Science.gov

Sample records for jordan

  1. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  2. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  3. Relapsing fever in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Babudieri, B.

    1957-01-01

    The author reports on a survey carried out by him in 1954 on relapsing fever in Jordan. In that country the disease is largely tick-borne, the main vector being Ornithodoros tholozani. Some of the frequent cases in the town of Nablus and the village of Marda in West Jordan may, however, be caused by O. coniceps. The centres of infection are some of the numerous caves scattered throughout the hilly areas and certain houses in which chickens are kept. It is believed that the vector ticks could be successfully exterminated by the use of insecticides and by the adoption of certain procedures outlined by the author. Arsenobenzol compounds and penicillin have been shown not to be very effective for the treatment of relapsing fever, but good results have been obtained with Aureomycin and Terramycin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:13472437

  4. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  5. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  7. Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Ulle

    2009-01-01

    The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

  8. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-27

    cooperation with U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East. Several issues are likely to figure in decisions by Congress and the Administration on future...to Jordan from the Islamic State organization (also known as ISIS or ISIL). Although the United States and Jordan have never been linked by a...1 The Islamic State, Syria

  9. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  10. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  11. Assault by burning in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, W

    2012-12-31

    Criminal attacks by burns on women in Jordan are highlighted in this retrospective study carried out of all proved cases of criminal burns in female patients treated at the burn unit of the Royal Rehabilitation Center in Jordan between January 2005 and June 2012. Thirteen patients were included in our study, out of a total of 550 patients admitted, all in the age range of 16-45 yr. Of these 13 women, six were burned by acid throwing, five by hot water, and two by direct flames from fuel thrown over them. Burn percentage ranged from 15 to 75% of the total body surface area, with involvement in most cases of the face and upper trunk. The mean hospital stay was 33 days and the mortality rate was 3/13, i.e. 23%. Violence against women exists in Jordanian society, yet burning assaults are rare. Of these, burning by throwing acid is the most common and most disfiguring act, with a higher mortality rate in domestic environments.

  12. British surgical aid to Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. A.; Barry, N. A.; Davies, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    The surgical commitment of No. 2 Field Hospital, R.A.M.C., during its stay in Jordan is presented. The majority of patients that were admitted had sustained war wounds, many of which were infected due to the delay in treatment. The difficulties encountered in their subsequent management are discussed. Special reference is made to the use of ketamine (Ketalar) and mafenide acetate (Sulphamylon) in the treatment of those burns cases under our care. It is the first time for many years that a British field hospital has been employed in an active rôle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5114910

  13. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  14. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of

  15. Professional Library Development, Manpower Education and Training in Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younis, Abdul Razeq

    1992-01-01

    Provides background on the library movement in Jordan since the 1950s and describes the main categories of library education in Jordan: (1) short-training courses; (2) subprofessional education offered by two-year colleges; and (3) professional postgraduate education. The roles of the Jordan Library Association and other institutions are…

  16. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  17. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. See, “Amman Unlocks...Jordan focus on a variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public

  18. THE RADICAL OF A JORDAN ALGEBRA

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Kevin

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we define a Jacobson radical for Jordan algebras analogous to that for associative algebras and show that it enjoys many of the properties of the associative radical. We then relate the corresponding notion of “semisimplicity” to the previously defined notion of “nondegeneracy” (Jacobson, N., these Proceedings, 55, 243-251 (1966)). PMID:16591736

  19. Working conditions of occupational therapists in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu Tariah, Hashem Salman; Abu-Dahab, Sana M N; Hamed, Razan T; AlHeresh, Rawan A; Yousef, Huda Abed Arahim

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the working conditions and factors related to job satisfaction among Jordanian occupational therapists. A self-administered survey consisting of several questions about the participants' jobs was developed for this study. The inclusion criteria included occupational therapists who worked in the field of occupational therapy (OT) in Jordan and who had at least six months of experience. The survey was distributed to 120 occupational therapists in different OT settings. One hundred and one occupational therapists from different hospitals, centres, schools and universities responded to the survey. Salaries of the participants were low in comparison with the salaries of the rest of healthcare practitioners in Jordan. Chi-square analysis revealed significant relationship between participants' perceived job satisfaction and the administration of the setting, and between the choice of studying OT and the salary that the participant makes. Most occupational therapists in Jordan are young, have modest experience and work in general OT services in government-owned facilities or paediatric centres. A sense of dissatisfaction was obvious among the participants. Further studies are needed to explore reasons of work satisfaction and dissatisfaction among occupational therapists in Jordan.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Palestinian Problem ... 57 Econom ic Austerity ........................... 58 The Israeli Invasion of Lebanon ................. 5,9 Chapter 2. The...of his "firm . . . support forJordan" and promised increased econom- ic and military aid. During interviews Hussein, who earlier had called for...coordinate their defense, foreign policy, econom- ic , information, education, and cultural activities. They established a joint military command to

  1. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  2. The Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Marzouk, Akmal M.; Ahmad, Fayez

    2014-11-01

    The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in Jordan is marked by a major depositional hiatus that differs in magnitude from place to place due to variable structural movements of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt that resulted in irregularity of Jordan/Levant depositional basin after the deposition of Maastrichtian succession. To elucidate the nature of this hiatus, fieldwork was carried out at a number of locations including lithofacies and stratigraphic analysis, and a multi-proxy study of microplanktonic biostratigraphy (calcareous nannofossilis and planktonic formaminifera). However, the duration of this hiatus extended over latest Maastrichtian and early Danian stages. This is based on the absence of the planktonic foraminifera; Pseudoguembelina hariaensis (CF3), Pseudoguembelina palpebra (CF2), Plummerita hantkeninoides (CF1), Guembelitria cretacea (P0), Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P&) zones and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (P1a) subzones and the coeval calcareous nannofossils Nephrolithus frequens and Markalius inversus zones. We estimate that in the paleo-lows areas an unexpected 3.96 Ma hiatus is present. Conversely, in swell areas, the duration of the hiatus represents the entire Danian-Selandian interval and revealed an unexpected 10.33 Ma hiatus, especially in the central part of Jordan. Subsequently, a marked transgression took place over the whole of Jordan which resulted in the prevalence of deep water conditions (Zones P4 or equivalent NP7/8); this caused the deposition of a retrogradational parasequence set of middle shelf pelagic marl and chalk during a rapid relative rise of sea-level. A correlative hiatus and time gap have also been reported in different parts of the Arabian and African plates, indicating that Jordan was influenced by regional tectonics that combined with the latest Maastrichtian sea-level fall resulted in a long-term sub-marine hiatus and/or non-deposition of sediments. A combination of sea level changes and tectonic uplift are the

  3. Water Resources: Security Impacts in the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    approximately 150 MCM/yr withdrawn through the East Ghor Canal. Jordan is using 110 percent of its available renewable resources by overexploiting its... resource . Israel, the Occupied Territories, and Jordan fully use or exceed their renewable annual water supplies. The water problem will grow even more...recognize the strategic importance of water as a limited resource . Water demand in Israel, the Occupied Territories, and Jordan exceeds renewable annual water

  4. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  5. Water and Security in the Jordan Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-11

    modern mechanized warfare depends on combined arms operations, consideration must be made of the total number of all armored vehicles : not just tanks...but armored personnel carriers for the infantry forces and armored reconnaissance vehicles for the reconnaissance elements required by all mechanized...A252 113 S ELECTE JUJNi 2 1992 92-14985 WATER AND ’SECURITY IN THE JORDAN BASIN Peter Francis Skrmetti A THESIS in Oriental Studies Presented to the

  6. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals.

  7. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  8. Gender and the Expansion of University Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Willy

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how gender is threaded through the expansion and privatization of higher education in Jordan. Due to the justified current concern with the educational deficit of Muslim girls, it is easy to overlook the educational advances made by girls in some Islamic countries. In Jordan, girls have profited more than boys from the…

  9. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  10. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  11. Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

  12. Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

  13. Content-Based Analysis of Bumper Stickers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.

    2016-01-01

    This study has set out to investigate bumper stickers in Jordan focusing mainly on the themes of the stickers. The study hypothesized that bumper stickers in Jordan reflect a wide range of topics including social, economic, and political. Due to being the first study of this phenomenon, the study has adopted content-based analysis to determine the…

  14. Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

  15. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  16. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1989-01-01

    The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

  17. The Angular Momentum Dilemma and Born-Jordan Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2017-01-01

    The rigorous equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures requires that one uses Born-Jordan quantization in place of Weyl quantization. We confirm this by showing that the much discussed " angular momentum dilemma" disappears if one uses Born-Jordan quantization. We argue that the latter is the only physically correct quantization procedure. We also briefly discuss a possible redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner distribution has to be replaced with a new quasi-distribution associated with Born-Jordan quantization, and which has proven to be successful in time-frequency analysis.

  18. Meet EPA Scientist Jordan West, Ph.D.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Jordan West, Ph.D. is an aquatic ecologist at EPA. Her areas of expertise include freshwater & marine ecology, climate change impacts and adaptation, resilience and threshold theory, environmental risk assessment, expert elicitation & stakeholder processes

  19. Syrians flee violence and disrupted health services to Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gavlak, Dale

    2013-06-01

    Half a million Syrian refugees are sheltering in Jordan. Dale Gavlak reports on how United Nations agencies are helping the government respond to their needs, especially those of mothers and young children.

  20. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  1. Quality assurance guides health reform in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, W; Abdulrahman, M

    1996-01-01

    In November 1995, a World Bank mission went to Jordan to conduct a study of the health sector. The study recommended three strategies to reform the health sector: decentralization of Ministry of Health (MOH) management; improvement of clinical practices, quality of care, and consumer satisfaction; and adoption of treatment protocols and standards. The MOH chose quality assurance (QA) methods and quality management (QM) techniques to accomplish these reforms. The Monitoring and QA Directorate oversees QA applications within MOH. It also institutes and develops the capacity of local QA units in the 12 governorates. The QA units implement and monitor day-to-day QA activities. The QM approach encompasses quality principles: establish objectives; use a systematic approach; teach lessons learned and applicable research; use QA training to teach quality care, quality improvement, and patient satisfaction; educate health personnel about QM approaches; use assessment tools and interviews; measure the needs and expectations of local health providers and patients; ensure feedback on QA improvement projects; ensure valid and reliable data; monitor quality improvement efforts; standardize systemic data collection and outcomes; and establish and disseminate QA standards and performance improvement efforts. The Jordan QA Project has helped with the successful institutionalization of a QA system at both the central and local levels. The bylaws of the QA councils and committees require team participation in the decision-making process. Over the last two years, the M&QA Project has adopted 21 standards for nursing, maternal and child health care centers, pharmacies, and medications. The Balqa pilot project has developed 44 such protocols. Quality improvement (COUGH) studies have examined hyper-allergy, analysis of patient flow rate, redistribution of nurses, vaccine waste, and anemic pregnant women. There are a considerable number of on-going clinical and non-clinical COUGH studies

  2. Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

  3. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  5. Public perception towards biobanking in jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Othman, Areej; Shahrouri, Manal

    2012-08-01

    Ethnic differences in disease susceptibility and drug response necessitate the participation of the community in biomedical research. Public involvement includes the donation of biospecimens for basic and translational research with a focus on understanding the molecular make-up of individuals. A growing strategy that fosters public involvement is establishing biobanks that serve as a focal point for sample collection, storage, and dissemination. A biobank's success is dependent on the availability of high-quality biospecimens, as well as accessibility of personal and medical data. Diverse public participation in biobanks is also as critical. Due to lack of data related to public knowledge and attitude towards biospecimen-based research and their willingness to participate in biobanking, a structured questionnaire was conducted at the national level. Data were collected from 3196 individuals aged 18 and above, constituting a representative sample of the Jordanian population. Demographic data included age, gender, and education level. Although there was lack of knowledge of the term "biological samples," 80% of respondents approved the use of biospecimens in research. In addition, almost two-thirds of respondents agreed to donate both biospecimens and relevant information for biobanking. Approval of biospecimen-based research and willingness to participate in biobanking significantly correlated with younger age and increasing education, but not gender. Our results provide an insight into the perception of biobanking among the Jordanian population and strengthen the importance of educating the public about research and the value of biobanking. The data should enable researchers in Jordan and surrounding countries of similar culture to lay the foundation for a successful biobank and research program.

  6. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  7. Two-dimensional streamflow simulations of the Jordan River, Midvale and West Jordan, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.; Freeman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan, Utah, flows adjacent to two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites: Midvale Slag and Sharon Steel. At both sites, geotechnical caps extend to the east bank of the river. The final remediation tasks for these sites included the replacement of a historic sheet-pile dam and the stabilization of the river banks adjacent to the Superfund sites. To assist with these tasks, two hydraulic modeling codes contained in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS), System for Transport and River Modeling (SToRM) and Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), were used to provide predicted water-surface elevations, velocities, and boundary shear-stress values throughout the study reach of the Jordan River. A SToRM model of a 0.7 mile subreach containing the sheet-pile dam was used to compare water-surface elevations and velocities associated with the sheet-pile dam and a proposed replacement structure. Maps showing water-surface elevation and velocity differences computed from simulations of the historic sheet-pile dam and the proposed replacement structure topographies for streamflows of 500 and 1,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were created. These difference maps indicated that the velocities associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were less than or equal to those associated with the historic sheet-pile dam. Similarly, water-surface elevations associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were all either greater than or equal to water-surface elevations associated with the sheet-pile dam. A FaSTMECH model was developed for the 2.5-mile study reach to aid engineers in bank stabilization designs. Predicted water-surface elevations, velocities and shear-stress values were mapped on an aerial photograph of the study reach to place these parameters in a spatial context. Profile plots of predicted

  8. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  9. Another elementary proof of the Jordan form of a matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Wono Setya

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we establish the Jordan Form for a matrix using the elementary concepts of vector differentiation and partial fractions. The idea comes from the resolvent of the operator. For the matrix, the Laurent series is finite and easy to compute through rational representation. We also give a proof of some famous theorems in matrix analysis as consequences from the result.

  10. What Is the Reality of Preschool in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALdarab'h, Intisar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo; Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reality of the preschools in Jordan. A random sample of 500 preschool teachers participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Preschools' learning environment quality was assessed using the revised version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Clifford, & Cryer,…

  11. Darboux-Crum transformations, Jordan states and PT-symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    We describe how Darboux-Crum transformations with Jordan states provide an useful method for the design of complex optical systems. We focus in the construction of PT-symmetric models with features like invisible periodic defects and vanishing reflection coefficient. Some illustrative examples are discussed.

  12. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  13. Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parents in Jordan towards the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public schools and what the parents believed to be the most important prerequisite of child-based skills for successful inclusion. A total of 148 parents were selected to complete the survey. The researchers explored…

  14. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  15. Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

  16. Teachers' and Mothers' Satisfaction with Resource Room Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Hadidi, Muna S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of satisfaction of 135 resource room teachers and 190 mothers of children served in resource room programs in Jordan. Information from teachers was gathered using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and classroom visits. Information from parents was gathered using a brief questionnaire.…

  17. Is There a Silent Hearing Loss among Children in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…

  18. Establishment of environmental management program at Jordan Electricity Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Reuber, B.; Barker, D.; Bourbonniere, M.

    1996-12-31

    Network of Expertise for the Global Environment, a group representing 8 of the world`s leading electric utilities, in partnership with Jordan Electricity Authority (JEA), the national electric utility in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, completed a project to establish an environmental management program at JEA. The project had two objectives: (1) to assist JEA in setting up an environmental management system to deal with environmental issues and to ensure compliance with regulations and standards, and (2) to conduct an environmental effects review at Jordan`s two largest electric generating facilities. The first objective was addressed by linking environmental issues at JEA, as determined by the environmental effects review, interviews and reports, to the draft ISO 14001 environmental management system specification. Use of ISO 14001 provided an internationally accepted standard that will assist JEA in fulfilling requirements of funding agencies. Seminars on environmental awareness and environmental auditing were delivered to support implementation of the environmental management system. The environmental effects review applied environmental auditing techniques to review environmental effects of JEA`s thermal power stations. The review provided a clear assessment of priorities for action as JEA established an environmental management program. A technical report and seminar on management of air emissions-immissions, a priority issue for JEA, were provided to complement the review.

  19. Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-14

    161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) plants in Jordan. Jordan’s trade minister Sharif...Committee (NLC), a New York-based human rights advocacy group, issued a 161-page report alleging sweatshop -like conditions in 28 out of 100 Qualified

  20. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  1. TIMSS and PISA Impact--The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ababneh, Emad; Al-Tweissi, Ahmad; Abulibdeh, Khattab

    2016-01-01

    Jordan has participated in international large-scale assessments (LSAs) since 1991 and in most of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies (TIMSS) as well as the Programme for International Student Assessments (PISA). After a short description of education system and policy-making context in the country, this article provides an…

  2. Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…

  3. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  4. Teacher Education Programs in Jordan: A Reform Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naba'h, Abdallah Abu; Al-Omari, Hamza; Ihmeideh, Fathi; Al-Wa'ily, Suad

    2009-01-01

    The study presents a historical background of teacher education in Jordan and outlines the components of the present teacher education program at Hashemite University. This includes admission policy, academic study plans, practicum programs, selection of cooperative schools, selection of cooperative teachers, stages of training, and assessment of…

  5. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  6. The Impacts of Heritage Tourism on Gadara, Northern Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alobiedat, Ammar Abdelkarim

    2014-01-01

    As the tourism industry continues to grow and the desire to visit heritage sites becomes a popular pursuit, heritage has turn into a commodity in the marketplace. This dissertation analyzes the economic, sociocultural and environmental implications of tourism in Gadara, northwest Jordan. It also elaborates on the changing force of tourism and its…

  7. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably

  8. Non-seasonal viral and bacterial episode of diarrhoea in the Jordan Valley, West of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Meqdam, M M; Youssef, M T; Rawashdeh, M O; Al-khdour, M S

    1997-06-01

    A non-seasonal diarrhoeal episode in the Jordan Valley occurred over a 2-month period, during which no traditional enteropathogens were detected by the health authority laboratories. A total of 17 diarrhoeal stool specimens from infants, young children and adults were randomly collected and delivered to our laboratories to investigate the presence of unusual aetiological agents. Stools were examined for parasites, ova, viruses and cultured for bacterial pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction was developed to investigate the involvement of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in this episode. Recognised pathogenic organisms were detected in 8 out of 17 of the diarrhoeatic patients, one patient of whom had a mixed infection with two agents. Rotavirus, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were found to be associated with the diarrhoea. EIEC was the most common enteropathogen detected (4 out of 17) followed by rotavirus (3 out of 17). One of the EIEC isolates detected in one patient was associated with rotavirus. The clinical features of the diarrhoeatic patients were remarkably similar, regardless of aetiology. This study reveals the identity of pathogenic agents that are not detected by traditional methods employed by the health authority laboratories, which emphasise the urgent need for developing the current diagnostic techniques.

  9. The Jordan Pair content of the magic square and the geometry of the scalars in N=2 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truini, P.; Olivieri, G.; Biedenharn, L. C.

    1985-04-01

    The close connection between Jordan and Lie algebras makes these Jordan structures of interest to physicists. The Freudenthal-Tits Magic Square, which exemplifies this connection, has recently entered into constructing supergravity. We show how Jordan pairs-which are, from several points of view, a most natural Jordan structure-are imbedded in the Magic Square. We compare our approach with that of Gürsey and show show the Hermitian symmetric spaces parametrized by the scalars of N=2, d=4 supergravity theories are related either to Jordan pairs or to geometries of projective dimension two, whose elements belong to a Jordan pair.

  10. From Negative to Positive Stability: How the Syrian Refugee Crisis Can Improve Jordan’s Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes the stability of Jordan as of late 2014 and provides insight into the status and effect of the Syrian refugees in Jordan. The...Jordan and issues with Jordanian stability, a summary of the Syrian refugee situation as of late 2014, and a description of the research methodology...and report structure. Between 2011 and late 2014, fighting associated with the Syrian civil war forced nearly 3 million Syrian civilians to flee their

  11. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.

  12. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  13. Quality assurance and accreditation of engineering education in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-06-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the efforts undertaken by the faculty of engineering at JUST concerning quality assurance and accreditation. Three engineering departments were accorded substantial equivalency status by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology in 2009. Various measures of quality improvement, including curricula development, laboratories improvement, computer facilities, e-learning, and other supporting services are also discussed. Further assessment of the current situation is made through two surveys, targeting engineering instructors and students. Finally, the paper draws conclusions and proposes recommendations to enhance the quality of engineering education at JUST and other Jordanian educational institutions.

  14. Bringing the professional challenges for nursing in Jordan to light.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Arwa I

    2005-12-01

    The definition of a profession consists of contributing characteristics. Nursing must achieve these characteristics in order to confirm its professional status. These characteristics include: a standard of education; professional organizations; commitment; autonomy; continuing education; body of knowledge and competencies; social value; and a code of ethics. Nursing in Jordan faces a unique set of challenges to meet these criteria. The purpose of this discussion is to bring the professional challenges of nursing in Jordan to light, to motivate collaborative efforts to remediate them and to discuss the value of evidence-based practice in this process. The key to confirming Jordanian nurses' professional status is for nurses to seek every opportunity to prove themselves, earn respect, take control over their work, support their colleagues and to make informed decisions. In addition, a more active and effective role for the nursing organizations is necessary to change the public's view of nursing. Efforts to reform regulation also should be intensified.

  15. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  16. Education reform and the quality of kindergartens in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan—the implementation of public kindergartens—and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of kindergartens was selected to represent these new public kindergartens (n = 84) and previously existing private kindergartens (n = 23). Independent observers rated the quality of kindergarten environments in seven domains. Overall, 13% of public kindergarten environments were observed to be inadequate, 43% were of minimal quality, 43% were good, and 1% were excellent. In four of the seven domains, the quality of public kindergartens was significantly higher than the quality of private kindergartens; there were no significant differences in the other domains. Findings suggest the importance of continuing to implement high quality kindergartens in Jordan and of incorporating evaluations into education reform. PMID:21170163

  17. Redescription of Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae: Neotyphloceratini).

    PubMed

    López Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Sanchez, Juliana; Díaz, M Monica; Barquez, Rubén M; Lareschi, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan is redescribed from male and female specimens collected at the type locality (Otro Cerro, Catamarca Province, Argentina) and nearby localities. New diagnostic morphological characters for both sexes are provided, which include the shape of the upper lobe of the fixed process of clasper, the crochet of the aedeagus and the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternum IX for males, and the contour of the distal margin of sternum VII for females.

  18. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  19. Wage differentials in Jordan: effects on integrated labour market.

    PubMed

    Share, M A

    1987-06-01

    The emigration of Jordanian workers has benefited the country by reducing the scale of unemployment that existed in the 1960s and early 1970s. In addition, workers' remittances have had a favorable effect on the Jordanian balance of payments and contributed to increases in wage rates and demands for labor. Any shortages of labor resulting from the emigration flow appear to have been offset by the importation of workers from neighboring countries. A sample survey encompassing 495 foreign workers in Jordan and 518 Jordanian workers indicates that immigrant workers' wages are below those of Jordanian workers and considerably below the wages that Jordanian workers earn abroad. The average monthly wage for the Jordanians in the sample was JD 193.03 compared to JD 132.93 for the immigrants--a 45% difference. Over half of the immigrants surveyed earned under JD 99/month, while only 26% of the Jordanian workers were in this low income category. In part this wage differential is caused by the high proportions of immigrant workers employed in the clerical and unskilled occupational groups, where they are paid only half the wages earned by Jordanians engaged in the same occupations. A similar differential was observed in the average amount of monthly remittances to home countries: in 1982, Jordanians working abroad remitted an average of JD 77.5/worker compared with JD 59/worker remitted by foreign workers employed in Jordan. On balance, it appears that Jordan is a net gainer from the process of labor import and export.

  20. Nursing shortage in Jordan: what is the solution?

    PubMed

    Abualrub, Raeda Fawzi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to analyze the forces behind the nursing shortage in Jordan and (2) to propose strategies and policy directions to deal with the nursing shortage in Jordan. Nursing shortage is one of the challenges that the nursing profession faces in general. There should be an adequate number of nurses if quality care is to be maintained. Patient care provided by nurses is the commodity that hospitals provide; therefore, if hospitals worry about the satisfaction of their consumers, they need to learn how to retain an adequate number of nurses. In Jordan, the decline in the number of nurses is a result of slow salary increases for nurses, the fact that fewer women are selecting nursing careers, a decrease in the number of nursing faculty, and unattractive work conditions. Nurse researchers, educators, clinicians, and administrators need to work together to actively deal with the issue of nursing shortage. The "hog cycle" needs to be broken and work conditions need to be improved so that nurses can feel more satisfied and more committed to their profession. Strategies and recommendations to tackle nursing shortage are proposed.

  1. Molecular characterization of the circulating Bacillus anthracis in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Amin Abdelfattah; Hailat, Ekhlas; Serrecchia, Luigina; Aqel, Suad; Campese, Emanuele; Vicari, Nadia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To understand the biomolecular charcteristics of Bacillus anthracis in Jordan, 20 blood smear slides from dead animals with suspected anthrax were analyzed using conventional and molecular approaches. All slides were positive for B. anthracis by conventional staining but no growth of the organism on selective media was detected. However, of the 20 samples, 16 were B. anthracis DNA-positive using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven samples provided enough quantity and quality of DNA, and their multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-15 loci analysis revealed two different genotypes. All genotypes were belonging to A.B..r. 008/009 which is very common in Asia and Europe. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis revealed that there were no sub genotypes. Molecular diagnosis of animal anthrax in Jordan is not used routinely; henceforth, official diagnosis of anthrax is based on the observation of the slides by optical microscope and this can often cause reading errors. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease in Jordan might be slightly lower than that reported by the official bodies.

  2. Depositional and diagenetic processes of Qa Khanna playa, North Jordan basaltic plateau, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, F. M.; Banat, K. M.; Abu-Salha, Y. A.

    2010-09-01

    The present study explored mineral occurrences and sediment characteristics of playas from northern Jordan and explained depositional and diagenetic processes as reflected from bulk chemistry and sedimentary structures. Mudcracks of different sizes and shape patterns, laminations, intersediment vesicles, and bioturbation pipes are the main sedimentary structures. Plagioclase, olivine, orthopyroxene, nepheline and other opaque minerals are all of detrital origin, and are derived from the basaltic bedrocks surrounding the studied playa. Evaporites are very rare; they are represented only by trace amounts of gypsum. The identified clay minerals in the clay fraction of the studied sediments, arranged according to their decreasing abundances are palygorskite, illite, kaolinite, smectite and chlorite. The elemental abundances were tied to clay, CaCO 3 and nearby igneous rocks. The type of clay minerals, the high pH values of the studied sediments, and the considerable incorporation of Mg and K in palygorskite and illite respectively, may strongly reflect a high evaporative and alkaline environment under arid to semi-arid conditions in an ephemeral lake of the Qa Khanna. Concentrations and distributions of both major and trace elements are essentially controlled by the clay mineralogy and the calcium carbonate content; Ca is mainly incorporated in the CaCO 3, which is either generated authigenically or by aeolian deposition. Fe and K are incorporated and fixed by illite under an evaporative and alkaline environment. Mg is incorporated in palygorskite while Mn is adsorbed on various clay minerals. Sr substitutes for Ca in the aeolian CaCO 3 and its presence in the studied sediments is independent of the prevailing conditions during the playa evolution. Rb substitutes for K in illite under the prevailing chemical conditions in the studied playa.

  3. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  4. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos... Docket No. PF12-17-000. In addition to extending the scoping period, the Commission staff will...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  6. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Application: Major Original License b. Project No.: P-12740-003 c. Date filed: July 13, 2009 d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f. Location... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted...

  7. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  8. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  9. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  10. The Effect of an Education Program for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalaf, Amany; Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There are few support services for parents of children with a disability in Jordan. The present exploratory study investigated whether the provision of an education program in Jordan for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder increased mothers' understanding of their child's behaviour, improved the mothers' coping skills, and reduced…

  11. Particle size and X-ray analysis of Feldspar, Calvert, Ball, and Jordan soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Pipette analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize the particle size distribution and clay mineral content of the feldspar, calvert, ball, and jordan soils. In general, the ball, calvert, and jordan soils were primarily clay size particles composed of kaolinite and illite whereas the feldspar soil was primarily silt-size particles composed of quartz and feldspar minerals.

  12. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  14. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  15. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  16. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected

  17. Bedload transport associated with high stream power, Jordan River, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Moshe; Schick, Asher P.

    1979-01-01

    During a flood of a magnitude that recurs once in 100 years, boulders up to 1700 mm in size were transported in the Jordan and Meshushim Rivers, northern Israel. Bedload discharge rates were estimated for periods of 3-72 hr of peak flow by a combination of hydrologic and geomorphic methods. Bedload transport rate is proportional to unit stream power in excess of that necessary for initial motion, raised to the power 3/2, as has been shown for data on other rivers. PMID:16592661

  18. Gendered utilization differences of mental health services in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, A; Graham, J R; Kandah, J

    2000-10-01

    A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural origins; and utilized informal community traditional healing and religious healing systems. The supernatural explanations and community healing systems varied by gender. Findings emphasize future treatment and programme development strategies that take into account the biomedical/traditional interface, culturally appropriate treatment modalities, different gendered patient needs, and the potential stigma of professional treatment.

  19. Prevalence of skin disorders among male schoolchildren in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shakkoury, W A; Abu-Wandy, E

    1999-09-01

    The prevalence of skin disorders and their relation to age and nationality in Amman, Jordan were determined. Eight schools were selected using a simple random technique and a total of 2788 male schoolchildren were examined. The overall prevalence of skin disorders was 19.23%, with leukonychia (36.66%), naevi (12.88%) and head lice (11.01%) being the most common. Head lice were found more frequently among the Jordanian (11.6%) than non-Jordanian (8.3%) schoolchildren. School health departments must be encouraged to control associated health problems.

  20. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Mukattash, Tareq L; Hajaj, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3%) dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%), diarrhea (83%), and otitis media (68.4%). The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7%) refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5%) of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4%) came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed without prescription in Jordan in violation with national regulations regarding this practice. The findings of this study could provide a layout for governmental health authorities to implement strict enfrorcment of national

  1. A six-dimensional Jordan model for electroweak interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Merino, Aldo; Obregon, Octavio

    2014-03-01

    We present a model for the electroweak interactions based on the commutative but non-associative exceptional Jordan algebra of Hermitian matrices valued on the octonions. By this means, we propose a construction of a gauge theory which take values in this algebra. Following closely the six-dimensional model proposed by D. Fairlie years ago and using a supergroup, we found a natural structure that provides the weak interaction action with some additional terms; we will briefly comment on their possible meaning. Postdoctoral Fellow at Universidad de Guanajuato.

  2. Equivalence of Jordan and Einstein frames at the quantum level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan

    2017-03-01

    It is shown that the Jordan frame and its conformally transformed version, the Einstein frame of nonminimally coupled theories of gravity, are actually equivalent at the quantum level. The example of the theory taken up is the Brans-Dicke theory, and the wave packet calculations are done for a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in the purest form of the theory, i.e., in the absence of any additional matter sector. The calculations are clean and exact, and the result obtained are unambiguous.

  3. Diabetes mellitus in two genetically distinct populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eitan, Laith N.; Nassar, Ahmad M.; Dajani, Rana B.; Almomani, Basima A.; Saadeh, Nesreen A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory characteristics in diabetes type 2 patients of 2 genetically-distinct ethnicities living in Jordan, Arabs and Circassians/Chechens. Methods: This cross sectional ethnic comparison study was conducted in King Abdullah University Hospital, Irbid and The National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics, Amman, Jordan between June 2013 and February 2014. A sample of 347 (237 Arab and 110 Circassian/Chechen) people living with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected through direct interviews with the participants. Clinical data were collected using a questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Laboratory data were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Results: More Arabs with diabetes had hypertension as a comorbidity than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes. Arabs living with diabetes were generally more obese, whereas Circassians/Chechens living with diabetes had worse lipid control. Arabs with diabetes had higher means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood sugar, and more Arabs with diabetes had unsatisfactory glycemic control (60.6%) than Circassians/Chechens with diabetes (38.2%) (HbA1c ≥7.0%). Most participants (88.8%) had at least one lipid abnormality (dyslipidemia). Conclusion: Multiple discrepancies among the 2 ethnic diabetic populations were found. New diabetes management recommendations and policies should be used when treating people living with diabetes of those ethnicities, particularly in areas of glycemic control, lipid control, and obesity. PMID:28133689

  4. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students’ knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level. PMID:26941925

  5. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afaneh, Feras; Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem; Hamasha, Safeia; Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He2+-Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O+-He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron-electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  6. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Ahmad Hussam; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan.

  7. Salinization Sources Along the Lower Jordan River Under Draught Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, R.; Shavit, U.; Segal, M.; Vengosh, A.; Farber, E.; Gavrieli, I.

    2003-12-01

    The Lower Jordan River, once a flowing freshwater river, is suffering from an ongoing reduction of discharge and water quality. The river flows between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, an aerial distance of about 105 Km. The severe reduction is caused by an excessive exploitation of its sources and diversion of sewage and agricultural drainage into the river. The extreme low flows and low water quality threaten the natural existence of the river and its potential use for agriculture. In spite of its importance, little research has been done in the river. The objectives of the study were to measure the discharge and water composition along the river and to evaluate the main sources that control its flow and chemical characteristics. The hypothesis of the study was that interaction with subsurface flows significantly affects the river flow and chemical composition. The research is based on a detailed field study, which included flow rate measurements in the river and its tributaries, water sampling and analysis and mass balance calculations of water and solutes. A portable Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure velocities and bathymetry at different locations across the river sections. Due to accessibility constraints, a floating traverse construction, which enables the ADV's deployment from one bank of the river, was developed. It was found that flow rate ranges between 500-1,100 L/s in northern (upstream) sections and 300-1,650 L/s in the south. This low discharge represents a significant reduction from historical values and is lower than recent published estimations. This research represents base flows only, as the measurements were done during a period of two consecutive draught years. Calculated mass balance of water flows in the northern sections shows that the subsurface source contributes to the river around 200-670 L/s (30-80% of the river flow). Calculations of solute balance show that the subsurface flows add 20-50% of the mass of

  8. 1983 James B. Macelwane Awards: Thomas H. Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aki, Keiiti; Jordan, Thomas H.

    Tom Jordan has made a fundamental contribution to our understanding of the grandest- scale problems of the earth's tectonics by stimulating our consciousness about the deeper part of continents. He has stimulated not only seismologists and other geophysicists but also geochemists by introducing the idea of the continental tectosphere.This idea, of which the origin can be traced to his Ph.D. thesis, has given a unity to his impressive body of work accomplished over the past decade employing a variety of approaches ranging from mathematical to geochemical. It is rare that a scientist at such an early stage of his career conceives an original working hypothesis which then keeps him productive, diversified, and developing consistently over a decade.

  9. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures.

  10. A new tobamovirus infecting tomato crops in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Salem, N; Mansour, A; Ciuffo, M; Falk, B W; Turina, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we completed the whole genome sequence of a new tobamovirus isolated from tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Jordan during the spring of 2015. The 6393-nt single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome encodes four proteins, as do other tobamoviruses: two replication-related proteins of 126 kDa and 183 kDa, a 30-kDa movement protein (MP) and a 17.5-kDa coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus does not group with either the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) or the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) clades. Instead, it stems from a branch leading to the TMV clade. Analysis of possible recombination events between this virus and representative isolates of closely related tomato-infecting tobamoviruses showed that at least one region originated by recombination. We provide evidence that we have identified a new tobamovirus, for which we propose the name "tomato brown rugose fruit virus".

  11. Eating Habits and Associated Factors Among Adolescent Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dalky, Heyam F; Al Momani, Maysa H; Al-Drabaah, Taghreed Kh; Jarrah, Samiha

    2016-05-04

    The study aimed to assess adolescent patterns of eating habits, determine factors influencing these patterns, and identify male and female differences related to eating habits. Using a cross-sectional study approach, a sample of adolescents (N = 423) in randomly selected clusters chosen from government and private schools in the south of Jordan completed self-administered questionnaires relating to socio-demographic data and personal eating habits. Results showed that parents, peers, and mass media are contributing factors, with peer pressure likely outweighing parental guidance. Males were more likely to be influenced by peers than females, whereas females were more likely to be influenced by media-based advertising. Lower body mass indices correlate with eating breakfast, which a majority of adolescents reported they do not do. Interventions targeted toward improving eating and active behaviors should involve peers as well as parents.

  12. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  13. Seventh TEPHINET Global Scientific Conference in Amman, Jordan, November 2012.

    PubMed

    Iblan, I; Hajjawi, B; Mofleh, J; Abdelnour, S; Memish, Z A; Al Nsour, M

    2013-03-01

    The Jordanian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network (EMPHNET) hosted the Seventh Global Scientific Conference of the Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) in Jordan in November 2012. This was the first time this Conference was held in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The Conference theme was "communicable and noncommunicable diseases: public health challenges and successes". Over 400 participants including field epidemiology training program residents, graduates and public health officials from 66 countries attended the Conference as well as 187 people from 57 countries who attended the conference sessions on line. The programme included 121 oral and 130 poster presentations in addition to 5 pre-conference workshops and 9 roundtable discussions. All sessions were recorded and virtually broadcasted and made available on line. The Conference succeeded in creating opportunities for dialogue between residents and graduates of field epidemiology training programmes and public health stakeholders across the region and the globe.

  14. Action with Acceleration II: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Jordan Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in Ref. 1, and referred to henceforth as Paper I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation and destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

  15. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassan, Suha M; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP), which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. Participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in the BPP; the control group did not. Before and after the BPP, all participants completed questionnaires to assess their knowledge regarding key areas of child development, activities with their children, discipline practices, and perceptions regarding behaviours that constitute child abuse and neglect. Over time, participants in the experimental group (but not the control group) improved on parenting knowledge, spending time playing and reading books with their children, using more explanations during the course of disciplining their child, and accurately perceiving behaviours that constitute child neglect. Results suggest modest beneficial effects of participation in the Better Parenting Programme.

  16. Jordan tobacco dependence treatment guidelines: rationale and development.

    PubMed

    Ayub, H; Obeidat, N; Leischow, S; Glynn, T; Hawari, F

    2016-02-01

    Jordan, a high tobacco-burden country, has been working to expand its tobacco dependence treatment services and has completed development of its first customized treatment guidelines. Our paper presents the development process for these guidelines. A group of national and international experts was formed and a national situation analysis for tobacco dependence treatment practices and a detailed review of international evidence were conducted. The guidelines were then drafted and reviewed by national, regional and international experts and were official endorsed by the Jordanian Ministry of Health before being launched. The guidelines comprise concise descriptions and practical supplementary flowcharts covering the major elements of general tobacco dependence treatment. These are the first comprehensive Arabic-language guidelines, including a section focusing on waterpipe use, and we believe they are a reliable and useful resource for neighbouring countries seeking to develop similar guidelines.

  17. Local Tomography and the Jordan Structure of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard; Wilce, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Using a result of H. Hanche-Olsen, we show that (subject to fairly natural constraints on what constitutes a system, and on what constitutes a composite system), orthodox finite-dimensional complex quantum mechanics with superselection rules is the only non-signaling probabilistic theory in which (i) individual systems are Jordan algebras (equivalently, their cones of unnormalized states are homogeneous and self-dual), (ii) composites are locally tomographic (meaning that states are determined by the joint probabilities they assign to measurement outcomes on the component systems) and (iii) at least one system has the structure of a qubit. Using this result, we also characterize finite dimensional quantum theory among probabilistic theories having the structure of a dagger-monoidal category.

  18. Deriving the Jordan structure of finite-dimensional quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilce, Alexander; Barnum, Howard

    2012-02-01

    The Koecher-Vinberg theorem tells us that formally real Jordan algebras are equivalent to finite-dimensional order-unit spaces having homogeneous, self-dual cones. Recent work by the authors and others has identified various conditions that imply the homogeneity and self-duality of the cones generated by the states and effects of a generalized probabilistic model. This talk highlights two results: one shows that a certain package of conditions, relating the the symmetries of a system and the existence of certain correlations between systems, is sufficient to ground a model's self-duality. Another shows that any dagger-monoidal category of homogeneous, self-dual probabilistic theories having locally tomographic composites and containing a system with the structure of a qubit, must consist of self-adjoint parts of complex matrix algebras --- must, in other words, be a standard finite-dimensional quantum theory.

  19. 76 FR 71967 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897),...

  20. 76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy...

  1. The impact of this involuntary mass "return" to Jordan in the wake of the Gulf crisis.

    PubMed

    Van Hear, N

    1995-01-01

    "This article investigates the impact of the involuntary movement to Jordan of about 300,000 Palestinians in the wake of the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. It explores the character of the population that arrived en masse in Jordan and whether their arrival burdened or benefitted that country.... The involuntary migration compounded other effects of the Gulf crisis on Jordan and exacerbated the country's already serious economic problems. Integration of the returnees was painful. But contrary to initial expectations, the mass arrival did not result in unmitigated disaster and may have contributed to an economic recovery in Jordan, suggesting that there may be potentially beneficial windfall effects of sudden population influxes, even when they are involuntary and disorderly."

  2. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  3. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  4. Jordan pairs, E6 and U-duality in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    By exploiting the Jordan pair structure of U-duality Lie algebras in D = 3 and the relation to the super-Ehlers symmetry in D = 5, we elucidate the massless multiplet structure of the spectrum of a broad class of D = 5 supergravity theories. Both simple and semi-simple, Euclidean rank-3 Jordan algebras are considered. Theories sharing the same bosonic sector but with different supersymmetrizations are also analyzed.

  5. On the equivalence of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan reduction in solving linear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Nai-Kuan

    1989-01-01

    A novel general approach to round-off error analysis using the error complexity concepts is described. This is applied to the analysis of the Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan scheme for solving linear equations. The results show that the two algorithms are equivalent in terms of our error complexity measures. Thus the inherently parallel Gauss-Jordan scheme can be implemented with confidence if parallel computers are available.

  6. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  7. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (<0.8) ratios; (2) dissolution of highly soluble salts (e.g., halite, gypsum) in the host sediments resulting in typically lower Br/Cl signal (<2 ?? 10-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  9. The Mediterranean Oscillation and precipitation in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, Tobias; Menzel, Lucas

    2014-05-01

    Most of the precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) is associated with mid-latitude cyclones (Black, 2011). Furthermore, a low pressure over this region is often accompanied by a high pressure in the Western Mediterranean (WM). This pattern has been referred to as the Mediterranean Oscillation and given rise to the Mediterranean Oscillation Index (MOI), which can be expressed as pressure differences between Algiers in the WM and Cairo in the EM (Palutikof et al., 1996). In this study, the relationship between the MOI and precipitation in the Jordan River region, located in the EM is addressed. First of all, 30 precipitation series were tested for homogeneity and serial correlation. Thereafter, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses were applied to the homogenous series and the years 1960-1993. The results showed that the EOF-1 explained 60-71% of the precipitation variance and received a significant correlation with the MOI in December-February whereas no correlation was obtained for the EOF-2. In order to obtain the large scale pressure anomalies associated with winter precipitation in the study region, the EOF-1 coefficient time series was correlated with Sea Level Pressure (SLP) obtained for ca. 23° W to 70° E and 5° N to 67° N. This resulted in a correlation coefficient between -0.5 and 0.5; where negative values correspond to below normal SLP, and positive values to above normal SLP by the time of rainfall in the study region. The spatial pattern showed above normal SLP over central Europe and the WM and below normal SLP in the EM. Hence, it was reminiscent of the Mediterranean Oscillation and consistence with the results from the previous correlation analysis. The probability of precipitation during negative and positive MOI phases was thereafter derived by fitting gamma distributions to monthly precipitation. The result showed that negative MOI phases are associated with low- and below normal winter precipitation whereas positive MOI phases

  10. One Region: Two Cultures. Comparing Israel and Jordan: A Unit for Elementary Students. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This social studies unit for elementary school students concentrates on comparing the different cultures of the neighboring countries of Israel and Jordan. The unit describes the educational objectives and explains that a variety of strategies are used to reach those objectives. It lists materials needed and procedures for evaluation, provides…

  11. Israel & Jordan: Paving a Path for the Future through Understanding the Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Ilene

    This curriculum project on the cultures of the Middle Eastern countries of Israel and Jordan stresses the language arts and focuses on objectives for elementary-age students to attain. The project states that children will: locate, list, identify, label, demonstrate, research, organize, compose, conference, rewrite, proofread, rewrite again,…

  12. Mass gathering in Aqaba, Jordan, during Eid AI Adha, 2010.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, S; Sharkas, G; Sabri, N; Iblan, I; Abdallat, M; Jriesat, S; Hijawi, B; Khanfar, R; Al-Nsour, M

    2013-01-01

    During the 5-day Eid Al Adha holiday, Aqaba is the site of one of the largest mass gatherings in Jordan. Public health concerns during this holiday included: food- and waterborne diseases, drowning, injuries by marine creatures, road traffic crashes, and pressure on emergency departments at hospitals. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Aqaba during the period 16-20 November 2010 and aimed to identify and prioritize the major public health risks and to overview the preparedness plans of the Health Directorate during previous Eid events in Aqaba. All related stakeholders participated in the study. An exploratory visit to Aqaba was made and an introductory workshop was conducted for participants. Relevant data were collected and compared with the figures for the week prior to the event. No food poisoning outbreaks were reported during the event. There was a 23% increase in emergency department attendance, a 33% increase in hospital admissions, and road traffic crashes increased by more than 300%. More males were affected than females.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  14. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed.

    PubMed

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor.

  15. Molecular identification of chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Huthaifa Salah; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Hananeh, Wael Mahmoud; Alsheyab, Fawzi Mohammad; Jawasreh, Khaleel Ibraheem; Al-Gharaibeh, Moath Ahmad; Ababneh, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila abortus (Ch. abortus) is the etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and one of the most common infectious agents of abortion in small ruminants worldwide. RFLP-PCR analysis of the outer membrane protein gene (OMP2 gene) was used for diagnosis and characterization of chlamydial causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. Sixty-six placental tissues and 15 vaginal swabs were collected from aborted ewes and does to identify cause of abortion in Jordan. Thirty-eight placental samples (58 %) and 13 vaginal swabs (87 %) were positive for chlamydial DNA. Shedding of bacteria in vaginal swabs was detected within 7 days after abortion. The results of this study showed that chlamydiosis is one of the important causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. In addition, vaginal swab is an excellent sample for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis. DNA sequencing and RFLP analysis of the OMP2 reveal that all chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan are due to Ch. abortus. While, Ch. pecorum was not detected in any sample. OMP2 gene of the isolated Jordanian strain was identical (100 %) to Ch. abortus FAS strain. In conclusion, Ch. abortus is an important cause of abortion in Jordan; vaginal swab within 7 days of abortion can be used for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis in small ruminants.

  16. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid A.; Holton, Elwood F., III.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees employed by public and private sector organizations operating in Jordan. Principle axis factoring with oblique rotation was used to uncover the underlying structure…

  17. Gender Equality in Secondary Education: A Study of Girls' Educational Access and Participation in Jordan between 2000 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belal, Fatima Omar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the changes of male and female enrollment in urban and rural areas in Jordan and the school-related factors, as well as government policies that contributed to its change. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and rural areas in Jordan. A selective sample of twelve people…

  18. From Weyl to Born-Jordan quantization: The Schrödinger representation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    The ordering problem has been one of the long standing and much discussed questions in quantum mechanics from its very beginning. Nowadays, there is more or less a consensus among physicists that the right prescription is Weyl's rule, which is closely related to the Moyal-Wigner phase space formalism. We propose in this report an alternative approach by replacing Weyl quantization with the less well-known Born-Jordan quantization. This choice is actually natural if we want the Heisenberg and Schrödinger pictures of quantum mechanics to be mathematically equivalent. It turns out that, in addition, Born-Jordan quantization can be recovered from Feynman's path integral approach provided that one used short-time propagators arising from correct formulas for the short-time action, as observed by Makri and Miller. These observations lead to a slightly different quantum mechanics, exhibiting some unexpected features, and this without affecting the main existing theory; for instance quantizations of physical Hamiltonian functions are the same as in the Weyl correspondence. The differences are in fact of a more subtle nature; for instance, the quantum observables will not correspond in a one-to-one fashion to classical ones, and the dequantization of a Born-Jordan quantum operator is less straightforward than that of the corresponding Weyl operator. The use of Born-Jordan quantization moreover solves the "angular momentum dilemma", which already puzzled L. Pauling. Born-Jordan quantization has been known for some time (but not fully exploited) by mathematicians working in time-frequency analysis and signal analysis, but ignored by physicists. One of the aims of this report is to collect and synthesize these sporadic discussions, while analyzing the conceptual differences with Weyl quantization, which is also reviewed in detail. Another striking feature is that the Born-Jordan formalism leads to a redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner

  19. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  20. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste.

  1. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Erin M.; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J.; Katz, Rebecca L.; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response – including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  2. Geology and ground-water resources of the Jordan Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marine, I. Wendell; Price, Don

    1964-01-01

    The Jordan Valley occupies about 400 square miles in the central part of Salt Lake County in north-central Utah. Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is in the northeastern part of the valley. The valley is at the eastern margin of the Basin and range physiographic province, and it is bounded on the northeast, east, south, and west by mountain ranges. The valley is drained by the Jordan River which enters through a water gap in the mountains to the south, flows north, and empties into the Great Salt Lake, which forms the northwestern border of the valley.

  3. An algorithm for calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1973-01-01

    Jordan canonical forms are used extensively in the literature on control systems. However, very few methods are available to compute them numerically. Most numerical methods compute a set of basis vectors in terms of which the given matrix is diagonalized when such a change of basis is possible. Here, a simple and efficient method is suggested for computing the Jordan canonical form and the corresponding transformation matrix. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector, and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques.

  4. On the interaction between the Lower Jordan River and the shallow aquifer system of the Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, U.; Polak, A.; Lipetz, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marei, A.; Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.

    2004-12-01

    The study describes the hydrology and chemistry of the shallow groundwater along the west side of the Lower Jordan River in its north section, by means of piezometers installation. We have installed 7 piezometers at different locations near the west bank of the Jordan River and added five reference points inside the river itself. The immediate purpose of these installations is to measure the groundwater level, to calculate the water gradient, to estimate the amount of water that enters the river, to sample the shallow groundwater, and provide a chemical analysis of these samples. The study area was divided into three fields, north, middle, and south where in each field a number of piezometers where drilled and one or two reference points were placed in the river. The highest gradient of the hydraulic head was measured in the north field and reached 5 m over a distance of ~500 m. This may be explained by the alluvial fan of the largest stream in the area. In the middle field the gradient of the hydraulic head was between 0.6 and 0.8 m over a distance of 170 - 380 m and in the south field we measured the smallest hydraulic gradient that was less then 0.1%. The chemical characteristics of the river show a chloride decrease from ~1900 mg/L to ~1500 mg/L and then a slight increase to ~ 1600 mg/L. Since the river is not only affected by the groundwater but also by surface inputs from the west and the east, and by intensive pumping, the interpretation and the comparison between the river data and the piezometers is complex. Never the less, there is a significant difference between the three fields. Where the chloride concentration in the north field is lower than that of the river the chloride concentration in the other two fields is higher than in the river. As the gradient of the hydraulic head found in the north field is high it is likely that some part of the river modification may be attributed to the sampled water in the piezometers. On the other hand, the very high

  5. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  6. The Impact of Marketing Actions on Relationship Quality in the Higher Education Sector in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Alak, Basheer A. M.

    2006-01-01

    This field/analytical study examined the marketing actions (antecedents) and performance (consequences) of relationship quality in a higher education setting. To analyze data collected from a random sample of 271 undergraduate students at AL-Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan, the linear structural relationship (LISREL) model was used to…

  7. 76 FR 70437 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal...

  8. Boys' Academic Achievement at the Secondary Level in Jordan between 2005 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belal, Shadin Yahya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated factors linked to the underachievement of boys' education in Jordan. These school factors include the availability of male teachers, availability and infrastructure of school, student-teacher ratio (STR), and the quality of teachers. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and…

  9. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  10. Assessment and demonstration of ecologically-based medusahead and cheatgrass management in Jordan Valley, Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead was first noted in Jordan Valley, OR approximately 25-30 years ago. It has significantly expanded within the last 10-20 years. As part of the USDA-ARS Area-wide project for invasive annual grasses, landscape scale demonstration plots were established with five cooperating ranches in 200...

  11. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  12. Potential Use of Course Management Systems in Higher Education Institutions in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shboul, Muhannad

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased adoption of the CMS (course management systems) as an instructional tool, it is important to address the potential use of this technology in Jordanian higher education institutions. This study investigates the potential to use CMS tools in instruction in the academic institutions in Jordan. This study does not seek to evaluate…

  13. The Characteristics of the Role of Early Childhood Education Mentors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Basheer, Akram A.; Qablan, Ahmad M.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore empirically how far the roles adopted by the mentors of early childhood education students teaching in Jordan coincide with a model of roles suggested in the literature of teacher training. This study is an attempt to draw from the literature as many views about the role of the mentor as possible and then to attempt to…

  14. Arabic Language Teachers and Islamic Education Teachers' Awareness of Authentic Assessment in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Basheer, Akram; Ashraah, Mamdouh; Alsmadi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating Islamic Education teachers' and Arabic Language teachers' perceptions of authentic assessment in Jordan, and exploring the effects of factors related to teachers' specialization, gender and years of experience on their understanding of the implications of this kind of assessment. In this mixed-method research, a…

  15. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  16. An economic inquisition of water quality trading programs, with a case study of Jordan Lake, NC.

    PubMed

    Motallebi, Marzieh; Hoag, Dana L; Tasdighi, Ali; Arabi, Mazdak; Osmond, Deanna L

    2017-05-15

    A water quality trading (WQT) program was promulgated in North Carolina to address water quality issues related to nutrients in the highly urbanizing Jordan Lake Watershed. Although WQT programs are appealing in theory, the concept has not proved feasible in several attempts between point and nonpoint polluters in the United States. Many application hurdles that create wedges between success and failure have been evaluated in the literature. Most programs, however, face multiple hurdles; eliminating one may not clear a pathway to success. Therefore, we identify and evaluate the combined impact of four different wedges including baseline, transaction cost, trading ratio, and trading cost in the Jordan Lake Watershed program. Unfortunately, when applied to the Jordan Lake program, the analysis clearly shows that a traditional WQT program will not be feasible or address nutrient management needs in a meaningful way. The hurdles individually would be difficult to overcome, but together they appear to be unsurmountable. This analysis shows that there is enough information to pre-identify potential hurdles that could inform policy makers where, and how, the concept might work. It would have saved time, energy, and financial resources if North Carolina had done so before embarking to implement their program in the Jordan Lake Watershed.

  17. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom.

  18. Facebook Use in Education: Experiences of University Science Education Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of Facebook use in education in one public university located in the middle part of Jordan. A sample of 189 undergraduate students enrolled in the science education courses participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire composed of 15 items. The results of the study indicated that…

  19. Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

  20. Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of special education teachers in the city of Amman, Jordan, toward the inclusion of students with autism in public schools and what the teachers believed to be the most important prerequisite skills for successful inclusion. Ninety two special education teachers were selected to complete the survey. The…

  1. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  2. Construct Validation of an Arabic Version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for Use in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Bates, Reid; Holton, Elwood F., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the perceptions of transfer system characteristics across selected individual and situational variables. The LTSI was administered to 450 employees of 28 different public and…

  3. Primary School Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Views on Barriers to Inclusion in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Muna; Al-Natour, Mayada; Al-Abdallat, Bassam; Alkhamra, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    This study explores teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward the inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream schools in Jordan. It also examines the barriers the teachers perceived to hinder successful inclusions. The study sample consisted of 87 primary school teachers who responded to an open-ended questionnaire asking…

  4. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  5. Assessing Special Needs of Students with Hearing Impairment in Jordan and Its Relation to Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zraigat, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess special needs for students with hearing impairment. The sample of the study consisted of 231 students enrolled at schools for deaf children in Jordan, 113 males and 118 females. A special needs scale was developed and used in assessing special needs for students. The reliability and validity of…

  6. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  7. Presidents' Panel: A Conversation with I. King Jordan, Robert Davila, and T. Alan Hurwitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.; Jordan, I. King; Davila, Robert; Hurwitz, T. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Former Gallaudet presidents: I. King Jordan and Robert Davila join current president T. Alan Hurwitz on a panel moderated by Brian H. Greenwald as they share their experience leading this institution of higher education and offer insight into the transformative changes brought about by the "Deaf President Now" movement.

  8. Accountability and Discipline in Classroom Management: Case Study--Jarash-Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magableh, Atef Yusuf; Hawamdeh, Basim Ali

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identification of the undesired student's behaviors, which are investigated, by teachers and the strategies followed by beginning teachers in classroom discipline at the schools of Jarash government-Jordan. To achieve the aim of the study, both researchers used the organized interviews; size of the sample was 50 male and female…

  9. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  10. Beliefs about Parental Authority Legitimacy among Refugee Youth in Jordan: Between- and Within-Person Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…

  11. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Curricula on Seventh Grade Mathematics Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhanna, Wafa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using web-based curricula on seventh grade students' achievement in mathematics in King Abdullah School in Irbid, Jordan. The researcher followed the equivalent pre/post T-test two group designs. To achieve the aim of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students'…

  12. Molecular Diagnosis and Identification of Leishmania Species in Jordan from Saved Dry Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Kanani, Kalil A.; Rasheed, Malak; Atoum, Manar; Abdel-Dayem, Mona; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Jordan relies on patient clinical presentation and microscopic identification. Studies toward improved identification of the causative Leishmania species, especially in regions where multiple species exist, and the introduction of these techniques into medical diagnosis is paramount. This study looked at the current epidemiology of CL in Jordan. Clinically diagnosed 41 patients with CL were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite using both Giemsa staining from skin scraps on glass slides and ITS1-PCR from samples blotted onto storage cards (NucleoCards®). Microscopically, 28 out of the 41 (68.3%) collected samples were positive for amastigotes, whereas the molecular ITS1-PCR amplification successfully identified 30 of the 41 samples (73.2%). Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis allowed species identification which is impossible microscopically. Of the 30 PCR positive samples, 28 were Leishmania major positive and the other two samples were Leishmania tropica. This indicates that L. major is the most prevalent species in Jordan and the two L. tropica cases originated from Syria indicating possible future L. tropica outbreaks. Diagnosis of CL based on clinical presentation only may falsely increase its prevalence. Although PCR is more sensitive, it is still not available in our medical laboratories in Jordan. PMID:27403435

  13. Water-quality investigations of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality studies were conducted on the Jordan River, Utah, to investigate specific problems: dissolved oxygen, toxic substances, sanitary quality, and turbidity and suspended sediment. The dissolved oxygen decreased from 8 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to less than 5 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street. Chemical oxygen demand increased about 23 percent and biochemical oxygen demand increased 90 percent. Nearly 78 percent of the water samples analyzed for total mercury exceeded the State intended-use standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Concentrations of ammonia, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc exceeded the standards periodically. The pesticides DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, methoxychlor, and 2,4-D were occasionally detected in bottom materials. Most were present in quantities of less than 15 micrograms per kilogram. Concentrations of three indicator bacteria (total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus) increased in a downstream direction. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. The primary sources of turbidity in the Jordan River are Utah Lake and discharges from the wastewater-treatment plants. Large values of turbidity were measured at the Jordan Narrows with a summer mean value of 88 nephelometer turbidity units (NTU) and a winter mean value of 43 NTU. (USGS)

  14. Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

  15. Guttman-Jordan Facet Design and the Study of Law-Related Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Palonsky, Stuart

    The development of an Attitude-Behavior Scale through an application of Guttman-Jordan facet design is detailed. The attitude scale was constructed to meet the need in law-related education for a valid attitudinal instrument to be used in research settings and in attitude change situations. A legal education program was used as a treatment in a…

  16. Born-Jordan Quantization and the Equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg Pictures.

    PubMed

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    The aim of the famous Born and Jordan 1925 paper was to put Heisenberg's matrix mechanics on a firm mathematical basis. Born and Jordan showed that if one wants to ensure energy conservation in Heisenberg's theory it is necessary and sufficient to quantize observables following a certain ordering rule. One apparently unnoticed consequence of this fact is that Schrödinger's wave mechanics cannot be equivalent to Heisenberg's more physically motivated matrix mechanics unless its observables are quantized using this rule, and not the more symmetric prescription proposed by Weyl in 1926, which has become the standard procedure in quantum mechanics. This observation confirms the superiority of Born-Jordan quantization, as already suggested by Kauffmann. We also show how to explicitly determine the Born-Jordan quantization of arbitrary classical variables, and discuss the conceptual advantages in using this quantization scheme. We finally suggest that it might be possible to determine the correct quantization scheme by using the results of weak measurement experiments.

  17. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  18. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  19. A 16th Suggestions for Educational Curriculum Improvement in Jordan, from the Experts Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the most important suggestions for educational curriculum improvement in Jordan, from the expert's point of view. A descriptive survey through data and information collection tool (questionnaire) was used as an approach. The study sample consisted of (620) educational experts in the field of…

  20. The Image of Women in the National Education Text Books in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalidi, Nasiema Mustafa Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the image of women and how it was dealt with in the National Education books in Jordan, where the content of the National Education books analyzed and for multiple age stages, also it addressed the content analysis of images, concepts and fees, activities and evaluation to identify the image of women in the family, at…

  1. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  2. On the Myth of the Crisis of Representation: A Response to Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The author observes that, in "Applied Utility and the Auto-Ethnographic Short Story: Persuasions for, and Illustrations of, Writing Critical Social Science," Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan present claims about why we might choose to represent auto-ethnographic data in a literary form such as short story and for the "potential" or…

  3. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  4. Faculty Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of higher education (HE) faculty members towards inclusion of students with disabilities at one large public University in Jordan using a survey approach. A total of 170 faculty members completed the survey. The most important findings of this study are: (a) regardless of the academic discipline, the majority of…

  5. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  6. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  7. Toward the full and proper implementation of Jordan's Principle: An elusive goal to date.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    First Nations children experience service delays, disruptions and denials due to jurisdictional payment disputes within and between federal and provincial/territorial governments. The House of Commons sought to ensure First Nations children could access government services on the same terms as other children when it unanimously passed a private members motion in support of Jordan's Principle in 2007. Jordan's Principle states that when a jurisdictional dispute arises regarding public services for a First Nations child that are otherwise available to other children, the government of first contact pays for the service and addresses payment disputes later. Unfortunately, the federal government adopted a definition of Jordan's Principle that was so narrow (complex medical needs with multiple service providers) that no child ever qualified. This narrow definition has been found to be unlawful by the Federal Court of Canada and the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal. The present commentary describes Jordan's Principle, the legal cases that have considered it and the implications of those decisions for health care providers.

  8. On the Quality of Higher Education in Jordan: Empirical Evidence from Princess Sumaya University for Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahateet, Mohammed Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the main indicators of scores of K-12 leavers who were admitted at Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PSUT, in Jordan and their graduation scores. It uses time series data covering the period 1993-2012, including all 3,229 Bachelor graduates in all specialisations. The paper applies several statistical techniques to…

  9. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  10. Status of Services Provided to Deaf Woman in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ihsan Ighdeifan; ALkhateeb, Akef Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the status of services provided to deaf woman in Jordan. The study was conducted on a sample of (100) deaf women chosen by the intended available method. A researcher self developed questionnaire consisting of (75) items covering seven most important domains representing the most important services that should be…

  11. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  12. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Results Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Discussion Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs. PMID:27073930

  13. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  14. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... strengthening; (2) biodiversity conservation and improved management of protected areas; (3) improved private... Article 5 (Environment) of the U.S.-Jordan FTA; (2) improved protection and conservation of...

  15. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  16. Antone Tarazi: the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan: a neurosurgeon of two countries.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ahmed J; Jane, John A

    2014-12-01

    Antone (Tony) Tarazi (1927-1999) was the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan. In 1952, Tarazi received his medical degree from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. After completing neurosurgery training at the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1960, he returned to Palestine to practice neurosurgery in both Palestine and Jordan. For almost 10 years, he alone carried the load of neurosurgery for a population of >3 million people. His skills and knowledge enabled him to achieve admirable results with limited available resources. Tarazi was the president of the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society, a member of Jordan medical societies, and a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. His continuous efforts to improve medical services extended beyond neurosurgery to many other fields. This article recounts Antone Tarazi's achievements and contributions to neurosurgery in Palestine and Jordan.

  17. The factor structure of the internet addiction tool with university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad; Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is a growing phenomenon affecting people in varying ways around the globe. This study examined the factor structure and internal reliability of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) with a heterogeneous sample of university students in Jordan. The study used a cross-sectional design, and all the questionnaires were completed in classrooms. A sample of 587 students from seven universities in Jordan was obtained. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the 20-item IAT revealed that a four-factor solution offered the most parsimonious explanation of the data. The IAT reliably assesses distinct domains of Internet addiction. These domains are Excessive Use, Loss/Suffer, Attached To, and Impaired Social Relations. Thus, it is recommended to use the obtained four factors when assessing Internet addiction among a similar population.

  18. Paediatric continuing medical education needs and preferences of UNRWA physicians in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Nasir, A; Khader, A; Nasir, L; Abuzayed, I; Seita, A

    2016-04-19

    Most physicians who work in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) infant and child health programme in Jordan are general practitioners with no postgraduate training in paediatrics. Furthermore, in resource-poor or remote settings, the ability to deliver live continuing medical education (CME) is often limited. A questionnaire exploring the resources available for accessing CME, preferences for types of CME, current sources of CME and topics of interest in the field of paediatric care was sent to all 92 physicians practising in UNRWA clinics in Jordan. Of the 89 respondents 80% had attended live medical lectures for CME and 70% CME meetings. Despite most physicians having access to the Internet only 52.8% were interested in Internet-based courses for accessing CME. There was a statistically significant relationship between year of graduation from medical school and preference for Internet-based CME. Implications for CME participation and paediatric CME topics are discussed.

  19. The origin and mechanisms of salinization of the Lower Jordan River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, ??11B, ??34Ssulfate, ??18Owater, ??15Nnitrate) compositions of water from the Lower Jordan River and its major tributaries between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea were determined in order to reveal the origin of the salinity of the Jordan River. We identified three separate hydrological zones along the flow of the river: (1) A northern section (20 km downstream of its source) where the base flow composed of diverted saline and wastewaters is modified due to discharge of shallow sulfate-rich groundwater, characterized by low 87Sr/86Sr (0.7072), ??34Ssulfate (-2???), high ??11B (???36???), ??15Nnitrate (???15???) and high ??18Owater (-2 to-3???) values. The shallow groundwater is derived from agricultural drainage water mixed with natural saline groundwater and discharges to both the Jordan and Yarmouk rivers. The contribution of the groundwater component in the Jordan River flow, deduced from mixing relationships of solutes and strontium isotopes, varies from 20 to 50% of the total flow. (2) A central zone (20-50 km downstream from its source) where salt variations are minimal and the rise of 87Sr/86Sr and SO4/Cl ratios reflects predominance of eastern surface water flows. (3) A southern section (50-100 km downstream of its source) where the total dissolved solids of the Jordan River increase, particularly during the spring (70-80 km) and summer (80-100 km) to values as high as 11.1 g/L. Variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of river water along the southern section suggest that the Zarqa River (87Sr/86Sr???0.70865; ??11B???25???) has a negligible affect on the Jordan River. Instead, the river quality is influenced primarily by groundwater discharge composed of sulfate-rich saline groundwater (Cl-=31-180 mM; SO4/Cl???0.2-0.5; Br/Cl???2-3??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0.70805; ??11B???30???; ??15Nnitrate ???17???, ??34Ssulfate=4-10???), and Ca-chloride Rift valley brines (Cl-=846-1500 mM; Br/Cl???6-8??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0

  20. Physical and geometrical interpretation of the Jordan-Hahn and the Lebesgue decomposition property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Christian

    1989-11-01

    The Jordan-Hahn decomposition and the Lebesgue decomposition, two basic notions of classical measure theory, are generalized for measures on orthomodular posets. The Jordan-Hahn decomposition property (JHDP) and the Lebesgue decomposition property (LDP) are defined for sections Δ of probability measures on an orthomodular poset L. If L is finite, then these properties can be characterized geometrically in terms of two parallelity relations defined on the set of faces of Δ. A section Δ is shown to have the JHDP if and only if every pair of f-parallel faces is p-parallel; it is shown to have the LDP if and only if every pair of disjoint faces is p-parallel. It follows from these results that the LDP is stronger than the JHDP in the setting of finite orthomodular posets. Mielnik's convex scheme of quantum theory provides the frame for a physical interpretation of these results.

  1. Mortality and causes of death in Jordan 1995-96: assessment by verbal autopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, S. A.; Massad, D.; Fardous, T.

    1999-01-01

    Mortality indicators and causes of death in Jordan were assessed by verbal autopsy. A random sample of 100 clusters of ca. 300 households each were monitored for one year by notification assistants selected from the study area itself. Registered deaths were reported to research assistants who visited the family to complete the verbal autopsy form, which was structured and contained about 100 questions. Causes of death were determined by two physicians according to preset algorithms. A total of 965 deaths were reported among 198,989 persons, giving a crude death rate of 5 per 1000 population per year. The three leading causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, malignancies and accidents. In the absence of a health information system, verbal autopsy as implemented in Jordan can serve as a reliable substitute. PMID:10516786

  2. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-04-02

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system.

  3. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Wide spread zeolitization of the Neogene - Quaternary volcanic tuff in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Ibrahim, Khalil M.; Al Dwairi, Reyad A.; Torrente, Domingo G.

    2015-01-01

    Representative samples were collected from well exposed Neogene - Quarternary scoria cones of north east Jordan. The results of this study have led to the discovery of eleven new localities of zeolite associated with the volcanic tuff. The zeolitization process of the volcanic tuff in Jordan is widespread and of regional distribution. The identified zeolites are phillipsite and chabazite with subordinate associations of faujasite and analcime. The zeolitization process resulted from the transformation of sideromelane into palagonite by the reaction of the scoria with the circulating meteoric water. The variation in the Na/K, Na/Ca and Si/Al ratios of the circulating water was responsible for the variation in the mineralogy and chemistry of the zeolites and the associated authigenic minerals.

  5. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    operation as quickly as possible. The task of collecting and interpreting basic data or mineral resources must be done largely by Jordanians, for only in this way will Jordan acquire the technical competence needed to use the information. Few Jordanians have enough training or experience to work independently in these fields now, however, so help from outside technicians would be necessary over an initial training period of several years. But the number of outside technicians should never exceed the number of Jordanian technicians, and for this reason, neither organization could have a staff of more than a few people during the early years of operation.

  6. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  7. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  8. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q.; Abutarbush, Sameeh M.; Rutley, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection. PMID:25925174

  9. The spatial distribution of enteric bacteria in the Jordan River-Lake Kinneret contact zone.

    PubMed

    Wynne, David; Shteinman, Boris; Hochman, Ayala; Ben-Dan, Talya

    Lake Kinneret, in the north of Israel, is the only freshwater body in the country. It supports many activities, including recreation, tourism, and a commercial fishing industry, but its prime function is to supply water to other parts of the country. Consequently, maintaining a high water quality of the lake is of prime importance. The major part (some 90%) of the annual runoff of water enters Lake Kinneret from the north via the Jordan River during the autumn-winter floods. During this period, the river carries sediments, toxic agricultural chemicals, and allochthonous organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, into the lake. The Jordan River-Lake Kinneret contact zone is characterized by a rapid transformation from a riverine to a lacustrine water mass within 700 m from the river mouth, with very high spatial gradients of practically all hydrodynamic, hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and microbiological parameters. Previous measurements have shown that the distribution of enteric bacteria in the river-lake contact zone is related to the attenuation of river current flows. The aim of this study was to determine whether the change in the number of enteric bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp.) in the water of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone was due to sedimentation or to dilution. The data were then utilized to build a conceptual model explaining the distribution of biological pollutants (bacteria) in the river-lake contact zone of a shallow tropical lake, using the microbial communities of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone, as an example.

  10. NLS breathers, rogue waves, and solutions of the Lyapunov equation for Jordan blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvartatskyi, Oleksandr; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2017-04-01

    The infinite families of Peregrine, Akhmediev and Kuznetsov–Ma breather solutions of the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation are obtained via a matrix version of the Darboux transformation, with a spectral matrix of the form of a Jordan block. The structure of these solutions is essentially determined by the corresponding solution of the Lyapunov equation. In particular, regularity follows from properties of the Lyapunov equation.

  11. Modelling groundwater over-extraction in the southern Jordan Valley with scarce data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Paulina; Liesch, Tanja; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-01-01

    To deal with the challenge of groundwater over-extraction in arid and semi-arid environments, it is necessary to establish management strategies based on the knowledge of hydrogeological conditions, which can be difficult in places where hydrogeological data are dispersed, scarce or present potential misinformation. Groundwater levels in the southern Jordan Valley (Jordan) have decreased drastically in the last three decades, caused by over-extraction of groundwater for irrigation purposes. This study presents a local, two-dimensional and transient numerical groundwater model, using MODFLOW, to characterise the groundwater system and the water balance in the southern Jordan Valley. Furthermore, scenarios are simulated regarding hydrological conditions and management options, like extension of arable land and closure of illegal wells, influencing the projection of groundwater extraction. A limited dataset, literature values, field surveys, and the `crop water-requirement method' are combined to determine boundary conditions, aquifer parameters, and sources and sinks. The model results show good agreement between predicted and observed values; groundwater-level contours agree with the conceptual model and expected flow direction, and, in terms of water balance, flow volumes are in accordance with literature values. Average annual water consumption for irrigation is estimated to be 29 million m3 and simulation results show that a reduction of groundwater pumping by 40% could recover groundwater heads, reducing the water taken from storage. This study presents an example of how to develop a local numerical groundwater model to support management strategies under the condition of data scarcity.

  12. Creep along the northern Jordan Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov

    2016-03-01

    We geodetically investigate the interseismic deformation along two neighboring sections of the Dead Sea Fault in Israel and present first clear evidence for shallow creep along this fault. We obtain the velocities of near-fault GPS campaign stations across the northern section of the Jordan Valley Fault (JVF) and the Jordan Gorge Section (JGS) that were surveyed each year between 2009 and 2015. The JVF extends from the northern shore of the Dead Sea to the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and the JGS extends from the Sea of Galilee to the Hula Basin. We infer a slip rate of ~4.1 mm/yr and a locking depth of ~10 km for both sections. Data analysis indicates that while the JGS is found to be fully locked above the locking depth, the northern section of the JVF is found to be creeping from a depth of 1.5 ± 1.0 km to the surface, with a creep rate of 2.5 ± 0.8 mm/yr. Our observations also suggest that the current slip rate of the fault at the western margin of the Jordan Valley is minor, less than the GPS velocities uncertainties.

  13. Will demography defeat river rehabilitation efforts? The case of the River Jordan.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2017-03-15

    In the age-old debate between technological optimists and pessimists, desalination has been hailed as a "game changer" that can fundamentally alter the dynamics of water management under conditions of scarcity. While water from desalination facilities can reduce uncertainties in municipal supply, they are unlikely to replace the missing flow required to rehabilitate rivers and streams. The Jordan River is an iconic, but highly degraded water body whose restoration has been the subject of extensive research as well as numerous proposals and strategies. A review of the present state of the River and prospects for successful rehabilitation efforts reveals that neither the increase in the riparian population nor the reduced water supply due to climate change in the Jordan basin has been considered sufficiently in restoration strategies. Demographic pressures produce acute water shortages which make the provision of future environmental flows highly unlikely. While much can and should be done to improve its environmental condition, the Jordan River offers a cautionary tale for water scarce regions about the challenge of stream restoration initiatives in the face of accelerated population growth, notwithstanding the potential benefits of desalination as a source of drinking water.

  14. Home Health Care (HHC) Managers Perceptions About Challenges and Obstacles that Hinder HHC Services in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Ajlouni, Musa T.; Dawani, Hania; Diab, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Home care aims at supporting people with various degrees of dependency to remain at home rather than use residential, long-term, or institutional-based nursing care. Demographic, epidemiological, social, and cultural trends in Jordan as in other countries are changing the traditional patterns of care with growing emphasis on home care. The purpose of this study is to highlight the most common challenges related to home health care (HHC) services in Jordan as perceived by the managers of HHC agencies. Methods: a descriptive qualitative design that depends on focus group discussions has been used to collect data from a sample of 18 managers who met the selection criteria and who are willing to participate, the study found that, the main challenges of HHC services as perceived by managers were: shortage of female staff, lack of governance and regulation, poor management, unethical practices, lack of referral systems, and low accessibility of the poor and less privileged as HHC services are not included in health insurance schemes, it concludes also that the home health care industry in Jordan is facing many challenges and problems that may have negative effects on the effectiveness, efficiency, equity and quality of services and should be addressed by health policy makers. PMID:25946949

  15. Formulation of an Integrated Model for Freshwater Resources Policy Evaluation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Sigel, K.; Tilmant, A.; Lachaut, T.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Padula, S.; Mustafa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan is one of the four water poorest countries in the world. It is a highly vulnerable arid region whose freshwater system is at a tipping point due to the confluence of severely limited water supplies, rapid population growth, refugee influxes, climate change and variability, internal and transboundary competition for shared freshwater resources, and institutional impediments. Our team is engaged in an interdisciplinary effort aimed at developing a new approach to evaluate policies that enhance sustainability of freshwater resource systems. Our work adopts a multi-agent modeling framework that incorporates institutional complexity to evaluate policy instruments for improving water security in Jordan. We are developing this model using a modular approach, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena (e.g., groundwater-surface water flow, reservoir storage, network routing, salt balance, and crop yield) with human modules that represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules adopt a multi-agent simulation approach, defining agents as autonomous decision-makers at the government, administrative, organizational, and user levels. Our goal is to construct a suite of policy intervention scenarios that will form the basis for analysis of freshwater sustainability. This work has benefitted from a strong working relationship with leaders of the water sector in Jordan. Our approach and the merit of the policy interventions should have significant transfer value to other water-stressed regions.

  16. Quantum Explorers: Bohr, Jordan, and Delbrück Venturing into Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquim, Leyla; Freire, Olival; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper disentangles selected intertwined aspects of two great scientific developments: quantum mechanics and molecular biology. We look at the contributions of three physicists who in the 1930s were protagonists of the quantum revolution and explorers of the field of biology: Niels Bohr, Pascual Jordan, and Max Delbrück. Their common platform was the defense of the Copenhagen interpretation in physics and the adoption of the principle of complementarity as a way of looking at biology. Bohr addressed the problem of how far the results reached in physics might influence our views about life. Jordan and Delbrück were followers of Bohr's ideas in the context of quantum mechanics and also of his tendency to expand the implications of the Copenhagen interpretation to biology. We propose that Bohr's perspective on biology was related to his epistemological views, as Jordan's was to his political positions. Delbrück's propensity to migrate was related to his transformation into a key figure in the history of twentieth-century molecular biology.

  17. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  18. An Agent-Based Model of Farmer Decision Making in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, Philip; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Harou, Julien; Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim

    2016-04-01

    We describe an agent based hydro-economic model of groundwater irrigated agriculture in the Jordan Highlands. The model employs a Multi-Agent-Simulation (MAS) framework and is designed to evaluate direct and indirect outcomes of climate change scenarios and policy interventions on farmer decision making, including annual land use, groundwater use for irrigation, and water sales to a water tanker market. Land use and water use decisions are simulated for groups of farms grouped by location and their behavioural and economic similarities. Decreasing groundwater levels, and the associated increase in pumping costs, are important drivers for change within Jordan'S agricultural sector. We describe how this is considered by coupling of agricultural and groundwater models. The agricultural production model employs Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP), a method for calibrating agricultural production functions to observed planted areas. PMP has successfully been used with disaggregate models for policy analysis. We adapt the PMP approach to allow explicit evaluation of the impact of pumping costs, groundwater purchase fees and a water tanker market. The work demonstrates the applicability of agent-based agricultural decision making assessment in the Jordan Highlands and its integration with agricultural model calibration methods. The proposed approach is designed and implemented with software such that it could be used to evaluate a variety of physical and human influences on decision making in agricultural water management.

  19. Caligus lini n.sp., a new caligid (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the brilliant pomfret Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae) of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Cheng, Yu-Rong

    2016-02-10

    Caligus lini n.sp., a new species of caligid copepod parasitic on the gill rakers and caudal fin of the brilliant pomfret, Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae), is described from fish caught off Tai-Dong, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners by its possession of the following, unique combination of features: (1) middle two elements at the tip of leg 1 simple (without accessory process), (2) innermost element shortest and smallest of the four terminal elements on leg 1, (3) leg 4 exopod with an armature formula of I,III, and (4) complex leg 5 represented by 2 seta-bearing processes, a simple anterior process tipped with 1 plumose seta and quadripartite posterior process carrying 3 setae (1 simple and 2 plumose). The new species differs from its closest congener, Caligus tylosuri (Rangnekar, 1956), in the structure of the middle two elements (simple without carrying accessory process) at the tip of leg 1 and a quadripartite (instead of tripartite) posterior process on leg 5.

  20. Intermediate accelerated solutions as generic late-time attractors in a modified Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cid, Antonella; Leon, Genly; Leyva, Yoelsy E-mail: genly.leon@ucv.cl

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar field, Φ, with a power-law potential in the presence of a second scalar field, φ, with an exponential potential, in both the Jordan and the Einstein frames. We present the relation of our model with the induced gravity model with power-law potential and the integrability of this kind of models is discussed when the quintessence field φ is massless, and has a small velocity. The fact that for some fine-tuned values of the parameters we may get some integrable cosmological models, makes our choice of potentials very interesting. We prove that in Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory, the de Sitter solution is not a natural attractor. Instead, we show that the attractor in the Jordan frame corresponds to an ''intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form a(t) ≅ e{sup α{sub 1} t{sup p{sup {sub 1}}}}, as t → ∞ where α{sub 1} > 0 and 0 < p{sub 1} < 1, for a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, when we work in the Einstein frame we get that the attractor is also an ''intermediate accelerated'' solution of the form a(t) ≅ e{sup α{sub 2} tp{sub 2}} as t → ∞ where α{sub 2} > 0 and 0Jordan frame. In the special case of a quadratic potential in the Jordan frame, or for a constant potential in the Einstein's frame, the above intermediate solutions are of saddle type. These results were proved using the center manifold theorem, which is not based on linear approximation. Finally, we present a specific elaboration of our extension of the induced gravity model in the Jordan frame, which corresponds to a particular choice of a linear potential of Φ. The dynamical system is then reduced to a two dimensional one, and the late-time attractor is linked with the exact solution found for the induced gravity model. In this example the ''intermediate accelerated'' solution does not exist, and the attractor solution has

  1. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  2. The Effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape Teaching Method in Science Conceptual Change among Eighth-Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape method as teaching methods in bringing about conceptual change in science among primary eighth-grade students in Jordan. A randomly selected sample (N = 63) from the Bani Kenana region North of Jordan was randomly assigned to the two teaching…

  3. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  4. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  5. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  6. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  7. Detection of OXA-48-like and NDM carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Jordan: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Amin A; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Alzoubi, Hamed; Masalha, Ibrahim; Ellington, Matthew J; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis

    Little is known of carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPK) in Jordan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CPK in a major hospital in Amman, Jordan in 2012-2013 and to characterize the isolates and detect the types of carbapenemase(s) they produced. For the 296 isolates investigated, species identification and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined (Vitek II, bioMérieux). Isolates with decreased ertapenem susceptibility were tested for carbapenemase production using the Modified Hodge Test. Isolates with a carbapenemase-positive phenotype were characterized further via multiplex PCRs for extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase genes and by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven of 296 K. pneumoniae isolated in 2012-2013 (2.4%) were carbapenemase producers, five produced class D carbapenemases (OXA-48-like) and two produced a NDM metallo-beta-lactamase. All seven isolates also encoded CTX-M enzymes; CTX-M-1-like enzymes were detected in five isolates (two co-producing NDM enzymes and three co-producing OXA-48-like enzymes), CTX-M-9 was found in the two remaining OXA-48-like producers. PFGE revealed five genetically distinct types amongst the seven carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae, with two pairs of identical isolates associated with patients treated on the same wards. The emergence of OXA-48-like and NDM carbapenemases associated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates in Jordan is concerning. The strict implementation of infection control practices will help to disrupt the spread of MDR carbapenemase producers in Jordanian hospitals.

  8. Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Emily; Akhu‐Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care‐seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non‐camp settings in Jordan. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Results Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out‐of‐pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Conclusions Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26799158

  9. Unintentional Injuries and Violence among Adults in Northern Jordan: A Hospital-Based Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Alzghoul, Manal M; Shakhatreh, Mohammed K; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya

    2017-03-24

    Injuries (unintentional and intentional) are the main cause of death and disability worldwide, including Jordan. The main purpose of this hospital-based retrospective study was to identify characteristics, causes, and risk factors of unintentional injuries and violence among all adult patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency department because of injury in Northern Jordan. Data were collected retrospectively from four major hospitals from January 2008 to January 2013. A total of 2425 Jordanian individuals who accessed and were treated by the four hospitals were included in this study. The findings show that the majority of patients who approached the Accidents and Emergency departments in the four hospitals were males (n = 2044, 87.16%) versus females (n = 301, 12.8%). Violence was the most common reason of injury (70.66%), followed by road traffic crashes (23.21%). The most common anatomical locations of reported injuries were the head (38.74%), followed by abdomen/pelvis and lower back, among males and females (9.93%). Violence had a high significant effect on the site of injuries. Patients who had been injured to the head because of a stab wound or fighting were substantially over-involved in head injuries, with injury rates 3.88 and 7.51 times higher than those who had been injured to the head due to gunshot, respectively. Even patients who had been injured to the head because of assault show much higher involvement in injury risk than non-assault patients (Odds Ratio = 8.46). These findings highlight the need for a large national study to confirm the findings. It also draws attention to the importance of public awareness and to special injury prevention programs that not only focus on saving lives and lessening the number of injuries, illnesses, and fatalities, but also to limit the social and economic burden of injury among adults in Northern Jordan.

  10. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City

    SciTech Connect

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R. . E-mail: moshrik@hu.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  11. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  12. Reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Kendall R.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, was made during July, 1980 to October, 1982 as part of a larger study of the river that included studies of sanitary quality, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Samples for toxic substances were collected at five sites on the Jordan River, at three major tributaries, and at six storm drains. The toxic substance that most frequently exceeded State standards was total mercury. About 78 percent of the 138 samples for total mercury exceeded the State standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Other toxic substances that exceeded State standards were: Ammonia-18 percent of the samples analyzed, cadmium--9 percent, copper-9 percent, zinc--6 percent, and lead--2 percent. One sample for cyanide and one for iron also exceeded State standards. The diversity of toxic substances with concentrations large enough to cause them to be problems increased from the upstream sampling site at the Jordan Narrows to the next two downstream sites at 9000 South and 5800 South Streets. Concentrations of trace elements in stream-bottom materials also increased in a downstream direction. Substantial increases first were observed at 5800 South Street, and they were sustained throughout the downstream study area. Iron is transported in the greatest quantity of all the trace elements studied, with a mean load of 110 pounds per day. Notable loads of barium, boron, lead , and zinc also are transported by the river. DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor, PCB, and 2,4-D were detected in bottom materials; and DDE, Silvex, and 2,4-D were detected in water samples. Of 112 organic compounds in the Environmental Protection Agency 's priority pollutant list, only chloroform was detected in the storm drains that empty into the Joran River. Several metals and phenol also were detected in the samples for priority pollutants. (USGS)

  13. Wood remains from the Late Triassic (Carnian) of Jordan and their paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Hamad, Abdalla M. B.; Jasper, André; Uhl, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    During field work in the Triassic of Jordan fossil wood remains have been discovered at five horizons (S-1AR-S-5AR) of the Late Triassic (Carnian) Abu Ruweis Formation in NW Jordan. In most horizons wood remains are too badly preserved to allow for a detailed xylotomic investigation. Only two horizons provided material which exhibited anatomical details: (1) in horizon S-1AR we found rare and rather small fragments of woody charcoal exhibiting cellular details (representing the first macroscopic evidence of paleo-wildfires from the Late Triassic of the Middle East), and (2) in horizon S-5AR surfaces of partly compressed (gagatized) and partly permineralized wood fragments exhibited anatomical details that could be investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy. All wood remains that allow for a detailed investigation show features typical of gymnosperms, but at the moment nothing can be said about a more specific taxonomic affinity of most of the woods, although wood from horizon S-5AR exhibits characteristics of protopinoid wood. Our data provide evidence that gymnospermous woody vegetation cover has existed in the source areas of the sediments deposited in the Abu Ruweis Formation in Jordan and that this woody vegetation occasionally experienced wildfires. This, together with lithological data, provides evidence for a seasonally dry (maybe even arid) climate during deposition of the Abu Ruweis Formation. On a larger scale our findings contribute to the very scarce current knowledge about Late Triassic wildfires on the entire continent Gondwana, from where so far only three records of macro-charcoals, as undisputed evidence of paleo-wildfires, have been published from this period.

  14. The lithosphere thermal regime across the Dead Sea transform in Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Stromeyer, D.; Sobolev, S. V.; Oberhänsli, R.

    2003-04-01

    Reevaluation of thermal data (T-logs, thermal conductivity) from the area of the DESERT seismic refraction/reflection profiles in Israel shows that only part of the published heat-flow data correctly portrays the terrestrial heat flow. Taking into account the distortion factors on thermal conditions and discarding shallow (<100 m) boreholes from the database, nine heat-flow values remained yielding an average of 62±7.5 mW/m^2. We suggest that this value more closely approximates the terrestrial heat flow in this part of the African plate than previous values published for Israel, which are considerably lower (52±17.2 mW/m^2 and 40 mW/m^2, resp.). The new average is in good agreement with a surface heat-flow of preliminarily 60 mW/m^2 obtained from a 960-m deep borehole in southeastern Jordan. This well-constrained value is considerably higher than those proposed to represent the overall heat flow in this part of the African plate including Syria and Saudi Arabia (40--45 mW/m^2). Based on (1) newly acquainted data for Jordan on U-Th-K abundances from Pan-African basement rocks and xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts, which allow to infer the radiogenic heat production in the Jordanian crust, (2) respective literature values from Israel, and (3) new seismic data from the DESERT project, the structure and composition of the crust are redefined, and general thermal models for the lithosphere subplates separated by the Dead Sea Transform (DST) are calculated. Considering the temperature and pressure dependence of rock thermal conductivity and present-day surface heat flow, the steady-state geotherm for the Jordan lower crust/upper mantle is higher than in Israel, where it is within the envelope of previous geotherms. The modeled heat flow at the crust/mantle boundary is similar on both sides of the DST and amounts to 30 mW/m^2. However, the xenolith-derived P-T estimates for Israel (close to the DST) and Jordan (not only restricted to the DST) do not meet these

  15. Source detection in the Lower Jordan River - How to monitor the impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Siebert, Christian; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Jordan River (LJR) is a major ecosystem in the semi-arid to arid Jordan-Dead Sea Graben, the backbone of abundant farming activities in the Lower Jordan Valley and the major inflow to the dying Dead Sea. During the 1960's the Sea of Galilee and the Yarmouk River, the main sources of the river, were dammed, decreasing its annual flow from ˜1.2×109 m3 to less than 0.2×109 m3, leaving a mix of point and non-point sources composing its base flow. Beside natural saline springs along its course, current day anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agricultural return flow and fishpond effluents) have a negative impact on the water quality and the ecosystem, contributing high salinity and causing overall pollution. To enable an environmental assessment of the river and to satisfy the regulations of LJR international treaties, the temporal dynamics of water quantity and quality must be observed on a regular basis. As the LJR forms the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, nearly the entire river course is physically inaccessible. To overcome that situation, considerable efforts have been made to install a network of 7 sampling stations along the LJR to identify and separate the different contributing sources. Automatic water samplers in three of the stations collect water daily in addition to continuous measurement of stage, EC, pH and temperature. Sensors at all locations transmit online real-time data. During monthly campaigns a total of 14 sites are manually sampled along the river and some tributaries. Water samples are analyzed for major ions, trace elements and stable isotopes. While the sensor network allows separating events occurring in different reaches along the river course and calculating travel time between stations, water sample analyses enable fingerprinting and separating the actual sources. By doing so, an unusual and very local event was recorded by the most southern station (5.5 km north of the Dead Sea

  16. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of

  17. Modeling Household Water Consumption in a Hydro-Institutional System - The Case of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 CM per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 CM, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. This poses a severe challenge to the already strained institutions in the Jordanian water sector. The Stanford-led G8 Belmont Forum project "Integrated Analysis of Freshwater Resources Sustainability in Jordan" aims at analyzing the potential role of water sector institutions in the pursuit of a sustainable freshwater system performance. In order to do so, the project develops a coupled hydrological and agent-based model, allowing for the exploration of physical as well as socio-economic and institutional scenarios for Jordan's water sector. The part of this integrated model in focus here is the representation of household behavior in Jordan's densely populated capital Amman. Amman's piped water supply is highly intermittent, which also affects its potability. Therefore, Amman's citizens rely on various decentralized modes of supply, depending on their socio-economic characteristics. These include water storage in roof-top and basement tanks, private tanker supply, and the purchase of bottled water. Capturing this combination of centralized and decentralized supply modes is important for an adequate representation of water consumption behavior: Firstly, it will affect the impacts of supply-side and demand-side policies, such as reductions of non-revenue water (including illegal abstractions), the introduction of continuous supply, support for storage enhancements, and water tariff reforms. Secondly, it is also necessary to differentiate the impacts of any policy on the different socio-economic groups in Amman. In order to capture the above aspects of water supply, our model is based on the tiered supply curve approach, developed by Srinivasan et al. in 2011 to model a similar situation in Chennai, India

  18. High Prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus in Young Dromedary Camels in Jordan.

    PubMed

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Hijazeen, Zaidoun S K; Holloway, Peter; Al Omari, Bilal; McDowell, Chester; Adney, Danielle; Talafha, Hani A; Guitian, Javier; Steel, John; Amarin, Nadim; Tibbo, Markos; Abu-Basha, Ehab; Al-Majali, Ahmad M; Munster, Vincent J; Richt, Juergen A

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was determined in 45 dromedary camels from two geographically separated herds in Jordan. Virus shedding was only detected in swabs obtained from the respiratory tract and primarily observed in camels younger than 3 years. MERS-CoV seroprevalence increased with age of camels. Bovine and sheep sera were seronegative. Phylogenetic analysis of partial S2 clustered the Jordanian MERS-CoV strains with contemporary MERS-CoV strains associated with nosocomial outbreaks.

  19. Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a

  20. Open Software Tools Applied to Jordan's National Multi-Agent Water Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Harou, Julien; Yoon, Jim; Selby, Philip; Lachaut, Thibaut; Klassert, Christian; Avisse, Nicolas; Khadem, Majed; Tilmant, Amaury; Gorelick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is the fourth most water scarce country in the world, where demand exceeds supply in a politically and demographically unstable context. The Jordan Water Project (JWP) aims to perform policy evaluation by modelling the hydrology, economics, and governance of Jordan's water resource system. The multidisciplinary nature of the project requires a modelling software system capable of integrating submodels from multiple disciplines into a single decision making process and communicating results to stakeholders. This requires a tool for building an integrated model and a system where diverse data sets can be managed and visualised. The integrated Jordan model is built using Pynsim, an open-source multi-agent simulation framework implemented in Python. Pynsim operates on network structures of nodes and links and supports institutional hierarchies, where an institution represents a grouping of nodes, links or other institutions. At each time step, code within each node, link and institution can executed independently, allowing for their fully autonomous behaviour. Additionally, engines (sub-models) perform actions over the entire network or on a subset of the network, such as taking a decision on a set of nodes. Pynsim is modular in design, allowing distinct modules to be modified easily without affecting others. Data management and visualisation is performed using Hydra (www.hydraplatform.org), an open software platform allowing users to manage network structure and data. The Hydra data manager connects to Pynsim, providing necessary input parameters for the integrated model. By providing a high-level portal to the model, Hydra removes a barrier between the users of the model (researchers, stakeholders, planners etc) and the model itself, allowing them to manage data, run the model and visualise results all through a single user interface. Pynsim's ability to represent institutional hierarchies, inter-network communication and the separation of node, link and

  1. KAr ages, chemical composition and geothermal significance of cenozoic basalt near the Jordan rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; McKee, E.H.; El, Salem F.; Teimeh, M.

    1988-01-01

    Late Cenozoic mafic lavas crop out locally along the Jordan rift. Some of these lavas are spatially associated with thermal springs, and this association has prompted some workers to hypothesize that the hot water derives its thermal energy from the shallow, still hot intrusive roots of the volcanic rocks. However, all of the volcanic rocks appear to represent mantle-derived mafic magma that rose rather quickly to the Earth's surface, without filling crustal reservoirs within which differentiation would have produced evolved, derivative products. Moreover, the lavas are too old and of too small a volume to represent the surface expression of an active reservoir of magma within the crust. These interpretations of the volcanic geology are consistent with conclusions drawn from the chemistry of the thermal water; the water has equilibrated with host rocks at no more than 110??C, probably at depths of 2-3 km. Thus, thermal springs along the Jordan rift appear to reflect heating during circulation through a regional regime of average crustal heat flow (Galanis et at., 1986). The magmatic activity may only be a second or third order contributor to this heat flow. ?? 1988.

  2. Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2014-02-11

    The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia.

  3. Comparison of GRACE data and groundwater levels for the assessment of groundwater depletion in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Tanja; Ohmer, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived groundwater storage (GWS) data are compared with in-situ groundwater levels from five groundwater basins in Jordan, using newly gridded GRACE GRCTellus land data. It is shown that (1) the time series for GRACE-derived GWS data and in-situ groundwater-level measurements can be correlated, with R 2 from 0.55 to 0.74, (2) the correlation can be widely ascribed to the seasonal and trend component, since the detrended and deseasonalized time series show no significant correlation for most cases, implying that anomalous signals that deviate from the trend or seasonal behaviour are overlaid by noise, (3) estimates for water losses in Jordan based on the trend of GRACE data from 2003 to 2013 could be up to four times higher than previously assumed using estimated recharge and abstraction rates, and (4) a significant time-lagged cross correlation of the monthly changes in GRACE-derived groundwater storage and precipitation data was found, suggesting that the conventional method for deriving GWS from GRACE data probably does not account for the typical conditions in the study basins. Furthermore, a new method for deriving plausible specific yields from GRACE data and groundwater levels is demonstrated.

  4. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  5. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Pediculosis capitis among primary-school children in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    AlBashtawy, M; Hasna, F

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis (head lice infestation) is a worldwide public health concern affecting mostly primary-school children. In a cross-sectional study in 2009/2010, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis and some risk factors for infestation were investigated among 1550 randomly selected primary-school children in Mafraq governorate, Jordan. The prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 26.6%. There were significant differences in the prevalence between girls (34.7%) and boys (19.6%), rural (31.2%) and urban (23.5%) residents, and history of infestation in the previous year (57.4%) versus no history (11.5%), as well as between children of different ages, family size and income (P<0.001). Longer hair length, lack of bathing facilities, low frequency of hair-washing and bathing, and sharing of articles (e.g. combs, scarves) were significantly associated with infestation (P<0.001). The prevalence of infestation was higher than reported in previous studies in Jordan (< 14%). Programmes are needed to increase awareness of pediculosis capitis and the importance of good personal hygiene.

  7. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  8. An agent-based hydroeconomic model to evaluate water policies in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern water systems can be characterized by a complex network of institutional and private actors that represent competing sectors and interests. Identifying solutions to enhance water security in such systems calls for analysis that can adequately account for this level of complexity and interaction. Our work focuses on the development of a hierarchical, multi-agent, hydroeconomic model that attempts to realistically represent complex interactions between hydrologic and multi-faceted human systems. The model is applied to Jordan, one of the most water-poor countries in the world. In recent years, the water crisis in Jordan has escalated due to an ongoing drought and influx of refugees from regional conflicts. We adopt a modular approach in which biophysical modules simulate natural and engineering phenomena, and human modules represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules employ agent-based modeling, in which agents act as autonomous decision makers at the transboundary, state, organizational, and user levels. A systematic nomenclature and conceptual framework is used to characterize model agents and modules. Concepts from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) are adopted to promote clear conceptualization of model classes and process sequencing, establishing a foundation for full deployment of the integrated model in a scalable object-oriented programming environment. Although the framework is applied to the Jordanian water context, it is generalizable to other regional human-natural freshwater supply systems.

  9. Chronic Diseases, Lack of Medications, and Depression Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Khoury, Laurice Sami

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studying mental and physical health problems in refugees facilitates providing suitable health care, thus improving their quality of life. We studied depression tendency in Syrian refugees in Jordan in the light of chronic diseases and medication availability. Also, depression prevalence and depression comorbidity with chronic diseases were identified. Methods In this multicenter cross-sectional survey, data from Syrian refugees attending Caritas centers in 6 Jordanian cities from November 2013 through June 2014 were analyzed. Participants’ demographics, depression, previously diagnosed chronic diseases, and newly diagnosed chronic diseases and the availability of medications were studied. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for depression. Results Of 765 refugees who participated, about one-third demonstrated significant depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Descriptive analyses showed that depression was comorbid in 35% of participants with previously diagnosed chronic diseases and in 40% of participants with newly diagnosed chronic diseases. Newly diagnosed chronic diseases and lack of medications significantly contributed to depression, but the regression model as a whole explained less than 5% of the variance. Conclusion Because the regression model showed low effect size, we concluded that newly diagnosed chronic diseases and medication shortages could not predict depression in Syrian refugees residing in Jordan. Therefore, further studies of additional factors are recommended. Prompt measures have to be taken to prevent the spread of chronic diseases and improve mental health in this fragile population. PMID:25633485

  10. Settling flood hazard conflict: the Utah Lake and Jordan River experience

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Whether water resource developers are utility operators, cities, industrialists of agriculturalists, their interests and those of affected landowners must accommodate each other. They must come together as men, and compromise their difficulties. Past disputes and their resolutions are guides to present and future flood-hazard settlement. Utah Lake and the Jordan River were once the setting for an equitable settlement of a flood hazard. In 1885, President John Taylor (President Taylor) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints played a significant role in bringing about a compromise between downstream water users in Salt Lake County, Utah, and adversely affected upstream landowners in Provo and other parts of Utah County. Subsequent periodic flooding resulted in a second compromise agreement a century later. This paper considers the Utah Lake and Jordan River experiences. It examines the two compromises, how they came about, and their impact upon water resource management. In addition to their historical interest, these settlements provide useful guidance for negotiation and resolution of flood hazard disputes.

  11. Progress report on the geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Darling, R.; Davis, D.A.; Gwynn, J.W.; Murphy, P.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    Two known geothermal areas have been investigated previously in the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah. These reports indicate meteoric water is being circulated to depth and heated by the ambient temperature derived from normal heat flow. This warm water subsequently migrates upward along permiable fault zones. The gravity survey conducted in the valley indicates a number of fault blocks are present beneath the unconsolidated valley sediments. The faults bounding these blocks could provide conduits for the upward migration of warm water. Four areas of warm water wells, in addition to the two known geothermal areas, have been delineated in the valley. However, the chemistry of the Jordan Valley is quite complex and at this time is not fully understood in regard to geothermal potential. Thick sequences of unconsolidated valley fill could conceal geothermal areas due to lateral dispersion or dilution within the principal aquifer, as well as retardation of warm water flow allowing time for cooling prior to discharge in wells or springs. Other areas are possibly diluted and cooled by high quality, ground water recharge from snow melt in the Wasatch Range.

  12. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  13. Quitting smoking and utilization of smoking cessation services in Jordan: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jaghbir, M; Shareif, S; Ahram, M

    2014-10-12

    Increasing rates of smoking in Jordan have been documented. It is therefore important to understand the trends and factors associated with attempts to quit smoking, such as the utilization of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines. A population sample of 3196 adults aged 18+ years were interviewed about their smoking habits; 1032 (32.3%) were current smokers and 93 (2.9%) had successfully quit smoking (8.7% of ever-smokers). A high percentage of current smokers (62.8%) had tried, unsuccessfully, to quit smoking. Almost half of them had heard of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines, but only 2.4% had ever utilized them. After being informed about these services, 53.0% of current smokers agreed that they were likely to utilize them. Only 19.9% of current smokers had ever received advice from a health-care practitioner about contacting these services. The study should guide decision-makers on strategies to reduce the high smoking rates in Jordan.

  14. Effect of heat stress on adipokines and some blood metabolites in goats from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Dawood, Amani

    2017-02-01

    To date and to the best of our knowledge, there have been no available data on the interaction between heat stress (HS) and secretion of adipokines and some blood metabolites in Baladi goats from Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the changes in leptin, adiponectin, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in Baladi goats under HS conditions in Jordan. Six goats were exposed to direct solar radiation versus six goats exposed to shade regimen. Blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, NEFA and BHB were measured. Ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH) and body weight (BW) were recorded. Results indicated that leptin and adiponectin concentrations were significantly increased under HS. The concentration of NEFA was significantly increased under HS at the 7th and 14th days of the experiment, while mean total concentration of NEFA was not significantly affected by HS. Neither weekly nor mean total concentrations of BHB were significantly affected by HS during the experimental period. In conclusion, HS is associated with changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations in Baladi goats. Heat-stressed goats were able to keep their blood NEFA and BHB concentrations similar to those of thermo-neutral goats.

  15. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  16. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies used to manage diabetic foot in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid; Wilson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 patients with diabetes who have used complementary therapies to treat diabetic foot problems. These 68 persons represented a subgroup of the study population surveyed using a questionnaire, to the effect of investigating diabetic foot treatments provided in Jordan. Informants were recruited from eight healthcare facilities established in the southern part of Jordan plus from one hospital established in the Jordanian capital. The study was approved by the Boards of Ethics of the participating healthcare facilities. Content analysis yielded the category "Complementary Therapies Used", which included a range of household items (olive oil, sesame oil, honey, and vinegar), and also some indigenous Jordanian herbs (Wormwood, Myrrh, Caper, and Henna among others). The remedies were used either as a monotherapy or as mixtures, to the common goal of treating diabetic foot problems. Other interventions like Al-cowy were also sought from traditional healers. Educational campaigns are required to increase the awareness of patients and their families on possible hazards of unwise complementary therapy use. The decisions on the use of such therapies should be made in agreement with the attending healthcare professionals.

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  18. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  19. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan.

  20. Medical waste management in Jordan: A study at the King Hussein Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Oweis, Rami . E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo; Al-Widyan, Mohamad . E-mail: widyan@just.edu.jo; Al-Limoon, Ohood . E-mail: oweis@just.edu.jo

    2005-07-01

    As in many other developing countries, the generation of regulated medical waste (RMW) in Jordan has increased significantly over the last few decades. Despite the serious impacts of RMW on humans and the environment, only minor attention has been directed to its proper handling and disposal. This study was conducted in the form of a case study at one of Jordan's leading medical centers, namely, the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC). Its purpose was to report on the current status of medical waste management at KHMC and propose possible measures to improve it. In general, it was found that the center's administration was reasonably aware of the importance of medical waste management and practiced some of the measures to adequately handle waste generated at the center. However, it was also found that significant voids were present that need to be addressed in the future including efficient segregation, the use of coded and colored bags, better handling and transfer means, and better monitoring and tracking techniques, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel.

  1. Learning English as a Second Language at the University Level in Jordan: Motivation, Self-Regulation and Learning Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Eman; Aldridge, Jill M.; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of the learning environment and whether these influenced their motivation and self-regulation in learning English as a second language at the university level in Jordan. Our sample involved 994 students, drawn from 13 schools, within three faculties (humanities, health…

  2. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  3. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  4. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  5. Attitude of Ash-Shobak University College Students to E-Exam for Intermediate University Degree in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da'asin, Khaled Awad

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the attitude of Ash-Shobak university college students concerning the electronic exam for intermediate university degree in Jordan, and identify the impact of gender and grade point average (GPA) variables on students' attitudes. To achieve this objective, a questionnaire consisting of (26) items was used, and…

  6. The Future Justification to Adopt Governance System at the Jordan Universities from the Perspective of Educational Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Nair, Natheer Sihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the future justification to adopt governance system at the Jordanian Universities from the perspective of educational experts. The study society was the academic staff in the field of education at Al-Balqa Applied University and Jordan University, at the first semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The study…

  7. Jordan and Lange: The California Junior College as Protector of Teaching. Working Papers in Education ED-94-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Edward A.

    A group of contemporary historians has recently accused community and junior colleges of not offering the American masses new opportunities of upward social mobility, but instead of serving to divert them away from four-year colleges and universities. In particular, historians have taken issue with the efforts of David Jordan, of Stanford…

  8. Acquisition of Some Selected Prepositions of Time by English Major Undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qudah, Ayat Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the acquisition of some selected prepositions of time by English major undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan and to reveal any significant differences among their acquisition attributed to the academic level (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year levels) and to studying "English Basic Grammar" course. A…

  9. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  10. Educational Attainment and Attitudes towards War in Muslim Countries Contemplating War: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…

  11. The Influence of Historical and Political Events on the Development of Social Studies Education in Jordan's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alazzi, Khaled

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study about the factors that affect social studies development in Jordan's secondary schools. An evaluation of data obtained within the limitations of this study relative to the development of social studies education, in particular, and education, in general, indicates that the principle of the Great Arab…

  12. Developing a Numerical Ability Test for Students of Education in Jordan: An Application of Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abed, Eman Rasmi; Al-Absi, Mohammad Mustafa; Abu shindi, Yousef Abdelqader

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is developing a test to measure the numerical ability for students of education. The sample of the study consisted of (504) students from 8 universities in Jordan. The final draft of the test contains 45 items distributed among 5 dimensions. The results revealed that acceptable psychometric properties of the test;…

  13. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... importation of commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from... commercial shipments of fresh beans, shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), from Jordan into.... Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), shelled or in pods (French, green, snap, and string), may...

  14. 77 FR 48138 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... pipeline project. The BLM, Reclamation, and Forest Service also seek public input on issues and planning... Pipeline LP--Docket No. PF12-17-000] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects, Request for Comments...

  15. Predators and Prey: Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Henry, III; Stamm, Daniel K.

    This document provides hands-on environmental education activities for the classroom and the outdoor setting of Jordan Lake State Recreation Area. The activity packet, designed for grades K-3, meets curriculum objectives of the standard course of study established by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. It includes on-site…

  16. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... regulations), the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of...

  17. Organizational Conflict among Teachers and the Principal's Strategies of Dealing with It from the Teachers' Perspective in Schools of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubran, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the degree of organizational conflict among teachers in Jordanian schools, along with the principal strategies to deal with them effectively. The research population was based on a sample of 123 teachers from Irbid, Jordan for the academic year 2013/2014. A descriptive research approach was adopted with the help of…

  18. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan.

  19. Competencies That Teachers Need for Teaching Children Who Are Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.; Akour, Mutasem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates what competencies are needed by teachers of children who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH), in the changing circumstances of their profession in Jordan. One hundred and five teachers of children who are DHH from kindergarten up to primary grade took part in this study. A scale was developed in order to achieve the goals of…

  20. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  1. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ..., together with Jordan's use of integrated pest management practices in the production of commercial... notify APHIS in the event of pest detections or changes in pest management practices they recommend to.... Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review...

  2. The Impact of Employing Brainstorming Strategy on Improving Writing Performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoush, Kholoud Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the impact of employing brainstorming strategy on improving writing performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan. The sample of the study which consisted of 80 male and female university students was distributed into two groups; experimental (taught by brainstorming strategy) and…

  3. Jordan-3: measuring visual reversals in children as symptoms of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.

  4. Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching and Learning--A Comparison of Teachers' and Student Teachers' Beliefs from Jordan, Turkey and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Amoush, Siham; Markic, Silvija; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses beliefs about teaching and learning chemistry. The sample includes chemistry student teachers and in-service teachers from Jordan, Turkey, and Germany. Two test instruments were used to investigate (student) teachers' beliefs. A qualitative instrument was used to explore Beliefs about Classroom Organization, Beliefs about…

  5. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  6. Water levels and water-level changes in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1971-80

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Water-level data suggest that (1) little variation in annual pumpage between 1971 and 1980 from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer produced generally stable water levels in that aquifer, (2) decreased annual pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer from 1971 to 1980 caused water levels in that aquifer to rise, and (3) a greater seasonal component of pumpage from the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer than from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan produced larger and more widespread seasonal water-level declines in the Mount Simon-Hinckley than in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, particularly during dry years.

  7. Facing Water Scarcity in Jordan: Reuse, Demand Reduction, Energy and Transboundary Approaches to Assure Future Water Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.; El-Naser, H.; Hagan, R. E.; Hijazi, A.

    2001-05-01

    Jordan is extremely water-scarce with just 170 cubic meters per capita per year to meet domestic, industrial, agricultural, tourism, and environmental demands for water. Given the natural climatological conditions, demographic pressure, and transboundary nature of water resources, all renewable water resources of suitable quality are being exploited and some non-renewable aquifers are being depleted. The heavy exploitation of water resources has contributed to declines in the level of the Dead Sea. Rapid growth in demand, particularly for higher quality water for domestic, industrial and tourism uses, is significantly increasing pressure on agricultural and environmental uses of water, both of which must continue to adapt to reduced volumes and lower quality water. The agricultural sector has begun to respond by improving irrigation efficiency and increasing the use of recycled water. Total demand for water still exceeds renewable supplies while inadequate treatment of sewage used for irrigation creates potential environmental and health risks and presents agricultural marketing challenges that undermine the competitiveness of exports. The adaptive capability of the natural environment may already be past sustainable limits with groundwater discharge oasis wetlands that have been seriously affected. Development of new water resources is extremely expensive in Jordan with an average investment cost of US\\$ 4-5 per cubic meter. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) that incorporates factors external to the 'water sector' as conventionally defined will help to assure sustainable future water supplies in Jordan. This paper examines four IWRM approaches of relevance to Jordan: water reuse, demand management, energy-water linkages, and transboundary water management. While progress in Jordan has been made, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation continues to be concerned about the acute water scarcity the country faces as well as the need to continue working with

  8. Current sedation practice among general dental practitioners and dental specialists in Jordan: an example of a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Ryalat, Soukaina; Dar-odeh, Najla; Alsoleihat, Firas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here aimed to identify current sedation practice among general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialist dental practitioners (SDPs) in Jordan in 2010. Methods Questionnaires were sent by email to 1683 GDPs and SDPs who were working in Jordan at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from a Jordan Dental Association list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought by the questionnaires. Results A total of 1003 (60%) questionnaires were returned, with 748 (86.9%) GDPs and 113 (13.1%) SDPs responding. Only ten (1.3%) GDPs and 63 (55.8%) SDPs provided information on the different types of treatments related to their specialties undertaken under some form of sedation performed by specialist and/or assistant anesthetists. Approximately 0.075% of the Jordanian population received some form of sedation during the year 2010, with approximately 0.054% having been treated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The main reason for the majority of GDPs (55.0%) and many SDPs (40%) not to perform sedation was lack of training in this field. While some SDPs (26.0%) indicated they did not use sedation because of the inadequacy of sedative facilities. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the provision of conscious sedation services in general and specialist dental practices in Jordan is inconsistent and inadequate. This stresses the great need to train practitioners and dental assistants in Jordan to enable them to safely and effectively perform all forms of sedation. PMID:23700369

  9. Land degradation causes and sustainable land management practices in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2014-05-01

    Jordan is one of the world's most water-deficit countries with only about 4% of the total land area considered arable. As a consequence agricultural production is greatly constrained by limited natural resources. Therefore, a major challenge for the country is to promote the sustainable use of natural resources for agricultural purposes. This challenge is being made harder by the ongoing processes of degradation due to increased population pressure, which undermine any social and economic development gains. In the southern plains of Jordan, sustainability of farming practices has worsened in the past three decades, exacerbating pressure on land and increasing land degradation processes. Non-sustainable land use practices include improper ploughing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, random urbanization, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. The root cause is the high population growth which exerts excessive pressure on the natural resources to meet increased food and income demand. The poorest farmers who are increasingly growing cereals on marginal areas. Wheat and barley are now grown with little to no rotation, with no nutrient replenishment, and at places avoiding even fallow. Small landholding sizes and topographic features of the area tend to oblige longitudinal mechanized tillage operations along the slopes. Overall, the constraints facing the deprived land users such as, poor access to technology, capital and organization are the factors that lead into unsustainable practices. The main bottlenecks and barriers that hinder mainstreaming of sustainable land management in Jordan can be grouped into three main categories: (i) Knowledge, (ii) Institutional and Governance, and (iii) Economic and Financial. In this case study, the key challenge was to create a knowledge base among local stakeholders - including planners, extension officers, NGO/community leaders, teachers

  10. Source detection by chemical and isotopic means - the Lower Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the past several decades the volume of freshwater carried by the Lower Jordan River (LJR) has been reduced by 90% due to damming of its main tributaries, leaving a mixed flow of polluted and brackish to saline water from anthropogenic and partly known geogenic sources. Since the river represents the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, neither systematic nor long-term measurements were conducted in it. Only vague knowledge exists about the amount and composition of natural contributors and no knowledge concerning their temporal dynamics. However, since the river water is intensely used for irrigation along its course and represents the major source of water to the Dead Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water discharge and chemistry are required for water resource assessment in the Lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea. To monitor the temporal variations of water discharge and hydrochemistry, an automatic sampler, including water level and EC sensors with real time transmission were installed at the Baptism site, a few kilometers upstream of the delta. Major ions are analyzed on a daily basis, while stable isotopes of sulfate (δ34S, δ18O), nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) and water (δ2H, δ18O) are analyzed on an event basis. A general inverse correlation between EC and water level was found although extreme high conductivity values relate to flood events during the wet period. Due to the high-resolution monitoring, a series of flood events could be observed, some having unusually high saline water. Results from Cl/Br, Na/Cl, Mg/Ca, δ34S allow separation and identification of sources: (i) the dissolution of evaporite minerals, abundant in the surrounding geological strata, (ii) sewage and (iii) brine springs. The continuous monitoring is an essential tool for understanding long-term processes and changes in such a dynamic system, and is crucial for identifying rarely occurring extreme flow events. However, a single sampling location is

  11. Hydrogeochemical investigation of groundwater in Jericho area in the Jordan Valley, West Bank, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da'as, Ammar; Walraevens, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Water resources in the Middle East, particularly in Palestine, are extremely scarce and costly. The Jordan Valley is a fertile productive region, described as the food basket of Palestine. Groundwater originating from the Quaternary Aquifer System forms the main water resource in the Jordan Valley. However, the quality of this groundwater is threatened mainly by the high chloride concentration. The most representative area of the Jordan Valley is Jericho area, which was chosen to be the study area. The study area (65 km2) is almost a flat area with a gentle decline towards the east. It is the lowest land on earth with ground levels reaching 400 meters below sea level (mbsl) near the Dead Sea shores. The Quaternary Aquifer System in the study area could be divided into an upper alluvial layer with thickness varying from 40 to 150 m and a lower low-permeable Lisan layer, which crops out in the eastern part of the study area with thickness over 200 m. Hydrogeochemical investigation reveals that the water is generally earth alkaline with higher content of earth alkalis and prevailing chloride. According to Stuyfzand (1986) and Piper's (1944) classification systems, water type in the Alluvial Aquifer varies from fresh hard CaMgHCO3 or MgCaHCO3 water in the west and northwest to brackish very-hard MgNaCl or NaMgCl in the middle. In the east, the water becomes brackish-salt extremely-hard MgNaCl or NaCl. Groundwater quality is deteriorating (increase in salinity) spatially towards the east and vertically with increasing depth (when nearing the Lisan Formation). As an indication of groundwater salinity, total dissolved solids show some variability with time over the last 21 years (1983-2004). In short-time scale, there are high seasonal and yearly fluctuations with regard to salinity, specifically in Cl- and SO42- contents. Spring water from the Upper Cenomanian Aquifer (CaHCO3) represents the fresh end member, while Rift Valley Brines (RVB-CaNaCl) and Dead Sea Brines (DSB

  12. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  13. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in heavy rainfall areas in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Anas M; Almomani, Ali M; Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M; Ababneh, Zaid Q

    2012-06-01

    Soil is the main reservoir of both natural and artificial radionuclides, which are transported to the human body through the food chain. Thus, assessment of the level of radioactivity in soil is of crucial importance. Artificial radionuclide concentrations in soil depend heavily on rainfall and weather conditions. In this study, the soil of the Ras Muneef area, which has the highest rainfall in Jordan, was investigated for its natural and anthropogenic radioactive content. The area was divided into four sectors and in each sector three locations were investigated depending on the land use: undisturbed, cultivated or residential. The depth profile of (137)Cs was investigated and found to depend on the land use. In the undisturbed soils, two types of depth profiles were identified: Gaussian and exponentially decreasing. The annual effective dose was found to range from 19.4 to 72.6 μSv, which falls within the worldwide ranges.

  14. Development of a conceptual model of the role of hospital nurses in health promotion in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shoqirat, N

    2015-05-19

    International evidence reveals that hospital nurses have not been able to incorporate health promotion effectively into the framework of their care. This can be attributed to unclear conceptualizing of the barriers and facilitators to the role of nurses in health promotion. An integrative review was carried out to develop a conceptual model to assist hospital nurses in Jordan to understand how health promotion activities can be developed. Factors affecting the involvement of nurses in health promotion - ranging from limited knowledge about health promotion to the social image of nursing - can be structured into three levels: the micro (individual), meso (organizational) and macro (population). By understanding the interplay of factors between and within the levels, nurses and other health professionals can draw on the individual, social and organizational factors that influence nurses' role in health promotion. The proposed model can be considered as a springboard for developing health promotion activities related to hospitals in other Muslim-majority contexts.

  15. A Pan-African alkaline pluton intruding the Saramuj Conglomerate, south-west Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb; Wachendorf, Horst; Zachmann, Dieter

    1993-04-01

    The geological setting, petrography and bulk mineral chemistry of a monzodiorite and a presumably consanguineous megaporphyry with large (up to 25 cm) labradorite megacrysts, both intruding the upper Proterozoic Saramuj Conglomerate in south-west Jordan (south eastern shore of the Dead Sea), were examined. The crystallization temperatures of the monzodiorite and the megaporphyry as determined from pyroxene thermometry and supported by contact metamorphic mineralogy are about 700 and 900°C, respectively. The intrusion depth of the monzodiorite is about 3 4 km. The monzodiorite was emplaced in the Saramuj Conglomerate at about 595 + 2 Ma ago according to Rb/Sr and U/Pb age determinations. The stratigraphic positions of the monzodiorite, megaporphyry and their host rock (the Saramuj Conglomerate) were compared with time-equivalent lithologies in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  16. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays

    2016-09-01

    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  17. After the doctorate: a qualitative study investigating nursing research career development in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawafleh, Ahmed; Zeilani, Ruqayya S; Evans, Catrin

    2013-12-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the development of postdoctoral nursing research careers in non-Western contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study of Jordanian graduates of UK PhD programs. Interviews were held with 16 graduates who worked in the nursing faculty of seven different universities in Jordan. Participants reported that their doctoral degree had equipped them with confidence and enthusiasm for developing a research career. Mentorship, leadership, and peer support were identified as essential to supporting ongoing research activity. Access to these sources of support was variable and participants also described a range of institutional and organizational structures that directly or indirectly discouraged them from developing research productivity. This research suggests that support for postdoctoral novice researchers is an important area for further attention - for Jordanian universities, for UK PhD supervisors (and their associated academic departments), and for the wider nursing community.

  18. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hanania, Joan W; Heath, Nancy L; Emery, Amber A; Toste, Jessica R; Daoud, Fawzi A

    2015-01-01

    While previous research has demonstrated cross-national differences in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), most studies to date have taken place in North America. The present study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of NSSI in a sample of 952 Jordanian adolescents (49.8% female) between the ages of 11-19 years. Participants completed a screening measure to assess occurrence of NSSI and its characteristics. Results indicate an overall lifetime prevalence of 22.6% (n = 215), with significantly more males (26.98%, n = 129) than females (18.14%, n = 86) reporting having engaged in NSSI at least once in their lifetime. This study provides empirical evidence that adolescent engagement in NSSI occurs at similar prevalence levels in Jordan, relative to North American samples, whereas gender comparisons of prevalence and characteristics revealed several differences.

  19. Near-infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Honigs, D.E.; Freelin, J.M.; Hieftje, G.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1983-11-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  20. Transformations between Jordan and Einstein frames: Bounces, antigravity, and crossing singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Pozdeeva, Ekaterina O.; Vernov, Sergey Yu.; Tronconi, Alessandro; Venturi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    We study the relation between the Jordan-Einstein frame transition and the possible description of the crossing of singularities in flat Friedmann universes, using the fact that the regular evolution in one frame can correspond to crossing singularities in the other frame. We show that some interesting effects arise in simple models such as one with a massless scalar field or another wherein the potential is constant in the Einstein frame. The dynamics in these models and in their conformally coupled counterparts are described in detail, and a method for the continuation of such cosmological evolutions beyond the singularity is developed. We compare our approach with some other, recently developed, approaches to the problem of the crossing of singularities.

  1. Water reuse for irrigation in Jordan: plant beneficial nutrients, farmers' awareness and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Carr, G; Nortcliff, S; Potter, R B

    2011-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater (reclaimed water) is particularly well suited for irrigated agriculture as it often contains significant quantities of plant essential nutrients. This work has shown that reclaimed water in Jordan can have adequate concentrations of potassium, phosphate, sulphate and magnesium to meet all or part of the crop's requirements. To fully benefit from these inputs farmers must have an awareness of the water quality and reduce the application of inorganic fertilisers accordingly. Interviews with farmers have shown that 75 per cent of farmers indirectly using reclaimed water are aware of the nutrients. Farmers' decision making as to the application of inorganic fertilisers appears to be influenced by a range of factors which include the type of crops being cultivated, the provision of training on nutrient management and the availability of information on the nutrient content of the reclaimed water.

  2. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  4. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  5. Evolution of microbiology as seen in the textbooks of Edwin O. Jordan and William H. Park.

    PubMed Central

    Strick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Historians of science account the appearance of textbooks as an important step in the formation and consolidation of a new discipline. The texts of Park and Jordan were both very important in this light; however; they also can be used as a gauge of changing concepts within microbiology in the first four decades after its consolidation as a discipline, 1900-1940. This paper tracks these important texts and through them changing attitudes toward several important concepts: bacterial variation, human/bovine tuberculosis, and the existence of a non-symptomatic carrier state in infectious disease. The two texts are also compared regarding their view of microbes as pathogens vs. microbes as important and ubiquitous ecological agents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:11049163

  6. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  7. Scalar-tensor cosmology at the general relativity limit: Jordan versus Einstein frame

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus

    2007-11-15

    We consider the correspondence between the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame descriptions of scalar-tensor theory of gravitation. We argue that since the redefinition of the scalar field is not differentiable at the limit of general relativity the correspondence between the two frames is lost at this limit. To clarify the situation we analyze the dynamics of the scalar field in different frames for two distinct scalar-tensor cosmologies with specific coupling functions and demonstrate that the corresponding scalar field phase portraits are not equivalent for regions containing the general relativity limit. Therefore the answer to the question of whether general relativity is an attractor for the theory depends on the choice of the frame.

  8. Late ordovician—early silurian glaciofluvial deposits preserved in palaeovalleys in South Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, John H.; Moh'd, Basim Khalil; Masri, Ahmed

    1994-03-01

    Periglacial, fluvial strata of Late Ordovician age, infilling incised palaeovalleys in the lower part of the shallow-marine, siliciclastic Khreim Group (Late Ordovician to Silurian) are described from outcrops in south Jordan. The palaeovalley fill predominantly comprises poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained, sub-arkose with subordinate beds of pebble- to cobble-size diamictite. Clasts include subangular rip-up sandstone and sparse shelly fossils derived from the local bedrock, together with exotic, rounded pebbles and cobbles derived from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstones and granitoid Precambrian rocks in the palaeohinterland, situated to the south. The palaeovalley fill is locally characterised by synsedimentary slump folds, micro-faulting and contorted bedding. These are attributed either to gravitational slumping at palaeovalley margins, or collapse due to melting of stagnant supporting ice. At some localities, the sandstones are typically trough cross-bedded, and exhibit upward-fining trends terminating in current ripples, suggesting episodic infill of the palaeovalleys. The few palaeocurrent measurements available from these sedimentary structures indicate a general palaeoflow to the north, coincident with the general orientation of the exposed palaeovalleys. The palaeovalleys may have been formed by glacial and/or fluvial processes; their predominantly sandstone fill is interpreted as fluvial and/or glaciofluvial in origin, and was probably deposited as proximal proglacial outwash at some distance from the ice-sheet which lay to the south, in present-day Saudi Arabia. The Batra Mudstone, which overlies coeval, non-channelised, glaciofluvial sandstones yields an Early Llandovery fauna, thus constraining the upper age of the palaeovalley infilling. By analogy with similar strata in Saudi Arabia, erosion of the palaeovalleys and infilling is likely to have taken place during Ashgill to Early Llandovery times. Erosion of the palaeovalleys and their

  9. Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV): a serious disease threatening watermelon production in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Musa, A; Anfoka, G; Al-Abdulat, A; Misbeh, S; Haj Ahmed, F; Otri, I

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and the molecular characterization of the Jordanian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[JO]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were tested for WmCSV-[JO] infection by PCR. The virus could be detected in 8 melon and 87 watermelon samples obtained from Ghor Assafi (southern part of Jordan Valley). Three samples collected from Mafraq (eastern part of Jordan) were found mixed infected with WmCSV-[JO] and Squash leaf curl virus. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[JO] were amplified, and sequences were deposited in the GenBank under accession numbers EU561237 and EU561236, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that WmCSV-[JO] is closely related to other virus isolates from Israel (WmCSV-[IL]), Yemen (WmCSV-[YE]), Iran (WmCSV-[IR]), Lebanon (WmCSV-[LB]), and Sudan (WmCSV-[SD]). DNA-A of WmCSV-[JO] showed highest nucleotide identity (99.42%) with WmCSV-[IL], while DNA-B had highest nucleotide identity (95.52%) with WmCSV-[YE]. Data of this study demonstrate that digestion of DNA-B genome of WmCSV isolates with ApaI enzyme can discriminate between these isolates at the molecular level. Infectious clones of WmCSV-[JO] were constructed and agroinoculated to Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Inoculated plants developed mild disease symptoms 4 weeks post inoculation, while watermelon plants biolistically inoculated with WmCSV-[JO] developed characteristic mottling, yellowing and severe leaf curling symptoms 3 weeks post inoculation.

  10. Metal distribution in urban soil around steel industry beside Queen Alia Airport, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent and severity of metal contamination in urban soil around Queen Alia Airport, Jordan. Thirty-two soil samples were collected around steel manufacturing plants located in the Al-Jiza area, south Jordan, around the Queen Alia Airport. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 and 10-20 cm, and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) levels. The physicochemical factors believed to affect the mobility of metals in the soil of the study area were also examined, including pH, electrical conductivity, total organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) content and cation exchange capacity. The high concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil samples were found to be related to anthropogenic sources, such as the steel manufacturing plants, agriculture and traffic emissions, with the highest concentrations of these metals close to the site of the steel plants; in contrast the concentration of Cr was low in the soil sampled close to the steel plants. The metals were concentrated in the surface soil, and concentrations decreased with increasing depth, reflecting the physical properties of the soil and its alkaline pH. The mineralogical composition of the topsoil, identified by X-ray diffraction, was predominantly quartz, calcite, dolomite and minor minerals, such as gypsum and clay minerals. Metal concentrations were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compute the statistical significance of the mean. The results of the ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for Pb, Cd and Cu, but no significant differences for the remaining metals tested. Factor analysis revealed that polluted soil occurs predominantly at sites around the steel plants and that there is no significant variation in the characteristics of the unpolluted soil, which are uniform in the study area.

  11. Potential impact of climate change on rainfed agriculture of a semi-arid basin in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bakri, Jawad; Suleiman, Ayman; Abdulla, Fayez; Ayad, Jamal

    Rainfed agriculture in Jordan is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change, as the available water and land resources are limited and most of the country’s land is arid. In this study, a crop simulation model (DSSAT) was used to assess the impact of different climate change scenarios on rainfed wheat and barley in the Yarmouk basin in Jordan. Analysis of observed crop data showed differences between cultivated and harvested areas for both crops in the study area with variations among years. Results from DSSAT model for years showed that it was able to capture the trend of yield over the years realistically well. The model predicted an average yield of wheat of 1176 kg ha -1, which was close to the average (1173 kg ha -1) obtained from the data of department of statistics (DOS), and an average predicted yield of barley was 927 kg ha -1 while the DOS average was 922 kg ha -1, with higher RMSE for barley (476 kg ha -1) than for wheat (319 kg ha -1). Results for predicting future yield of both crops showed that the responses of wheat and barley were different under different climate change scenarios. The reduction of rainfall by 10-20% reduced the expected yield by 4-8% for barley and 10-20% for wheat, respectively. The increase in rainfall by 10-20% increased the expected yield by 3-5% for barley and 9-18% for wheat, respectively. The increase of air temperature by 1, 2, 3 and 4 °C resulted in deviation from expected yield by -14%, -28%, -38% and -46% for barley and -17%, +4%, +43% and +113% for wheat, respectively. These results indicated that barley would be more negatively affected by the climate change scenarios and therefore adaptation plans should prioritize the arid areas cultivated with this crop.

  12. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  13. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Rukah, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ♢111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ♢1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ♢385 ♢35 ♢48.25 ♢1435 69.25 0.18 ♢2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ♢601.9 ♢520.3 282.5 30

  14. Sources and processes affecting the spatio-temporal distribution of pharmaceuticals and X-ray contrast media in the water resources of the Lower Jordan Valley, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zemann, Moritz; Wolf, Leif; Pöschko, Antje; Schmidt, Natalie; Sawarieh, Ali; Seder, Nayef; Tiehm, Andreas; Hötzl, Heinz; Goldscheider, Nico

    2014-08-01

    The closed basin of the Lower Jordan Valley with the Dead Sea as final sink features high evapotranspiration rates and almost complete reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation farming. This study focuses on the water transfer schemes and the presence, spreading, and potential accumulation of pharmaceutical residues in the local water resources based on findings of a five-year monitoring program. Overall 16 pharmaceuticals and 9 iodinated X-ray contrast media were monitored in groundwater, surface water, and treated wastewater. A total of 95 samples were taken to cover all geographical settings and flow paths from origin (wastewater) to target (groundwater). Nine substances were detected in groundwater, with concentrations ranging between 11 ng/L and 33,000 ng/L. Sometimes, detection rates were higher than in comparable studies: Diatrizoic acid 75%, iopamidol 42%, iopromide 19%, iomeprol 11%, carbamazepine and iohexol 8%, ibuprofen 6%, and fenofibrate and iothalamic acid 3%. Concentrations in groundwater generally increase from north to south depending on the application of treated wastewater for irrigation. Almost all substances occurred most frequently and with highest concentrations in treated wastewater, followed by surface water and groundwater. As exception, diatrizoic acid was found more frequently in groundwater than in treated wastewater, with concentrations being similar. This indicates the persistence of diatrizoic acid with long residence times in local groundwater systems, but may also reflect changing prescription patterns, which would be in accordance with increasing iopamidol findings and surveys at local hospitals. Trend analyses confirm this finding and indicate a high probability of increasing iopamidol concentrations, while other substances did not reveal any trends. However, no proof of evaporative enrichment could be found. The high spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations measured calls for further systematic studies to assess

  15. Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Around 3% of the world’s population (n = 214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments. PMID:24004474

  16. Syrian refugees, between rocky crisis in Syria and hard inaccessibility to healthcare services in Lebanon and Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Khatib, Ziad; Scales, David; Vearey, Jo; Forsberg, Birger C

    2013-09-03

    Around 3% of the world's population (n = 214 million people) has crossed international borders for various reasons. Since March 2011, Syria has been going through state of political crisis and instability resulting in an exodus of Syrians to neighbouring countries. More than 1 million Syrian refugees are residents of Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt and North Africa. The international community must step up efforts to support Syrian refugees and their host governments.

  17. Water reuse for irrigated agriculture in Jordan: challenges of soil sustainability and the role of management strategies.

    PubMed

    Carr, G; Nortcliff, S; Potter, R B

    2010-11-28

    Reclaimed water provides an important contribution to the water balance in water-scarce Jordan, but the quality of this water presents both benefits and challenges. Careful management of reclaimed water is required to maximize the nutrient benefits while minimizing the salinity risks. This work uses a multi-disciplinary research approach to show that soil response to irrigation with reclaimed water is a function of the management strategies adopted on the farm by the water user. The adoption of management methods to maintain soil productivity can be seen to be a result of farmers' awareness to potentially plant-toxic ions in the irrigation water (70% of Jordan Valley farmers identified salinization as a hazard from irrigation with reclaimed water). However, the work also suggests that farmers' management capacity is affected by the institutional management of water. About a third (35%) of farmers in the Jordan Valley claimed that their ability to manage salinization was limited by water shortages. Organizational interviews revealed that institutional awareness of soil management challenges was quite high (34% of interviewees described salinization as a risk from water reuse), but strategies to address this challenge at the institutional level require greater development.

  18. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients. Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period. Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure. PMID:19209291

  19. The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries.

  20. Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Developing new water resources continues to be a challenge in water scarce regions and water reuse offers a sustainable means by which water availability can be maximised. In Jordan, treated domestic wastewater (reclaimed water) already provides a valuable contribution to the annual water budget. This resource is used for irrigation either directly around wastewater treatment plants, or indirectly after reclaimed water released from treatment plants has been transferred though natural waterways and blended with surface runoff. Direct reuse is employed for the irrigation of fodder crops such as barley or alfalfa, while indirect reuse is employed for the irrigation of high-value fruit and vegetable crops grown in the Jordan Valley, a major commercial agricultural area. In order to ensure water reuse is conducted successfully, it is essential that the benefits of reclaimed water (water availability, high nutrient content) are maximised while the potential risks (to human health, soil sustainability and agricultural yields) are minimised. Stakeholder participation in water reuse management decisions could raise the capacity of the water user (such as the farmer) to manage the risks without compromising the benefits of this resource. To investigate the extent to which stakeholders are participating in water reuse management, semi-structured interviews with farmers and institutional representatives were conducted in Jordan. A particular aim of the interviews was to explore the variation in participation between those stakeholders using reclaimed water directly and indirectly. The data collected during 56 interviews with Jordanian farmers showed that the farmers' perception and management of reclaimed water varied considerably between the indirect and direct users. The direct users had a greater level of satisfaction with the water (55 per cent of those asked described the water as "good water") and recognised that they were able to produce larger yields and raise their

  1. Human and animal brucellosis in Jordan between 1996 and 1998: a study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M

    2004-12-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis

  2. Use of information and communication technology among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Lamis D; Baqain, Zaid H

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current knowledge, skills, and opinions of undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan with respect to information communication technology (ICT). Dental students from the second, third, fourth, and fifth years were asked to complete a questionnaire presented in a lecture at the end of the second semester in the 2002-03 academic year. The response rate was 81 percent. Besides free and unlimited access to computers at the school of dentistry, 74 percent of the students had access to computers at home. However, 44 percent did not use a computer regularly. Male students were more regular and longer users of computers than females (p<0.001). A significant number of students (70 percent) judged themselves competent in information technology (IT) skills. More males felt competent in basic IT skills than did females (p<0.05). More than two-thirds acquired their computer skills through sources other than at the university. The main educational use of computers was accessing the Internet, word processing, multimedia, presentations, Medline search, and data management. More clinical students felt competent in word-processing skills (p<0.05) and many more used word processing for their studies (p<0.001) than did preclinical students. More males used word processing for their studies than females (p<0.001). Students used computers for personal activities more frequently than for academic reasons. More males used computers for both academic (p<0.01) and personal activities (p<0.001) than did females. All students had access to the Internet at the university, and 54 percent had access at home. A high percentage of students (94 percent) indicated they were comfortable using the Internet, 75 percent said they were confident in the accuracy, and 80 percent said they were confident in the relevance of information obtained from the Internet. Most students (90 percent) used email. Most students (83 percent) supported the idea

  3. Surface water management tool for arid lands of Jordan using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayyash, Saad Mohammed

    In Jordan as well as most of the developing countries located in the and regions, water is a priority issue at national and individual levels. Several programs and management practices are in place to conserve the water resources and implement new water supplies to meet the demand of various sectors of the water users. With very high demand on the ground water resources, the limited surface water becomes a promising option as a new and innovative water source. The limited rainfall amounts that fall over wide areas of the and lands of Jordan (called the Badia) are of significant quantity and due to lack of proper management, the water is lost due to high evaporation rate. Wadi Salma catchment is 95.63 km2 located in the northeast part of the study area was selected to establish rainfall-runoff records. Also field experiments were performed at various parts of the study area to define the hydrologic response. Rainfall-runoff records showed a runoff coefficient of 14--24% for Wadi Salma Catchment. Rainfall simulations tests were used to estimate Curve Numbers (CN); high values (93.4--95.5) were estimated for different land surfaces. Also infiltration tests showed higher initial infiltration rate (fo) of 2.5 mm/min--3.7 mm/min for the channel beds and nearly the same final infiltration rate ( fc) of 0.2 mm/min--0.6 mm/min for all parts. A GIS based simulation tool was developed to simulate the runoff for the study area and two storms were used to test the model. Using initial abstraction (Ia) as 42% of the potential soil storage (S') was found to be the best estimation for rainfall losses calculation. Using the Muskingum routing method, a traveling parameter (K) equal to the traveling time and weighting parameter (x) of 0.18 were estimated for the study area. The simulation tool calculated the peak discharge and runoff volume with acceptable accuracy for the whole catchment; the difference in peak discharge estimation was 4% --6% and in runoff volume is 7% for the

  4. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  5. Groundwater recharge in a semi-arid environment under high climatic variability and over-pumping: Ajlun Highlands example, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Siebert, Christian; Roediger, Tino; Moller, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Jordan's ground water resources are being exploited up to 190% of the safe yield while rainfall rates are decreasing and highly variable, thereby affecting recharge volumes of the aquifers. The Ajlun highlands, forming the northwestern edge of Jordan are characterized by annual rainfall rates exceeding 500 mm, the highest in the country, which leads to accordingly high replenishment of almost the entire groundwater system in northern Jordan. The high recharge and the NW-wards dipping strata lead to a groundwater flow towards the north and northwest, areas which host the vital aquifers of the region. Limited and degraded groundwater recharge combined with growing over-pumping are the main issues that regard the northern groundwater basins, such as Wadi Arab, Yarmouk and the Jordan Valley side basins. To evaluate the groundwater potential under high recharge variability, groundwater recharge was modeled and compared to different Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Groundwater recharge was calculated based on climatic data covering the time period from 1965 to 2014. Recharge modeling was conducted by applying the J2000 water budget model. The simulation of hydrologic processes uses independent parameters that are calculated prior to simulate the recharge flow. The simulations estimate recharge of 47.6 MCM, which is 12% less than the values given by the Jordanian authorities. The low calculated recharge is likely due to an overestimation of the evapotranspiration in areas with high topographic slopes. To examine the variability of groundwater recharge under current climatic conditions, statistical downscaling of global circulation models was conducted for the time period 1965 - 2000. Data for the time period 2001 - 2014 was used for the model validation. Results indicated a decline of 18.7% in precipitation by the year 2050 with an increase of 1.7 and 2.2 degrees in maximum and minimum temperatures respectively. Accordingly recharge for the year 2050 is 27% less than

  6. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J.; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Maričević, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and “domestic” settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with “special purpose” buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities. PMID:21536900

  7. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  8. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.

    1984-07-01

    Two known low-temperature areas (Warm Springs fault and Crystal Hot Springs) are located in the Jordan Valley, but the primary purpose of this report is to locate other low-temperature resources not previously identified. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques utilized in this study include a temperature survey and chemical analysis of wells and springs, and temperature-depth measurements in holes of opportunity. Also, further site specific gravity modelling for the Warm Springs fault geothermal area and initial modelling for the entire valley were also conducted. Areas identified as having potential low-temperature geothermal resources at depth are: (1) the north-central valley area; (2) an east-west portion of the central valley; and (3) a north-south oriented area extending from Draper to Midvale. Each of these areas exhibits ground-water temperatures 20/sup 0/C or greater. Each area has thermal wells with common ion characteristics similar to both Crystal Hot Springs and the Warm Springs fault geothermal systems. Significant concentrations of Sr, Li, B, and F are present in many of these wells.

  9. A unique human-fox burial from a pre-Natufian cemetery in the Levant (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa A; Stock, Jay T; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J N; Miracle, Preston T; Banning, Edward B

    2011-01-26

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000-11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500-11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of 'Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian.

  10. Byzantine maritime trade in southern Jordan: The evidence from Port of Aila ('Aqaba).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nasarat, Mohammed

    Eusebius of Caesarea, in (Onomasticon) said that: "Ailath (Aila) is situated at the extremity of Palestine between the southern desert and the Red Sea where cargo was transported by ship from both Egypt and India". There is no doubt that port of Aila- 'Aqaba was important for the sea trade during the Byzantine Period and ancient times. Aila acquired significance in the Byzantine Empire commerce and seafaring according to the information derived from the Byzantine historians, documents and pilgrim's archaeological excavations. This paper focuses on Byzantine Maritime Trade in port of Aila during the period between the fourth and seventh centuries A.D, its importance in the flourishing of trade of southern Jordan, and its relations with other major trade centers such as Gaza, Alexandria and Ethiopia. It appears that port of Aila played a major role in the economy of Byzantine Empire and international trade as attested in the accounts of historians, pilgrims who visited the area during this period, and archaeological excavations which revealed that Aila was at least a transit point and perhaps even a production site for fish sauce or related products in the Byzantine period.

  11. "Sleepless nights and sore operation site": patients' experiences of nursing pain management after surgery in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shoqirat, Noordeen

    2014-09-01

    Internationally, it is agreed that pain management is a central component of nursing care. Although much has been written about pain prevalence among patients after surgery, research is scant on patients' experiences of nursing pain management and factors involved. This study explores patients' experiences of nursing pain management in Jordan and identifies contributing factors. A qualitative research design was used. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 4). A total of 31 patients were purposively selected. Two main themes emerged. The first theme was living in pain and comprised two categories: from sleep disturbances to the fear of addiction and from dependence to uncertainty. The second theme was about barriers that affect nursing pain management. Patients' experiences of nursing pain management were not up to their expectations; their needs were largely ignored and were dealt with in a mechanistic way. Barriers precipitating this situation were referred to in this study as the three "nots," including not being well-informed, not being believed, and not being privileged. The study concluded that patients' experiences of nursing pain management are a complex world that goes beyond medically orientated care. Nurses, therefore, are urged to look beyond standardized assessment tools and use patients' experiences and voices as valuable evidence contributing to more effective pain management. Unless this occurs in their daily encounters with patients, another decade will pass with little change in the practice of pain management.

  12. A Unique Human-Fox Burial from a Pre-Natufian Cemetery in the Levant (Jordan)

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Stock, Jay T.; Finney, Sarah; Heywood, James J. N.; Miracle, Preston T.; Banning, Edward B.

    2011-01-01

    New human burials from northern Jordan provide important insights into the appearance of cemeteries and the nature of human-animal relationships within mortuary contexts during the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 23,000–11,600 cal BP) in the Levant, reinforcing a socio-ideological relationship that goes beyond predator-prey. Previous work suggests that archaeological features indicative of social complexity occur suddenly during the latest Epipalaeolithic phase, the Natufian (c. 14,500–11,600 cal BP). These features include sedentism, cemeteries, architecture, food production, including animal domestication, and burials with elaborate mortuary treatments. Our findings from the pre-Natufian (Middle Epipalaeolithic) cemetery of ‘Uyun al-Hammam demonstrate that joint human-animal mortuary practices appear earlier in the Epipalaeolithic. We describe the earliest human-fox burial in the Near East, where the remains of dogs have been found associated with human burials at a number of Natufian sites. This is the first time that a fox has been documented in association with human interments pre-dating the Natufian and with a particular suite of grave goods. Analysis of the human and animal bones and their associated artefacts provides critical data on the nature and timing of these newly-developing relationships between people and animals prior to the appearance of domesticated dogs in the Natufian. PMID:21298094

  13. Paleostress analysis of the Cretaceous rocks in the eastern margin of the Dead Sea transform, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dead Sea transform, the; Diabat, Jordan A. A.; Atallah, M.; Salih, M. R.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents the first paleostress results from fault-slip data on Cretaceous limestone at the eastern rim of the Dead Sea transform (DST) in Jordan. Stress inversion of fault-slip data is performed using an improved right dieder method, followed by rotational optimization (Delvaux, TENSOR Program). The orientation of the principal stress axes ( σ1, σ2 and σ3) and the ratio of the principal stress differences ( R) show two main paleostress fields marking two main stress regimes, strike-slip and extensional. The first is characterized by NNW-SSE compression and ENE-WSW extension and related to Middle Miocene-Recent sinistral movement along the Dead Sea transform and the opening of the Red Sea. The second paleostress field is a WNW-ESE compression and NNE-SSW extension restricted to the northern part of the investigated area. This stress field could be associated with the development of the Syrian Arc fold belt which started during the Turonian, or it may be due to an anticlockwise rotation of the first stress field.

  14. Structural and stress analysis based on fault-slip data in the Amman area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, Abdullah A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents a structural analysis based on hundreds of striated small faults (fault-slip data) in the Amman area east of the Dead Sea Transform System. Stress inversion of the fault-slip data was performed using an improved Right-Dihedral method, followed by rotational optimization (TENSOR Program, Delvaux, 1993). Fault-slip data (totaling 212) include fault planes, striations and sense of movements, are obtained from the Turonian Wadi As Sir Formation, distributed mainly along the southern side of the Amman - Hallabat structure in Jordan the study area. Results show that σ1 (SHmax) and σ3 (SHmin) are generally sub-horizontal and σ2 is sub-vertical in 8 of 11 paleostress tensors, which are belonging to a major strike-slip system with σ1 swinging around N to NW direction. The other three stress tensors show σ2 (SHmax), σ1 vertical and σ3 is NE oriented. This situation explained as permutation of stress axes σ1 and σ2 that occur during tectonic events and partitioned strike slip deformation. NW compressional stresses affected the area and produced the major Amman - Hallabat strike-slip fault and its related structures, e.g., NW trending normal faults and NE trending folds in the study area. The new paleostress results related with the active major stress field of the region the Dead Sea Stress Field (DSS) during the Miocene to Recent.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Imadidden I; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Guitian, Javier

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4-40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained.

  16. Chemical and Mineralogical study of Nabataean painted pottery from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas; Bala'awi, Fadi

    Nabataean pottery is distinguished by the thinness of its walls, which were sometimes only 1.5 mm thick. It was a pinkish/red color, often decorated by hand with dark brown flower and leaf designs. The typical (egg-shell) shallow open bowls productions were very difficult to make on the potter's wheel, demonstrating how skilled their craftsmen were Nabataean painted pottery from Petra Jordan were examined in order to determine the mineralogical characteristics of the raw pigment materials used for their production and to elucidate the ceramic manufacturing technologies employed. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) were the analytical techniques used. The initial examination of the ceramic shreds in optical microscopy showed all samples to be identical in their paint and paste textures. The mineralogical composition of the paste (unpainted outer surface) is typical of a clay poor in calcium and fired at moderate-high temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. The paste is composed of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, hematite, dolomite, and calcite. The latter two phases might be attributed to post-depositional contamination, since examination with both optical and scanning electron microscopes show fine carbonate particles deposited in the pores and cracks of the shred. The paint on the inner surface of the vessel, on the other hand is composed of hematite as a major phase with only some quartz and plagioclase.

  17. Mental health nursing in Jordan: an investigation into experience, work stress and organizational support.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Puskar, Kathryn; Yacoub, Mohammad; Marini, Anita

    2011-04-01

    Changes in mental health services have an impact on the role and practice of mental health nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' experiences of providing mental health care, their work-related stress, and organizational support received. A descriptive correlation design was used. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. The result of this study revealed that mental health nurses shared a high level of agreement on the importance of most nursing tasks. Mental health nurses reported a moderate level of stress, with a lack of resources and relationship and conflict with other professionals being the most frequent stressors. Nurses perceived a low level of support for their work from their supervisors. Work stress and conflict with other professionals had a significant, negative correlation with the perception the nurses had of their immediate supervisors (r = -0.29, P < 0.001; r = -0.31, P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between work stress, organizational support, and the nurses' age, sex, or level of education. This study has clinical implications in terms of developing strategies for reducing stress and improving organizational support among mental health nurses, and it should help in future research.

  18. Absorption and Mobility of Cr and Zn in Soil in the Vicinity of Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, M.; Ghrair, A. M.; Jaradat, D. M. M.; Aquilanti, G.; Jaber, R.; Aldrabee, A.; Sawai, N.

    2016-05-01

    Sediments from the basin of Jordan River are to some extent significantly contaminated by heavy metals. The goal of this study was to examine the nature of the heavy metals, their mobility, and their binding in the soil matrix in order to understand the accumulation mechanism. Exhaustive mineralogical and geochemical study on the heavy metals in the vicinity of the river will allow knowing the dominant forms of emitted metals. The structural local order around Cr and Zn in soil samples were investigated by analyzing XAFS data. Our investigations show that the coordination sphere, around both Cr and Zn, is constituted of oxygen atoms at an interatomic distance of ∼2 Å which is close to those in clay minerals. It is also shown that Cr(III) is the most dominating redox state in soil samples. Moreover, the next backscattering neighbors around Zn and Cr are either carbon or sulfur atoms which reveal a multiple and heterogeneous speciation of Cr and Zn with organic matter.

  19. Principal Components of Thermography analyses of the Silk Tomb, Petra (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    This communication presents the results of an active thermography survey of the Silk Tomb, which belongs to the Royal Tombs compound in the archaeological city of Petra in Jordan. The Silk Tomb is carved in the variegated Palaeozoic Umm Ishrin sandstone and it is heavily backweathered due to surface runoff from the top of the cliff where it is carved. Moreover, the name "Silk Tomb" was given because of the colourful display of the variegated sandstone due to backweathering. A series of infrared images were taken as the façade was heated by sunlight to perform a Principal Component of Thermography analyses with IR view 1.7.5 software. This was related to indirect moisture measurements (percentage of Wood Moisture Equivalent) taken across the façade, by means of a Protimeter portable moisture meter. Results show how moisture retention is deeply controlled by lithological differences across the façade. Research funded by Geomateriales 2 S2013/MIT-2914 and CEI Moncloa (UPM, UCM, CSIC) through a PICATA contract and the equipment from RedLAbPAt Network

  20. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  1. Relationship between vehicle count and particulate air pollution in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P < .001; PM10, r = 0.719, P < .001). There was a significant positive relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P < .001; PM10, P < .001. Moreover, there was a significant negative relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature.

  2. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum in private drinking water cisterns in Bani-Kenanah district, northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud; Hindyia, Mona; Saiah, Abbass

    2004-10-01

    Due to water scarcity in Jordan, the water authority only pump the water once or twice a week to the population. Thus people in rural areas, including the Bani-Kenanah district, make the most of their water resources by storing rainwater in private reservoirs for use during periods of water shortage. These reservoirs include; underground cisterns and concrete or metal tanks. The water collected in these reservoirs is at risk of contamination. During the period March-July 2002, the three types of reservoirs from 368 households were surveyed for presence of Escherichia coli and Cryptosporidium parvum, indicators of contamination. The cistern was the most contaminated reservoir with 17% (95% CI: 13,22) for E. coli (significant, P<0.05), and 2% (95% CI: 1,4) for C. parvum. Only 1% (95% CI: 1,6) of the metal reservoirs had E. coli, while concrete reservoirs were free. No C. parvum oocysts were detected in either the concrete or metal reservoirs. Reservoirs opening at floor level and the bucket kept outside the reservoir were significant (P<0.05) enhancing risk factors for contamination with C. parvum.

  3. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters.

  4. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminthes among local chickens, in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, A; Gauly, M; Wollny, C B A; Abo-Shehada, M N

    2008-06-15

    We conducted a cross-sectional study from December 2004 to February 2005 and from June 2005 to August 2005. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and tracheal helminthes among local chickens in northern Jordan. A total of 208 male and female local scavenging chickens were selected randomly. We examined the trachea and gastrointestinal tract of each bird for the presence of helminthes. We recovered three nematode and eight cestode species. No trematodes were found. One hundred and fifty-two birds (73.1%) (95% CI: 67, 79) were infected. The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. The prevalences of A. galli and R. cesticillus were higher in male than female hosts while those of C. infundibulum and H. carioca were higher in females. The median worm burden was 7 (range 0-168) worms per chicken.

  5. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens in Northern area of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Al-Tayyar, Ibrahim Ali; Hussein, Emad; Jabali, Alla Al; Khudairat, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The global spread of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes one of the most serious contemporary challenges to the treatment of hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to screen and assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens in local hospitals of Northern province in Jordan. Materials and Methods: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified using standard methods from various clinical specimens of different infected body sites from 358 patients during the period from January 2008 to November 2012. Results: Our analysis showed that 31.6% of S. aureus infections were MRSA, while 31% were multidrug resistance (MDR) and 42.7% were Oxacillin-resistant (ORSA). Most of these strains were isolated from wound specimens. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (100%). They were also susceptible to chloramphenicol, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin and teicoplanin (>80%), but showed resistance to erythromycin and penicillin. Conclusion: Vancomycin was the most effective antimicrobial agent against S. aureus. We recommend regular surveillance of hospital associated infections and monitoring antibiotic sensitivity pattern and strict drug policy for antibiotics used within and outside the hospital environments. PMID:26719783

  7. Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer Settlement in Eastern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa A.; Richter, Tobias; Macdonald, Danielle; Jones, Matthew D.; Martin, Louise; Stock, Jay T.

    2012-01-01

    Ten thousand years before Neolithic farmers settled in permanent villages, hunter-gatherer groups of the Epipalaeolithic period (c. 22–11,600 cal BP) inhabited much of southwest Asia. The latest Epipalaeolithic phase (Natufian) is well-known for the appearance of stone-built houses, complex site organization, a sedentary lifestyle and social complexity—precursors for a Neolithic way of life. In contrast, pre-Natufian sites are much less well known and generally considered as campsites for small groups of seasonally-mobile hunter-gatherers. Work at the Early and Middle Epipalaeolithic aggregation site of Kharaneh IV in eastern Jordan highlights that some of these earlier sites were large aggregation base camps not unlike those of the Natufian and contributes to ongoing debates on their duration of occupation. Here we discuss the excavation of two 20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian homeland as currently understood. PMID:22355366

  8. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  9. Beliefs about parental authority legitimacy among refugee youth in Jordan: Between- and within-person variations.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The normative profile (67% of the sample, n = 585) most strongly endorsed parental authority legitimacy for prudential (risky) items, followed by moral, conventional, and then friendship items, with legitimacy lowest for personal items. The low-normative profile (10%, n = 85) followed a similar pattern, although legitimacy ratings were significantly lower than normative youth for most items, but not the personal ones. Rebellious youth (11%, n = 96) held deviant peer values; they endorsed less legitimacy, particularly for prudential and friendship items, than did youth in other profiles. Mixed youth (12%, n = 101) were similar to rebellious youth in some judgments and ryouth in others. Profile membership did not differ by adolescents' age or parental socioeconomic status but did differ by gender and national background. Youth fitting the normative (and to some extent, the low-normative) profile rated parents higher in support, behavioral control, and knowledge of adolescents' activities and lower in psychological control-disrespect and harsh punishment than did rebellious or mixed youth. Normative (and also, but less consistently, low-normative) youth reported better psychosocial adjustment across multiple measures than did rebellious and mixed youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Batieha, A.; Saliba, E. K.; Graham, R.; Mohareb, E.; Hijazi, Y.; Wijeyaratne, P.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients >/=5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels. PMID:10905968

  11. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-06-22

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term "honey" commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Re ov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th-early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Re ov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield.

  12. Sanitary quality of the Jordan River in Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of the sanitary quality of the Jordan River was conducted from July 1980 to October 1982 using indicator bacteria rather than specific pathogens. A serious sanitary problem was identified. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in the lower reaches of the river. At times these levels were greatly exceeded. The most conspicuous aspect of the bacteriological data is its extreme variability. Seven waste-water treatment plants, seven major tributaries, numerous storm conduits, irrigation-return flow, and other sources all contribute to the dynamic system that determines the sanitary quality of the river. Because of this variability the sanitary quality of the river cannot be predicted at any one time. In general, concentrations of all three indicator bacteria increased in a downstream direction. Storm runoff from urban areas contributed large concentrations of indicator bacteria to the river. Regression analysis of 9 years of data collected at 1700 South Street showed a significant positive correlation between both fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal concentrations versus time. Concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci have both been increasing since 1974 at 1700 South Street. (USGS)

  13. Rotavirus-associated diarrhoea in children in a refugee camp in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Nimri, L F; Hijazi, S

    1996-03-01

    Studies on the rotavirus-associated acute diarrhoeal illness in Jordanian children are non-existent. The present case-control study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea among children aged less than 5 years, attending the United Nations Refugee World Aid Clinic in northern Jordan. The potential environmental and behavioural risk factors contributing to the infection were also studied. Using the ELISA technique rotavirus antigens were detected in the stool samples of 35% of the 220 cases of gastroenteritis and in 3% of the control group. The control subjects were matched for age and sex with the cases. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (62%) in children aged less than 24 months [OR = 2.4, 95% CI (1.1-5.1)] than those in the older age groups. Severe cases of diarrhoea were rare. Diarrhoea due to rotavirus was more prevalent during the summer months (June-August). Risk factors for acute diarrhoea in these children are related to the infant feeding practices of using unboiled tap water to prepare the formula milk, and the low educational level of the mothers.

  14. Industrial apiculture in the Jordan valley during Biblical times with Anatolian honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Guy; Francoy, Tiago M.; Wachtel, Ido; Panitz-Cohen, Nava; Fuchs, Stefan; Mazar, Amihai

    2010-01-01

    Although texts and wall paintings suggest that bees were kept in the Ancient Near East for the production of precious wax and honey, archaeological evidence for beekeeping has never been found. The Biblical term “honey” commonly was interpreted as the sweet product of fruits, such as dates and figs. The recent discovery of unfired clay cylinders similar to traditional hives still used in the Near East at the site of Tel Reov in the Jordan valley in northern Israel suggests that a large-scale apiary was located inside the town, dating to the 10th–early 9th centuries B.C.E. This paper reports the discovery of remains of honeybee workers, drones, pupae, and larvae inside these hives. The exceptional preservation of these remains provides unequivocal identification of the clay cylinders as the most ancient beehives yet found. Morphometric analyses indicate that these bees differ from the local subspecies Apis mellifera syriaca and from all subspecies other than A. m. anatoliaca, which presently resides in parts of Turkey. This finding suggests either that the Western honeybee subspecies distribution has undergone rapid change during the last 3,000 years or that the ancient inhabitants of Tel Reov imported bees superior to the local bees in terms of their milder temper and improved honey yield. PMID:20534519

  15. Correspondence of F(R) gravity singularities in Jordan and Einstein frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.; Wright, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    We study the finite time singularity correspondence between the Jordan and Einstein frames for various F(R) gravity theories. Particularly we investigate the ordinary pure F(R) gravity case and the unimodular F(R) gravity cases, in the absence of any matter fluids. In the ordinary F(R) gravity cases, by using specific illustrative examples, we show that it is possible to have various correspondences of finite time singularities, and in some cases it is possible a singular cosmology in one frame might be non-singular in the other frame. In the unimodular F(R) gravity case, the unimodular constraint is affected by the conformal transformation, so this has an effect on the metric we choose. Moreover, we study the Einstein frame counterpart theory of the unimodular F(R) gravity case, and we investigate the correspondences of the singularities in the two theories by considering specific illustrative examples. Finally, a brief dynamical system analysis is performed for the vacuum unimodular F(R) gravity and we demonstrate how the dynamical system behaves near the future Big Rip singularity.

  16. Perceived Sources of Stress Among First-Year Nursing Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shudifat, Ra'ed M; Al-Husban, Raya Yousef

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the most prevalent sources of stress among first-year nursing students at a military college in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a convenience sample of 138 students (females between ages 18 and 22). The Student Stress Survey was used to identify stressors and assess their relative importance. The instrument consists of 40 items divided into four categories of potential sources of stress: (a) intrapersonal, (b) interpersonal, (c) academic, and (d) environmental. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The top five sources of stress reported were: increased class workload (89%), change in living environment (83%), change in social activities (78%), change in eating habits (77.5 %), and change in sleeping habits (76%), with academic sources of stress being the most frequently reported. The results provide valuable information for educators and administrators in nursing colleges to identify types of stress among first-year nursing students and establish strategies to reduce stress among such students, particularly from academic and environmental sources.

  17. Quantum fundamentalism: Jordan algebraic superselection, entangled copying and time-travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopata, Paul A.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis consists of three parts: In the first, we introduce two generalizations of the deterministic quantum cloning process, called enscription and translation. Enscription uses entanglement in order to achieve the "copying" of (certain) sets of distinct quantum states, called texts, which are not necessarily orthogonal. Translation is a further generalization which allows us to completely determine all "translatable" texts. Furthermore, translation displays a deep connection to the mathematical theory of graphs. In the second part of the thesis, we study deterministic quantum cloning in the presence of closed timelike curves, based upon the techniques developed by David Deutsch. We show that it is possible to clone more general texts than is possible without CTCs. We then demonstrate that cloning all texts is still not possible, even in the presence of a closed timelike curve. In the third part, we introduce an axiomatization of certain simple quantum mechanical models, based on finite-dimensional formally-real Jordan algebras. We show that this approach provides an elegant framework in which to discuss the phenomenon of superselection.

  18. The Psychosocial Experience of Adolescents with Haematological Malignancies in Jordan: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative research method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore the lived experience of 14 Jordanian adolescents with haematological malignancies. They were admitted to two hospitals in Jordan and were interviewed for this study twice during the first six months after receiving their diagnosis. The results of this study revealed three themes: (1) Being in hospital, (2) The changing self, and (3) Fearing the unknown. When the participants were hospitalised due to their illness they were removed from their families and friends and prevented from engaging in their normal daily routine. Participants also reported receiving limited emotional and psychological support from health team members during hospitalisation. From the onset of cancer treatments, the bio-psychosocial side effects of the chemotherapy became one of the most distressing factors for participants affecting all aspects of their life and generated uncertainty about their future. The findings add to existing understanding of the lived experiences of cancer patients and in particular Jordanian adolescents. They provide a valuable insight for clinicians into improvements in service delivery to this group of patients. PMID:24550700

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Associated with Brucellosis in Livestock Owners in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Musallam, Imadidden I.; Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N.; Guitian, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated livestock owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding brucellosis in Jordan. A questionnaire was administered and biological samples were examined to verify the serological status of animals. Seroprevalence estimates indicated that 18.1% (95% CI: 11–25.3) of cattle herds and 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4–40.4) of small ruminant flocks were seropositive. The results showed that 100% of the interviewed livestock keepers were aware of brucellosis: 87% indicated a high risk of infection if unpasteurized milk is consumed and 75% indicated a high risk if unpasteurized dairy products are consumed. Awareness of the risk of infection through direct contact with fetal membranes or via physical contact with infected livestock is considerably lower, 19% and 13%, respectively. These knowledge gaps manifest in a high frequency of high-risk practices such as assisting in animal parturition (62%), disposing aborted fetuses without protective gloves (71.2%) or masks (65%), and not boiling milk before preparation of dairy products (60%). When brucellosis is suspected, basic hygiene practices are often disregarded and suspect animals are freely traded. Public health education should be enhanced as the disease is likely to remain endemic in the ruminant reservoir as long as a suitable compensation program is not established and trust on available vaccines is regained. PMID:26438029

  20. Determination of trace metals in drinking water in Irbid City-Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alomary, Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Drinking water samples from Irbid, the second populated city in Jordan were analyzed for trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Se) content. The study was undertaken to determine if the metal concentrations were within the national and international guidelines. A total of 90 drinking water samples were collected from Al-Yarmouk University area. The samples were collected from three different water types: tap water (TW), home-purified water (HPW), and plant-purified water (PPW). All the samples were analyzed for trace metals using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. All the samples analyzed were within the United States Environmental Protection Agency admissible pH limit (6.5-8.5). The results showed that concentrations of the trace metals vary significantly between the three drinking water types. The results showed that HPW samples have the lowest level of trace metals and the concentrations of some essential trace metals in these samples are less than the recommended amounts. Slight differences in the metal contents were found between HPW samples, little differences between PPW samples; however, significant differences were found between TW samples. Although some TW samples showed high levels of trace metals, however, the mean level of most elements determined in the samples were well within the Jordanian standards as well as the World Health Organization standards for drinking water.

  1. Psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al Abeiat, Dana D; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim N; Ghannam, Bushra M; Hanouneh, Salah I

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a worldwide disease, and the psychosocial concerns are nearly universal among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey using 92 patients diagnosed with cancer used to collect data in regard to life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and perceived social support. In general, about 50% of patients reported high level of life satisfaction and 50% of the patients reported moderate levels of ability to effectively cope with life situations. Moreover, 78% of patients reported that they had depressive symptoms and 45.3% of them reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms had significant and negative correlation with life satisfaction (r = -0.50, p < 0.001), and stress had weak nonsignificant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.05, p > 0.05). On the other hand, social support from others has positive and significant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). Marital status, times of admission, perceived social support from others, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of life satisfaction. Health professionals need to integrate their medical care with psychosocial intervention early at admission and during follow-up care, so early detection of psychological disturbances will help to implement effective treatment plans.

  2. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  3. Developing a food exchange list for Middle Eastern appetizers and desserts commonly consumed in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    BAWADI, Hiba A.; AL-SHWAIYAT, Naseem M.; TAYYEM, Reema F.; MEKARY, Rania; TUURI, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study was conducted to develop a meal-planning exchange list for Middle Eastern foods commonly included in the Jordanian cuisine. Forty types of appetizers and another 40 types of desserts were selected; with five different recipes for each item. Recipes were collected from different housewives and Arabic cookbooks. Ingredients’ weight and dish net weight were recorded based on an average recipe, and dishes were prepared accordingly. Dishes were proximately analyzed following the AOAC procedures. Proximate analysis was compared to the WHO-food composition tables (FCT) for the use in the Middle East, and with food analysis software (ESHA). Results Significant correlations (P < 0.001) were found between macronutrient content obtained from proximate analysis and those obtained from ESHA. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.92 for carbohydrate, 0.86 for protein, and 0.86 for fat. Strong correlations were also detected between proximate analysis FCT for carbohydrate (r=0.91, P<0.001) and protein (r=0.81; P<0.001) contents. However, this significant correlation was not found as strong, yet significant for fat (r=0. 62, P<0.001). Conclusion A valid exchange system for traditional desserts and appetizers is now available and ready to be used by dietitians and health care providers in Jordan and Arab World. PMID:21841913

  4. An artistic and mythological study of a Nabatean female Sphinx from Petra, Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almasri, Eyad R.; Al-Ajlouny, Fardous K.; Alghazawi, Raed Y.

    In 1967 the Group of Sculptures was discovered in Petra during clearance works organized by the Department of Antiquities in Jordan in the Temenos of Qasr el Bint around the Temenos Gate. One of these sculptures was a high relief statue of a female sphinx. Due to the paucity of information about this statue, this paper has been written to answer a number of questions: What was its original site or monument? When was it made? Who was the deity or deities it represented? Could there be another interpretation of its existence? The answers to the above provide enlightenment of Nabataean styles of carvings and an insight into their religious thoughts. Rgarding the interpretation of the Female Sphinx. Three ideas have been suggested. First, it can be the main Nabataean goddess Allat, "the mother of the gods". Second, it is an image of Petra as a goddess. Third, it is carved on the Temenos Gate as a guardian of Petra city in general and its holy monuments like temples and tombs in particular.

  5. The psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan: a national study.

    PubMed

    Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Matrouk, Reema; Al Nawaiseh, Maram

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the psychosocial impact of child labour in Jordan, distinguishing between the impact on working school children, nonworking school children and working and nonschooled children. More than 351 million children across the world work. Emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems in working children are a considerable public health problem in developing countries. A descriptive, comparative, cross-sectional design was used in this study. All data were collected in 2010. A total of 4008 children aged six to 16 years were interviewed. Of these, 2093 (52.2%) were nonworking school children, 896 (22.4%) working school children, and 1019 (25.4%) working and nonschooled children. Working school children reported psychosocial problems more often than working and nonschooled children. Child labour has a negative impact on children's psychosocial health and development. These findings indicate that psychoeducational support and problem-solving programs help children to cope better with the consequences of their work and study. More effort is needed to reduce children's involvement in labour. Understanding the impact of work on child mental and social health is essential to inform policy and future research as well as to improve the lives of children.

  6. Heavy metals in vegetables sold in the local market in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al Jamali, Abbas F; Makhadmeh, Ibrahim M; Taha, Mohammad; Jarrar, Sukiena K

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in various vegetables (cabbage, green onion, lettuce, parsley, rocket, spinach, carrot, onion, potato and cauliflower) from the market in Jordan were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn ranged from 0.009-0.275 mg kg(-1) wet weight, 0.004-0.060 mg kg(-1), 0.003-0.401 mg kg(-1), 0.105-3.51 mg kg(-1), 0.15-1.15 mg kg(-1), 0.93-14.39 mg kg(-1), 0.044-0.702 mg kg(-1), 0.072-0.289 mg kg(-1) and 2.23-6.65 mg kg(-1), respectively. Parsley, followed by spinach, contained the highest concentration of heavy metals. Onion contained high levels of toxic heavy metals. The content of Cu in parsley and spinach and Pb in onion exceeded the Codex limits. However, the daily intake of heavy metals from the tested vegetables was lower than the maximum limits for allowable intake.

  7. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’.

  8. Cenomanian-turonian stable isotope signatures and depositional sequences in northeast Egypt and central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Ahmad, Fayez; Powell, John H.

    2017-02-01

    Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and microfacies studies of two Cenomanian-Turonian shallow-marine, siliciclastic-carbonate successions at Gebel Ekma plateau (southwestern Sinai, Egypt) and Wadi Karak section (central Jordan) are calibrated with δ13C-, profiles to reveal relative sea-level changes within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The study provides significantly enhanced stratigraphic resolution and key sections for regional correlation. Lithofacies are dominated by well-developed peritidal to subtidal facies associations indicating deposition in a rimmed carbonate shelf setting. Biostratigraphic analysis indicates the presence of 6 ammonite zones, 3 calcareous nannofossil zones and 3 planktonic foraminiferal zones within the Cenomanian to Turonian succession. Six, third-order depositional sequences, bounded by correlatable sequence boundaries can be traced across the African-Arabian platform. Comparison with δ13C records in deeper water pelagic sequences help to improve the resolution of the boundaries of each depositional sequence. Recognition of time gaps at the sequence boundaries on the platform, recorded in different parts of African-Arabian platform, is attributed to local tectonic activity, associated with the change from passive to active margins, which are overprinted by the global eustatic signature.

  9. Narghile (water pipe) smoking among university students in Jordan: prevalence, pattern and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Narghile is becoming the favorite form of tobacco use by youth globally. This problem has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of narghile use among students in three public Jordanian universities; to assess their beliefs about narghile's adverse health consequences; and to evaluate their awareness of oral health and oral hygiene. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of university students. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed randomly to university students in three public Jordanian universities during December, 2008. The questionnaire was designed to ask specific questions that are related to smoking in general, and to narghile smoking in specific. There were also questions about oral health awareness and oral hygiene practices. Results 36.8% of the surveyed sample indicated they were smokers comprising 61.9% of the male students and 10.7% of the female students in the study sample. Cigarettes and narghile were the preferred smoking methods among male students (42%). On the other hand, female students preferred narghile only (53%). Parental smoking status but not their educational level was associated with the students smoking status. Smokers had also significantly poor dental attendance and poor oral hygiene habits. Conclusion This study confirmed the spreading narghile epidemic among young people in Jordan like the neighboring countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Alarming signs were the poor oral health awareness among students particularly smokers. PMID:20497563

  10. Mathematics achievement based on gender among eight grade school students in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabab'h, Belal Sadiq Hamed; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Perumal, Selvan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in gender base on numbers, algebra, geometry and mathematics achievement among Jordanian 8th grade school students. The respondent of this study were 337 students from eight public secondary schools in Alkoura district and selected by using stratified random sampling. The study comprised of 179 (53%) males and 158 (47%) females students. The mathematics test comprises of 30 items which has eight items for numbers, 14 items for algebra and eight items for geometry. Finding from independent sample t-test shows that female student score higher than male students in numbers, algebra, mathematics achievement and spatial visualization. There is no significant difference in geometry base for gender. This study also indicates that numbers, algebra and mathematics achievement favorable to female and bias to male students. The main recommendations from this study are for teachers and other educational professionals to focus on the numbers and algebra for male students to improve the learning of mathematics, and feeding program through benefiting from tutorial classes to avoid of weakness in different aspects of mathematics achievement. Gender differences in mathematics in secondary school students in Jordan continue to exist and these differences may influence future educational and occupational pathways.

  11. Architecture, sedentism, and social complexity at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A WF16, Southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Bill; Mithen, Steven J; Najjar, Mohammad; Smith, Sam; Maričević, Darko; Pankhurst, Nick; Yeomans, Lisa

    2011-05-17

    Recent excavations at Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) WF16 in southern Jordan have revealed remarkable evidence of architectural developments in the early Neolithic. This sheds light on both special purpose structures and "domestic" settlement, allowing fresh insights into the development of increasingly sedentary communities and the social systems they supported. The development of sedentary communities is a central part of the Neolithic process in Southwest Asia. Architecture and ideas of homes and households have been important to the debate, although there has also been considerable discussion on the role of communal buildings and the organization of early sedentarizing communities since the discovery of the tower at Jericho. Recently, the focus has been on either northern Levantine PPNA sites, such as Jerf el Ahmar, or the emergence of ritual buildings in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B of the southern Levant. Much of the debate revolves around a division between what is interpreted as domestic space, contrasted with "special purpose" buildings. Our recent evidence allows a fresh examination of the nature of early Neolithic communities.

  12. Hashemite, Ba(Cr,S)O4, a new mineral from Jordan.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauff, P.L.; Foord, E.E.; Rosenblum, S.

    1983-01-01

    Hashemite, Ba(Cr,S)O4, the isostructural chromate analogue of baryte, has been found in west-central Jordan. It is associated with chromian ettringite, apatite and calcite in a phosphatic carbonate rock analogous to the Hatrurim formation in Israel. The mineral is orthorhombic, Pnma, with a 9.112(2), b 5.541(1), c 7.343(1) A, Z = 4. Strongest XRD lines are 3.516(100), 3.171(80), 3.669(60), 2.175(60), 2.150(45) A. Hashemite occurs as small, euhedral, dark brown, commonly zoned crystals with an average D 4.59 g/cm3 and H. 31/2. It is biaxial positive; dark varieties have alpha 1.952(2), beta 1.960(2), gamma 1.977(2); light varieties have alpha 1.810(2), beta 1.813(2), gamma 1.824(2), 2Vgamma 35o-57o.-J.A.Z.

  13. Spheroid degeneration, pinguecula, and pterygium among Arabs in the Red Sea territory, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Norn, M S

    1982-12-01

    Report of an examination of 127 Arabs in the Red Sea City of Aqaba, Jordan. The results are compared with those of the author's examinations, using a similar apparatus, of 659 Eskimos in Western Greenland and 810 Caucasians in Copenhagen. Ultraviolet (u.v.) light is at a maximum in the Red Sea territory, considerable in Greenland, and negligible in Copenhagen. The prevalences of the following degenerative processes are high at the Red Sea, somewhat lower in Greenland, and low in Copenhagen: Climato-keratopathy gr. III (across the cornea, often with autofluorescent spheroids, always with conjunctival location as well), conjunctival spheroids (39%), and pinguecula (90% at the Red Sea). The prevalence of the conjunctival spheroid degeneration greatly exceeds that of the corneal. No difference is demonstrable between tropical and arctic keratopathy. The investigations performed gave results bearing out the view that u.v. light is responsible for all the above degenerative processes. Pterygium is equally frequent at the Red Sea and in Greenland. Lipid deposits (6%) and scleral plaques are not more prevalent at the Red Sea, a fact which argues against an ultraviolet genesis.

  14. Water management with water conservation, infrastructure expansions, and source variability in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Howitt, Richard E.; Lund, Jay R.

    2008-11-01

    A regional hydroeconomic model is developed to include demand shifts from nonprice water conservation programs as input parameters and decision variables. Stochastic nonlinear programming then jointly identifies the benefit-maximizing portfolio of conservation and leak reduction programs, infrastructure expansions, and operational allocations under variable water availability. We present a detailed application for 12 governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It considers targeted installations of water-efficient appliances, leak reduction in the distribution system, surface and groundwater development, seawater desalination, conveyance, and wastewater treatment projects. Results show that (1) water conservation by urban users generates substantial regional benefits and can delay infrastructure expansions; (2) some rationing and conjunctive use operations smooth operations during droughts; (3) a broad mix of source developments, conveyance expansions, and leak reduction programs can forestall the need for desalination; (4) the Disi carrier to Amman should include a large branch to Karak; and (5) increasing conveyance from Ma'an, Irbid, and Mafraq can avert impending crises in the neighboring districts of Tafelah, Ajloun, and Zarqa.

  15. Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Batieha, A; Saliba, E K; Graham, R; Mohareb, E; Hijazi, Y; Wijeyaratne, P

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients >/=5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels.

  16. Metals distribution in soils around the cement factory in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2006-04-01

    Thirty one soil samples were collected from south Jordan around the cement factory in Qadissiya area. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometery for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, Cu and Cr. Physicochemical factors believed to affect their mobility of metals in soil of the study area were examined such as; pH, TOM, CaCO3, CEC and conductivity. The relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium in the soil samples of the investigated area were related to anthropogenic sources such as cement industry, agriculture activities and traffic emissions. It was found that the lead, zinc and cadmium have the highest level in area close to the cement factory, while the concentration of chromium was low. This study indicate that all of the metals are concentrated on the surface soil, and decreased in the lower part of the soil, this due to reflects their mobility and physical properties of soil and its alkaline pH values. The use of factor analysis showed that anthropogenic activities seem to be the responsible source of pollution for metals in urban soils.

  17. New terpenes from Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syriaca L. growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abrouni, Khadeja K; Al-Qudah, Mahmuod A; Abu Zarga, Musa H

    2012-01-01

    The novel seco-ursane-type triterpenoid 3β,11α-dihydroxy-17,22-seco-17(28), 12-ursadien-22-oic acid (1) was isolated for the first time from a natural source from two Salvia species growing wild in Jordan, Salvia palaestina Benth. and Salvia syrica L. In addition to compound 1, S. syriaca afforded a new sesquiterpene named syriacine (2). S. palaestina also afforded 15 other known compounds, 6 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant, and these include velutin, hyptadienic acid, cirsilineol, 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2α,3α-dihydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanan-28-oic acid, and 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. S. syriaca also afforded 16 other known compounds, 7 of which are isolated for the first time from the plant. These are 1α,3α-dihydroxyolean-9(11),12-diene, maslinic acid, 2α,3β,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 11-oxo-oleanolic acid, 11-oxo-ursolic acid, poriferast-5-en-3,7-diol, and pectolinangenin.

  18. Scalar-tensor cosmologies: Fixed points of the Jordan frame scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus

    2008-10-15

    We study the evolution of homogeneous and isotropic, flat cosmological models within the general scalar-tensor theory of gravity with arbitrary coupling function and potential. After introducing the limit of general relativity we describe the details of the phase space geometry. Using the methods of dynamical systems for the decoupled equation of the Jordan frame scalar field we find the fixed points of flows in two cases: potential domination and matter domination. We present the conditions on the mathematical form of the coupling function and potential which determine the nature of the fixed points (attractor or other). There are two types of fixed points, both are characterized by cosmological evolution mimicking general relativity, but only one of the types is compatible with the Solar System parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) constraints. The phase space structure should also carry over to the Einstein frame as long as the transformation between the frames is regular which however is not the case for the latter (PPN compatible) fixed point.

  19. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules; Fayyed, Manar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD(5), COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1)d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and 560-2,568 mg L(-1) and 6.9E2-2.7E5 CFU mL(-1), respectively. The grey water compromises 64 to 85% of the total water flow in the rural and urban areas. Storing grey water is inevitable to meet reuse requirements in terms of volume and timing. All the studied grey waters need treatment, in terms of solids, BOD(5), COD and pathogens, before storage and reuse. Storage and physical treatment, as a pretreatment step should be avoided, since it produces unstable effluents and non-stabilized sludge. However, extensive biological treatment can combine storage and physical treatments. Furthermore, a batch-fed biological treatment system combining anaerobic and aerobic processes copes with the fluctuations in the hydrographs and pollutographs as well as the present nutrients. The inorganic content of grey water in Jordan is about drinking water quality and does not need treatment. Moreover, the grey water SAR values were 3-7, revealing that the concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations comply with agricultural demand in Jordan. The observed patterns in the hydrographs and pollutographs showed that the hydraulic load could be used for the design of both physical and biological treatment units for dormitories and hotels. For family houses the hydraulic load was identified as the key design parameter for physical treatment units and the organic load is the key design parameter for biological treatment units.

  20. Provenance of north Gondwana Cambrian-Ordovician sandstone: U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircons from Israel and Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolodner, K.; Avigad, D.; McWilliams, M.; Wooden, J.L.; Weissbrod, T.; Feinstein, S.

    2006-01-01

    A vast sequence of quartz-rich sandstone was deposited over North Africa and Arabia during Early Palaeozoic times, in the aftermath of Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and the amalgamation of Gondwana. This rock sequence forms a relatively thin sheet (1-3 km thick) that was transported over a very gentle slope and deposited over a huge area. The sense of transport indicates unroofing of Gondwana terranes but the exact provenance of the siliciclastic deposit remains unclear. Detrital zircons from Cambrian arkoses that immediately overlie the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield in Israel and Jordan yielded Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages (900-530 Ma), suggesting derivation from a proximal source such as the Arabian-Nubian Shield. A minor fraction of earliest Neoproterozoic and older age zircons was also detected. Upward in the section, the proportion of old zircons increases and reaches a maximum (40%) in the Ordovician strata of Jordan. The major earliest Neoproterozoic and older age groups detected are 0.95-1.1, 1.8-1.9 and 2.65-2.7 Ga, among which the 0.95-1.1 Ga group is ubiquitous and makes up as much as 27% in the Ordovician of Jordan, indicating it is a prominent component of the detrital zircon age spectra of northeast Gondwana. The pattern of zircon ages obtained in the present work reflects progressive blanketing of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield by Cambrian-Ordovician sediments and an increasing contribution from a more distal source, possibly south of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The significant changes in the zircon age signal reflect many hundreds of kilometres of southward migration of the provenance. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  1. Assessment of risk factors for postdural puncture headache in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan: a retrospective analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Khraise, Wail N; Allouh, Mohammed Z; El-Radaideh, Khaled M; Said, Raed S; Al-Rusan, Anas M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most recognized complications after spinal anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PDPH and its associated risk factors in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan. Patients and methods This study included all women who underwent cesarean delivery at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan during 2015. Patient characteristics including age, weight, occurrence of PDPH, needle type, repeated puncture attempt, history of spinal anesthesia and PDPH, presence of tension headache, preeclampsia, migraine, sinusitis, and caffeine withdrawal were collated from hospital records. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the association of these characteristics with PDPH. Results The study cohort consisted of 680 women. Among these, only 43 (6.3%) had developed PDPH. The only factors that showed significant association (P<0.01) with PDPH were repeated puncture attempt and presence of tension headache. The repeated puncture attempt increased the risk of PDPH 2.55-fold, while presence of tension headache increased the risk 4.60-fold. Furthermore, the use of the traumatic 27 G Spinostar needle increased the risk of repeated puncture attempt 28.45-fold (P<0.01) compared with the use of the pencil-point 25 G Whitacre needle. Conclusion The major risk factors associated with the incidence of PDPH in women undergoing cesarean delivery in Jordan are repeated puncture attempt and presence of tension headache. The use of the pencil-point 25 G Whitacre needle is recommended since this was associated with a substantially reduced risk of repeated spinal puncture than the traumatic 27 G Spinostar needle. PMID:28360535

  2. Flock-level seroprevalence of, and risk factors for, Neospora caninum among sheep and goats in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Abu-Halaweh, Marwan M

    2010-01-01

    During the period January 2002 to December 2003, serum samples were collected from 104 small ruminant flocks consisting of 18 sheep flocks, 27 goat flocks and 59 mixed flocks containing both sheep and goats in northern Jordan. Only female animals were sampled. At least 5 females aged over 2 years per flock per species were sampled and examined for anti-Neospora caninum antibodies using ELISA. To increase the chances of detecting positive flocks, sick or older ewes were sampled. Also, N. caninum DNA was investigated in 7 sheep brains using PCR technique and 1 was found positive. The flock-level true seroprevalence in small ruminants was 53% (95% CI: 43,63). The true flock-level seroprevalence was higher in sheep (92%) than goats (12%) (OR=55; 95% CI: 17,197). Similarly, the individual-level seroprevalence in sheep and goat was 63% and 2% respectively (OR=25; 95% CI: 16,39). Out of 32 production and health management variables, the presence of dogs with the flock (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2,10) enhanced seropositivity. Cold temperate climate (OR=0.1, 95% CI: 0.03,0.4), veterinary supervision (OR=0.2, 95% CI: 0.06,0.6) and buying healthy animals to replace those culled (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1,0.97) reduced the risk of seropositivity. Both sheep and goats in Jordan are exposed to N. caninum infection with higher seroprevalence in sheep than goats. The contribution of N. caninum to abortion in small ruminant flock needs to be evaluated. Educating the farmers with regard to the role of dogs in transmitting N. caninum infection is expected to enhance small ruminant health in Jordan.

  3. Teaching Science in Engineering Freshman Class in Private University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M. M.; Malkawi, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    A United Nations initiative for the Arab region that established and calculated National Intellectual Capital Index has shown that Jordan is the wealthiest Arab country in its National Human Capital Index (i.e. metrics: literacy rate, number of tertiary schools per capita, percentage of primary teachers with required qualifications, number of tertiary students per capita, cumulative tertiary graduates per capita, percentage of male grade 1 net intake, percentage of female grade 1 net intake) and National Market Capital Index (i.e. metrics: high-technology exports as a percentage of GDP, number of patents granted by USPTO per capita, number of meetings hosted per capita) despite its low ranking when it comes to National Financial Capital (i.e. metric: GDP per capita). The societal fabric in Jordan fully justifies this: the attention paid to education is extreme and sometimes is considered fanatic (e.g. marriage of a lot of couples needs to wait until both graduate from the university). Also, the low financial capital has forced a lot of people to become resourceful in order to provide decent living standard to their beloved ones. This reality is partially manifested in the sharp increase in the number of universities (i.e. 10 public and 20 private ones) relative to a population of around 6.5 million. Once in an engineering freshman classroom, it is totally up to the lecturers teaching science in private Jordanian universities to excel in their performance and find a way to inject the needed scientific concepts into the students' brains. For that, clips from movies that are relevant to the topics and truthful in their scientific essence have been tested (e.g. to explain the pressure on humans due to rapidly increasing "g" force, a clip from the movie "Armageddon" proved very helpful to Physics 101 students, and entertaining at the same time), plastic toys have also been tested to illustrate simple physical concepts to the same students (e.g. a set called The Junior

  4. Condom use and HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alkaiyat, Abdulsalam; Schaetti, Christian; Liswi, Mohammad; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To identify sociocultural determinants of self-reported condom use and HIV testing and examine variables related to accessibility, motivation and obstacles among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional study among MSM who were identified through services of a local non-governmental organization (NGO). Methods Respondents were studied with a semi-structured interview based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework. The vignette-based EMIC interview considered locally relevant HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, risk perception and perceived causes, as well as awareness of services and sources of support. Results Of the 97 respondents, 27% reported that they used a condom at last intercourse; 38% had been tested at least once for HIV. Positive determinants of condom use were higher education level, acknowledging MSM as a high-risk group, seeking advice from a medical doctor and the perceived causes “sex with prostitutes” and “sex with animals.” Awareness of available treatment was a positive determinant of HIV testing. Blood transfusion as a perceived cause and asking advice from friends were negative determinants. Conclusions Jordanian MSM seem to be aware of the risk of HIV infection and effective prevention methods, and they are willing to be tested for HIV. Our findings addressed the importance of the sexual meaning of HIV/AIDS on the control of HIV/AIDS among MSM. More effective engagement of NGOs and MSM in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS is needed, enlisting the support of medical doctors and community health workers. Peer education should be strategically strengthened. Political commitment is needed to mitigate social stigma. PMID:24695243

  5. Rapid landscape change in 6th century northern Jordan: interdisciplinary geoarchaeological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes of the ancient fertile crescent are considered affected by soil degradation as result of long-term farming since the Neolithic, and impressive ruins of antiquity led to assumptions that their abandonment must have been conntected with reduced agricultural productivity. In this context, a valley fill near the site of Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan was apparently deposited largely during the 6th century AD, and provides evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. However, an interdisciplinary case study of land use, soil development, and sediments found that the valley fill cannot be connected with large-scale soil erosion in the vicinity of the site. On the one hand, this is indicated by the distribution of soil development and archaeological material as marker of past land use activity in the past, which suggests that the best soils were and still are used intensively. On the other hand, the sediments seem to point to the occurrence of climatic extremes such as heavy floods, the occurrence of soil creep after water saturation, but also a significant shift to aridity which may have triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, possibly connected with the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. Modern analogies of the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 let it seem possible that a volcanic event, perhaps the outbreak of the Ilopango volcano, was connected with these environmental turbulences. Such events cannot be understood by isolated studies: without a broad interdisciplinary framework, single archives are prone to misinterpretation, and our understanding of the environmental history of Abila is still very limited.

  6. Addressing drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Menzel, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI) was applied in order to address the drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region located in the southeastern Mediterranean area. In the first step, the SPEI was derived from spatially interpolated monthly precipitation and temperature data at multiple timescales: accumulated precipitation and monthly mean temperature were considered over a number of timescales - for example 1, 3, and 6 months. To investigate the performance of the drought index, correlation analyses were conducted with simulated soil moisture and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from remote sensing. A comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), i.e., a drought index that does not incorporate temperature, was also conducted. The results show that the 6-month SPEI has the highest correlation with simulated soil moisture and best explains the interannual variation of the monthly NDVI. Hence, a timescale of 6 months is the most appropriate when addressing vegetation growth in the semi-arid region. In the second step, the 6-month SPEI was derived from three climate projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. When comparing the period 2031-2060 with 1961-1990, it is shown that the percentage of time with moderate, severe and extreme drought conditions is projected to increase strongly. To address the impact of drought on the agricultural sector, the irrigation water demand during certain drought years was thereafter simulated with a hydrological model on a spatial resolution of 1 km. A large increase in the demand for irrigation water was simulated, showing that the agricultural sector is expected to become even more vulnerable to drought in the future.

  7. Burden of respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized infants and young children in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    KHURI-BULOS, NAJWA; WILLIAMS, JOHN V.; SHEHABI, ASEM A.; FAOURI, SAMIR; JUNDI, EHSAN AL; ABUSHARIAH, OMAR; CHEN, QINGXIA; ALI, S. ASAD; VERMUND, STEN; HALASA, NATASHA B.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) play a major role in hospitalizations in the Middle East, but the specific viral causes are unknown. We conducted prospective viral surveillance in children <5 y of age admitted with ARI and/or fever at 2 dissimilar hospitals in Amman, Jordan during peak respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season. We collected prospective clinical and demographic data and obtained nose/throat swabs for testing for RSV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We obtained clinical and laboratory data for 728/743 (98%) subjects enrolled. The children’s median age was 4.3 months, 58.4% were males, 87% were breastfed, 4% attended day care, 67% were exposed to smokers, 7% were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 0.7% died (n = 5). Out of 728 subjects, 467 (64%) tested positive by RT-PCR for RSV. Comparing RSV-positive with RSV-negative subjects, the RSV-positive subjects had lower median age (3.6 vs 6.4 months, p < 0.001) and fewer males (55% vs 64%, p = 0.02). RSV-positive children had higher rates of oxygen use (72% vs 42%, p < 0.001), a longer hospital stay (5 vs 4 days, p = 0.001), and higher hospital charges (US$538 vs US$431, p < 0.001) than RSV-negative children. In young hospitalized Jordanian infants, the medical and financial burden of RSV was found to be high. Effective preventive measures, such as an RSV vaccine, would have a significant beneficial impact. PMID:20100116

  8. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  9. Trend analysis in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, north of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Temporal status and trends in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, Jordan, from 2006 to 2012 indicate that the dam is subject to a combination of impacts from rainstorm and agricultural runoffs. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall events, evaporation, and water-level fluctuation are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Al-Wehda Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO₃, and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of carbonate weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed a cyclic pattern with highest values observed in the spring seasons. Total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, and HCO₃ are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the rainy winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH₄-N contents showed decreased values in winter. Peaks in NO₃-N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Fluctuations in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP). Seasonal variations in organic matter content were also apparent, with peaks that generally occurred in spring through early fall corresponding with high algal growth. On an annual basis, the vast majority of water quality data have generally declined, particularly, in 2011. However, it is not clear whether these decreases are related to change in management practices within the Yarmouk basin, or protective measures have been implemented. Comparison of in-lake and post-dam water quality from 2009 to 2011 showed variation in concentrations, where Ca, HCO₃, NO₃-N, Mg, and TDS showed relatively greater post-dam values than in-lake water, whereas pH, Na, Cl, K, COD, BOD₅, and chlorophyll-a were consistently lower in post-dam water. This comparison emphasizes the importance of self-purification capacity of Al-Wehda Dam in reducing some contaminants.

  10. Environmental gradients shape the genetic structure of two medicinal Salvia species in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Gharaibeh, M M; Hamasha, H R; Rosche, C; Lachmuth, S; Wesche, K; Hensen, I

    2017-03-01

    Environmental gradients, and particularly climatic variables, exert a strong influence on plant distribution and, potentially, population genetic diversity and differentiation. Differences in water availability can cause among-population variation in ecological processes and can thus interrupt populations' connectivity and isolate them environmentally. The present study examines the effect of environmental heterogeneity on plant populations due to environmental isolation unrelated to geographic distance. Using AFLP markers, we analyzed genetic diversity and differentiation among 12 Salvia spinosa populations and 13 Salvia syriaca populations from three phytogeographical regions (Mediterranean, Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian) representing the extent of the species' geographic range in Jordan. Differences in geographic location and climate were considered in the analyses. For both species, flowering phenology varied among populations and regions. Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations had higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean populations, and genetic diversity increased significantly with increasing temperature. Genetic diversity in Salvia syriaca was affected by population size, while genetic diversity responded to drought in S. spinosa. For both species, high levels of genetic differentiation were found as well as two well-supported phytogeographical groups of populations, with Mediterranean populations clustering in one group and the Irano-Turanian and Saharo-Arabian populations in another. Genetic distance was significantly correlated to environmental distance, but not to geographic distance. Our data indicate that populations from moist vs. arid environments are environmentally isolated, where environmental gradients affect their flowering phenology, limit gene flow and shape their genetic structure. We conclude that environmental heterogeneity may act as driver for the observed variation in genetic diversity.

  11. Solid waste composition analysis and recycling evaluation: Zaatari Syrian Refugees Camp, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Saidan, Motasem N; Drais, Ammar Abu; Al-Manaseer, Ehab

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) stream characterization and composition analysis to allow for an accurate estimation of its recycling potential and for effective management of the entire system. Recycling provides employment and a livelihood for vulnerable social groups such as refugees. The aim of this paper is to determine the composition of MSW in Zaatari Syrian Refugee Camp, where approximately 430,000 Syrian refugees have passed through the camp. The representative waste samples and analysis included household waste and commercial waste produced by the refugees in the selected districts in Zaatari. The waste sampling was performed in 2015 over two seasons to ensure that the seasonal fluctuations in the composition of the waste stream are taken into consideration. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the categories and subcategories. The organic waste represents the main waste category with 53% of the total MSW, while plastics, textile, and paper and cardboard are 12.85%, 10.22% and 9%, respectively. Moreover, the MSW composition percentage in Zaatari Camp is similar to that in municipalities in Jordan with slight disparity. The potential recyclable materials market has been investigated in this study. Plastics and paper and cardboard have significant potential to be separated and collected for recycling purposes. Financial revenues of potential recyclables have been analyzed based on local prices. Recycling model in the camp is also proposed based on the present study findings. Consequently, these results should be taken as a baseline for all Syrian refugees camps in the Middle East, as well as, in Europe.

  12. Determinants of waterpipe smoking initiation among school children in Irbid, Jordan: a 4-year longitudinal analysis*

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Karma; Attonito, Jennifer; Madhivanan, Purnima; Jaber, Rana; Yi, Qilong; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Guided by the Attitude-Social influence-self Efficacy (ASE) theory, this study identified predictors of waterpipe (WP) smoking initiation in a WP naïve cohort of Jordanian schoolchildren. Methods A school-based cohort of all 7th grade students (N=1,781) in 19 of 60 schools in Irbid, Jordan, was followed from 2008 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to examine predictors of WP initiation among WP-naïve students (N=1,243). Results During the 3-year study, WP initiation was documented in 39% of boys and 28% of girls. Prior cigarette smoking (boys: Odds Ratio 7.41; 95% Confidence Interval 4.05–12.92 and girls: 8.48; 4.34–16.56) and low WP refusal self-efficacy (boys: 26.67; 13.80–51.53 and girls: 11.49; 6.42–20.55) were strongly predictive of initiating WP. Boys were also more likely to initiate WP smoking if they had siblings (2.30; 1.14- 4.64) or teachers (2.07; 1.12–3.84) who smoked and girls if they had friends (2.96; 1.59–5.54) who smoked. Conclusion There is a sizeable incidence of WP initiation among students of both sexes. These findings will help in designing culturally responsive prevention interventions against WP smoking. Gender-specific factors, refusal skills, and cigarette smoking need to be important components of such initiatives. PMID:25060962

  13. Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Oil from Salviajudaica and S. multicaulis from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Fatma U; Kasabri, Violet; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Abu-Irmaileh, Barakat E; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Abazaa, Ismail F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil of Salvia judaica Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. (Lamiaceae) from Jordan by GC and GC-MS and to report the actual composition of their fresh leaves and flowers using SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction).Their dual alpha-amylase/alpha glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities as well as their anti-proliferative potential were screened. The aroma profile of the leaves, flowers, and flowers at pre-flowering stages of S. judaica, obtained through SPME was composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (87.7 %, 71.8 %, and 86.2 %, respectively) while the hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (50.8%). Fresh leaves of S. multicaulis were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (58.1%), while monoterpene hydrocarbons dominated the blooming flowers (57.2%) and the flowers at the pre-flowering stage (64.7%). The hydro-distilled oil of the dry leaves was rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (77.6%). With doxorubicin as a positive control, no anti-proliferative activity was observed against colorectal cancer cell lines HT29, HCT116, and SW620 using SRB assay for either Salvia spp. In vitro enzymatic starch digestion was evaluated with Acarbose (IC50: 0.2 ± 0.0 µg /mL) as the reference drug. The respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of S. judaica and S. multicaulis aqueous extracts were 4.9 ± 0.4 and 10.3 ± 0.9. Modulation of pancreatic lipase activity (PL) was determined by colorimetry and compared with Orlistat (IC50 : 0.11 ± 0.0 µg/mL). PL-IC50 values (µg/mL) obtained for S. judaica and S. multicaulis were 108.5±6.4 and 31.8 ± 0.8, respectively.

  14. Ophthalmology residency training in Jordan: an evaluation of quality and comparison with international standards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Salem, Khalil M.; Al-Sarayra, Fawwaz A.; Abu Al-Dabaat, Mohammad; Shihadeh, Wisam; Al-Salem, Mohammad M.; Al-Salem, Mahmoud K.; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate Jordanian ophthalmology residency programs in achieving competencies outlined by the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and residents' satisfaction with available training programs in Jordan, and to highlight weakness points that may be improved and strengthened. METHODS A closed-ended questionnaire was circulated to all ophthalmologists who completed their training in Jordanian institutions between 2006 and 2011, to measure the quality of residency training and satisfaction level with regards to clinical conferences, journal clubs, scientific lectures, wet lab sessions, simulations, outpatient clinics and operating room training. Barriers to a successful board exam were cited. All ophthalmologists had official residency training in Jordanian Hospitals; this includes military, university, governmental and private sector hospitals. RESULTS Sixty-one questionnaires completed out of 69 circulated. Males (75.4%) were more than females. Mean age was 32.5±3.27y. A total 21 (34.4%) responders expressed an overall satisfaction, 38 (62.3%) were dissatisfied and 2 (3.3%) were equivocal. Respondents reported insufficient exposure to low-vision rehabilitation 57 (93.4%), or refraction and glasses prescription 34 (55.7%). Regarding operative experiences, the mean cataract extraction per-resident was 43 cataracts; the number of phacoemulsification surgery was 2.96 per-resident, 46 (75.4%) of responders never did a single phacoemulsification during residency. Nine (14.8%) had training in refractive surgery, and 15 (24.6%) assisted orbital surgery. Forty-four (72.1%) never assisted in vitreoretinal surgery. Among The graduates surveyed, 14 (23.0%) passed Jordanian licensing board exam at the first attempt, and felt that their residency programs adequately prepared them for the examinations. CONCLUSION Around two thirds (62.3%) of ophthalmologists expressed dissatisfaction with residency training at Jordanian programs, further study is required to assess

  15. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods employed in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners in North Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Omari, Wael M

    2004-01-01

    Background General dental practitioners provide the majority of endodontic treatment in Jordan. The aim of this study was to gather information on the methods, materials and attitudes employed in root canal treatment by dentists in North Jordan, in order to evaluate and improve the quality of current practice. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all registered general dental practitioners working in private practice in Irbid Governate in North Jordan (n = 181). The questionnaire included information on methods, materials and techniques used in endodontic treatment. Results Reply rate was 72% (n = 131). The results demonstrated that only five dentists used rubber dam occasionally and not routinely. The majority used cotton rolls for isolation solely or in combination with a high volume saliva ejector (n = 116). The most widely used irrigants were sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide, which were used by 32.9% (n = 43) and 33.6% (n = 44) of the respondents, respectively. Forty eight percent of the respondents (n = 61) used the cold lateral condensation technique for canal obturation, 31.3% (n = 41) used single cone, 9.9% (n = 13) used vertical condensation and 12.2% (n = 16) used paste or cement only for the obturation. The majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (72.5%). All, but one, respondents used hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step back (52.7%). More than 50% (n = 70) of the dentists took one radiograph for determining the working length, whilst 22.9% (n = 30) did not take any radiograph at all. Most practitioners performed treatment in three visits for teeth with two or more root canals, and in two visits for teeth with a single root canal. Conclusions This study indicates that dentists practicing in North Jordan do not comply with international quality standards and do not use recently introduced techniques. Many clinicians never take a radiograph for determining the working length and never used rubber dam

  16. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67°C), Gofra (68°C), the Russian Garden (40°C), and the Yesha well (53–65°C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation.

  17. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

    2007-06-01

    The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio <1 brine (Ha’On type). Along the western shoreline of the Lake, a Ca/Mg > 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of preterm birth in Irbid governorate of Jordan: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khitam; Abu Dalou, Ahmad; Kassab, Manal; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-10-01

    Prevention is important to reduce the prevalence of preterm births. Although prematurity has been well studied in developed countries, data from developing countries, such as Jordan, are still limited. This retrospective study analysed medical records to determine possible risk factors leading to preterm birth in the Irbid governorate of Jordan. All preterm births during the year 2011 were reviewed. Abstracted data included mother's age and gravidity. Newborn information included gender, birthweight and gestational age at birth. A total of 647 singleton births were included. There were more females than males (54.9% vs. 45.1%), with 75.6% being the second child or more. Half the mothers (50.2%) were 25-35 years of age. Factors associated with preterm birth were male gender (P = 0.008), maternal age > 35 years (P = 0.005) and first birth (P = 0.003). Nurses need to provide support and education to mothers with potential risk about reproductive health and family planning.

  19. Radioactivity concentrations in soil and vegetables from the northern Jordan Rift Valley and the corresponding dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Anas M; Masa'deh, Maisoun S; Ababneh, Zaid Q; Awawdeh, Mufeed A; Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M

    2009-02-01

    The Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) is considered the food bowl of Jordan, especially during the winter season. In this study, soil and vegetable samples collected from greenhouses in the northern JRV were analysed for their radioactive content. The activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (137)Cs and (40)K in soil were found to be (+/-SD) 33 +/- 12, 2.2 +/- 0.7, 11.2 +/- 3.3, 40.5 +/- 15.5, 3.5 +/- 1.3 and 156.0 +/- 46.6 (Bq kg(-1)), respectively. In vegetables, the activity concentration of (40)K was found in the range of 698-1439 Bq kg(-1), while those of (226)Ra and (228)Ra were found to be in the range of <0.61-2.56 and <0.69-3.35 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Transfer factors for (40)K were found to be high and ranged from 5 to 8, while those for (226)Ra and (228)Ra were found to be from <0.01 to 0.07 and from <0.09 to 0.42, respectively. The calculated external annual effective dose is found to be within the worldwide range.

  20. External mill monitoring of wheat flour fortification programs: an approach for program managers using experiences from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wirth, James P; Nichols, Erin; Mas'd, Hanan; Barham, Rawhieh; Johnson, Quentin W; Serdula, Mary

    2013-11-21

    The fortification of wheat flour with micronutrients is a common strategy to increase vitamin and mineral intake. While wheat flour mills are often inspected by agencies affiliated with national ministries to ensure compliance with national fortification standards, few countries use data derived from these inspections to construct an external monitoring system for use in program management and evaluation. The primary objective of this paper is to assess the performance of the external monitoring system utilized in Jordan according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. A secondary objective is to present mill monitoring results from 2009 to 2010 in order to demonstrate the data generated by the system. The review concludes that the data required for the system is representative, simple to collect, and can be collected in a flexible manner. The external monitoring system is acceptable to participating agencies and millers and is stable due to mandatory fortification legislation which provides the legal framework for external monitoring. Data on production of fortified flour and utilization of premix can be provided in a timely manner, but on-site mill monitoring and flour sample collection are more challenging due to resource constraints. The frequent collection of a small number of indicators can provide fortification program managers with timely information with which to base decisions. Jordan's external monitoring system successfully documented the performance of each mill and the entire flour fortification program, and can serve as a model for other national fortification programs considering external monitoring approaches.

  1. Standards of teeth preparations for anterior resin bonded all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    AL-DWAIRI, Ziad Nawaf; AL-HIYASAT, Ahmad Saleh; ABOUD, Haitham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if general dental practitioners (GDPs) in private practice in Jordan follow universal guidelines for preparation of anterior teeth for resin bonded all-ceramic crowns (RBCs). Material and Methods A sample (n=100) of laboratory models containing 208 tooth preparations for IPS Empress and In Ceram, featuring work from different GDPs, was obtained from 8 commercial dental laboratories. Aspects of preparations were quantified and compared with accepted criteria defined following a review of the literature and recommendations of the manufactures' guidelines. Results Subgingival margins on the buccal aspect were noticed in 36% of the preparations, 54% demonstrated overpreparation with a tendency to overprepare the teeth on the mesiodistal plane more than buccolingual plane. Twenty percent of samples presented a shoulder finish line while a chamfer margin design was noticed in 39%. Twenty-nine percent and 12% of samples had either a feathered or no clear margin design respectively. Incisal under preparation was observed in 18% of dies of each type. Only 17% of all preparations were found to follow the recommended anatomical labial preparations while 29% of the RBC preparations were found to have the recommended axial convergence angle. In total, 43% of preparations were found to have the recommended depth of the finish line. Conclusions It was found that relevant guidelines for RBC preparations were not being fully adhered to in private practice in Jordan. PMID:21710098

  2. Prevalence and nature of off-label antibiotic prescribing for children in a tertiary setting: A descriptive study from Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hayajneh, Wail A.; Ayoub, Abeer; Ayoub, Nehad; Khdour, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of off-label antibiotics in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and paediatric wards in Jordan. Methods: Data of patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care units and paediatric wards in King Abdulla University Hospital were collected over an 8-week survey between May and July 2012. Data collected in this study included patients’ age, weight, medical history, diagnosis and the details of antibiotics prescribed to each patient. Results: The study involved a total of 250 children (80 admitted to the NICU and 170 admitted to the wards). A total of 598 antibiotic prescriptions were issued for these patients (244 in NICUs and 354 in paediatricwards). The results of the present study show that off-label antibiotic prescribing to paediatric patients is very common. Off-label antibiotic prescribing to paediatric patients is related mostly to doses and indications, and rarely to age. The majority of admitted patients received at least one off-label antibiotic during their hospital stay. Conclusion: This study reveals the high prevalence of off-label use of antibiotic among paediatric children in Jordan. There is a serious need for robust and continuous educational programs to improve the awareness of paediatricians of guidelines surrounding the use of antibiotics in paediatric patients. Furthermore, true collaboration between paediatricians and clinical pharmacists towards safe and effective antibiotic prescribing in paediatric patients is crucial. PMID:27785160

  3. Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pufahl, Peir K.; Grimm, Kurt A.; Abed, Abdulkader M.; Sadaqah, Rushdi M. Y.

    2003-10-01

    A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene "phosphorite giant" that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the AP and associated cherts, chalks, and oyster buildups indicate that phosphatic strata formed on a highly productive, storm-dominated, east-west trending epeiric platform along the south Tethyan margin. The onset of phosphogenesis and the accumulation of economic phosphorite coincided with a rise in relative sea level that onlapped peritidal carbonates of the Ajlun Group. Pristine phosphates are associated with well-developed micrite concretionary horizons and contain abundant non-keeled spiral planktic foraminifera and a low diversity benthic assemblage of Buliminacean foraminifera, suggesting that pristine phosphates are a condensed facies and phosphogenesis was stimulated by the effects of a highly productive surface ocean and the suboxic diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The bulk sediment composition and absence of Fe-bearing authigenic phases such as glauconite, pyrite (including pyrite molds), siderite, and goethite within pristine phosphates suggests that deposition and authigenesis occurred under conditions of detrital starvation and that "iron-pumping" played a minimal role in phosphogenesis. Authigenic precipitation of phosphate occurred in a broad array of sedimentary environments—herein termed a "phosphorite nursery"—that spanned the entire platform. This is a non-uniformitarian phenomenon reflecting precipitation of sedimentary apatite across a wide depositional spectrum in a variety of depositional settings, wherever the conditions were suitable for phosphogenesis. Sedimentologic data indicate that pristine

  4. Application of geoelectrical methods in the DS sinkhole problem, Israel and Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, E.; Abueladas, A.-R.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Akkawi, E.; Ezersky, M.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a new approach to use the geoelectric methods for studying the both uppermost part of section and salt layer conditions in the sinkhole development sites. The Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is used here to detect shallow deformations in subsurface sediments. Resistivity prospecting yields information about both lateral and vertical distribution of resistivity through the geological section and can therefore be used in both qualitative and quantitative ways for the identification of structure and features at shallow depths. As it follows from the modified Archie's Law, resistivity of the unsaturated sediments is determined by their porosity. The higher the porosity, the higher is the resistivity. It will also depend on volume of the electrolyte in pores and resistivity of the fluid . Note that after mechanical models available the higher porosity in sinkhole development sites is caused by the void presence at depth. 2D and 3D mapping was carried out in the Mineral Beach area in Israel and in the Ghor Al-Haditha site in Jordan. ERT method shown high resistivity anomaly of some thousands Ohm-m located along the salt edge. The Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) also referred to as the Time Domain Electromagnetic Method (TDEM) is sensitive to the bulk resistivity (conductivity) of the studied medium, especially in the low-resistivity range. Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method in its FAST modification was used for studying the salt layer conditions (salt porosity, depth of the salt top and thickness of the salt layer) and distribution of bulk resistivity in vicinity of the salt border (to resolve the problem of water salinity). The methodology includes numerous measurements through the sinkhole development areas. Earlier the TEM method was used extensively worldwide for locating the fresh-saline water interface in coastal areas and for estimating groundwater salinity. In our study we have mapped salt layer geometrical parameters (e.g. depth to

  5. Desert agricultural terrace systems at EBA Jawa (Jordan) - Layout, water availability and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Julia; Krause, Jan; Müller-Neuhof, Bernd; Portillo, Marta; Reimann, Tony; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Located in the arid basalt desert of northeastern Jordan, the Early Bronze Age (EBA) settlement of Jawa is by far the largest and best preserved archaeological EBA site in the region. Recent surveys in the close vicinity revealed well-preserved remains of three abandoned agricultural terrace systems. In the presented study these archaeological features are documented by detailed mapping and the analysis of the sediment records in a multi-proxy approach. To study the chronology of the terrace systems optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the water management techniques and its impact on harvest yields, a crop simulation model (CropSyst) under today's climatic conditions is applied, simulating crop yields with and without (runoff) irrigation. In order to do so, a runoff time series for each agricultural terrace system and its catchment is generated, applying the SCS runoff curve number method (CN) based on rainfall and soil data. Covering a total area of 38 ha, irrigated terrace agriculture was practiced on slopes, small plateaus, and valleys in the close vicinity of Jawa. Floodwater from nearby wadis or runoff from adjacent slopes was collected and diverted via surface canals. The terraced fields were arranged in cascades, allowing effective water exploitation through a system of risers, canals and spillways. The examined terrace profiles show similar stratigraphic sequences of mixed unstratified fine sediments that are composed of small-scale relocated sediments with local origin. The accumulation of these fines is associated with the construction of agricultural terraces, forcing infiltration and storage of the water within the terraces. Two OSL ages of terrace fills indicate that the construction of these terrace systems started as early as 5300 ± 300 a, which fits well to the beginning of the occupation phase of Jawa at around 3.500 calBC, thus making them to the oldest examples of its kind in the Middle East

  6. Decay of sandstone monuments in Petra (Jordan): Gravity-induced stress as a stabilizing factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řihošek, Jaroslav; Bruthans, Jiří; Mašín, David; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by physical experiments and numerical modeling the gravity-induced stress (stress in further text) in sandstone massive reduces weathering and erosion rate (Bruthans et al. 2014). This finding is in contrast to common view that stress threatens stability of man-made monuments carved to sandstone. Certain low- levels of gravity-induced stress can in fact stabilize and protect these forms against weathering and disintegration. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the stress on weathering of sandstone monuments at the Petra World Heritage Site in Jordan via field observations, salt weathering experiments, and physical and numerical modeling. Previous studies on weathering of Petra monuments have neglected the impact of stress, but the ubiquitous presence of stress-controlled landforms in Petra suggests that it has a substantial effect on weathering and erosion processes on man-made monuments and natural surfaces. Laboratory salt weathering experiments with cubes of Umm Ishrin sandstone from Petra demonstrated the inverse relationship between stress magnitude and decay rate. Physical modeling with Strelec locked sand from the Czech Republic was used to simulate weathering and decay of Petra monuments. Sharp forms subjected to water erosion decayed to rounded shapes strikingly similar to tombs in Petra subjected to more than 2000 years of weathering and erosion. The physical modeling results enabled visualization of the recession of monument surfaces in high spatial and temporal resolution and indicate that the recession rate of Petra monuments is far from constant both in space and time. Numerical modeling of stress fields confirms the physical modeling results. This novel approach to investigate weathering clearly demonstrates that increased stress decreases the decay rate of Petra monuments. To properly delineate the endangered zones of monuments, the potential damage caused by weathering agents should be combined with stress

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Burnout among Special Education Teachers in Jordan: An Analytical Descriptive Study on the Southern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bawaliz, Mohammad Abdessalam; Arbeyat, Ahmad; Hamadneh, Burhan Mahmmod

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the measurement of the level of emotional intelligence and the level of burnout among teachers working in special education centers in the southern territory in Jordan, and also aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and burnout, and how does this relationship differ according to…

  8. Early Intervention Services, Importance and Availability Extent from Workers Point of View, Who Serves in the Intellectual Disability Centers in Ma'an, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almsbhieen, Moneera Meheel

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to highlight the importance of early intervention as to intellectual disabled children, level of its availability through the point of view generated from workers in Intellectual disability centers at Ma'an-Jordan. Moreover, we shall discuss herein the differences that carry statistical significance in early intervention services…

  9. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  10. Perceptions of Student Teachers towards the Effectiveness of Co-Operating Teachers, School Principals and University Supervisors Participating in the Teacher Education Program in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albasheer, Akram; Khasawneh, Samer; Nabah, Abdallah Abu; Hailat, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of student teachers regarding the effectiveness of university supervisors, school principals and co-operating teachers participating in the teacher education program at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 120 student teachers participated in the study by completing the…

  11. The Degree of Adherence to Educational Values by the Students of the University of Jordan--In Their Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Serhan, Khaled Ali

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to probe the degree of adherence by students of the University of Jordan to moral values. To achieve this, a survey was prepared and distributed to a random sample of 1769 students in the second semester of the 2013-2014 school year. The study showed a high degree of adherence to religious, social and behavioral values, and a…

  12. Problems of Understanding English Ironic Expressions by M.A. Students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khawaldeh, Suhaib

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the problems of understanding English ironic expressions M.A. of Applied Linguistics students at Mu'tah University in Jordan. This quantitative and qualitative study includes 15 of M.A. students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University. The participants were selected randomly. Two research instruments…

  13. Mechanisms and Development Strategies for Teaching Thinking to Move the Role of Jordan Universities as the Product of the Think Tank from the Faculty Members Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; Abu-Nair, Natheer S.; Abu Sameha, Mansour A.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed at revealing the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking to move the role of Jordan universities as the product of think tank from the faculty members point of view. Also aimed to determine the influence of academic rank in shaping the mechanisms and development strategies for teaching thinking in Jordanian…

  14. The Security Education Concepts in the Textbooks of the National and Civic Education of the Primary Stage in Jordan--An Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the concepts of the security education in the textbooks of the national and civic education of the higher primary stage in Jordan. It adopted the descriptive analytical method. The study sample consisted of the textbooks of the national and civic education for the basic eighth, ninth and tenth grades. To…

  15. Features of Computerized Educational Games in Sciences of the Elementary Phase in Jordan from the Point of View of Specialists in Teaching Science and Computer Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Sarhan, Khaled Ali; AlZboon, Saleem Odeh; Olimat, Khalaf Mufleh; Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at introducing the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary school in Jordan according to the specialists in teaching science and computer subjects, through answering some questions such as: What are the features of the computerized educational games in sciences at the elementary schools in Jordan…

  16. The Effect of TASC Wheel on Developing Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Academic Self Efficacy on a Sample of 7th Graders in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awwad, Ferial Mohammad Abu; Asha, Intisar Khalil; Jado, Saleh Mohammad Abu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of Thinking Actively in Social Contexts (TASC Wheel) on developing self-directed learning readiness and academic self efficacy on a sample of seventh graders in Jordan. To achieve this objective, the researchers administered, after investigating their psychometric properties, a self-directed learning…

  17. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Explain the Degree of English Teachers' Adoption of Interactive Whiteboards in the Modern Systems School in Jordan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jwaifell, Mustafa; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explain the use of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) by English female teachers in Modern Systems School in Jordan. Viewed from the lens of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory, the study examined and reported teachers' use of IWB and its features that have impact on their decisions to adopt it in Modern Systems School . The…

  18. Effectiveness of Active Learning Strategy in Improving the Acoustic Awareness Skills and Understanding What Is Heard by the Basic Stage Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Odwan, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to get acquainted with the effectiveness of the active learning strategy in improving the acoustic awareness skills and understanding what is heard by the basic stage students in Jordan by answering the two following questions: This research has been applied to a sample of 60 students from the basic third grade in Al-Ahnaf Ben…

  19. Using the Training Reactions Questionnaire to Analyze the Reactions of University Students Undergoing Career-Related Training in Jordan: A Prospective Human Resource Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer; Al-Zawahreh, Abdelghafour

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to validate Morgan and Casper's training reactions questionnaire (TRQ) for use in Jordan. The study also investigated the reactions of university students to career-related training programs. Another purpose of the study was to determine the impact of certain aspects of training programs on the overall…

  20. The Effect of Using Learning Journals on Developing Self-Regulated Learning and Reflective Thinking among Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jado, Saleh Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using learning journals on self-regulated learning and reflective thinking among a sample of pre-service teachers enrolled in Educational Psychology course at the Faculty of Educational Sciences and Arts (FESA) in Jordan. The study sample consisted of (61) participants. To achieve the purpose of the…

  1. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  2. Work-Based Learning Programmes for Young People in the Mediterranean Region: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. Comparative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This report examines programmes for youth that combine learning in classrooms with participation in work in 10 Mediterranean countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey. It is one element, together with the development of a network of policymakers and experts from the…

  3. Professors' Perceptions of Distance Education in Virtual Environments: The Case of the Education Faculty of University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oassim-Al-shboul, Oassim Mahmoud; Sabiote, Clemente Rodriguez; Álvarez-Rodríguez, José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the perceptions that the teaching staff of the Faculty of Education at University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan) have of the implementation of distance learning in virtual environments, more specifically, the professors' opinion of the potential and limitations of this educational strategy. To fulfil this goal, we…

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Pseudomonas punonensis Strain D1-6 Isolated from the Desert Plant Erodium hirtum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Feras F.; AlBladi, Maha L.; Salem, Nida M.; Al-Banna, Luma; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas punonensis strain D1-6 was isolated from roots of the desert plant Erodium hirtum, near the Dead Sea in Jordan. The genome of strain D1-6 reveals several key plant growth–promoting and herbicide-resistance genes, indicating a possible specialized role for this endophyte. PMID:28082490

  5. Effect of the Van Hiele Model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition: The Attitudes towards Geometry and Learning Transfer Effect of the First Three Grades Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-ebous, Tahani

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the van Hiele model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition, and the attitudes towards Geometry and learning transfer of the first three grades students in Jordan. Participants of the study consisted of 60 students from the third grade primary school students from the First Directorate, Amman, in the…

  6. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  7. Continuity and change in ceramic manufacture: Archaeometric study of Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawneh, Firas Mohamad

    This thesis investigates continuity and change of ceramics from Late Byzantine-Early Islamic transition period Jordan. The transition period has been characterized largely by an overlap of two ceramic traditions. The material culture of this period has been primarily viewed through formal and stylistic changes. However, ceramic technology and distribution have never been subjected to rigorous analytical study. In order to explain continuity and change in ceramic tradition the undertaken study has focused on the provenance and technology, using multifaceted analytical approach. This study of the transition period pottery has focused on the classification and technological features of potsherds from selected sites in Jordan (Amman, Aqaba, Beit Ras, Khirbet el-Nawafleh, Jarash, Jericho, Pella, Madaba, Gharndal, Humaimah, Um er-Rassas and Um el-Waleed). Samples were studied by particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and optical microscopy to analyze their chemical, mineralogical and textural features in the aim of determining their possible provenance and production technology. Compositional data were statistically processed with multivariate analysis using SYSTAT II software 2006. To obtain further information about possible source areas of raw materials used in ceramic production, clays were also sampled in the studied areas. Firing experiments were conducted for clays with compositions comparable with those of ceramic sherds, to better understand the firing technology of the pottery. The multifaceted analytical approach has revealed important information on ceramic production in Transjordan. Khirbet el-Nawafleh and Aqaba in the south, Jarash and Pella in the north, Amman and Madaba in the middle are possibly just a few important production centers during this period. The study shows a multidirectional socio-cultural exchange and economic trade patterns within each region and between adjacent regions, as well. Also, importation from

  8. Smoking behaviour, knowledge and perceived susceptibility to lung cancer among secondary-school students in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shadid, H M; Hossain, S Z

    2015-05-19

    Smoking in Jordan is a serious problem as it affects almost all segments of society including children. This study aimed to evaluate the smoking behaviour of Jordanian secondary-school students (aged 16-18 years), their awareness of the dangers of smoking and their perceived susceptibility to lung cancer. Of the stratified random sample of students from Amman schools (n = 648), 43% were ever smokers (had smoked for 1 year) and 27.6% were current smokers, while 81% reported having a smoker in the family. Students in western Amman (higher socioeconomic status) and those who started smoking at a younger age demonstrated better knowledge about smoking-related consequences. Perceived susceptibility to lung cancer was significantly associated with sex, perceived seriousness of lung cancer and school location. Students' sex, socioeconomic status and the family environment were important factors that influenced students' smoking behaviour and risk perceptions and these findings have significant policy implications.

  9. An observational study of the summer Mediterranean Sea breeze front penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, R.; Potchter, O.; Shafir, H.; Alpert, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean summer sea breeze front (SBF) climatic features of penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) were investigated. It was shown that the SBF penetration into the JRV occurs in a well-defined chronological order from north to south. One exception to this general rule is the breeze penetration of Sdom, which occurs after it has penetrated the Arava which is located further south, probably due to the micro-climatic effect of the Dead Sea. It was also noted that the breeze increases the local specific humidity as it reaches the JRV in spite of significant temperature increases. The temperature reaches its daily peak 2 to 3 h later in the southern valley compared to the northern valley and is suggested to be due to the later SBF penetration and the valley structure. The pre-SBF line features in the JRV are described.

  10. Prevalence and seasonal variation of human intestinal parasites in patients attending hospital with abdominal symptoms in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Jaran, A S

    2017-01-23

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their seasonal variation in northern Jordan. A total of 21 906 stool samples were collected over a period of 4 years (2009- 2013) from 5 government hospitals in 3 cities. Samples were processed and examined microscopically and by concentration methods. Parasitic infection was found in 9611 samples (44%). Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasite (41%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica (31%) and Ent. coli (13%); the least prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (1%), Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp., and Chilomastix mesnili (all < 1%). The prevalence of different parasites varied according to season, on average the summer months showed the highest incidence of parasitic infection (62%) compared with the winter months (16%). Giardia lamblia and Ent. histolytica were most prevalent in the summer months.

  11. Burials from Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, Southern Jordan - Results of a Survey and Salvage Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameen, Zeyad al; Falahat, Hani

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a survey and excavation conducted in 2006 on small cemeteries at Wadi Mudayfa'at and Wadi Abu Khasharif, which are located c. 30 km southeast of the village of al-Hussayniah on the Desert Highway in southern Jordan. In total five graves were excavated. Preservation was excellent including human and other organic materials (hair, leather, textiles). Preliminary scientific dating points to the period between the second and fourth centuries AD. The research questions discussed are: - the date, the relationship between the cemeteries and surrounding sites, the significance of this area, the identity of the groups buried, the burial techniques and practices adopted and what influenced them and the funerary gifts included with the dead.

  12. Cognitive appraisal of stress and health status of wage working and non-wage working women in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hattar-Pollara, Marianne; Dawani, Hania

    2006-10-01

    This cross-sectional correlation study addresses the stress appraisal of 93 Jordanian wage working and non-wage working single and married women in Jordan and the relationship of appraised stress to their physical and psychological health. Data were collected using a demographic interview guide that included a Likert-type scale addressing perceived global social stress, the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Perceived stress had no significant relations with physical and emotional health as measured by the PSS, but significant relations were found between social stress and indicators of health. In fact, social stress was the single most significant predictor of overall health, physical health, and emotional health. The findings on the health profile of participants and social stress have important implications for future research and for illness prevention and health promotion initiatives.

  13. Structural geometry and evolution of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system as deduced from new subsurface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashai, E. L.; Croker, P. F.

    1987-09-01

    Analysis of deep drilling data and seismic reflection surveys obtained in recent years permit establishment of a tectonic model of the Dead Sea-Jordan rift system that is in part conformable with some of the many, often controversial, theories on this subject, but which also introduces new information negating some concepts that are widely accepted in the literature. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system is not a tensional graben between two parallel sets of faults, but instead can be best defined as a sinistral transform connecting an incipient oceanic ridge—the Red Sea—with an upthrusted collision zone, the Taurus range. The shear is caused by the opening of the Red Sea and the motion of the Arabian sub-plate away from the African plate. The shearing occurs along a largely south-north trending, slightly arcuate Une, consisting of a series of en echelon left-stepping left-lateral strike-slip master faults of varying lengths. These faults characteristically die out to the north by bending outward (northeast), and the movement is taken up by the strike-slip faults to the left (i.e. to the west). Where overlap of the two faults occurs, very narrow and very deep grabens have evolved, in places the width being equal to the depth. The narrowness of these grabens is dictated by the closeness of the overlapping segments of the successive strike-slip faults. This feature points to the probability that the en echelon strike-slip faults have a common root zone at great depth. These grabens are not typical "leaky" pull-aparts in that they have no gravimetric, magnetic or heat flow anomalies; nor are they closed on all four sides by large faults. Their northern ends are characterized by gradually rising graben floors without major diagonal cross faults. The Dead Sea-Jordan rift system sensu stricto extends over a distance of 420 km, from the northern shore of the Gulf of Elat to the northern margin of the Hula Valley. Southward, it is connected with the Red Sea along the Gulf of

  14. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being

  15. Two recent but temporally distinct outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis among foreign workers in the Dead-Sea area of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, I M; Geith, E; Schönian, G; Kanani, K A

    2009-07-01

    Two temporally distinct outbreaks of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), as well as scattered cases of the disease, have recently been observed close to the Dead Sea, in Jordan. Each of the two outbreaks, which occurred in 2004/2005 and 2007/2008, involved a group of foreign workers who were deployed within otherwise uninhabited locations. During each outbreak, about 20% of the workers were found infected with the causative parasite. In the earlier outbreak, 61 workers were found to have skin lesions like those of CL and all but three were confirmed by culture and/or the examination of smears (40 cases) or, in the case of 18 (86%) of the 21 suspected cases found smear- and culture-negative, by PCR. In the second outbreak, the cases were only identified from their clinical manifestations and their response to antileishmanial treatment (cryotherapy). Leishmania major was identified as the cause of the 2004/2005 outbreak and some sporadic cases that occurred, in 2004, along the shores of the Dead Sea. The burrows of potential reservoir hosts were found close to the outbreak locations, frequently under the chenopod Seidlitzia rosmarinus. The two outbreaks emphasise the continuing problem posed by the CL focus in the Mid Jordan Valley and its impact on humans who move into the area. Curiously, an investigation on the socio-economic conditions of the workers during the outbreaks identified a group of 48 workers who were living in air-conditioned rooms during the 2007/2008 outbreak, among whom no CL cases were found. In contrast, 26 of a neighbouring group of 124 workers, who were all living in non-air-conditioned rooms, developed CL lesions. The role of air conditioning, and of other factors and measures, in the prevention of the transmission of the causative parasites of CL merits further investigation and the attention of the local health authorities.

  16. A 300m-width sinkhole threatens the stability of the embankment of a saltpan in Jordan, Dead Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1980s, the Dead Sea coastal zone is affected by sinkholes. The dynamic of the salt karst system is attested by a drastic increase of collapse events. The energy available for sub-surface erosion (or cavities genesis) is related to the head difference between the water table and the lake level which drop down at an accelerating rate of more than 1 m/yr. In the region of Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, the size of the craters increased significantly during the last decade. Up to now, the greatest compound structure observed (association of metric subsidence, decametric sinkholes, and landslides) was about 150-200 m in diameter. End of December 2012, a single circular structure having 250-300 m in diameter was identified within a 10 km x 1.5 km saltpan of the Arab Potash Company. This finding raises questions regarding the origin of the underlying cavity and the capability of prediction of all models developed up to now in Israel and Jordan regarding the Dead Sea sinkholes. The analysis of satellite images of the past shows that the appearance of this unique depression is very recent (probably less than 5 years). Cosmo-SkyMed radar images have been processed to map the associated deformation field. Ground motions attest that the overall diameter could be around 600 m. Currently, this sinkhole is threatening the stability of more than one kilometer of a 12 km long dike holding 90 million m3 of Dead Sea brine. This case study underlines the great fragility of the Dead Sea salt karst and demonstrates the need for the setting up of an early warning system.

  17. Screening for domestic violence in Jordan: validation of an Arabic version of a domestic violence against women questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda G; Shotar, Ali; Younger, Janet B; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Bouhaidar, Claudia M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Abuse against women causes a great deal of suffering for the victims and is a major public health problem. Measuring lifetime abuse is a complicated task; the various methods that are used to measure abuse can cause wide variations in the reported occurrences of abuse. Furthermore, the estimated prevalence of abuse also depends on how abuse is culturally defined. Researchers currently lack a validated Arabic language instrument that is also culturally tailored to Arab and Middle Eastern populations. Therefore, it is important to develop and evaluate psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the newly developed NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NORAQ). Design and methods: The five core elements of the NORAQ (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, current suffering of the abuse, and communication of the history of abuse to the general practitioner) were translated into Arabic, translated back into English, and pilot tested to ensure cultural sensitivity and appropriateness for adult women in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Participants were recruited from the Jordanian Ministry of Health-Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in two large cities in Jordan. Results: A self administered NORAQ was completed by 175 women who had attended the centers. The order of factors was almost identical to the original English and Swedish languages questionnaire constructs. The forced 3-factor solution explained 64.25% of the variance in the measure. The alpha reliability coefficients were 0.75 for the total scale and ranged from 0.75 to 0.77 for the subscales. In terms of the prevalence of lifetime abuse, 39% of women reported emotional abuse, 30% physical abuse, and 6% sexual abuse. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the NORAQ has demonstrated initial reliability and validity. It is a cost-effective means for screening incidence and prevalence of lifetime domestic abuse against women in Jordan, and it may be applicable to other Middle East

  18. Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Elias

    The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of δO18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and δD = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with δO18 = -4.06 and δD = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (δO18 = -6, δD = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (δO18 = -5, δD = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (δO18 -3.8, δD = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (δO18 -18 = -6, δD = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces

  19. Health-care providers' perception of knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management in primary health-care centres in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, N M; Ibaid, A H Abu

    2015-12-13

    This survey in primary health-care centres in north Jordan aimed to assess health-care providers' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management. A multistage random sample was used to recruit nurses and physicians from 57 health centres. A total of 207 participants completed the Arabic version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants perceived themselves as having moderate preparation for disaster management [mean score 74.9 (SD 21.6)], moderate knowledge [mean 49.9 (SD 12.3)] and moderate to weak skills in disaster management [mean 35.3 (SD 12.7)]. Significant differences were revealed in participants' perceptions of their disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills according to their sex, specialty and exposure to a real disaster situation. Further education and training courses are needed to enhance providers' preparedness for disaster management in Jordan.

  20. Water Scarcity and Increased Instability - How Israel’s Policies and Actions Since the Creation of the National Water Carrier Have Adversely impacted the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    and groundwater with the oil spill that ensued, the southern part 20 of Lebanon did not have power. Their lack of power also prevented the pumping...Nabulus. • The Dead Sea is salty brine that sits 400 meters below sea level. The flow into the Lower Jordan River varies between fifty to two...14 3 Groundwater . A larger quantity of freshwater exists as groundwater in the Israel-Palestine trans boundary. The groundwater comes naturally to

  1. (Combustion tests of sample Jordan oil shale, Karhula, Finland, and visit to Espoo, Finland, January 14--20, 1988): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1988-02-04

    The traveler was present at combustion tests of sample Jordan oil shale in the Ahlstrom CFB test unit during which a series of tests was run to determine the effect of the key operating parameters on the combustion performance. A tour was given of the 80 MWt CFB coal-fired district heating boiler plant in Espoo, Finland. Both activities provided valuable insight for the technical evaluation.

  2. The in vitro effect of six antimicrobials against Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides LC and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum isolated from sheep and goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, W; Nicholas, R A J; Janakat, S; Abu-Basha, E; Ayling, R D

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory disease in sheep and goats is a major problem in Jordan and is often associated with Mycoplasma species. Without effective vaccines, control is mainly by chemotherapy, but the uncontrolled use of antimicrobials has led to concerns about the potential development of antimicrobial resistance. The in vitro effect of chloramphenicol, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, tylosin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline was determined against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species-M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC (6), M. capricolum subsp. capricolum (8) and M. putrefaciens (18), all isolated from either nasal swabs or milk, from sheep and goats in different regions of Jordan. The antimicrobial susceptibility showed some Mycoplasma species-specific differences, with M. capricolum subsp. capricolum being more susceptible to tylosin and erythromycin. Chloramphenicol and florfenicol were the least effective for all three Mycoplasma species. No trends or significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities were observed between sheep and goat isolates, between milk or nasal swab isolates, or between isolates from different regions of Jordan. Some isolates of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. putrefaciens showed higher MIC levels with oxytetracycline, as did two isolates of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC with tylosin, possibly indicating signs of development of antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Spring response to precipitation events using δ(18)O and δ(2)H in the Tanour catchment, NW Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Toll, Mathias; Sauter, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The Tanour spring is one of the several karst springs located in the northern part of Jordan. Water samples from the Tanour spring and precipitation were collected in the area of Ajloun in NW Jordan for the analysis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to evaluate the spring response to precipitation events. Rainwater and snow samples were collected from different elevations during winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. In addition, spring samples were collected between December 2014 and March 2015. δ(18)O values in rainwater vary from -3.26 to -17.34 ‰ (average: -7.84 ± 3.23 ‰), while δ(2)H values range between -4.4 and -110.4 ‰ (average: -35.7 ± 25.0 ‰). Deuterium excess ranges from 17.8 to 34.1 ‰ (average: 27.1 ± 4.0 ‰). The Local Meteoric Water Line for the study area was calculated to be δ(2)H = 7.66*δ(18)O + 24.43 (R(2) = 0.98). Pre-event spring discharge showed variation in δ(18)O (range -6.29 to -7.17 ‰; average -6.58 ± 0.19 ‰) and δ(2)H values (range -28.8 to -32.7 ‰; average: -30.5 ± 1.0 ‰). In contrast, δ(18)O and δ(2)H rapidly changed to more negative values during rainfall and snowmelt events and persisted for several days before returning to background values. Spring water temperature, spring discharge, and turbidity followed the trend in isotopic composition during and after the precipitation events. The rapid change in the isotopic composition, spring discharge, water temperature, and turbidity in response to recharge events is related to fast water travel times and low storage capacity in the conduit system of the karst aquifer. Based on the changes in the isotopic composition of spring water after the precipitation events, the water travel time in the aquifer is in the order of 5-11 days.

  4. Evaluation of a sublingual immunotherapy solution in olive-induced respiratory allergy in Jordan: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asad, Khaled; Al-Nazer, Sayed; Al-Faqih, Anan; Hashem, Mohammad Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Olive pollen is an important cause of respiratory allergy in the Middle East. In this study, the clinical characteristics of adults and children with confirmed allergic rhinitis (AR; with or without asthma) in Jordan were described, and the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in a real-life clinical setting was assessed. Methods This retrospective observational study evaluated the clinical features of olive-induced allergy and the use of an SLIT solution of standardized extracts toward Ole e 1 given in a pre- and coseasonal scheme with a daily dose of 300 index of reactivity for two consecutive seasons. Inclusion criteria were as follows: ≥5 years of age, AR, proven olive sensitization, and at least 2 years follow-up after SLIT initiation. The following data were recorded at SLIT initiation: clinical characteristics, rhinitis and asthma symptom scores, and concomitant symptomatic medications. During follow-up and at the end of each season, the following data were recorded: symptom progression/scores, any changes to symptomatic medications, and treatment compliance. The secondary objective was to determine any effect on quality of life, use of concomitant AR medications, and treatment compliance. Results Eighty-six patients with seasonal AR were included in this analysis (52.3% with coexisting asthma). Between the initiation of treatment and the end of second pollen season, symptoms of AR and asthma were decreased by 79.5% and 41.7%, respectively, with an improvement in quality of life score in 71.5% of the patients (P<0.0001 for all). Physicians reported that after 2 years of SLIT, there was an improvement in the symptoms of both AR (95.2%) and asthma (93.3%), with 98.8% of the patients showing good treatment compliance. A reduction in symptomatic medications was also found. SLIT was well tolerated with no systemic reactions being reported. Conclusion In children and adults with olive-associated respiratory allergy in Jordan, the use of a pre- and

  5. Detection and analysis of morphotectonic features utilizing satellite remote sensing and GIS: An example in SW Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaideh, Omar M. A.; Grasemann, Bernhard; Melichar, Rostislav; Mosar, Jon

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the dominant orientations of morphological features and the relationship between these trends and the spatial orientation of tectonic structures in SW Jordan. Landsat 8 and hill-shaded images, constructed from 30 m-resolution ASTER-GDEM data, were used for automatically extracting and mapping geological lineaments. The ASTER-GDEM was further utilized to automatically identify and extract drainage network. Morphological features were analyzed by means of azimuth frequency and length density distributions. Tectonic controls on the land surface were evaluated using longitudinal profiles of many westerly flowing streams. The profiles were taken directly across the northerly trending faults within a strong topographic transition between the low-gradient uplands and the deeply incised mountain front on the east side of the Dead Sea Fault Zone. Streams of the area are widely divergent, and show numerous anomalies along their profiles when they transect faults and lineaments. Five types of drainage patterns were identified: dendritic, parallel, rectangular, trellis, and modified dendritic/trellis. Interpretation and analysis of the lineaments indicate the presence of four main lineament populations that trend E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE. Azimuthal distribution analysis of both the measured structures and drainage channels shows similar trends, except for very few differences in the prevailing directions. The similarity in orientation of lineaments, drainage system, and subsurface structural trends highlights the degree of control exerted by underlying structure on the surface geomorphological features. Faults and lineaments serve as a preferential conduit for surface running waters. The extracted lineaments were divided into five populations based on the main age of host rocks outcropping in the study area to obtain information about the temporal evolution of the lineament trends through geologic time. A general consistency in lineament trends over

  6. Two-dimensional basement modeling of central loop transient electromagnetic data from the central Azraq basin area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogeshwar, P.; Tezkan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Thick sedimentary sequences are deposited in the central area of the Azraq basin in Jordan consisting mostly of hyper-saline clay and various evaporates. These sediment successions form the 10 km × 10 km large Azraq mudflat and are promising archives for a palaeoclimatical reconstruction. Besides palaeoclimatical research, the Azraq area is of tremendous importance to Jordan due to groundwater and mineral resources. The heavy exploitation of groundwater has lead to a drastic decline of the water table and drying out of the former Azraq Oasis. Two 7 and 5 km long transects were investigated from the periphery of the mudflat across its center using a total of 150 central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings. The scope of the survey was to detect the thickness of sedimentary deposits along both transects and to provide a basis for future drilling activities. We derive a two-dimensional model which can explain the TEM data for all soundings along each profile simultaneously. Previously uncertain depths of geological boundaries were determined along both transects. Particularly the thickness of the deposited mudflat sediments was identified and ranges from 40 m towards the periphery down to approximately 130 m at the deepest location. Besides that, the depth and lateral extent of a buried basalt layer was identified. In the basin center the groundwater is hyper-saline. The lateral extent of the saline water body was determined precisely along both transects. In order to investigate the detectability of the basement below the high conductive mudflat sediments an elaborate two-dimensional modeling study was performed. Both, the resistivity and depth of the basement were varied systematically. The basement resistivity cannot be determined precisely in most zones and may range roughly between 1 and 100 Ωm without deteriorating the misfit. In contrast to that, the depth down to the basement is detected accurately in most zones and along both transects. Varying

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii Antibodies in Bulk Milk from Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Kersh, Gilbert J

    2017-04-01

    This large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and risk factors for the presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk derived from dairy cattle, sheep, and goats in Jordan. Bulk milk samples were collected from 78 dairy cattle, 48 sheep, and 23 goat farms from various places in Jordan according to the density of these animal species in each region of the country. The samples were tested for C. burnetii antibodies using the CHEKIT Q-Fever Antibody ELISA kit. A standardized questionnaire was also used to collect data from each farm to identify and rank the risk factors for the presence of C. burnetii antibodies. The results revealed that 62.9% (95% confidence interval: 55.1 to 70.0%) of the tested ruminant farms were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Positive results were obtained from 70.9% (60.6 to 79.5%) of dairy cattle farms, 52.1% (38.3 to 65.5%) of sheep farms, and 56.0% (37.1 to 73.3%) of goat farms. Six factors were associated with the presence of these antibodies on cattle farms, and five factors were associated with these antibodies on sheep and goat farms (chi-square test). The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that large dairy cattle farms, farms that add new animals to the herd, farms that infrequently clean the feeders, and farms in particular areas are 28.6, 19.9, 8.0, and 6.4 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. Sheep and goat farms that mix their animals with those from other farms, graze more than 5 km, and infrequently sanitize the feeders were 8.0, 0.06, and 13.6 times more likely, respectively, to have animals with C. burnetii antibodies. These data reveal the widespread exposure of Jordanian ruminants to C. burnetii and suggest a high risk for public health.

  8. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.

    1998-01-01

    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  9. Structural control on the evolution of groundwater quality for B2A7 aquifer in the area extending from Ajlun to Yarmouk river in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Muller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow in the Northwestern highlands of Jordan is controlled y the Ajlun Heights were groundwater flows towards north and west along the Yarmouk river and the Jordan Valley. Due to water rock interactions, groundwater that discharges in the Jordan Valley and along the Yarmuk River is thermal, radioactive and mineralized. Its total dissolved solids especially in the confined parts of the aquifer. Electrical conductivity of groundwater in the unconfined aquifer of B2A7 ranges between 500 to 700 µs/cm and increases up to 1600 µs/cm towards the confined part of the aquifer with a notable increase in Na and Cl towards the discharge areas. According to the chloride content in the groundwater the evaporation in the recharge areas is considered to be high representing 82% of the total rainfall. Groundwaters are classified as calcium bicarbonate types with Mg/Ca ratios varying from 0.11 to1.21 and Na/Cl ratio in the range of 0.49 to 1.85. The chemical evolution of groundwater from Ajlun Heights toward Jordan Valley and Yarmouk River is marked by a progressive decrease in calcium and bicarbonate with increase of sodium, and chloride due to halite dissolution and upward percolation of deep saline groundwater. The 3D modeling for the aquifer system indicated the rule of geologic structure in the groundwater digenesis through upward and downward leakage enhanced along high permeability lineaments. According to the modeled water budget, the inflow to the upper B2A7 Aquifer 54 *106 m3/yr replenishing the B2A7 system as underground flow in the karstic limestone of the vadose zone. The underground discharge to the Yarmouk River and Jordan valley modeled to be 23.2 *106 m3/yr as underflow to the springs. The leakage from B2A7 aquifer into the lower aquifer is about 9.7 *106 m3/yr. Within the north western lowered elevations the hydraulic different between upper and deep aquifers is at minimum an upward leakage and seems to take place through the main faults trending EW

  10. The effect of the extract of the miswak (chewing sticks) used in Jordan and the Middle East on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Al lafi, T; Ababneh, H

    1995-06-01

    Chewing sticks are commonly used in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in particular, and the Middle East, Asia, and Africa in general, in addition to many other areas for oral hygiene, religious and social purposes. Recently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended and encouraged the use of these sticks as an effective tool for oral hygiene. The antibacterial activity of one of these sticks has been tested against some oral aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Three methods of antibacterial activity were carried out: streaked plate method, ditch plate method, and tube dilution test for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). It was found that the extract of these sticks had a drastic effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 69 mg/100 cc, while a variable effect on other bacterial species was noted. It is concluded that using chewing sticks twice a day on a regular basis may reduce the incidence of gingivitis and possibly dental caries. Apart from their antibacterial activity which may help control the formation and activity of dental plaque, they can be used effectively as a natural toothbrush for teeth cleaning. Such sticks are effective, inexpensive, common, available, and contain many medical properties.

  11. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  12. Hydrogeological perturbations along the Dead Sea coast revealed by submarine sinkholes, Lisan and Ghor al Haditha, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, D.; Abou Karaki, N.; Milisavljevic, N.; Pasquali, P.; Holecz, F.; Bouaraba, A.

    2012-04-01

    For several decades, surface water and groundwater located in the closed Dead Sea basin experience excessive exploitation. In fifty years, the level of the terminal lake has fallen by about 30 meters and its surface shrunk by one third. The coastal zone is the one that best shows the stigma of the general environmental degradation. Among these are the sinkholes, landslides and subsidence. For years, these phenomena are relatively well documented, particularly sinkholes and subsidence. Over the past five years, field observations combined with ground deformations measurements by radar interferometric stacking techniques have shown that the intensity (size, frequency) of the collapses is increasing in the most affected part of the southern Dead Sea area. The zones of the dried up Lynch Strait, the Lisan peninsula and Ghor Al Haditha in Jordan seem the most affected. Very high resolution (0.5 to 2 m) GeoEye satellite images have shown that many sinkholes also formed below the level of the Dead Sea. The water transparency allows observations up to several meters deep. These data contribute to the validation of the models developed in connection with the deformation of the fresh/saline water interface due to an imbalance always more pronounced between the levels of the surrounding groundwaters and of the terminal lake.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics use and misuse among adults in the community of Jordan. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shehadeh, Mayadah; Suaifan, Ghadeer; Darwish, Rula M.; Wazaify, Mayyada; Zaru, Luna; Alja’fari, Suzan

    2011-01-01

    Factors associated with antibiotic use, resistance and safety have been well recognized worldwide in the literature. Nevertheless, only few studies have been conducted in Jordan in this area. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, behavior and attitude toward antibiotics use among adult Jordanians. The study represents a cross sectional survey using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data collected from a random sample of 1141 adult Jordanians, recruited at different settings, regarding their knowledge about the effectiveness of, resistance toward, and self medications with antibiotics against bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases. 67.1% believed that antibiotics treat common cold and cough. 28.1% misused antibiotics as analgesics. 11.9% of females showed inadequate knowledge about the safe use of antibiotics during pregnancy and nursing. 28.5% kept antibiotics at home for emergency use and 55.6% use them as prophylaxis against infections. 49.0% use left-over antibiotics without physicians’ consultation while 51.8% use antibiotics based on a relative advice. 22.9% of physicians prescribe antibiotics over the phone and >50.0% routinely prescribe antibiotics to treat common cold symptoms. Our findings indicated that young adults showed unsatisfactory knowledge of proper antibiotic use. Therefore, there is an urge for educational programs using all media means. PMID:23960783

  14. Are insulin analogues an unavoidable necessity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in developing countries? The case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hyassat, D; Al Shekarchi, N; Jaddou, H; Liswi, M; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K M

    2015-12-13

    Despite their reported benefits in terms of glycaemic control, insulin analogues are expensive for patients in developing countries. This study in Jordan aimed to compare the effectiveness and adverse events of premixed human insulin (BHI30) versus premixed insulin analogue (BIAsp30) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a retrospective cohort study from October 2012 to March 2013, outcomes (HbA1c, weight, hypoglycaemia and lipohypertrophy) were compared at baseline and 6 months after treatment in 628 patients. BHI30 produced a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c than did BIAsp30. This difference in HbA1c remained significant after controlling for the effects of age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index and hypoglycaemia (β-coefficient was -0.18 in favour of BHI30). Weight gain and mild hypoglycaemia was significantly higher with BHI30 than with BIAsp30. BHI30 achieved better reduction in HbA1c compared with BIAsp30, with less cost, slightly more weight gain and greater reported mild hypoglycaemia.

  15. Comparative analysis of virulence and resistance profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from poultry meat and foodborne outbreaks in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Abedel Hafiz, Leena; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Ababneh, Qotaibah O; Al Mousa, Waseem; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Osaili, Tareq M; Holley, Richard

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to isolate Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry samples and compare their virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles to S. Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks in northern Jordan. Two hundred presumptive isolates were obtained from 302 raw poultry samples and were subjected to further analysis and confirmation. A phylogenic tree based on 16S rRNA sequencing was constructed and selected isolates representing each cluster were further studied for their virulence in normal adult Swiss white mice. The most virulent strains were isolated from poultry samples and had an LD 50 of 1.55 × 10 (5) CFU, while some of the outbreak isolates were avirulent in mice. Antibiotic resistance profiling revealed that the isolates were resistant to seven of eight antibiotics screened with each isolate resistant to multiple antibiotics (from two to six). Of the poultry isolates, 100%, 88.9%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 50% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoperazone, respectively. Two outbreak isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 71.4% were resistant to cefoperazone and only 28.6% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Salmonella outbreak isolates were genetically related to poultry isolates as inferred from the 16S rRNA sequencing, yet were phenotypically different. Although outbreak strains were similar to poultry isolates, when tested in the mouse model, some of the outbreak isolates were highly virulent while others were avirulent. This might be due to a variation in susceptibility of the mouse to different S. Enteritidis isolates.

  16. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  17. Trace elements in atmospheric precipitation at Northern Jordan measured by ICP-MS: acidity and possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Momani, I. F.

    Rainwater samples were collected in a rural region in Northern Jordan using 24-h sampling periods from December 1998 to April 2000. All samples were analyzed for major ions (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, H +, Mg 2+, NH 4+, Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Al, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb and V). The majority of the rain samples collected had pH values higher than 5.6. The average pH was 6.4±0.9. High values of pH were attributed to the neutralization by natural alkaline local dusts which contain large fractions of calcite. The annual average SO 42--to-NO 3- ratio is 1.8, which is close to that observed in more polluted regions. Concentrations of measured species were lower than those reported for other rural sites worldwide. Elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Ag and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition. Factor analysis permitted the identification of four source groups, namely crustal dust, sea-salt spray, road traffic and combustion and secondary aerosol formation processes.

  18. Iridium contents in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary clays in relation to the K/T boundary, North Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The mineralogy, lithology, and geochemistry of five discrete laminations across the K/T boundary of clayey shale at the Yarmouk River area, Jordan, were examined. There were no marked changes in the mineralogy of the clayey shale within the K/T boundary. This outcrop consists of more than 100 m of Maastrichtian oil shale overlying about 20 m limestone. Marly limestone included many clay laminations from organic and volcanic origins, which are considered an evidence of the K/T boundary through detected iridium anomalies. Any of these particular lamellae range from 2 mm to 5 mm in thickness. Smectite was the predominant clay mineral in smectitic shale laminations. It was located at eight meters above the K/T boundary and includes some anomalous concentrations of iridium and traces of other elements. The analysis of geochemical platinum group at the K/T boundary clays showed anomalous enrichments of iridium, compared with other carbonate rocks as a result of weathering processes of oil shale, or through concentration from weathering of basalt flows, but not pointing to an impact process. The clays in late Maastrichtian have Ir-Sc prevailed anomalies and synchronize with increasing of terrigenous and volcanogenic traced elements. Kaolin, smectite, and volkonskoite were the dominant clay minerals at the K/T boundary with high concentrations of iridium. The concentration levels of iridium in some laminations of the Yarmouk sediments ranged between 1.6 and 7.8 ppb.

  19. Numerical long-term assessment of managed aquifer recharge from a reservoir into a karst aquifer in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xanke, Julian; Jourde, Hervé; Liesch, Tanja; Goldscheider, Nico

    2016-09-01

    In semi-arid regions with high seasonal variability of water availability, adaptive management strategies and technical measures are required to ensure the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, managed recharge of storm water into a karst aquifer and the water level fluctuations related to pumping in a nearby wellfield were simulated at Wadi Wala, Jordan. We used a numerical equivalent porous medium (EPM) approach with specific adaptations to account for the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the karst aquifer. The model domain was vertically projected along the wadi course, resulting in a 2-dimensional model, and subdivided into hydraulic zones representing the karst-specific flow pattern of fast flow and slow depletion. Results show satisfying agreement of measured and simulated groundwater tables from 2002 to 2012 and predict a lowering of the average groundwater table until 2022 of around 2.7 m in the immediate surroundings of the reservoir and an increased depletion towards the wellfield, mainly caused by sedimentation in the reservoir and an associated decrease in infiltration. Abstraction at the wellfield changed considerably over the regarded time period and strongly influences the groundwater fluctuations, which shows the need of improved pumping management and monitoring. The results can serve as a basis for decision makers regarding an optimization of water management at the reservoir and wellfield. Furthermore, the presented numerical approach can be transferred to karst regions with similar physio-geographical conditions to assess managed aquifer recharge.

  20. Syndromal complexity, paradigm shifts, and the future of validation research: comments on Nichols and Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Weed, Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    In this comment, I address a number of the points raised in the reviews of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC; Tellegen et al., 2003) Scales by Nichols (2006/this issue) and Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan (2006/this issue), and I advocate for changes in assessment validation research. There is little evidence that the "syndromal complexity" Nichols ascribes to the original MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) Clinical Scales is worth preserving. Although their construction does not constitute the paradigm shift claimed by Rogers et al., the RC Scales are promising, psychometrically defensible measures of core features of the original MMPI-2 Clinical Scales. However, validation of inferences from multiscale inventories such as the MMPI-2 is limited at present by a disconnection between the integrative manner in which MMPI-2 profiles are interpreted and the scale-by-scale nature of most MMPI-2 validation studies. Q-sort procedures show promise for operationalizing integrated MMPI-2 interpretations, with both research and teaching applications.

  1. Cancer in refugees in Jordan and Syria between 2009 and 2012: challenges and the way forward in humanitarian emergencies.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of non-communicable diseases such as cancer in refugees is neglected in low-income and middle-income countries, but is of increasing importance because the number of refugees is growing. The UNHCR, through exceptional care committees (ECCs), has developed standard operating procedures to address expensive medical treatment for refugees in host countries, to decide on eligibility and amount of payment. We present data from funding applications for cancer treatments for refugees in Jordan between 2010 and 2012, and in Syria between 2009 and 2011. Cancer in refugees causes a substantial burden on the health systems of the host countries. Recommendations to improve prevention and treatment include improvement of health systems through standard operating procedures and innovative financing schemes, balance of primary and emergency care with expensive referral care, development of electronic cancer registries, and securement of sustainable funding sources. Analysis of cancer care in low-income refugee settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is needed to inform future responses.

  2. Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Flores, Carlos; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Larruga, Jose M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Karadsheh, Naif; Gonzalez, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    A high-resolution, Y-chromosome analysis using 46 binary markers has been carried out in two Jordan populations, one from the metropolitan area of Amman and the other from the Dead Sea, an area geographically isolated. Comparisons with neighboring populations showed that whereas the sample from Amman did not significantly differ from their Levantine neighbors, the Dead Sea sample clearly behaved as a genetic outlier in the region. Its high R1*-M173 frequency (40%) has until now only been found in northern Cameroonian samples. This contrasts with the comparatively low presence of J representatives (9%), which is the modal clade in Middle Eastern populations, including Amman. The Dead Sea sample also showed a high presence of E3b3a-M34 lineages (31%), which is only comparable to that found in Ethiopians. Although ancient and recent ties with sub-Saharan and eastern Africans cannot be discarded, it seems that isolation, strong drift, and/or founder effects are responsible for the anomalous Y-chromosome pool of this population. These results demonstrate that, at a fine scale, the smooth, continental clines detected for several Y-chromosome markers are often disrupted by genetically divergent populations.

  3. Discovering and Sharing of Secret Architectures: the Hidden Tomb of the Pharaoh of El-Khasneh Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Pierdicca, R.

    2017-02-01

    The documentation of the archaeological heritage through 3D models to know ancient findings, has become a common practice within the international panorama. Using minimal hardware, as well as its ease of use in almost every environmental condition, make 3D sampling solutions based on Multiple View Stereo (MVS) matching and Structure from Motion techniques ideal for on-site documentation of excavations or emergencies. Moreover, the availability of inexpensive platforms for web-based visualization represents great benefit in the field of archaeology, where generally the low budged and the limitation of more complex instruments are a must. The case study presented in these pages, experienced in Petra, Jordan, moves towards this direction. In the close proximity of the El- Khasneh façade, is situated an excavation where two entrance, well preserved, give access to the Tomb of Pharaoh. The documentation described in these pages has the twofold objective of providing the research community with a priceless dataset, acquired for one of the most important heritage of the world that is partially still unknown and to share on line these computations. This work confirms how cultural heritage documentation and dissemination of architectural rests, that are important for tourism and their interactive visualization, can strongly benefit from the creation of 3D models and their sharing on the web. This particular archaeological setting is an interesting base for investigation, given the complexity of the structure and its precarious condition.

  4. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus not detected in children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Amman, Jordan, March 2010 to September 2012.

    PubMed

    Khuri-Bulos, N; Payne, D C; Lu, X; Erdman, D; Wang, L; Faouri, S; Shehabi, A; Johnson, M; Becker, M M; Denison, M R; Williams, J V; Halasa, N B

    2014-07-01

    Hospitalized children < 2 years of age in Amman, Jordan, admitted for fever and/or respiratory symptoms, were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): MERS-CoV by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). This was a prospective year-round viral surveillance study in children <2 years of age admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever from March 2010 to September 2012 and enrolled from a government-run hospital, Al-Bashir in Amman, Jordan. Clinical and demographic data, including antibiotic use, were collected. Combined nasal/throat swabs were collected, aliquoted, and frozen at -80°C. Specimen aliquots were shipped to Vanderbilt University and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and tested by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the 2433 subjects enrolled from 16 March 2010 to 10 September 2012, 2427 subjects had viral testing and clinical data. Of 1898 specimens prospectively tested for other viruses between 16 March 2010 and 18 March 2012, 474 samples did not have other common respiratory viruses detected. These samples were tested at CDC for MERS-CoV and all were negative by rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV. Of the remaining 531 samples, collected from 19 March 2012 to 10 September 2012 and tested at Vanderbilt, none were positive for MERS-CoV. Our negative findings from a large sample of young Jordanian children hospitalized with fever and/or respiratory symptoms suggest that MERS-CoV was not widely circulating in Amman, Jordan, during the 30-month period of prospective, active surveillance occurring before and after the first documented MERS-CoV outbreak in the Middle East region.

  5. The provision of accessible, acceptable health care in rural remote areas and the right to health: Bedouin in the North East region of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Alzaroo, Salah; Hasna, Fadia; Alsmeiran, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Provision of accessible acceptable health care in remote rural areas poses a challenge to health care providers. This case study of formal and informal health care provision for Bedouin in North East Jordan is based on interviews conducted in 2007-2008 involving clinic providers, policymakers and Bedouin as part of an EC funded study from 2006 to 2010. The paper explores to what extent the right to health as set out in UN General Comment 14 (on Article 12 and 12.2 of the International Covenant on Social Economic and Cultural Rights on the right to health) can provide a framework for considering the availability, accessibility and acceptability of current provision in a rural setting in Jordan. Health care is provided in the public sector by the Ministry of Health and the Royal Medical Services to a dispersed population living in encampments and villages over a large rural area. There are issues of accessibility in terms of distance, and of acceptability in relation to the lack of local and female staff, lack of cultural competencies and poor communication. We found that these providers of health care have a developing partnership that could potentially address the challenge of provision to this rural area. The policymakers have an overview that is in line with applying the concept of health care justice for a more equitable distribution of resources and adjustment of differential access and availability. The health providers are less aware of the right to accessible acceptable health care in their day to day provision whilst the Bedouin population are quite aware of this. This case study of Bedouin in North East Jordan has particular relevance to the needs of populations - both pastoralists and non pastoralists living in remote and rural areas.

  6. Quaternary tectonic activity in NW Jordan: Insights for a new model of transpression-transtension along the southern Dead Sea Transform Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awabdeh, M.; Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Azañón, J. M.; Booth-Rea, G.; Abed, A.; Atallah, M.; Galve, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Dead Sea Transform Fault (DSTF) constitutes the transform plate boundary between the African and Arabian plates. The southern part of this fault has been traditionally divided into two main segments, the Wadi Araba Fault (WAF) and the Jordan Valley Fault (JVF), connected through the Dead Sea continental pull-apart basin. Active tectonic studies in NW Jordan have traditionally focused on these DSTF structures and have neglected other prominent structures in the region, such as the Amman Hallabat Structure (AHS) and Shueib Structure (SHS) fault systems, which have been considered inactive since the Cretaceous. However, some recent studies have suggested a possible local reactivation of the southern parts of these structures. In this work, we carried out a detailed geological study of the NE Dead Sea Basin to analyze the Quaternary activity of the AHS and SHS based on field observations and structural analyses. Our findings have revealed that the AHS and SHS structures present clear Quaternary activity and accommodate a small part of the deformation of the southern DSTF. In the Quaternary, the southwestern part of the AHS has acted as the northernmost continuation of the WAF, whereas the SHS has acted as a transfer fault associated with NW-SE normal faults with low to moderate throws (meters to decameters) that connect this structure to the JVF. These NW-SE normal faults constitute the northeastern border of the Dead Sea depression (Jericho Valley). They produce a topographic front and separate the sediments of the Jordan Valley in the hanging wall from the Mesozoic sedimentary sequence located in the footwall.

  7. New structural/tectonical model and its implication on hydrological thinking and groundwater management - the Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Yellin-Dror, Annat; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Möller, Peter; Siebert, Christian; Guttman, Josef

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiberias is a fresh water lake located at the Kinneret basin which is approximately 30 km long and 10 km wide. It comprises a link in the chain of pull-apart basins that characterizes the structure of the conspicuous Jordan Rift Valley (JRV). The basin surface is about 200 m below mean sea level (msl) and basin-fill attains a thickness of up to 8 km. Until recently, studies focused mainly on the upper strata of basin fill. Consequently, a complete three dimensional geological model, including clear view of the tectonic framework at the Kinneret Basin was incomplete. This situation imposes great difficulty in understanding the local hydrological system and as consequence enforce constrains on groundwater management of the regional aquifers that flows towards the lake. A recently proposed structural/tectonical model (Inbar, 2012) enables revaluation of several geohydrological aspects at Sea of Galilee and its surroundings and a new hydrological model based on those findings aims to clarify those aspects with relation to groundwater management. The deep-seated stratigraphical units were seismically studied at the Kinnarot Valley (southern part of Kinneret basin) where sufficient information is available (Inbar, 2012). This study shows the subsidence and northwestward tilting of the basin floor (pre-rift formations) and the flow of thick Late Miocene salt accumulation accordingly. Furthermore, shallower seismic data, collected at the lake itself, shows a suspected salt dome close to the western boundary fault of the basin (Resnikov et al., 2004). Salt flow is now suggested to be a substantial factor in the tectonic play. At the lake surroundings there are several springs and boreholes where brine immerges from an estimated depth of about 2-3 kilometers. Significant differences in brine characteristics raised questions regarding the location of brine traps, flow mechanism and the mixture process between the fresh water and the brine. However, the effect of the

  8. Water-quality characteristics of inflow to and outflow from B Everett Jordan Lake, North Carolina, 1982-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    B. Everett Jordan Lake, a 13,900-acre reservoir in the north-central Piedmont of North Carolina, was completed in February 1982. Hydrologic data were collected at four inflow sites and one outflow site to define water-quality characteristics. Data include streamflow data and 56 physical and chemical characteristics of streamwater. Concentrations of some constituents at inflow sites were as much as 83-times greater than background concentrations in streams relatively unaffected by man. At the outflow site, however, some of these constituents were only as much as 6-times greater. The minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration measured at an inflow site was 1.0 mg/L, whereas the minimum concentration measured at the outflow site was 4.9 mg/L. Significant differences in other physical characteristics between inflow and outflow sites include a reduction in maximum concentration of suspended sediment from 2,360 mg/L in an inflow sample to 130 mg/L at the outflow site and a reduction of maximum specific conductance values from more than 1,100 microsiemens/centimeter in an inflow sample to 301 microsiemens/centimeter in outflow. The maximum concentration of total nitrogen at inflow sites was 27.0 mg/L compared with 3.2 mg/L at the outflow site. The maximum total phosphorus concentration at inflow sites was 13.0 mg/L compared with 0.6 mg/L at the outflow site. Average annual loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the outflow were as much as 67% and 40% of inflow loads, respectively. Maximum yields at an inflow site were 5.8 t/sq mi (tons per square mile) for nitrogen and 1.4 t/sq mi for phosphorus. Yields of these constituents at the outflow site were 1.5 and 0.2 t/mi, respectively.

  9. Spatial variability of environmental isotope and chemical content of precipitation in Jordan and evidence of slight change in climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjali, William

    2012-12-01

    The spatial variability of the δ18O and δD compositions of rain is attributed to variations in amount of precipitation (PPT), altitude effect, and air masses originating from different sources. Air masses that enter the area passing the Mediterranean Sea result in higher d-excess. The cold and dry continental air masses originating from the European continent come in contact with the warm Mediterranean Sea water, resulting in rapid evaporation and large scale convergence. The low d-excess value is less than 16 ‰ and associated with air masses that cross over the North African continent and controlled by a local orographic effect. The change in isotopic composition of δ18O in PPT with altitude is -0.15 ‰ per 100 m. A statistical model confirms that a slight decrease in annual average precipitation has occurred since 1988 and attributed to a minor change in climate. The current level of tritium in rain corresponds to the average level of tritium in the atmosphere. Rabba station recorded a twofold higher tritium concentration in 1995 than the other stations, which may be from leakage from a nuclear station in Israel. The chemistry of rainwater demonstrates a wide range of salinity (100-600 mg/l). The lowest solute concentrations are found at high elevations, and the highest solute concentrations are found in the eastern desert and the Jordan Rift valley. The salinity of rain is affected by desert dust, aerosols, amounts of PPT, and the direction of rain fronts. The aerosols and windblown soil are the most prevailing as the country is confined between three seas and the outcrop surficial geology is mainly sedimentary rocks.

  10. Comparative analysis of virulence and resistance profiles of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from poultry meat and foodborne outbreaks in northern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Abedel Hafiz, Leena; Ababneh, Mustafa M; Ababneh, Qotaibah O; Al Mousa, Waseem; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Osaili, Tareq M; Holley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate Salmonella Enteritidis from poultry samples and compare their virulence and antibiotic resistance profiles to S. Enteritidis isolated from outbreaks in northern Jordan. Two hundred presumptive isolates were obtained from 302 raw poultry samples and were subjected to further analysis and confirmation. A phylogenic tree based on 16S rRNA sequencing was constructed and selected isolates representing each cluster were further studied for their virulence in normal adult Swiss white mice. The most virulent strains were isolated from poultry samples and had an LD50 of 1.55 × 105 CFU, while some of the outbreak isolates were avirulent in mice. Antibiotic resistance profiling revealed that the isolates were resistant to seven of eight antibiotics screened with each isolate resistant to multiple antibiotics (from two to six). Of the poultry isolates, 100%, 88.9%, 77.8%, 66.7%, and 50% showed resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoperazone, respectively. Two outbreak isolates were sensitive to all tested antibiotics, while 71.4% were resistant to cefoperazone and only 28.6% showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Salmonella outbreak isolates were genetically related to poultry isolates as inferred from the 16S rRNA sequencing, yet were phenotypically different. Although outbreak strains were similar to poultry isolates, when tested in the mouse model, some of the outbreak isolates were highly virulent while others were avirulent. This might be due to a variation in susceptibility of the mouse to different S. Enteritidis isolates. PMID:24780883

  11. Earliest Evidence for Social Endogamy in the 9,000-Year-Old-Population of Basta, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfgang; Berner, Margit E.; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H.; Knipper, Corina; Gebel, Hans-Georg K.; Nissen, Hans J.; Vach, Werner

    2013-01-01

    The transition from mobile to sedentary life was one of the greatest social challenges of the human past. Yet little is known about the impact of this fundamental change on social interactions amongst early Neolithic communities, which are best recorded in the Near East. The importance of social processes associated with these economic and ecological changes has long been underestimated. However, ethnographic observations demonstrate that generalized reciprocity – such as open access to resources and land – had to be reduced to a circumscribed group before regular farming and herding could be successfully established. Our aim was thus to investigate the role of familial relationships as one possible factor within this process of segregation as recorded directly in the skeletal remains, rather than based on hypothetical correlations such as house types and social units. Here we present the revealing results of the systematically recorded epigenetic characteristics of teeth and skulls of the late Pre-Pottery Neolithic community of Basta in Southern Jordan (Figure S1). Additionally, mobility was reconstructed via a systematic strontium (Sr) isotope analysis of tooth enamel of the Basta individuals. The frequency of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors in the 9,000-year-old community of Basta is exceptionally high (35.7%). Genetic studies and a worldwide comparison of the general rate of this dental anomaly in modern and historic populations show that the enhanced frequency can only be explained by close familial relationships akin to endogamy. This is supported by strontium isotope analyses of teeth, indicating a local origin of almost all investigated individuals. Yet, the accompanying archaeological finds document far-reaching economic exchange with neighboring groups and a population density hitherto unparalleled. We thus conclude that endogamy in the early Neolithic village of Basta was not due to geographic isolation or a lack of exogamous mating

  12. The Establishment of an ISO Compliant Cancer Biobank for Jordan and its Neighboring Countries Through Knowledge Transfer and Training

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Martin; Souan, Lina; MacGabhann, Peadar; Müller, Jeanette; Al Ashhab, Maxim; Jasser, Mohammed; Hamza, Khetam; Al Hassoon, Sallam; Kuhn, Uwe; Infante, Daniela; Lawlor, Denise; Gately, Kathy; Amireh, Eyad; O'Byrne, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Research studies aimed at advancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment depend on a number of key resources, including a ready supply of high-quality annotated biospecimens from diverse ethnic populations that can be used to test new drugs, assess the validity of prognostic biomarkers, and develop tailor-made therapies. In November 2011, KHCCBIO was established at the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC) with the support of Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) funding from the European Union (khccbio.khcc.jo). KHCCBIO was developed for the purpose of achieving an ISO accredited cancer biobank through the collection, processing, and preservation of high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens from consenting cancer patients, making it the first cancer biobank of its kind in Jordan. The establishment of a state-of-the-art, standardized biospecimen repository of matched normal and lung tumor tissue, in addition to blood components such as serum, plasma, and white blood cells, was achieved through the support and experience of its European partners, Trinity College Dublin, Biostór Ireland, and accelopment AG. To date, KHCCBIO along with its partners, have worked closely in establishing an ISO Quality Management System (QMS) under which the biobank will operate. A Quality Policy Manual, Validation, and Training plan have been developed in addition to the development of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for consenting policies on ethical issues, data privacy, confidentiality, and biobanking bylaws. SOPs have also been drafted according to best international practices and implemented for the donation, procurement, processing, testing, preservation, storage, and distribution of tissues and blood samples from lung cancer patients, which will form the basis for the procurement of other cancer types. KHCCBIO will be the first ISO accredited cancer biobank from a diverse ethnic Middle Eastern and North African population. It will provide a unique and valuable resource

  13. Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources (such as landfills, feedlots, agricultural chemicals applied to fields, and septic systems) is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, Began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie du Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of streamflow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity.

  14. Development of a screening method for the most commonly abused anticholinergic drugs in Jordan; trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine and biperiden.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Kamal A

    2004-10-01

    A sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of three commonly abused anticholinergic drugs in Jordan; trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine, and biperiden in plasma and urine has been developed using solid phase extraction and GC-MS. Linearity was established from therapeutic to fatal concentrations of the three drugs; 5-300 ng/ml in plasma, with correlation coefficient r(2) > or = 0.9978 and 10-800 ng/ml in urine r(2) > or = 0.9993. Recoveries were in the range of 86-92% and intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (n = 6) were in the range of 6.6-10.3% for the three drugs at three different concentrations in plasma and urine. The base peak m/z 98 for trihexyphenidyl, m/z 84 for procyclidine, and m/z 98 and 218 for biperiden, and m/z 339 for papaverine (internal standard) were monitored at selective ion monitoring; their retention times were 8.10, 8.67 and 8.92 min, respectively, and 14.79 min for the internal standard with analysis time of 16.75 min. The limit of detection of 0.5 ng/ml was attained for trihexyphenidyl and procyclidine, while for biperiden 2.0 and 1.0 ng/ml in spiked plasma and urine, respectively. This method has been applied to forensic and authentic samples taken from abuser and patients using these drugs. The method will offer the clinicians and the legal authority the right diagnosis regarding the anticholinergic involved in any case of abuse with less than 1 h per sample (plasma or urine) from the time of receiving.

  15. Flow of ground water through fractured carbonate rocks in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan Aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater from point and nonpoint sources is a recognized problem in the karst area of southeastern Minnesota. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources, began a study in October 1987 to improve the understanding of local groundwater flow through karst terrain in southeastern Minnesota. The objectives of the study are to: (1) describe the orientations of systematic rock fractures and solution channels of the Prairie du Chien Group of Ordovician-age carbonate rocks in southeastern Minnesota, and, if possible, to define the principal and minor axes of these orientations; and (2) evaluate the effect of fractures and solution channels in the Prairie due Chien Group on the local flow of groundwater. Groundwater in the Upper Carbonate aquifer regionally flows toward the periphery of the aquifer and locally flows into streams and bedrock valleys. The hydraulic gradient in this aquifer generally is greatest near areas of groundwater seepage to streams. Regional groundwater flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer generally is to the south and east in much of Fillmore and Houston Counties and in the southern parts of Olmsted and Winona Counties. Groundwater seepage to selected streams was evaluated by current-meter measurements of downstream gains or losses of stream-flow and by an experimental approach based on radon activity in streams. The activity of radon in groundwater ranges from two to four orders of magnitude greater than the activity in surface water; therefore, groundwater seepage to streams generally increases the in-stream radon activity. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. The Effects of Negative Reinforcement on Increasing Patient Adherence to Appointments at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alyahya, Mohammad; Hijazi, Heba H; Nusairat, Farid T

    2016-01-01

    Appointment nonadherence is a health behavior that represents a burden to health care systems. On March 1, 2015, a new negative reinforcement intervention involving "service fees" for a visit without appointment was implemented at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. To evaluate the effect of this intervention in improving patient adherence to medical appointment, a retrospective preintervention and postintervention analysis was used, including all patients (n = 65 535) who had scheduled appointments at 39 outpatient clinics. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was first performed. Then, a multivariate linear regression model was used to identify factors that might predict individuals who are likely to attend or miss their appointments and those who have a greater tendency to visit the hospital with or without appointments. Although the average percentage of appointments attended was more than missed preintervention and postintervention, the decrease in percentage of missed appointments was more pronounced postintervention. Also, the average percentage of visits without appointments was less than visits with appointments in both times, but the decrease in the percentage of visits without appointments was more prominent after. The regression analysis revealed that younger, married and male patients were more likely to miss their appointment before and after the intervention. Also, younger patients had a tendency to attend without appointments. Conversely, patients with the lower copayment rate had a tendency to adhere to appointment times. In conclusion, negative reinforcement interventions could improve patient appointment adherence rates. Accordingly, interventions designed that consider evidence and are theory-based are needed to change patient behavior.

  17. [Influence of the temperature on the development of the African cat flea Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925) (Siphonaptera : Pulicidae)].

    PubMed

    Yao, K P; N'Goran, K E; Franc, M

    2010-06-01

    Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) commonly called "cat's flea" presents two recognized subspecies: Ctenocephalides felis strongylus (Jordan, 1925), observed in the African continent, and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) in the other regions (North Africa, Europe and America) (Ménier and Beaucournu, 19991. In sub-Saharan Africa, the principal flea found in the pets and certain livestock (ovine, caprine and bovine), belongs to the subspecies C. f. strongylus. Some bio-ecologic parameters of C. f. strongylus were studied in various conditions of breeding and the results compared with those currently available for C. f. felis. At 75% +/- 5 of relative humidity, the development cycle of C. f. strongylus lasts 20-21 days at 27 degrees C and 16 to 17 days at 29 degrees C. In comparison with C. f. felis, it is shown that for identical breeding temperatures, the African subspecies of the cat flea develops itself slowly. This difference could be explained by the influence of the climate of their respective areas of distribution on their development cycle. With 75% +/- 5 of relative humidity, C. f. strongylus cannot survive more than 14 days in temperatures ranging between 27 and 29 degrees C, and this without any blood meal. Under the same conditions, this duration of survival does not exceed 16 days at 19 degrees C. But when C. f. strongylus has taken a first blood meal, its lifespan is much shorter when it is out of its host. Indeed, no individual is found living three days passed out of the fur of its host at 29 degrees C, five days at 27 degrees C and eight days at 19 degrees C. It is the same for C. f. felis. These data on bio-ecology of C. f. strongylus enable to understand the influence of temperature on its development cycle and consider more efficient strategies of control.

  18. Olive Mounds, Roman cisterns, erosion pins - potential to characterize erosion in a Mediterranean catchment in north Jordan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a three years' time period of a PhD thesis it is luck to catch the "right" rain events for good general erosion approximations. Methods that (i) cover longer time periods, (ii) are not confined to constructed boundaries, and finally (iii) include all possible erosion processes are crucial for good average estimates of sediment yields from different landscapes. The aim of the study was to get a first understanding of erosion processes and sediment yields in a Mediterranean to semi-arid catchment in NW Jordan, wherefore different measurement methods were tested in the predominant landscape units: olive orchards (27%), fields (14%) and natural shrubs on steep slopes (~30%). One of the applied methods was the measurement of topographic olive mounds within 7 orchards with an average size of 800 m2 in synergy with tree-coring and age estimation of the orchards. Furthermore the OSL dating of deposited sediments in two roman cisterns adjacent to fields was conducted and the 9 erosion pin fields, each about 200m2 large, were installed on steep slopes with natural vegetation. The methods cover different time scales from 560 years for the fields, an average of 32 years for the olive orchards and up to two rainy seasons for the erosion pin fields. Results show that olive orchards on steep slopes (>10%) have the highest erosion potential in the region with 95±8 t ha-1year-1 followed by natural vegetated slopes with 37±4 t ha-1year-1 of dislocated material and fields with 1.22±0.06 t ha-1year-1 sediment yield. These spatially constrained outcomes are supported by geochemical sediment fingerprint results of lake sediments from the catchment and will be discussed in regard to the basic assumption that underlie the principle of measurement and the limitations of the methods.

  19. Ground-water flow in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer related to contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, J.R.; Hult, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Simulation of a proposed gradient-control plan, in which lateral homogeneity and isotropy of individual hydro geologic units was assumed, indicates that the actions would be effective in limiting expansion of the contaminated volume in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer. The plan includes the control of withdrawal from five wells. The simulations also show, however, that modelcalculated potentiometric surfaces are sensitive to changes in withdrawal rates at wells not intended to be under the control of the plan. Management of discharge from these wells also will be important to overall effectiveness of the remedial-action plan.

  20. Essential oil composition of the aerial parts of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaber, Hala I; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Barhoumi, Lina M; Abaza, Ismail F; Afifi, Fatma U

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the essential oil of fresh and air-dried Salvia palaestina Benth. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Jordan has been studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The essential oils of fresh and air-dried S. palaestina were mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (52.66% and 65.98%, respectively). The major component detected in the oils of fresh and dry S. palaestina was germacrene D (21.18% and 26.02%, respectively). Air drying resulted in a general increase of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and a great decrease in the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons.

  1. Monocotyle luquei n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae), from the gills of diamond stingray Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae), in the South Pacific.

    PubMed

    Chero, Jhon D; Cruces, Celso L; Iannacone, José; Sanchez, Lidia; Minaya, David; Sáez, Gloria; Alvariño, Lorena

    2016-12-01

    Monocotyle luquei n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) was described from gills of diamond stingray Dasyatis dipterura (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880) (Dasyatidae) off Peru. The new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: (1) accessory sclerites on the dorsal posterior surface of the body absent, (2) only one testis is present, (3) 1-2 loops in the copulatory organ, (4) the male copulatory organ with a sclerotized accessory piece, (5) shape of five sclerites in marginal papillae, (6) size of anchor and (7) posterolateral septa bifurcated. This is the first record of species of Monocotyle Taschenberg, 1878 from the southern Pacific.

  2. Head shape and size of adult males as possible indicators of childhood stress in northern Jordan (1900-1978): a study in human biology and political economy.

    PubMed

    Abu Dalou, Ahmad Y; Al-Shiyab, Abdel-Halim; Benfer, Robert A

    2008-08-01

    Stature, sitting height, stature by weight, and head circumference change with varying economic conditions during early childhood. Our hypothesis is that adult head shape, as well as head size, is influenced by changes in childhood nutrition. When economic conditions are bad, nutrition and health suffer, and the result is dolichocephaly. To test this hypothesis, we measured the head length, width, and circumference of 398 adult males in Jordan. Fifty-six percent are ethnic Jordanians, and 44% are ethnic Palestinians. We divided the modern history of Jordan and the West Bank into four periods developed from historical economic data. The results of the study show that the cephalic index (CI) among Jordanians increased significantly with economic improvement but decreased slightly during the best economic period, whereas CI remained stable across all periods among Palestinians. The pattern among Jordanians can be explained in terms of maternal environment and early childhood nutrition. The lack of pattern in Palestinians may be due to changing nursing practices, bottle feeding, or sleeping position. When economic conditions were bad, Jordanian mothers and infants suffered from malnutrition and deficits in health care services during pre- and postnatal periods. Infants were born with very low birth weight and longer heads. However, the highest mean value of head size, circumference, among Jordanians and Palestinians is obtained from individuals who were children during the bad economic period, an unexpected result. No significant linear or quadratic trend was found for either Palestinians' or Jordanians' head circumference over time.

  3. Common antimicrobial resistance patterns, biotypes and serotypes found among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patient's stools and drinking water sources in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, A A; Masoud, H; Maslamani, F A Balkam

    2005-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in low rates from stool specimens of outpatients and inpatients (7% versus 12%) but in higher rates from chlorinated and nonchlorinated water sources (15% versus 44%), respectively in Jordan. The same biotype was recognized among 90% of P. aeruginosa isolates from patient's stools and water sources using specific biochemical profiles. Three serogroups belonging to 01, 06 and 011 accounted for the majority of these isolates in water (66%) and stools (78%), respectively. All P. aeruginosa isolates from water were highly susceptible (87%-100%) to piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, gentamicin, imipenem, aztreonam, ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, whereas the isolates from stool were slightly less susceptible (81%-98%) to these antimicrobials. P. aeruginosa isolates from water and stool sources were almost equally highly resistant to tetracycline (86%-89%) and carbenicillin (88%-89%), respectively. One common small plasmid (15.4 kb) was detected in 14/25 (56%) of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from both water and stool. This study demonstrates certain common epidemiological characteristics including antimicrobial resistance pattern, biotypes and serotypes among P. aeruginosa isolates from patient's stools and drinking water sources in Jordan.

  4. Incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections in children following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Single-center experience from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ayad Ahmed; Al-Antary, Eman T; Najjar, Rula; Al-Zaben, Abdulhadi; Frangoul, Haydar

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a serious sequela following AHSCT; however, limited data are available regarding pediatric recipients, especially in developing countries. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections during the first 100 days after AHSCT in children at KHCC in Amman, Jordan between January, 2005 and September, 2013. A total of 65 patients were identified, with median age of four yr (1-17). Forty-seven patients (72.3%) had solid tumors and 18 (27.7%) had lymphoma. Bacterial infections were documented in 33 patients (50%), with a total of 63 episodes. Gram-negative infection (57.1%) was more prevalent than Gram-positive infection (38%). The risk of bacterial infections was higher among patients less than five yr of age (p = 0.028) and those who developed hypogammaglobulinemia requiring IVIG replacement (p = 0.001). Patients with solid tumors developed more bacterial infections compared to patients with lymphoma (p = 0.0057). No deaths were attributed to bacterial infection. Bacterial infection rate is high among recipients of AHSCT in Jordan with Gram-negative bacteria being the most common.

  5. Tectonic paleostress fields in the southwestern part of Jordan: New insights from the fault slip data in the southeastern flank of the Dead Sea Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaideh, Omar M. A.; Melichar, Rostislav

    2015-09-01

    A new approach for paleostress analysis, using the nine-dimensional space fault slip inversion method, was performed in the southeastern flank of the Jordan-Dead Sea Fault. Five major tectonic episodes with different kinematics were successfully detected from the inversion of a new fault slip data, which thereby caused reactivation of inherited crustal structures and established new ones. These episodes prevailed since Late Cretaceous times, and their chronological constraints were established essentially from the stratigraphic ages of the affected rocks and the crosscutting relationships of successive striae locally observed on the fault planes. During the Late Cretaceous to late Eocene, the area was under a compressional/strike-slip stress regime with a ~E-W trending σ1. At Oligocene, a strike-slip stress regime with NW-SE striking σ1 occurred. Both compression regimes correspond to the so-called Syrian Arc Deformation that gave rise to distinctive folds in Jordan and its surrounding areas. An extension with ~N-S to NE-SW trending σ3 followed the late Oligocene compression event and took place during Miocene time, most probably linked to the opening of the Red Sea-Suez Rift. Late Cenozoic tectonics show the occurrence of two successive compressions, NW-SE then both NE-SW and ~N-S, which generally reflect a continental collisional setting between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  6. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life.

  7. Mental health status of women in Jordan: a comparative study between attendees of governmental and UN relief and works agency's health care centers.

    PubMed

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Hamaideh, Shaher; Mudallal, Rula

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating differences in mental health problems between attendees of governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan. Further, predictors of mental health problems based on women's demographic profile were investigated. A convenience sample of 620 women attending governmental and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees health care centers in Jordan was recruited for this purpose. Independent samples t-tests were used to identify differences in mental health, and multiple linear regression was implemented to identify significant predictors of women's mental health problems. Results indicated an absence of significant differences in mental health problems between attendees of the two types of health care centers. Further, among the demographic indicators that were tested, income, spousal violence, and general health were the predictors of at least three different mental health problems in women. This study highlights opportunities for health professionals to decrease women's propensity for mental health problems by addressing these factors when treating women attending primary care centers in different Jordanian towns, villages, and refugee camps.

  8. Childhood Lead Exposure in the Palestinian Authority, Israel, and Jordan: Results from the Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation Project, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Jamal; Fischbein, Alf; Haj, Sameer El; Sansour, Ramzi; Jaghabir, Madi; Hashish, Mohammed Abu; Suleiman, Hassan; Safi, Nimer; Abu-Hamda, Abed; Witt, Joyce K.; Platkov, Efim; Reingold, Steven; Alayyan, Amber; Berman, Tamar; Bercovitch, Matti; Choudhri, Yogesh; Richter, Elihu D.

    2006-01-01

    In the Middle East, the major sources of lead exposure have been leaded gasoline, lead-contaminated flour from traditional stone mills, focal exposures from small battery plants and smelters, and kohl (blue color) in cosmetics. In 1998–2000, we measured blood lead (PbB) levels in children 2–6 years of age in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority (n = 1478), using a fingerstick method. Mean (peak; percentage > 10 μg/dL) PbB levels in Israel (n = 317), the West Bank (n = 344), Jordan (n = 382), and Gaza (n = 435) were 3.2 μg/dL (18.2; 2.2%), 4.2 μg/dL (25.7; 5.2%), 3.2 μg/dL (39.3; < 1%), and 8.6 μg/dL (> 80.0; 17.2%), respectively. High levels in Gaza were all among children living near a battery factory. The findings, taken together with data on time trends in lead emissions and in PbB in children in previous years, indicate the benefits from phasing out of leaded gasoline but state the case for further reductions and investigation of hot spots. The project demonstrated the benefits of regional cooperation in planning and carrying out a jointly designed project. PMID:16759995

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from human stools and drinking water sources in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, A A; Odeh, J F; Fayyad, M

    2006-10-01

    This study demonstrates that Escherichia coli isolates from human stools showed mostly higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and significant rates of resistance (32%-67%, P<0.05) than Escherichia coli water isolates in Jordan, as follows: ampicillin (67% vs 28%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (67% vs 28%) nalidixic acid (63% vs 20%), cefuroxime (32% vs 4%), gentamicin (32% vs 17%), norfloxacin (32% vs 12%) and tetracycline (33% vs 16%). The prevalence of integron integrase genes (Intl1) in these isolates was also significantly higher in patients' stools (67%, P <0.05) than in water (36%), but the distribution of Sul 1/Sul 2 or both in association with postive Intl1 and resistance to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole was not significantly higher (74% versus 62%, P <0.05) in isolates from stool and water. Plasmid profiles of representative multiresistant E. coli isolates from both sources indicated the presence of two common plasmids (49,25 kb) in 11/12 (91.6%), and all E. coli transconjugants were positive for class 1 integron markers (Intl 1, Sul 1 and Sul2) and mostly associated with three transferable drug-resistant determinants to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. These results indicate that class 1 integrons with conjugative R-plasmids are common and transferable among commensal antimicrobial multiresistant E. coli isolated from human feces and drinking water sources in Jordan.

  10. New process model for the Dead Sea sinkholes at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, derived from shear-wave reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    In October 2013 a shear wave reflection seismic pilot study was carried out at the most destructive sinkhole site in Jordan, close to the village of Ghor Al Haditha at the South-East end of the Dead Sea. The investigation is part of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association, designed as a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ, and their partners. Since nearly 30 years - apparently contemporaneous to the rapid decrease of the Dead Sea level - ongoing unknown sinkhole processes in the subsurface continuously compromise farming areas, housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure at the investigation site, resulting in massive destructions. Similar processes are observed also at the western border of the Dead Sea. Although many geophysical studies have been carried out at the site since more than 20 years, the subsurface structure and the process itself is quite unknown until yet. In recent years, a massive salt layer at 40 m depth or more was proposed below alluvial fan deposits, which was the target of this reflection seismic pilot study. We spent 10 days in the field and acquired four shear-wave reflection seismic profiles of 1.8 km total length to yield a high-resolution structural image of the subsurface. The lines cover in NW-SE and NE-SW direction the sinkhole-affected area as close as possible to recent collapse structures. There is no evidence for the hypothesized shallow salt layer, at least not down to 100 m probably up to 200 m depth. Instead, the detected subsurface structures show a complex interlock of alluvial fan deposits and marine sedimentation layers of the Dead Sea between 0-200 m depth. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis for the sinkhole processes in the region: salt-rich marine clay layers are present in the fresh water contact zones inside the alluvial fan, which are destabilized and mobilized by dissolution of the salt contained

  11. Multi-response calibration of a conceptual hydrological model in the semiarid catchment of Wadi al Arab, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödiger, T.; Geyer, S.; Mallast, U.; Merz, R.; Krause, P.; Fischer, C.; Siebert, C.

    2014-02-01

    A key factor for sustainable management of groundwater systems is the accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Hydrological models are common tools for such estimations and widely used. As such models need to be calibrated against measured values, the absence of adequate data can be problematic. We present a nested multi-response calibration approach for a semi-distributed hydrological model in the semi-arid catchment of Wadi al Arab in Jordan, with sparsely available runoff data. The basic idea of the calibration approach is to use diverse observations in a nested strategy, in which sub-parts of the model are calibrated to various observation data types in a consecutive manner. First, the available different data sources have to be screened for information content of processes, e.g. if data sources contain information on mean values, spatial or temporal variability etc. for the entire catchment or only sub-catchments. In a second step, the information content has to be mapped to relevant model components, which represent these processes. Then the data source is used to calibrate the respective subset of model parameters, while the remaining model parameters remain unchanged. This mapping is repeated for other available data sources. In that study the gauged spring discharge (GSD) method, flash flood observations and data from the chloride mass balance (CMB) are used to derive plausible parameter ranges for the conceptual hydrological model J2000g. The water table fluctuation (WTF) method is used to validate the model. Results from modelling using a priori parameter values from literature as a benchmark are compared. The estimated recharge rates of the calibrated model deviate less than ±10% from the estimates derived from WTF method. Larger differences are visible in the years with high uncertainties in rainfall input data. The performance of the calibrated model during validation produces better results than applying the model with only a priori parameter

  12. Improved Dead Sea sinkhole site characterization at Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan, based on repeated shear wave reflection seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Alrshdan, Hussam; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Sawarieh, Ali; Dahm, Torsten; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2016-04-01

    In October 2014 a high-resolution shallow shear wave reflection seismic survey was carried out at the Dead Sea sinkhole site Ghor Al Haditha, Jordan. It extended a survey undertaken in 2013, also in order to gather time-lapse profiles. In the framework of the DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE), a virtual institute of the Helmholtz Association and international partners, this investigation is part of a cross-disciplinary and cooperative international project of the Helmholtz Centers KIT, GFZ, and UFZ. At the investigation site, characterized by alluvial fan deposits, ongoing subsidence and sinkhole processes in the subsurface create massive reshaping of farming areas, including the destruction of housings, industrial sites, and infrastructure. The sinkhole hazard at the Dead Sea is significant, since similar processes are observed at several coastal segments of the Dead Sea. The new survey (in total 2.1 profile km) was targeted to improve the knowledge about the subsurface structures and to confine the results of the initial survey (1.8 km profile km), with respect to the presence or non-presence of a massive salt layer proposed at nearly 40 m depth. This salt layer is the central part of a widely established process hypothesis to generate shallow cavities by salt subrosion, which subsequently collapse to sinkholes at the surface. Results of the initial survey carried out in 2013 highlighted a new process hypothesis of subsurface mass transport by Dead Sea mud mobilization enclosed in the alluvial fan, so that an extended survey was undertaken in 2014. This, indeed, confirmed that there are no reflection seismic signal responses that would be expected to occur in the presence of a massive salt layer. Since evaluation of both hypothesis by new drilling could not be carried out due to safety reasons and permissions, it remained unclear which hypothesis is valid for the investigation site. However, we combined the 2013 and 2014 reflection seismic profiles and the

  13. Hydro-mechanical model of a reactivated paleo-salt karst system in the Lisan area, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2015-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a pull-apart basin forming a terminal lake (-429 m) located over the Jordan - Dead Sea transform fault. The slope of the fresh/saline interface is ten times shallower than observed near the ocean because salinity is ten times greater than in the average sea water. Underground lateral extension is acting as a high density layer over which groundwater is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Since the 1960s, a slice of brine 0.033 km x 77 km x 16.5 km vanished due to water resources over-exploitation in the catchment area. Monitoring of wells in the Dead Sea zone indicated that the water table does not drop at the same pace as the lake. The head difference is increasing with time. Groundwater moves so rapidly towards the lake to compensate for the imbalance provoking the proliferation of sinkholes, subsidence, and landslides. Since the 1980s, the emerged spaces have been covered by industrial and touristic infrastructures. Such a dynamic system provides a test bed to study an Early Warning System to help minimizing geo-hazards effects. The reactivation of a paleo-channel located below a US 48 M salt evaporation pond of the Arab Potash Company, Lisan peninsula, provides an illustrative case-study. Sinkholes lineaments whose orientations fit with the main structural directions highlight the role of conduit played by faults and fractures. Rapid underground water circulation explains the appearance of tamarisk in unexpected places. Time series analysis of high and very high resolution visible/radar satellite images acquired from the 1970s and on indicated major changes in the landscape. This work underlines the need of very carefully analyzing all available data sources acquired prior to and during the recession of the lake level before the development of human activities along the coast. This work is supported by the Arab Potash Company. Thanks are due to H.E. Eng. Jaman Sarayreh, Chairman of the Arab Potash Company, and to Dr Dureid Mahasneh et Mr. Bisher

  14. Employing hydrochemistry and stable isotopes in analyzing groundwater flow mechanism, dynamics in karst aquifer of the Lower Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Shadha; Sauter, Martin; Marei, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Water is a valuable resource, especially in arid and semi arid areas. In order to do proper management of the water resources, studies on the aquifer system is essential. The study case is located in the lower part of the western Jordan Valley. This karstic area has different systems from which the upper and lower Mountain aquifer systems. Two representative springs were chosen for each aquifer, Sultan spring for the lower aquifer and Auja spring for the upper one. Sultan spring has a continues and constant discharge rate through the year while Auja spring has high oscillation in discharge accompanied by frequent dry-out in summer months and fast response to precipitation events. The two systems have been thought to be separated by an aquiclute, however after frequent intensive sampling of both springs during the raining winter season, This study shows that with the exception of Na+ and Cl- all other concentration of ions are very similar. The average of Sodium for Sultan spring is 33 mg/L, while the average Chloride for the same spring is 54.5 mg/L. As for Auja spring the average Sodium and Chloride are 24 mg/L and 39.4 mg/L respectively, therefore, the water of Sultan spring contains higher content of sodium and chloride than Auja, this could be related to the chemistry of the lower aquifer. The ratio of Na+/Cl- for Sultan and Auja springs are 0.92 and 0.94 respectively, this indicates that Auja is close to the rain ratio of 0.86 while Sultan (although slightly higher) may be closer to the Halite ratio of 1. The isotopic signature of 18O for both springs has shown to be very similar with only a -0.5‰ of difference in most cases, with a range of -5.2‰ to -6.2‰ for Sultan and -5.4‰ to -6.2‰ for Auja spring. These results may indicate the same recharge elevation for both springs in the Mountain area. On the other hand, in some places east to the major fault system, the shallow aquifer's 18O content in Jericho is close to that of Sultan spring, which could

  15. Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record.

  16. Tidal-bundle sequences in the Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian), southeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.: Evidence for tides along inboard shorelines of the Sauk Epicontinental Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, C.H.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents for the first time tidal bundling in a lower Paleozoic sheet sandstone from the cratonic interior of North America, providing insights into the hydrodynamics of ancient epicontinental seas. The Jordan Sandstone (Upper Cambrian) in the Upper Mississippi Valley contains large-scale planar tabular cross-sets with tidal-bundle sequences, which were analyzed in detail at an exceptional exposure. Tidal-bundle sequences (neap-spring-neap cycles) were delineated by foreset thickening-thinning patterns and composite shale drapes, the latter of which represent accumulations of mud during the neap tides of neap-spring-neap tidal cycles. Fourier analysis of the bundle thickness data from the 26 measurable bundle sequences revealed cycles ranging from 15 to 34 bundles per sequence, which suggests a semidiurnal or mixed tidal system along this part of the Late Cambrian shoreline. We extend the tidal interpretation to widespread occurrences of the same facies in outcrops of lesser quality, where the facies is recognizable but too few bundles are exposed for tidal cycles to be measured. By doing so, this study shows that tidally generated deposits have a significant geographic and temporal extent in Upper Cambrian strata of central mid-continent North America. The deposition and preservation of tidal facies was related to the intermittent development of shoreline embayments during transgressions. The tidally dominated deposits filled ravined topographies that were repeatedly developed on the updip parts of the shoreface. Resulting coastal geomorphologies, accompanied perhaps by larger-scale changes in basinal conditions and/or configuration, led to changes in depositional conditions from wave-dominated to tide-dominated. Outcrops of the Jordan Sandstone tidal facies in the Upper Mississippi Valley represent the farthest inboard recorded transmission of ocean-generated tides in the Laurentian epicontinental seas, demonstrating that tidal currents were

  17. Unsafe sexual behaviour in domestic and foreign migrant male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan: occupational-based and behavioural assessment survey

    PubMed Central

    Al Rifai, Rami; Nakamura, Keiko; Seino, Kaoruko; Kizuki, Masashi; Morita, Ayako

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge, health and work-related conditions, and correlates of practising unsafe sex among domestic and foreign male workers in multinational workplaces in Jordan. Design Cross-sectional behavioural assessment survey. Setting Multinational workplaces in Jordan. Participants 230 Jordanian and 480 foreign male workers aged ≥18 years who had worked in a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ) for 12 months or more. Outcomes The primary outcome was the prevalence of practising unsafe sex. ‘Unsafe sex’ was defined as sex with a non-regular sexual partner with inconsistent condom usage. Results Overall, 74.3% of workers reported lifetime sexual experience. The proportion of lifetime unsafe sex was similar among domestic (31.8%) and foreign (35.6%) workers. Of those, 59.2% of domestic and 68.1% of foreign workers started practising unsafe sex after joining the QIZ. Rates of lifetime unsafe sex were significantly higher among those who had their sexual debut after joining the QIZ in domestic (aOR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) and foreign workers (aOR, 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.1). Among the domestic workers, being 18–24 years old (aOR, 4.9), unmarried (aOR, 4.8), working in the QIZ for 5–8 years (aOR, 5.0), sometimes/frequently shopped with foreign workers (aOR, 2.1) or were current/ex-alcohol drinkers (aORs, 3.4) were independently significantly associated with higher odds of practising unsafe sex. Conclusions A significant proportion of domestic and foreign male workers had been practising unsafe sex. The findings indicated that not only foreigners but also domestic male workers associating with foreign workers are at high risk of unsafe sex. Tailored interventions to promote safer sex in multinational workplaces in Jordan are needed. PMID:26068511

  18. Energy Security In Jordan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    west and the country’s eastern plateau. Unfortunately, known geothermal resources are characterized as low in heat with energy too low to merit... GEOTHERMAL ......................................................................................53  H.  INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT...following body of text, I illustrate the characteristics of hydro, wind, solar, geothermal , and biological energies as well as discuss the

  19. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged

  20. True 3D kinematic analysis for slope instability assessment in the Siq of Petra (Jordan), from high resolution TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigli, Giovanni; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Ruther, Heinz; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Most classifications of mass movements in rock slopes use relatively simple, idealized geometries for the basal sliding surface, like planar sliding, wedge sliding, toppling or columnar failures. For small volumes, the real sliding surface can be often well described by such simple geometries. Extended and complex rock surfaces, however, can exhibit a large number of mass movements, also showing various kind of kinematisms. As a consequence, the real situation in large rock surfaces with a complicate geometry is generally very complex and a site depending analysis, such as fieldwork and compass, cannot be comprehensive of the real situation. Since the outstanding development of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in recent years, rock slopes can now be investigated and mapped through high resolution point clouds, reaching the resolution of few mm's and accuracy less than a cm in most advanced instruments, even from remote surveying. The availability of slope surface digital data can offer a unique chance to determine potential kinematisms in a wide distributed area for all the investigated geomorphological processes. More in detail the proposed method is based on the definition of least squares fitting planes on clusters of points extracted by moving a sampling cube on the point cloud. If the associated standard deviation is below a defined threshold, the cluster is considered valid. By applying geometric criteria it is possible to join all the clusters lying on the same surface; in this way discontinuity planes can be reconstructed, rock mass geometrical properties are calculated and, finally, potential kinematisms established. The Siq of Petra (Jordan), is a 1.2 km naturally formed gorge, with an irregular horizontal shape and a complex vertical slope, that represents the main entrance to Nabatean archaeological site. In the Siq, discontinuities of various type (bedding, joints, faults), mainly related to geomorphological evolution of the slope, lateral stress