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Sample records for jonathan stop global

  1. How to stop global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, J. . Dept. de Fisica)

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs.

  2. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  3. The global polio eradication initiative Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program - 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-06-21

    In 1988, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established through a partnership between the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, CDC, and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). By 2012, the annual incidence of polio had decreased by >99%, compared with 1988, and the number of countries in which wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation has never been interrupted was reduced to three: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. However, because of the persistence of endemic WPV transmission and recurring outbreaks in polio-free countries after the original polio eradication target date of 2000, the World Health Assembly in 2012 declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. A key component of GPEI is the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program, which was developed and initiated by CDC with WHO in 1999 to mobilize additional human resources and technical assistance for countries affected by WPV transmission. During 1999-2013, 1,563 volunteers were identified, trained, and deployed for 2,221 assignments in 69 countries. The number of volunteers increased from 90-120 per year during 1999-2011 to 287 in 2012 and 378 in 2013, and the number of volunteer person-months in the field per year increased from 273 in 1999 to 1,456 in 2012. The STOP program has aided GPEI by strengthening the capacity of country-level immunization programs and by allowing a large cohort of volunteers to gain valuable field experience that prepares them well for subsequent work as staff members of WHO, UNICEF, and other public health agencies.

  4. NonStop University: Characteristics of a Global Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NonStop University is an online university community application service designed, developed, and deployed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to serve the computer product training needs of 2,500 staff members in more than 50 countries. By identifying a set of learner characteristics that supported a set of key elements while using technology and focusing on…

  5. Could a future "Grand Solar Minimum" like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2013-05-01

    A future Maunder Minimum type grand solar minimum, with total solar irradiance reduced by 0.25% over a 50 year period from 2020 to 2070, is imposed in a future climate change scenario experiment (RCP4.5) using, for the first time, a global coupled climate model that includes ozone chemistry and resolved stratospheric dynamics (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model). This model has been shown to simulate two amplifying mechanisms that produce regional signals of decadal climate variability comparable to observations, and thus is considered a credible tool to simulate the Sun's effects on Earth's climate. After the initial decrease of solar radiation in 2020, globally averaged surface air temperature cools relative to the reference simulation by up to several tenths of a degree Centigrade. By the end of the grand solar minimum in 2070, the warming nearly catches up to the reference simulation. Thus, a future grand solar minimum could slow down but not stop global warming.

  6. The challenge of sustaining effectiveness over time: the case of the global network to stop tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Quissell, Kathryn; Walt, Gill

    2016-04-01

    Where once global health decisions were largely the domain of national governments and the World Health Organization, today networks of international organizations, governments, private philanthropies and other entities are actively shaping public policy. However, there is still limited understanding of how global networks form, how they create institutions, how they promote and sustain collective action, and how they adapt to changes in the policy environment. Understanding these processes is crucial to understanding their effectiveness: whether and how global networks influence policy and public health outcomes. This study seeks to address these gaps through the examination of the global network to stop tuberculosis (TB) and the factors influencing its effectiveness over time. Drawing from ∼ 200 document sources and 16 interviews with key informants, we trace the development of the Global Partnership to Stop TB and its work over the past decade. We find that having a centralized core group and a strategic brand helped the network to coalesce around a primary intervention strategy, directly observed treatment short course. This strategy was created before the network was formalized, and helped bring in donors, ministries of health and other organizations committed to fighting TB-growing the network. Adaptations to this strategy, the creation of a consensus-based Global Plan, and the creation of a variety of participatory venues for discussion, helped to expand and sustain the network. Presently, however, tensions have become more apparent within the network as it struggles with changing internal political dynamics and the evolution of the disease. While centralization and stability helped to launch and grow the network, the institutionalization of governance and strategy may have constrained adaptation. Institutionalization and centralization may, therefore, facilitate short-term success for networks, but may end up complicating longer-term effectiveness.

  7. Unexpected events induce motor slowing via a brain mechanism for action-stopping with global suppressive effects.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2013-11-20

    When an unexpected event occurs in everyday life (e.g., a car honking), one experiences a slowing down of ongoing action (e.g., of walking into the street). Motor slowing following unexpected events is a ubiquitous phenomenon, both in laboratory experiments as well as such everyday situations, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that unexpected events recruit the same inhibition network in the brain as does complete cancellation of an action (i.e., action-stopping). Using electroencephalography and independent component analysis in humans, we show that a brain signature of successful outright action-stopping also exhibits activity following unexpected events, and more so in blocks with greater motor slowing. Further, using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability, we show that an unexpected event has a global motor suppressive effect, just like outright action-stopping. Thus, unexpected events recruit a common mechanism with outright action-stopping, moreover with global suppressive effects. These findings imply that we can now leverage the considerable extant knowledge of the neural architecture and functional properties of the stopping system to better understand the processing of unexpected events, including perhaps how they induce distraction via global suppression.

  8. Unexpected Events Induce Motor Slowing via a Brain Mechanism for Action-Stopping with Global Suppressive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Aron, Adam R.

    2013-01-01

    When an unexpected event occurs in everyday life (e.g., a car honking), one experiences a slowing down of ongoing action (e.g., of walking into the street). Motor slowing following unexpected events is a ubiquitous phenomenon, both in laboratory experiments as well as such everyday situations, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that unexpected events recruit the same inhibition network in the brain as does complete cancellation of an action (i.e., action-stopping). Using electroencephalography and independent component analysis in humans, we show that a brain signature of successful outright action-stopping also exhibits activity following unexpected events, and more so in blocks with greater motor slowing. Further, using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure corticospinal excitability, we show that an unexpected event has a global motor suppressive effect, just like outright action-stopping. Thus, unexpected events recruit a common mechanism with outright action-stopping, moreover with global suppressive effects. These findings imply that we can now leverage the considerable extant knowledge of the neural architecture and functional properties of the stopping system to better understand the processing of unexpected events, including perhaps how they induce distraction via global suppression. PMID:24259571

  9. Stop TB-Halte à la Tuberculose-Canada: engaging industrialised nations in the challenge to meet global targets.

    PubMed

    Fanning, A; Billo, N; Tannenbaum, T; Phypers, M; Little, C; Graham, B; Mill, J

    2004-01-01

    The Stop TB Partnership has engaged the 22 high-burden countries in a drive toward the goal of finding 70% of cases and curing 85% by 2005. Traditional partners, aid agencies and governments of industrialised nations have joined the Partnership, but the broader range of civil society remains outside the discourse, risking disinterest on the part of the donor community. Stop TB-Halte à la Tuberculose-Canada was organised to engage new partners to support the Canadian government's commitment to the goal of reducing poverty and diseases of poverty, including tuberculosis, by 50% by 2010. The successes and challenges are explored, and the possibility raised that having a Stop TB movement in every country will ensure that support is sustained and goals of global tuberculosis control reached.

  10. Digital Learning Network Event with Robotics Engineer Jonathan Rogers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robotics engineer Jonathan Rogers and Public Affairs Officer Kylie Clem participate in a Digital Learning Network educational event, answering questions from students at Montgomery Middle School in...

  11. The Federal interagency working group on renewable energy: A Federal effort to stop global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Good, L.

    1996-05-01

    Executive Order 12902, issued by President Clinton in March, 1994, requires that Federal agencies shall significantly increase their use of solar and other renewable energy resources that are cost-effective. Renewable energy (1) stops global warming, (2) saves domestic reserves of fossil fuels and (3) eliminates the need for imported oil, which now exceeds 50%. Today, cost effective applications for all renewables do, indeed, exist. The US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) is charged with coordinating efforts among Federal agencies to implement the Executive Order. In mid-1994, FEMP formed the Interagency Renewables Working Group (RWG). What makes it unique and gives it a real chance for success is that it is a partnership of industry, DOE and other Federal agencies. The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has a seat on RWG. This paper describes the approach RWG is taking in dealing with barriers and getting projects {open_quotes}in the ground.{close_quotes} RWG will measure its success by the number of Federal projects it can get into operation and the number of longterm commitments that agencies make to use renewables. Until the barriers to implementation of renewables are correctly identified and dealt with, however, the rest of the plan can only stumble forward. If the Department of Energy survives as a cabinet-level agency until the end of the decade, its Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy budget will be strong enough to sustain RWG`s activity. Assuming success, this Federal effort will jump start the market. The Government`s mass buying power will drive prices down and make renewable technologies affordable and familiar to the public.

  12. Implementing the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2011–2015 – Optimizing Allocations and the Global Fund’s Contribution: A Scenario Projections Study

    PubMed Central

    Korenromp, Eline L.; Glaziou, Philippe; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Floyd, Katherine; Hosseini, Mehran; Raviglione, Mario; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. We estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Using Global Plan assumptions on expected cases and mortality, we estimate treatment costs and mortality impact for diagnosis and treatment for drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), including antiretroviral treatment (ART) during DOTS for HIV-co-infected patients, for four country groups, overall and for the Global Fund investments. In 2015, China and India account for 24% of funding need, Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) for 33%, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for 20%, and other low- and middle-income countries for 24%. Scale-up of MDR-TB treatment, especially in EECA, drives an increasing global TB funding need – an essential investment to contain the mortality burden associated with MDR-TB and future disease costs. Funding needs rise fastest in SSA, reflecting increasing coverage need of improved TB/HIV management, which saves most lives per dollar spent in the short term. The Global Fund is expected to finance 8–12% of Global Plan implementation costs annually. Lives saved through Global Fund TB support within the available funding envelope could increase 37% if allocations shifted from current regional demand patterns to a prioritized scale-up of improved TB/HIV treatment and secondly DOTS, both mainly in Africa − with EECA region, which has disproportionately high per-patient costs, funded from alternative resources. Conclusions/Significance These findings, alongside country funding gaps, domestic funding and implementation capacity and equity considerations, should inform strategies and policies for international donors, national governments and disease

  13. WHO's End TB Strategy: From stopping to ending the global TB epidemic.

    PubMed

    Uplekar, Mukund; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The 67th World Health Assembly of 2014 adopted the "End TB Strategy" with a vision of making the world free of tuberculosis (TB) and with the goal of ending the global TB epidemic by the year 2035. World Health Organization's "End TB Strategy" captures this holistic response in its four principles and three pillars. The three high-level indicators of the "End TB Strategy" - reductions in TB deaths, reductions in the TB incidence rate and the percentage of TB patients and their households experiencing catastrophic costs - are relevant to all countries.

  14. The Ties that Bind: A Response to Jonathan Jansen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehoole, Chika Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In his critique of academic writing about and public consumption of government policy and law, Jonathan Jansen uses his argument of the symbolic functions of education law and education policy as a basis for explaining the lack of progress in achieving equity and justice under "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) in the United States and the lack…

  15. Reflections on Jonathan Boston's Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nesta Devine responds to Jonathan Boston's article "Child Poverty in New Zealand: Why It Matters and How It Can Be Reduced" ("Educational Philosophy and Theory," v46 n9 p995-999, 2014). Devine wishes to consider Boston's position from two angles: one is to rehearse the point that these statistics are…

  16. Savage Exaggerations: Worshiping the Cosmology of Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.

    2006-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has made a good living talking with students. His books chronicle travels among poor, minority children, most of them African Americans in struggling public schools. In the four decades that Kozol, now 70, has been writing books--11 so far--his message has hardly wavered: minority children are unsuccessful because rich, white…

  17. Modeling Civic Engagement: A Student Conversation with Jonathan Kozol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thacker, Peter; Christen, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol's visit to Portland, Oregon, in April 2005 included a dialogue with 55 urban middle and high school students about inequities in American schools. Students left this conversation with a stronger sense of the systemic impediments to equal education. They also felt that their voice had been heard on a topic of national import. This…

  18. California: 'the Stem Cell State'. Interview with Jonathan Thomas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    We talked to Jonathan Thomas, newly elected Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), a few weeks into a role he describes as "the opportunity of the lifetime" to find out what he sees as the key goals for the CIRM and why patient advocates are so critical to the future of the Institute. Jonathan Thomas was elected as Chairman of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) in June 2011, succeeding the Founder and former Chairman, Bob Klein. Thomas has had a successful career in finance and law and is a Co-Founding Partner at Saybrook Capital, an investment banking and private equity firm. His commitment to patient advocacy and keen interest in biological sciences, developed as a Biology Major at Yale, led him to stand for Chairman. PMID:21999272

  19. The Next Stop of One-Stop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouman, Penny; Gomber, Gerri; Higgs, Ronnie; Westman, Craig

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the migration of the best practices of a one-stop setup to a communication center allowing for a one-stop shop experience via phone. Specifically, the article describes how enrollment managers at Ferris State University chose elements of their one-stop student service center to migrate into the Enrollment Services…

  20. The Devil in Mr. Smith: A Conversation with Jonathan Z. Smith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jonathan Z.; Pearson, Thomas; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Jensen, Tim; Fujiwara, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    This interview was recorded in November 2012 in Jonathan Z. Smith's Hyde Park graystone. Professor Smith offers insights into how he thinks about his classroom teaching and his students' learning through descriptions of various assignments and classroom activities he has developed over more than forty years of teaching. The discussion…

  1. A Pragma-Stylistic Analysis of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan Inaugural Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Eromosele John

    2012-01-01

    The study was an examination through the pragma-stylistic approach to meaning of the linguistic acts that manifest in the Inaugural Speech of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan as the democratically elected president in May 2011 General Elections in Nigeria. Hence, the study focused on speech acts type of locution, illocutionary and perlocutionary in the…

  2. Political Identity and Moral Education: A Response to Jonathan Haidt's "The Righteous Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    In "The Righteous Mind," Jonathan Haidt claims that liberals have a narrower moral outlook than conservatives--they are concerned with fairness and relief of suffering, which Haidt sees as individualistic values, while conservatives care about authority and loyalty too, values concerned with holding society together. I question…

  3. Loss, Failure, and an Awful Reputation: A Response to Jonathan Silin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Clare

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author responds to Jonathan Silin's article "At a Loss: Scared and Excited", and in doing so, takes up his ideas around the generative potential of loss. She uses these notions of loss to illuminate how, in one diverse school community in Australia, loss, failure and an "awful reputation" have opened up spaces for re-imagining…

  4. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer... exemption from licensing for the Troy Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 13381, originally issued December...

  5. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. Methods We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Findings Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133), lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089), lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048), and a lower proportion of low

  6. When holding your horses meets the deer in the headlights: time-frequency characteristics of global and selective stopping under conditions of proactive and reactive control

    PubMed Central

    Lavallee, Christina F.; Meemken, Marie T.; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Huster, Rene J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to inhibit unwanted thoughts or actions is crucial for successful functioning in daily life; however, this ability is often impaired in a number of psychiatric disorders. Despite the relevance of inhibition in everyday situations, current models of inhibition are rather simplistic and provide little generalizability especially in the face of clinical disorders. Thus, given the importance of inhibition for proper cognitive functioning, the need for a paradigm, which incorporates factors that will subsequently improve the current model for understanding inhibition, is of high demand. A popular paradigm used to assess motor inhibition, the stop-signal paradigm, can be modified to further advance the current conceptual model of inhibitory control and thus provide a basis for better understanding different facets of inhibition. Namely, in this study, we have developed a novel version of the stop-signal task to assess how preparation (that is, whether reactive or proactive) and selectivity of the stopping behavior effect well-known time-frequency characteristics associated with successful inhibition and concomitant behavioral measures. With this innovative paradigm, we demonstrate that the selective nature of the stopping task modulates theta and motoric beta activity and we further provide the first account of delta activity as an electrophysiological feature sensitive to both manipulations of selectivity and preparatory control. PMID:25540615

  7. Stopping movements: when others slow us down.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Catmur, Caroline; Sowden, Sophie; Ianì, Francesco; Becchio, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has shown that performing joint actions can lead to the representation of both one's own and others' actions. In the present study we explored the influence of co-representation on response stopping. Are joint actions more difficult to stop than solo actions? Using a variation of the stop-signal task, we found that participants needed more time to stop a planned joint action compared with a planned solo action (Experiment 1). This effect was not observed when participants performed the task in the presence of a passive observer (Experiment 2). A third transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that joint stopping recruited a more selective suppression mechanism than solo stopping. Taken together, these results suggest that participants used a global inhibition mechanism when acting alone; however, they recruited a more selective and slower suppression mechanism when acting with someone else.

  8. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features on this page, ... Why Do You Want to Stop Taking This Medicine? Write down all of the reasons you want ...

  9. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  10. Stopping Speech Suppresses the Task-Irrelevant Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Weidong; Oldenkamp, Caitlin L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    Some situations require one to quickly stop an initiated response. Recent evidence suggests that rapid stopping engages a mechanism that has diffuse effects on the motor system. For example, stopping the hand dampens the excitability of the task-irrelevant leg. However, it is unclear whether this "global suppression" could apply across wider motor…

  11. Nuclear stopping power

    SciTech Connect

    WA80 Collaboration

    1991-12-31

    Estimators of the stopping power and the attainable energy density in high energy p+A and A+A collisions are discussed. Scaling laws for the stopping power and the energy densities are derived based on a phenomenological parameterization of transverse energy data from the WA80 collaborations at CERN. The shortcomings of the widely used Bjorken formula are discussed.

  12. Field trip stop descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummedal, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen sites within the channeled scabland were selected as stops with the dual aim of visiting locations critical to the arguments for a catastrophic flood origin of the scablands, as well as permitting an examination of the variability in both erosional and depositional features. The stop locations are plotted on a generalized geologic map and their coordinates are given in table form.

  13. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  14. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  15. Stop, Breathe & Think app.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Natalie

    2014-07-15

    The Stop, Breathe & Think app is free, thanks to underwriting from Tools for Peace, the non-profit organisation that teaches people of all ages how to develop and apply kindness and compassion in their daily lives.

  16. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  17. A Persistent Reformer: Jonathan Kozol's Work to Promote Equality in America. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Kozol has been a leading educational critic and social activist since 1967 when "Death at an Early Age," his book about racism in Boston's schools, was published and won a National Book Award. Since then, Kozol has written eleven more books which focus on such issues as segregation in schools and society, poverty, inequitable school…

  18. 76 FR 31955 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the... an Expedited Schedule for Processing Take notice that the following hydroelectric application...

  19. Teaching Eighteenth-Century Poetic Satire with a Competency-Based Approach: Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modia, María Jesús Lorenzo; Álvarez, Begoña Lasa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to analyse the teaching of literature with a competency-based approach. This is exemplified by means of a thorough study of a poetic duel between two relevant eighteenth-century writers, Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and more specifically, by means of the satires entitled respectively "The Lady's…

  20. Monitoring methods and predictive models for water status in Jonathan apples.

    PubMed

    Trincă, Lucia Carmen; Căpraru, Adina-Mirela; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Volf, Irina; Chiruţă, Ciprian

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of water status in Jonathan apples was performed for 20 days. Loss moisture content (LMC) was carried out through slow drying of wholes apples and the moisture content (MC) was carried out through oven drying and lyophilisation for apple samples (chunks, crushed and juice). We approached a non-destructive method to evaluate LMC and MC of apples using image processing and multilayer neural networks (NN) predictor. We proposed a new simple algorithm that selects the texture descriptors based on initial set heuristically chosen. Both structure and weights of NN are optimised by a genetic algorithm with variable length genotype that led to a high precision of the predictive model (R(2)=0.9534). In our opinion, the developing of this non-destructive method for the assessment of LMC and MC (and of other chemical parameters) seems to be very promising in online inspection of food quality.

  1. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  2. Sneaky light stop

    SciTech Connect

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  3. Sneaky light stop

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  4. Quick stop device

    DOEpatents

    Hipwell, Roger L.; Hazelton, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    A quick stop device for abruptly interrupting the cutting of a workpiece by a cutter is disclosed. The quick stop device employs an outer housing connected to an inner workpiece holder by at least one shear pin. The outer housing includes an appropriate shank designed to be received in the spindle of a machine, such as a machine tool. A cutter, such as a drill bit, is mounted in a stationary position and the workpiece, mounted to the workpiece holder, is rotated during engagement with the cutter. A trigger system includes at least one spring loaded punch disposed for movement into engagement with the workpiece holder to abruptly stop rotation of the workpiece holder. This action shears the shear pin and permits continued rotation of the spindle and outer housing without substantially disturbing the chip root formed during cutting.

  5. Time to Stop Quarreling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    1981-01-01

    Education, it is suggested, ranks low in order of priority during an economic crunch and has lost much of its aura. Management and employees in education must stop fighting each other, organize, rally constituencies, and defend the traditional American commitment to education. (Author/MLW)

  6. Gradually Acting Shaft Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanism brakes rotation with minimal shock. Balls rising on spiral ramp generate large axial force on brake friction plates, thereby generating large braking torque. Counter triggers rise of ball. Brake used to automatically stop control mechanisms on aircraft and ships. Serves as spindle brake on machine tool. On robot, prevents overtravel of arm or holds it in fixed position.

  7. One-stop shopping.

    PubMed

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  8. Optimizing stop naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymant, Chris

    2012-12-01

    In supersymmetric models, a large average stop mass MS is well known to both boost the lightest Higgs boson mass mh and also make radiative electroweak symmetry breaking unnaturally tuned. The case of “maximal mixing,” where the stop trilinear mixing term At is set to give At2/MS2=6, allows the stops to be as light as possible for a given mh. Here we make the distinction between minimal MS and optimal naturalness, showing that the latter occurs for less-than-maximal mixing. Lagrange-constrained optimization reveals that the two coincide closely in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM)—optimally we have 5stop-mass eigenvalues mt˜2-mt˜1 is shown to be unconstrained by naturalness considerations.

  9. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  10. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day.

  11. [Jonathan Swift's asylum in Dublin--Ireland's introduction to institutional psychiatry 250 years ago].

    PubMed

    Reuber, M

    1995-09-01

    250 years ago, the satirical writer and clergyman Jonathan Swift from Dublin (1667-1745) founded the first Irish lunatic asylum. Rejecting the theories put forward by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the doctor Thomas Willis, he was influenced by the ideas of the Scottish doctor and the "enlightened" thinker John Locke. Swift's St. Patrick's Hospital did not, however, realise a new philosophical concept: architecture and therapeutic approach of the new institution were clearly modelled on the much older Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem ( = Bedlam). Despite its conservative conceptual basis, the first institution dedicated to the mentally ill and intellectually subnormal in Ireland became a starting point for the apparantly unstoppable expansion of the, at one time, most comprehensive asylum system in the world. After Swift's Hospital had been enlarged twice at the tax-payers' expense (1778, 1793), the administration decided to relieve the institution by erecting the Richmond Asylum (1810), the first public asylum in Ireland. When this establishment also became overcrowded, in 1817, legislation was passed which led to the establishment of the oldest system of public asylums in Europe.

  12. Language and memory disorder in the case of Jonathan Swift: considerations on retrospective diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    The cause of behavioural changes described by Alzheimer for his original case, Auguste D., has been recently reconfirmed by histological examination. However, there has been active speculation regarding the cause of behavioural changes exhibited by the political satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) during the final three years of his life for over 250 years. Swift's symptoms of cognitive changes, memory impairment, personality alterations, language disorder and facial paralysis have all been apportioned differing levels of significance in various attempts at retrospective diagnosis. The various medical arguments put forward from the 18th through 20th centuries will be critically examined. The diagnoses considered refer to evolving theories of insanity, phrenology, localization of cortical function, hydrocephalus, psychoanalysis, aphasia, dementia and depression in ageing. Re-consideration of the attempts to re-diagnose Swift's final mental state by the leading neurological thinkers of the day, including Wilde (The Closing Years of Dean Swift's Life. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1849), Bucknill (1882), Osler [Osler's textbook Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892); published in St Thomas's Hospital Gazette (London) 1902; 12: 59-60), Brain (Irish Med J 1952: 320-1 and 337-346) and Boller and Forbes (J Neurol Sci 1998; 158: 125-133) reveal the changing attitudes regarding the significance of behavioural symptoms to neurological diagnosis from the 18th century to the present day. PMID:17028310

  13. Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864) and his recognition of conduction aphasia in 1834.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    2011-03-01

    In 1833 an accomplished 26-year-old linguist suffered a non-paralytic stroke. After he recovered, though he could utter a variety of syllables with ease, he spoke an unintelligible jargon that caused him to be mistaken as a foreigner. He was examined repeatedly over the course of a year by Jonathan Osborne (1794-1864), a Dublin physician and professor of materia medica, who found that the patient understood whatever was said to him, that he could read and write fluently, but had difficulty repeating words read to him or in reading aloud. Osborne recommended that he learn to speak English, his natural language, de novo and over 8 months measured his considerable improvement. To explain the patient's singular difficulty in repeating spoken words Osborne argued it was 'highly probable that, having been conversant with five languages, the muscular apparatus ranged among them, forming a kind of polyglot jargon [that was] wholly unintelligible' and the patient was 'unable to penetrate into and select the contents of the store according as the [words] were required'. The discrepancy between comprehension and repetition was later termed conduction aphasia. PMID:21052861

  14. Acquisition of initial /s/-stop and stop-/s/ sequences in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Syrika, Asimina; Nicolaidis, Katerina; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work on children’s acquisition of complex sequences points to a tendency for affricates to be acquired before clusters, but there is no clear evidence of a difference in order of acquisition between clusters with /s/ that violate the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP), such as /s/ followed by stop in onset position, and other clusters that obey the SSP. One problem with studies that have compared the acquisition of SSP-obeying and SSP-violating clusters is that the component sounds in the two types of sequences were different. This paper examines the acquisition of initial /s/-stop and stop-/s/ sequences by sixty Greek children aged 2 through 5 years. Results showed greater accuracy for the /s/-stop relative to the stop-/s/ sequences, but no difference in accuracy between /ts/, which is usually analyzed as an affricate in Greek, and the other stop-/s/ sequences. Moreover, errors for the /s/-stop sequences and /ts/ primarily involved stop substitutions, whereas errors for /ps/ and /ks/ were more variable and often involved fricative substitutions, a pattern which may have a perceptual explanation. Finally, /ts/ showed a distinct temporal pattern relative to the stop-/s/ clusters /ps/ and /ks/, similarly to what has been reported for productions of Greek adults. PMID:22070044

  15. Deciding where to Stop Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tydgat, Ilse; Stevens, Michael; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether speakers strategically decide where to interrupt their speech once they need to stop. We conducted four naming experiments in which pictures of colored shapes occasionally changed in color or shape. Participants then merely had to stop (Experiment 1); or they had to stop and resume speech (Experiments 2-4). They…

  16. Launch Pad Tour Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Launch Pad tour stop at the Mississippi I-10 Welcome Center in Hancock County, Miss., is the point of origin for all tours of Stennis Space Center and StenniSphere. At the Launch Pad, visitors waiting to catch the shuttle buses are provided information and can see videos on StenniSphere exhibits and on the missions and programs of Stennis Space Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, and buses depart from the Launch Pad to StenniSphere every 15 to 20 minutes.

  17. Baryon stopping probes deconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Stopping and baryon transport in central relativistic Pb + Pb and Au + Au collisions are reconsidered with the aim to find indications for the transition from hadronic to partonic processes. At energies reached at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ( √{s_{NN}} = 6.3-17.3 GeV) and at RHIC (62.4 GeV) the fragmentation-peak positions as obtained from the data depend linearly on the beam rapidity and are in agreement with earlier results from a QCD-based approach that accounts for gluon saturation. No discontinuities in the net-proton fragmentation peak positions occur in the expected transition region from partons to hadrons at 6-10GeV. In contrast, the mean rapidity loss is predicted to depend linearly on the beam rapidity only at high energies beyond the RHIC scale. The combination of both results offers a clue for the transition from hard partonic to soft hadronic processes in baryon stopping. NICA results could corroborate these findings.

  18. Acoustic correlates of Georgian stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, Tamra M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents results from an acoustic analysis of Georgian stops. Georgian is a South Caucasian language and has a three-way opposition among voiced, voiceless aspirated, and ejective stops for three places of articulation: bilabial, dental, and velar. Tokens consist of initial and medial stops in isolated words produced by two male and two female native Georgian speakers. Closure duration, VOT, and burst amplitude were measured using waveforms, spectrograms, and FFTs. The voice quality of adjacent vowels was examined for possible consonantal effects (e.g., creaky voicing adjacent to ejectives). Additional observations included noise characteristics during closure and following oral release. Results show much variation in the realizations of stops both within and across speakers. While a general trend exists for VOT and burst amplitude to differentiate initial voiced and voiceless stops, values of voiceless aspirated and ejective stops overlap. In intervocalic stops, VOT and burst amplitude are more variable. Closure duration remains fairly stable across the three stop categories. Noise quality following oral release and, to some extent, voice quality of a following vowel more consistently distinguish the three stop types in both positions than do the quantitative measures. These characteristics are further discussed in relation to similar cross-linguistic studies.

  19. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  20. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences. PMID:23908778

  1. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  2. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  3. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  4. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  5. 49 CFR 236.741 - Distance, stopping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distance, stopping. 236.741 Section 236.741... Distance, stopping. The maximum distance on any portion of any railroad which any train operating on such... stop....

  6. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  7. The Effects of Prompting and Feedback on Drivers' Stopping at Stop Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, John; Hackett, Stacey; Gravina, Nicole; Lebbon, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Complete stops at a high-traffic intersection on the campus of a public university were increased with a prompting and consequence intervention. Data were collected at two opposing stop signs (Stop A and Stop B); however, the intervention was implemented only at Stop A. During the intervention, a volunteer stood next to Stop A holding a poster…

  8. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Haisch, Ulrich; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-09-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops {tilde{t}}_1 , making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are {tilde{t}}_1to t{tilde{χ}}_1^0 , {tilde{t}}_1to W b{tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 . We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 in a model-independent fashion, revealing that a large parameter space region with stop mass values {m_{tilde{t}}}{_1} up to 530 GeV is excluded for any {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 branching ratio by LHC Run I data. The impact of {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 decays is further illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 bounds are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing can lead to an increase in the allowed parameter space by at most 35%, with large areas excluded for arbitrary mixing.

  9. 47 CFR 5.308 - Stop buzzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop buzzer. 5.308 Section 5.308... Licenses § 5.308 Stop buzzer. A “Stop Buzzer” point of contact must be identified and available at all times during operation of each experiment conducted under a program license. A “stop buzzer” point...

  10. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics... Systems § 23.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic surface controlled by the system. (b) Each stop must be located so...

  11. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics... Systems § 23.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic surface controlled by the system. (b) Each stop must be located so...

  12. 47 CFR 5.308 - Stop buzzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop buzzer. 5.308 Section 5.308... Licenses § 5.308 Stop buzzer. A “Stop Buzzer” point of contact must be identified and available at all times during operation of each experiment conducted under a program license. A “stop buzzer” point...

  13. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics... Systems § 23.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic surface controlled by the system. (b) Each stop must be located so...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Stop request. 1192.37 Section... Systems § 1192.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option... requesting stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a...

  15. Having a goal to stop action is associated with advance control of specific motor representations.

    PubMed

    Claffey, Michael P; Sheldon, Sarah; Stinear, Cathy M; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge "sets up" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation.

  16. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  17. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  18. Mixing stops at the LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find thatmore » they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.« less

  19. Mixing stops at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of a light stop NLSP in the presence of large mixing with either the first or the second generation. R-symmetric models provide a prime setting for this scenario, but our discussion also applies to the MSSM when a significant amount of mixing can be accommodated. In our framework the dominant stop decay is through the flavor violating mode into a light jet and the LSP in an extended region of parameter space. There are currently no limits from ATLAS and CMS in this region. We emulate shape-based hadronic SUSY searches for this topology, and find that they have potential sensitivity. If the extension of these analyses to this region is robust, we find that these searches can set strong exclusion limits on light stops. If not, then the flavor violating decay mode is challenging and may represent a blind spot in stop searches even at 13 TeV. Thus, an experimental investigation of this scenario is well motivated.

  20. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  1. Acquisition of Initial /s/-Stop and Stop-/s/ Sequences in Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrika, Asimina; Nicolaidis, Katerina; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on children's acquisition of complex sequences points to a tendency for affricates to be acquired before clusters, but there is no clear evidence of a difference in order of acquisition between clusters with /s/ that violate the Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP), such as /s/ followed by stop in onset position, and other clusters…

  2. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  3. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kompaneets, Roman Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  4. Apparatus for stopping a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Wattenburg, Willard H.; McCallen, David B.

    2007-03-20

    An apparatus for externally controlling one or more brakes on a vehicle having a pressurized fluid braking system. The apparatus can include a pressurizable vessel that is adapted for fluid-tight coupling to the braking system. Impact to the rear of the vehicle by a pursuit vehicle, shooting a target mounted on the vehicle or sending a signal from a remote control can all result in the fluid pressures in the braking system of the vehicle being modified so that the vehicle is stopped and rendered temporarily inoperable. A control device can also be provided in the driver's compartment of the vehicle for similarly rendering the vehicle inoperable. A driver or hijacker of the vehicle preferably cannot overcome the stopping action from the driver's compartment.

  5. Positive Stop For Circulation-Control Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, David; Cullen, Laurence

    1992-01-01

    Rounded shoulder on bushing ensures repeatable stop position. Improved stop mechanism allows airflow slot on circulation-control airfoil to be limited to precise width. Shoulder bushing installed in duct so shoulder rests on inside surface of duct. Bolt slides in bushing in duct wall between more open and less open positions. No relative motion or wear between bolt and slot panel. Prevents bushing from being dislodged by stop forces and provides stiffer stopping surface than sleeve bushing bonded in duct wall.

  6. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stops. 29.675 Section 29.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motionof the pilot's controls. (b)...

  7. Quality of "Glottal" Stops in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; van As-Brooks, C. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of "glottal" stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized "glottal" stops in abutting words that end and begin…

  8. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable...

  9. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable...

  10. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stops. 29.675 Section 29.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motionof the pilot's controls. (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 27.675 Section 27.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of the pilot's controls. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stops. 27.675 Section 27.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of the pilot's controls. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stops. 27.675 Section 27.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of the pilot's controls. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 29.675 Section 29.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motionof the pilot's controls. (b)...

  15. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop request. 38.37 Section 38.37 Transportation... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option, vehicles in excess of 22 feet in length shall...

  16. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stops. 29.675 Section 29.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motionof the pilot's controls. (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stops. 27.675 Section 27.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of the pilot's controls. (b)...

  18. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.675 Stops. (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option... requesting stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option... requesting stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option... requesting stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may board or alight at multiple stops at their option... requesting stops and which alerts the driver that a mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a...

  3. On the Natural History of Preaspirated Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation makes two contributions, one empirical, the other theoretical. Empirically, the dissertation deepens our understanding of the lifecycle and behavior of the preaspirated stop, an extremely rare phonological feature. I show that in most confirmed cases, preaspirated stops develop from earlier voiceless geminate stops, less commonly…

  4. Stopping Rules for Turbo Decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matache, A.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.

    2000-04-01

    Decoders for turbo codes are iterative in nature, i.e., they have to perform a certain number of iterations before reaching a satisfactory degree of confidence regarding a frame to be decoded. Until now standard turbo decoders have used a fixed number of iterations. In this article, we propose some simple "stopping rules" that can be used to reduce the average number of iterations. This technique offers a trade-off between speed and performance and can provide a significant increase in the average decoding speed while not sacrificing decoder performance. We tested several types of stopping rules for turbo decoders. One type is based on comparing decoded bits (hard bit decisions) with previous decoded bits; a second type is based on comparing reliabilities (soft bit decisions) with a threshold; and a third type uses a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code applied to hard decoded bits. We simulated turbo decoder performance using these rules (including several variations of t he first two types) and further required that the decoder cease after 20 iterations if the stopping rule is not yet satisfied. Specifically, we analyzed the decoder-error rates and the average number of iterations for each rule. We found that the average number of iterations was roughly between 4 and 7 for a bit signal-to-noise ratio, E_b/N_0, near the "waterfall" threshold, as compared with the 10 fixed iterations used by the current turbo decoder. In addition, the resulting error rates were noticeably lower than those for 10 fixed iterations, and in fact were very nearly equal to the error rates achieved by a decoder using 20 fixed iterations.

  5. Opportunity Bounces to a Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this close-up view of the path Opportunity took when it landed at Meridiani Planum, Mars, a computer-generated red line shows the spacecraft's bounce motions as it landed at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The spacecraft bounced north approximately 26 times while safely encased in airbags, until it came to a stop inside the crater to the right of the image. The red line is superimposed on a mosaic of the three images taken during descent by the descent image motion estimation system camera, located on the bottom of the lander.

  6. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  7. Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Lempa, Jukka

    2012-10-15

    We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.

  8. GPM's Last Stop Before Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Art Azarbarzin, NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission project manager, and Mashahiro Kojima, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's GPM/DPR project manager, reflect on the long journey ...

  9. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Roy H.; Mazzella, Andrew L.; Martikainen, Anu L.

    2015-01-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing PMID:26379366

  10. Finite seismic source inferred from stopping phases - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, P.; Růžek, B.

    2009-04-01

    Seismic activity in West Bohemia region is the most important seismic phenomenon in the territory of the Czech Republic. It is continuously monitored by WEBNET seismic network and consequently, the seismic records are object of intensive studies. However, due to "continuous" data flow and remarkable event number (up to 10E4), data processing is mostly oriented on routine and/or semi-automatic operation (events identification, location, bulletin compilation, etc) or on some global statistic features as e.g. temporal-spatial distribution of released energy. Detailed study on seismic source maybe therefore performed on selected sets of relatively strong events: we have identified and interpreted stopping phases. Stopping phases theory supposes radiation of seismic waves from a planar finite source in such a way, that effectively only 3 points along the source area contribute to the waveform: (i) first arrival wave, which corresponds to the start of the rupture process, and (ii) two so called stopping phases, which correspond to stopping points situated on the edge of the ruptured source area. Following inversion is based on kinematic principles, since timing of stopping phases and first arrivals must hold relations given by the geometry of the seismic source, measuring geometry, and by delays introduced by the considered velocity model (approach by Imanishi and Takeo, 1998, 2002). We have developed and tested computer code based on above mentioned theory, tested the code using synthetic data (finite seismic kinematic model designated by Boathwright, 1980, was considered) and performed pilot calculations of real data. It follows from the first calculations: the inversion itself is more or less routine process, but the identification of stop phases in the seismogram is rather problematic and must be done interactively for each of processed event. As the stop phases identification and their picking is crucial in our case, computer tools has been developed to be user

  11. Evidence for capacity sharing when stopping

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2016-01-01

    Research on multitasking indicates that central processing capacity is limited, resulting in a performance decrement when central processes overlap in time. A notable exception seems to be stopping responses. The main theoretical and computational accounts of stop performance assume that going and stopping do not share processing capacity. This independence assumption has been supported by many behavioral studies and by studies modeling the processes underlying going and stopping. However, almost all previous investigations of capacity sharing between stopping and going have manipulated the difficulty of the go task while keeping the stop task simple. In the present study, we held the difficulty of the go task constant and manipulated the difficulty of the stop task. We report the results of four experiments in which subjects performed a selective stop–change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the go response if invalid signals occurred. In the consistent-mapping condition, the valid signal stayed the same throughout the whole experiment; in the varied-mapping condition, the valid signal changed regularly, so the demands on the rule-based system remained high. We found strong dependence between stopping and going, especially in the varied-mapping condition. We propose that in selective stop tasks, the decision to stop or not will share processing capacity with the go task. This idea can account for performance differences between groups, subjects, and conditions. We discuss implications for the wider stop-signal and dual-task literature. PMID:26036922

  12. Alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    Three designs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for a 100,000 high earth orbit are considered with particular attention given to the evaluation of the aperture stop position. The choice of aperture stop position will be based on stray light considerations which are being studied concurrently. It is noted that there are advantages in cost, mass, and astronomical aperture to placing the aperture stop at or near the primary mirror, if the stray light circumstances allow.

  13. All in One Stop? The Accessibility of Work Support Programs at One-Stop Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Elise; Kubo, Hitomi; Frank, Abbey

    The accessibility of work support programs at one-stop centers was examined in a study during which 33 telephone directors or managers of one-stop centers in 22 states were interviewed by telephone. The interviews established the existence of extensive differences between one-stop centers from the standpoint of all aspects of their operation,…

  14. Predictability Influences Stopping and Response Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian; Nagelkerke, Paul; Kingstone, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Using a continuous tracking task, the authors examined whether stopping is resistant to expectancies as well as whether it is a representative measure of response control. Participants controlled the speed of a moving marker by continuously adjusting their response force. Participants stopped their ongoing tracking in response to auditory signals…

  15. 49 CFR 236.815 - Stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop. 236.815 Section 236.815 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.815 Stop. As...

  16. 49 CFR 236.815 - Stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop. 236.815 Section 236.815 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.815 Stop. As...

  17. 49 CFR 236.815 - Stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop. 236.815 Section 236.815 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.815 Stop. As...

  18. 49 CFR 236.815 - Stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop. 236.815 Section 236.815 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.815 Stop. As...

  19. 49 CFR 236.815 - Stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop. 236.815 Section 236.815 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.815 Stop. As...

  20. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  1. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop request. 38.37 Section 38.37 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers...

  2. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  3. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 27.675 Section 27.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... stop must be located in the system so that the range of travel of its control is not...

  4. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  5. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 29.675 Section 29.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... stop must be located in the system so that the range of travel of its control is not...

  6. 14 CFR 25.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 25.675 Section 25.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  8. 14 CFR 23.675 - Stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stops. 23.675 Section 23.675 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... airplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand...

  9. The psychological refractory period of stopping.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Gernot

    2003-10-01

    The author examined whether the act of control of stopping is subject to the psychological refractory period (PRP) and whether stopping causes a PRP for the processing of subsequent stimuli. The task was to execute or to stop a rapid finger tapping. PRP interference was predicted for double-stimulation trials, in which 2 signals to tap or stop were presented in rapid succession. The experiments showed that stopping ongoing action is subject to and produces PRP interference similar to starting. Responses to signals to continue an ongoing action do not produce PRP interference. The results suggest that selection or initiation of new responses, but not mere response choice, constituted the processing bottleneck that caused the PRP in the present task. Further results indicate that the inhibition of not-yet-executed actions, in contrast to action termination, does not suffer PRP interference and that response inhibitions and terminations should be distinguished. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  10. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation.

  11. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Jan R.; O’Doherty, John P.; Berkebile, Michael M.; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification – the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli – could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In two experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders, and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation. PMID:25313953

  12. A light stop with a heavy gluino: enlarging the stop gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Kevin F.; Terning, John

    2016-05-01

    It is widely thought that increasing bounds on the gluino mass, which feeds down to the stop mass through renormalization group running, are making a light stop increasingly unlikely. Here we present a counter-example. We examine the case of the Minimal Composite Supersymmetric Standard Model which has a light composite stop. The large anomalous dimension of the stop from strong dynamics pushes the stop mass toward a quasi-fixed point in the infrared, which is smaller than standard estimates by a factor of a large logarithm. The gluino can be about three times heavier than the stop, which is comparable to hierarchy achieved with supersoft Dirac gluino masses. Thus, in this class of models, a heavy gluino is not necessarily indicative of a heavy stop.

  13. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  14. Research to stop tobacco deaths.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek; Pratt, Angela; Glynn, Thomas J; Reddy, K Srinath

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world's first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes).

  15. Research to stop tobacco deaths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, governments adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, the world’s first global health treaty. In the decade since the treaty was adopted by 178 member states of the World Health Organization, there have been substantial achievements in reducing tobacco use around the world. Research and evidence on the impact of interventions and policies have helped drive this policy progress. An increased and sustained focus on research is needed in the future to ensure that the gains of the global tobacco control movement are maintained, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, which are affected most strongly by the tobacco epidemic. In addition to current priorities, greater attention is needed to research related to trade agreements, prevention among girls, and the appropriate response to nicotine-based noncombustibles (including e-cigarettes). PMID:24886401

  16. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  17. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  18. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation stop stations. 111.103-7 Section 111.103-7...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-7 Ventilation stop stations. Each ventilation stop... Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  19. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors.

  20. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #16: POTENTIAL HEALTH IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE FOR THE UNITED STATES, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORT OF THE HEALTH SECTOR OF THE U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health sector assessment was sponsored by and conducted in partnership with EPA's Global Change Research Program. The report was produced by a Health Sector Work Group, co-chaired by Dr. Jonathan Patz (Johns Hopkins University) and Dr. Michael McGeehin (CDC), and this report ...

  1. Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D. J.; Sutter, R. W.; Dowdle, W. R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1988 reported polio cases worldwide have declined by about 85% and the number of known or suspected polioendemic countries has decreased from over 120 to less than 50. With eradication of poliomyelitis approaching, issues potentially affecting when and how vaccination against poliovirus can be stopped become extremely important. Because of the potential risks and benefits inherent in such a decision, the best available science, a risk-benefit analysis, contingency plans, a stock pile of poliovirus vaccines, and the endorsement by the global policy-making committees will all be needed before vaccination can be discontinued. The scientific basis for stopping polio immunization has been reviewed by WHO. This Round Table article summarizes the current state of knowledge, provides an update on the processes and timelines for certification, containment, and stopping vaccination, and highlights some of the unanswered scientific questions that will be addressed by further research. These include whether transmission of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains could be sustained so that poliomyelitis could re-emerge in a future unvaccinated population and whether prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus from individuals with immune deficiencies could be a mechanism through which this could occur. PMID:10812731

  2. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  3. Does tranexamic acid stop haemoptysis?

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Christian Arvei; Burrell, Amy; Dunning, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Does tranexamic acid stop haemoptysis’? Altogether 49 papers were found using the reported search strategy, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This consisted of one systematic review including a meta-analysis of two double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the two RCTs, one cohort study, two case-series and seven case reports. Main outcomes included bleeding time, bleeding volume and occurrence of thromboembolic complications after start of treatment. Based on results from the meta-analysis, no difference in remission of bleeding within 1 week was found between tranexamic acid (TA) and placebo groups (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI: 0.44–5.46). However, overall bleeding time was significantly shorter for the TA group (weighted mean difference −19.47, 95% CI: −26.90, −12.03 h). In one RCT, TA reduced both the duration and the volume of bleeding compared with patients receiving placebo (both P < 0.0005). However, the other RCT failed to find a difference in bleeding time (P = 0.2). In these studies, no patient suffered from thromboembolic complications. Two case reports, however, describe development of pulmonary embolism during TA treatment. Several case reports on the use of TA for treatment of haemoptysis secondary to cystic fibrosis were found. In general, they suggest that TA may be a useful and well-tolerated medication for the treatment of intractable haemoptysis in this patient group. We conclude that limited research on the use of TA for treatment of haemoptysis exists. As aetiology of haemoptysis as well as length of treatment, dosage and form of TA administration varied between the studies, strong recommendations are difficult to give

  4. Inhibitory motor control based on complex stopping goals relies on the same brain network as simple stopping.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Much research has modeled action-stopping using the stop-signal task (SST), in which an impending response has to be stopped when an explicit stop-signal occurs. A limitation of the SST is that real-world action-stopping rarely involves explicit stop-signals. Instead, the stopping-system engages when environmental features match more complex stopping goals. For example, when stepping into the street, one monitors path, velocity, size, and types of objects and only stops if there is a vehicle approaching. Here, we developed a task in which participants compared the visual features of a multidimensional go-stimulus to a complex stopping-template, and stopped their go-response if all features matched the template. We used independent component analysis of EEG data to show that the same motor inhibition brain network that explains action-stopping in the SST also implements motor inhibition in the complex-stopping task. Furthermore, we found that partial feature overlap between go-stimulus and stopping-template led to motor slowing, which also corresponded with greater stopping-network activity. This shows that the same brain system for action-stopping to explicit stop-signals is recruited to slow or stop behavior when stimuli match a complex stopping goal. The results imply a generalizability of the brain's network for simple action-stopping to more ecologically valid scenarios.

  5. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may... mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a system shall provide auditory and visual indications that...

  6. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may... mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a system shall provide auditory and visual indications that...

  7. 49 CFR 38.37 - Stop request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.37 Stop request. (a) Where passengers may... mobility aid user wishes to disembark. Such a system shall provide auditory and visual indications that...

  8. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on how to stop Why is it hard to quit using smokeless tobacco? Like cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (snuff or chewing tobacco) contains ...

  9. What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Events What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Before the ... City and Texas – mainly among groups with low vaccination rates. If vaccination rates dropped to low levels ...

  10. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Return to: What Communities Can Do What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? A variety of ... Prosecution of offenders Assistance with obtaining restitution Support Services When abuse or neglect is related to the ...

  11. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  12. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  13. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control. PMID:27047324

  14. Why does continental convergence stop

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.

  15. Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

  16. Stopping is not an option: the evolution of unstoppable motion elements (primitives).

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Ronen; Chaim, Eliyahu; Flash, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Stopping performance is known to depend on low-level motion features, such as movement velocity. It is not known, however, whether it is also subject to high-level motion constraints. Here, we report results of 15 subjects instructed to connect four target points depicted on a digitizing tablet and stop "as rapidly as possible" upon hearing a "stop" cue (tone). Four subjects connected target points with straight paths, whereas 11 subjects generated movements corresponding to coarticulation between adjacent movement components. For the noncoarticulating and coarticulating subjects, stopping performance was not correlated or only weakly correlated with motion velocity, respectively. The generation of a straight, point-to-point movement or a smooth, curved trajectory was not disturbed by the occurrence of a stop cue. Overall, the results indicate that stopping performance is subject to high-level motion constraints, such as the completion of a geometrical plan, and that globally planned movements, once started, must run to completion, providing evidence for the definition of a motion primitive as an unstoppable motion element.

  17. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  18. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  19. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  20. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in... intermediate stop is permitted between that place and its secondary hub. (b) In Alaska, more than...

  1. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  2. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in... intermediate stop is permitted between that place and its secondary hub. (b) In Alaska, more than...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  4. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in... intermediate stop is permitted between that place and its secondary hub. (b) In Alaska, more than...

  5. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accelerate-stop distance. 23.55 Section 23... Accelerate-stop distance. For each commuter category airplane, the accelerate-stop distance must be determined as follows: (a) The accelerate-stop distance is the sum of the distances necessary to—...

  6. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  7. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in... intermediate stop is permitted between that place and its secondary hub. (b) In Alaska, more than...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  9. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  10. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  11. 14 CFR 398.8 - Number of intermediate stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Number of intermediate stops. 398.8 Section... Number of intermediate stops. (a) Except in Alaska, no more than one intermediate stop is permitted in... intermediate stop is permitted between that place and its secondary hub. (b) In Alaska, more than...

  12. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping... stop stations. In lieu of the remote stopping systems required by subpart 111.103 of this chapter, remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for...

  13. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  14. 49 CFR 236.783 - Point, stop-indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Point, stop-indication. 236.783 Section 236.783... Point, stop-indication. As applied to an automatic train stop or train control system without the use of roadway signals, a point where a signal displaying an aspect requiring a stop would be located....

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced draft... service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  16. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping... stop stations. In lieu of the remote stopping systems required by subpart 111.103 of this chapter, remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for...

  17. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accelerate-stop distance. 23.55 Section 23... Accelerate-stop distance. For each commuter category airplane, the accelerate-stop distance must be determined as follows: (a) The accelerate-stop distance is the sum of the distances necessary to—...

  18. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping... stop stations. In lieu of the remote stopping systems required by subpart 111.103 of this chapter, remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for...

  19. 46 CFR 169.692 - Remote stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote stop stations. 169.692 Section 169.692 Shipping... stop stations. In lieu of the remote stopping systems required by subpart 111.103 of this chapter, remote stop stations must be provided as follows: (a) A propulsion shutdown in the pilothouse for...

  20. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  1. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-work orders. 42.1303... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of Work 42.1303 Stop-work orders. (a) Stop-work orders may be used, when appropriate, in any...

  2. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  3. Models of Response Inhibition in the Stop-Signal and Stop-Change Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    The stop-signal paradigm is very useful for the study of response inhibition. Stop-signal performance is typically described as a race between a go process, triggered by a go stimulus, and a stop process, triggered by the stop signal. Response inhibition depends on the relative finishing time of these two processes. Numerous studies have shown that the independent horse-race model of Logan and Cowan (1984) accounts for the data very well. In the present article, we review the independent horse-race model and related models, such as the interactive horse-race model (Boucher, Palmeri, Logan & Schall, 2007). We present evidence that favors the independent horse-race model but also some evidence that challenges the model. We end with a discussion of recent models that elaborate the role of a stop process in inhibiting a response. PMID:18822313

  4. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  5. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1988-01-01

    A series of lubricating plugs is located in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are placed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  6. Rotor self-lubricating axial stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of lubricating plugs are disposed in the stationary backup face adjacent to the axial stop face of a rotating impeller mounted in a turbopump for pumping liquid oxygen or liquid hydrogen. The stop face and the backup face are those surfaces which engage when the axial load on the impeller exceeds the load balancing capability. The plugs have a truncated conical configuration so as to be trapped in the backup face, and are disposed at varying radii on the face to provide complete surface lubrication. The plugs may be formed from Teflon, Kel-F or bronze filled Teflon.

  7. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S. cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E. coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  8. New Stopping Criteria for Segmenting DNA Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentian

    2001-06-18

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian information criterion in the model selection framework. When this criterion is applied to telomere of S.cerevisiae and the complete sequence of E.coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified, and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  9. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  10. Evaluating the Effects of Traffic on Driver Stopping and Turn Signal Use at a Stop Sign: A Systematic Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebbon, Angela R.; Austin, John; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, Louis E.

    2007-01-01

    The current analyses of observational data found that oncoming traffic substantially affected driver stopping patterns and turn signal use at the target stop sign. The percentage of legal stops and turn signal use by drivers in the presence and absence of traffic was analyzed using a multi-element design. The results showed that legal stops were…

  11. Effects of Stop-Signal Probability in the Stop-Signal Paradigm: The N2/p3 Complex Further Validated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramautar, J.R.; Kok, A.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of frequency of occurrence of stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Presenting stop signals less frequently resulted in faster reaction times to the go stimulus and a lower probability of inhibition. Also, go stimuli elicited larger and somewhat earlier P3 responses when stop signals occurred…

  12. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; Plum, Michael A; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Jacobs, Lorelei L; Lu, Wei; McTeer, Stephen Mark

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  13. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  14. Stop Rape Crisis Center: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    An exemplary project, the Stop Rape Crisis Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, which was initially funded by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), is described. Issues addressed include the following: (1) initlal start-up and continuing program assessment; (2) staffing and the use of volunteers; (3) coordination with law enforcement…

  15. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  16. Brownian Optimal Stopping and Random Walks

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberton, D.

    2002-06-05

    One way to compute the value function of an optimal stopping problem along Brownian paths consists of approximating Brownian motion by a random walk. We derive error estimates for this type of approximation under various assumptions on the distribution of the approximating random walk.

  17. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  19. Proton Stopping Power in Warm Dense Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew; Chen, Sophia; Atzeni, Stefano; Gauthier, Maxence; Mangia, Feliciana; Marquès, Jean-Raphaël; Riquier, Raphaël; Fuchs, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) research is fundamental to many fields of physics including fusion sciences, and astrophysical phenomena. In the WDM regime, particle stopping-power differs significantly from cold matter and ideal plasma due to free electron contributions, plasma correlation effects and electron degeneracy. The creation of WDM with temporal duration consistent with the particles probes is difficult to achieve experimentally. The short-pulse laser platform allows for the production of WDM along with relatively short bunches of protons compatible of such measurements, however, until recently, the intrinsic broadband proton spectrum was not well suited to investigate the stopping power directly. This difficulty has been overcome using a novel magnetic particle selector (ΔE/E = 10%) to select protons (in the range 100-1000 keV) as demonstrated with the ELFIE laser in LULI, France. These protons bunches probe high-density (5 × 1020 cm-3) gases (H, He) heated by a nanosecond laser to reach estimated temperatures above 100 eV. Measurement of the proton energy loss within the heated gas allows the stopping power to be determined quantitatively. The experimental results in cold matter are compared to preexisting models to give credibility to the measurement technique. The results from heated matter show that the stopping power of 450 keV protons is dramatically reduced within heated hydrogen plasma.

  20. From Stopping to Viscosity in Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Barker, Brent; Shi Lijun

    2009-05-07

    Data on stopping in intermediate-energy central heavy-ion collisions are analyzed following transport theory based on the Boltzmann equation. In consequence, values of nuclear shear viscosity are inferred. The inferred values are significantly larger than obtained for free nucleon dispersion relations and free nucleon-nucleon cross sections.

  1. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    PubMed

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing. PMID:27160368

  2. A simplified piping support system with seismic limit stops: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H.; McLean, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    An innovative method has been developed for providing seismic support to nuclear power plant piping. The method, called the Simplified Pipe Support System (SPSS), is based on the concept of permitting free thermal expansion but limiting seismic displacement through the use of pipe support stops with large clearances (Seismic Stops). The Seismic Stops are simple passive supports and are intended to replace the active snubbers that currently used through the nuclear industry. The development program reported here consisted of establishing a practical analytical method for determining the global nonlinear impact response; characterizing the local impact behavior; evaluating its applicability to current ASME Code criteria; demonstrating the concept through full-scale shake table testing; and lastly; verificating analysis methods by comparison to test data and to analyses of actual piping systems. 19 refs., 43 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Sex between men in the context of HIV: The AIDS 2008 Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture in health and human rights

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been among the most affected populations by HIV since the AIDS pandemic was first identified in the 1980s. Evidence from a wide range of studies show that these men remain at the highest risk for HIV acquisition in both developed and developing countries, and that despite three decades of evidence of their vulnerability to HIV, they remain under-served and under-studied. Prevention strategies targeted to MSM are markedly under-funded in most countries, leading to limited access to health services including prevention, treatment, and care. We explore the global epidemic among MSM in 2008, the limited funding available globally to respond to these epidemics, and the human rights contexts and factors which drive HIV spread and limit HIV responses for these men. What do we mean by the term MSM? MSM is a construct from the 1990s that tries to capture behavior and not identity. It was crafted to avoid stigmatizing and culturally laden terms such as gay or bisexual, which do not capture the wide diversity of orientations, sexual practices, cultures, and contextual settings in which male same-sex behaviors occur, and where HIV transmission and acquisition risks are centered. MSM includes both gay and non-gay identified men, bisexual men, and MSM who identify themselves as heterosexuals. It also includes men engaging in "situational" sex between men, such as can occur in prisons, schools, militaries or other environments; and it includes male sex workers who may be of any orientation but are often at very high risk for HIV. MSM may include some biologically male transgender persons, though some do not identify as male. And MSM includes a wide array of traditional and local terms worldwide–with enormous cultural diversity in Asia, Africa, Latin America and elsewhere. We use the term MSM here at its most inclusive. PMID:19108725

  4. [Medical criteria of delaying or stopping imprisonment].

    PubMed

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Sliwka, Karol

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the subject's ability to undergo imprisonment and determining whether there are any reasons for delaying or stopping imprisonment, has become a serious problem. Currently the Polish system lacks clear and homogenous opinionating criteria, and the available sources provide only general guidelines. This results in a great deal of discrepancy between opinions and evaluations made in similar cases. This work attempts to define and illustrate the criteria of the Executive Penal Code that are used in evaluating whether imprisonment is to be delayed or stopped. The authors have also provided examples of illnesses that would illustrate those definitions/criteria and came up with a suggested procedure of decision-making to be applied to such cases.

  5. Stopping is not an option: the evolution of unstoppable motion elements (primitives)

    PubMed Central

    Chaim, Eliyahu; Flash, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Stopping performance is known to depend on low-level motion features, such as movement velocity. It is not known, however, whether it is also subject to high-level motion constraints. Here, we report results of 15 subjects instructed to connect four target points depicted on a digitizing tablet and stop “as rapidly as possible” upon hearing a “stop” cue (tone). Four subjects connected target points with straight paths, whereas 11 subjects generated movements corresponding to coarticulation between adjacent movement components. For the noncoarticulating and coarticulating subjects, stopping performance was not correlated or only weakly correlated with motion velocity, respectively. The generation of a straight, point-to-point movement or a smooth, curved trajectory was not disturbed by the occurrence of a stop cue. Overall, the results indicate that stopping performance is subject to high-level motion constraints, such as the completion of a geometrical plan, and that globally planned movements, once started, must run to completion, providing evidence for the definition of a motion primitive as an unstoppable motion element. PMID:26041827

  6. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  7. Beam Stop For High-Power Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermid, Iain S.; Williamson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Graphite/aluminum plate absorbs most of light. Beam stop fits on standard optical mounting fixture. Graphite plate thick enough to absorb incident laser beam but thin enough to transfer heat quickly to heat sink. Device used for variety of blocking purposes. For example, blocks laser beam after it passes through experimental setup, or at each stage of setup so stages checked and tested in sequence. Negligible reflectance of device is valuable safety feature, protecting both users and equipment from reflections.

  8. Can your nurses stop a surgeon?

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Matthew

    2007-09-01

    With an "audacious" attitude, leaders at Advocate Health Care have set out to create a culture of safety that permeates every level of the organization. The initiative, inspired by work at Sentara Healthcare, gives all employees the power to stop any action they think might harm a patient or co-worker. More importantly, it creates a work environment in which critical thinking is as routine as breathing.

  9. Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husseyin, Sema; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclocopter system can use two or more rotating blades to create lift, propulsion and control. This system is explored for its use in a mission to Venus. Cyclocopters are not limited to speed and altitude and can provide 360 degrees of vector thrusting which is favorable for good maneuverability. The novel aspect of this study is that no other cyclocopter configuration has been previously proposed for Venus or any (terrestrial or otherwise) exploration application where the cyclocopters rotating blades are stopped, and act as fixed wings. The design considerations for this unique planetary aerial vehicle are discussed in terms of implementing the use of a cyclorotor blade system combined with a fixed wing and stopped rotor mechanism. This proposed concept avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional-rotor stopped-rotor concepts and accounts for the high temperature, pressure and atmospheric density present on Venus while carrying out the mission objectives. The fundamental goal is to find an ideal design that implements the combined use of cyclorotors and fixed wing surfaces. These design concepts will be analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics tool RotCFD for aerodynamic assessment. Aspects of the vehicle design is 3D printed and tested in a small water tunnel or wind tunnel.

  10. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droese, C.; Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lautenschläger, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Schweikhard, L.; Simon, V. V.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a 219Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of 219Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  11. The acoustic qualities of Embera Katio stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Gisella Teresa Velez

    Embera Katío is a Chocó language of Colombia. This thesis presents the results of an acoustic analysis of the stops as produced by speakers from the departments of Córdoba and Antioquia. The analysis of the stops allows me to establish more conclusively their actual physical correlates and corresponding phonological categories. Five male adult native speakers of Embera Katío were recorded on location. Each one pronounced sixty-one words in a constant sentential frame, five times each. The utterances were analyzed acoustically, measuring duration, formant onset time, pre-voicing, and burst. Analysis of the data verifies that Embera Katío has three series of stops: aspirated, unaspirated and voiced. There are clear indications of systematic variation between the Katío of Córdoba and the Katío of Antioquia. As found in other languages, duration of the closure is the longest for bilabials and the shortest for velars. Conversely, FOT is the shortest for bilabials and the longest for velars. A preceding nasal vowel correlates with longer duration and shorter FOT. The most significant finding that differs from widespread tendencies in the world's languages is the fact that stress correlates with shorter FOT.

  12. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  13. 51. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from hill at intersection of Union Avenue and loop to tour stop 3, looking nw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  14. 7. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Tour stop 2, Illinois Monument and Shirley House from hill at intersection of Union Avenue and loop to tour stop 3, looking NW. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  15. CDC Vital Signs: New Hope for Stopping HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1.27 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips New Hope for Stopping HIV Testing and Medical Care ... AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and early death. There's new hope today for stopping HIV in the US. ...

  16. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  17. Post-Stop-Signal Adjustments: Inhibition Improves Subsequent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Performance in the stop-signal paradigm involves a balance between going and stopping, and one way that this balance is struck is through shifting priority away from the go task, slowing responses after a stop signal, and improving the probability of inhibition. In 6 experiments, the authors tested whether there is a corresponding shift in…

  18. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  19. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  20. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  1. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  2. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418... Construction § 1926.1418 Authority to stop operation. Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined...

  4. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  5. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  7. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418... Construction § 1926.1418 Authority to stop operation. Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined...

  9. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418... Construction § 1926.1418 Authority to stop operation. Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined...

  11. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to stop operation. 1926.1418 Section 1926.1418... Construction § 1926.1418 Authority to stop operation. Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined...

  13. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  14. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  15. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accelerate-stop distance. 23.55 Section 23... Accelerate-stop distance. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For each commuter category airplane, the accelerate-stop distance must be determined as follows: (a) The...

  16. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  17. Sensitivity to Phonological Universals: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamási, Katalin; Berent, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that syllables like "bdam" (with stop-stop clusters) are less preferred than "bzam" (with stop-fricative combinations). Here, we demonstrate that English speakers manifest similar preferences despite no direct experience with either structure. Experiment 1 elicited syllable count for auditory…

  18. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  19. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  20. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accelerate-stop distance. 23.55 Section 23... Accelerate-stop distance. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the accelerate-stop distance must be determined...

  1. 14 CFR 23.55 - Accelerate-stop distance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accelerate-stop distance. 23.55 Section 23... Accelerate-stop distance. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the accelerate-stop distance must be determined...

  2. 49 CFR 236.826 - System, automatic train stop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train stop. 236.826 Section 236... § 236.826 System, automatic train stop. A system so arranged that its operation will automatically result in the application of the brakes until the train has been brought to a stop....

  3. 46 CFR 64.41 - Stop valve closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop valve closure. 64.41 Section 64.41 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.41 Stop valve closure. A stop valve that operates by a...

  4. 32 CFR 636.30 - Stopping, standing and parking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stopping, standing and parking. 636.30 Section 636.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... Stewart, Georgia § 636.30 Stopping, standing and parking. (a) Drivers will not stop, park, or...

  5. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  6. 48 CFR 52.242-15 - Stop-Work Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stop-Work Order. 52.242-15... Stop-Work Order. As prescribed in 42.1305(b), insert the following clause. The 90-day period stated in the clause may be reduced to less than 90 days. Stop-Work Order (AUG 1989) (a) The Contracting...

  7. Some New Results on Stopping Power for Fast Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Helmut

    2009-03-10

    Using our large collection of experimental stopping power data, we compare these data with various theories and stopping codes, in order to judge the quality of both data and theories. We discuss the influence of the state of aggregation of the target upon stopping power, and the importance of choosing the best value of the ionization potential of water for medical applications.

  8. Stop feeling: inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    PubMed Central

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Cohen, Noga; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion. PMID:23503817

  9. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  10. A Class of Solvable Stopping Games

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Luis H. R.

    2008-12-15

    We consider a class of Dynkin games in the case where the underlying process evolves according to a one-dimensional but otherwise general diffusion. We establish general conditions under which both the value and the saddle point equilibrium exist and under which the exercise boundaries characterizing the saddle point strategy can be explicitly characterized in terms of a pair of standard first order necessary conditions for optimality. We also analyze those cases where an extremal pair of boundaries exists and investigate the overall impact of increased volatility on the equilibrium stopping strategies and their values.

  11. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi-Hsin Lee, Meng-Jung Hung, Weilun Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Chen, Yong-Fan

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  12. To Stop or Not to Stop--Kinematics and the Yellow Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, J. Fred

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exercise involving the use of kinematics to decide if one should stop or try and get through an intersection when the traffic light turns yellow. Gives students' experience in recording data, doing simple calculations and connecting classroom studies to real world experiences. (Author/SK)

  13. Stop and Think about Basal Ganglia Functional Organization: The Pallido-Striatal "Stop" Route.

    PubMed

    Deffains, Marc; Iskhakova, Liliya; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-20

    The "arkypallidal" neurons of the globus pallidus (external segment) emit feedback GABAergic projections to the striatum. In this issue of Neuron, Mallet et al. (2016) show that "arkypallidal" neurons provide a Stop signal, suppressing the development of Go-related striatal activity. PMID:26796685

  14. Repetition priming in the stop signal task: the electrophysiology of sequential effects of stopping.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, J F E; Roger, C; Assecondi, S; Verbruggen, F; Fias, W

    2012-10-01

    Inhibition of a response affects the processing of subsequent stimuli. When a response has to be made to a stimulus to which a response was previously inhibited, response time increases. In this study, we investigated the neurophysiological underpinnings of this repetition priming phenomenon. We aimed at distinguishing between two possible mechanisms. Firstly, it could be that slowing after a successful inhibition trial originates at the response execution level and is due to the reactivation of the system responsible for motor inhibition interfering with execution of the go response. The second possibility is that interference occurs at the more abstract level of conflicting action goals or plans (i.e. "stop" and "go") that are activated prior to response execution. We analyzed activity over primary motor cortices and the parietal cortex in a stop signal task. Stimulus repetition led to a decrease in activity over primary motor cortices but irrespective of history of stopping. Stopping on the previous trial did affect the stimulus-locked parietal P300 only on repetition of the stimulus, mimicking the behavioral pattern. Furthermore, the P300 was lateralized and affected by both stimulus onset and response time, suggesting that the interference caused by inhibition priming is situated between stimulus perception and response execution. Taken together, these findings show that the prolonged response times to a stimulus that was previously successfully inhibited to, do not originate from reactivated suppression of motor output, but are caused by interference between a stop and a go goal in parietal cortex that hampers translation from stimulus to response.

  15. Polio eradication in Nigeria and the role of the National Stop Transmission of Polio program, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Ohuabunwo, Chima J; Nguku, Patrick M; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Wiesen, Eric S; Vertefeuille, John; Townes, Debra; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gassasira, Alex; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammad, Ado J G; Elmousaad, Hashim A; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    To strengthen the Nigeria polio eradication program at the operational level, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program was established in July 2012 as a collaborative effort of the National Primary Health Care Development Agency, the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since its inception, N-STOP has recruited and trained 125 full-time staff, 50 residents in training, and 50 ad hoc officers. N-STOP officers, working at national, state, and district levels, have conducted enumeration outreaches in 46,437 nomadic and hard-to-reach settlements in 253 districts of 19 states, supported supplementary immunization activities in 236 districts, and strengthened routine immunization in 100 districts. Officers have also conducted surveillance assessments, outbreak response, and applied research as needs evolved. The N-STOP program has successfully enhanced Global Polio Eradication Initiative partnerships and outreach in Nigeria, providing an accessible, flexible, and culturally competent technical workforce at the front lines of public health. N-STOP will continue to respond to polio eradication program needs and remain a model for other healthcare initiatives in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  16. Stop outbreak of SARS with infrared cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yigang M.

    2004-04-01

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as Atypical Pneumonia in mainland China) caused 8422 people affected and resulting in 918 deaths worldwide in half year. This disease can be transmitted by respiratory droplets or by contact with a patient's respiratory secretions. This means it can be spread out very rapidly through the public transportations by the travelers with the syndrome. The challenge was to stop the SARS carriers traveling around by trains, airplanes, coaches and etc. It is impractical with traditional oral thermometers or spot infrared thermometers to screen the tens of travelers with elevated body temperature from thousands of normal travelers in hours. The thermal imager with temperature measurement function is a logical choice for this special application although there are some limitations and drawbacks. This paper discusses the real SARS applications of industrial infrared cameras in China from April to July 2003.

  17. Stop motion microphotography of laser driven plates

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Trott, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    Laser driven plates have been used for several years for high velocity shock wave and impact studies. Recent questions about the integrity and ablation rates of these plates coupled with an improved capability for microscopic stop motion photography led to this study. For these experiments, the plates were aluminum, coated on the ends of optical fibers. A high power laser pulse in the fiber ionizes the aluminum at the fiber/coating interface. The plasma thus created accelerates the remaining aluminum to high velocities, several kilometers per second. We defined {open_quotes}thick{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}thin{close_quotes} coatings as those where a flying plate (flyer) was launched vs. the material being completely ionized. Here we were specifically interested in the thick/thin boundary to develop data for the numerical models attempting to predict flyer behavior.

  18. Inhibitory Effects on Response Force in the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yao-Ting; Alsford, Toni; Miller, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The forcefulness of key press responses was measured in stop-all and selective stopping versions of the stop-signal paradigm. When stop signals were presented too late for participants to succeed in stopping their responses, response force was nonetheless reduced relative to trials in which no stop signal was presented. This effect shows that…

  19. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H. James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Rubin, Edward

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  20. The Stop Smoking Before Surgery Program

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Seaton, Cherisse L.; Viney, Nancy; Stolp, Sean; Krueckl, Sandra; Holm, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the impact of a Stop Smoking Before Surgery (SSBS) program in a health authority where responsibility for surgical services is shared by health professionals in regional centers and outlying communities. Methods: A between-subjects, pre-post mixed method program evaluation was conducted. Elective surgery patients at 2 Northern Canadian hospitals were recruited and surveyed at 2 time points: pre-SSBS implementation (n = 150) and 1 year post-SSBS implementation (n = 90). In addition, semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of participants (n = 18). Results: Participants who received information about stopping smoking before surgery post-SSBS implementation were more likely than expected to have reduced their smoking, χ2(1, 89) = 10.62, P = .001, and had a significantly higher Awareness of Smoking-Related Perioperative Complications score than those that were advised to quit smoking prior to SSBS implementation (U = 1288.0, P < .001). Being advised by a health care professional was the second strongest predictor of whether or not participants reduced their smoking before surgery post-SSBS implementation. However, there was no significant change in the number of participants who reported being advised to quit smoking before surgery between groups. Conclusion: Providing surgery-specific resources to increase awareness of and support for surgery-specific smoking cessation had limited success in this rural context. Additional strategies are needed to ensure that every surgical patient who smokes receives information about the benefits of quitting for surgery and is aware of available cessation resources. PMID:26385995

  1. Straylight comparison of SIRTF designs with different aperture stop locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    The APART/PADE program is used to examine whether the SIRTF aperture stop can be moved back to the primary mirror without jeopardizing the requirement for natural background-limited observations. The straylight performance of the baseline design, which has the aperture stop at the secondary mirror, is compared to that of a revised design with the stop at the primary mirror. Both designs include reimaging optics and a LYOT stop, as well as a chopping secondary mirror. The straylight due to off-axis sources and telescope thermal emission is investigated at 50 and 550 microns. It is found that in SIRTF, where every instrument will include reimaging optics and a LYOT stop, the aperture stop may be moved to the primary mirror with modest degradation of the straylight performance.

  2. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Geynisman et al.

    2003-09-15

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype.

  3. CALCULATION OF STOPPING POWER VALUES AND RANGES OF FAST IONS.

    2003-03-18

    STOPOW calculates a set of stopping power values and ranges of fast ions in matter for any materials. Furthermore STOPOW can calculate a set of values for one special auxiliary function (e.g. kinematic factors, track structure parameters, time of flight or correction factors in the stopping function) . The user chooses the physical units for stopping powers and ranges and the energy range for calculations.

  4. Stopping power, its meaning, and its general characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, Mitio

    1995-06-01

    This essay presents remarks on the meaning of stopping, power and of its magnitude. More precisely, the first set of remarks concerns the connection of stopping power with elements of particle-transport theory, which describes particle transport and its consequences in full detail, including its stochastic aspects. The second set of remarks concerns the magnitude of the stopping power of a material and its relation with the material`s electronic structure and other properties.

  5. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  6. People's Knowledge of Phonological Universals: Evidence from Fricatives and Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennertz, Tracy Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates whether people possess knowledge of fine-grained distinctions among the sonority levels that are unattested in their language. Specifically, I investigate the whether people encode the putatively universal distinction between the sonority levels of fricatives and stops. Across languages, fricatives and stops differ…

  7. 46 CFR 131.896 - Remote stopping-systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote stopping-systems. 131.896 Section 131.896 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.896 Remote stopping-systems. The remote...

  8. 46 CFR 131.896 - Remote stopping-systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote stopping-systems. 131.896 Section 131.896 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.896 Remote stopping-systems. The remote...

  9. 17. DETAIL OF STEEL STOPS AT WEST END OF MOBILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF STEEL STOPS AT WEST END OF MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE RAIL WITH STEEL STOPS AND CONCRETE TIE-DOWN BLOCK; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. 46 CFR 131.896 - Remote stopping-systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote stopping-systems. 131.896 Section 131.896 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.896 Remote stopping-systems. The remote...

  11. 46 CFR 131.896 - Remote stopping-systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote stopping-systems. 131.896 Section 131.896 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.896 Remote stopping-systems. The remote...

  12. 46 CFR 131.896 - Remote stopping-systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote stopping-systems. 131.896 Section 131.896 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.896 Remote stopping-systems. The remote...

  13. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  14. Stop Consonant Productions of Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an acoustic examination of the obstruent stops produced by Korean-English bilingual children in connection with the question of whether bilinguals establish distinct categories of speech sounds across languages. Stop productions were obtained from ninety children in two age ranges, five and ten years:…

  15. Putting it All Together: Has One-Stop Shopping Arrived?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the current state of "one-stop shopping" for telecom services. Discusses regulatory obstacles; administrative problems with single billing; and resistance of telecom providers to change. Concludes that the leading one-stop shopping providers will be individual carriers who offer cost savings. (AEF)

  16. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance...

  17. A New Stopping Rule for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Grady, Matthew W.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to introduce a new stopping rule for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The predicted standard error reduction (PSER) stopping rule uses the predictive posterior variance to determine the reduction in standard error that would result from the administration of additional items. The performance of the PSER was…

  18. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  19. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytema, A.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Chernowitz, D.; Dijck, E. A.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Mathavan, S. C.; Meinema, C.; Mohanty, A.; Müller, S. E.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pijpker, C.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive beam of 20Na is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenological model.

  20. Nuclear Stopping:. Paving the way from Rhic to Lhc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing

    Nuclear stopping has been measured at a range of different energies in heavy ion experiments. In this contribution proton data from the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC running at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV are presented. Furthermore data from AGS, SPS and RHIC are used to estimate the stopping, energy loss and multiplicity at LHC.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEZLER,P.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  2. Implementation of Seismic Stops in Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Simos, N.; Wang, Y.K.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station-Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent Linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  3. Resources on Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. Thomas; Czarra, Frederick R.; Smith, Andrew F.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a selective list of 19 associations that offer resources for teachers. Includes contact and Internet information, and a list of selected publications for each association. Incorporates a review essay by Ron Herring and Jonathan Weil entitled, "The Contemporary World History Project for Culturally Diverse Students." (DSK)

  4. Stopping Power in Dense Plasmas: Models, Simulations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul; Fichtl, Chris; Graziani, Frank; Hazi, Andrew; Murillo, Michael; Sheperd, Ronnie; Surh, Mike; Cimarron Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Our goal is to conclusively determine the minimal model for stopping power in dense plasmas via a three-pronged theoretical, simulation, and experimental program. Stopping power in dense plasma is important for ion beam heating of targets (e.g., fast ignition) and alpha particle energy deposition in inertial confinement fusion targets. We wish to minimize our uncertainties in the stopping power by comparing a wide range of theoretical approaches to both detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiments. The largest uncertainties occur for slow-to-moderate velocity projectiles, dense plasmas, and highly charged projectiles. We have performed MD simulations of a classical, one component plasma to reveal where there are weaknesses in our kinetic theories of stopping power, over a wide range of plasma conditions. We have also performed stopping experiments of protons in heated warm dense carbon for validation of such models, including MD calculations, of realistic plasmas for which bound contributions are important.

  5. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  6. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-22

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced.

  7. Test, evaluate and assess the Bagby stopping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, J.

    1981-06-08

    The Bagby stoppings test at Eagle No. 2 Mine so far is showing promising results. The recent change in the ventilation system at Eagle No. 2 makes it difficult to establish any meaningful figure for energy savings. Theoretically, the fan has to supply more air to compensate for any air leakage through stoppings. Bagby stoppings, however, can reduce air leakage under converging conditions (such as the case at Eagle No. 2), therefore, saving energy. In comparison with more commonly used concrete block stoppings, they are cheaper (the major savings are labor costs; overall, Bagby stoppings are approximately 13% lower in total costs), easier to transport, performing much better under converging roof conditions, and maintenance is minimum. However, due to limited observation time since the installation, several time related characteristics are yet to be evaluated, such as material deterioration.

  8. Stop codons in bacteria are not selectively equivalent

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolution and genomic stop codon frequencies have not been rigorously studied with the exception of coding of non-canonical amino acids. Here we study the rate of evolution and frequency distribution of stop codons in bacterial genomes. Results We show that in bacteria stop codons evolve slower than synonymous sites, suggesting the action of weak negative selection. However, the frequency of stop codons relative to genomic nucleotide content indicated that this selection regime is not straightforward. The frequency of TAA and TGA stop codons is GC-content dependent, with TAA decreasing and TGA increasing with GC-content, while TAG frequency is independent of GC-content. Applying a formal, analytical model to these data we found that the relationship between stop codon frequencies and nucleotide content cannot be explained by mutational biases or selection on nucleotide content. However, with weak nucleotide content-dependent selection on TAG, -0.5 < Nes < 1.5, the model fits all of the data and recapitulates the relationship between TAG and nucleotide content. For biologically plausible rates of mutations we show that, in bacteria, TAG stop codon is universally associated with lower fitness, with TAA being the optimal for G-content < 16% while for G-content > 16% TGA has a higher fitness than TAG. Conclusions Our data indicate that TAG codon is universally suboptimal in the bacterial lineage, such that TAA is likely to be the preferred stop codon for low GC content while the TGA is the preferred stop codon for high GC content. The optimization of stop codon usage may therefore be useful in genome engineering or gene expression optimization applications. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Michail Gelfand, Arcady Mushegian and Shamil Sunyaev. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers’ Comments section. PMID:22974057

  9. Measurement of the antiproton stopping power of gold - the Barkas effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Elsener, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1991-05-01

    The stopping power of gold has been measured for antiprotons in the energy range 0.2-3 MeV using a novel time-of-flight technique. The antiproton stopping power is found to be less than half the equivalent proton stopping power near the electronic stopping power maximum. In the high-energy limit the two stopping powers merge.

  10. Electromyographic activity of lower limbs to stop baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of the lower limbs for the stopping motion of baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. First, muscle activities for 'Swing' and 'Stopping' trials were examined in 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. Second, the characteristics of EMG activities for 'Stopping' were compared between the 2 groups. The peak latencies of EMG were significantly shorter in 'Stopping' than in 'Swing' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG between both groups. The peak amplitudes of EMG activity were significantly larger in 'Swing' than in 'Stopping' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG in both groups. In addition, the peak amplitudes of EMG activity for 'Stopping' were significantly larger in the players than in novices at the right-RF and right-TA. The characteristics of EMG activity clearly differed between 'Swing' and 'Stopping,' and between baseball players and nonplayers, indicating that evaluating the EMG activity in batting enables the understanding of proficiency. Our findings should help players, novices, and coaches to optimize batting performance. PMID:22614137

  11. Electromyographic activity of lower limbs to stop baseball batting.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Miura, Akito; Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the muscle activation pattern of the lower limbs for the stopping motion of baseball batting by recording surface electromyography (EMG) from 8 muscles, the left and right rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. First, muscle activities for 'Swing' and 'Stopping' trials were examined in 10 skilled baseball players and 10 unskilled novices. Second, the characteristics of EMG activities for 'Stopping' were compared between the 2 groups. The peak latencies of EMG were significantly shorter in 'Stopping' than in 'Swing' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG between both groups. The peak amplitudes of EMG activity were significantly larger in 'Swing' than in 'Stopping' at the right-TA, left-BF, and left-MG in both groups. In addition, the peak amplitudes of EMG activity for 'Stopping' were significantly larger in the players than in novices at the right-RF and right-TA. The characteristics of EMG activity clearly differed between 'Swing' and 'Stopping,' and between baseball players and nonplayers, indicating that evaluating the EMG activity in batting enables the understanding of proficiency. Our findings should help players, novices, and coaches to optimize batting performance.

  12. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UGA, UAA, or UAG. Release factors recognise stop codons in the ribosomal A site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases1. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognise all three stop codons2. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here, we present electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5 – 3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S rRNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A site, where it is stabilised by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during tRNA selection to drive mRNA compaction. Stop codons are favoured in this compacted mRNA conformation by a hydrogen-bonding network with essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination3,4. PMID:26245381

  13. Structural basis for stop codon recognition in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Shao, Sichen; Murray, Jason; Hegde, Ramanujan S; Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-08-27

    Termination of protein synthesis occurs when a translating ribosome encounters one of three universally conserved stop codons: UAA, UAG or UGA. Release factors recognize stop codons in the ribosomal A-site to mediate release of the nascent chain and recycling of the ribosome. Bacteria decode stop codons using two separate release factors with differing specificities for the second and third bases. By contrast, eukaryotes rely on an evolutionarily unrelated omnipotent release factor (eRF1) to recognize all three stop codons. The molecular basis of eRF1 discrimination for stop codons over sense codons is not known. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures at 3.5-3.8 Å resolution of mammalian ribosomal complexes containing eRF1 interacting with each of the three stop codons in the A-site. Binding of eRF1 flips nucleotide A1825 of 18S ribosomal RNA so that it stacks on the second and third stop codon bases. This configuration pulls the fourth position base into the A-site, where it is stabilized by stacking against G626 of 18S rRNA. Thus, eRF1 exploits two rRNA nucleotides also used during transfer RNA selection to drive messenger RNA compaction. In this compacted mRNA conformation, stop codons are favoured by a hydrogen-bonding network formed between rRNA and essential eRF1 residues that constrains the identity of the bases. These results provide a molecular framework for eukaryotic stop codon recognition and have implications for future studies on the mechanisms of canonical and premature translation termination.

  14. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation.

  15. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    PubMed

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation. PMID:26188262

  16. The influence of stopping power on the ionisation quench factor.

    PubMed

    García, G; Grau, Malonda A

    2002-01-01

    Stopping power values for high energies have been computed applying the first Born approximation and the Bethe formula. However, this approximation tends to overestimate these cross sections at low energies, reaching discrepancies on the order of 50% at energies below 1 keV for most of the molecular targets of interest. In this paper we propose a method to obtain accurate low energy stopping powers of electrons by combining total cross section measurements with a theoretical treatment of the elastic process. We determine the optimum value of the kB parameter of ionisation quenching for the stopping power obtained in this paper.

  17. One-stop shopping: the rest of the story.

    PubMed

    Miller, R

    1996-01-01

    The premise of home care one-stop shopping is that one company with an array of services will be more efficient, and therefore, cost-effective, for a managed care organization than several different companies providing services. As home care companies race to become one-stop shops, there are advantages and disadvantages to entering alliances, developing in-house expertise, or acquiring other companies. This article takes a realistic look at one-stop shopping and argues that it may not always be the best way to serve managed care organizations and their patients and should not be the only long-term solution for the home care industry.

  18. From Stopping to Viscosity in Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Brent W.; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2010-04-26

    Stopping in heavy ion collisions is investigated with the aim of learning about the shear viscosity of nuclear matter. Boltzmann equation simulations are compared to available data on stopping in the energy range of 20-117 MeV/nucleon. Stopping observables used include momentum anisotropy and linear momentum transfer. The data show that modeling the transport with free nucleon-nucleon cross-sections is inaccurate and reduced cross-sections are required. Reduction of the cross-sections produces an increase in the shear viscosity of nuclear matter, compared to calculations based on free cross-sections.

  19. Finite seismic source of West Bohemia earthquakes inferred from stopping phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Petr; R寎ek, Bohuslav

    2010-05-01

    Seismic activity in West Bohemia region is the most important seismic phenomenon in the territory of the Czech Republic. It is continuously monitored by WEBNET seismic network and consequently, the seismic records are object of intensive studies. However, due to "continuous" data flow and remarkable event number (up to 10E4), data processing is mostly oriented on routine and/or semi-automatic operation (events identification, location, bulletin compilation, etc) or on some global statistic features as e.g. temporal-spatial distribution of released energy. Detailed study on seismic source maybe therefore performed on selected sets of relatively strong events: We have identified and interpreted stopping phases. Stopping phases theory supposes radiation of seismic waves from a planar finite source in such a way, that effectively only 3 points along the source area contribute to the waveform: (i) first arrival wave, which corresponds to the start of the rupture process, and (ii) two so called stopping phases, which correspond to stopping points situated on the edge of the ruptured source area. Following inversion is based on kinematic principles, since timing of stopping phases and first arrivals must hold relations given by the geometry of the seismic source, measuring geometry, and by delays introduced by the considered velocity model (approach by Imanishi and Takeo, 1998, 2002). We have developed computer code based on above mentioned theory, and performed calculations of real data. The data (picked arrival times of onset and stop phases) are inverted either for finite circular source (2 parameters: radius and rupture velocity) or for finite elliptical source (4 parameters: radius, eccentricity, rupture velocity and orientation). During the work on the project, it has appeared alternative way of determination of parameters of finite source: if follows from higher seismic moment tensor theory, that some terms of second order MT can be interpreted in term of

  20. 9. DETAIL OF UMBILICAL MAST BASE WITH STEEL STOPS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UMBILICAL MAST BASE WITH STEEL STOPS AT EAST END OF MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE RAIL; VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28501, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  1. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 3. VIEW OF EDGEBROOK STOP AS CROSSING THE REFLECTORVILLE VIADUCT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EDGEBROOK STOP AS CROSSING THE REFLECTORVILLE VIADUCT, INBOUND TO PITTSBURGH - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Reflectorville Viaduct, Overbrook Trolley Line, crossing near Edgebrook Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work and School

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters Stopping the Spread of Germs at Home, Work & School Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ... and answers, and poster materials for schools At Work Flu Prevention at Work Learn more about how ...

  4. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, vista at stop three. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fan, induced draft fan, blower of an inert gas system, fuel oil transfer pump, fuel oil unit, fuel oil service pump, and any other fuel oil pumps must have a stop control that is outside of the...

  7. Scientists Explore Possible Way to Stop Zika in Its Tracks

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159433.html Scientists Explore Possible Way to Stop Zika in Its Tracks Gene pathway that allows virus ... they've identified a potential way to prevent Zika and similar viruses from spreading in the body. ...

  8. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  9. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  10. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  11. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forced-draft and induced-draft fans, fuel-oil transfer pumps, fuel-oil unit and service pumps, and... space concerned so that the fans or pumps may be stopped in case of fire in the compartment in...

  13. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  14. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  15. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  16. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  18. 46 CFR 58.25-50 - Rudder stops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND... means acceptable to the Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center. (b) Strong and effective structural... gear, such structural stops need not be fitted....

  19. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  20. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  1. One-Stop Career Center Concept. Employer Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the One-Stop Career Center Concept Employer Questionnaire was to provide a model instrument that could be used or adapted by a governing board that wants to go the extra mile in ensuring a customer-driven, one-stop career center system. The survey was distributed to 5,000 businesses in 19 states that received One-Step Implementation…

  2. Structural Basis for Translation Termination on a Pseudouridylated Stop Codon.

    PubMed

    Svidritskiy, Egor; Madireddy, Rohini; Korostelev, Andrei A

    2016-05-22

    Pseudouridylation of messenger RNA emerges as an abundant modification involved in gene expression regulation. Pseudouridylation of stop codons in eukaryotic and bacterial cells results in stop-codon read through. The structural mechanism of this phenomenon is not known. Here we present a 3.1-Å crystal structure of Escherichia coli release factor 1 (RF1) bound to the 70S ribosome in response to the ΨAA codon. The structure reveals that recognition of a modified stop codon does not differ from that of a canonical stop codon. Our in vitro biochemical results support this finding by yielding nearly identical rates for peptide release from E. coli ribosomes programmed with pseudouridylated and canonical stop codons. The crystal structure also brings insight into E. coli RF1-specific interactions and suggests involvement of L27 in bacterial translation termination. Our results are consistent with a mechanism in which read through of a pseudouridylated stop codon in bacteria results from increased decoding by near-cognate tRNAs (miscoding) rather than from decreased efficiency of termination. PMID:27107638

  3. Light stop in the MSSM after LHC Run 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, Geneviève; Ghosh, Diptimoy; Godbole, Rohini; Kulkarni, Suchita

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson with a mass of 126 GeV at the LHC when combined with the non-observation of new physics both in direct and indirect searches imposes strong constraints on supersymmetric models and in particular on the top squark sector. The experiments for direct detection of dark matter have provided with yet more constraints on the neutralino LSP mass and its interactions. After imposing limits from the Higgs, flavour and dark matter sectors, we examine the feasibility for a light stop in the context of the pMSSM, in light of current results for stop and other SUSY searches at the LHC. We only require that the neutralino dark matter explains a fraction of the cosmologically measured dark matter abundance. We find that a stop with mass below ˜ 500 GeV is still allowed. We further study various probes of the light stop scenario that could be performed at the LHC Run-II either through direct searches for the light and heavy stop, or SUSY searches not currently available in simplified model results. Moreover we study the characteristics of heavy Higgs for the points in the parameter space allowed by all the available constraints and illustrate the region with large cross sections to fermionic or electroweakino channels. Finally we show that nearly all scenarios with a small stop-LSP mass difference will be tested by Xenon1T provided the NLSP is a chargino, thus probing a region hard to access at the LHC.

  4. Spectral moments analysis of stops in tracheoesophageal speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, Kimberly; Obert, Kerrie; Fox, Robert Allen

    2002-05-01

    Optimal speech intelligibility is naturally of primary concern for individuals who have had their larynxes removed due to cancer and are now using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech as their primary mode of communication. The current study examines the acoustic characteristics associated with the oral stops /pbtdkg/ produced by TE speakers as compared to normal speakers. Of particular interest are the acoustic differences between these two sets of speakers in oral stop bursts and in the aspiration frication for the voiceless stops. A set of utterances in which these six stops occur in both initial position (CV) and intervocalic position (VCV) before a wide range of English vowels were recorded for each set of speakers. Appropriate acoustic measurements were then made for each stop. These measurements included the spectral moments of the burst and aspiration, VOT, closure duration (for intervocalic stops), and the relative and normalized amplitude levels of the burst and aspiration. Acoustic differences obtained will be discussed as a function of speaker type, phonetic context and, in the case of the TE speaker, experience with the device.

  5. Lifts and stops in proficient and dysgraphic handwriting.

    PubMed

    Paz-Villagrán, Vietminh; Danna, Jérémy; Velay, Jean-Luc

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the handwriting performances of dysgraphic children were compared to those of proficient children and adults. The task consisted in writing a single word at normal and fast speeds. A distinction was made between two kinds of pauses, which are often confounded: pen lifts, when the pen is above the paper, and pen stops, when it is immobile on the paper. The number and duration of lifts and stops were analyzed, together with the mean velocity. No difference in the number of lifts was observed between the three groups of writers, but the lift durations were shorter for adults. While dysgraphic children were able to write as fast as proficient children, their stops were more numerous and longer than those of proficient children who, themselves, made more stops than adults. A distinction was made between short, normal, and long, abnormal, stops. The results of this study suggest that pen stops are more appropriate than pen lifts in differentiating the handwriting fluency of dysgraphic and proficient children.

  6. Why don't we stop tuberculosis?

    PubMed

    Platt, A E

    1994-01-01

    Many people think of tuberculosis (TB) as a disease of the past of no current concern to modern society. This is not the case. Despite the medical establishment's ability to treat and cure TB, the disease has reemerged to assume the position as the leading killer worldwide among infectious or communicable diseases. TB threatens more people than AIDS, cholera, dengue fever, and other infectious diseases combined. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global state of emergency against TB in 1993. In 1993, 2.7 million people died from TB and another 8.1 million were infected. Worldwide, an estimated 1.7 billion people had inert TB infections. The current TB epidemic is expected to worsen, especially in the developing world due to the evolution of multi-drug-resistant strains and the emergence of AIDS which compromises human immune systems and makes them more susceptible to infectious diseases. By the year 2000, the global incidence of TB is expected to increase to 10.2 million cases per year, an increase of 36% over 1990's 7.5 million cases. 75% of the increase can be traced to poor TB control programs, population growth, and the advancing age of the population, while the remaining 25% is attributed to the interaction between the TB virus and HIV. More than 95% of TB cases reported in 1990 were in the developing world, with an estimated two thirds in Asia; India accounted for 2.1 million cases. Developing countries have a disproportionate number of cases because AIDS is spreading quickly, health services are inadequate, and little money is available for treatment. WHO points out that adherence to the complete and inexpensive drug regimen of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol every day for six to eight months could reduce the rate of TB transmission and cut the number of TB deaths in half over the next ten years. Worldwide early treatment could prevent almost 12 million deaths over the next decade and save large amounts of money

  7. Saccade suppression exerts global effects on the motor system.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Reynoso, H Sequoyah; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-01

    Stopping inappropriate eye movements is a cognitive control function that allows humans to perform well in situations that demand attentional focus. The stop-signal task is an experimental model for this behavior. Participants initiate a saccade toward a target and occasionally have to try to stop the impending saccade if a stop signal occurs. Prior research using a version of this paradigm for limb movements (hand, leg) as well as for speech has shown that rapidly stopping action leads to apparently global suppression of the motor system, as indexed by the corticospinal excitability (CSE) of task-unrelated effectors in studies with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1. Here we measured CSE from the hand with high temporal precision while participants made saccades and while they successfully and unsuccessfully stopped these saccades in response to a stop signal. We showed that 50 ms before the estimated time at which a saccade is successfully stopped there was reduced CSE for the hand, which was task irrelevant. This shows that rapidly stopping eye movements also has global motor effects. We speculate that this arises because rapidly stopping eye movements, like skeleto-motor movements, is possibly achieved via input to the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia, with a putatively broad suppressive effect on thalamocortical drive. Since recent studies suggest that this suppressive effect could also impact nonmotor representations, the present finding points to a possible mechanistic basis for some kinds of distractibility: abrupt-onset stimuli will interrupt ongoing processing by generating global motor and nonmotor effects.

  8. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    PubMed

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

  9. Voiced stop prenasalization in two dialects of Greek

    PubMed Central

    Jong Kong, Eun; Syrika, Asimina; Edwards, Jan R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the phonetic realization of voiced stops in the Cretan and Thessalonikan dialects of Modern Greek. Six males and six females of each dialect were recorded in a sentence-reading task. Duration and amplitude were measured to compare the degree of nasality of voiced stops to that of nasals in different phonetic contexts. Results showed that amplitude changes during the voicing bar of the voiced stops varied both within and across speakers. In some instances, there was consistently low amplitude throughout the voicing bar (characteristic of voiced stops), whereas in other instances, there was high amplitude at the closure onset followed by decreasing amplitude toward the burst (characteristic of prenasalization). By contrast, nasals had consistently high amplitude throughout the murmur. The mixed-effects models suggest that there were complex and interactive influences of dialect, gender, prosodic position, and stress in realizing prenasality in the voiced stops. In particular, Cretan male speakers showed the least clear tendency of prenasalization consistent with earlier impressionistic studies. Furthermore, productions of Cretan males showed less prenasalization than those of females in both prosodic positions. The procedures in this study can be used to describe prenasalization in other dialects or languages where prenasalization has been observed. PMID:23145624

  10. Voiced stop prenasalization in two dialects of Greek.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Syrika, Asimina; Edwards, Jan R

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the phonetic realization of voiced stops in the Cretan and Thessalonikan dialects of Modern Greek. Six males and six females of each dialect were recorded in a sentence-reading task. Duration and amplitude were measured to compare the degree of nasality of voiced stops to that of nasals in different phonetic contexts. Results showed that amplitude changes during the voicing bar of the voiced stops varied both within and across speakers. In some instances, there was consistently low amplitude throughout the voicing bar (characteristic of voiced stops), whereas in other instances, there was high amplitude at the closure onset followed by decreasing amplitude toward the burst (characteristic of prenasalization). By contrast, nasals had consistently high amplitude throughout the murmur. The mixed-effects models suggest that there were complex and interactive influences of dialect, gender, prosodic position, and stress in realizing prenasality in the voiced stops. In particular, Cretan male speakers showed the least clear tendency of prenasalization consistent with earlier impressionistic studies. Furthermore, productions of Cretan males showed less prenasalization than those of females in both prosodic positions. The procedures in this study can be used to describe prenasalization in other dialects or languages where prenasalization has been observed. PMID:23145624

  11. Perception of the English intrusive stops by Korean listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong-Im

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment examining Korean listeners' perception of English intrusive stops in nasal-obstruent clusters. The experiment tests (1) how often intrusive stops are perceived; (2) how language-specific syllable structure constraints influence the perception, given the fact that Korean does not allow consonant clusters in syllable onsets and codas; (3) whether even the perception of phonetic variables like intrusive stops, not phonemes, could be improved by learning. Ninety English non-words with a monosyllable structure of CVC1C2 were created, where C1=/m,n,N/, and C2=/p,k,s/. The stimuli including additional 90 filler items were recorded by three native English speakers and one representative data among them was given to three groups of native Korean listeners in terms of their English proficiency. Each was asked to monitor the target sounds [Warner and Weber, J. Phonetics 29, 23-52 (2001)]. The preliminary results show that identification of intrusive stops in English is totally dependent on Korean syllable structure, so even stimuli with strong acoustic cues were misparsed. Nonetheless, there's a high correlation between perception of intrusive stops and listeners' English proficiency, showing the possibility of the improvement of perception by learning.

  12. Arkypallidal Cells Send a Stop Signal to Striatum.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Nicolas; Schmidt, Robert; Leventhal, Daniel; Chen, Fujun; Amer, Nada; Boraud, Thomas; Berke, Joshua D

    2016-01-20

    The suppression of inappropriate actions is critical for flexible behavior. Cortical-basal ganglia networks provide key gating mechanisms for action suppression, yet the specific roles of neuronal subpopulations are poorly understood. Here, we examine Arkypallidal (‘‘Arky’’) and Prototypical (‘‘Proto’’) globus pallidus neurons during a Stop task, which requires abrupt cancellation of an imminent action. We first establish that Arky neurons can be identified by their firing properties across the natural sleep/wake cycle. We then show that Stop responses are earlier and stronger in the Arky compared to the Proto subpopulation. In contrast to other basal ganglia neurons, pallidal Stop responses are selective to Stop, rather than Go, cues. Furthermore, the timing of these Stop responses matches the suppression of developing striatal Go-related activity. Our results support a two-step model of action suppression: actions-inpreparation are first paused via a subthalamic-nigral pathway, then cancelled via Arky GABAergic projections to striatum. PMID:26777273

  13. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ~10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ~20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z1 with Z2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high.

  14. Microstrip Triband Bandstop Fitler with Sharp Stop Band Skirts and Independently Controllable Second Stop Band Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact planar triband bandstop filter (TBBSF) with compact size and high selectivity. The structure of the filter incorporates two folded trisection stepped-impedance resonators (TSSIRs). One of these resonators is designed to operate at the first and third center frequencies and the other resonator is designed to operate at the second center frequency of the proposed filter. To achieve a compact size filter, alternating impedance lines of the resonators are folded widthwise and also one resonator is embedded within another. Theoretical analysis and design procedures are described, including the synthesis equations for each resonator. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the filter provides flexibility to tune the second center frequency and control the corresponding bandwidth without changing the first and third stop band response. Additionally, several reflection zeros (RZs) are introduced in the pass band to improve its flatness. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design method, both the first and second order TBBSFs were designed, simulated, and fabricated, with center frequencies of 1.92 GHz, 3.55 GHz, and 5.5 GHz. PMID:25019098

  15. 43 CFR 3809.424 - What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are my obligations if I stop....424 What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations? (a) To see what you must do if you stop conducting operations, follow this table: If— Then— (1) You stop conducting operations for any period of...

  16. 20 CFR 662.230 - What are the responsibilities of the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... One-Stop partners? 662.230 Section 662.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop...-Stop partners? All required partners must: (a) Make available to participants through the...

  17. 43 CFR 3809.424 - What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are my obligations if I stop....424 What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations? (a) To see what you must do if you stop conducting operations, follow this table: If— Then— (1) You stop conducting operations for any period of...

  18. 20 CFR 662.210 - What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What other entities may serve as One-Stop... LABOR DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.210 What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When we stop considering you and your spouse....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and... these months comes first— (a) The calendar month after the month you stopped living with your...

  20. 32 CFR 634.7 - Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles... § 634.7 Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles. (a) Government vehicles may be stopped by law... areas, Government vehicles may be stopped on or off installations as determined by host nation...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When we stop considering you and your spouse....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and... these months comes first— (a) The calendar month after the month you stopped living with your...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we stop considering you and your spouse....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and... these months comes first— (a) The calendar month after the month you stopped living with your...

  3. 32 CFR 634.7 - Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles... § 634.7 Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles. (a) Government vehicles may be stopped by law... areas, Government vehicles may be stopped on or off installations as determined by host nation...

  4. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... conditions stopping distance in advance. An automatic train-stop or train-control system shall operate...

  5. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  6. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  7. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... conditions stopping distance in advance. An automatic train-stop or train-control system shall operate...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When we stop considering you and your spouse....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and... these months comes first— (a) The calendar month after the month you stopped living with your...

  9. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the One-Stop delivery system? 662.100...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT General Description of the One-Stop Delivery System § 662.100 What is the One-Stop delivery system? (a) In general, the...

  10. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  11. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the One-Stop delivery system? 662.100...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT General Description of the One-Stop Delivery System § 662.100 What is the One-Stop delivery system? (a) In general, the...

  12. 43 CFR 3809.424 - What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are my obligations if I stop....424 What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations? (a) To see what you must do if you stop conducting operations, follow this table: If— Then— (1) You stop conducting operations for any period of...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1830 - When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When we stop considering you and your spouse....1830 When we stop considering you and your spouse an eligible couple. We will stop considering you and... these months comes first— (a) The calendar month after the month you stopped living with your...

  14. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... conditions stopping distance in advance. An automatic train-stop or train-control system shall operate...

  15. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... conditions stopping distance in advance. An automatic train-stop or train-control system shall operate...

  16. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  17. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  18. 49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictive block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.502 Section 236.502 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... conditions stopping distance in advance. An automatic train-stop or train-control system shall operate...

  19. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  20. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the One-Stop delivery system? 662.100... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT General Description of the One-Stop Delivery System § 662.100 What is the One-Stop delivery system? (a) In general, the...

  1. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  2. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  3. 20 CFR 662.200 - Who are the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who are the required One-Stop partners? 662... (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.200 Who are the required One-Stop partners? (a)...

  4. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the One-Stop delivery system? 662.100...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT General Description of the One-Stop Delivery System § 662.100 What is the One-Stop delivery system? (a) In general, the...

  5. 32 CFR 634.7 - Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles... § 634.7 Stopping and inspecting personnel or vehicles. (a) Government vehicles may be stopped by law... areas, Government vehicles may be stopped on or off installations as determined by host nation...

  6. 43 CFR 3809.424 - What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are my obligations if I stop....424 What are my obligations if I stop conducting operations? (a) To see what you must do if you stop conducting operations, follow this table: If— Then— (1) You stop conducting operations for any period of...

  7. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember requirements at stops where... Crewmember Requirements § 121.393 Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board. At stops... stop, that flight attendant or other qualified person shall be located in accordance with...

  8. 20 CFR 220.182 - Before a disability annuity is stopped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Before a disability annuity is stopped. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Continuing or Stopping Disability Due to Substantial Gainful Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.182 Before a disability annuity is stopped. Before the Board stops...

  9. 20 CFR 662.200 - Who are the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who are the required One-Stop partners? 662... (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.200 Who are the required One-Stop partners? (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately... other than necessary traffic stops, the driver shall, as soon as possible, but in any event within 10...) One on the traffic side of and 4 paces (approximately 3 meters or 10 feet) from the stopped...

  11. 49 CFR 392.22 - Emergency signals; stopped commercial motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than necessary traffic stops, the driver of the stopped commercial motor vehicle shall immediately... other than necessary traffic stops, the driver shall, as soon as possible, but in any event within 10...) One on the traffic side of and 4 paces (approximately 3 meters or 10 feet) from the stopped...

  12. Response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control. The concept refers to the suppression of no-longer required or inappropriate actions, which supports flexible and goal-directed behavior in ever-changing environments. The stop-signal paradigm is most suitable for the study of response inhibition in a laboratory setting. The paradigm has become increasingly popular in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology. We review recent findings in the stop-signal literature with the specific aim of demonstrating how each of these different fields contributes to better understanding of the processes involved in inhibiting a response and monitoring stopping performance, and more generally, discovering how behavior is controlled. PMID:18799345

  13. Mixed stops and the ATLAS on-Z excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Jack H.; Dror, Jeff Asaf; Farina, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recently observed a 3 σ excess in a channel with a leptonically decaying Z , jets, and ETmiss . It is tantalizing to interpret the signal as the first sign of a natural supersymmetric spectrum. We study such a possibility in a minimal model containing light stops and a neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle. The signal is characterized by a novel topology (compared to previous attempts) where the Z is emitted from a colored particle in the first step of a decay chain, namely t˜2→t˜1Z , which is characteristic of mixed stops. We show that the excess is compatible with a compressed stop spectrum and is not excluded by any other relevant search, finding some regions of parameter space with signal strength within 1 σ of that measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. In addition, we notice that the corresponding CMS search could be prone to background contamination in unexpected topologies of this kind.

  14. Barkas effect in stopping of fast diclusters in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Tyler; Mišković, Z. L.

    2016-02-01

    We study the stopping of a fast proton dicluster moving through a metal target with an electron gas described by a hydrodynamic model. Both the first-order and the second-order expressions are derived and computed for the total stopping force on the cluster, giving a nonlinear correction of the Barkas type. Results are shown as functions of the cluster speed and the interproton distance in the cases of a randomly oriented dicluster and a colinear dicluster consisting of two protons aligned in the direction of motion. We find that the Barkas correction increases the overall stopping force, especially at lower speeds and shorter interproton distances. While the Barkas correction is found to accentuate interferences in the vicinity effect for colinear diclusters, it presents an insignificant contribution to the vicinity effect for randomly oriented diclusters.

  15. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  16. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  17. NIRCam coronagraphic Lyot stop: design, fabrication, and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yalan; Andersen, Torben B.; Kubo, Tracy; Virgen, Miguel; Chan, Henry; Feller, Greg; Huff, Lynn W.; Smith, Eric; Vasudevan, Gopal; Somerstein, Steve; Jamieson, Tom; Horner, Scott; Krist, John; Beichman, Charles A.; Barone, Carmen; Schmidt, Ron; Levin, Donna; Seymour, Steve; Kelly, Douglas; Rieke, Marcia J.

    2011-10-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide a coronagraphic imaging capability to search for extrasolar planets in the 2 - 5 microns wavelength range. This capability is realized by a set of Lyot pupil stops with patterns matching the occulting mask located in the JWST intermediate focal plane in the NIRCam optical system. The complex patterns with transparent apertures are made by photolithographic process using a metal coating in the opaque region. The optical density needs to be high for the opaque region, and transmission needs to be high at the aperture. In addition, the Lyot stop needs to operate under cryogenic conditions. We will report on the Lyot stop design, fabrication and testing in this paper.

  18. Stopping Power and Range of Ions in Matter

    2001-06-19

    SRIM is a group of programs which calculate the stopping and range of ions (10ev - 2 GeV/amu) into matter. TRIM (the Transport of Ions in Matter) is the most comprehensive program included. Trim will accept complex targets made of compound materials with up to eight layers, each with different materials. It will calculate both the final 3d distribution of the inner ions and also all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion''s energy loss; targetmore » damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production. All targets atom cascades in the target are followed in detail. It can be used for physics of recoil cascades, physics of sputtering, the stopping of ions in compounds and stopping power for ions in gases; This included radiation damage from neutron , electrons, and photons.« less

  19. THERMAL AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A BEAM STOP

    SciTech Connect

    S. KONECNI; E.R. MEYER; D.B. IRELAND

    2001-06-01

    This paper addresses the evolution, design, analysis and development of a novel approach for stopping the proton beam at a 7.5 MeV power level. During commissioning of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) injector, the first Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tank will be installed, and in the place of the second DTL tank a diagnostic plate assembly will be inserted and the beam thoroughly tested. The beam will be tested at full power (36 mA, 1ms, 60 Hz), so a beam stop is being designed to handle the thermal and structural stresses and minimize neutron production. The beam stop is assumed to be a cone configuration with radius of 10 cm base and slope of 3.5 cm/cm. It will be made of Nickel 200, 2 mm thick.

  20. Substorm onset: Current sheet avalanche and stop layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    A new scenario is presented for the onset of a substorm and the nature of the breakup arc. There are two main components, current sheet avalanche and stop layer. The first refers to an earthward flow of plasma and magnetic flux from the central current sheet of the tail, triggered spontaneously or by some unknown interaction with an auroral streamer or a suddenly appearing eastward flow at the end of the growth phase. The second offers a mechanism to stop the flow abruptly at the interface between magnetosphere and tail and extract momentum and energy to be partially processed locally and partially transmitted as Poynting flux toward the ionosphere. The stop layer has a width of the order of the ion inertial length. The different dynamics of the ions entering freely and the magnetized electrons create an electric polarization field which stops the ion flow and drives a Hall current by which flow momentum is transferred to the magnetic field. A simple formalism is used to describe the operation of the process and to enable quantitative conclusions. An important conclusion is that by necessity the stop layer is also highly structured in longitude. This offers a natural explanation for the coarse ray structure of the breakup arc as manifestation of elementary paths of energy and momentum transport. The currents aligned with the rays are balanced between upward and downward directions. While the avalanche is invoked for explaining the spontaneous substorm onset at the inner edge of the tail, the expansion of the breakup arc for many minutes is taken as evidence for a continued formation of new stop layers by arrival of flow bursts from the near-Earth neutral line. This is in line with earlier conclusions about the nature of the breakup arc. Small-scale structure, propagation speed, and energy flux are quantitatively consistent with observations. However, the balanced small-scale currents cannot constitute the substorm current wedge. The source of the latter must be

  1. A movable stop mechanism for the SIRE telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, R. E.; Poulsen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    A movable stop mechanism (MSM) designed to activate flaps that change the size and shape of a telescope aperture stop on command is described. Operating at the cryogenic temperatures of the optical system, it consists primarily of a rotary solenoid that drives (activates) dual four-bar linkages in synchronism that in turn rotate the butterfly flaps into position. The design, performance characteristics, and testing of this mechanism are discussed. Specific problems that occurred during testing and the solutions that were adopted are also described.

  2. Ion-beam-enhanced adhesion in the electronic stopping region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. E.; Qiu, Y.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ion beams in the electronic stopping region to improve the adhesion of insulators to other materials is described. In particular, the bonding of Au films to Teflon, ferrite, and SiO2 was improved by bombarding them with He and Cl, respectively. Improvements in bonding were also observed for Au on glass, Au and Cu on sapphire, and Si3N4 on Si. The mechanism is apparently associated with sputtering and track forming processes occurring in the electronic stopping region. Some applications are discussed.

  3. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role...

  4. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role...

  5. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section...) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role...

  6. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section... THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role described...

  7. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who is the One-Stop operator? 662.400 Section... THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.400 Who is the One-Stop operator? (a) The One-Stop operator is the entity that performs the role described...

  8. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  9. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  10. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  11. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  12. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated to continue as a One-Stop operator under WIA without meeting the requirements of § 662.410(b)?...

  13. Global Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

  14. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  15. A Connection between Singular Stochastic Control and Optimal Stopping

    SciTech Connect

    Espen Benth, Fred Reikvam, Kristin

    2003-12-15

    We show that the value function of a singular stochastic control problem is equal to the integral of the value function of an associated optimal stopping problem. The connection is proved for a general class of diffusions using the method of viscosity solutions.

  16. STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome: Developing a Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Rivera, Mary

    This paper discusses the social-therapeutic approach to preventing abusive behavior, and describes the implementation of specific STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (ABS) projects in New York City, New York. The projects' goal is to empower people to continually develop throughout their lifespans. Basic tenants include the following: (1) emotions are…

  17. View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of baseball back stop on sports field at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue. Buildings No. 36, 37, 38, and 35, from to right. Foothill Avenue at center rear. Looking east-northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    PubMed

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period. PMID:26901663

  19. The S.T.O.P. Sign Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the S.T.O.P. Sign Technique, a method developed to assist individuals meet the challenge of successfully making or choosing a more appropriate behavioral response. Proposes that the technique has a rather broad application in working with individuals, couples, or families. (GCP)

  20. Unemployment Insurance in the One-Stop System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeffrey; Dickinson, Katherine P.; Fedrau, Ruth; Lazarin, Melissa

    To assess the current connections between the Unemployment Insurance (UI) and One-Stop (OS) systems, case studies were conducted of eight states and eight local areas. Findings indicated the major factor that influenced UI's role in the OS design was whether the state took initial claims by telephone or in-person; UI played differing roles in…

  1. 7 CFR 160.53 - Stopping inspection by suspended inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stopping inspection by suspended inspector. 160.53 Section 160.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.53...

  2. 7 CFR 160.53 - Stopping inspection by suspended inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stopping inspection by suspended inspector. 160.53 Section 160.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.53...

  3. 7 CFR 160.53 - Stopping inspection by suspended inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stopping inspection by suspended inspector. 160.53 Section 160.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.53...

  4. 7 CFR 160.53 - Stopping inspection by suspended inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stopping inspection by suspended inspector. 160.53 Section 160.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.53...

  5. DETAIL OF THE RAIL STOPS AT THE SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE RAIL STOPS AT THE SOUTH END OF BERTH S19'S DECK. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Additional Piers and Quay Walls, S13 to S19, Northeast end of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 7 CFR 160.53 - Stopping inspection by suspended inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stopping inspection by suspended inspector. 160.53 Section 160.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Request Inspection by Licensed Inspectors § 160.53...

  7. Cold solid propellant motor has stop-restart capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, F. J.

    1966-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket is kept and fired at low temperatures in launch vehicles or spacecraft. The motor is capable of developing a specific impulse comparable to that of liquid propellant motors, is started, stopped, and restarted, and is stored in space without solar radiation causing hot spots on the motor casing.

  8. 75 FR 19878 - Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... final rule was published October 23, 2009, with an effective date of October 21, 2009 (74 FR 54751... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 279 Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation AGENCY: Office of the... COMPENSATION Sec. 279.1 Purpose. 279.2 Eligibility. 279.3 Payment. 279.4 Claims process. 279.5...

  9. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi

    PubMed Central

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring ‘stop locations’ (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants’ GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period. PMID:26901663

  10. 77 FR 25788 - Request for Information Regarding Stop Loss Insurance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... focus on the prevalence and consequences of stop loss insurance at low attachment points. Given the... the ``attachment point.'' Attachment points can be either ``specific'' or ``aggregate.'' Specific attachment points protect the plan against a high claim for any one individual (e.g., an employer...

  11. 67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (right side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of Rudder Bearing Quadrant, Skeg and Rudder Stops. Erie Concrete & Steel Supply Company, Shipbuilding Division, Erie, Pennsylvania. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-2200-17 (left side), dated May 1943. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-7 - Ventilation stop stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station must: (a) Be protected by an enclosure with a glass-paneled door on the front; (b) Be marked, “In Case of Fire Break Glass and Operate Switch to Stop Ventilation;” (c) Have the “stop” position of...

  15. Dealing With Resistance to Thought-Stopping: A Transcript

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpe, Joseph

    1971-01-01

    A woman who had from childhood suffered from neurotic anxieties of an interpersonal kind had for 10 years been plagued with insistent and fruitless negative thoughts about herself. This transcript deals mainly with her objections to the technique of thought stopping and the efforts that were made to overcome them. (Author)

  16. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  17. [Please Stop] Hiding behind the Potato Chips in Aisle Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennoni, Drew

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that if those who know most about classrooms are to have any voice in what happens in them, then a teacher's union will have to be an indispensable partner in that process. Argues that teachers need to stop avoiding community contacts and need to aid unions in their efforts to educate the public. (RS)

  18. "STOP Regain": Are There Negative Effects of Daily Weighing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Tate, Deborah F.; Gorin, Amy A.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Fava, Joseph L.; Machan, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest that daily weighing is important for long-term weight control, but concerns have been raised about possible adverse psychological effects. The "STOP Regain" clinical trial provides a unique opportunity to examine this issue both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Successful weight losers (N = 314) were randomly…

  19. Lexical Acquisition and Acquisition of Initial Voiceless Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Interaction between lexical acquisition and acquisition of initial voiceless stops (VSs) was studied in two normally developing children by acoustically examining token-by-token accuracy of initial VS targets in different lexical items. Tokens representing the emergence of accurate VS production were restricted to certain words, largely old words…

  20. Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Ribisl, Kurt M; Emery, Sherry L; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users. PMID:25286168

  1. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Emery, Sherry L.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%); because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%); and quitting or reducing smoking (30%). Nearly two-thirds (65%) of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity) than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking) (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001). The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%), using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%), and users did not like the taste (14%). Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users. PMID:25286168

  2. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  3. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  4. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    PubMed

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period.

  5. Design and testing of the LITE Variable Field Stop mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Variable Field Stop (VFS) is a rotary mechanism that reliably positions any of four aperture plates in the optical path of a spaceflight experiment, limiting the amount of light reaching the detectors. This paper discusses the design, operation, and testing of the VFS.

  6. Implementation of hysteroscopy in an infertility clinic: The one-stop uterine diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Campo, R; Meier, R; Dhont, N; Mestdagh, G; Ombelet, W

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) has demonstrated that we can differentiate the uterus in 3 important functional areas. Exploration of the uterus in the infertile patient should implement the evaluation of the endometrium, the Junctional zone myometrium (JZ), the outer myometrium and the cervical canal. Especially the JZ myometrium should receive our close attention in the exploration and treatment of the infertile patient. MRI cannot be implemented as a screening examination but also limiting the imaging of the womb to a 2 or 3 D ultrasound exam only does not meet the scientific requirements of sensitivity and specificity. Modern ambulatory uterine diagnosis in a one-stop approach includes transvaginal ultrasound, fluid mini Hysteroscopy, contrast sonography and endomyometrial tissue sampling. Transvaginal Ultrasound being the gold standard for global uterine screening has a cardinal importance for diagnosis of myometrial disorders and uterine congenital malformations whereas hysteroscopy remains the gold standard for the evaluation of the endometrium and cervical canal. The major challenge remains to perform a tissue sampling of the endo-myometrium in an ambulatory, patient friendly and reliable way for which the newly designed Trophy hysteroscope provide a satisfactory answer. This one-stop approach opens a total new and advanced dimension to the screening, diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathology in the infertile patient. PMID:25593699

  7. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Muttart, Jeffrey W.; Peck, Louis R.; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P.; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L.; Manning, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum. PMID:23112436

  8. Glancing and Stopping Behavior of Motorcyclists and Car Drivers at Intersections.

    PubMed

    Muttart, Jeffrey W; Peck, Louis R; Guderian, Steve; Bartlett, Wade; Ton, Lisa P; Kauderer, Chris; Fisher, Donald L; Manning, Joseph E

    2011-01-01

    For the past decade, motorcycle fatalities have risen while other motor vehicle fatalities have declined. Many motorcycle fatalities occurred within intersections after a driver failed to see a motorcyclist. However, little is known about the behavior of motorcyclists when they negotiate an intersection. A study was undertaken to compare the behavior at intersections of an experienced group of motorcyclists when they were operating a motorcycle with their behavior when they were driving a car. Each participant navigated a course through low-volume, open roads. Participants wore eye-tracking equipment to record eye-glance information, and the motorcycle and car were instrumented with an onboard accelerometer and Global Positioning System apparatus. Results showed that participants were more likely to make last glances toward the direction of the most threatening traffic before they made a turn when they were driving a car than when they were riding a motorcycle. In addition, motorcyclists were less likely to come to a complete stop at a stop sign than car drivers. These results suggested that motorcyclists were exposing themselves to unnecessary risk. Specifically, motorcyclists frequently failed to make proper glances and practice optimal riding techniques. The behavior of the motorcyclists was compared with the current Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum. The results suggested that threat-response and delayed-apex techniques should be added to the training curriculum.

  9. Globalization and global health.

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1999-01-01

    Along with the positive or negative consequences of the globalization of health, we can consider global health as a goal, responding to human rights and to common interests. History tells us that after the "microbial unification" of the world, which began in 1492, over three centuries elapsed before the recognition of common risks and attempts to cope with them in a cross-boundary effort. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the struggle against epidemics united countries, world health became a common goal, and considerable results were achieved. However, in recent decades the notion of health as a cornerstone of economic development has been replaced by the idea that public health and health services are an obstacle to the wealth of nations. Meanwhile, new common threats are growing: among them, the exacerbation of old infections and emergence of new ones, the impact of environmental changes, drug traffic on a world scale, and destructive and self-destructive violence. New and stronger empirical motives relate the interests of peoples to universal rights and to global health. The author concludes with some proposals for policies.

  10. Unified description of nuclear stopping in central heavy-ion collisions from 10A MeV to 1.2A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, G. Q.; Zhou, C. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Cao, X. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Fang, D. Q.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2011-09-15

    A detailed analysis of the wide excitation function of nuclear stopping has been conducted within a transport model, isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model, and an overall good agreement with the INDRA and FOPI Collaborations' experimental data has been achieved. It is found that the mean value of isotropy in central heavy-ion collision (HIC) reaches a minimum near-Fermi energy and approaches a maximum at around 300-400A MeV. This suggests that, in statistical average, the equilibration is far from being reached, even in central HIC especially near Fermi energy. A hierarchy in the stopping of fragments, which favors heavy fragments to penetrate, provides a robust restriction on the global trend of nuclear stopping and could serve as a probe for nuclear equations of state.

  11. Turning off the tap: stopping tuberculosis transmission through active case-finding and prompt effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Courtney M; Amanullah, Farhana; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Nardell, Edward A; Seddon, James A; Vasilyeva, Irina; Zhao, Yanlin; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2015-12-01

    To halt the global tuberculosis epidemic, transmission must be stopped to prevent new infections and new cases. Identification of individuals with tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment to rapidly render them non-infectious is crucial to this task. However, in settings of high tuberculosis burden, active case-finding is often not implemented, resulting in long delays in diagnosis and treatment. A range of strategies to find cases and ensure prompt and correct treatment have been shown to be effective in high tuberculosis-burden settings. The population-level effect of targeted active case-finding on reducing tuberculosis incidence has been shown by studies and projected by mathematical modelling. The inclusion of targeted active case-finding in a comprehensive epidemic-control strategy for tuberculosis should contribute substantially to a decrease in tuberculosis incidence. PMID:26515675

  12. Global warming stops in Altai and Northern Mongolia in 2010-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.

    2010-03-01

    We studied the cores of bottom sediments of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [1] and Lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [2]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with spatial resolution 0.1 mm using synchrotron radiation [3]. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change.We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: annual T = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2750, 1500, 1015, 825, 615, 500, 375, 325, 290, 230, 215, 203, 190, 157, 135, 109, 88, 65, 48, 37, 24 and 10 years. The sum of 22 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature with the coefficient +0.87 (for more than 3000 points). 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 09-05-13505 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 92 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] I.A.Kalugin et all. Rhythmic fine-grained sediment deposition in Lake Teletskoye... Quaternary International, 136 (2005), 5-13. [2] S. J. Fowell et all. Mid to late Holocene climate evolution of the Lake Telmen Basin . . . // Quaternary Research 59 (2003) 353-363 [3] A. Daryin et all. Use of a scanning XRF analysis on SR beams from VEPP-3 storage ...// Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Physics Research A 543 (2005) 255-258.

  13. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm dense plasma.

    PubMed

    Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Grabowski, P E; Li, C K; Collins, G W; Fitzsimmons, P; Glenzer, S; Graziani, F; Hansen, S B; Hu, S X; Johnson, M Gatu; Keiter, P; Reynolds, H; Rygg, J R; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2015-05-29

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ∼32  eV, corresponding to moderately coupled [(e^{2}/a)/(k_{B}T_{e}+E_{F})∼0.3] and moderately degenerate [k_{B}T_{e}/E_{F}∼2] "warm-dense matter" (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma. PMID:26066441

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  15. Reconstruction of stop quark mass at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Casadei, Diego; Konoplich, Rostislav; Djilkibaev, Rashid

    2010-10-01

    The cascade mass reconstruction approach was applied to simulated production of the lightest stop quark at the LHC in the cascade decay g-tilde{yields}t-tilde{sub 1}t{yields}{chi}-tilde{sub 2}{sup 0}tt{yields}l-tilde{sub R}ltt{yields}{chi}-tilde{sub 1}{sup 0}lltt with top quarks decaying into hadrons. The stop quark mass was reconstructed assuming that the masses of gluino, slepton, and the two lightest neutralinos were reconstructed in advance. A data sample set for the SU3 model point containing 400 k supersymmetry events was generated which corresponded to an integrated luminosity of about 20 fb{sup -1} at 14 TeV. These events were passed through the AcerDET detector simulator, which parametrized the response of a generic LHC detector. The mass of the t-tilde{sub 1} was reconstructed with a precision of about 10%.

  16. Cavity-free plasmonic nanolasing enabled by dispersionless stopped light

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Tim; Hamm, Joachim M.; Page, A. Freddie; Wuestner, Sebastian; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    When light is brought to a standstill, its interaction with gain media increases dramatically due to a singularity in the density of optical states. Concurrently, stopped light engenders an inherent and cavity-free feedback mechanism, similar in effect to the feedback that has been demonstrated and exploited in large-scale disordered media and random lasers. Here we study the spatial, temporal and spectral signatures of lasing in planar gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic structures at near-infrared frequencies and show that the stopped-light feedback mechanism allows for nanolasing without a cavity. We reveal that in the absence of cavity-induced feedback, the subwavelength lasing mode forms dynamically as a phase-locked superposition of quasi dispersion-free waveguide modes. This mechanism proves remarkably robust against interface roughness and offers a new route towards nanolasing, the experimental realization of ultra-thin surface emitting lasers, and cavity-free active quantum plasmonics. PMID:25230337

  17. Stopping of Protons in Copper at low velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quashie, Edwin E.; Saha, Bidhan C.; Correa, Alfredo A.

    2016-05-01

    An ab initio study including non-linear effects is reported of the electronic stopping power of protons in copper over a wide range of proton velocities (v = 0.01-10 a.u.). Time-dependent density functional theory coupled with molecular dynamics is used to study electronic excitations produced by energetic protons. A plane-wave pseudo-potential scheme is employed to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations for a moving proton in a periodic copper crystal. These electronic excitations and the band structure determine the stopping power of the material and alter the interatomic forces for both channeling and off-channeling trajectories. Our off-channeling results are in quantitative agreement with experiments. Details will be presented at the conference. Supported by NNSA.

  18. What actually makes bullying stop? Reports from former victims.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-08-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the bullying prevalence is relatively low. Results showed that although support from school personnel was the most common reason that the former victims gave to why the bullying had ended, it was only mentioned by a fourth of them. In fact, it was almost equally as common that the bullying had ended in that the victims transitioned to a new school level or changed their way of coping with the bullying. Very few of the adolescents reported that the bullying had stopped due to support from peers.

  19. Electronic Stopping Power in LiF from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruneda, J. M.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Artacho, Emilio

    2007-12-07

    Using time-dependent density-functional theory we calculate from first principles the rate of energy transfer from a moving proton or antiproton to the electrons of an insulating material, LiF. The behavior of the electronic stopping power versus projectile velocity displays an effective threshold velocity of {approx}0.2 a.u. for the proton, consistent with recent experimental observations, and also for the antiproton. The calculated proton/antiproton stopping-power ratio is {approx}2.4 at velocities slightly above the threshold (v{approx}0.4 a.u.), as compared to the experimental value of 2.1. The projectile energy loss mechanism is observed to be extremely local.

  20. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  1. Snubber replacement with limit stops at Vandellos II

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Billington, A.

    1996-12-01

    The paper describes the particularities and reports the results of the single largest project with Limit Stops to date, i.e., a plant-wide snubber replacement at Vandellos II plant in Spain. This modern PWR plant had already undergone a snubber reduction program at the end of the construction stage, taking benefit from relaxation of dynamic loading criteria such as ASME Code Case N411 damping and Leak Before Break. The original analysis criteria were used, except for an innovative modal combination method named Generalized Algebraic Combination. A 100% elimination was achieved for the first package of 19 lines, i.e., removal of all 115 snubbers during the 1995 outage. The Limit Stop is a maintenance free piping support which provides and alternative to unreliable snubbers. It limits the dynamic response of the piping during an earthquake or other dynamic event like hydrodynamic transient, but allows for totally free thermal expansion.

  2. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  3. Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Flatt, Robert J.; Scherer, George W.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

  4. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  5. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-22

    In this study, searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ~ 1 and significances often well beyond 5σ.more » The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a ET, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the ET and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in ET measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb–1. By 300 fb–1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the “stealth” point at mt¯ = mt and potentially overlapping with limits from tt¯ cross section and spin correlation measurements.« less

  6. Revealing compressed stops using high-momentum recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, Sebastian; Park, Michael; Shih, David; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-03-01

    Searches for supersymmetric top quarks at the LHC have been making great progress in pushing sensitivity out to higher mass, but are famously plagued by gaps in coverage around lower-mass regions where the decay phase space is closing off. Within the common stop-NLSP/neutralino-LSP simplified model, the line in the mass plane where there is just enough phase space to produce an on-shell top quark remains almost completely unconstrained. Here, we show that is possible to define searches capable of probing a large patch of this difficult region, with S/B ˜ 1 and significances often well beyond 5 σ. The basic strategy is to leverage the large energy gain of LHC Run 2, leading to a sizable population of stop pair events recoiling against a hard jet. The recoil not only re-establishes a [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] signature, but also leads to a distinctive anti-correlation between the [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] and the recoil jet transverse vectors when the stops decay all-hadronically. Accounting for jet combinatorics, backgrounds, and imperfections in [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] measurements, we estimate that Run 2 will already start to close the gap in exclusion sensitivity with the first few 10s of fb-1. By 300 fb-1, exclusion sensitivity may extend from stop masses of 550 GeV on the high side down to below 200 GeV on the low side, approaching the "stealth" point at {m}_{overline{t}}={m}_t and potentially overlapping with limits from toverline{t} cross section and spin correlation measurements.

  7. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2001-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  8. Portable semiconductor laser system to stop internal bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rediker, Robert H.; Durville, Frederic M.; Cho, George; Boll, James H.

    1995-03-01

    One significant cause of death during a sever trauma (gun wound or stab wound) is internal bleeding. A semiconductor diode laser system has been used in in vitro studies of cauterizing veins and arteries to stop bleeding. The conditions of laparoscopic surgery, including bleeding conditions (blood flow and pressure), are simulated. Results have been obtained both with and without using a hemostat (e.g., forceps) to temporarily stop the bleeding prior to the cautery. With the hemostat and a fiber-coupled 810-nm laser, blood vessels of up to 5 mm diameter were cauterized with an 8 W output from the fiber. Great cautions must be used in extrapolating from these in vitro results, since the exact conditions of bleeding in a living being are impossible to exactly reproduce in a laboratory in-vitro experiment. In a living being, when blood flow stops the cessation of nourishment to the vessels results in irreversible physiological changes. Also, the blood itself is different from blood in a living being because an anti-clotting agent (heparin) was added in order to inhibit the blood's natural tendency to coagulate.

  9. Optimization of the WFC3 Cold Stop Mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giavalisco, M.; Stiavelli, M.; Robberto, M.

    2001-07-01

    We have modeled the contribution by the OTA and the instrument assembly to the WFC3 IR channel internal background in order to identify the optimal design of the cold stop mask. We have found that the contribution of the secondary mirror spiders and primary mirror hold-down pads are negligible for any value of the detector wavelength cut-off. The background coming from the hole in the primary mirror, which is reflected into the optical path by the secondary mirror, can also be neglected if the detector has a cut-off at ~1.75 μm or less. However, this contribution to the background is highly uncertain, because the temperatures of the various components within the hole are not well constrained. In any case, it becomes the dominant component if the detector's cut-off is at 1.9 μm. The background from the primary hole may also be a function of the aft-shroud temperature, and could increase after the installation of ACS and the NICMOS cryo-coolers. We recommend a minimal cold stop mask that, while ensuring good alignement, should not include spiders and pads. Compared to the current design by BATC, the optimized cold stop mask will increase the IR channel throughput by ~7 % without causing any significant increase in the instrument background.

  10. Optimal eradication: when to stop looking for an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Regan, Tracey J; McCarthy, Michael A; Baxter, Peter W J; Dane Panetta, F; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-07-01

    The notion of being sure that you have completely eradicated an invasive species is fanciful because of imperfect detection and persistent seed banks. Eradication is commonly declared either on an ad hoc basis, on notions of seed bank longevity, or on setting arbitrary thresholds of 1% or 5% confidence that the species is not present. Rather than declaring eradication at some arbitrary level of confidence, we take an economic approach in which we stop looking when the expected costs outweigh the expected benefits. We develop theory that determines the number of years of absent surveys required to minimize the net expected cost. Given detection of a species is imperfect, the optimal stopping time is a trade-off between the cost of continued surveying and the cost of escape and damage if eradication is declared too soon. A simple rule of thumb compares well to the exact optimal solution using stochastic dynamic programming. Application of the approach to the eradication programme of Helenium amarum reveals that the actual stopping time was a precautionary one given the ranges for each parameter. PMID:16796564

  11. Adiabatic perturbation theory of electronic stopping in insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Andrew P.; Lim, Anthony; Foulkes, W. M. C.; Correa, Alfredo A.

    2016-06-01

    A model able to explain the complicated structure of electronic stopping at low velocities in insulating materials is presented. It is shown to be in good agreement with results obtained from time-dependent density-functional theory for the stopping of a channeling Si atom in a Si crystal. If we define the repeat frequency f =v /λ , where λ is the periodic repeat length of the crystal along the direction the channeling atom is traveling, and v is the velocity of the channeling atom, we find that electrons experience a perturbing force that varies in time at integer multiples l of f . This enables electronic excitations at low atom velocity, but their contributions diminish rapidly with increasing values of l . The expressions for stopping power are derived using adiabatic perturbation theory for many-electron systems, and they are then specialized to the case of independent electrons. A simple model for the nonadiabatic matrix elements is described, along with the procedure for determining its parameters.

  12. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  13. Spectral moments versus Bark cepstrum classification of children's voiceless stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikoff, James; Hammond, Jenna; McNicholas, Jane; Bunnell, H. Timothy

    2001-05-01

    Spectral moments have been shown to be effective in deriving acoustic features for classifying voiceless stop release bursts [K. Forrest, G. Weismer, P. Milenkovic, and R. N. Dougall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 115-123 (1988)]. In this study, we compared the classification of stops /p/, /t/, and /k/ based on spectral moments with classification based on an equal number of Bark cepstrum coefficients. The speech tokens were 446 instances each of utterance-initial /p/, /t/, and /k/ sampled from utterances produced by 208 children 6 to 8 years old. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to classify the three stops based on four analysis frames from the initial 40 ms of each token. The best classification based on spectral moments used all four spectral moment features and all four time intervals and yielded 75.6% correct classification. The best classification based on Bark cepstrum yielded 83.4% correct also using four coefficients and four time frames. Differences between these results and previous classification results using spectral moments will be discussed. Implications for future research on the acoustic characteristics of children's speech will be considered.

  14. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages. PMID:26677644

  15. Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160259.html Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D levels may drop after women stop using ...

  16. 20 CFR 662.200 - Who are the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop...; (ii) Dislocated workers; (iii) Youth; (iv) Job Corps; (v) Native American programs; (vi) Migrant...

  17. How to Stop and Change a Response: The Role of Goal Activation in Multitasking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Schneider, Darryl W.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    Multitasking was studied in the stop-change paradigm, in which the response for a primary GO1 task had to be stopped and replaced by a response for a secondary GO2 task on some trials. In 2 experiments, the delay between the stop signal and the change signal was manipulated to determine which task goals (GO1, GO2, or STOP) were involved in…

  18. Evaluation of various sets of acoustic cues for the perception of prevocalic stop consonants. II. Modeling and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Smits, R; ten Bosch, L; Collier, R

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the study presented in this paper and the accompanying paper [Smits et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3852-3864 (1996)] is to evaluate whether detailed or gross time-frequency structures are more relevant for the perception of prevocalic stop consonants. To this end, first a perception experiment was carried out with "burst-spliced" stop-vowel utterances. This experiment is described in the accompanying paper. The present paper describes the second part of the investigation, i.e., the simulation of the behavior of the listeners in the perception experiment. First, a number of detailed and gross cues are measured on the stimuli. Next, these cues are mapped onto the observed perceptual data using a formal model of human classification behavior. The results show that in all cases the detailed cues, such as formant transitions, give a better account of the perceptual data than the gross cues, such as the global spectral tilt and its initial change. The best-performing models are interpreted in terms of the acoustic boundaries which are associated with the perceived linguistic contrast. These boundaries are highly interpretable linear functions of five or six acoustic cues, which give a quantitative description of the often-discussed "trade-off" relation between the various cues for perception of place of articulation in stop consonants. PMID:8969487

  19. A hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from a premature stop codon in thrombomodulin (p.Cys537Stop).

    PubMed

    Langdown, Jonathan; Luddington, Roger J; Huntington, James A; Baglin, Trevor P

    2014-09-18

    In this study, we describe a novel thrombomodulin (TM) mutation (c.1611C>A) that codes for a change from cysteine 537 to a premature stop codon (p.Cys537Stop). Three members of a family with a history of posttraumatic bleeding were identified to be heterozygous for this TM mutation. All coagulation screening tests, coagulation factor assays, and platelet function test results were within normal limits. However, the endogenous thrombin potential was markedly reduced at low-tissue factor concentration, and failure to correct with normal plasma indicated the presence of a coagulation inhibitor. Plasma TM levels were highly elevated (433-845 ng/ml, normal range 2-8 ng/ml, equating to 5 to 10 nM), and the addition of exogenous protein C further decreased thrombin generation. The mutation, p.Cys537Stop, results in a truncation within the carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix. We predict that as a consequence of the truncation, the variant TM is shed from the endothelial surface into the blood plasma. This would promote systemic protein C activation and early cessation of thrombin generation within a developing hemostatic clot, thereby explaining the phenotype of posttraumatic bleeding observed within this family. PMID:25049278

  20. Stopping while Going! Response Inhibition Does Not Suffer Dual-Task Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Logan, Gordon D.; Bissett, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Although dual-task interference is ubiquitous in a variety of task domains, stop-signal studies suggest that response inhibition is not subject to such interference. Nevertheless, no study has directly examined stop-signal performance in a dual-task setting. In two experiments, stop-signal performance was examined in a psychological refractory…

  1. Developing Effective Linkages between Job Corps and One-Stop Systems: A Technical Assistance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Katherine; Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    This document is intended to help Job Corps centers and Office of Acquisition Policy contractors establish linkages with one-stop systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the requirements for linkages between Job Corps and one-stop systems that are specified in the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998 and compares one-stop delivery systems before and under…

  2. 43 CFR 3809.334 - What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? 3809.334 Section 3809.334 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public....334 What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? (a) If you stop...

  3. Balancing Cognitive Demands: Control Adjustments in the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control enables flexible interaction with a dynamic environment. In 2 experiments, the authors investigated control adjustments in the stop-signal paradigm, a procedure that requires balancing speed (going) and caution (stopping) in a dual-task environment. Focusing on the slowing of go reaction times after stop signals, the authors…

  4. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping... position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in...

  5. 28 CFR 29.12 - Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specified conditions under which stops... THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.12 Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized. A... enforcement official to stop the vehicle if it is being operated under any or all the conditions set forth...

  6. 28 CFR 29.12 - Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specified conditions under which stops... THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.12 Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized. A... enforcement official to stop the vehicle if it is being operated under any or all the conditions set forth...

  7. 28 CFR 29.12 - Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specified conditions under which stops... THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.12 Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized. A... enforcement official to stop the vehicle if it is being operated under any or all the conditions set forth...

  8. 20 CFR 662.230 - What are the responsibilities of the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... One-Stop partners? 662.230 Section 662.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.230 What are the responsibilities...

  9. 43 CFR 3809.334 - What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? 3809.334 Section 3809.334 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public....334 What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? (a) If you stop...

  10. 20 CFR 662.210 - What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What other entities may serve as One-Stop... LABOR (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.210 What other entities may serve as...

  11. 20 CFR 662.230 - What are the responsibilities of the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... One-Stop partners? 662.230 Section 662.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.230 What are the responsibilities...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  14. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping... position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.334 - What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? 3809.334 Section 3809.334 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public....334 What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? (a) If you stop...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  17. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping... position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in...

  18. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping... position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in...

  19. 43 CFR 3809.334 - What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? 3809.334 Section 3809.334 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public....334 What if I temporarily stop conducting operations under a notice? (a) If you stop...

  20. 20 CFR 662.230 - What are the responsibilities of the required One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... One-Stop partners? 662.230 Section 662.230 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.230 What are the responsibilities...

  1. 20 CFR 662.210 - What other entities may serve as One-Stop partners?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What other entities may serve as One-Stop... LABOR (CONTINUED) DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Partners and the Responsibilities of Partners § 662.210 What other entities may serve as...

  2. 28 CFR 29.12 - Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specified conditions under which stops... THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.12 Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized. A... enforcement official to stop the vehicle if it is being operated under any or all the conditions set forth...

  3. 46 CFR 28.840 - Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means for stopping pumps, ventilation, and machinery. 28... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.840 Means for stopping... position outside of the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of fire occurring in...

  4. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 580.25 When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  5. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part? (a) We may temporarily stop prospecting or scientific research activities under...

  6. 20 CFR 662.410 - How is the One-Stop operator selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in accordance with the “sunshine provision” at 20 CFR 661.307. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the One-Stop operator selected? 662... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators §...

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-19 - Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stopping in Transit for... Clauses 52.247-19 Stopping in Transit for Partial Unloading. As prescribed in 47.207-6(c)(5)(ii), insert... origin to two or more consignees along the route between origin and last destination: Stopping in...

  9. Proactive Adjustments of Response Strategies in the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    In the stop-signal paradigm, fast responses are harder to inhibit than slow responses, so subjects must balance speed is the go task with successful stopping in the stop task. In theory, subjects achieve this balance by adjusting response thresholds for the go task, making proactive adjustments in response to instructions that indicate that…

  10. 20 CFR 662.410 - How is the One-Stop operator selected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in accordance with the “sunshine provision” at 20 CFR 661.307. ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How is the One-Stop operator selected? 662... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators §...

  11. 28 CFR 29.12 - Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specified conditions under which stops... THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.12 Specified conditions under which stops may be authorized. A... enforcement official to stop the vehicle if it is being operated under any or all the conditions set forth...

  12. ADHD and Behavioral Inhibition: A Re-Examination of the Stop-Signal Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, R. Matt; Rapport, Mark D.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigates two recently identified threats to the construct validity of behavioral inhibition as a core deficit of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on the stop-signal task: calculation of mean reaction time from go-trials presented adjacent to intermittent stop-trials, and non-reporting of the stop-signal…

  13. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  14. Post-Stop-Signal Slowing: Strategies Dominate Reflexes and Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Control adjustments are necessary to balance competing cognitive demands. One task that is well-suited to explore control adjustments is the stop-signal paradigm, in which subjects must balance initiation and inhibition. One common adjustment in the stop-signal paradigm is post-stop-signal slowing. Existing models of sequential adjustments in the…

  15. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  16. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  17. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  18. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  19. Some Critical Remarks on the Stop Word Lists of ISI Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomov, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    A semantic analysis of the "Weekly Subject Index Stop Word List" of "Current Contents" of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and the full-stop word and semi-stop word lists of the Permuterm Subject Index of "Science Citation Index" was conducted. Emphasizes the necessity of an improved, semantically-oriented policy in preparing lists…

  20. Global HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on global human resource development (HRD). "Globalization of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Government: A Cross-Cultural Perspective" (Pan Suk Kim) relates HRM to national cultures and addresses its specific functional aspects with a unique dimension in a global organization. "An…