping with limits from tt¯ cross section and spin correlation measurements.« less

  9. One-stop-shop stroke imaging with functional CT.

    PubMed

    Tong, Elizabeth; Komlosi, Peter; Wintermark, Max

    2015-12-01

    Advanced imaging techniques have extended beyond traditional anatomic imaging and progressed to dynamic, physiologic and functional imaging. Neuroimaging is no longer a mere diagnostic tool. Multimodal functional CT, comprising of NCCT, PCT and CTA, provides a one-stop-shop for rapid stroke imaging. Integrating those imaging findings with pertinent clinical information can help guide subsequent treatment decisions, medical management and follow-up imaging selection. This review article will briefly discuss the indication and utility of each modality in acute stroke imaging.

  10. No Slackers in Tourniquet Use to Stop Bleeding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    pressure applied to the skin by the tourniquet (mmHg), blood loss volume (ml), and the number of wind- lass turns executed (whole number). The user...plain, strong, and reliably reproduced. The amount of slack is associated positively with the wind- lass turn number, the time to stop bleeding, and... lass turning (and only in slack samples), tertiary twisting occurred as the inner strap twisted into pretzel-like loops while wrapping about

  11. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2001-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  12. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  13. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2004-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  14. [Paediatric one-stop surgery: a series of 75 cases].

    PubMed

    López Alvarez-Buhilla, P; Astigarraga Aguirre, I; Torres Piedra, C; Azcona Zorrilla, M I; Olaizola Mendibil, A; Latorre Guisasola, M

    2009-01-01

    By one-stop surgery is meant the performing of both the pre-surgery assessment and the surgical procedure on the same day. We report our experience with a pilot study on one-stop surgery in the province of Bizkaia, with a population of 124,494 children aged 1 to 14 years old. Under the new scheme, the patient average of four visits to the hospital outpatient clinics was cut down to only one. Diagnosis and pre-surgery assessments were made by the children's Primary Care Paediatricians at their NHS clinics. Seventy-five children were treated over 10 months. They had abdominal wall, genital or soft tissue surgery. Only two developed minor complications. Families were generally satisfied with the quality of the medical care received as shown by a survey: 32.7% scored it as "excellent", 36.2% "very good", 24.1% "good" and 3.4% "medium". We think that one-stop surgery is a breakthrough in ambulatory surgery. Not only does it dramatically lower the number of visits to hospital outpatient clinics, but also the waiting time for surgery, the costs, and the surgeon's workload, and helps streamline the Public Health Services and the quality of the medical care as perceived by both patients and families. Ensuring a close relationship between Paediatric Surgeons and Primary Care Paediatricians is paramount.

  15. Minimizing animal numbers: the variable-criteria sequential stopping rule.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Douglas A

    2011-06-01

    The variable-criteria sequential stopping rule (SSR) allows an investigator to use a few subjects at a time to determine whether a planned experiment is worth pursuing without increasing the rate of false discoveries (type I errors). The SSR is appropriate whenever testing a null hypothesis if the experiment can be conducted in stages. The investigator adds a predetermined number of subjects at each stage and tests repeatedly for significance until the experiment is stopped because: (1) a significant effect is detected; (2) the effect is clearly not going to be significant; or (3) the predetermined maximal number of subjects has been reached. Two crucial features of the SSR are that it holds the probability of a type I error constant and maintains excellent power. The method is more efficient than is performing a typical significance test after a power analysis because SSR can require 30% fewer subjects to achieve the same power. The variable-criteria SSR provides a formal method for assuring the use of a minimal number of animals. This article provides practical examples of how to use the SSR in combination with a t test, one-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA with a planned contrast as the focus of the stopping rule, or, in limited circumstances, multifactorial ANOVA.

  16. New therapeutic perspectives in HBV: when to stop NAs.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cameo, Cristina; Pons, Mònica; Esteban, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to achieve seroclearance of HBsAg. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are one of the first-line treatments for CHB. NAs produce a potent suppression of viral replication but are associated with a low rate of HBsAg seroclearance and a high risk of virological relapse after discontinuation. Because of these reasons, long-term treatment is needed. They are well-tolerated oral drugs, and it seems they do not produce important side-effects in long-term administration. The duration of NA treatment remains unclear, nevertheless, in some patients NAs can be stopped with a low rate of relapse. HBeAg-positive patients could discontinue NA therapy if they achieved HBeAg seroclearance and maintain undetectable HBV DNA. For HBeAg-negative patients, to stop NA treatment is not recommended. In addition to other factors, serum HBsAg titres during treatment have recently been proposed to guide NA-based therapy duration in selected patients. All patients could be stopped from taking treatment if they achieve HBsAg loss.

  17. Don't stop, don't stop: physical activity and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Surís, Joan-Carles; Parera, Núria

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to assess whether physical activity decreases during adolescence, whether this decrease depends on the gender, whether physical activity is related to personal, family, and school factors, and whether it is associated to healthy behaviors in a sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from a survey carried out in 2001 among in-school Catalan adolescents aged 14-19 years. Subjects were divided in two groups: physical activity (N=4,185, 43.5% females) and no-physical activity (N=2,743; 68.9% females). Personal, family, school and lifestyles' variables were compared. Chi-square and Odds Ratio were used to compare qualitative variables and Student's t to compare quantitative variables. For the multivariate analysis, all statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis in each of the four groups of variables (plus age) were introduced in a non-conditioned multiple regression. Analysis was performed separately by gender. Physical activity was significantly more frequent among males and decreased with age. Globally, physically active youth perceived themselves as healthier and happier with their body image, they showed a better relationship with their parents, were better connected to school, and exhibited healthier lifestyles. As physical activity has important benefits on health, health professionals dealing with adolescents should encourage adolescents to keep practicing. This message must be specially directed to females.

  18. How to Stop and Change a Response: The Role of Goal Activation in Multitasking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    Multitasking was studied in the stop-change paradigm, in which the response for a primary GO1 task had to be stopped and replaced by a response for a secondary GO2 task on some trials. In 2 experiments, the delay between the stop signal and the change signal was manipulated to determine which task goals (GO1, GO2, or STOP) were involved in…

  19. Prototype Stop Bar System Evaluation at John F. Kennedy International Airport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    2 Red Stop Bar Visual Presentation 4 3 Green Stop Bar Visual Presentation 5 4 Photographs of Red and Green Inset Stop Bar Lights 6 5 Photographs of...to green. This provides pilots with a visual confirmation of the controller’s verbal clearance and is intended to prevent runway incursions. The Port...34 colocated with the red lights. The visual presentation of an individual stop bar appears as either five red lights (see figure 2), or five green

  20. Stemming the risk of capitated contracts: what providers should consider when buying stop loss insurance.

    PubMed

    Kreig, J

    1995-01-01

    Whether an organization decides to purchase stop loss insurance from an HMO or a stop loss specialist, the decision-makers should read and understand each proposal. This information is best obtained by working with a qualified insurance expert who understands stop loss insurance and managed care and health care contracting practices. The stop loss carrier's overall commitment to the organization purchasing its policy should be to provide the best possible service and protection against the financial consequences of catastrophic claims.

  1. Some Critical Remarks on the Stop Word Lists of ISI Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomov, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    A semantic analysis of the "Weekly Subject Index Stop Word List" of "Current Contents" of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the full-stop word and semi-stop word lists of the Permuterm Subject Index of "Science Citation Index" was conducted. Emphasizes the necessity of an improved, semantically-oriented policy in preparing lists…

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  7. Proactive Adjustments of Response Strategies in the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    In the stop-signal paradigm, fast responses are harder to inhibit than slow responses, so subjects must balance speed is the go task with successful stopping in the stop task. In theory, subjects achieve this balance by adjusting response thresholds for the go task, making proactive adjustments in response to instructions that indicate that…

  8. ADHD and Behavioral Inhibition: A Re-Examination of the Stop-Signal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates two recently identified threats to the construct validity of behavioral inhibition as a core deficit of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the stop-signal task: calculation of mean reaction time from go-trials presented adjacent to intermittent stop-trials, and non-reporting of the stop-signal…

  9. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  10. Post-Stop-Signal Slowing: Strategies Dominate Reflexes and Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Control adjustments are necessary to balance competing cognitive demands. One task that is well-suited to explore control adjustments is the stop-signal paradigm, in which subjects must balance initiation and inhibition. One common adjustment in the stop-signal paradigm is post-stop-signal slowing. Existing models of sequential adjustments in the…

  11. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  12. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  13. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  14. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  15. Developing Effective Linkages between Job Corps and One-Stop Systems: A Technical Assistance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Katherine; Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    This document is intended to help Job Corps centers and Office of Acquisition Policy contractors establish linkages with one-stop systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the requirements for linkages between Job Corps and one-stop systems that are specified in the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and compares one-stop delivery systems before and under…

  16. The MAGTF’s Reliance on the Global Positioning System: A Critical Vulnerability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    securityaffairs.co/wordpress/2845/hacking/gps-spoofing- old-threat-and-new-problems.html 54 Tyler Nighswander , Brent Ledvina , Jonathan Diamond , Robert Brumley... Ledvina , Jonathan Diamond , Robert Brumley, David Brumley, “GPS Software Attacks”, (2012), users.ece.cmu.edu/~dbrumley/courses/18487- f12...March 2012. www.gps.gov/multimedia/presentations/2012/03/WSTS/merrill.pdf Nighswander, Tyler. Brent Ledvina , Jonathan Diamond, Robert Brumley

  17. Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley, June, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    The articles in this collection deal with various methods of global education--education to prepare students to function as understanding and informed citizens of the world. Topics discussed in the 26 articles include: (1) the necessity of global education; (2) global education in the elementary school language arts curriculum; (3) science fiction…

  18. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization.…

  19. A stop-signal task for sheep: introduction and validation of a direct measure for the stop-signal reaction time.

    PubMed

    Knolle, Franziska; McBride, Sebastian D; Stewart, James E; Goncalves, Rita P; Morton, A Jennifer

    2017-04-07

    Huntington's disease (HD) patients show reduced flexibility in inhibiting an already-started response. This can be quantified by the stop-signal task. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sheep version of the stop-signal task that would be suitable for monitoring the progression of cognitive decline in a transgenic sheep model of HD. Using a semi-automated operant system, sheep were trained to perform in a two-choice discrimination task. In 22% of the trials, a stop-signal was presented. Upon the stop-signal presentation, the sheep had to inhibit their already-started response. The stopping behaviour was captured using an accelerometer mounted on the back of the sheep. This set-up provided a direct read-out of the individual stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). We also estimated the SSRT using the conventional approach of subtracting the stop-signal delay (i.e., time after which the stop-signal is presented) from the ranked reaction time during a trial without a stop-signal. We found that all sheep could inhibit an already-started response in 91% of the stop-trials. The directly measured SSRT (0.974 ± 0.04 s) was not significantly different from the estimated SSRT (0.938 ± 0.04 s). The sheep version of the stop-signal task adds to the repertoire of tests suitable for investigating both cognitive dysfunction and efficacy of therapeutic agents in sheep models of neurodegenerative disease such as HD, as well as neurological conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Stopping Power of Au for Ti Using Elastic Recoil Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, R.; Freire, J. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Medina, N. H.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Seale, W. A.; Cybulska, E. W.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Allegro, P. R.; Toufen, D. L.

    2009-06-03

    The slowing down of heavy ions in matter is still not well understood especially at low energies (<0.5 MeV/u). In this contribution we present new experimental data for the stopping power of Au for Ti ions using an elastic recoil technique where a heavy-ion beam at low energies is produced by elastic scattering of an energetic primary beam imping on a thin target. Atoms from the target recoil at low energies. We compare our experimental data with previous data and with semi-empirical and theoretical models.

  1. Blind equalization using stop-and-go adaptation rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    1992-06-01

    Stop-and-go adaptation rules that are utilized to improve the blind convergence characteristics of the conventional and sign decision-directed algorithms are proposed and examined. They are based on the Sato- and Godard-type errors, which are utilized in many blind deconvolution applications. The convergence rates achieved by the algorithms with quadrature amplitude modulated signal constellations and nonminimum phase communication channels are compared. Based on a new criterion, the optimal values of the Sato and Godard error parameters are redefined. The optimality of the new parameter values is confirmed by means of computer simulations.

  2. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  3. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  4. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, N.; Amin, M.; Naureen, S.; Anand, S.

    2013-03-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications.

  5. Hybrid approach to calculating proton stopping power in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Bray, I.

    2017-01-01

    Proton stopping power in hydrogen is calculated using a hybrid method. A two-centre convergent close-coupling method is used for calculations involving the proton fraction of the beam, while the Born approximation is used for the hydrogen fraction. For proton-hydrogen collisions rearrangement processes are explicitly included via a two-centre expansion. Hydrogen-hydrogen collisions are calculated including one- and two-electron processes. Despite using the first-order approximation in the hydrogen-hydrogen channel, overall reasonably good agreement with experiment is seen above 100 keV.

  6. Perception of English final stops by native Spanish and Russian listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argodale, Paul; Strange, Winifred

    2002-05-01

    Spanish and Russian speakers perception of word-final stops was investigated in an identification task. Natural stimulus triads (sue-suit-sued, see-seat seed) were produced and presented in two conditions: (1) Final consonants released and CV in the utterance final position; (2) final consonants unreleased and CV produced before a word beginning with a voiceless stop. Russian listeners, whose first language has final voiceless stops, correctly identified English final stops better than Spanish listeners, whose first language does not have final stops (72% vs 60% correct overall). Spanish listeners were more likely than Russian listeners to identify words with final stops as open syllables (31% vs 2% errors). A significant effect of release condition was also found: Spanish listeners were much better at identifying released stops than unreleased stops (90% vs 29% correct). Russian listeners also showed a slightly higher correct rate of identification for released stops (91% vs 42%). Both groups identified voiceless final stops more accurately than voiced stops: Russians (80% vs 65% correct); Spanish (65% vs 54% correct). These results replicate and extend earlier work by Flege and colleagues. [Work supported by a grant from the Professional Staff Congress of the City University of New York.

  7. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  8. Direct measurements of the stopping power for antiprotons of light and heavy targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Uggerho Bluhme, H.; Knudsen, H.; Mikkelsen, U.; Paludan, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1997-10-01

    Measurements of antiproton stopping powers around the stopping-power maximum are presented for targets of Al, Si, Ti, Cu, Ag, Ta, Pt, and Au. The Low Energy Antiproton Ring antiproton beam of 5.9 MeV is degraded to 50{endash}700 keV, and the energy loss is found by measuring the antiproton velocity before and after the target. Target thicknesses have been determined accurately by weighing and Rutherford backscattering techniques. The antiproton stopping powers are found to be reduced by around 35{percent} for both light and heavy elements near the electronic stopping-power maximum as compared to the equivalent proton stopping power. The antiproton stopping powers and the Barkas effect; that is, the difference in stopping power between protons and antiprotons is compared to theoretical estimates, based on a harmonic-oscillator model and an electron-gas model, and good agreement is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Multi-arm group sequential designs with a simultaneous stopping rule.

    PubMed

    Urach, S; Posch, M

    2016-12-30

    Multi-arm group sequential clinical trials are efficient designs to compare multiple treatments to a control. They allow one to test for treatment effects already in interim analyses and can have a lower average sample number than fixed sample designs. Their operating characteristics depend on the stopping rule: We consider simultaneous stopping, where the whole trial is stopped as soon as for any of the arms the null hypothesis of no treatment effect can be rejected, and separate stopping, where only recruitment to arms for which a significant treatment effect could be demonstrated is stopped, but the other arms are continued. For both stopping rules, the family-wise error rate can be controlled by the closed testing procedure applied to group sequential tests of intersection and elementary hypotheses. The group sequential boundaries for the separate stopping rule also control the family-wise error rate if the simultaneous stopping rule is applied. However, we show that for the simultaneous stopping rule, one can apply improved, less conservative stopping boundaries for local tests of elementary hypotheses. We derive corresponding improved Pocock and O'Brien type boundaries as well as optimized boundaries to maximize the power or average sample number and investigate the operating characteristics and small sample properties of the resulting designs. To control the power to reject at least one null hypothesis, the simultaneous stopping rule requires a lower average sample number than the separate stopping rule. This comes at the cost of a lower power to reject all null hypotheses. Some of this loss in power can be regained by applying the improved stopping boundaries for the simultaneous stopping rule. The procedures are illustrated with clinical trials in systemic sclerosis and narcolepsy. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Go-activation endures following the presentation of a stop-signal: evidence from startle.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Neil M; Cressman, Erin K; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that, in a stop-signal task (SST), independent go- and stop-processes "race" to control behavior. If the go-process wins, an overt response is produced, whereas, if the stop-process wins, the response is withheld. One prediction that follows from this proposal is that, if the activation associated with one process is enhanced, it is more likely to win the race. We looked to determine whether these initiation and inhibition processes (and thus response outcomes) could be manipulated by using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to provide additional response activation. In the present study, participants were to respond to a visual go-stimulus; however, if a subsequent stop-signal appeared, they were to inhibit the response. The stop-signal was presented at a delay corresponding to a probability of responding of 0.4 (determined from a baseline block of trials). On stop-trials, a SAS was presented either simultaneously with the go-signal or stop-signal or 100, 150, or 200 ms following the stop-signal. Results showed that presenting a SAS during stop-trials led to an increase in probability of responding when presented with or following the stop-signal. The latency of SAS responses at the stop-signal + 150 ms and stop-signal + 200 ms probe times suggests that they would have been voluntarily inhibited but instead were involuntarily initiated by the SAS. Thus results demonstrate that go-activation endures even 200 ms following a stop-signal and remains accessible well after the response has been inhibited, providing evidence against a winner-take-all race between independent go- and stop-processes.

  11. The Intentional Archivist: What Jonathan Taught Me

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    As a teacher, the author is always seeking the meaning behind her educational practice with children, colleagues, and the institution in which she works on a daily basis. Dr. Jonathon Silin's thinking around loss, collective memory and social amnesia resonate strongly with her (Silin, 2011). In this article, the possibilities of intentionally…

  12. Breaking the Vicious Start-Stop-Restart Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's history is built on a foundation of can-do strength, while pointing to the Apollo Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s as its apex a sentiment that often overshadows the potential in store. The chronicle of America s civil space adventure is scattered with programs that got off to good starts with adequate resources and vocal political support but that never made it past a certain milestone review, General Accountability Office report, or Congressional budget appropriation. Over the decades since the fielding of the Space Shuttle in the early 1980s, a start-stop-restart cycle has intervened due to many forces. Despite this impediment, the workforce has delivered feats such as the International Space Station and numerous Shuttle and science missions, which reflect a trend in the early days of the Exploration Age that called for massive infrastructure and matching capital allocations. In the new millennium, the aerospace industry must respond to transforming economic climates, the public will, national agendas, and international possibilities relative to scientific exploration beyond Earth's orbit. Two pressing issues workforce transition and mission success are intertwined. As this briefing will show, U.S. aerospace must confront related workforce development and industrial base issues head on to take space exploration to the next level. This briefing also will formulate specific strategies to equip space engineers to move beyond the seemingly constant start-stop-restart mentality to plan and execute flight projects that actually fly.

  13. Rapid cooling triggers forisome dispersion just before phloem transport stops.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Michael R; Furch, Alexandra C U; Minchin, Peter E H; Föller, Jens; Van Bel, Aart J E; Hafke, Jens B

    2010-02-01

    Phloem transport stops transiently within dicot stems that are cooled rapidly, but the cause remains unknown. Now it is known that (1) rapid cooling depolarizes cell membranes giving a transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and (2) a rise of free calcium triggers dispersion of forisomes, which then occlude sieve elements (SEs) of fabacean plants. Therefore, we compared the effects of rapid chilling on SE electrophysiology, phloem transport and forisomes in Vicia faba. Forisomes dispersed after rapid cooling with a delay that was longer for slower cooling rates. Phloem transport stopped about 20 s after forisome dispersion, and then transport resumed and forisomes re-condensed within similar time frames. Transport interruption and forisome dispersion showed parallel behaviour--a cooling rate-dependent response, transience and desensitization. Chilling induced both a fast and a slow depolarization of SE membranes, the electrical signature suggesting strongly that the cause of forisome dispersion was the transient promotion of SE free calcium. This apparent block of SEs by dispersed forisomes may be assisted by other Ca(2+)-dependent sealing proteins that are present in all dicots.

  14. Stop-less Lyot coronagraph for exoplanet characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.

    2012-09-01

    The characterization of directly-imaged exoplanets at very small angular separations requires high-contrast spec-troscopic capabilities. For this purpose, the new generation of instruments dedicated to direct imaging of massive exoplanets at large orbital radii, such as VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI, includes integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and/or long slit spectroscopy (LSS) coupled with coronography. LSS is particularly challenging since observations will be stronly limited by quasi-static speckles and diffraction residuals that need to be removed with a posteriori data analysis methods. It is therefore necessary to limit as much as possible the influence of diffraction in the data. In this work we compare the use of the classical Lyot coronagraph (CLC) and the stop- less Lyot coronagraph (SLLC) with LSS for the characterization of exoplanets. SLLC uses a grey apodization to suppress the diffraction above 4.53 λ/D and does not require the use of any Lyot stop, offering a convenient implementation. We show that this apodized long slit spectroscopy (ALSS) improves notably the performance at small angular separations (0.3"-0.4"), allowing the spectral analysis of colder planets.

  15. Stopping power of C, O and Cl in tantalum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas, Nuno P.; Alves, E.; Fonseca, M.; Siketić, Z.; Bogdanović Radović, I.

    2014-08-01

    Tantalum oxide is used in a variety of applications due to its high bandgap, high-K and high index of refraction. Unintentional impurities can change properties of tantalum oxide, and heavy ion elastic recoil detection is a method that can play a fundamental role in the quantification of those impurities. Furthermore, tantalum oxide is frequently part of the samples that also include other materials, which are often analysed with ion beam techniques. However, there are very few reported stopping power measurements for tantalum oxide, and data analysis relies not only on interpolation from a sparse data base but also on the Bragg rule. As is well known, the Bragg rule is often inaccurate for oxides, particularly when the difference in atomic numbers of the involved elements is very large as is case for Ta2O5. We have used a bulk method, previously developed by us and applied successfully to other systems, to determine experimentally the stopping power of tantalum oxide for three different ion types: C, O and Cl. In the present paper the results of our measurements and bulk method analysis are presented.

  16. Uncertainty estimation and a stopping rule in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberparleiter, Michael; Nordman, Hans; Verdoolaege, Geert; Jenko, Frank

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to estimate the mean and uncertainty of fluctuating quantities, such as spatially averaged density and temperature fluctuations or radial fluxes, from initial value simulations of the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE[1, 2]. Since the time series are autocorrelated in time, the data is grouped into batches based on the autocorrelation time and their means form the sample for further statistical treatment, such as calculating the standard error of the mean.Based on this uncertainty estimate we develop a stopping rule for a nonlinear simulation: First, regression tests ensure that it has reached a stationary (quasisteady) state and data before this point is discarded. Then the previously described estimate is calculated. If the estimated relative error is below a prescribed threshold, the simulation is stopped. This scheme is applied to several previously performed GENE simulations ranging from simple benchmarks to modelling of JET and ASDEX discharges. It can be demonstrated that a number of simulations could be around 30% shorter if a maximal statistical relative uncertainty of 5% is desired for all monitored quantities.

  17. Extending the application of DSAM to atypical stopping media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, U.; Chakrabarti, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Dhal, A.; Raju, M. Kumar; Madhavan, N.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Suryanarayana, K.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana; Palit, R.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2017-01-01

    A methodology that manifolds the possibilities of level lifetime measurements using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM), and extends its application beyond the conventional thin-target-on-thick-elemental-backing setups, is presented. This has been achieved primarily through application of the TRIM code to simulate the stopping of the recoils in the target and the backing media. Using the TRIM code, primarily adopted in the domain of materials research, in the context of lifetime analysis require rendition of the simulation results into a representation that appropriately incorporates the nuances of nuclear reaction along with the associated kinematics, besides the transformation from an energy-coordinate representation to a velocity-direction profile as required for lifetime analysis. The present development makes it possible to practice DSAM in atypical experimental scenarios such as those using molecular or multi-layered target and/or backing as the stopping medium. These aberrant cases, that were beyond representation in the customary Doppler shape analysis can, in the light of the present work, be conveniently used in the DSAM based investigations. The new approach has been validated through re-examination of known lifetimes measured both in the conventional as well as in the deviant setups.

  18. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  19. Elastic Wave Transmission and Stop Band Characteristics in Unidirectional Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Kazuhiro; Biwa, Shiro; Matsumoto, Eiji

    Elastic wave transmission characteristics in unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites are studied based on the two-dimensional finite element analysis. The composite is assumed to be a lay-up of a finite number of monolayers, each of which contains a single row of fibers spaced at equal distance. Influences of the stacking number and misalignment of monolayers as well as the presence of coating layer around the fibers on the wave transmission spectra are demonstrated for unidirectional SiC-fiber-reinforced Ti-alloy composites. It is shown that the transmission coefficients fall to low values in certain bands of frequency, i.e., stop bands in terminology analogous to perfectly periodic structures. This feature is found to appear more clearly for the transverse wave incidence, irrespective of the misalignment of monolayers. The stiffness reduction of the coating layer is shown to shift the stop bands to lower frequencies, which can be a useful feature for the monitoring of the fiber/matrix interfacial damage.

  20. Quantum stopping times stochastic integral in the interacting Fock space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuanbao

    2015-08-01

    Following the ideas of Hudson [J. Funct. Anal. 34(2), 266-281 (1979)] and Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)], we define a quantum stopping time (QST, for short) τ in the interacting Fock space (IFS, for short), Γ, over L2(ℝ+), which is actually a spectral measure in [0, ∞] such that τ([0, t]) is an adapted process. Motivated by Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)] and Applebaum [J. Funct. Anal. 65, 273-291 (1986)], we also develop a corresponding quantum stopping time stochastic integral (QSTSI, for abbreviations) on the IFS over a subspace of L2(ℝ+) equipped with a filtration. As an application, such integral provides a useful tool for proving that Γ admits a strong factorisation, i.e., Γ = Γτ] ⊗ Γ[τ, where Γτ] and Γ[τ stand for the part "before τ" and the part "after τ," respectively. Additionally, this integral also gives rise to a natural composition operation among QST to make the space of all QSTs a semigroup.

  1. Quantum stopping times stochastic integral in the interacting Fock space

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yuanbao

    2015-08-15

    Following the ideas of Hudson [J. Funct. Anal. 34(2), 266-281 (1979)] and Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)], we define a quantum stopping time (QST, for short) τ in the interacting Fock space (IFS, for short), Γ, over L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}), which is actually a spectral measure in [0, ∞] such that τ([0, t]) is an adapted process. Motivated by Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)] and Applebaum [J. Funct. Anal. 65, 273-291 (1986)], we also develop a corresponding quantum stopping time stochastic integral (QSTSI, for abbreviations) on the IFS over a subspace of L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}) equipped with a filtration. As an application, such integral provides a useful tool for proving that Γ admits a strong factorisation, i.e., Γ = Γ{sub τ]} ⊗ Γ{sub [τ}, where Γ{sub τ]} and Γ{sub [τ} stand for the part “before τ” and the part “after τ,” respectively. Additionally, this integral also gives rise to a natural composition operation among QST to make the space of all QSTs a semigroup.

  2. STOP for Science! A School-Wide Science Enrichment Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, P.; Slane, R.; Arcand, K. K.; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.

    2012-08-01

    Young students are often natural scientists. They love to poke and prod, and they live to compare and contrast. What is the fastest animal? Where is the tallest mountain on Earth (or in the Solar System)? Where do the colors in a rainbow come from? And why do baseball players choke up on their bats? Educators work hard to harness this energy and enthusiasm in the classroom but, particularly at an early age, science enrichment - exposure outside the formal classroom - is crucial to help expand science awareness and hone science skills. Developed under a grant from NASA's Chandra X-ray Center, "STOP for Science!" is a simple but effective (and extensible) school-wide science enrichment program aimed at raising questions about science topics chosen to capture student interest. Created through the combined efforts of an astrophysicist and an elementary school principal, and strongly recommended by NASA's Earth & Space Science product review, "STOP for Science" combines aesthetic displays of science topics accompanied by level-selected questions and extensive facilitator resources to provide broad exposure to familiar, yet intriguing, science themes.

  3. Stop_times based Routing Protocol for VANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Hafez; Shaaban, Eman; Taha Fayed, Zaki

    2013-11-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special class of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) where vehicles are considered as MANET nodes with wireless links. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility pattern and rapidly changeable topology. There has been significant interest in improving safety and traffic efficiency using VANET. The design of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. Existing routing protocols of MANET are not suitable for VANET. AOMDV is the most important on demand multipath routing protocol. This paper proposes SSD-AOMDV as VANET routing protocol. SSD-AOMDV improves AOMDV to suit VANET characteristics. SSD-AOMDV adds the mobility parameters: Stop_times, Speed and Direction to hop count as new AOMDV routing metric to select next hop during the route discovery phase. Stop_times metric is added to simulate buses mobility pattern and traffic lights at intersections. Simulation results show that SSD-AOMDV achieves better performance compared to AOMDV.

  4. A Synthetic Approach to Stop-Codon Scanning Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Lihua; Lavinder, Jason J.; Sarkar, Mohosin; Stephany, Kimberly; Magliery, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A general combinatorial mutagenesis strategy using common DMT-protected mononucleotide phosphoramidites and a single orthogonally-protected trinucleotide phosphoramidite (Fmoc-TAG) was developed to scan a gene with the TAG amber stop codon with complete synthetic control. In combination with stop-codon suppressors that insert natural (e.g., alanine) or unnatural (e.g., p-benzoylphenylalanine or Bpa) amino acids, a single DNA library can be used to incorporate different amino acids for diverse purposes. Here, we scanned TAG codons through part of the gene for a model four-helix bundle protein, Rop, which regulates the copy number of ColE1 plasmids. Alanine was incorporated into Rop for mapping its binding site using an in vivo activity screen, and subtle but important differences from in vitro gel-shift studies of Rop function are evident. As a test, Bpa was incorporated using a Phe14 amber mutant isolated from the scanning library. Surprisingly, Phe14Bpa Rop is weakly active, despite the critical role of Phe14 in Rop activity. Bpa is a photoaffinity label unnatural amino acid that can form covalent bonds with adjacent molecules upon UV irradiation. Irradiation of Phe14Bpa-Rop, which is a dimer in solution like wild-type Rop, results in covalent dimers, trimers and tetramers. This suggests that Phe14Bpa Rop weakly associates as a tetramer in solution and highlights the use of Bpa crosslinking as a means of trapping weak and transient interactions. PMID:21452871

  5. Stopping dynamics of ions passing through correlated honeycomb clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Karsten; Schlünzen, Niclas; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-12-01

    A combined nonequilibrium Green functions-Ehrenfest dynamics approach is developed that allows for a time-dependent study of the energy loss of a charged particle penetrating a strongly correlated system at zero and finite temperatures. Numerical results are presented for finite inhomogeneous two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard models, where the many-electron dynamics in the target are treated fully quantum mechanically and the motion of the projectile is treated classically. The simulations are based on the solution of the two-time Dyson (Keldysh-Kadanoff-Baym) equations using the second-order Born, third-order, and T -matrix approximations of the self-energy. As application, we consider protons and helium nuclei with a kinetic energy between 1 and 500 keV/u passing through planar fragments of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and, in particular, examine the influence of electron-electron correlations on the energy exchange between projectile and electron system. We investigate the time dependence of the projectile's kinetic energy (stopping power), the electron density, the double occupancy, and the photoemission spectrum. Finally, we show that, for a suitable choice of the Hubbard model parameters, the results for the stopping power are in fair agreement with ab initio simulations for particle irradiation of single-layer graphene.

  6. Eradicating polio: how the world's pediatricians can help stop this crippling illness forever.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics strongly supports the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. This plan was endorsed in November 2012 by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization of the World Health Organization and published by the World Health Organization in April 2013. As a key component of the plan, it will be necessary to stop oral polio vaccine (OPV) use globally to achieve eradication, because the attenuated viruses in the vaccine rarely can cause polio. The plan includes procedures for elimination of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). cVDPVs can proliferate when vaccine viruses are transmitted among susceptible people, resulting in mutations conferring both the neurovirulence and transmissibility characteristics of wild polioviruses. Although there are 3 different types of wild poliovirus strains, the polio eradication effort has already resulted in the global elimination of type 2 poliovirus for more than a decade. Type 3 poliovirus may be eliminated because the wild type 3 poliovirus was last detected in 2012. Thus, of the 3 wild types, only wild type 1 poliovirus is still known to be circulating and causing disease. OPV remains the key vaccine for eradicating wild polioviruses in polio-infected countries because it induces high levels of systemic immunity to prevent paralysis and intestinal immunity to reduce transmission. However, OPV is a rare cause of paralysis and the substantial decrease in wild-type disease has resulted in estimates that the vaccine is causing more polio-related paralysis annually in recent years than the wild virus. The new endgame strategic plan calls for stepwise removal of the type 2 poliovirus component from trivalent oral vaccines, because type 2 wild poliovirus appears to have been eradicated (since 1999) and yet is the main cause of cVDPV outbreaks and approximately 40% of vaccine-associated paralytic

  7. The identities of stop codon reassignments support ancestral tRNA stop codon decoding activity as a facilitator of gene duplication and evolution of novel function.

    PubMed

    Massey, Steven E

    2017-03-27

    Stop codon reassignments are widely distributed in prokaryotic, eukaryotic and organellar genomes, but are remarkably convergent in terms of the stop codons and amino acids reassigned. Strikingly, the identities of stop codon reassignments are closely matched to the properties of naturally occurring nonsense suppressor (NONS) tRNAs, suggesting that pre-existing nonsense suppression in an ancestral tRNA facilitated the occurrence of stop codon reassignments. Here this idea is expanded, by exploring the mechanism by which the gene duplication of tRNAs has occurred, leading to the reassignment of stop codons. Two types of stop codon reassignment are identified: those that necessitate a tRNA gene duplication, and those that do not because a single tRNA can recognize the reassigned stop codon and the canonical codon(s) for the cognate amino acid. Where tRNA gene duplication has occurred, this implies a multi-functional ancestral NONS tRNA, followed by adaptive mutation in the anticodon of one of the gene duplicates to become complementary to the stop codon, constituting a clear example of escape from adaptive conflict. The best exemplar is the UAA+UAG - >gln reassignment, which has occurred 9 times independently in a diverse range of genomes, and appears to reflect the widespread occurrence of naturally occurring nonsense suppression of the UAA+UAG stop codons by glutamine tRNAs. Consideration of pre-existing tRNA functionality and the mechanism of gene duplication provide new insights into the process of stop codon reassignment.

  8. Should I Stop or Should I Go? The Role of Associations and Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following exposure to consistent stimulus–stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatized with practice. What is learned is less clear, even though this has important theoretical and practical implications. A recent analysis indicates that stimuli can become associated with a stop signal or with a stop goal. Furthermore, expectancy may play an important role. Previous studies that have used stop or no-go signals to manipulate stimulus–stop learning cannot distinguish between stimulus-signal and stimulus-goal associations, and expectancy has not been measured properly. In the present study, participants performed a task that combined features of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task in which the stop-signal rule changed at the beginning of each block. The go and stop signals were superimposed over 40 task-irrelevant images. Our results show that participants can learn direct associations between images and the stop goal without mediation via the stop signal. Exposure to the image-stop associations influenced task performance during training, and expectancies measured following task completion or measured within the task. But, despite this, we found an effect of stimulus–stop learning on test performance only when the task increased the task-relevance of the images. This could indicate that the influence of stimulus–stop learning on go performance is strongly influenced by attention to both task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus features. More generally, our findings suggest a strong interplay between automatic and controlled processes. PMID:26322688

  9. Neutrino oscillation effects in Soudan 2 upward-stopping muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barr, G. D.; Barrett, W. L.; Border, P. M.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. R.; Goodman, M. C.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Litchfield, P. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Nelson, J. K.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W. P.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Ruddick, K.; Sanchez, M.; Schneps, J.; Sousa, A.; Thron, J. L.; West, N.

    2005-09-01

    Upward-going stopping muons initiated by atmospheric νμ and ν¯μ interactions in the rock below the Soudan 2 detector have been isolated, together with a companion sample of neutrino-induced single muons, created within the detector, which travel downwards and exit. The downward-going sample is consistent with the atmospheric-neutrino flux prediction, but the upward-going sample exhibits a sizable depletion. Both are consistent with previously reported Soudan 2 neutrino-oscillation results. Inclusion of the two samples in an all-event likelihood analysis, using recent 3D-atmospheric-neutrino-flux calculations, reduces both the allowed oscillation parameter region and the probability of the no-oscillation hypothesis.

  10. Low velocity ion stopping in binary ionic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tashev, Bekbolat; Baimbetov, Fazylkhan; Deutsch, Claude; Fromy, Patrice

    2008-10-15

    Attention is focused on the low ion velocity stopping mechanisms in multicomponent and dense target plasmas built of quasiclassical electron fluids neutralizing binary ionic mixtures, such as, deuterium-tritium of current fusion interest, proton-heliumlike iron in the solar interior or proton-helium ions considered in planetology, as well as other mixtures of fiducial concern in the heavy ion beam production of warm dense matter at Bragg peak conditions. The target plasma is taken in a multicomponent dielectric formulation a la Fried-Conte. The occurrence of projectile ion velocities (so-called critical) for which target electron slowing down equals that of given target ion components is also considered. The corresponding multiquadrature computations, albeit rather heavy, can be monitored analytical through a very compact code operating a PC cluster. Slowing down results are systematically scanned with respect to target temperature and electron density, as well as ion composition.

  11. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo

    2016-05-01

    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  12. Searches for direct stop production within the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondero, Paolo; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC, in conjunction with the discovery of the Higgs boson is looking for signs of physics which go beyond the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. Among possible theories for physics beyond Standard Model, Supersymmetry seems to be the most promising one. This theory indeed addresses the Standard Model naturalness problem and offers a perfect candidate for the dark matter. Within this scenario the search for a supersymmetric partner of the top quark, called stop, plays a key role. The ATLAS Experiment has developed a dedicated strategy for the discovery of this particle, focusing on achieving a complete coverage of the available parameter space for this particle, based on the combined search for all of its possible decay modes. The results obtained using the complete ATLAS 2012 statistics will be presented, targeting different decay modes and explaining the procedure to obtain the exclusion limits on the existence of a supersymmetric partner of the top quark at the electroweak scale.

  13. Collective Stop-and-Go Dynamics of Active Bacteria Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenšek, Daniel; Pleiner, Harald; Brand, Helmut R.

    2013-11-01

    We set up a macroscopic model of bacterial growth and transport based on a dynamic preferred direction—the collective velocity of the bacteria. This collective velocity is subject to the isotropic-nematic transition modeling the density-controlled transformation between immotile and motile bacterial states. The choice of the dynamic preferred direction introduces a distinctive coupling of orientational ordering and transport not encountered otherwise. The approach can also be applied to other systems spontaneously switching between individual (disordered) and collective (ordered) behavior and/or collectively responding to density variations, e.g., bird flocks, fish schools, etc. We observe a characteristic and robust stop-and-go behavior. The inclusion of chirality results in a complex pulsating dynamics.

  14. Antiproton stopping in H2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2015-11-01

    Stopping powers of antiprotons in H2 and H2O targets are calculated using a semiclassical time-dependent convergent close-coupling method. In our approach the H2 target is treated using a two-center molecular multiconfiguration approximation, which fully accounts for the electron-electron correlation. Double-ionization and dissociative ionization channels are taken into account using an independent-event model. The vibrational excitation and nuclear scattering contributions are also included. The H2O target is treated using a neonization method proposed by C. C. Montanari and J. E. Miraglia [J. Phys. B 47, 015201 (2014), 10.1088/0953-4075/47/1/015201], whereby the ten-electron water molecule is described as a dressed Ne-like atom in a pseudospherical potential. Despite being the most comprehensive approach to date, the results obtained for H2 only qualitatively agree with the available experimental measurements.

  15. Tunneling into microstate geometries: quantum effects stop gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Puhm, Andrea; Vercnocke, Bert

    2016-07-01

    Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. We present strong evidence that classical general relativity can indeed break down prematurely, by explicitly computing the quantum tunneling amplitude of a collapsing shell of branes into smooth horizonless microstate geometries. We show that the amplitude for tunneling into microstate geometries with a large number of topologically non-trivial cycles is parametrically larger than e - S BH , which indicates that the shell can tunnel into a horizonless configuration long before the horizon has any chance to form. We also use this technology to investigate the tunneling of M2 branes into LLM bubbling geometries.

  16. Stop, Question, and Complain: Citizen Grievances Against the NYPD and the Opacity of Police Stops Across New York City Precincts, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Rengifo, Andres F; Fowler, Kurt

    2016-04-01

    Data on police stops can be examined to reflect on the relative "opacity" of these encounters and how aggregate patterns on the nature-not just the volume-of reported stops relate to public scrutiny of the police. We hypothesize that public scrutiny on police stops is positively related to the prevalence of opaque stop practices across dimensions of "intrusiveness," "rationale," and "setting" derived from agency records. We further argue that this relationship is influenced by neighborhood conditions in the form of concentrated disadvantage, residential instability, and heterogeneity. To develop these ideas, we draw on a publicly available NYPD dataset on police stops to specify a series of fixed and random effects models that describe variation in recorded stop practices across precincts (N = 74) and overtime (T = 7, 2007-2013). We relate these practices to neighborhood conditions derived from the Census and examine their association with rates of SQF complaints to the CCRB. Results show considerable variation in indicators of opacity, particularly across precincts. More importantly, we also find that rates of complaints are higher in precincts that have more vaguely defined, intrusive stops. Results also suggest that concentrated disadvantage is independently and positively related with higher rates of public scrutiny of the police.

  17. America’s Security Role in a Changing World: A Global Strategic Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    actually three interrelated crises: a global warming crisis, fuel crisis, and diplomatic crisis. Global warming threatens to create an environmental...which is a diplomatic crisis, particularly for the United States. Global warming is already being used as a dip- lomatic wedge issue against America...mitigating or stopping transnational threats 4 INSS Proceedings April 7–8, 2009 actors, and effects of global warming . A result of these increasing

  18. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these “explorative stops” (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. Results: In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory. PMID:24782797

  19. Diagnostic yield of a one-stop neck lump clinic.

    PubMed

    Al Hamarneh, Osama; Liew, Lenny; Shortridge, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    Diagnostic clinics for patients with neck lumps were established across the UK in response to NICE guidance on cancer services. The guidance stated that a surgeon and a cytopathologist among its other key recommendations should staff each clinic. The aim of this study was to establish the diagnostic yield of this clinic at Wolverhampton. A prospective cohort study was conducted of patients attending a one-stop neck lump clinic over a period of 30 months. Patients' characteristics, diagnostic tests and outcomes were recorded and the data analysed. Of 333 patients, n = 65 (20 %) had no lump, n = 214 (64 %) had a benign lump and n = 54 (16 %) had a malignant lump. Older age of patients and a history of smoking were found to be significantly higher when a malignant lump was diagnosed when compared with a benign lump. In the benign lump group, freehand FNAC had an accuracy of 87 % (n = 48/55), while USS-guided FNAC had an accuracy of 74 % (n = 32/43). Diagnosis was confirmed on the same day for the majority of patients (n = 178, 84 %). In the malignant lump group, freehand FNAC had an accuracy of 82 % (n = 28/34), while USS-guided FNAC had an accuracy of 81 % (n = 17/21). Diagnosis on the same day was confirmed for 74 % of the patients (n = 40). The clinic in our unit achieved an overall diagnostic yield of 84 %. Outcomes regarding age, sex, smoking, size and site of neck lumps and accuracy of FNAC were in line with published data. The study showed that this one-stop neck lump clinic was better at excluding malignancy than diagnosing it.

  20. Global Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... cover from one day to another. The lower panel is a composite in which red, green, and blue radiances from MISR's 70-degree ... In relatively clear ocean areas, the oblique-angle composite is generally brighter than its nadir counterpart due to enhanced ... Mar 2002 Images:  Global Composite location:  Global Images thumbnail:  ...

  1. 20 CFR 652.201 - What is the role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... One-Stop delivery system? 652.201 Section 652.201 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Services in a One-Stop Delivery System Environment § 652.201 What is the role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system? (a) The role of the State agency in the One-Stop delivery system is...

  2. 20 CFR 662.260 - What services, in addition to the applicable core services, are to be provided by One-Stop...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... core services, are to be provided by One-Stop partners through the One-Stop delivery system? 662.260... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the... provided by One-Stop partners through the One-Stop delivery system? In addition to the provision......

  3. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 124 Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions (Web, free access)   The databases ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, or helium ions. Stopping-power and range tables can be calculated for electrons in any user-specified material and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials.

  4. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition.

    PubMed

    Vink, Matthijs; Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Zandbelt, Bram B; Pas, Pascal; du Plessis, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective expectation that a stop-signal will or will not occur. Here we investigated the effects of stop-signal probability and the expectation of a stop-signal on proactive inhibition. Twenty participants performed a modified stop-signal anticipation task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging. At the beginning of each trial, the stop-signal probability was indicated by a cue (0% or > 0%), and participants had to indicate whether they expected a stop-signal to occur (yes/no/don't know). Participants slowed down responding on trials with a > 0% stop-signal probability, but this proactive response slowing was even greater when they expected a stop-signal to occur. Analyses were performed in brain regions previously associated with proactive inhibition. Activation in the striatum, supplementary motor area and left dorsal premotor cortex during the cue period was increased when participants expected a stop-signal to occur. In contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal cortex activity during the stimulus-response period was related to the processing of contextual cues signalling objective stop-signal probability, regardless of expectation. These data show that proactive inhibition depends on both the processing of objective contextual task information and the subjective expectation of stop-signals.

  5. The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    following World War II, when antibiotics and other “wonder” drugs caught the public imagination, and health leaders thought that even tropical ...in Impact: From the Frontiers of Global Health. (Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2003), 7. 9 DDT resistance first noticed in Greece in 1951...14 Quoted in Jimmy Carter, “A Tale of Two Worlds,” in Impact: From the Frontiers of Global Health (Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2003

  6. Design Considerations for a Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husseyin, S.; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a cycloidal blade system as a means of providing lift and propulsive thrust as well as combined with a stopped rotor system, to create a stopped-rotor cyclocopter vehicle, during a mission to Venus. This stopped-rotor cyclocopter will be capable of flying at all atmospheric levels of Venus as well as landing on the surface for scientific investigation. Three reference conceptual designs with different stopped-rotor cyclocopter yaw angles are tested in RotCFD as well as a model of a hovering cyclorotor for comparison with past work in the literature and innovative study for future projects.

  7. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    DOE PAGES

    Fontana, Cristiano L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; ...

    2015-11-10

    In our review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5. Moreover, a Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. Finally, the resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  8. Surviving scenario of stop decays for ATLAS ℓ + jets + E̸T miss search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chengcheng; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-04-01

    Recently ATLAS reported a 3.3σ excess in the stop search with ℓ + jets + E̸T miss channel. We try to interpret the signal by a light stop pair production in the MSSM. We find: (1) simple models where stop decays into a higgsino or a bino are not favored. (2) an extension of them can explain the data at 2σ level without conflicting with the other search channels. A surviving possibility includes a light stop and a light higgsino, which is expected in a natural SUSY scenario.

  9. Stopping power of strongly coupled electronic plasmas: sum rules and asymptotic forms.

    PubMed

    Ortner, J; Tkachenko, I M

    2001-02-01

    The stopping power of coupled electronic plasmas is investigated. Within the dielectric formalism and employing the method of frequency moments for the dielectric function we obtain a general formula describing the linear stopping power of a coupled plasma. Analytical results for the low- and high-projectile-velocity asymptotic forms are obtained. A sum rule for the plasma heavy ions linear stopping power projectile velocity distribution is established to be related to the dielectric permeability "negative" frequency moment. This permits for a simple interpretation of stopping power data.

  10. The effect of facial makeup on the frequency of drivers stopping for hitchhikers.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Lamy, Lubomir

    2013-08-01

    Judgments of photographs have shown that makeup enhances ratings of women's facial attractiveness. The present study assessed whether makeup affects the stopping behavior of drivers in response to a hitchhiker's signal. Four 20- to 22-year-old female confederates wore facial makeup, or not, while pretending to be hitchhiking. Frequency of stopping was compared in 1,600 male and female drivers. Facial makeup was associated with an increase in the number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride. Makeup did not affect frequency of stopping by female drivers.

  11. Genome-wide prediction of stop codon readthrough during translation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, I.; Richardson, J.; Starkey, A.; Stansfield, I.

    2004-01-01

    In-frame stop codons normally signal termination during mRNA translation, but they can be read as ‘sense’ (readthrough) depending on their context, comprising the 6 nt preceding and following the stop codon. To identify novel contexts directing readthrough, under-represented 5′ and 3′ stop codon contexts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified by genome-wide survey in silico. In contrast with the nucleotide bias 3′ of the stop codon, codon bias in the two codon positions 5′ of the termination codon showed no correlation with known effects on stop codon readthrough. However, individually, poor 5′ and 3′ context elements were equally as effective in promoting stop codon readthrough in vivo, readthrough which in both cases responded identically to changes in release factor concentration. A novel method analysing specific nucleotide combinations in the 3′ context region revealed positions +1,2,3,5 and +1,2,3,6 after the stop codon were most predictive of termination efficiency. Downstream of yeast open reading frames (ORFs), further in-frame stop codons were significantly over-represented at the +1, +2 and +3 codon positions after the ORF, acting to limit readthrough. Thus selection against stop codon readthrough is a dominant force acting on 3′, but not on 5′, nucleotides, with detectable selection on nucleotides as far downstream as +6 nucleotides. The approaches described can be employed to define potential readthrough contexts for any genome. PMID:15602002

  12. Global analysis of translation termination in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Baggett, Natalie E; Zhang, Yan; Gross, Carol A

    2017-03-16

    Terminating protein translation accurately and efficiently is critical for both protein fidelity and ribosome recycling for continued translation. The three bacterial release factors (RFs) play key roles: RF1 and 2 recognize stop codons and terminate translation; and RF3 promotes disassociation of bound release factors. Probing release factors mutations with reporter constructs containing programmed frameshifting sequences or premature stop codons had revealed a propensity for readthrough or frameshifting at these specific sites, but their effects on translation genome-wide have not been examined. We performed ribosome profiling on a set of isogenic strains with well-characterized release factor mutations to determine how they alter translation globally. Consistent with their known defects, strains with increasingly severe release factor defects exhibit increasingly severe accumulation of ribosomes over stop codons, indicative of an increased duration of the termination/release phase of translation. Release factor mutant strains also exhibit increased occupancy in the region following the stop codon at a significant number of genes. Our global analysis revealed that, as expected, translation termination is generally efficient and accurate, but that at a significant number of genes (≥ 50) the ribosome signature after the stop codon is suggestive of translation past the stop codon. Even native E. coli K-12 exhibits the ribosome signature suggestive of protein extension, especially at UGA codons, which rely exclusively on the reduced function RF2 variant of the K-12 strain for termination. Deletion of RF3 increases the severity of the defect. We unambiguously demonstrate readthrough and frameshifting protein extensions and their further accumulation in mutant strains for a few select cases. In addition to enhancing recoding, ribosome accumulation over stop codons disrupts attenuation control of biosynthetic operons, and may alter expression of some overlapping genes

  13. Global analysis of translation termination in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Baggett, Natalie E.

    2017-01-01

    Terminating protein translation accurately and efficiently is critical for both protein fidelity and ribosome recycling for continued translation. The three bacterial release factors (RFs) play key roles: RF1 and 2 recognize stop codons and terminate translation; and RF3 promotes disassociation of bound release factors. Probing release factors mutations with reporter constructs containing programmed frameshifting sequences or premature stop codons had revealed a propensity for readthrough or frameshifting at these specific sites, but their effects on translation genome-wide have not been examined. We performed ribosome profiling on a set of isogenic strains with well-characterized release factor mutations to determine how they alter translation globally. Consistent with their known defects, strains with increasingly severe release factor defects exhibit increasingly severe accumulation of ribosomes over stop codons, indicative of an increased duration of the termination/release phase of translation. Release factor mutant strains also exhibit increased occupancy in the region following the stop codon at a significant number of genes. Our global analysis revealed that, as expected, translation termination is generally efficient and accurate, but that at a significant number of genes (≥ 50) the ribosome signature after the stop codon is suggestive of translation past the stop codon. Even native E. coli K-12 exhibits the ribosome signature suggestive of protein extension, especially at UGA codons, which rely exclusively on the reduced function RF2 variant of the K-12 strain for termination. Deletion of RF3 increases the severity of the defect. We unambiguously demonstrate readthrough and frameshifting protein extensions and their further accumulation in mutant strains for a few select cases. In addition to enhancing recoding, ribosome accumulation over stop codons disrupts attenuation control of biosynthetic operons, and may alter expression of some overlapping genes

  14. Analysis and Prediction of Weather Impacted Ground Stop Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2014-01-01

    When the air traffic demand is expected to exceed the available airport's capacity for a short period of time, Ground Stop (GS) operations are implemented by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The GS requires departing aircraft meeting specific criteria to remain on the ground to achieve reduced demands at the constrained destination airport until the end of the GS. This paper provides a high-level overview of the statistical distributions as well as causal factors for the GSs at the major airports in the United States. The GS's character, the weather impact on GSs, GS variations with delays, and the interaction between GSs and Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) are investigated. The machine learning methods are used to generate classification models that map the historical airport weather forecast, schedule traffic, and other airport conditions to implemented GS/GDP operations and the models are evaluated using the cross-validations. This modeling approach produced promising results as it yielded an 85% overall classification accuracy to distinguish the implemented GS days from the normal days without GS and GDP operations and a 71% accuracy to differentiate the GS and GDP implemented days from the GDP only days.

  15. Bubble wall velocity in the minimal supersymmetric light stop scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephan J.; Sopena, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    We build on existing calculations of the wall velocity of the expanding bubbles of the broken symmetry phase in a first-order electroweak phase transition within the light stop scenario (LSS) of the MSSM. We carry out the analysis using the 2-loop thermal potential for values of the Higgs mass consistent with present experimental bounds. Our approach relies on describing the interaction between the bubble and the hot plasma by a single friction parameter, which we fix by matching to an existing 1-loop computation and extrapolate to our regime of interest. For a sufficiently strong phase transition (in which washout of the newly created baryon asymmetry is prevented) we obtain values of the wall velocity, vw≈0.05, far below the speed of sound in the medium, and not very much deviating from the previous 1-loop calculation. We find that the phase transition is about 10% stronger than suggested by simply evaluating the thermal potential at the critical temperature. We also comment on the relevance of our results to extended models, such as the NMSSM.

  16. IQPNNI: moving fast through tree space and stopping in time.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Le Sy; Von Haeseler, Arndt

    2004-08-01

    An efficient tree reconstruction method (IQPNNI) is introduced to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree based on DNA or amino acid sequence data. Our approach combines various fast algorithms to generate a list of potential candidate trees. The key ingredient is the definition of so-called important quartets (IQs), which allow the computation of an intermediate tree in O(n(2)) time for n sequences. The resulting tree is then further optimized by applying the nearest neighbor interchange (NNI) operation. Subsequently a random fraction of the sequences is deleted from the best tree found so far. The deleted sequences are then re-inserted in the smaller tree using the important quartet puzzling (IQP) algorithm. These steps are repeated several times and the best tree, with respect to the likelihood criterion, is considered as the inferred phylogenetic tree. Moreover, we suggest a rule which indicates when to stop the search. Simulations show that IQPNNI gives a slightly better accuracy than other programs tested. Moreover, we applied the approach to 218 small subunit rRNA sequences and 500 rbcL sequences. We found trees with higher likelihood compared to the results by others. A program to reconstruct DNA or amino acid based phylogenetic trees is available online (http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/iqpnni).

  17. Selective acoustic cues for French voiceless stop consonants.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Anne; Laprie, Yves

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study is to define selective cues that identify only certain realizations of a feature, more precisely the place of articulation of French unvoiced stops, but have every realization identified with a very high level of confidence. The method is based on the delimitation of "distinctive regions" for well chosen acoustic criteria, which contains some exemplars of a feature and (almost) no other exemplar of any other feature in competition. Selective cues, which correspond to distinctive regions, must not be combined with less reliable acoustic cues and their evaluation should be done on reliable elementary acoustic detector outputs. A set of selective cues has been defined for the identification of the place of /p,t,k/, and then tested on a corpus of sentences. The cues were estimated from formant transitions and the transient segment (an automatic segmentation of the transient part of the burst has been designed). About 38% of the feature realizations have been identified by selective cues on the basis of their very distinctive patterns. The error rate, which constitutes the crucial test of our approach, was 0.7%. This opens the way to interesting applications for the improvement of oral comprehension, lexical access, or automatic speech recognition.

  18. A bus stop shelter evaluated from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ely, Vera Helena Moro Bins; de Oliveira, Jonara Machado; Logsdon, Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the current bus stop shelter model used in Florianópolis, Brazil, through a functional analysis--focused in the relationship between the shelter, the users and their activities--and also to analyse users' perceptions. The methodology consisted of exploratory visits, anthropometric analysis, observation and interviews. The exploratory visit intended to survey the physical characteristics of the shelter (dimensions, materials, colors, displayed information) and its position on the sidewalk. The anthropometric analysis was made to verify whether the dimensions of the shelters were adequate to users' needs. The observation provided data for the analysis of users' behavior, which involved a biomechanical study of their postures, an ownership/occupancy analysis in terms of territoriality and studies about spatial requirements of interpersonal relations (proxemics). The interviews helped to analyze how the user perceives the quality of some of the main functions of the shelter: to provide physical and psychological comfort and to display information about the public transportation system. As a result, the overall conclusion is that shelters do not meet users' needs. Recommendations are provided in order to improve physical and psychological comfort and to display relevant information about the transportation system.

  19. Lip kinematics in long and short stop and fricative consonantsa)

    PubMed Central

    Löfqvist, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines lip and jaw kinematics in the production of labial stop and fricative consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. The subjects were speakers of Japanese and Swedish, two languages that have a contrast between short and long consonants. Lip and jaw movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. Based on earlier work showing that the lips are moving at a high velocity at the oral closure, it was hypothesized that speakers could control closure/constriction duration by varying the position of a virtual target for the lips. According to this hypothesis, the peak vertical position of the lower lip during the oral closure/constriction should be higher for the long than for the short consonants. This would result in the lips staying in contact for a longer period. The results show that this is the case for the Japanese subjects and one Swedish subject who produced non-overlapping distributions of closure/constriction duration for the two categories. However, the peak velocity of the lower lip raising movement did not differ between the two categories. Thus if the lip movements in speech are controlled by specifying a virtual target, that control must involve variations in both the position and the timing of the target. PMID:15759706

  20. True stopping of light: a new regime for nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L.; Zhang, Xiang; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-09-01

    The extremely large speed of light is a tremendous asset but also makes it challenging to control, store or shrink beyond its wavelength. Particularly, reducing the speed of light down to zero is of fundamental scientific interest that could usher in a host of important photonic applications, some of which are hitherto fundamentally inaccessible. These include cavity-free, low-threshold nanolasers, novel solar-cell designs for efficient harvesting of light, nanoscale quantum information processing (owing to the enhanced density of states), as well as enhanced biomolecular sensing. We shall here present nanoplasmonic-based schemes where timedependent sources excite "complex-frequency" modes in uniform (plasmonic) heterostructures, enabling complete and dispersion-free stopping of light pulses, resilient to realistic levels of dissipative, radiative and surface-roughness losses. Our theoretical and computational results demonstrate extraordinary large lightdeceleration factors (of the order of 15,000,000) in integrated nanophotonic media, comparable only to those attainable with ultracold atomic vapours or with quantum coherence effects, such as coherent population oscillations, in ruby crystals.

  1. Stopping tuberculosis: a biosocial model for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Salomon, Joshua A; Bärnighausen, Till; Atun, Rifat

    2015-12-05

    Tuberculosis transmission and progression are largely driven by social factors such as poor living conditions and poor nutrition. Increased standards of living and social approaches helped to decrease the burden of tuberculosis before the introduction of chemotherapy in the 1940s. Since then, management of tuberculosis has been largely biomedical. More funding for tuberculosis since 2000, coinciding with the Millennium Development Goals, has yielded progress in tuberculosis mortality but smaller reductions in incidence, which continues to pose a risk to sustainable development, especially in poor and susceptible populations. These at-risk populations need accelerated progress to end tuberculosis as resolved by the World Health Assembly in 2015. Effectively addressing the worldwide tuberculosis burden will need not only enhancement of biomedical approaches but also rebuilding of the social approaches of the past. To combine a biosocial approach, underpinned by social, economic, and environmental actions, with new treatments, new diagnostics, and universal health coverage, will need multisectoral coordination and action involving the health and other governmental sectors, as well as participation of the civil society, and especially the poor and susceptible populations. A biosocial approach to stopping tuberculosis will not only target morbidity and mortality from disease but would also contribute substantially to poverty alleviation and sustainable development that promises to meet the needs of the present, especially the poor, and provide them and subsequent generations an opportunity for a better future.

  2. 46 CFR 32.56-45 - Draft stops-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....56-45 Draft stops—T/ALL. (a) Where ceilings or linings are fitted in accommodation, service, or control spaces, “B” Class bulkheads, except those that form passageways, may stop at the ceiling or lining if draft stops of “B” Class construction are fitted between the ceiling or lining and the deck...

  3. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  4. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  5. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Tonnesen, Alexandra L; Aron, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014). In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post hoc analyses showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings, as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm.

  6. Validity of Bragg's Rule for Heavy-Ion Stopping in Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2003-12-15

    The stopping powers for O, Al, Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in a self-supported SiC film have been measured in transmission geometry over a continuous range of energies using a time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) system. These stopping data, along with the stopping data in Si and C obtained previously using the same ions and measurement technique, are used to assess the validity of the Bragg additivity rule for stopping powers in SiC over a range of ions and energies. Within the experimental uncertainties (±4%), the results indicate that Bragg's rule is valid in SiC for the ion species and energy region studied. The measured stopping powers in C, Si and SiC are also compared with the stopping power predictions of the two most recent versions of the SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) codes. While both versions of SRIM show varying degrees of agreement with the measured stopping data, there are significant deviations of the SRIM predictions for some ions and energy regions.

  7. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  8. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  9. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  10. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  11. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control...

  12. 40 CFR 267.201 - What must I do when I stop operating the tank system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.201 What must I do when I stop operating the tank... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when I stop operating the tank system? 267.201 Section 267.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) One on the traffic side of and 4 paces (approximately 3 meters or 10 feet) from the stopped commercial motor vehicle in the direction of approaching traffic; (ii) One at 40 paces (approximately 30 meters or... paces (approximately 30 meters or 100 feet) from the stopped commercial motor vehicle in the center...

  14. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) One on the traffic side of and 4 paces (approximately 3 meters or 10 feet) from the stopped commercial motor vehicle in the direction of approaching traffic; (ii) One at 40 paces (approximately 30 meters or... paces (approximately 30 meters or 100 feet) from the stopped commercial motor vehicle in the center...

  15. Issues in Education: Epistemology, Phenomenology, and Reflection--A "Stop, Look, and Listen" for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Childhood learning is full of easy-to-remember directions. Recall such advice as "Stop, look, and listen" before one crosses the street and "Stop, drop, and roll" if one's clothes catch on fire. These sayings are clear and concise with specific instruction about what to do in a critical situation. As a teacher educator who has been in the field…

  16. Meeting Employers' Needs: How One-Stop Centers Can Attract Business Customers. Business Assistance Note #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Terri

    The U.S. Department of Labor's One-Stop Career Center initiative is part of the movement of governments to increase the quality and efficiency of their services. One-stop centers bring together public and private resources to meet individuals' and employers' human resource development and labor market needs. In order to meet employers' needs,…

  17. Investigation of the ratio of proton-stopping cross sections in Ag and Au

    SciTech Connect

    Semrad, D.; Golser, R.

    1987-06-01

    Knowledge of the ratio of stopping cross sections may help in determining best values from measurements. The case of Ag and Au is discussed, where theoretical considerations show that this ratio always has a value smaller than 1. This is confirmed experimentally for proton energies larger than 70 keV, in contradiction to all published stopping-power tabulations.

  18. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section. The types of entities that may be selected to be the One-Stop operator... organization (including a community-based organization); (4) A private for-profit entity; (5) A government agency; and (6) Another interested organization or entity. (b) One-Stop operators may be a single...

  19. Quitting Smoking: Strategies Used and Variables Associated with Success in a Stop-Smoking Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Russell E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Participants in a communitywide stop-smoking contest were interviewed for cognitive, behavioral, and general smoking modification strategies used and amount of social support received specific to stopping smoking. Subjects reported using a variety of cognitive strategies but relatively few behavioral techniques during their attempts to quit.…

  20. Perception of Stop Onset Spectra in Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Yue, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify stop consonants from brief onset spectra was compared between a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia (the PD group, with a mean age of 10 years 4 months) and a group of chronological age-matched control children. The linguistic context, which included vowels and speakers, and durations of stop onset spectra…

  1. 78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges... secured before permitting a train to pass a signal that is displaying a stop indication and protecting a..., it was normally left in an open position when not needed in order to allow pleasure craft to...

  2. Spread the Word: The Stop.Think.Connect.[TM] Community Outreach Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Stop.Think.Connect. Community Outreach Toolkit" was adapted from the Federal Trade Commission's "OnGuardOnline.gov," a project that provides practical tips to help guard against Internet fraud and protect your privacy. The kit will help you offer your community information about protecting kids online. It includes "Stop.Think.Connect.," a…

  3. Cross-Language Perception of Word-Final Stops in Thai and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2006-01-01

    This study examined Australian English (AE) and Thai-English bilingual (TE) speakers' ability to perceive word-final stops in their native and non-native languages. In the perception experiment, the TE listeners were able to discriminate stop contrasts differing only in place of articulation (/p/-/t/, /p/-/k/, /t/-/k/) in both English and Thai…

  4. 76 FR 28093 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; One-Stop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ...; One-Stop Workforce Information Grant Plan and Annual Performance Report ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... annual performance report. This information, combined with the continued expectation of customer...: One-Stop Workforce Information Grant Plan and Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number:...

  5. NOW vs. Stop ERA: Unequal Messages on the Equal Rights Amendment, January-June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study examined the content of direct mail materials, distributed by the National Organization for Women (NOW) and Stop ERA groups, favoring or opposing passage of the Equal Rights Amendment. It was expected that NOW's pieces would concentrate on counteracting or counterattacking Stop ERA's arguments against the amendment (military draft, lesbian…

  6. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  7. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  8. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  9. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  10. 20 CFR 408.655 - When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When will we stop making your payments to a representative payee? 408.655 Section 408.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Representative Payment § 408.655 When will we stop making...

  11. Tongue Palate Contact Patterns of Velar Stops in Normal Adult English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent…

  12. Comparing the Performance of Five Multidimensional CAT Selection Procedures with Different Stopping Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Through simulated data, five multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) selection procedures with varying test lengths are examined and compared using different stopping rules. Fixed item exposure rates are used for all the items, and the Priority Index (PI) method is used for the content constraints. Two stopping rules, standard error…

  13. Improving the sensitivity of stop searches with on-shell constrained invariant mass variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Won Sang; Gainer, James S.; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-05-01

    The search for light stops is of paramount importance, both in general as a promising path to the discovery of beyond the standard model physics and more specifically as a way of evaluating the success of the naturalness paradigm. While the LHC experiments have ruled out much of the relevant parameter space, there are "stop gaps", i.e., values of sparticle masses for which existing LHC analyses have relatively little sensitivity to light stops. We point out that techniques involving on-shell constrained M 2 variables can do much to enhance sensitivity in this region and hence help close the stop gaps. We demonstrate the use of these variables for several benchmark points and describe the effect of realistic complications, such as detector effects and combinatorial backgrounds, in order to provide a useful toolkit for light stop searches in particular, and new physics searches at the LHC in general.

  14. Ion Distribution And Electronic Stopping Power For Au ions In Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; Zhu, Zihua; Weber, William J.

    2013-07-15

    Accurate knowledge of ion distribution and electronic stopping power for heavy ions in light targets is highly desired due to the large errors in prediction by the widely used Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code. In this study, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are used as complementary techniques to determine the distribution of Au ions in SiC with energie sfrom 700 keV to 15 MeV. In addition, asingle ion technique with an improved data analysis procedure is applied to measure the electronic stopping power for Au ions in SiC with energies up to ~70 keV/nucleon. Large overestimation of the electronic stopping power is found by SRIM prediction in the low energy regime up to ~50 keV/nucleon. The stopping power data and the ion ranges are crosschecked with each other and a good agreement is achieved.

  15. Lateral bracing of the tongue during the onset phase of alveolar stops: an EPG study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E; Oebels, Judith

    2015-03-01

    Although raising the sides of the tongue to form a seal with the palate and upper teeth--lateral bracing--plays a key role in controlling airflow direction, providing overall tongue stability and building up oral pressure during alveolar consonant production, details of this articulatory gesture remain poorly understood. This study examined the dynamics of lateral bracing during the onset of alveolar stops /t/, /d/, /n/ produced by 15 typical English-speaking adults using electropalatography. Percent tongue palate contact in the lateral regions over a 150-ms period from the preceding schwa to stop closure was measured. Rapid rising of the sides of the tongue from the back towards the front during the 50-ms period before closure was observed, with oral stops showing significantly more contact than nasal stops. This feature corresponds to well-documented formant transitions detectable from acoustic analysis. Possible explanations for increased contact for oral stops and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Stop-Line Crossing Time and Speed at Signalized Intersections.

    PubMed

    Tang, Keshuang; Wang, Fen; Yao, Jiarong; Sun, Jian

    2016-12-23

    In China, a flashing green (FG) indication of 3 s followed by a yellow (Y) indication of 3 s is commonly applied to end the green phase at signalized intersections. Stop-line crossing behavior of drivers during such a phase transition period significantly influences safety performance of signalized intersections. The objective of this study is thus to empirically analyze and model drivers' stop-line crossing time and speed in response to the specific phase transition period of FG and Y. High-resolution trajectories for 1465 vehicles were collected at three rural high-speed intersections with a speed limit of 80 km/h and two urban intersections with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Shanghai. With the vehicle trajectory data, statistical analyses were performed to look into the general characteristics of stop-line crossing time and speed at the two types of intersections. A multinomial logit model and a multiple linear regression model were then developed to predict the stop-line crossing patterns and speeds respectively. It was found that the percentage of stop-line crossings during the Y interval is remarkably higher and the stop-line crossing time is approximately 0.7 s longer at the urban intersections, as compared with the rural intersections. In addition, approaching speed and distance to the stop-line at the onset of FG as well as area type significantly affect the percentages of stop-line crossings during the FG and Y intervals. Vehicle type and stop-line crossing pattern were found to significantly influence the stop-line crossing speed, in addition to the above factors. The red-light-running seems to occur more frequently at the large intersections with a long cycle length.

  17. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Stop-Line Crossing Time and Speed at Signalized Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Keshuang; Wang, Fen; Yao, Jiarong; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In China, a flashing green (FG) indication of 3 s followed by a yellow (Y) indication of 3 s is commonly applied to end the green phase at signalized intersections. Stop-line crossing behavior of drivers during such a phase transition period significantly influences safety performance of signalized intersections. The objective of this study is thus to empirically analyze and model drivers’ stop-line crossing time and speed in response to the specific phase transition period of FG and Y. High-resolution trajectories for 1465 vehicles were collected at three rural high-speed intersections with a speed limit of 80 km/h and two urban intersections with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Shanghai. With the vehicle trajectory data, statistical analyses were performed to look into the general characteristics of stop-line crossing time and speed at the two types of intersections. A multinomial logit model and a multiple linear regression model were then developed to predict the stop-line crossing patterns and speeds respectively. It was found that the percentage of stop-line crossings during the Y interval is remarkably higher and the stop-line crossing time is approximately 0.7 s longer at the urban intersections, as compared with the rural intersections. In addition, approaching speed and distance to the stop-line at the onset of FG as well as area type significantly affect the percentages of stop-line crossings during the FG and Y intervals. Vehicle type and stop-line crossing pattern were found to significantly influence the stop-line crossing speed, in addition to the above factors. The red-light-running seems to occur more frequently at the large intersections with a long cycle length. PMID:28025558

  18. Global Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  19. Reversible airfoils for stopped rotors in high speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Robert; Jacobellis, George; Gandhi, Farhan

    2014-10-01

    This study starts with the design of a reversible airfoil rib for stopped-rotor applications, where the sharp trailing-edge morphs into the rounded leading-edge, and vice-versa. A NACA0012 airfoil is approximated in a piecewise linear manner and straight, rigid outer profile links used to define the airfoil contour. The end points of the profile links connect to control links, each set on a central actuation rod via an offset. Chordwise motion of the actuation rod moves the control and the profile links and reverses the airfoil. The paper describes the design methodology and evolution of the final design, based on which two reversible airfoil ribs were fabricated and used to assemble a finite span reversible rotor/wing demonstrator. The profile links were connected by Aluminum strips running in the spanwise direction which provided stiffness as well as support for a pre-tensioned elastomeric skin. An inter-rib connector with a curved-front nose piece supports the leading-edge. The model functioned well and was able to reverse smoothly back-and-forth, on application and reversal of a voltage to the motor. Navier-Stokes CFD simulations (using the TURNS code) show that the drag coefficient of the reversible airfoil (which had a 13% maximum thickness due to the thickness of the profile links) was comparable to that of the NACA0013 airfoil. The drag of a 16% thick elliptical airfoil was, on average, about twice as large, while that of a NACA0012 in reverse flow was 4-5 times as large, even prior to stall. The maximum lift coefficient of the reversible airfoil was lower than the elliptical airfoil, but higher than the NACA0012 in reverse flow operation.

  20. Global Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30, 2017 More news Who We Are Our Strategy Our Jobs Our Funding Our Leadership Global Health Our Newsletter Where We Work Download Fact Sheets Overseas Rightsizing What CDC Is Doing Who We Are Our Strategy Our Funding Our Partnerships Our Organization Our Leadership ...

  1. Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1989-01-01

    States the foundations of the theory of global warming. Describes methodologies used to measure the changes in the atmosphere. Discusses steps currently being taken in the United States and the world to slow the warming trend. Recognizes many sources for the warming and the possible effects on the earth. (MVL)

  2. Global Warming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Julia Christensen; Brown, Jeff A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information and data on an experiment designed to test whether different atmosphere compositions are affected by light and temperature during both cooling and heating. Although flawed, the experiment should help students appreciate the difficulties that researchers face when trying to find evidence of global warming. (PR)

  3. Global Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1993-01-01

    Global change is a relatively new area of scientific study using research from many disciplines to determine how Earth systems change, and to assess the influence of human activity on these changes. This teaching packet consists of a poster and three activity sheets. In teaching these activities four themes are important: time, change, cycles, and Earth as home.

  4. StopApp: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to Develop an App to Increase Uptake and Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Emily Anne; Brown, Katherine E; Kwah, Kayleigh L; Wild, Sue

    2016-06-08

    Smokers who attend NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are four times more likely to stop smoking; however, uptake has been in decline. We report the development of an intervention designed to increase uptake of SSS, from a more motivated self-selected sample of smokers. In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and Phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis, as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. Relevant Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) were identified in order to address these, informing the content of the StopApp intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the StopApp. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers to attending SSS, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at SSS (Capability); the belief that SSS is not easy to access (Opportunity); that there would be 'scare tactics' or 'nagging'; and not knowing anyone who had been and successfully quit (Motivation). The 'StopApp' is in development and will link in with the commissioned SSS booking system. Examples of the content and functionality of the app are outlined. The next phase will involve a full trial to test effectiveness.

  5. Quasi-static stop band with flexural metamaterial having zero rotational stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joo Hwan; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials realizing stop bands have attracted much attentions recently since they can break-through the well-known mass law. However, achieving the stop band at extremely low frequency has been still a big challenge in the fields of elastic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a new metamaterial based on the idea of the zero rotational stiffness, to achieve extremely low frequency stop band for flexural elastic waves. Unlike the previous ways to achieve the stop band, we found that the zero rotational stiffness can provide a broad stop band at extremely low frequency, which starts from even almost zero frequency. To achieve the zero rotational stiffness, we propose a new elastic metamaterial consisting of blocks and links with the hinge connection. Analytic developments as well as numerical simulations evidence that this new metamaterial can exhibit extremely low and broad stop band, even at the quasi-static ranges. In addition, the metamaterial is shown to exhibit the negative group velocity at extremely low frequency ranges, as well as the quasi-static stop band, if it is properly designed. PMID:27651146

  6. An advanced EPR stopped-flow apparatus based on a dielectric ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassmann, Günter; Schmidt, Peter Paul; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    A novel EPR stopped-flow accessory is described which allows time-dependent cw-EPR measurements of rate constants of reactions involving paramagnetic species after rapid mixing of two liquid reagents. The EPR stopped-flow design represents a state-of-the-art, computer controlled fluid driving system, a miniresonant EPR structure with an integrated small ball mixer, and a stopping valve. The X-band EPR detection system is an improved version of that reported by Sienkiewicz et al. [Rev. Sci. Instr. 65 (1994) 68], and utilizes a resonator with two stacked ceramic dielectric rings separated by a variable spacer. The resonator with the mode TE( H) 011 is tailored particularly for conditions of fast flowing and rapidly stopped aqueous solutions, and for a high time resolution. The short distance between the ball mixer and the small EPR active volume (1.8 μl) yields a measured dead time of 330 μs. A compact assembly of all parts results in minimization of disturbing microphonics. The computer controlled driving system from BioLogic with two independent stepping motors was optimized for EPR stopped-flow with a hard-stop valve. Performance tests on the EPR spectrometer ESP 300E from BRUKER using redox reactions of nitroxide radicals revealed the EPR stopped-flow accessory as an advanced, versatile, and reliable instrument with high reproducibility.

  7. Quasi-static stop band with flexural metamaterial having zero rotational stiffness.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joo Hwan; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-09-21

    Metamaterials realizing stop bands have attracted much attentions recently since they can break-through the well-known mass law. However, achieving the stop band at extremely low frequency has been still a big challenge in the fields of elastic metamaterials. In this paper, we propose a new metamaterial based on the idea of the zero rotational stiffness, to achieve extremely low frequency stop band for flexural elastic waves. Unlike the previous ways to achieve the stop band, we found that the zero rotational stiffness can provide a broad stop band at extremely low frequency, which starts from even almost zero frequency. To achieve the zero rotational stiffness, we propose a new elastic metamaterial consisting of blocks and links with the hinge connection. Analytic developments as well as numerical simulations evidence that this new metamaterial can exhibit extremely low and broad stop band, even at the quasi-static ranges. In addition, the metamaterial is shown to exhibit the negative group velocity at extremely low frequency ranges, as well as the quasi-static stop band, if it is properly designed.

  8. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  9. Are stop codons recognized by base triplets in the large ribosomal RNA subunit?

    PubMed

    Liang, Han; Landweber, Laura F; Fresco, Jacques R

    2005-10-01

    The precise mechanism of stop codon recognition in translation termination is still unclear. A previously published study by Ivanov and colleagues proposed a new model for stop codon recognition in which 3-nucleotide Ter-anticodons within the loops of hairpin helices 69 (domain IV) and 89 (domain V) in large ribosomal subunit (LSU) rRNA recognize stop codons to terminate protein translation in eubacteria and certain organelles. We evaluated this model by extensive bioinformatic analysis of stop codons and their putative corresponding Ter-anticodons across a much wider range of species, and found many cases for which it cannot explain the stop codon usage without requiring the involvement of one or more of the eight possible noncomplementary base pairs. Involvement of such base pairs may not be structurally or thermodynamically damaging to the model. However, if, according to the model, Ter-anticodon interaction with stop codons occurs within the ribosomal A-site, the structural stringency which that site imposes on sense codon.tRNA anticodon interaction should also extend to stop codon.Ter-anticodon interactions. Moreover, with Ter-tRNA in place of an aminoacyl-tRNA, for each of the various Ter-anticodons there is a sense codon that can interact with it preferentially by complementary and wobble base-pairing. Both these considerations considerably weaken the arguments put forth previously.

  10. Understanding depressive rumination from a mood-as-input perspective: effects of stop-rule manipulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C S; Davey, Graham C L; Brewin, Chris R

    2013-06-01

    The current study tested the mood-as-input hypothesis account of perseverative rumination in 25 participants with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and 25 healthy controls. It also examined the factors underlying mood changes within a bout of rumination and their relations with trait rumination and metacognitive beliefs about rumination. A structured rumination interview was used to facilitate participants' reflection on two previous depressive incidents while deploying a specific stop-rule for the task (either a goal-guided or feeling-guided stop-rule). As predicted by the mood-as-input hypothesis, perseveration exhibited by depressed participants was affected by the interaction between diagnosis and stop-rule, with levels of perseveration being greatest when depressed participants used the goal-guided stop-rule. Increases in negative mood over the rumination interview were shown to be influenced only by participants' diagnostic status, regardless of their stop-rule. Compared to healthy controls, depressed participants also reported a preferential use of the goal-guided stop-rule in response to negative mood states in their daily lives. The findings about the dependence of rumination on stop-rule use within the depressed sample support the use of metacognitive treatment approaches in which patients are encouraged to challenge negative beliefs about the controllability of rumination.

  11. Electronic stopping power for heavy ions in SiC and SiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Grove, David A.; Xue, Haizhou; Xue, Jianming; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information of electronic stopping power is fundamental for broad advances in electronic industry, space exploration, national security, and sustainable energy technologies. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) code has been widely applied to predict stopping powers and ion distributions for decades. Recent experimental results have, however, shown considerable errors in the SRIM predictions for stopping of heavy ions in compounds containing light elements, indicating an urgent need to improve current stopping power models. The electronic stopping powers of 35Cl, 80Br, 127I, and 197Au ions are experimentally determined in two important functional materials, SiC and SiO2, from tens to hundreds keV/u based on a single ion technique. By combining with the reciprocity theory, new electronic stopping powers are suggested in a region from 0 to 15 MeV, where large deviations from SRIM predictions are observed. For independent experimental validation of the electronic stopping powers we determined, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are utilized to measure the depth profiles of implanted Au ions in SiC with energies from 700 keV to 15 MeV. The measured ion distributions from both RBS and SIMS are considerably deeper (up to ~30%) than the predictions from the commercial SRIM code. In comparison, the new electronic stopping power values are utilized in a modified TRIM-85 (the original version of the SRIM) code, M-TRIM, to predict ion distributions, and the results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured ion distributions.

  12. 78 FR 13756 - Technical Report: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Technical Report: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for... Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation. ACTION: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating LED Stop...

  13. The Biosurveillance Resource Directory - A One-Stop Shop for Systems, Sources, and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Margevicius, Kristen; Brown, Mac; Castro, Lauren; Daniel, William B.; Generous, Eric N.; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten; Deshpande, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this project is to identify systems and data streams relevant for infectious disease biosurveillance. This effort is part of a larger project evaluating existing and potential data streams for use in local, national, and international infectious disease surveillance systems with the intent of developing tools to provide decision-makers with timely information to predict, prepare for, and mitigate the spread of disease. Introduction Local, national, and global infectious disease surveillance systems have been implemented to meet the demands of monitoring, detecting, and reporting disease outbreaks and prevalence. Varying surveillance goals and geographic reach have led to multiple and disparate systems, each using unique combinations of data streams to meet surveillance criteria. In order to assess the utility and effectiveness of different data streams for global disease surveillance, a comprehensive survey of current human, animal, plant, and marine surveillance systems and data streams was undertaken. Information regarding surveillance systems and data streams has been (and continues to be) systematically culled from websites, peer-reviewed literature, government documents, and subject-matter expert consultations. Methods A relational database has been developed and refined to allow for detailed analyses of data streams and surveillance systems. To maximize the utility of the database and facilitate one-stop-shopping for biosurveillance system information, we have expanded our scope to include not only biosurveillance systems, but also data sources, tools, and biosurveillance collectives. Captured in the information collected about the resource (if available) is the name and acronym of the resource, the date the resource became available, the accessibility of the resource (is it open to all, or are there limitations to access), the primary sponsors, if the resource is associated with GIS functionality, and if the focus is health. Also

  14. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Catherine; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Sandy; Caird, Jenny R; Perlen, Susan M; Eades, Sandra J; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    1.15, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.53). In studies comparing counselling and usual care (the largest comparison), it was unclear whether interventions prevented smoking relapse among women who had stopped smoking spontaneously in early pregnancy (eight studies; average RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.21). However, a clear effect was seen in smoking abstinence at zero to five months postpartum (10 studies; average RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.95), a borderline effect at six to 11 months (six studies; average RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.77), and a significant effect at 12 to 17 months (two studies, average RR 2.20, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.96), but not in the longer term. In other comparisons, the effect was not significantly different from the null effect for most secondary outcomes, but sample sizes were small. Incentive-based interventions had the largest effect size compared with a less intensive intervention (one study; RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.84 to 7.23) and an alternative intervention (one study; RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.48 to 11.11). Feedback interventions demonstrated a significant effect only when compared with usual care and provided in conjunction with other strategies, such as counselling (two studies; average RR 4.39, 95% CI 1.89 to 10.21), but the effect was unclear when compared with a less intensive intervention (two studies; average RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.45 to 3.12). The effect of health education was unclear when compared with usual care (three studies; average RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.59) or less intensive interventions (two studies; average RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.31). Social support interventions appeared effective when provided by peers (five studies; average RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.19), but the effect was unclear in a single trial of support provided by partners. The effects were mixed where the smoking interventions were provided as part of broader interventions to improve maternal health, rather than targeted smoking cessation interventions. Subgroup analyses on primary outcome for

  15. A video-based system for hand-driven stop-motion animation.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoguang; Fu, Hongbo; Zheng, Hanlin; Liu, Ligang; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Stop-motion is a well-established animation technique but is often laborious and requires craft skills. A new video-based system can animate the vast majority of everyday objects in stop-motion style, more flexibly and intuitively. Animators can perform and capture motions continuously instead of breaking them into increments and shooting one still picture per increment. More important, the system permits direct hand manipulation without resorting to rigs, achieving more natural object control for beginners. The system's key component is two-phase keyframe-based capturing and processing, assisted by computer vision techniques. With this system, even amateurs can generate high-quality stop-motion animations.

  16. A stopping theoretic approach to minimal time detection of system parameter change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, Ravi R.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of minimal time detection of abrupt parameter changes in linear stochastic systems considered. The problem is posed as an optimal stopping problem for the detection in change of the induced probability measure. Under the assumption of a prior distribution for the time of change (or disruption) a stopping rule is given which minimizes the average detection delay when there is knowledge of the new measure after the change. When the new induced measure is unknown, a stopping rule is given, based only on the noisy observations and is shown to be better than the a priori knowlege of the disruption time.

  17. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  18. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking.

  19. Optimizing the rapidity limit for nuclear stopping in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel

    2013-03-15

    A systematic study regarding the role of participant matter and spectator matter in nuclear stopping using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is presented. The simulations have been carried out with soft equation of state along with the reduced isospin-dependent cross section to study the effect of different types and sizes of rapidity distributions on nuclear stopping for the whole colliding geometry with density-dependent symmetry energy. In addition to that, we attempt to investigate the role of isospin in heavy-ion collisions by calculating the individual contribution of neutrons and protons in nuclear stopping for different systems having different isotopic content.

  20. Long-lived stop at the LHC with or without R-parity

    SciTech Connect

    Covi, L.; Dradi, F. E-mail: federico.dradi@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2014-10-01

    We consider scenarios of gravitino LSP and DM with stop NLSP both within R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry (RPC and RPV SUSY, respectively). We discuss cosmological bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the gravitino abundance and then concentrate on the signals of long-lived stops at the LHC as displaced vertices or metastable particles. Finally we discuss how to distinguish R-parity conserving and R-parity breaking stop decays if they happen within the detector and how to suppress SM backgrounds.