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Sample records for jos plateau nigeria

  1. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; Odugbo, M. O.; Seuberlich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  2. Bovine tuberculosis: a retrospective study at Jos abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Muhammad, Maryam; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Nguku, Patrick; Wasswa, Peter; Dairo, David; Cadmus, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has the thirteenth highest burden of human tuberculosis. The current increasing incidence of tuberculosis in humans, particularly in immune-compromised persons, has given interest in the zoonotic importance of Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries like Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis as a background information for effective control measures in Plateau State in cattle population. Methods We reviewed surveillance records on cattle slaughtered and suggestive tuberculosis lesions from cattle slaughtered annually from 2007-2012 in Jos abattoir, Plateau State. Bovine tuberculosis cases at post mortem were based on examination of characteristics TB lesion on organs by Veterinary officers. We performed descriptive analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results A total of 52, 262 cattle were slaughtered from 2007-2012, out of which 4, 658 (11.2%) had evidence of tuberculosis lesion at post mortem. The average yearly prevalence was 9.1% but varied from a high of 16.3% in 2007 to a low of 3.1% in 2012. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis had a seasonal variation and peaked mostly in July and August. The number of suggestive Tb lesion cases was highest in the month of August and lowest in the month of January, 2007-2012. Conclusion This study shows that bovine tuberculosis is endemic in Plateau State. Trend analysis showed that bovine tuberculosis is seasonal and peaked mostly in July and August. Continuous surveillance through meat inspection is required to prevent zoonotic transmission of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:28292159

  3. Molecular characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans VNII isolates in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nnadi, N E; Enweani, I B; Cogliati, M; Ayanbimpe, G M; Okolo, M O; Kim, E; Sabitu, M Z; Criseo, G; Romeo, O; Scordino, F

    2016-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated yeasts able to cause fatal neurological infections in both human and other mammals. Cryptococcosis is the most common fungal infection of the central nervous system and has a huge burden in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. Bird excreta are considered an environmental reservoir for C. neoformans in urban areas, therefore a study aimed at isolating and characterizing this yeast is important in disease management. In this study, one hundred samples of pigeon droppings were collected in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. C. neoformans was isolated from three samples and initially identified using standard phenotypic and biochemical tests. Molecular analysis revealed that all three isolates belonged to C. neoformans genotype VNII, mating type α and were assigned to the sequence type ST43 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. This study reports, for the first time, the molecular characterization of C. neoformans in Nigeria, where little is still known about the environmental distribution of the genotypes, serotypes and mating types of this important human pathogen.

  4. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  5. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Farai, I P; Alausa, S K

    2007-01-01

    Soils and food crops from a former tin mining location in a high background radiation area on the Jos-Plateau, Nigeria were collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to measure their contents of 40K, 238U and 232Th. As well as collecting samples, in situ dose rates on farms were measured using a precalibrated survey meter. Activity concentrations determined in food crops were compared with the local food derivatives or diets to investigate the possible removal or addition of radionuclides during food preparation by cooking or other means. Potassium-40 was found to contribute the highest activity in all the food products. The activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th in local prepared diets ranged between 60 and 494 Bq kg-1, between BDL and 48 Bq kg-1 and between BDL and 17 Bq kg-1, respectively. The internal effective dose to individuals from the consumption of the food types was estimated on the basis of the measured radionuclide contents in the food crops. It ranged between 0.2 microSv y-1 (beans) and 2164 microSv y-1 (yam) while the annual external gamma effective dose in the farms due to soil radioactivity ranged between 228 microSv and 4065 microSv.

  6. Fatty acid, amino acid, mineral and antioxidant contents of acha (Digitaria exilis) grown on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Laabes, Emmanuel P.; Presley, Jack M.; Schulze, John; Andrews, Ronnee; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Chang, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Lu-Te

    2015-01-01

    Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (also known as acha, hungry rice) has been cultivated for millennia in the dry savannahs of West Africa, but much remains to be learned about its nutritional properties. Acha was collected in four villages in Northern Nigeria and analyzed for fatty acids, minerals, amino acids and antioxidant content. Fatty acids accounted for 1.91% of the dry weight, with 47.4% linoleic acid and 30.5% oleic acid. The content of the essential minerals, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, zinc and calcium averaged 4.88, 1060, 0.23, 23.0 and 172 μg/g, respectively. The protein content was 6.53% and the essential amino acid pattern, except for lysine, compared favorably to a World Health Organization (WHO) reference protein. The total polyphenolic content of methanolic extracts of acha matched that of common cereals (for example, maize, rice, wheat) and the extracts contained substantial amounts of free-radical scavenging substances. Thus, acha is a source of many nutrients critical to human health. PMID:26635994

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Ethnoreligious Conflict in Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obilom, Rose E.; Thacher, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2001, ethnoreligious rioting occurred in Jos, Nigeria. Using a multistage cluster sampling technique, 290 respondents were recruited in Jos 7 to 9 months after the riots. Data were collected regarding demographics, exposure to traumatic events, and psychological symptoms. Resting pulse and blood pressure were recorded. A total of 145…

  8. Use of Portfolio Assessment Technique in Teaching Map Sketching and Location in Secondary School Geography in Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugodulunwa, Christiana; Wakjissa, Sayita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of portfolio assessment technique in teaching map sketching and location in geography in Jos, Nigeria. It adopted a quasi-experimental design. Two schools were selected using a table of random numbers from a population of 51 schools in Jos South and assigned to each of experimental and control group. The…

  9. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  10. Sociodemographic profiles and use-dynamics of Jadelle (levonorgestrel) implants in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pam, V. C.; Mutihir, J. T.; Nyango, D. D.; Shambe, I.; Egbodo, C. O.; Karshima, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive implants (including Jadelle) are highly effective, safe, and easy to use and have a long duration of action. They do not interfere with intercourse with immediate return to fertility after removal. However, disruption of the menstrual bleeding pattern is almost inevitable and coercive prescription may be a problem because insertion and removal of implants are provider dependent. The objective of this study was to determine the sociodemographic profiles of acceptors of Jadelle and the reasons for discontinuation in Jos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a 6-year retrospective chart review carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: About 1401 women accepted Jadelle with a mean (±standard deviation) of 33.4 ± 5.9 years. About 88% of the women were Christians and almost three-quarters (73.5%) had at least secondary school education. The means of parity and number of children still alive at the time of accepting Jadelle were 4.1 and 3.8, respectively. Half of the women (49.5%) were breastfeeding and over half (55.9%) had future fertility desires at the time of commencing Jadelle. About 82% had previously used other contraceptives (mostly short-acting methods such as injectables, pills, and condoms), with only 18% starting Jadelle as the first-ever contraceptive method. About 90% of the women had regular menstrual cycles. The major reason for discontinuation of Jadelle was desire for pregnancy although menstrual pattern disruption was the most common reason for removal in the first 6 months of use. Conclusion: The main reason for discontinuation of Jadelle was to have more children although menstrual pattern disruptions accounted for earlier discontinuation. PMID:27942097

  11. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Maduka, C. V.; Igbokwe, I. O.; Atsanda, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = −0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with deep litter system. In conclusion, the chicken production system requires increased drive for excellent biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak. PMID:27200208

  12. Assessment of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odoh, Chuks K; Amapu, Tarfen Y; Orjiakor, Ikechukwu P; Martins, Paul E; Seibai, Benedict T; Akpi, Uche K; Ugwu, Chinyere S; Lerum, Nathaniel I; Nwankwegu, Amechi S

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing reports on poor-quality palm oil in the market, there has been a continual decrease in demand and revenue cum product rejection of palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria. Hence, the significance of this work aims to moderate the microbial and physical qualities of crude palm oil sold in different major markets in order to increase revenue through quality control and quality assurance protocols. The intent is to create awareness among government monitoring agencies, buyers (exporters and importers), and to promote standard processing procedures among manufacturers. The study was carried out to ascertain the levels of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos and its environ. A total of 90 samples were collected in sterile containers. Molds were isolated and identified using standard identification procedures. The physicochemical properties: free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), moisture content (MC), and impurity level were determined. The assessment of mold isolated from the study sites recognized some life-threatening genera capable of producing carcinogenic toxins. Candida sp. (51%) had the highest percentage of occurrence followed by Aspergillus sp. (45%) while Fusarium sp. (3%) was the least occurring mold. The mean mold count for all the palm oil samples ranges from 3.18 × 10(4) (cfu/mL)-4.56 × 10(4) (cfu/mL). Physicochemical findings showed that the average FFA (3.43-6.88%), PV (6.96-13.63 mEq/kg), IV (39.7-67.5 wijs), and MC (0.44-0.72%) values were within the SON acceptable limit, except the impurity level (0.28-0.44%) which was higher than the acceptable SON range in all the sites. There was a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in the mold and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil in almost all the samples analyzed when compared to both local and international permissible limits of the tested parameters recommended for edible palm oil. There was compliance between the

  13. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  14. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control.

  15. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  16. The eLearning Fellowship Program at the University of Jos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewumi, S. E.; Dooga, J.; Dakas, D. C. J.; Yakmut, D. I.; Mafwil, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the eLearning Fellowship Program at the University of Jos (UNIJOS), first introduced in October 2008 through a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and recently adopted by the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) Educational Technology Initiative (ETI). The fellowship is a one-year program aimed at…

  17. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  18. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A; Atawodi, S E

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  19. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  20. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood

  1. Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-12

    serious social and economic challenges. Although Nigeria’s oil and natural gas revenues are estimated at over $50 billion per year, its human ...government’s human rights record is poor. Ethnic and religious strife have been common in Nigeria, and perceived differences have been politicized...State Department, maintain that the country is still in political transition,4 and Human Rights Watch contends that “Nigeria has not held a free and

  2. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Grace O.; Gilbert, Hannah N.; Dadem, Nancin Y.; Genberg, Becky L.; Agbaji, Oche O.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received. PMID:28331636

  3. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  4. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  5. Onchocerciasis in Plateau State; Nigeria: ecological background, local disease perception & treatment; and vector/parasite dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Onwuliri, C O; Ufomadu, G O

    1992-01-01

    The physico-biological ecological complex in Plateau State has by definition increased the potential of most rivers to support the breeding and dispersal of vector species as well as human acquisition and dissemination of the disease for several months in a year. Though villagers in endemic areas are of the know of the nuisance of blackfly bites, but the majority of them lacked the aetiological knowledge of onchocercal lesion. Hence disease management is misdirected towards consulting the oracle and appeasing the gods. The vectors of onchocerciasis in Plateau State, S. damnosum, and S. sirbanum are wet season breeders with their peak biting density occurring at the height of rainy season. However, biting flies carry more infective parasites at the beginning and end of rain. These vectors exhibit bimodal biting activity: a small one in the morning hours and a pronounced evening peak. Biting activity is at least influenced by two major climatic factors; illumination and temperature. However, the fastest changing climatic factor relative to an increase in the biting activity of flies was illumination. Microfilarial load in the skin of patients does not significantly change throughout the year or when biopsies are taken under shade throughout the day. Extreme temperatures, however, have significant reducing effect on the skin microfilarial. The epidemiological relevance of these in the ongoing MECTIZAN delivery in the State are discussed.

  6. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  7. Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  8. Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

  9. Tertiary weathering profiles in central Nigeria as indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeese, Reinhard

    1996-05-01

    In central Nigeria the Fluviovolcanic Series of the Jos Plateau are composed by deeply weathered volcanic rocks and sediments. The sequence is often capped by ferricretes. Ferricretes, remains of former soils, are also intercalated in the series. Profile sections between two ferricretes are deep (> 10 m). The repeated saprolite/solum sequence sometimes exceeds 100 m. It can be separated into a lower section without bauxitisation, but often with total bleaching of the saprolite, a middle section with bauxite and hematite in the saprolite and an upper kaolinitic section with hematite and goethite. Bleaching by total removal of Fe 2+ and bauxitisation by total desilification are both indicators of wet and hot climates with a high biomass production. In the first case the groundwater was permanently high, in the latter a well drained fluctuating groundwater can be assumed. Changing groundwater conditions may be the result of plateau uplift. Paleoenvironmental changes are, thus, reflected in relatively datable paleosols. Undatable paleosoils with comparable characteristics on the planation surfaces of Central and Northeast Nigeria also result from paleoenvironmental conditions. Consequently, concepts of landscape evolution must take into account changing environments.

  10. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity.

    PubMed

    Arogunjo, A M; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Leopold, K; Gerstmann, U; Veronese, I; Oeh, U

    2009-03-01

    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). High resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICP-MS) was used to determine uranium and thorium in liquids and foodstuffs consumed locally in the mining area. The activities of uranium and thorium measured in the soils and mineral sands from Bisichi ranged from 8.7 kBq kg(-1) to 51 kBq kg(-1) for (238)U and from 16.8 kBq kg(-1) to 98 kBq kg(-1) for (232)Th, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those in the control areas of Jos City and Akure and than the reference values reported in the literature. They even exceeded the concentrations reported for areas of high natural radioactive background. Radionuclide concentrations in samples of the local foodstuffs and in water samples collected in Bisichi were found to be higher than UNSCEAR reference values. The results reveal the pollution potential of the mining activities on the surrounding areas.

  11. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Lee, Chung-Chan; Haruna, Ayuba M; Chung, Ping-Jun; Weka, Paul R; Chung, Yang-Tsung

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect the presence of Ehrlichia canis in naturally infected dogs in Nigeria, using a combination of PCR and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and two genes encoding the tandem repeat-containing proteins (TRPs), TRP19 and TRP36. Out of a total of 100 blood samples collected from domestic dogs presented to veterinary hospitals in Jos, the capital city of Plateau State of Nigeria, 11 were positive in nested PCR for E. canis. Sequencing results for these amplicons showed that all of the 16S rDNA sequences (1623 bp) or the TRP19 coding sequences (414 bp) were identical to each other and had very high similarities (99.3-100%) with those from other E. canis strains accessible in GenBank. The TRP36 gene sequences derived from the 11 Nigerian isolates were identical to each other except for the number of the 27-bp repeat unit in a tandem repeat region, which was found to be 8, 12 or 18. Without considering the number of tandem repeats, these sequences had 100% identity to that of the reported Cameroon 71 isolate, but distinctly differed from those obtained from other geographically distant E. canis strains previously published. A phylogenetic tree of E. canis based on the TRP36 amino acid sequences showed that the Nigerian isolates and the Cameroon 71 isolate fell into a separate clade, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. Overall, this study not only provides the first molecular evidence of E. canis infections in dogs from Nigeria but also highlights the value of the TRP36 gene as a tool to classify E. canis isolates and to elucidate their phylogeographic relationships.

  12. Tinea capitis among primary school children in some parts of central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel

    2008-07-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another.

  13. Radiowave propagation measurements in Nigeria (preliminary reports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, S. E.; Okeke, P. N.

    2013-07-01

    International conferences on frequency coordination have, in recent years, required new information on radiowave propagation in tropical regions and, in particular, on propagation in Africa. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) initiated `radio-wave propagation measurement campaign' in some African countries some years back. However, none of the ITU-initiated experiments were mounted in Nigeria, and hence, there is lack of adequate understanding of the propagation mechanisms associated with this region of the tropics. The Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) of NASRDA has therefore embarked on propagation data collection from the different climatic zones of Nigeria (namely Coastal, Guinea Savannah, Midland, and Sahelian) with the aim of making propagation data available to the ITU, for design and prediction purposes in order to ensure a qualitative and effective communication system in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the current status of propagation data from Nigeria (collected by CBSS), identifying other parameters that still need to be obtained. The centre has deployed weather stations to different locations in the country for refractivity measurements in clear atmosphere, at the ground surface and at an altitude of 100 m, being the average height of communication mast in Nigeria. Other equipments deployed are Micro Rain Radar and Nigerian Environmental and Climatic Observing Program equipments. Some of the locations of the measurement stations are Nsukka (7.4° E, 6.9° N), Akure (5.12° E, 7.15° N), Minna (6.5° E, 9.6° N), Sokoto (5.25° E, 13.08° N), Jos (8.9° E, 9.86° N), and Lagos (3.35° E, 6.6° N). The results obtained from the data analysis have shown that the refractivity values vary with climatic zones and seasons of the year. Also, the occurrence probability of abnormal propagation events, such as super refraction, sub-refraction, and ducting, depends on the location as well as the local time. We have also attempted to identify

  14. Welcome to Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

    This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson…

  15. Nigeria’s Pernicious Drivers of Ethno-Religious Conflict (Africa Security Brief, Number 14, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Defining indigeneship is extraordinarily arbi- trary . For instance, a Hausa, Igbo, or Yoruba—groups that tend not to be originally from Jos—could le...Nigeria as a whole. N O T E S 1 Shuaibu Mohammed , “Buildings Burn, Death Toll Mounts in Central Nigeria,” Reuters, January 30, 2011. 2 Clement...Sokoto Mohammed , “The Impact of Conflict on the Economy: The Case of Plateau State of Nigeria,” Overseas Development Institute, 2004. 4 “‘They Do Not Own

  16. Otomycosis in Jos: Predisposing factors and Management

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, A, S; Iduh, A, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is a challenging and frustrating common Otologic condition to both patients and managing clinician. This fungal infection most often involves the squamous epithelium of the external auditory canal and is; characterized by pruritus, occasional otalgia and hypoacusis. Objectives To highlight the predisposing factors and management of Otomycosis in our center. Study design Retrospective review of 35 patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis treated from January 2012 to March 2013. Setting The study was carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, in the outpatient clinic of the department of Ear Nose Throat & Head Participants Thirty-five patients diagnosed with otomycosis had their medical data analyzed for this study. Intervention Antifungal eardrop was used for dressing the ears. Result 35 patients were seen within 15 months period (Jan. 2012– Mar. 2013). There were 11 males: 24 females given a gender ratio of 1:2.1. The commonest age group involved was 41–50(25.71%). There were 13, 10 and 6 cases of right, left and bilateral cases of Otomycosis m respectively. 16 cases were seen during the wet season and 19 cases during the dry season. In terms of occupation, house wives and civil servants constitute 28.60 and 17.15 % respectively. Diabetic mellitus was noted in1 (2.86%) patient. Conclusion The predisposing conditions for Otomycosis are present in Jos environment and can usually be diagnosed by clinical examination. This study suggested that otomycosis found are predominantly unilateral, more common in older age group, in female mainly housewives, civil servants and Candida species is the most common causative organism implicated in causation of otomycosis and treated with clotimazole containing drugs. Discontinuation of antifungal agent is most appropriate in antibiotic induced otomycosis. PMID:26690089

  17. Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

  18. Enhancing Literacy Skills of Students with Congenital and Profound Hearing Impairment in Nigeria Using Babudoh's Comprehension Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babudoh, Gladys B.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a treatment tool called "Babudoh's comprehension therapy" in enhancing the comprehension and writing skills of 10 junior secondary school students with congenital and profound hearing impairment in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study adopted the single group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research…

  19. Seroprevalence of acquired toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected and apparently healthy individuals in Jos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, C J; Duhlinska, D D; Njoku, M O; Ngwu, B A F

    2005-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody seroprevalence was studied in two different populations of 219 HIV-infected patients and 144 apparently healthy individuals (AHIs). Clinical toxoplasmosis was assessed among the HIV-infected patients. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (38.8%, 95% CI: 32.36%-45.26%) of the HIV-infected patients and in 30 (20.8%, 95% CI: 14.20%-27.46%) of the AHIs. Among the AIHs, males represented 22.0% of infections compared to females (20.0%) and individuals within age group 21-30 years accounted for the highest prevalence of 33.3% (95% CI: 11.56%-55.10%). There was no significant difference in the trend (Chi-square, P < or = 0.05). Assessment of epidemiological factors showed higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among those who eat rodents (29.6%) and those who constantly have contact with the soil (21.2%). Among the HIV-infected, individuals 31-40-years-old had the highest T. gondii seroprevalence (36.5%). Evaluation of the clinical findings of patients with concomitant toxoplasmosis and HIV infection greatly implicated fever (63.5%), headache (44.7%), rashes (41.2%) and anorexia (34.1%). This study contributes to the development of guidelines for the prevention and management of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients and in apparently healthy individuals in a resource scarce setting.

  20. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  1. Cell scientist to watch--José Silva.

    PubMed

    Silva, José; Bobrowska, Anna

    2015-11-01

    José Silva studied biology at the University of Porto, before leaving Portugal to obtain a PhD degree at Imperial College London in the laboratory of Neil Brockdorff. He did his postdoc with Austin Smith at the University of Edinburgh as an EMBO fellow. In 2008 he started his own group at the Wellcome Trust - Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell Institute at the University of Cambridge. José is currently a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellow. His lab studies the biology of induced pluripotency with particular focus on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this process.

  2. Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyegbile, F. Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

  3. Radiative plateau inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Tamarit, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We describe how monomial chaotic inflation becomes compatible with the latest CMB data thanks to radiative corrections producing a plateau. The interactions of the inflaton with other fields, required for reheating, can flatten the potential and moderate the production of primordial gravitational waves, keeping these below the current upper bound. We show that the appearance of a plateau requires that the inflaton couples to fermions and to another scalar or a gauge group. We give concrete examples of minimal particle physics models leading to plateaus for quadratic and quartic chaotic inflation. We also provide a three-parameter model-independent description of radiatively corrected inflation that is amenable to CMB analyses.

  4. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  5. Profile of José Hernández

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Astronaut José Hernández, son of a migrant farm worker, knew he could one day fly in space when learned that the first Hispanic-American Astronaut Franklin Chang-Díaz had been chosen to travel...

  6. Perfil de José Hernández

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cuando el astronauta de la NASA José Hernández, hijo de un trabajador rural inmigrante, se enteró de que el primer astronauta hispano, Franklin Chang-Díaz, había sido seleccionado para viajar al es...

  7. [José Mayoral Herrero. A pioneer in Colombian orthodontics].

    PubMed

    1994-06-01

    Cration of the Odontologic Studies Plan at the Javarian University. It's described in this article Dr. José Mayoral's trayectory in the Orthodontics Specialty. His arrival to Colombia, with his family, and his great labor in that country, so in the professional field as in the teaching area. Afterwards it's retold his arriving to Argentina, and the very important action performed in own environment.

  8. José Barzelatto lecture: Vision on unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2010-04-01

    José Barzelatto first distinguished himself as a leader with a vision in his years as a medical student. Later, principally as Director of the Reproductive Health Program at the World Health Organization and of the Ford Foundation program for women's sexual and reproductive rights, he contributed immensely toward the recognition of women's sexual and reproductive rights as part of their basic human rights. José Barzelatto's vision on abortion reflects his drive to promote social justice and respect individual rights, respect diversity, and promote a social consensus for a peaceful society. He believed that the fetus has moral value and did not accept abortion as a method of fertility control, but understood that abortion is a social phenomenon that cannot be changed with legal or moral condemnation. He accepted that condemning women who abort does not prevent abortion, is unfair, and causes great human suffering at a high social cost. José proposed nine points to form the basis for an overlapping consensus on abortion, on which to base a practical consensus that would allow societies to reduce the number of abortions and minimize their consequences. If we can agree on all or most of those points we would achieve the common objectives of: fewer women confronting the dilemma of how to deal with an unwanted pregnancy; fewer induced abortions; and fewer women suffering the consequences of unsafe abortion.

  9. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]"

  10. Snake bite in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Habib, A G; Gebi, U I; Onyemelukwe, G C

    2001-09-01

    Four families of venomous snakes are found in Nigeria--Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae and Actraspididae but three species carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) and puff adder (Bitis arietans), belonging to the first two families, are the most important snakes associated with envenoming in Nigeria. The incidence of bites has been reported as 497 per 100,000 population per year with a 12 percent natural mortality, with Echis ocellatus accounting for at least 66 percent in certain foci. Bites occur more often while victims were farming, herding or walking although the spitting cobra may bite victims who roll upon it in their sleep. Carpet viper venom contains a prothrombin activating procoagulant, haemorrhagin and cytolytic fractions which cause haemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock and local reactions/ necrosis. The spitting cobra bite manifests with local tissue reaction and occassionally with bleeding from the site of bite, but no classic neurotoxic feature has been observed except following Egyptian cobra (N. haje) bites. Cardiotoxicity and renal failure may occassionally occur following bites by the carpet viper and the puff adder. In the laboratory, haematological and other features are noted and immunodiagnosis has a role in species identification. Immobilisation of the bitten limb is probably the single most important first aid measure. Antivenom should be used cautiously when indicated. As only 8.5 percent of snake bite victims attend hospitals in Nigeria, health education should be the main preventive measure, mean-while, the study of immunisation of occupationally predisposed individuals in endemic areas should be intensified. A new Fab fragment antivenom specific to Nigerian Echis ocellatus was investigated clinically, just as the local herbs-Aristolochia spp, Guiera spp and Schummaniophyton spp are investigated experimentally.

  11. Astronomy and Culture in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, J. O.

    Astronomy cannot be said to be entirely new in Nigeria. There are hundreds of cosmogony and ancient astronomical practices in Nigeria, but these need to be studied systematically. Nigerian ethnoastronomy is revealed in the folklore, ancient architecture, religious practices, traditional poetry and art works of the different ethnic groups. Though expressed within a cultural framework, much of Nigerian ethnoastronomy contains scientific principles of astronomy. This paper discusses the need to bridge the gap between ethnoastronomy in Nigeria and modern astronomy by providing scientific interpretation to such cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices.

  12. Nigeria: female circumcision row.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, P

    1990-02-01

    In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures.

  13. Effects of Zonal Wind on Stratospheric Ozone Variations over Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidinma Okoro, Eucharia,

    2016-07-01

    The effects of zonal wind on stratospheric ozone variation over Nigeria have been studied. The areas covered in this study include; Maiduguri, Ikeja, Port-Harcourt, Calabar, Makurdi, Ilorin, Akure, Yola, Minna, Jos, Kano and Enugu in Nigeria, from 1986 to 2008. Zonal wind was computed from the iso-velocity map employing MATLAB software. The mean monthly variations of AAM and LOD at pressure levels of 20, 30 and 50 mb in the atmosphere depict a trend of maximum amplitude between April and September, and minimum amplitude between December and March. The trend observed in seasonal variation of O3 column data in the low latitude had maximum amount from May through August and minimum values from December through February. The mean monthly maximum O3 concentrations was found to be 284.70 Du (Kano) occurring in May 1989 while, an average monthly minimum O3 concentration was found to be 235.60 Du (Port-Harcourt and Calabar) occurring in January 1998. It has been established in this study that, the variation in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) caused by variation of the universal time or length of day (LOD) transfer ozone (O3) by means of zonal wind from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere in the stations understudy. The strong effect of the pressure levels of the atmosphere on O3 variation could be attributed to its effect on the AAM and LOD. Variation in the LOD is significant in the tropics, suggesting that, the effects of the extra-tropical suction pump (ETSP) action is not the only driver responsible for O3 transportation from the tropics to extra-tropical zones. Consequently, these findings lead to a deduction that weather pattern alteration observed due to these changes could lead to climate change. Keywords: ozone variations; dynamical processes; harmattan wind; ETSP; and climatic variability

  14. Tibetan Plateau and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, Meri; Yao, Tandong; Joswiak, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Third Annual Third Pole Environment Workshop; Reykjavík, Iceland, 29 August to 1 September 2011 Recognizing the necessity of multinational, interdisciplinary environmental research on the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges—dubbed the "Third Pole" for its considerable ice mass and high elevation— the Third Pole Environment (TPE) program accepted an invitation from the president of Iceland and the University of Iceland to hold its third annual TPE workshop in Iceland. In accordance with TPE's mission to evaluate climate and environmental changes at both local and global scales, participants from 15 countries converged for 3 days of intensive discussions and presentations related to TPE research. The Third Pole glaciers are undergoing considerable retreat, which will likely affect more than 1.5 billion people living in the region

  15. Exploring variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria using league table, control chart and spatial analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting, linear growth retardation is the best measure of child health inequalities as it captures multiple dimensions of children’s health, development and environment where they live. The developmental priorities and socially acceptable health norms and practices in various regions and states within Nigeria remains disaggregated and with this, comes the challenge of being able to ascertain which of the regions and states identifies with either high or low childhood stunting to further investigate the risk factors and make recommendations for action oriented policy decisions. Methods We used data from the birth histories included in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to estimate childhood stunting. Stunting was defined as height for age below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. We plotted control charts of the proportion of childhood stunting for the 37 states (including federal capital, Abuja) in Nigeria. The Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) were used as a measure of the overall clustering and is assessed by a test of a null hypothesis. Results Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria with an average of about 39%. The percentage of children with stunting ranged from 11.5% in Anambra state to as high as 60% in Kebbi State. Ranking of states with respect to childhood stunting is as follows: Anambra and Lagos states had the least numbers with 11.5% and 16.8% respectively while Yobe, Zamfara, Katsina, Plateau and Kebbi had the highest (with more than 50% of their under-fives having stunted growth). Conclusions Childhood stunting is high in Nigeria and varied significantly across the states. The northern states have a higher proportion than the southern states. There is an urgent need for studies to explore factors that may be responsible for these special cause variations in childhood stunting in Nigeria. PMID:23597167

  16. Otomycosis in western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasunla, James; Ibekwe, Titus; Onakoya, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Otomycosis is a recognized clinical entity in the tropical regions of the world. However, there is scanty information on this disease in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of etiological agents of otomycosis in western Nigeria. Medical records of patients with otomycosis seen in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from 1996-2005 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Of the 5784 patients with ear diseases, 378 (6.54%) had otomycosis which consisted of 145 (38.36%) males and 233 (61.64%) females. Seventeen patients (4.50%) had recurrence within six months of treatment, 4 (1.06%) had poorly controlled plasma glucose. A significant number of our patients, 52 (13.76%), had prior topical aural antibiotic treatment following misdiagnosis. The predominant etiological agents in our series were Aspergillus niger (48.35%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (33.96%).

  17. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  18. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  19. Reducing unsafe abortion in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sudhinaraset, May

    2008-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save a woman's life. It is also common, and most procedures are performed under unsafe, clandestine conditions. In 1996, an estimated 610,000 abortions occurred (25 per 1,000 women of childbearing age), of which 142,000 resulted in complications severe enough to require hospitalization. The number of abortions is estimated to have risen to 760,000 in 2006. Unsafe abortions are a major reason Nigeria's maternal mortality rate--1,100 deaths per 100,000 live births--is one the world's highest. According to conservative estimates, more than 3,000 women die annually in Nigeria as a result of unsafe abortion.

  20. The physiologic climate of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 (p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  1. The physiologic climate of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, Oyenike Mary; Adelekan, Ibidun Onikepo

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the spatial and temporal variations in the physiologic climate of Nigeria for 1951-2009 in terms of effective temperature (ET), temperature-humidity index (THI), relative strain index (RSI) and perception of 3,600 sampled populations. The main hypotheses are that (i) the existing vegetation-based ecological region could adequately elucidate the physiologic climate of the country, and (ii) physiologic stress has significantly increased over the years (1951-2009). Trends and changes in the selected indices (ET, THI and RSI) were examined over two time slices: 1951-1980 and 1981-2009. The results show that (1) the montane region was the most comfortable physiologic climate in Nigeria, and the regions around the Rivers Niger and Benue troughs were the most uncomfortable in most parts of the year, (2) physiologic stress in most parts of Nigeria has significantly increased in 1981-2009 over 1951-1980 ( p ≤ 0.05), (3) coping strategies to the uncomfortably hot and cold climate in Nigeria are limited to dressing mode, clothing materials and use of air conditioners or fan, (4) ET, THI and RSI results could be similar, and complementary; but each is with its strengths and weaknesses for annual or seasonal representations, which the others complemented for the interpretation of the physiologic climate of Nigeria. The study concluded that the relationship between the ecological classification of Nigeria and physiologic climate is rather complex, and the former could not elucidate the latter. The study cited inadequate meteorological data, especially on wind chill, and health records as limiting factors of studies on the Nigerian physiologic climates and the effect of extreme thermal conditions on the people.

  2. Cultural practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, E M

    1990-05-01

    Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture.

  3. Multilinguisme et education au Nigeria (Multilingualism and Education in Nigeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brann, Conrad Max Benedict

    The linguistic situation in Nigeria might be represented as a pyramid with a base composed of 400-500 native languages of which about 100 have been alphabetized. Of these, 51 with more than 100,000 speakers each, are considered regional languages; ten, with more than 1 million speakers each, are considered inter-regional languages; and three…

  4. Abdominal injuries in communal crises: The Jos experience

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Emmanuel Olorundare; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.; Sule, Augustine Z.; Ugwu, Benjamin T.; Misauno, Michael A.; Ismaila, Bashiru O.; Peter, Solomon D.; Adejumo, Adeyinka A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal injuries contribute significantly to battlefield trauma morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the incidence, demographics, clinical features, spectrum, severity, management, and outcome of abdominal trauma during a civilian conflict. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis of patients treated for abdominal trauma during the Jos civil crises between December 2010 and May 2012 at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Results: A total of 109 victims of communal conflicts with abdominal injuries were managed during the study period with 89 (81.7%) males and 20 (18.3%) females representing about 12.2% of the total 897 combat related injuries. The peak age incidence was between 21 and 40 years (range: 3–71 years). The most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs were the small intestine 69 (63.3%), colon 48 (44%), and liver 41 (37.6%). Forty-four (40.4%) patients had extra-abdominal injuries involving the chest in 17 (15.6%), musculoskeletal 12 (11%), and the head in 9 (8.3%). The most prevalent weapon injuries were gunshot 76 (69.7%), explosives 12 (11%), stab injuries 11 (10.1%), and blunt abdominal trauma 10 (9.2%). The injury severity score varied from 8 to 52 (mean: 20.8) with a fatality rate of 11 (10.1%) and morbidity rate of 29 (26.6%). Presence of irreversible shock, 3 or more injured intra-abdominal organs, severe head injuries, and delayed presentation were the main factors associated with mortality. Conclusion: Abdominal trauma is major life-threatening injuries during conflicts. Substantial mortality occurred with loss of nearly one in every 10 hospitalized victims despite aggressive emergency room resuscitation. The resources expenditure, propensity for death and expediency of timing reinforce the need for early access to the wounded in a concerted trauma care systems. PMID:26957819

  5. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  6. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Eleri, E.O.

    1993-12-31

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

  7. Migration and rural opportunities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with migration to rural areas in Nigeria. The author examines the rural economic structures, social systems, and demographic features affecting such migration. These features are compared for migrants and nonmigrants in the cash cropping and subsistence cropping areas of southwestern Nigeria. The results suggest that rural migration in southwestern Nigeria is mainly urban-rural migration of a colonizing type. Data for the study are from a survey of 1,782 households in 12 villages.

  8. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  9. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  10. Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Charles C.

    A discussion of the choice of official languages in Nigeria first gives an overview of the current language situation in Nigeria, particularly of indigenous language usage, sketches the history of English, French, and Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin (ANP) both before and after independence, outlines the main proposals for language planning, and draws some…

  11. Introduction to the Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2006-10-01

    Over the past decade there has been remarkable progress in the exploration of the Antarctic plateau for astronomy. Already, major astronomical facilities are in operation at the Amundsen-Scott Station at South Pole, and even more ambitious telescopes are planned or under construction there. However, for a number of important reasons the high plateau sites of Dome A and Dome C appear to offer even more favorable conditions than South Pole for many kinds of astronomy. The success of the Chinese expedition to Dome A in January 2005, plus the opening of the French/Italian Concordia Station at Dome C for year-round operation in 2005, have now created exciting new opportunities for Antarctic astronomy.

  12. Introduction to the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been remarkable progress in the exploration of the Antarctic plateau for astronomy. Already, major astronomical facilities are in operation at the Amundsen-Scott Station at South Pole, and even more ambitious telescopes are planned or under construction there. However, for a number of important reasons the high plateau sites of Dome A and Dome C appear to offer even more favourable conditions than South Pole for many kinds of astronomy. The success of the Chinese expedition to Dome A in January 2005, plus the opening of the French/Italian Concordia Station at Dome C for year-round operation in 2005, have now created exciting new opportunities for Antarctic astronomy.

  13. The Pajarito Plateau: a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathien, Frances Joan; Steen, Charlie R.; Allen, Craig D.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography is the result of two initially independent projects. As the consulting archaeologist at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Charlie R. Steen collected entries at the suggestion of the staff of the Environmental Surveillance Group of the Health, Safety, and Environmental Division, HSE-8. The primary purpose was to aid the staff in evaluating cultural resources on LANL lands. In addition to works that related to the archaeology and history of the area, Steen included notations of a few books and articles in other fields such as geology and natural history. It was hoped that they also would be of value to other organizations and to students of past human activities on the Pajarito Plateau.At the same time, the National Park Service (NPS) was planning a major survey of Bandelier National Monument (BNM). As part of this plan, the author was asked to prepare a background document that described research previously carried out in the area, including an annotated bibliography. Although the survey would be limited to the park boundaries, the larger Pajarito Plateau is a more logical study area from physiographic, environmental, and cultural perspectives; hence the focus was on this larger region. Mathien (1986) also included some references to natural resources studies, particularly those initiated by NPS within Bandelier National Monument.Both bibliographies were made available to Colleen Olinger and Beverly Larson of the Health and Environmental Services Group at Los Alamos. They realized that while neither was complete, each included entries missing from the other. Larson suggested the two bibliographies be combined. (At this time, Craig Allen was studying the landscape of the Jemez Mountains [Allen 1984c, 1989]. His investigations included much detailed information on natural resource studies and were added in 1991 and 1992.)To limit the scope of their work, Steen and Mathien had chosen their parameter: the Pajarito Plateau. Geographically, the

  14. Plateau uplift and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddiman, W.F. ); Kutzbach, J.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The earth of 40 million years ago was a warm, wet place. Forests abounded; grasslands and deserts were rare. Then the planet began to cool. Regional climate extremes developed. Many causes have been postulated, including continental drift and diminishing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The authors offer a new theory: continental uplift created huge plateaus that altered circulation of the atmosphere. The two largest masses of high, rocky terrain in the Northern Hemisphere today are the area encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya Mountains and the broad region of the American West centered on the Colorado Plateau. Geologic evidence indicates that these regions rose substantially during the past 40 million years. The authors focused their research on these plateaus.

  15. Monuments of the Giza Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The colossal pyramids of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus) have attracted a huge amount of astronomical interest over the years, both scholarly and popular. Less attention is usually given to the broader context of structures on the Giza Plateau. One of the most notorious ideas connecting the Giza Plateau with astronomy is that the three large pyramids are laid out on the ground so as to reflect the appearance of the three stars of Orion's Belt in the sky. This idea is unsupportable for several reasons but has succeeded in generating huge public interest. Of much greater serious interest is the fact that the three main pyramids were oriented cardinally to extraordinary precision, which raises the questions of why this was important and how it was achieved. Another idea that has attracted serious attention but also some confusion is that the orientations of some narrow shafts within Khufu's pyramid might have been deliberately aligned upon particular stars. The overall layout of monuments on the plateau may certainly have been designed so as to emphasize certain solar phenomena, for symbolic and ideological reasons relating to a dominant sun cult. It is also possible that it formed part of a wider cosmological "master plan" extending to other pyramids and temples up to 20 km distant.

  16. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    PubMed

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  17. BOOK APPRAISAL: HISTORY OF DENTISTRY IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Michael, O S

    2016-06-01

    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library.

  18. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  19. Astronomy Development in Nigeria: Challenges and Advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwe Chibueze, James

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria evidently has huge potentials to develop a strong astronomy community. Much of the strength lies in the great number of intelligent students with the potential of becoming good astronomers. Sadly, astronomy development in Nigeria has stagnated in the past decades owing to poor funding and/or indifferent attitude of the funding bodies, research-unfriendly environment, and non-existence of facilities. Currently, efforts toward fuelling advancement in astronomy are focused on building 'critical mass', establishing collaborations with universities/astronomy institutes outside Nigeria, converting out-of-use communication antennas into radio telescopes, and acquiring out-of-use telescopes for educational and low-level research purposes.

  20. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  1. Vertical tectonics of the High Plateau region, Manihiki Plateau, Western Pacific, from seismic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Huirong-Anita; Stock, Joann M.; Clayton, Robert; Luyendyk, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is an elevated oceanic volcanic plateau that was formed mostly in Early Cretaceous time by hotspot activity. We analyze new seismic reflection data acquired on cruise KIWI 12 over the High Plateau region in the southeast of the plateau, to look for direct evidence of the location of the heat source and the timing of uplift, subsidence and faulting. These data are correlated with previous seismic reflection lines from cruise CATO 3, and with the results at DSDP Site 317 at the northern edge of the High Plateau. Seven key reflectors are identified from the seismic reflection profiles and the resulting isopach maps show local variations in thickness in the southeastern part of the High Plateau, suggesting a subsidence (cooling) event in this region during Late Cretaceous and up to Early Eocene time. We model this as a hotspot, active and centered on the High Plateau area during Early Cretaceous time in a near-ridge environment. The basement and Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic layers were formed by subaerial and shallow-water eruption due to the volcanic activity. After that, the plateau experienced erosion. The cessation of hotspot activity and subsequent heat loss by Late Cretaceous time caused the plateau to subside rapidly. The eastern and southern portions of the High Plateau were rifted away following the cessation of hot spot activity. As the southeastern portion of the High Plateau was originally higher and above the calcium carbonate compensation depth, it accumulated more sediments than the surrounding plateau regions. Apparently coeval with the rapid subsidence of the plateau are normal faults found at the SE edge of the plateau. Since Early Eocene time, the plateau subsided to its present depth without significant deformation.

  2. Syntactically Non-Integrated Finnish "Jos" "If"-Conditional Clauses as Directives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laury, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the use of independent "jos" "if"-clauses as directives (requests, proposals, and suggestions) in Finnish everyday conversation. It shows that clause types which are traditionally considered subordinate can be used without any main clauses and, thus, do not project further talk to follow in the same turn. Other participants…

  3. COMPARATIVE CHADIC--PHONOLOGY AND LEXICON.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MA, ROXANA; NEWMAN, PAUL

    IN RECENT YEARS IT HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED THAT A LARGE NUMBER OF THE LANGUAGES IN THE LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSIFIED SUB-SAHARAN AREA OF NORTHERN NIGERIA, THE NORTHERN CAMEROONS, AND THE CHAD REPUBLIC, INCLUDING MANY OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE JOS PLATEAU GROUP, CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS A SINGLE LINGUISTIC UNIT--THE CHAD FAMILY. BY USING THE TRADITIONAL…

  4. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  5. Community-based ivermectin distributors: onchocerciasis control at the village level in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Richards, F; Gonzales-Peralta, C; Jallah, E; Miri, E

    1996-04-01

    The use of community residents as agents for distributing mass ivermectin therapy for onchocerciasis provides a component of community participation absent from mobile team delivery methods. Community-based distribution, however, presupposes preexisting human resources in the endemic villages capable of fulfilling the essential functions of an ivermectin distribution process: mobilizing and educating the population, dispensing the drug, maintaining records, and monitoring and treating adverse reactions. Even when such human resources exist, the community workers must continue to receive tangible support from both external (government and donor agencies) and internal (community) sources. Donor and government agencies must accept that their data collection demands will be limited by the literacy standards of the communities being served. Community leaders must agree to set and use their own local standards of payment (including food stuffs or exchange in kind) to compensate the distributors for their time and efforts. The use of locally available human and remunerative resources is a prerequisite for true community ownership of a program.

  6. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  7. Nasal septal haematoma in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukuezi, A B

    1992-05-01

    A prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with nasal septal haematoma admitted at the General Hospital, Owerri, Nigeria over a five year period is presented. The disease was commoner in males than females. The majority of the cases (65.6 per cent) were of unknown cause and were therefore grouped as spontaneous haematoma while 30.4 per cent were due to trauma. Trauma was more common in patients below the age of 15 years while spontaneous haematoma was common in patients above that age. All the patients with septal haematoma represented 0.2 per cent of total attendances to the ENT clinic over the period. Most of the patients presented with severe and threatening symptoms necessitating intense aggressive management. All the patients were managed by surgical incision and drainage, four had marked nasal abnormalities. Three patients died from a brain abscess as a complication of infected haematoma.

  8. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  9. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  10. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  11. Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, A O

    1995-06-01

    It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities.

  12. Impalement head injury with serrated meat knife.

    PubMed

    Binitie, Op; Shilong, Dj; Ugwu, Bt; Ekedigwe, Je; Oyeniran, Oo; Adighije, Pf; Mairiga, An; Ninmol, Pj; Alayande, B

    2012-01-01

    An unsuspecting motorcycle passenger was ambushed and impaled on the right side of the head with a 30cm serrated meat carving knife during a sectarian crisis in the city of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. The patient escaped running with the knife in his head and was rescued to a military hospital from where he was promptly transferred within 90 minutes of the incident to the Emergency Department of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos. Prompt resuscitation and CT brain imaging facilitated a successful neurosurgical intervention and a good outcome in the management of this patient.

  13. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  14. BOOK APPRAISAL: HISTORY OF DENTISTRY IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, O.S.

    2016-01-01

    The book appraised in this edition of Chronicles of Medical History, History of Dentistry in Nigeria, is a product of many years of painstaking research. The Author, Professor Eyitope Ogunbodede, has put together an excellent book that is a great work of art. Dentistry is one of the first specialties in medicine with a very long history; evidence of periodontal disease has been traced back to at least 100, 000 years in human remains. However, the book by Professor Ogunbodede is the first comprehensive record of the History of dentistry in Nigeria. It is a must-read for every medical professional practicing in Nigeria and a worthy addition to every library. PMID:27721686

  15. Molecular characterisation of African swine fever viruses from Nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms CVR epidemiological utility.

    PubMed

    Owolodun, Olajide A; Bastos, Armanda D S; Antiabong, John F; Ogedengbe, Mosunmola E; Ekong, Pius S; Yakubu, Bitrus

    2010-12-01

    Samples collected from wild and domestic suids in Nigeria, over a 3-year period (2003-2006), were evaluated for African swine fever (ASF) virus genome presence by targeting three discrete genome regions, namely the 478-bp C-terminal p72 gene region advocated for genotype assignment, a 780-bp region spanning the 5'-ends of the pB125R and pB646L (p72) genes and the hypervariable central variable region (CVR) encoded within the 9RL ORF (pB602L). ASF virus (ASFV) presence was confirmed in 23 of the 26 wild and domestic pigs evaluated. No evidence of ASF infection was found in two warthogs from Adamawa State; however, one bushpig from Plateau State was positive. Nucleotide sequences of the 478-bp and 780-bp amplicons were identical across all ASFV-positive samples sequenced. However, five discrete CVR variants were recovered, bringing the total number identified to date, from Nigeria, to six. The largest of the CVR variants, termed 'Tet-36' was identical to a virus causing outbreaks in neighbouring Benin in 1997, indicating a prolonged persistence of this virus type in Nigeria. Co-circulation of three tetramer types (Tet-36, Tet-27 and Tet-20) was found in Plateau State in July 2004, whilst in Benue State, two tetramer types (Tet-20 and Tet-21) were present in August 2005. Despite simultaneous field presence, individual co-infection was not observed. This study has reaffirmed the epidemiological utility of the CVR genome region for distinguishing between geographically and temporally constrained genotype I viruses, and has revealed the presence of multiple ASFV variants in Nigeria.

  16. The simulators: truth and power in the psychiatry of José Ingenieros.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Using Michel Foucault's lectures on "Psychiatric power" as its starting point, this article analyzes the book Simulación de la locura (The simulation of madness), published in 1903 by the Argentine psychiatrist José Ingenieros. Foucault argues that the problem of simulation permeates the entire history of modern psychiatry. After initial analysis of José Ingenieros's references to the question of simulation in the struggle for existence, the issue of simulation in pathological states in general is examined, and lastly the simulation of madness and the problem of degeneration. Ingenieros participates in the epistemological and political struggle that took place between experts-psychiatrists and simulators over the question of truth.

  17. Has Wild Poliovirus Been Eliminated from Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Famulare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been seen anywhere since the last case of WPV3-associated paralysis in Nigeria in November 2012. At the time of writing, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Nigeria occurred in July 2014, and WPV1 has not been seen in Africa since a case in Somalia in August 2014. No cases associated with circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been detected in Nigeria since November 2014. Has WPV1 been eliminated from Africa? Has WPV3 been eradicated globally? Has Nigeria interrupted cVDPV2 transmission? These questions are difficult because polio surveillance is based on paralysis and paralysis only occurs in a small fraction of infections. This report provides estimates for the probabilities of poliovirus elimination in Nigeria given available data as of March 31, 2015. It is based on a model of disease transmission that is built from historical polio incidence rates and is designed to represent the uncertainties in transmission dynamics and poliovirus detection that are fundamental to interpreting long time periods without cases. The model estimates that, as of March 31, 2015, the probability of WPV1 elimination in Nigeria is 84%, and that if WPV1 has not been eliminated, a new case will be detected with 99% probability by the end of 2015. The probability of WPV3 elimination (and thus global eradication) is > 99%. However, it is unlikely that the ongoing transmission of cVDPV2 has been interrupted; the probability of cVDPV2 elimination rises to 83% if no new cases are detected by April 2016.

  18. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K

    2017-01-17

    Control measures for foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Nigeria have not been implemented due to the absence of locally produced vaccines and risk-based analysis resulting from insufficient data on the circulating FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes/strains. In 2013-2015, blood and epithelial samples were collected from reported FMD outbreaks in four states (Kaduna, Kwara, Plateau and Bauchi) in northern Nigeria. FMDV non-structural protein (NSP) seroprevalence for the outbreaks was estimated at 80% (72 of 90) and 70% (131 of 188) post-outbreak. Antibodies against FMDV serotypes O, A, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3 were detected across the states using solid-phase competitive ELISA. FMDV genome was detected in 99% (73 of 74) of the samples from FMD-affected animals using rRT-PCR, and cytopathic effect was found in cell culture by 59% (44 of 74) of these samples. Three FMDV serotypes O, A and SAT2 were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that two topotypes of FMDV serotype O, East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains. While the serotype O (EA-3) strains from Nigeria were most closely related to a 1999 virus strain from Sudan, the WA strain in Nigeria shares genetic relationship with three 1988 viruses in Niger. The FMDV serotype A strains were closely related to a known virus from Cameroon, and the SAT2 strains were most closely related to virus subtypes in Libya. This study provides evidence of co-occurrence of FMDV serotypes and topotypes in West, Central, East and North Africa, and this has implication for control. The findings help filling the knowledge gap of FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and West Africa subregion to support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.

  19. Lithospheric structure across the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Implications for the plateau's lateral growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuzhang; Liu, Mian; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Weijun; Shi, Yutao; An, Meijian; Zhang, Yuansheng; Liu, Xuzhou

    2017-02-01

    Variations of lithospheric structure across the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and its bounding Asian blocks, the Alxa block to the north and the Ordos block to the east, are crucial for understanding the rise and lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Using waveforms from high-density seismic arrays in northeastern Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions, we investigated the lithospheric structure with S- and P-wave receiver functions. The results show strong and relatively simple negative velocity gradients in the depth range of mantle lithosphere (∼70-150 km) under the Ordos and Alxa blocks, similar to those under typical stable continental lithosphere. In contrast, under northeastern Tibetan Plateau including its marginal regions, the velocity gradients are weak and diffusive for the mantle lithosphere, which may be explained by elevated temperature and presence of partial melts. The changes of lithospheric structures are sharp between the Tibetan Plateau and the bounding Ordos and Alxa blocks, suggesting that these two blocks have restricted the lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau as rigid boundaries. However, across the northeastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau to the Yinchuan rift, the lithospheric mantle structures are similar, suggesting a lateral mantle flow from the Tibetan Plateau to the gap between the Ordos and the Alxa blocks. The crustal structures along this transition show evidence of lateral growth of the Tibetan Plateau. In particular, the edge of thickened crust and evidence of Moho superposition are found between the Haiyuan Fault and the Tianjin-shan Fault, which may have replaced the Haiyuan Fault as the front boundary of the laterally growing Tibetan Plateau in its northeastern corner.

  20. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is endemic to soybean growing areas in Nigeria. To determine the pathogenic variation, infected leaves were collected from 85 locations in the Derived Savanna, Southern Guinea Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna and Mid-Altitude agroecological zones. A total of 116 ...

  1. Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

  2. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  3. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  4. Access to Information in Rural Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboyade, B. Olabimpe

    1985-01-01

    This paper focuses on intensified information transfer activities in rural areas of Nigeria: community development work, agricultural extension service, mass media (newspapers, television, radio, problems of communication), and the role of the library (reinforcing messages, repackaging information, acquiring specialized materials, coordinating…

  5. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  6. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  7. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  8. An Assessment of Citizenship Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omo-Ojugo, M.; Ibhafidon, H. E.; Otote, Celia

    2009-01-01

    Citizenship education is specifically recognized by the government of Nigeria as a vehicle for the building of the Nigerian personality. A personality that is conscious not only of his rights and privileges but also of his duties. However, it is regrettable that this great expectation of the nation is far from being attained. Using three main…

  9. Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

    2009-04-01

    The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00∘×1.00∘ latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

  10. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  11. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  12. Cluster growth modeling of plateau erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Colin P.

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of erosion of a plateau along an escarpment may be modeled usng cluster growth techniques, recently popularized in models of drainage network evolution. If erosion on the scarp takes place in discrete events at rates subject to local substrate strength, the whole range of behavior is described by a combination of three cluster growth mechanisms: invasion percolation, Eden growth and diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). These model the relative importance of preexisting substrate strength, background weathering, and seepage weathering and erosion respectively. The rate of seepage processes is determined by the efflux of groundwater at the plateau margin, which in turn is determined by the pressure field in the plateau aquifer. If this process acted alone, it would produce erosion patterns in the form of Laplacian fractals, with groundwater recharge from a distant source, or Poissionian fractals, with groundwater recharge uniform over the plateau. DLA is used to mimic the Laplacian or Poissonian potential field and the corresponding seepage growth process. The scaling structure of clusters grown by pure DLA, invasion percolation, or Eden growth is well known; this study presents a model which combines all three growth mechanisms for the first time. Mixed growth processes create clusters with different scaling properties and morphologies over distinct length scale ranges, and this is demonstrable in natural examples of plateau erosion.

  13. After the Election: Fundamental Security Challenges Nigeria Must Face

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and largest economy . Key among these is security. Nigeria has increasingly been in the global spotlight in recent years because of the rise in...extended over most of northern and northeastern Nigeria, modern -day Burkina Faso, and Cameroon, Niger, western Sudan, and southern Libya. Most of...leaders in modern Nigeria. Presently, this community of about 10 mil- lion, which still inhabits the lands of this former caliphate and mostly

  14. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-15

    in other sources of energy such as solar, hydropower, wind, and biomass . Nigeria’s energy resources such as coal, crude oil, and natural gas...It accounts for 95 percent of the country’s exports and 85 percent of the government revenue.321According to the United States Energy Information...33 Background on Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria CSPDC) Ltd "SPDC, Nigeria’s oldest energy company, discovered oil in Oloibiri, the

  15. The Hikurangi Plateau: Tectonic Ricochet and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, David; Moresi, Louis; Betts, Peter; Whittaker, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    80 million years between interactions with different subduction systems provided time for the Hikurangi Plateau and Pacific Ocean lithosphere to cool, densify and strengthen. Neogene subduction of the Hikurangi Plateau occurring orthogonal to its Cretaceous predecessor, provides a unique opportunity to explore how changes to the physical properties of oceanic lithosphere affect subduction dynamics. We used Underworld to build mechanically consistent collision models to understand the dynamics of the two Hikurangi collisions. The Hikurangi Plateau is a ~112 Ma, 15km thick oceanic plateau that has been entrained by subduction zones immediately preceding the final break-up of Eastern Gondwana and currently within the active Hikurangi Margin. We explore why attempted subduction of the plateau has resulted in vastly different dynamics on two separate occasions. Slab break-off occured during the collision with Gondwana, currently there is apparent subduction of the plateau underneath New Zealand. At ~100Ma the young, hot Hikurangi Plateau, positively buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, impacted a Gondwana Margin under rapid extension after the subduction of an mid-ocean ridge 10-15Ma earlier. Modelling of plateaus within young oceanic crust indicates that subduction of the thickened crust was unlikely to occur. Frontal accretion of the plateau and accompanying slab break-off is expected to have occured rapidly after its arrival. The weak, young slab was susceptible to lateral propagation of the ~1500 km window opened by the collision, and break-off would have progressed along the subduction zone inhibiting the "step-back" of the trench seen in older plates. Slab break-off coincided with a world-wide reorganisation of plate velocites, and orogenic collapse along the Gondwana margin characterised by rapid extension and thinning of the over-riding continental plate from ~60 to 30km. Following extension, Zealandia migrated to the NW until the Miocene allowing the

  16. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  17. Peopling the Tibetan plateau: insights from archaeology.

    PubMed

    Aldenderfer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the genome of modern Tibetans have revealed the existence of genes thought to provide an adaptive advantage for life at high elevation. Extrapolating from this discovery, some researchers now argue that a Tibetan-Han split occurred no more than 2750 yr ago. This date is implausible, and in this paper I review the archaeological data from the Tibetan plateau as one means by which to examine the veracity of this assertion. Following a review of the general state of knowledge of Tibetan prehistory, which is unfortunately only at its beginnings, I first examine the data that speak to the initial peopling of the plateau and assess the evidence that traces of their presence can be seen in modern Tibetans today. Although the data are sparse, both archaeology and genetics suggest that the plateau was occupied in the Late Pleistocene, perhaps as early as 30,000 yr ago, and that these early peoples have left a genetic signature in modern Tibetans. I then turn to the evidence for later migrations and focus on the question of the timing of the establishment of permanent settled villages on the plateau. Three areas of the plateau-northeastern Qinghai, extreme eastern Tibet, and the Yarlung Tsangpo valley-have evidence of permanent settlements dating from ca. 6500, 5900, and 3750 yr ago, respectively. These data are not consonant with the 2750 yr ago date for the split and suggest at a minimum that the plateau has been occupied substantially longer and, further, that multiple migrations at different times and from different places have created a complex mosaic of population history.

  18. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  19. Insufficiency fractures of the tibial plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Manco, L.G.; Schneider, R.; Pavlov, H.

    1983-06-01

    An insufficiency fracture of the tibial plateau may be the cause of knee pain in patients with osteoporosis. The diagnosis is usually not suspected until a bone scan is done, as initial radiographs are often negative or inconclusive and clinical findings are nonspecific and may simulate osteoarthritis or spontaneous osteonecrosis. In five of 165 patients referred for bone scans due to nontraumatic knee pain, a characteristic pattern of intense augmented uptake of radionuclide confined to the tibial plateau led to a presumptive diagnosis of insufficiency fracture, later confirmed on radiographs.

  20. A Standard Atmosphere of the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Lubin, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Climate models often rely on standard atmospheres to represent various regions; these broadly capture the important physical and radiative characteristics of regional atmospheres, and become benchmarks for simulations by researchers. The high Antarctic plateau is a significant region of the earth for which such standard atmospheres are as yet unavailable. Moreover, representative profiles from atmospheres over other regions of the planet, including &om the northern high latitudes, are not comparable to the atmosphere over the Antarctic plateau, and are therefore only of limited value as substitutes in climate models. Using data from radiosondes, ozonesondes and satellites along with other observations from South Pole station, typical seasonal atmospheric profiles for the high plateau are compiled. Proper representations of rapidly changing ozone concentrations (during the ozone hole) and the effect of surface elevation on tropospheric temperatures are discussed. The differences between standard profiles developed here and the most similar standard atmosphere that already exists - namely, the Arctic Winter profile - suggest that these new profiles will be extremely useful to make accurate representations of the atmosphere over the high plateau.

  1. Central Tibetan Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Wei-Liang; Zeng, Lu; Li, Jian-Feng; Xu, Li-Feng

    2014-12-01

    We report the occurrences of the remnants of a Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, encompassing an area of ~ 2 × 105 km2 in central Tibet. The plateau remnants include large volumes of pillow basalt formed largely by emergent to subaerial eruption, minor ultramafic intrusives and cumulates, exotic blocks of limestone, radiolarian chert, graywacke, and shale. Isotopic and paleontological dating suggest two major plateau eruptive events at 193-173 Ma and at 128-104 Ma, respectively. The basalts are characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements and a wide range of Sr-Nd isotope composition (initial εNd from -3.71 to + 7.9, initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.703927 to 0.707618). The trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that these basalts are of affinity with those from the Kerguelen and Tethyan plumes, indicative of a plume mantle upwelling origin with involvement of continental material. The wholesale obduction of the Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, along with the dismembered normal oceanic crustal fragments, over the Tibetan continental crust could have given rise to perhaps 2 km elevation of central Tibet during the Late Cretaceous.

  2. Structure and sedimentary history of Exmouth Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Exon, N.F.; Williamson, P.E.; Von Rad, U.

    1989-03-01

    The large, deep-water Exmouth Plateau off northwestern Australia has been actively explored for petroleum, and a giant gas accumulation has been found. Data from industry and research institutions have established its geological framework. The plateau has a basement of continental crust that was thinned and extended in the Permian. This is overlain by 10 km of Phanerozoic strata, with an average of more than 3 km of Triassic, about 1 km of Jurassic/Cretaceous, and 0.5 km of Cenozoic strata. The plateau separated from other parts of the northern margin of Gondwanaland in the Mesozoic. Latest Triassic and Jurassic rifting formed large north-northeast-trending fault blocks; in the Oxfordian a microcontinent drifted away to the northwest, forming the plateau's northern margin. The other margins developed in the Neocomian as Greater India separated from Australia - the western margin by rifting and the southern by shearing. Terrigenous input declined greatly at that time. This old continental margin, with its relatively thin Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, was selected by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) for comprehensive and fully integrated sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, paleobathymetric, and subsidence studies.

  3. Nigeria: unscreened blood still given to patients.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, P

    1988-12-01

    Anti-AIDS groups in Nigeria have reported that blood transfusion, the use of blood-stained instruments for ritual circumcision, ear-piercing, and tribal face-scarring, drug abuse, and homosexuality are spreading AIDS throughout the country. Only 1 government hospital, the National Orthopedic Hospital in Enugu, Anambra State, requires blood-screening before transfusion. In other hospitals transfusions are given without screening because AIDS-testing equipment is not available and there are no funds with which to buy it. Doctors expect the number of AIDS cases to increase drastically in the next few years. Although, according to official figures, in August, 1988, there were only 30 people suffering from AIDS in the whole of Nigeria.

  4. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Patrick I.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  5. Oral contraceptive marketing in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamgboye, E A; Ladipo, O A

    1992-10-01

    The demographic transition in Nigeria is gradually moving towards the second stage. There is clear evidence of a declining mortality but the fertility rate remains exceptionally high. A realistic approach towards reducing fertility rate is the use of oral contraceptive. This study assesses the distribution system of oral contraceptive in Ibadan, the second largest city in Nigeria. The findings revealed that the people are aware of modern oral contraceptives as they purchase them freely at chemist shops. But effective distribution is hampered by existing channels and high costs. A local source recommended is the proprietary medicine stores, often at convenient locations to the potential users of contraceptives. The current cost which is between $1.3 and $19.5 per couple-years of protection is exorbitant, consuming 0.5-7.8% of the gross annual income of the average individual. Therefore, the government should subsidize the prices of oral contraceptives, to facilitate freedom from the tyranny of excessive fertility.

  6. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L.; Osahon, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon pools encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.

  7. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  8. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  9. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of Falkland (Malvinas) Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, P.D. III

    1987-05-01

    The Falkland (a.k.a. Malvinas) Plateau, offshore southern Argentina, came into being as the result of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous breakup of west Gondwanaland and the opening of the South Atlantic. As the trailing edge of the South American plate, this continental salient has periodically interacted with the African, Antarctic, Scotia, and Nazca plates, recording the complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic plate reorganization in the Southern Hemisphere. The pelagic depositional setting of the plateau following its separation from Africa has resulted in the accumulation of a relatively thin post-rift sedimentary section. This has allowed not only local penetration of the lower Mesozoic section by borehole but also seismic resolution of the pre- and syn-rift strata beyond that generally obtainable from the thick marine basins of the Argentine or South African continental shelves. These subsurface data have been used to compile a relatively complete depositional and tectonic history for the Falkland Plateau which may be applied, by analogy, to sedimentary basins of similar age along the circum-Gondwana perimeter. Three principal tectonic events appear to have influenced the type and orientation of structures and the distribution of stratal patterns presently observed on the Falkland Plateau. These are (1) a Permo-Triassic compressional event (Cape orogeny) that resulted in the formation of a fold-belt running from northwest Argentina through South Africa and across the Falkland Plateau to Antarctica, (2) the two-stage breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous time, and (3) the Tertiary opening of the Drake Passage and the formation of the Scotia Sea.

  10. Regional Seismotectonics in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among the depth of lithosphere brittle fracture, seismotectonics and geothermal anomalous active in Tibetan plateau were investigated using the seismic dada from ISC and Chinese seismic net and geothermal data. The results suggest that the region of anomalously geothermal activity almost coincides that of the normal faulting type earthquake. The geothermal anomaly activity region coincides spatially with that of the events deeper than 60 km as well as. The normal faulting earthquakes may be mainly tectonic activity regimes until 110 km deep in the thermal anomaly region. The strike directions of events are likely the N-S direction, coinciding with the strike of the thermal anomaly active belts. The earthquakes align along the normal faults and faulted-depression zone with the N-S direction. The thermal anomaly activity also distributes along the faulted-depression zone. Many events deeper than 60 km exist in the anomalously geothermal activity region in the plateau. Events extend to bottom of the lithosphere of 110km from the surface, like columnar seismic crowd. The lithosphere extends along the E-W direction due to the E-W extensional stress in the central and southern Tibetan plateau, altitude of the plateau. The tensional stress in the E-W results in the lithosphere fractures and the normal faults striking N-S direction, grabens and faulted-depression zones. Thermal material from the asthenosphere wells upward to the surface along deep seismic fractures and faults through the thick crust. The anomalously thermal activities are attributable to the upwelling thermal material from the mantle in the altitude of Tibetan plateau.

  11. Population increases and educational policies in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fapohunda, O J

    1976-09-01

    Most governments today accept in principle that provision of education is a basic human right as embodied in article 26 of the Declaration of Human Rights. Through education, peace, good international relations, better prospects for economic developments, and improvement of human resources are possible. Despite this awareness, most governments cannot fulfill this requirement of education due to large population sizes, rapid growth and competition for scarce natural resources. An historical survey of the development of educational policies in Nigeria reveals that the Machiavellian policy of the colonial period largely created the present imbalance in the educational development of the Moslem north (where slow development was encouraged) compared to the Christian south. The 1st government participation in education by 1877 was minimal. The colonial government relied heavily on missionary educational activities. Political motives and religious conflicts between the northern and southern regions retarded missionary activities. Not until 1926 did active cooperation begin between the government and local states, reinforced by Elliot's Commission Report, the Phillipson Commission Report and the memorandum on Educational Policy in Nigeria. These reports laid out guidelines for government's aid and participation in provision of educational facilities. Post independence requirements for skilled manpower led to the adoption of the Ashby Commission Report as a basis for higher education. 1980 was set as the desired date for free compulsory education by a conference of African states. Nigeria, persuing this ideal goal, aimed at making education free at all levels and for every citizen. The burden and implications of these policies are examined in the context of projections of primary and secondary school enrollments, costs, and manpower needs. The cost of education is seen to rise with demand. By 1990, Nigeria will have about 24 million children to educate. With global

  12. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  13. Crime in Nigeria: An Exploratory Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    34Security is the most fundamental need of human beings. There are several interrelated domains of security -- physical , emotional, social, economic and...political. However, physical security -- protection from threat or act of violence by individuals, groups or the state is a precondition for human...Policing in Nigeria," 2011, 13. 4 Alemika, 12. 4 beyond the physical harm they inflict. Since rape carries a huge stigma, the researchers

  14. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  15. Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Evolution in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-04

    Nigerian 7 infections, shows that the Nigerian EBOV lineage nests within a lineage previously seen in 8 Liberia but is genetically distinct from it, and...9 available, or when contact tracing cannot completely resolve a transmission chain. 10 The EVD outbreak in Nigeria is unique because both genetic ...contacts. The contact tracing information resulted in a transmission tree similar to 5 that suggested by genetic data, with the index case

  16. Employablity Skills among Graduates of Estate Management in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbenta, Idu Robert

    2015-01-01

    There is wide claim that employers have a high level of dissatisfaction associated with graduates from Nigeria higher institutions of learning. This paper examines whether graduates of estate management in Nigeria higher institutions have employability skills for productive employment. The study randomly sampled 59 principal partners or heads of…

  17. Policy and Experiment in Mother Tongue Literacy in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-01-01

    Assesses Nigeria's efforts to achieve mother-tongue literacy for its citizens. Describes Nigeria's complicated sociolinguistic landscape, national language policies, and the Ife experimental project, studying the use of the mother tongue in primary schools. Points to nonlinguistic factors in educational success, including parental background,…

  18. Deregulation of University Education in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Subair, S. T.; Osifila, G. I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the deregulation of university education in Nigeria, its problems and prospects. The paper commences with the recognition given to education all over the world, especially higher education. Nigeria as a country gives much credence to higher education as the means for social and economic mobility, social transformation, and as…

  19. Pathogenic Variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infecting Soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust is an important disease in Nigeria and many other soybean-producing countries world-wide. To determine the geographical distribution of soybean rust in Nigeria, soybean fields were surveyed in the Derived Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna agroecological zones...

  20. Current molecular epidemiology of Lassa virus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ehichioya, Deborah U; Hass, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Asogun, Danny A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Kleinsteuber, Katja; Lelke, Michaela; ter Meulen, Jan; Akpede, George O; Omilabu, Sunday A; Günther, Stephan; Olschläger, Stephan

    2011-03-01

    Recent Lassa virus strains from Nigeria were completely or partially sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the predominance of lineage II and III strains, the existence of a previously undescribed (sub)lineage in Nigeria, and the directional spread of virus in the southern part of the country. The Bayesian analysis also provided estimates for divergence times within the Lassa virus clade.

  1. Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

  2. Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeography of Mastomys natalensis Rodents, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obadare, Adeoba; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Igbokwe, Joseph; Fasogbon, Ayobami; Igbahenah, Felix; Ortsega, Daniel; Asogun, Danny; Umeh, Prince; Vakkai, Innocent; Abejegah, Chukwuyem; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria. PMID:26982388

  3. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  4. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  5. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  6. Addressing Gender Imbalance in Nigeria's Higher Education through Institutional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the gender imbalance among students in Nigeria's higher education and the possible ways to addressing them. The poor access of female gender to higher education in Nigeria has become a thing of great concern to all stakeholders such as School authorities, Government, International agencies and employers of labor. The paper…

  7. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  8. Professional Counseling in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okocha, Aneneosa A. G.; Alika, Ijeoma H.

    2012-01-01

    The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…

  9. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  10. Secret Cults in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Raymond O. A.; Oniyama, Hope O.

    2009-01-01

    Cultism has remained a problem for tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the Larger Nigerian society since the first decade of the existence of university education in Nigeria. It has been worrisome to have children on campuses and several measures had been adopted to curb cultism some of such measures were the expulsion of the cultists caught and…

  11. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-03-30

    Only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan) have never experienced interruption of poliovirus transmission. Nigeria had the largest number of cases in 2006, accounting for 1,129 (56%) of the 2,002 cases reported globally. However, major innovations to the national polio-eradication program in Nigeria were initiated in 2006. These innovations, if sustained, should advance the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Nigeria (2006 population: 140 million) experienced a resurgence in wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission during 2003-2004 after a loss of public confidence in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and suspension of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in certain northern states. Subsequently, WPV spread within Nigeria and into 19 polio-free countries. Even after national SIAs recommenced, limited acceptance and ongoing operational problems resulted in low vaccination coverage and continued poliovirus transmission. The number of confirmed polio cases in Nigeria attributed to both WPV type 1 (WPV1) and type 3 (WPV3) increased from 782 in 2004 to 830 in 2005 and to 1,129 in 2006 (as of March 23, 2007). To increase the effectiveness of polio-eradication measures and community acceptance of vaccination, in 2006, health authorities in Nigeria introduced monovalent type 1 OPV (mOPV1) vaccine and changed the way SIAs were implemented. This report summarizes these new approaches and overall progress toward polio eradication in Nigeria during 2005-2006.

  12. Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeography of Mastomys natalensis Rodents, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, Ayodeji; Obadare, Adeoba; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Igbokwe, Joseph; Fasogbon, Ayobami; Igbahenah, Felix; Ortsega, Daniel; Asogun, Danny; Umeh, Prince; Vakkai, Innocent; Abejegah, Chukwuyem; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria.

  13. Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

  14. The Use of Adolescents as Domestic Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Emeka Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The use of adolescents as domestic servants has become prevalent in most urban centers in Nigeria. This study focused on adolescents who work as domestic househelps in urban centers with special reference to Ibadan, Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine their mode of recruitment, the nature of their work as well the impact of such…

  15. FIRST REPORTS OF CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Michael, O S

    2015-06-01

    The German Friedrich Hartmut Dost (1910-1985) introduced the word Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the direct application of knowledge regarding a drug's pharmacokinetics to a therapeutic situation in an individual or a population. It is the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring with the ultimate goal of keeping drugs safe. This branch of pharmacology has become the most relevant to the sub-specialty of clinical pharmacology. First reports of Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Nigeria can be credited to two gifted Nigerians, Prof Ayodele O. Iyun and Prof Lateef A. Salako, both of whom were affiliated to the great institutions- University of Ibadan (UI) and the Teaching Hospital, University College Hospital (UCH). Prof A.O Iyun was Nigeria's first home-trained Clinical Pharmacologist, while Prof L.A. Salako played a most significant role in the creation of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, UCH. This edition of the Chronicles highlights a few of the first reports of this exciting branch of pharmacology in Nigeria. This historical review is based on publications listed on the United States National Library of Medicine database (PUBMED).

  16. FIRST REPORTS OF CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Michael, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    The German Friedrich Hartmut Dost (1910-1985) introduced the word Pharmacokinetics. Clinical pharmacokinetics is the direct application of knowledge regarding a drug's pharmacokinetics to a therapeutic situation in an individual or a population. It is the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring with the ultimate goal of keeping drugs safe. This branch of pharmacology has become the most relevant to the sub-specialty of clinical pharmacology. First reports of Clinical Pharmacokinetics in Nigeria can be credited to two gifted Nigerians, Prof Ayodele O. Iyun and Prof Lateef A. Salako, both of whom were affiliated to the great institutions- University of Ibadan (UI) and the Teaching Hospital, University College Hospital (UCH). Prof A.O Iyun was Nigeria's first home-trained Clinical Pharmacologist, while Prof L.A. Salako played a most significant role in the creation of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, UCH. This edition of the Chronicles highlights a few of the first reports of this exciting branch of pharmacology in Nigeria. This historical review is based on publications listed on the United States National Library of Medicine database (PUBMED). PMID:26807087

  17. Demand for Child Healthcare in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Sunkanmi, Odubunmi Ayoola

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria with an estimated $350 per capital annually still ranks near the bottom 158 out of 177 countries in the UN Human Capital Development Index in terms of per capita income, with more than half of the population living in poverty. Over the past decade U5MR is estimated to be 201 deaths/1000 lives births, the high rates of child mortality especially the 0-5 years shows the total breakdown of social and economic well-being of the country. This paper examined child health care demand in Nigeria using the Nested Multinomial Logit Model estimation technique. The study used parents’ education as a proxy for child education, while the decision to make a choice of the health facilities was also assumed to be that of the House-Hold head. The study found out that female child has a higher probability of seeking health care facility ahead of their male counterpart. Also, the household head educational level was found to be a determinant of health care seeking behavior of the child. Empirical evidence also revealed that that the probability of seeking healthcare increases with household size and that demand for child health care in Nigeria is non linear in nature. Based on this, the paper recommends the need to show greater commitment to child health care and that government should reduce the problems militating against effective performance of the health sector such as, inefficiency, wasteful use of resources, low quality of service and poor enabling environment. PMID:23121749

  18. The 'beyond parental control' label in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atilola, Olayinka; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bella-Awusah, Tolulope

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports in Nigeria indicate a geometric rise in incarcerated adolescents, with an overwhelming majority of this increase being attributed to adolescents being declared 'beyond parental control'. There is a nagging suspicion that the Nigerian juvenile justice system has over criminalised adolescents by declaring them 'beyond control' when behavioural problems have actually resulted from child abuse/neglect and family disruption. A study was undertaken in a juvenile justice institution in Nigeria to assess the adequacy of pre-incarceration parental care among adolescents that had been declared as 'beyond parental control'. The study included 75 adolescent boys that had been declared as 'beyond parental control' and a comparison group of 144 matched school going boys. It examined self-reports received from the adolescent boys regarding their pre-incarceration family life and social circumstances, as well as the behavioural problems they had experienced. The findings indicate that adolescent boys who were declared as 'beyond parental control' had a significantly higher lifetime history of behavioural problems than the comparison group, and they also had significantly higher indicators of pre-incarceration child abuse/neglect and problems with stability and consistency of primary support. These findings pose questions regarding the presumption of adequate parental care prior to the declaration of 'beyond parental control'. It also raises questions about child rights protection and juvenile justice reform in Nigeria.

  19. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria; (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.

  20. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

  1. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  2. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  3. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization). PMID:22978519

  4. Two Voices from Nigeria: Nigeria through the Literature of Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lyn

    This unit, designed for use in both history and English classes, uses excerpts from novels as a way to view Nigerian culture and history through the eyes of its people. The literature used comes primarily from the work of two of Nigeria's important novelists: Chinua Achebe and Buchi Emecheta. Both offer views from the Igbo culture of southeast…

  5. Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom

    2007-01-01

    Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN's basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and…

  6. DPyC-SMF Medal Award in Honor of José Luis Lucio Martínez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napsuciale, M.

    2011-09-01

    The DPyC Medal award 2009 has been granted to José Luis Lucio for his contributions to the field of particle physics and to the development of the Mexican high energy physics community. In this contribution I briefly discuss these topics.

  7. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Ennedi Plateau, Chad/Sudan Border, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Ennedi Plateau (18.0N, 24.0E) shows the effects of severe wind erosion on this desert landscape in the far eastern portion of the Sahara Desert. The dark areas are lava flows, the calderas have long ago been eroded by the desert winds. The red toned surrounding surfaces are thick tropical soils, remnants of much earlier times when this region was a much greener savanna landscape that have also been severly eroded.

  9. Hikurangi Plateau: Crustal structure, rifted formation, and Gondwana subduction history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Bryan; Hoernle, Kaj; Werner, Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Seismic reflection profiles across the Hikurangi Plateau Large Igneous Province and adjacent margins reveal the faulted volcanic basement and overlying Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary units as well as the structure of the paleoconvergent Gondwana margin at the southern plateau limit. The Hikurangi Plateau crust can be traced 50-100 km southward beneath the Chatham Rise where subduction cessation timing and geometry are interpreted to be variable along the margin. A model fit of the Hikurangi Plateau back against the Manihiki Plateau aligns the Manihiki Scarp with the eastern margin of the Rekohu Embayment. Extensional and rotated block faults which formed during the breakup of the combined Manihiki-Hikurangi plateau are interpreted in seismic sections of the Hikurangi Plateau basement. Guyots and ridge-like seamounts which are widely scattered across the Hikurangi Plateau are interpreted to have formed at 99-89 Ma immediately following Hikurangi Plateau jamming of the Gondwana convergent margin at ˜100 Ma. Volcanism from this period cannot be separately resolved in the seismic reflection data from basement volcanism; hence seamount formation during Manihiki-Hikurangi Plateau emplacement and breakup (125-120 Ma) cannot be ruled out. Seismic reflection data and gravity modeling suggest the 20-Ma-old Hikurangi Plateau choked the Cretaceous Gondwana convergent margin within 5 Ma of entry. Subsequent uplift of the Chatham Rise and slab detachment has led to the deposition of a Mesozoic sedimentary unit that thins from ˜1 km thickness northward across the plateau. The contrast with the present Hikurangi Plateau subduction beneath North Island, New Zealand, suggests a possible buoyancy cutoff range for LIP subduction consistent with earlier modeling.

  10. The crustal composition of the Falkland Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemt, Claudia; Jokat, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    The Falkland Islands are situated in the South Atlantic Ocean 500 km east of Patagonia, South America. The islands are part of the Falkland Plateau, which stretches eastward for more than 1500 km. A bathymetric high, the Maurice Ewing Bank, terminates the plateau in the east. Until Late Jurassic the Falkland Islands were part of Gondwana and were located adjacent to the east coast of South Africa. While the Falkland Islands and Maurice Ewing Bank are proved to be of continental composition, the nature and structure of the Falkland Plateau's basement in between is debatable. The first crustal model derived from sonobuoy data contradicts an only recently published 3D-gravity model. To enhance the understanding of Gondwana break-up considering timing, geometry and amount of volcanism, further knowledge about the structure and thickness of the crust is inevitable. During the ANT-XXIX/5 Polarstern cruise seismic refraction measurements were conducted using Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and Reftek land stations onshore of East Falkland. The OBS were deployed at 78 locations along an approximately 1500 km east-west stretching profile. For the western transect a P-wave velocity model is calculated using 2D-raytracing techniques. The results are presented in combination with potential field data showing the extension of the Falkland Islands basement, the continent-ocean transition zone and the crustal structure of the plateau. On the Falkland Plateau Basin sediment thickness is about 6 km with velocities ranging from 1.7 to 4.1 km/s in the upper part and about 4.7 km/s above basement. The crust is of oceanic composition with an igneous section that is considerably thicker than average oceanic crust (up to 17 km). The velocity structure in the upper crustal part is typical for layer 2 with a velocity gradient ranging from 5.4 km/s to 6.5 km/s and thicknesses between 1.5 km and 4 km. Layer 3 is about 14 km thick with a velocity gradient from 6.6 km/s to 7.6 km/s, which is

  11. How the early voltage clamp studies of José del Castillo inform "modern" neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    The description of ionic currents that flow across the membrane of the squid giant axon during an action potential sparked an interest in determining whether there were similar currents in vertebrates. The preparation of choice was the node of Ranvier in single myelinated fibers in frog. José del Castillo spent 3 years on the United States mainland from 1956 to 1959. During that time, he collaborated with Jerome Y. Lettvin and John W. Moore. I discuss how these individuals met one another and some of their scientific discoveries using the voltage clamp to study squid giant axons and frog nodes. Much of this work was conducted at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and I attempt to convey a sense of the unique scientific "melting pot" that existed at the Marine Biological Laboratory and the broader effect that del Castillo had on "modern" neuroscience.

  12. Hierarchical analysis of rainfall variability across Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnaji, Chidozie Charles; Mama, Cordelia Nnennaya; Ukpabi, Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall in Nigeria is subjected to wide variability both in time and space. This variability has assumed a more pronounced dimension as a result of climate change. In this paper, cluster analyses were used to study rainfall variability in Nigeria. Rainfall data in 20 locations spread across the geopolitical and ecological zones of Nigeria were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of time series and coefficient of variation for over periods spanning 30 years. Maps of spatial variations of mean annual rainfall and mean rainfall coefficient of variation were produced using ARCGIS 10.1. Furthermore, a better understanding of temporal variation of rainfall was sought by an investigation into the time series of rainfall coefficients of variation. It was found that the southern parts of the country were given to more severe rainfall variability/fluctuations than the northern parts. The north central parts exhibited more similarity to the southern parts than the other northern locations. The relationship between average annual rainfall and the coefficient of rainfall variation was found to follow a power law with R 2 value approximately 0.7. With respect to variability of annual rainfall, three zones emerged as follows: a linear relationship ( R 2 = 0.90) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for the rainforest zone of the southsouth; a power law ( R 2 = 0.86) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all rainforest and derived guinea savannah zones of the southeastern and southwestern states; and a logarithmic relationship ( R 2 = 0.54) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all northern states regardless of ecological zone. Generally, in-year rainfall variability increases from the northwest to the southwest; while between-year (yearly) rainfall variability increases from the north central to the southeast. This study further confirms that rainfall variability

  13. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  14. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  15. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    abstract Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic

  16. Adolescent induced abortion in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omu, A E; Oronsaye, A U; Faal, M K; Asuquo, E E

    1981-12-01

    Induced adolescent abortion is a major cause of maternal and gynecologic death in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, where 244 out of 349 such cases seen from January 1, 1974 to December 31, 1979 were reviewed. Ignorance and lack of contraceptive facilities were contributory factors. To deal with this problem that has been pervasive throughout Nigeria for the past decade, the authors advocate sex education, systematic dissemination of information for planned and conscientious parenthood as well as free availability of alternative methods of contraception. Interruption of early pregnancy should be an essential component of a national family planning program.

  17. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria.

  18. Otomycosis in Nigeria: treatment with mercurochrome.

    PubMed

    Mgbor, N; Gugnani, H C

    2001-11-01

    Seventy-two mycologically proven cases of otomycosis (38 males, 34 females) aged 8-80 years were investigated. Aspergillus niger was the commonest aetiological agent (43.1%) followed by Candida spp. (22.2%), A. flavus (19.4%) and A. fumigatus (15.3%). Three topical drugs, namely mercurochrome, clotrimazole and locacorten-vioform, were evaluated for otomycosis therapy in separate groups of 24 patients each. Mercurochrome was found to be the most efficacious in terms of healing, relief from symptoms of the disease and production of negative fungal cultures. Mercurochrome is recommended as a safe and economical drug for the topical treatment of otomycosis in developing countries like Nigeria.

  19. Epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    McMoli, T. E.; Bordoh, A. N.; Munube, G. M.; Bell, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    Enterovirus 70 has recently emerged as a causative agent of epidemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( AHC ). This paper is a report of the first association of enterovirus 70 with epidemic AHC in Nigeria. Despite numerous symptoms, including reduction in visual acuity, eventual recovery in 2 to 3 weeks with no functional loss was the rule except in 11 patients. Five of these patients ended up with superficial corneal scarring. Two had evisceration for unresolving panophthalmitis, while 4 went blind from ruptured corneal abscesses or ulcers. All the 11 patients had treated themselves or used traditional medications. None of the patients had signs of involvement of the central nervous system. PMID:6326796

  20. Comparison of ground-based measurements of natural radiation to airborne radiation survey data on transects from coastal California to the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P. W.; Hernández, L.; Messina, P.; Dearaujo, J.; Li, A.; Hicks, A.; White, L.

    2008-12-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements were collected with a hand-held Geiger counter at nearly 400 locations on two general transects across the southwestern United States. The data are used to provide ground-truth comparison to published airborne radiation surveys of the region. The first transect was collected by high school students in the SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University in the summer of 2008 starting in San Francisco. Data were collected across the Sierra Nevada Range on I-80, and across Highway 50 in Nevada, and I-70 in Utah. Data were collected in and around Great Basin, Arches, Capitol Reef, Bryce, and Zion National Parks, and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. A second transect extends from San José, California to Flagstaff, Arizona and includes the Mojave National Reserve, Death Valley region, and locations throughout the Navajo Reservation region in northern Arizona and western New Mexico. Radiation data (with GPS reference) were collected from all the major sedimentary rock formations and igneous rocks of the Colorado Plateau and from many igneous and metamorphic rocks throughout the Great Basin and southern California deserts. Anomalously high localized levels were noted in selected sedimentary units associated with uranium exploration targets in the Colorado Plateau region, and in caverns and rock fissures where radon gas (and accumulation of derivative fission products) are the inferred sources.

  1. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  2. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities. PMID:27695224

  3. Petroleum prospects of Southern Nigeria's Anambra Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, O.

    1981-05-04

    Surrounded by the Benue trough, the Middle Niger River depression, the Niger River delta, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium, Nigeria's Anambra basin probably holds a thick, unexplored sequence with significant hydrocarbon potential. The basin's sediment could be 16,000 ft thick; a Bouguer gravity survey indicates two parallel northeast-southwest trending gravity lows (the Anambra low and the Awka depression) separated by the Onitsha high. Although geologists interpret the basin as Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary, its southern portion is down-warped and overlapped by the delta's thick Tertiary deposits, lowering the Cretaceous to prohibitive depths in the overlap areas; wells drilled to 16,000 ft at the delta's apex thus have not encountered the Cretaceous sediments. An evaluation of the basin's pre-Santonian hydrocarbon prospects will require a deep exploratory drilling program. As Nigeria shifts its production emphasis from oil to gas and firms up plans for an LNG plant in the Niger delta, exploration in the gas-prone Anambra basin will probably surge.

  4. High genetic variability of Schistosoma haematobium in Mali and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Charles; Yin, Mingbo; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Bin; Sacko, Moussa; Feng, Zheng; Hu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Schistosoma haematobium is one of the most prevalent parasitic flatworms, infecting over 112 million people in Africa. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of natural S. haematobium populations from the human host because of the inaccessible location of adult worms in the host. We used 4 microsatellite loci to genotype individually pooled S. haematobium eggs directly from each patient sampled at 4 endemic locations in Africa. We found that the average allele number of individuals from Mali was significantly higher than that from Nigeria. In addition, no significant difference in allelic composition was detected among the populations within Nigeria; however, the allelic composition was significantly different between Mali and Nigeria populations. This study demonstrated a high level of genetic variability of S. haematobium in the populations from Mali and Nigeria, the 2 major African endemic countries, suggesting that geographical population differentiation may occur in the regions.

  5. Women in Physics in Nigeria: 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Okeke, Francisca; Ajayi, Modupe; Popoola, Oyebola; Olayanju, Olugbenga

    2009-04-01

    One of the vital ingredients for development of any nation is knowledge of basic science, of which physics is the root source. There is poor enrollment of women in physics at both secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria. Recently, the number of women enrolling in physics in Nigeria has increased slightly, but women are yet to distinguish themselves fully in the field. With a population of about 140 million people, of which more than 50% are women, Nigeria still has low student enrollment for females in physics compared with other courses. After the first and second IUPAP Women in Physics conferences in 2002 and 2005, there has been some improvement for women in physics in Nigeria, through the implementation of some of the resolutions reached at these conferences. We anticipate that implementing the strategies from this Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference will yield positive fruits, as well.

  6. Educational and Social Welfare Programs for Older Populations in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhabekhai, Clement I.

    2003-01-01

    Gives an overview of the aging population in nations such as Nigeria and of adult education's role in their adjustment and well being. Recommends adult day programs rather than isolation in homes for the aged. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  7. Oceanic Plateau Overview and Look Ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanic plateaus result from fundamental processes in the Earth's interior, and have been implicated as instigators of major worldwide environmental changes. Although the plate tectonics paradigm successfully explains volcanic activity on the Earth's surface associated with seafloor spreading and plate subduction, it does not elucidate the massive flood volcanism that produces oceanic plateaus. Temporal correlations between flood basalts and environmental phenomena such as mass extinctions and oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are well documented, yet the underlying mechanisms causing these global catastrophes are only beginning to be grasped. Focused investigations of oceanic plateaus have targeted the two largest features globally, the ~120 Ma Ontong Java Plateau (Pacific Ocean) and ~120-95 Ma Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge (Indian Ocean), and the ~145-130 Ma Shatsky Rise (Pacific Ocean). These three features constitute the only oceanic plateaus where igneous basement has been drilled at more than one site. Multiple models - plume, bolide impact, and upwelling eclogite - have been proposed for Ontong Java's origin. The feature correlates temporally with OAE-1a, and interpretation of Sr, Os, and Pb isotopic systems during the time of OAE-1a points to a close linkage between the two, with CO2, Fe, and trace metal emissions from the massive magmatism potentially triggering the event. The Kerguelen Plateau/Broken Ridge is a composite feature that includes flood basalts, depleted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related asthenosphere, and continental lithosphere. Models for the Shatsky Rise include mantle plume and fast seafloor spreading. Future studies of oceanic plateaus have the potential to transform our understanding of the Earth system through investigating: 1) magma (and hence mantle source) variability through times; 2) the nature of melting anomalies, i.e., compositional vs. thermal, that produce oceanic plateaus; 3) the precise durations of oceanic plateau events

  8. Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Nigeria According to the South Africa-based Institute for Security Studies , “Trans- national criminality in West Africa is generally thought to consist of...Nigeria Attributed to Boko Haram. Source: Institute for the Study of Violent Groups, 2011 Figure 10: Terrorist Incidents Attributed to Boko Haram...2009-2011. Source: Institute for the Study of Violent Groups, 2011 67 Forest: Boko Haram Bama, and Potiskum. By the end of 2011, as indicated in Figure

  9. Drinking Water in Nigeria: A Public Health Threat and Burden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    inter-agencies, international organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGO). viii 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Fairchild Research Information Center (MSFRIC). Nigeria “The U.N. Human Development Index ranks Nigeria as having one of the worst standards of living...of human civilization in the country was discovered. Highlights of its history include: • The arrival of traders from Portugal (late 15th century

  10. An overview of female genital mutilation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Tc; Anyaehie, Usb; Ezenyeaku, Cck

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria, due to its large population, has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115-130 million circumcised women in the world. The objective of this review is to ascertain the current status of FGM in Nigeria. Pertinent literature on FGM retrieved from internet services [Google search on FGM in Nigeria, www.online Nigeria, PubMed of the national library of medicine www.medconsumer. Info/tropics/fgm.htm, Biomedcentral and African Journal Online (AJOL) (FGM)] and textbooks, journals, and selected references for proper understanding of the topic was included in this review. The national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization, United Nations International Children Emergency Fund, Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. However, there is no federal law banning FGM in Nigeria. There is need to eradicate FGM in Nigeria. Education of the general public at all levels with emphasis on the dangers and undesirability of FGM is paramount.

  11. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  12. [Difference in oxygen uptake in skeletal muscles between plateau zokor (Myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniac)].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shi-Hai; Qi, Xin-Zhang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Xin-Feng; Wei, Lian; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2009-08-25

    To investigate the difference between the functions of oxygen uptake in skeletal muscle and living habits of plateau zokor (Myospalax rufescens baileyi) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniac), the microvessel densities (MVD) of skeletal muscle of plateau zokor, plateau pika and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat were measured by immunohistochemical staining; the numerical density on area (N(A)) of mitochondria, and surface density (S(V), external surface area density of mitochondria per unit volume of skeletal muscle fiber) were obtained by stereo microscope technique; mRNA levels of myoglobin (Mb) in skeletal muscle were determined by real-time PCR, and the contents of Mb protein in skeletal muscle were determined by spectro-photometer. The results showed that MVD, N(A) and S(V) of mitochondria in skeletal muscle of plateau pika were significantly lower than those of plateau zokor and SD rat (P<0.05). The mRNA levels of Mb gene in skeletal muscle of plateau zokor and plateau pika were notably higher than that of SD rat (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the contents of Mb among these three species, and plateau zokor and SD rat presented the highest and the lowest value, respectively (P<0.05). The results suggest that even though plateau zokor inhabits in the hypoxia environment, most of its skeletal muscle fiber are red muscle fiber. While most of skeletal muscle fibers of plateau pika are white muscle fibers. This kind of white muscle has low MVD, N(A) and S(V) of mitochondria and less content of Mb compared with the red one, suggesting it obtains most energy from aerobic oxidation. The above-mentioned differences in skeletal muscles may be related to not only the different species, but also the different living habits of these two high altitude species.

  13. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  14. Mineralogy and thermal properties of kaolin from the San José (Oruro, Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Pura; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Martínez, Salvador; Amando Penedo, Lucio; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The San José mine, Oruro, Bolivia is known for provided a broad diversity of minerals. The San José Sn deposit is a Sn-Ag deposit composed of veins hosted in a complex of Miocene domes from monzonitic to dioritic composition within rhyolitic volcanic rocks hosted in Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Advanced argillitic alteration. is widespread in the surroundings of the deposit. Kaolinitization reach industrial importance and the kaolinitized rock is exploited, however it was not already been characterised. In this study we present a preliminary mineralogical and thermal characterization to determine the industrial applications of these kaolinitic materials. A sampling of the kaolinitized rocks in outcrops from the mining area was undertaken. The chemical composition of major and trace elements was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Mineralogy was obtained by powder diffraction X-ray (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Quantitative determination of phases was obtained by the Rietveld refinement method using the Fullprof software. Thermal properties were determined by differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetry (DTA -TG) and dilatometry. Mineral phases determined are mainly quartz (54-55 wt. %), kaolinite (7-8 wt. %), K-feldspar (8-19 wt. %), muscovite (16-17 wt. %), plagioclase up to 3 wt. %, alunite up to 8 wt% and gypsum up to 4 wt%. DTA -TG show a first endothermic event related to the dehydration of gypsum, with a loss weight of 0.4 wt%. An endothermic peak corresponding to the loss of the OH- groups of kaolinite occurs about 520 °C and an exothermic, at 980 °C, due to the crystallization of the mullite phase. The endothermic peak is attributed to the transformation of kaolinite in metakaolinite: Al2Si2O5 (OH)4  Al2Si2O7 + 2H2O and the dehydroxilation of alunite; the loss weight associated with this event is 2.9-3.2 wt%. The exothermic peak is caused by the formation of mullite: 3Al2Si2O7  Al6Si2O13 + 4SiO2. Another loss weight, of 3wt%, is

  15. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  16. Community Policing in South-West Nigeria: Finding a Nexus between the Police and the People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusegun, Omowunmi J.

    2016-01-01

    The joint efforts of the police and the communities in south-west Nigeria to tackle the alarming rates of crime in various societies has over the year been adopted as a strategic way of curbing crime in Nigeria. This paper examines the divergent views of community policing in south-west Nigeria. The paper is empirical in nature though related…

  17. The Nigeria Education System and Vision 20: 2020--A Critical Development Planning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanubi, Franklins A.; Akpotu, Nelson E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the call for Nigeria becoming one of the twenty most developed economies by the year 2020, as it relates to development planning in Nigeria using the educational system as a unit of analysis. It aims at examining the relevance of this call within the context of existing facilities in the Nigeria educational system--both material…

  18. Tower mast of precipitation over the central Tibetan Plateau summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yunfei; Liu, Guosheng; Wu, Guoxiong; Yu, Rucong; Xu, Youping; Wang, Yu; Li, Rui; Liu, Qi

    2006-03-01

    Over the Tibetan Plateau, solar heating often produces strong convective instability in the atmosphere. Using 3 years (1998-2000) of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar data, our investigations revealed a tower mast shape of precipitation over the Plateau in both height-longitude and height-latitude cross-sections. High rain rate center over the Plateau is located above 6km as a tower penetrating into the mid-troposphere against the nearby background, implying a unique latent heating source injecting directly to the middle atmosphere. Results indicate that there are more isolated rain cells over the Plateau than its nearby regions, and the strongest diurnal cycle of rainfall existing over the Plateau with a peak around 1600 and a valley around 0500 local time, indicating the dominance of convective clouds caused by solar heating. It is also found that the TRMM algorithm might have misclassified weak convections as stratiform rains.

  19. Ebola Virus Epidemiology and Evolution in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Folarin, Onikepe A.; Ehichioya, Deborah; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Winnicki, Sarah M.; Wohl, Shirlee; Eromon, Philomena; West, Kendra L.; Gladden-Young, Adrianne; Oyejide, Nicholas E.; Matranga, Christian B.; Deme, Awa Bineta; James, Ayorinde; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher; Onyewurunwa, Kenneth; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Nosamiefan, Iguosadolo; Andersen, Kristian G.; Omilabu, Sunday; Park, Daniel J.; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Nasidi, Abdusallam; Garry, Robert F.; Tomori, Oyewale; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Happi, Christian T.

    2016-01-01

    Containment limited the 2014 Nigerian Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak to 20 reported cases and 8 fatalities. We present here clinical data and contact information for at least 19 case patients, and full-length EBOV genome sequences for 12 of the 20. The detailed contact data permits nearly complete reconstruction of the transmission tree for the outbreak. The EBOV genomic data are consistent with that tree. It confirms that there was a single source for the Nigerian infections, shows that the Nigerian EBOV lineage nests within a lineage previously seen in Liberia but is genetically distinct from it, and supports the conclusion that transmission from Nigeria to elsewhere did not occur. PMID:27377746

  20. Victor's justice: atrocities in postwar Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omaka, Arua Oko

    2016-01-01

    The Nigerian Government's declaration of 'no victor, no vanquished' after the capitulation of Biafra on 12 January 1970, was applauded as the right step towards reconciliation and transition from war to peace. Despite this declaration and assurance of amnesty, the Nigerian Government and its soldiers still engaged in acts that amounted to retributive justice. They starved and killed innocent Biafran civilians, looted their property and raped their women. Surprisingly, these postwar atrocities committed against former Biafrans have been largely ignored in the historiography of the Nigeria-Biafra War. This paper seeks to fill the gap in the war literature by interrogating Nigerian Government's attitude towards the postwar humanitarian crisis and crimes against humanity in former Biafra. The paper argues that former Biafrans were not fully reintegrated into the Nigerian society and that the Nigerian Government deliberately neglected them to die in large numbers, thereby making it difficult for the war victims to recover from the hardships of the conflict.

  1. Planning implications of energy research in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Osotimehin, S.O.A.; Benjamin, N.R.D.; Sanni, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    A survey of projects in research institutions and major public energy organizations was undertaken with a view to determining to what extent energy research activities are in consonance with national research objectives. Such a survey is also useful in developing an appropriate energy research policy for Nigeria. It appears that energy R and D efforts are concentrated in the area of alternative energy resources; this accounts for 66% of the total projects. Most of the local efforts are duplication of international research efforts. Even though the demand for energy research is well defined, the absence of proper coordination and adequate policy instruments have resulted in the unattainment of the research goals of the energy sector. Thus, the arguement adduced by some investigators that lack of demand for research is the main obstacle for designing and implementing a relevant science policy in a developing country does not hold for Nigerian conditions.

  2. Mobil plans methanol plant in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-12

    Mobil Chemical (Houston) is in discussions with Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. (NNPC; Lagos) on a joint venture methanol plant at Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The U.S. firm has invited process owners to submit proposals for a 1-million m.t./year unit and hopes to select the technology by the end of this year. Three proposals have been submitted: Lurgi, offering its own low-pressure process; John Brown/Davy, with the ICI process; and M.W. Kellogg, proposing its own technology. Shareholding in the joint venture is yet to be decided, but it is likely to be a 50/50 tie-up. Marketing of Mobil's share or of the entire tonnage would be handled by Mobil Petrochemical International (Brussels). The plant could be onstream in late 1996.

  3. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  4. Factors Associated with Research Wrongdoing in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Omokhoa A.; Adebamowo, Clement A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about research wrongdoing in biomedical research are growing in developing countries, where research ethics training and research regulatory systems are just emerging. In a first-time study in Africa, medical/dental researchers (N = 132) in two states in Nigeria were interviewed on a wide range of research wrongdoings and potential predictors. Using multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors of research wrongdoing were identified. Some 22.0% admitted to at least one of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism, the predictors of which were knowledge gaps in research ethics and pressure to publish enough papers for promotion. Acknowledging inadequate knowledge of research ethics was a predictor of admitting a wrongdoing. Systems that support ethical research, including skilled training and funding, are recommended. PMID:23324199

  5. Neonatal transport practices in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abdulraheem, Muhydeen Abiodun; Tongo, Olukemi Oluwatoyin; Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Akinbami, Olukayode Felix

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal transport involves moving sick neonates in optimal conditions to ensure good outcomes. It is well organized in most developed countries but receives little attention in developing countries where the highest burden of neonatal mortality exists and a large number of newborns require referrals daily for better medical care. This study sought to evaluate the modes of transport, pre- and intra-transport care of neonates referred to the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods The methods of transporting 401 neonates presenting to the children’s emergency room of the hospital were evaluated as well as the care the babies received during transport. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi square test while continuous variables were compared by the student t-test. Results About a third presented in the first 12hours and 85% in the first week of life, all from within 80km radius. There were 67.1% term, 31.4% preterm and 1.5% post-term neonates, all without prior communication. The modes of transport included private vehicles (43.9%), commercial vehicles (40.6%), motorcycles (9.0%), ambulance (4.0%) and on foot (2.5%). Only 3 (0.7%) were transported in incubators and none in KMC position. Only 42.0% had referral letters and 7.0% were accompanied by medical personnel. Materials available during transport included Ambubags (3.7%), oxygen (3.5%) and some drugs (3.5%). Events during transport were apnoea, 4.7%, vomiting 1.0%, reduced activity 16.2% and seizures 13.7%. 19 (4.7%) neonates were dead on arrival. Pre-transport care included resuscitation (18.2%), intravenous fluid/feeding (24.4%) and supplemental oxygen (14.0%). Conclusion Neonatal transport practices in Ibadan, Nigeria are abysmal with associated high mortality. PMID:27800071

  6. Islam, polygamy and family planning in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, I A

    1972-01-01

    This refutes the belief common in Nigeria that Islam enjoins its adherents to be polygamous and thereby, indirectly, to procreate many children. This notion occurs not only among non-Muslims but also among Nigerian Muslims, who feel that to be sincere about their faith they must practice polygamy and have so many children they can barely support them. In fact, at the advent of Islam the number of wives was set at a maximum of 4 to counteract the then prevalent practice of having large numbers of wives. In pre-Islamic Arabian society a man could and often did have 10-20 wives. The Qur'an 4:3 is cited to point out that the true intent of the Prophet was to limit the number of wives to at most 4 and to insist that each wife be treated equally. This means that each wife and her children must have separate quarters, not, as is common in Nigeria, be jammed into 1 room with the other wives. The scriptural references regarding birth control can be taken 2 ways. Those who cite them as prohibiting birth control point out that children are a blessing from Allah. Those who read whole passages find many references to the Prophet's approval of coitus interruptus, which was the only family planning method known at the time. It is felt he would also have approved of something more sure and less messy. In many Muslim countries polygamy is dying out because of economic circumstances. In Pakistan the permission of the 1st wife must be obtained before a 2nd can be married. Many Muslim countries also have active family planning programs. The overburdened women would appreciate a chance to practice family planning. It is the alfas and mallams who must be reeducated to the true Islamic precepts on these subjects.

  7. A Tribute to José María (“Chema”) Cantú

    PubMed Central

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Llerena, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    José María (“Chema”) Cantú (1938–2007), born in Mexico, was a pioneering, loved and respected leader in medical and human genetics and bioethics in Latin America. He graduated as a physician in Mexico and then trained in medical and human genetics in France and the United States. He was instrumental in developing a first-rate research, training and genetic services program in medical and human genetics in Guadalajara, in northwestern Mexico. He acted forcefully at national, regional and international levels to promote scientific development through collaboration and education in science and humanities, while he simultaneously strived for justice, peace, love and human rights. He attained some of the highest honors a scientist and humanist could aspire to as well as the recognition of the communities he served. Hundreds of disciples throughout Latin America and the world have been inspired by his vision of a better world through the conjunction of science, respect for humankind, ethics and love. PMID:24764766

  8. Numerical solving of equations in the work of José Mariano Vallejo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Castelao, José-Miguel; Pérez-Fern; ández, F. Javier; Suárez Alemán, Carlos-Oswaldo

    2007-09-01

    The progress of Mathematics during the nineteenth century was characterised both by an enormous acquisition of new knowledge and by the attempts to introduce rigour in reasoning patterns and mathematical writing. Cauchy's presentation of Mathematical Analysis was not immediately accepted, and many writers, though aware of that new style, did not use it in their own mathematical production. This paper is devoted to an episode of this sort that took place in Spain during the first half of the century: It deals with the presentation of a method for numerically solving algebraic equations by José Mariano Vallejo, a late Spanish follower of the Enlightenment ideas, politician, writer, and mathematician who published it in the fourth (1840) edition of his book Compendio de Mathemáticas Puras y Mistas, claiming to have discovered it on his own. Vallejo's main achievement was to write down the whole procedure in a very careful way taking into account the different types of roots, although he paid little attention to questions such as convergence checks and the fulfilment of the hypotheses of Rolle's Theorem. For sure this lack of mathematical care prevented Vallejo to occupy a place among the forerunners of Computational Algebra.

  9. Modifications to ESSEA Curriculum at San José State University: Adapting to Teachers' Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, P.; Metzger, E. P.; Sedlock, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    San José State University's Geology Department and Program in Science Education piloted their ESSEA program in spring 2003. The initial offering, the High School Course, drew teachers from California and New York. Formative feedback and summative evaluations from participants suggested that the curriculum could be modified to serve its target audience more effectively. Dialog with other ESSEA P.I.s confirmed that many of these suggestions were aligned to the needs of teachers in other states. In summer 2003 SJSU's ESSEA team revised the High School Course in response to these discussions. The revised course contains three 4-week cycles (instead of four 3-week cycles), a slight decrease in group activities and increase in individual assignments, and required readings on "Netiquette." This revised curriculum was shared with four other ESSEA institutions before the start of classes in fall 2003. Future plans include the substitution of one of the existing 4-week cycles with another that focuses on the cosmosphere, and how the Earth spheres may affect and/or respond to more distant influences. Doing so would further benefit teachers by allowing the ESSEA course to satisfy subject matter competency in the geosciences, a requirement of the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing and counterpart authorities in other states.

  10. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    PubMed

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile.

  11. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment.

    PubMed

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-10-09

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records.

  12. Loess Plateau storage of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau-derived Yellow River sediment

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Junsheng; Stevens, Thomas; Rittner, Martin; Stockli, Daniel; Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Bird, Anna; Andò, Sergio; Vermeesch, Pieter; Saylor, Joel; Lu, Huayu; Breecker, Daniel; Hu, Xiaofei; Liu, Shanpin; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Peng, Wenbin; Carter, Andrew; Ji, Shunchuan; Pan, Baotian

    2015-01-01

    Marine accumulations of terrigenous sediment are widely assumed to accurately record climatic- and tectonic-controlled mountain denudation and play an important role in understanding late Cenozoic mountain uplift and global cooling. Underpinning this is the assumption that the majority of sediment eroded from hinterland orogenic belts is transported to and ultimately stored in marine basins with little lag between erosion and deposition. Here we use a detailed and multi-technique sedimentary provenance dataset from the Yellow River to show that substantial amounts of sediment eroded from Northeast Tibet and carried by the river's upper reach are stored in the Chinese Loess Plateau and the western Mu Us desert. This finding revises our understanding of the origin of the Chinese Loess Plateau and provides a potential solution for mismatches between late Cenozoic terrestrial sedimentation and marine geochemistry records, as well as between global CO2 and erosion records. PMID:26449321

  13. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.W.; Hackett, W.R.; Ore, H.T. )

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56{degree}E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  14. Extension of the Yellowstone plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Owyhee plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, David W.; Hackett, William R.; Ore, H. Thomas

    1990-11-01

    Formation of the late Cenozoic volcanic province comprising the Owyhee plateau, eastern Snake River Plain, and Yellowstone plateau has been accompanied by east-northeast-directed crustal extension. A new vector of 45 mm/yr, N56°E for the migration of silicic volcanism across the volcanic province is calculated. If migration of volcanism reflects west-southwest continental drift over a mantle plume, a zone of crustal extension must separate the volcanic province from the more slowly moving North American craton. Space-time relations of basin fill in the adjacent Basin and Range province provide evidence for a zone of extension, about 125 km wide, coincident with and east of coeval silicic volcanism. Since 16 Ma, the zone of extension has migrated along with silicic volcanism, maintaining its position between the province and the unextended craton.

  15. Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Matthew; Bawuro, Musa; Christopher, Alfred; Knight, Alexander; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Chapman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule. PMID:28254982

  16. Geochemical Evolution of the Hikurangi Oceanic Plateau, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Werner, R.; Mortimer, N.; van den Bogaard, P.; Geldmacher, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Hikurangi oceanic plateau or large igneous province (LIP), located east of the North Island of New Zealand, covers an area of 350,000 km3 and is located at a depth of 2,500-3,500 b.s.l. The Hikurangi plateau was possibly connected to the Manihiki LIP (now located 3000 km to the north) but may have been separated by Cretaceous seafloor spreading at the Osbourn Trough (Billen and Stock, 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 13481-13489). Therefore it may have formed part of the "greater Ontong Java Plateau event" (Coffin and Eldholm, Geology, 21, 515-51), the largest magmatic event preserved on Earth. During the R/V Sonne SO168 ZEALANDIA cruise, 77 dredge hauls containing igneous samples were recovered from the Hikurangi Plateau. Volcanic rocks were obtained from 1) the plateau basement along the 1 km high Rapuhia Scarp, 2) large guyot-type seamounts within the plateau, and 3) ridge-type seamounts associated with rifting of the NE plateau margin (Hoernle et al., 2004, EOS). The recovered plateau rocks range from basalts, dolerites and gabbros with tholeiitic and alkali basaltic to trachybasaltic compositions. The seamount volcanic rocks have more Si-undersaturated compositions than the plateau rocks and range from alkali basalts through mugearites to basanites through tephrites to nephelinites. The plateau basement rocks have flat rare earth element (REE) patterns similar to enriched mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB) and basement rocks from other oceanic LIPs, such as Manihiki, Ontong-Java and the Caribbean. The late-stage seamount lavas show enrichment in the light REE and all strongly to moderately incompatible elements, having incompatible element characteristics similar to the HIMU (high time-integrated U/Pb) component in ocean island basalts (OIB). Although the Pb isotopic composition has been extensively effected by seawater alteration, the freshest samples have enriched (EM-type) Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions similar to Ontong-Java and Manihiki basement rocks

  17. The Hubble flow of plateau inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Coone, Dries; Roest, Diederik; Vennin, Vincent E-mail: d.roest@rug.nl

    2015-11-01

    In the absence of CMB precision measurements, a Taylor expansion has often been invoked to parametrize the Hubble flow function during inflation. The standard ''horizon flow'' procedure implicitly relies on this assumption. However, the recent Planck results indicate a strong preference for plateau inflation, which suggests the use of Padé approximants instead. We propose a novel method that provides analytic solutions of the flow equations for a given parametrization of the Hubble function. This method is illustrated in the Taylor and Padé cases, for low order expansions. We then present the results of a full numerical treatment scanning larger order expansions, and compare these parametrizations in terms of convergence, prior dependence, predictivity and compatibility with the data. Finally, we highlight the implications for potential reconstruction methods.

  18. Plateau inflation in SUGRA-MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Gupta, Gaveshna; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2016-09-01

    We explored a Higgs inflationary scenario in the SUGRA embedding of the MSSM in Einstein frame where the inflaton is contained in the SU (2) Higgs doublet. We include all higher order non-renormalizable terms to the MSSM superpotential and an appropriate Kähler potential which can provide slow-roll inflaton potential in the D-flat direction. In this model, a plateau-like inflation potential can be obtained if the imaginary part of the neutral Higgs acts as the inflaton. The inflationary predictions of this model are consistent with the latest CMB observations. The model represents a successful Higgs inflation scenario in the context of Supergravity and it is compatible with Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  19. Logarithmic correlations in quantum Hall plateau transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Romain

    2015-07-01

    The critical behavior of quantum Hall transitions in two-dimensional disordered electronic systems can be described by a class of complicated, nonunitary conformal field theories with logarithmic correlations. The nature and the physical origin of these logarithmic correlation functions remain, however, mysterious. Using the replica trick and the underlying symmetries of these quantum critical points, we show here how to construct nonperturbatively disorder-averaged observables in terms of Green's functions that scale logarithmically at criticality. In the case of the spin quantum Hall transition, which may occur in disordered superconductors with spin-rotation symmetry and broken time reversal invariance, we argue that our results are compatible with an alternative approach based on supersymmetry. The generalization to the integer quantum Hall plateau transition is also discussed.

  20. Lake level changes on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Xie, H.; Kang, S.; Ackley, S. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) in central Asia has an average elevation of more than 4000 m, covers an area of about 2.5 million km2, and is now called “the Third Pole” of the Earth with the largest ice mass outside the north and south polar regions. It is also considered as “the Water Tower” of Asia since glaciers and seasonal snow melt provide the primary water source for billions of people. The TP, as a whole, has undergone warming in the past three decades; the temperature rise of 0.3 °C per decade is twice the global warming rate. It is currently difficult, if not impossible, to monitor elevation and its change of all lakes in Tibetan Plateau (TP) using field observations. Here we use ICESat altimetry data to provide precise lake elevations and their changes during the period of 2003-2008. We find that in the 68 lakes (51 salt lakes) examined, 53 (78%) of all lakes and 44 (86%) of the salt lakes show trends of lake level increase. The mean lake level increase rate is 0.29 m/year for the 53 lakes, and 0.30 m/year for the 44 salt lakes. The largest lake level increase (0.95 m/year) we found is the lake Cedo Caka. Three of the four subregions of the TP show increased lake levels. The increase in lake level, particularly for a high percentage of salt lakes, supports the accelerated glacier melting in the TP due to global warming.

  1. EDITORIAL: Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau Integrated assessments of environmental change on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yongwei; Yao, Tandong

    2009-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the Earth's most sensitive regions in responding to climate change due to its extremely high altitude and the presence of permafrost and glaciers. The cryosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere of the plateau have been undergoing significant changes. Due to the low human population density, environmental changes on the plateau are largely driven by natural processes. Thus, the plateau provides a unique and comprehensive site for global change studies. This focus issue on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau aims to address both paleo and recent environmental changes across the plateau to facilitate our understanding of this remote and under-studied area. We invited a wide spectrum of contributions to address climate change, permafrost degradation, glacier/snow/ice dynamics, lake dynamics, land- cover/land-use changes, and their interactions on the plateau. Collectively, the diverse contributions in this special issue are expected to present the recent advancement of the above topics and beyond. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau Contents Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau? Qinglong You, Shichang Kang, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Yuping Yan, Yanwei Xu and Jie Huang Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations Xiaodong Liu, Aijuan Bai and Changhai Liu Lake-level fluctuations since the Last Glaciation in Selin Co (lake), Central Tibet, investigated using optically stimulated luminescence dating of beach ridges Dewen Li, Yingkui Li, Baoqi Ma, Guocheng Dong, Liqiang Wang and Junxiang Zhao Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery Koji Fujita, Akiko Sakai, Takayuki Nuimura, Satoru Yamaguchi and Rishi R Sharma Changes

  2. On validation of the rain climatic zone designations for Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiyemi, O. O.; Ibiyemi, T. S.; Ojo, J. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, validation of rain climatic zone classifications for Nigeria is presented based on global radio-climatic models by the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Crane. Rain rate estimates deduced from several ground-based measurements and those earlier estimated from the precipitation index on the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) were employed for the validation exercise. Although earlier classifications indicated that Nigeria falls into zones P, Q, N, and K for the ITU-R designations, and zones E and H for Crane's climatic zone designations, the results however confirmed that the rain climatic zones across Nigeria can only be classified into four, namely P, Q, M, and N for the ITU-R designations, while the designations by Crane exhibited only three zones, namely E, G, and H. The ITU-R classification was found to be more suitable for planning microwave and millimeter wave links across Nigeria. The research outcomes are vital in boosting the confidence level of system designers in using the ITU-R designations as presented in the map developed for the rain zone designations for estimating the attenuation induced by rain along satellite and terrestrial microwave links over Nigeria.

  3. Causes of gas gangrene seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Okechukwu Emmanuel

    2008-04-01

    Gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) is rarely seen and this rarity, coupled with its dramatic presentation and often devastating outcome, makes each case of gas gangrene a spectacular and memorable experience. This study analyses the cases managed, the causes and outcome. Gunshot wounds, compounded by late presentation with its accompanying florid infections, were seen as the causes in 14 cases of gas gangrene seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu during the four-year study period from July 2000 to June 2004.

  4. Central Plateau Cleanup at DOE's Hanford Site - 12504

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    The discussion of Hanford's Central Plateau includes significant work in and around the center of the Hanford Site - located about 7 miles from the Columbia River. The Central Plateau is the area to which operations will be shrunk in 2015 when River Corridor cleanup is complete. This work includes retrieval and disposal of buried waste from miles of trenches; the cleanup and closure of massive processing canyons; the clean-out and demolition to 'slab on grade' of the high-hazard Plutonium Finishing Plant; installation of key groundwater treatment facilities to contain and shrink plumes of contaminated groundwater; demolition of all other unneeded facilities; and the completion of decisions about remaining Central Plateau waste sites. A stated goal of EM has been to shrink the footprint of active cleanup to less than 10 square miles by 2020. By the end of FY2011, Hanford will have reduced the active footprint of cleanup by 64 percent exceeding the goal of 49 percent. By 2015, Hanford will reduce the active footprint of cleanup by more than 90 percent. The remaining footprint reduction will occur between 2015 and 2020. The Central Plateau is a 75-square-mile region near the center of the Hanford Site including the area designated in the Hanford Comprehensive Land Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement (DOE 1999) and Record of Decision (64 FR 61615) as the Industrial-Exclusive Area, a rectangular area of about 20 square miles in the center of the Central Plateau. The Industrial-Exclusive Area contains the 200 East and 200 West Areas that have been used primarily for Hanford's nuclear fuel processing and waste management and disposal activities. The Central Plateau also encompasses the 200 Area CERCLA National Priorities List site. The Central Plateau has a large physical inventory of chemical processing and support facilities, tank systems, liquid and solid waste disposal and storage facilities, utility systems, administrative facilities, and groundwater monitoring

  5. Colorado Plateau Uplift Through Deep Crustal Hydration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, L. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Jones, C. H.; Farmer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The conventional view of plate tectonics restricts deformation to plate boundaries and does not account for regionally elevated topography in continental interiors. Thermal, mechanical or chemical alteration of ancient continental lithosphere is a mechanism sometimes invoked to explain intracratonic uplift in the western U.S. although the timing, extent and effects of this modification are poorly understood. Here we present new petrological and in situ geochronological data for a hydrated deep crustal xenolith from the Colorado Plateau and investigate the effects of deep crustal hydration on topography. Two distinct mineral assemblages recorded in a garnet biotite schist xenolith from the Navajo Volcanic Field, Four Corners region document hydration subsequent to peak metamorphism in the deep crust whereby the primary metamorphic assemblage (Gt + Bt + Ms + Pl + Kfs + Qtz) is variably replaced by a lower-density, hydrated assemblage (Ab + Ph + Cc + Rt). Results from forward petrological modeling constrain hydration at ≥ 20 km (0.65 GPa, 450 °C) prior to exhumation in the ˜20 Ma volcanic host. In situ Th/Pb dating of secondary monazite grains spatially associated with fluid-related plagioclase and allanite breakdown reveals a significant majority of Late Cretaceous dates from 91 to 58 Ma. These dates are interpreted to reflect a finite period of deep crustal hydration, possibly by fluids sourced from a shallowly subducting Farallon slab. Xenolith data additionally supports crustal hydration as a mechanism for producing regionally elevated topography. Fluid-related reactions in the deep crust may lead to a net density decrease as low-density hydrous phases (e.g. Ms + Amp + Cc) replace high-density, anhydrous minerals (e.g. Gt + Fsp + Opx + Cpx) abundant in high-pressure, high-temperature assemblages preserved in Proterozoic North American lithosphere. If these reactions are sufficiently pervasive and widespread, reductions in lower crustal density would provide a

  6. Incision into the eastern Andean Plateau during Pliocene cooling.

    PubMed

    Lease, Richard O; Ehlers, Todd A

    2013-08-16

    Canyon incision into mountain topography is commonly used as a proxy for surface uplift driven by tectonic or geodynamic processes, but climatic changes can also instigate incision. The ~1250-kilometer (km)-long eastern margin of the Andean Plateau hosts a series of 1.5- to 2.5-km-deep canyons that cross major deformation zones. Using (U-Th)/He thermochronology, we document a transition from Miocene faulting to Pliocene canyon incision across the northeastern plateau margin. Regionally, widespread Pliocene incision into the eastern plateau margin is concurrent with a shift in global climate from early Pliocene warmth to late Pliocene cooling. Enhanced moisture transport onto the Andean Plateau driven by sea surface temperature changes during cooling is the likely pacemaker for canyon incision.

  7. Quaternary geochronology and distribution of Mammuthus on the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Agenbroad, L.D.; Mead, J.I. )

    1989-09-01

    There are 41 known localities containing mammoth remains from the Colorado Plateau: 24 in Arizona, 12 in Utah, 3 in New Mexico, and 2 in Colorado. Of the 41 localities, 13 (32%; Arizona and Utah only) have yielded radiometric dates ({sup 14}C and U/Th); 10 (77%) of these have been the result of the authors' investigations. The four youngest radiocarbon dates produce a weighted average date of approximately 11,270 {plus minus}65 yr B.P., the youngest directly aged mammoth remains on the Colorado Plateau. Mammoth remains are recovered predominantly in alluvial regimes, in addition to alcove, cave, and spring deposits. No direct association of Mammuthus and the Clovis hunters has been reported from the Colorado Plateau. Dietary intake, recorded in dung remains, included predominantly graminoids, in addition to various woody shrubs and trees that currently grow at higher elevations on the Colorado Plateau.

  8. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  9. Groundwater resources of the Columbia Plateau regional aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, Sue C.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2015-09-22

    The Columbia Plateau is a wide basalt plateau between the Cascade Range and the Rocky Mountains that covers parts of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The climate over much of the Columbia Plateau is semiarid with precipitation ranging from 7 to 15 in/yr in the central part (Vaccaro and others, 2015), yet the area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, including the production of apples, corn, grapes, hops, mint, potatoes, stone fruit, and wheat. Groundwater pumpage and surface-water diversions supply water to irrigated croplands that account for about 5 percent of the Nation’s irrigated lands. Groundwater also is the primary source of drinking water for about 1.3 million people living on the plateau.

  10. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Nigeria, January 2013-September 2014.

    PubMed

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Usman, Samuel; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei wa; Burns, Cara C; Mahoney, Frank; Vertefeuille, John F

    2014-11-21

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide. By 2013, only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. Since 2003, northern Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In May 2014, the World Health Organization declared the international spread of polio a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Nigeria's main strategic goal is to interrupt WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission by the end of 2014, which is also a main objective of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan for 2013-2018. This report updates previous reports (4-6) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2013-September 30, 2014. Only six WPV cases had been reported in 2014 through September 30 compared with 49 reported cases during the same period in 2013. The quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) improved during this period; the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) within 11 high-risk states with estimated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) campaign coverage at or above the 90% threshold increased from 36% to 67%. However, the number of reported circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases increased from four in 2013 to 21 to date in 2014, and surveillance gaps are suggested by genomic sequence analysis and continued detection of WPV1 by environmental surveillance. Interrupting all poliovirus circulation in Nigeria is achievable with continued attention to stopping cVDPV2 transmission, improving the quality of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, increasing vaccination coverage by strengthened routine immunization services, continuing support from all levels of government, and undertaking special initiatives to provide vaccination to children in conflict-affected areas in northeastern Nigeria.

  11. The Case for Atmospheric Physics & Space Exploration in Nigeria In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubachukwu, A. A.; Okeke, P. N.

    2000-12-01

    Capability in basic space science is an essential component for economic development in the 21st century. Yet, African countries in particular are completely passive to the development of basic space science. This article examines the problems facing the development of space science in Nigeria and presents arguments for why a nation such as Nigeria should invest in research on basic space science. La compétence en science spatiale fondamentale est un composant essentiel du développement économique au 21ième siècle. Cependant les pays africains, en particulier, sont complètement passifs envers le dééveloppement des sciences spatiales fondamentales. Cet article examine les problèmes auxquels le développement des sciences spatiales se heurte au Nigéria, et présente les raisons pour lesquelles une nation telle le Nigéria devrait investir dans la recherche spatiale.

  12. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  13. Composition of Syrtis Major volcanic plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Erard, S.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrtis Major, a low-relief volcanic shield centered near 295 degrees 10 degrees N, is an old, well-preserved and exposed volcanic region on Mars which formed at the end of the heavy bombardment period. The composition of these volcanic materials has importance for understanding the thermal and chemical history of Mars. Imaging spectrometer data of the Syrtis Major volcanic plateau are used in this analysis to identify major compositional components. First and second order even channel reflectance spectra between 0.77 and 2.55 microns from four broad classes of materials on Syrtis Major are given. For the volcanic materials, there are three primary classes characterized by albedo, slope, and shape of the 10 micron band. To emphasize the latter, straight line continua were removed from each spectral segment and replotted in another figure. Each spectrum shows a band minima near 0.96 microns and 2.15 microns indicative of pyroxene mineral absorptions. Comparison of these band minima with studies of pyroxene reflectance spectra suggests that the pyroxenes in the volcanics of Syrtis Major are high calcium pyroxene with a Ca/(Mg+Fe+Ca) ratio of 0.2 to 0.3. The most likely pyroxene is an augite.

  14. Blowing Snow Over the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, Ashwin; Eager, Rebecca; Campbell, James R.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of blowing snow over Antarctica have been limited greatly by the remoteness and harsh conditions of the region. Space-based observations are also of lesser value than elsewhere, given the similarities between ice clouds and snow-covered surfaces, both at infrared and visible wavelengths. It is only in recent years that routine ground-based observation programs have acquired sufficient data to overcome the gap in our understanding of surface blowing snow. In this paper, observations of blowing snow from visual observers' records as well as ground-based spectral and lidar programs at South Pole station are analyzed to obtain the first climatology of blowing snow over the Antarctic plateau. Occurrence frequencies, correlation with wind direction and speed, typical layer heights, as well as optical depths are determined. Blowing snow is seen in roughly one third of the visual observations and occurs under a narrow range of wind directions. The near-surface layers typically a few hundred meters thick emit radiances similar to those from thin clouds. Because blowing snow remains close to the surface and is frequently present, it will produce small biases in space-borne altimetry; these must be properly estimated and corrected.

  15. Solution of the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Lussardi, Luca; Fried, Eliot

    2017-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a liquid film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. We establish the existence of an equilibrium shape that minimizes the total energy of the system under the physical constraint of noninterpenetration of matter, but allowing for points on the surface of the bounding loop to come into contact. In our treatment, the bounding loop retains a finite cross-sectional thickness and a nonvanishing volume, while the liquid film is represented by a set with finite two-dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, the region where the liquid film touches the surface of the bounding loop is not prescribed a priori. Our mathematical results substantiate the physical relevance of the chosen model. Indeed, no matter how strong is the competition between surface tension and the elastic response of the filament, the system is always able to adjust to achieve a configuration that complies with the physical constraints encountered in experiments.

  16. Miocene high-elevation landscape of the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Ding, Lin

    2016-10-01

    The high topography of central Asia is the most distinctive expression of the India-Asia collision, yet a broad understanding of the timing and processes involved in the development of the Tibetan Plateau remains elusive. Here we investigate the Neogene Songpan Basin located on the eastern margin of the plateau using oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry to determine when the steep Longmen Shan margin obtained its present elevations. Hydrologically open lacustrine and fluvial-alluvial authigenic carbonates from the basin record the paleoelevations of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and suggest that the area has attained near-present elevations of ˜3000 m by the late Miocene. This reconstruction is consistent with the results from the comparison of pollen fossils to their nearest living relatives in this area (2750-3050 m). We propose that the eastern Tibetan Plateau may have attained significant elevations prior to the late Miocene through an uplift scenario involving eastward growth of the plateau between the Eocene and the Miocene. Two tectonic processes, either crustal shortening in the Oligocene-Miocene or eastward propagation of weakened lower crust starting in the Eocene, most likely thickened the crust and raised the surface of the eastern Tibetan Plateau to its present elevation by the late Miocene.

  17. Permafrost and Railroad Construction on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang railroad is under construction on "The Roof of the World" --- the Tibetan Plateau, to be completed in 2007. The railroad will cross 550 km of permafrost region over the Tibetan Plateau, 50% of which is high-temperature permafrost and 37% of which is ice-rich permafrost. Predicted climate warming over the Tibetan Plateau in the coming decades would accelerate permafrost degradation. Surface disturbance due to the railroad construction would further destabilize permafrost conditions and seriously damage the ecosystem in the permafrost region. Thawing of warm permafrost over the Tibetan Plateau becomes one of the key issues in the cross-Plateau railroad construction. In this presentation, we will discuss techniques used to prevent permafrost from thawing due both to the climate warming and the surface disturbance of engineering construction. Although several techniques have been used over the Tibetan Plateau, application of crushed rock layer to cool permafrost and maintain permafrost stability is very successful at current stage although further observations are needed. We will also further demonstrate the principles of using the crushed rock layer to maintain permafrost based on data from field investigation, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations.

  18. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy.

  19. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that 2.2% of Nigeria's adult population was infected with HIV by the end of 1995. A 1993-94 sentinel surveillance report found a 3.8% HIV seroprevalence level among sexually active Nigerians sampled. HIV prevalence is rising in the country. Incidence and prevalence data are presented on HIV and AIDS in sections on antenatal clinics, HIV-1 and HIV-2, group variations, regional variations, age variations, prostitutes, and infection by blood. The Nigerian government has projected that there could be 7 million people infected with HIV in the country by the year 2000. Background is presented on the economy, living standards, health, and population. Vulnerability is then considered with regard to population mobility, drug trafficking, the vulnerability of women, the international sex trade, the military presence in Liberia, sexual attitudes, poverty, and ignorance. The responses of the government and the domestic nongovernment sector are then presented followed by description of external assistance from the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the British Overseas Development Agency, the World Health Organization, the private sector, and the European Commission.

  20. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, O O; Olaosebikan, B H; Animashaun, B A; Akintayo, R O

    2017-03-01

    Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is a complex multisystemic autoimmune disorder of unknown cause. It accounts for about one in five cases of SLE. The tendency for SLE to run a fulminant course when it starts in childhood has made JSLE a potentially more severe disease than adult SLE. Reports of JSLE from sub-Saharan Africa are scanty in spite of the increasing reports of adult SLE. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of JSLE cases seen at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Out of the 12 patients studied, eight were girls and four were boys. All patients had positive antinuclear antibody and extractable nuclear antibody tests. Anti-dsDNA antibody was positive in 10 patients. Eight patients had renal disease while four patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations. Haematological abnormalities and constitutional symptoms were present in all patients. Patients were treated with pulse methylprednisolone, oral prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine and azathioprine. Three patients also received rituximab. In conclusion, JSLE exists in Nigeria and exhibits clinical and immunological characteristics similar to its pattern in other parts of the world. It is, however, diagnosed late and is possibly being underdiagnosed as there is no paediatric rheumatologist in the country.

  1. Taxation of petroleum production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Attah, J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis develops an economic model of exploration and extraction of a non-renewable resource. The model is then used to examine the effects of a variety of taxes on the exploration and production decisions of an extractive firm. The effects of the tax policies are analyzed by solving an optimization problem in which the firm is assumed to maximize the present value of cashflows from resource extraction over a finite planning horizon, using non-linear techniques. The tax analysis shows that royalties, severance taxes, property taxes, profit taxes with cost or percentage depletion, profit tax with royalty expensing, and progressive income tax may induce a change in the firm's optimal exploration and extraction decisions. Ad valorem royalty taxes, severance taxes, and progressive income tax may induce the firm to extract at a slower rate in the current periods; whereas property taxes, profit taxes with cost or percentage depletion, and profit taxes with royalty expensing may induce the firm to extract at a faster rate in the current periods. The financial analysis reveals that the net-present values of the Canadian investment are higher than those of each of the other three countries: Nigeria, Indonesia, and Thailand. The Nigerian investment is shown to yield the least net-of-tax cashflows and net-present values.

  2. Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Lian, Biao; ...

    2015-08-31

    Here, we propose to realize a two-dimensional chiral topological superconducting (TSC) state from the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition in a magnetic topological insulator thin film through the proximity effect to a conventional s -wave superconductor. This state has a full pairing gap in the bulk and a single chiral Majorana mode at the edge. The optimal condition for realizing such chiral TSC is to have inequivalent superconducting pairing amplitudes on top and bottom surfaces of the doped magnetic topological insulator. We further propose several transport experiments to detect the chiral TSC. One unique signature is that the conductance willmore » be quantized into a half-integer plateau at the coercive field in this hybrid system. In particular, with the point contact formed by a superconducting junction, the conductance oscillates between e2 /2h and e2 /h with the frequency determined by the voltage across the junction. We close by discussing the feasibility of these experimental proposals.« less

  3. Chiral topological superconductor and half-integer conductance plateau from quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quan; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-08-31

    Here, we propose to realize a two-dimensional chiral topological superconducting (TSC) state from the quantum anomalous Hall plateau transition in a magnetic topological insulator thin film through the proximity effect to a conventional s -wave superconductor. This state has a full pairing gap in the bulk and a single chiral Majorana mode at the edge. The optimal condition for realizing such chiral TSC is to have inequivalent superconducting pairing amplitudes on top and bottom surfaces of the doped magnetic topological insulator. We further propose several transport experiments to detect the chiral TSC. One unique signature is that the conductance will be quantized into a half-integer plateau at the coercive field in this hybrid system. In particular, with the point contact formed by a superconducting junction, the conductance oscillates between e2 /2h and e2 /h with the frequency determined by the voltage across the junction. We close by discussing the feasibility of these experimental proposals.

  4. Paleomagnetic Data From Ontong Java Plateau are Anomalous ˜ Did the Plateau Form on Another Plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    A recent study of Ocean Drilling Program basalt core paleomagnetic data from Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) found paleolatitudes that disagree with previous estimates of the Early Cretaceous Pacific APWP, a result attributed to poor quality of data used in prior pole calculations [Riisager, P., S. Hall, M. Antretter, X. Zhao, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 208, p. 235, 2003]. My compilation of paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous Pacific basalt cores drilled by the Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program shows that paleocolatitude data in of ages 118-129 Ma display greater scatter than other age bins. The only factor that allows this data group to be coherently subdivided is whether or not the coring site is located on OJP. Without OJP data, paleocolatitude scatter is much less and gives a similar pole position (48.9° N, 327.1° E, N=40) to data in the 110-118 Ma interval. Data from the plateau give a pole that is 15° farther north (64.9° N, 323.4° E; N=37), indistinguishable from late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous skewness poles. The OJP and non-OJP poles are distinct at the 95% confidence level despite having indistinguishable mean ages of 121.6 ±1.1 Ma (OJP) and 123.4 ±4.1 (non-OJP). Because Ontong Java Plateau data come from 6 different sites spread over the northern plateau, tectonic tilting is not a likely explanation for the difference. Also unlikely are systematic errors such as incomplete averaging of secular variation (large number of independent magnetic units sampled), inaccurate radiometric dates (many high quality dates), or inadequate paleomagnetic techniques (detailed studies by several different investigators). Rapid true polar wander does not seem a plausible explanation because global true polar wander curves have a different trend. Perhaps the simplest explanation is the one often used when anomalous data are found within a plate: the anomalous region had a different history of tectonic drift. In this scenario, OJP formed on a separate

  5. Integration of mass drug administration programmes in Nigeria: The challenge of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank O.; Eigege, Abel; Miri, Emmanuel S.; Jinadu, M. Y.; Hopkins, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with safe oral anthelminthic drugs (praziquantel, ivermectin and albendazole) is the strategy for control of onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and schistosomiasis. District health officers seek to integrate treatment activities in areas of overlapping disease endemicity, but they are faced with having to merge different programmatic guidelines. APPROACH: We proceeded through the three stages of integrated MDA implementation: mapping the distribution of the three diseases at district level; tailoring district training and logistics based on the results of the mapping exercises; and implementing community-based annual health education and mass treatment where appropriate. During the process we identified the "know-do" gaps in the MDA guidelines for each disease that prevented successful integration of these programmes. LOCAL SETTING: An integrated programme launched in 1999 in Plateau and Nasarawa States in central Nigeria, where all three diseases were known to occur. RELEVANT CHANGES: Current guidelines allowed onchocerciasis and LF activities to be integrated, resulting in rapid mapping throughout the two states, and states-wide provision of over 9.3 million combined ivermectin-albendazole treatments for the two diseases between 2000 and 2004. In contrast, schistosomiasis activities could not be effectively integrated because of the more restrictive guidelines, resulting in less than half of the two states being mapped, and delivery of only 701,419 praziquantel treatments for schistosomiasis since 1999. LESSONS LEARNED: Integration of schistosomiasis into other MDA programmes would be helped by amended guidelines leading to simpler mapping, more liberal use of praziquantel and the ability to administer praziquantel simultaneously with ivermectin and albendazole. PMID:16917658

  6. The controversial age of Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Zapf, Alexander; Szidat, Sönke; Salazar, Gary; Hardy, Doug; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Interpreting climate signals contained in natural archives requires a precise chronology. Radiocarbon analysis can be a powerful tool for dating high-altitude ice cores, especially for the lowermost segments for which ice flow-induced thinning limits the counting of annual layers. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to ice cores containing sufficient organic material, which is a limiting factor to the wider application of this technique. We present a novel radiocarbon dating approach using carbonaceous aerosols enclosed in the ice to help resolve the debate about the age of the Kilimanjaro's plateau glaciers. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on six ice cores drilled in 2000 assigned a basal age of 11'700 years. A recent study claims recurring cycles of waxing and waning controlled primarily by atmospheric moisture and an absence of the ice bodies was suggested for 1200 AD. The Kilimanjaro ice fields are subject to rapid areal shrinkage and thinning and are expected to disappear within several decades. Resolving the controversy of the time frame for the extinction of the Kilimanjaro ice might have wide implications for the understanding of the natural climate variability in the tropics. A stratigraphic sequence of samples from the exposed vertical ice cliffs at the margins of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) was collected in 2011. A total of 45 horizontal short cores (50 cm length) were extracted from 22 horizons characterized by varying micro-particle concentrations. Additionally, 3 samples were taken from the glacier surface to investigate a potential age offset. All samples were shipped frozen to Paul Scherrer Institute, decontaminated in a cold room by removing the outer layer (0.3 mm) and by rinsing the samples with ultra-pure water. The insoluble carbonaceous particles were filtrated by using freshly preheated quartz fibre filters. Procedural blanks were estimated using artificial ice blocks of frozen ultra-pure water treated as real ice samples and were

  7. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  8. Surface currents and upwelling in Kerguelen Plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Zhu, Y.; d'Ovidio, F.; Park, Y.-H.; Durand, I.; Kestenare, E.; Sanial, V.; Van-Beek, P.; Queguiner, B.; Carlotti, F.; Blain, S.

    2014-05-01

    Mean currents, horizontal diffusivity and upwelling on the Kerguelen Plateau and the deep basin east of the Kerguelen Islands were studied using 48 World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Standard Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifters deployed during the 2011 austral spring KEOPS II (KErguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study II) cruise. These drifter data were analyzed based on autocovariances for temporal scales, least-squares fitted streamfunctions for estimating mesoscale mean currents, wind stress fields and Ekman pumping, and Taylor's single particle diffusivity for estimating horizontal dispersion of surface waters. The results have revealed the shelfbreak current on the southern and eastern shelf slopes of the Kerguelen Islands, transport of surface waters from the Kerguelen-Heard shelf basin crossing the shelf slope into the deep basin off the plateau east of the Kerguelen Islands, and upwelling driven by wind stress curl in both the plateau and deep basin regions. The estimated volume transports off the Plateau in the upper 50 m based on surface drifters and below the mixed layer based on wind stress curl are 0.5 and 1.7 Sv, respectively, the mean and standard deviation of vertical velocities driven by wind stress curl averaged in the plateau and deep basin regions up to 3.2 ± 7.4 m d-1, and the upwelling fluxes in the surveyed plateau and deep basin regions are approximately 0.7 and 1.1 Sv, respectively. These physical transport processes can have significant effects on balances between biogeochemical elements and their recycling processes.

  9. High Tibetan Plateau: a Nature Reserve of C3 Flora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, G.; Pagani, M.; Brandon, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and associated climate changes leading to enhanced seasonality in precipitation and drying, are argued to have induced a global ecological shift from C3-frorest to C4-grassland between 8 and 5 million years ago. However, both tectonic and climatic changes predate the timing of the C3-C4 transition, with paleoaltimetry studies pointing to a high Tibetan Plateau no later than 10 Ma and the existence of an intense monsoon since ca. 11 Ma. To better understand the role of the Tibetan Plateau, we present results of a paleoecology study based on the carbon isotope compositions of leaf-wax n-alkanes (δ13Calk) from Qaidam basin, an intermontane basin on the youngest and the northernmost portion of Tibetan Plateau. Samples were collected from a 5-km thick, fluvial-lacustrine sequence dated 15 Ma to 1.8 Ma. Organic geochemical indices and detrital thermochronological studies preclude post-depositional thermal alteration of the studied materials. Our results, which show persistently low δ13Calk values, are consistent with the dominance of C3 flora on the Tibetan Plateau, in contrast to the prominent C4 rise surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and around the globe. We argue that a high Tibetan Plateau, established prior to the global ecological C3-C4 shift, served as a shelter of C3 flora since the Miocene. High-elevation and cold environments provided a competitive advantage for C3 by damping/counteracting the physiological advantage of C4 which outperforms C3 plants under warm, high-irradiance, water-stress and low pCO2 conditions.

  10. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  11. Obstetric predictors of hypertension: A cross-sectional study of women attending the postnatal clinic of Jos University Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Hadiza A.; Okeahialam, Basil N.; Daru, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive disease in pregnancy (HDP) accounts for high mother and child morbi-mortality and predict future cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to identify obstetric predictors of HDP needing preventive action to reduce its consequences; when women present to antenatal clinic (ANC). Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive this was an Interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire-based study of the anthropometric, and blood pressure measurementsin attendees at the postnatal clinic (PNC) of Jos University with ANC records. Setting: Six weeks postnatal clinic (PNC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Results: The following indices proved predictive of HDP and subsequent hypertension: weight (P = 0.009), hip circumference (P = 0.018), parity (P = 0.043), waist circumference (P = 0.00), abdominal height (P = 0.040), waist/height (P = 0.020), history of developing hypertension in previous pregnancy (P = 0.000), birth weight of baby (P = 0.02), and mode of delivery (P = 0.05). Conclusion: To initiate preventive action on ANC registration in mitigating effects of or outrightly preventing HDP, careful check on anthropometry as well as history of hypertension or operative/preterm delivery in a previous pregnancy is necessary PMID:27942098

  12. Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajayi, Hannah O.

    2008-01-01

    Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

  13. The Semantic Implications of Media Reports on Violence in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abochol, Simon Itine; Adegboye, Oluseye Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    This paper is on semantics of words and expressions of various grammatical constructions that make reference to violence as reported in the Nigerian media, particularly, the newspaper where such words and sentences about violence are prominent. Twenty-four (24) headlines/captions on violence were randomly selected from Nigeria dailies for data…

  14. Leadership Training at First Bank of Nigeria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Fatai; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to identify components of an exemplary leadership development program that might serve as a framework for training leaders for banking organizations in Nigeria. We recruited 30 managers, supervisors, and officers with at least 10 years of banking experience to explore leadership…

  15. Campus Planning in Nigeria. Case Study: University of Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Bob

    A case study of the University of Benin in Nigeria illustrates campus planning in the development of a university. Eight aspects of university planning are considered: (1) the functions of a university (students, staff, facility capacity); (2) residential accommodation for students and staff; (3) commercial facilities (shopping); (4) environment…

  16. Actualizing the Goals of Environmental Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Erhabor Igbinosa

    2016-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of aiding citizens of Nigeria in becoming environmentally knowledgeable and above all skilled and dedicated citizens who are willing to work individually and collectively towards achieving or maintaining a dynamic equilibrium between quality of life and that of the environment, this raises the pertinent role of environmental…

  17. Globalization of Access to Higher Education: Lessons for Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Education is such a powerful instrument for national transformation and development such that anything that affects an educational system negatively affects the national development. This study investigated the extent to which access to higher education is globalized and the implications for Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was adopted…

  18. Militarization in Nigeria: Its Economic and Social Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nzimiro, Ikenna

    1983-01-01

    The arms build-up in Nigeria and its effect on health, education, food production, and the economy are analyzed. "Indigenization" in the context of militarization only means the import of the frenzy and irrationality of the arms race into social structures riddled by hunger, inequality, sickness, and ignorance. (SR)

  19. Higher Education Financing in Nigeria: Issues and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuyi, Jacob Olusayo; Okemakinde, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The potential of the higher education system to act as an agent of growth and development in Nigeria is being challenged by the long-standing problems of limited access, inadequate financing, poor governance, declining quality and relevance. Thus, this paper provides an overview of the trends and nature of public funding of higher education in…

  20. Planning and Funding of Higher Education in Nigeria: The Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinyemi, Samuel; Bassey, Ofem Igot

    2012-01-01

    Higher education remains the pivot of national development in Nigeria. This is because the stock of highly-educated individuals produced by higher education institutions plays an important role in the innovation and the sustainable development of any society. However, over time, these institutions have experienced increase in enrolments and yet…

  1. Socio-Politico--Pedagogical Problems of Language Teaching in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omoniyi, Ayeomoni Moses

    2012-01-01

    The languages spoken in Nigeria do not only play significant roles in the socio-political life of the country, but also help in no small measure to unify or integrate the country that is so much diverse in all spheres of life. In realizing these multiplicity of roles the languages play in the country, the Government instituted and enacted a policy…

  2. The Impact of Wireless Phone Technology on Users in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezenezi, Robins E.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that with the increasing diffusion of cell phones in Nigeria have come with problems such as network congestion, service inefficiencies, rising costs, and increased taxes. The purpose of this study was to examine and explore which, if any, sociopersonal variables (theft of handsets, educational levels, security risk) and…

  3. Improving Quality Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles of stakeholders in improving quality of university education in Nigeria. Internal and external stakeholders are identified and the various roles they could play in improving the quality of university education are discussed. The paper contends that continuous and holistic improvement in university education system…

  4. Inclusive Education Setting in Southwestern Nigeria: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluremi, Fareo Dorcas

    2015-01-01

    Researches from developed and developing countries found that there were problems affecting the inclusive education in Nigeria. Hence, there is need to determine the challenges facing the schools where inclusive education is being implemented, and what could be done to improve the programme. The study showed that essential facilities and materials…

  5. Problems and Prospects of Education Resource Centres in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanem, Johnson Efiong

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria has good policies on Education and one of such policies is the establishment of Education Resource Centres in every State of the Federation, including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The need is clearly articulated in the National Policy on Education. Despite the lofty plan, most of the centres are not fulfilling the need for their…

  6. Access to University Education in Nigeria: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, B. M.; Ofoegbu, F. I.

    2010-01-01

    Demand for university education has increased due to the recent innovations of universal, free and compulsory education at the basic and senior secondary education level. Education has been expanding very rapidly at all levels in Nigeria. However, there are serious problems related to quality, equity, unavailable human and material resources and…

  7. Inclusive Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: The Journey so Far

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Ishola Akindele

    2014-01-01

    The education of children with special educational needs in Nigeria is recognized and supported by at least three policy documents. All the three documents state that inclusion or integration should be at the heart of education designed to meet the needs of children with special educational needs. But since 2004, when government started providing…

  8. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  9. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  10. Ceramics Art Education and Contemporary Challenges in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashim, Isah Bolaji; Adelabu, Oluwafemi Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Formal ceramics art education is becoming a fundamental requirement for professional practice in ceramics in Nigeria. Considering the ample resources available for ceramic practices in the country with a teeming population of over 140 million people, there is a promising future for the art, in spite of the effects of globalization and…

  11. Achieving Youth Employment and National Security in Nigeria: TVET Imperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Ofonmbuk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rate of unemployment in Nigeria is alarming and could promote social vices some of which are kidnapping, armed robbery, child trafficking, Cultism, Drug peddling and ritual killing. These social vices could in no small measure constitute a threat to national security as a matter of fact. Therefore, the development of a workable Technical and…

  12. Counselling for Sustainable Peace in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nduka-Ozo, Stella Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    This study reviewed the nature of peace in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria using Ebonyi State University as a case study. The purpose of the study was to review the various factors responsible for lack of peace. The sample was drawn from the three hundred level students of the Faculty of Education. Thirty students were selected from each of the…

  13. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  14. Planning a New School for Visually Handicapped Children in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shown, D. G.

    The paper addresses considerations in planning a new school for visually impaired students in Nigeria. Site considerations touch upon safety, maximum educational achievement, adequate space for practicing mobility and future expansion, catchment area, and financial involvement. Curriculum considerations include use of a braille production machine,…

  15. Working towards an integrated land contamination management framework for Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sam, Kabari; Coulon, Frédéric; Prpich, George

    2016-11-15

    Over the past five decades, Nigeria has developed a number of contaminated land legislations to address the damage caused primarily by oil and gas exploitation activities. Within these legislations exists elements of risk assessment and risk-based corrective action. Despite this progress, we argue that contaminated land management approaches in Nigeria need further development to be able to integrate new scientific information, and to address environmental, economic, and social values. By comparison, advanced contaminated land regimes in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America (USA) apply a number of integrative approaches (e.g. sustainability appraisal, liability regime, funding mechanisms, technology demonstration) that enable them to meet the environmental, economic, and social needs of their populations. In comparison, Nigerian governance lacks many of these mechanisms and management of contaminated land is ad hoc. In this paper we propose an integrated risk assessment framework for Nigeria that incorporates the principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement into the decision-making processes for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management. The integrated approach relies on transparency to promote acceptance and build trust in institutions, and uses stakeholder engagement to address data deficiencies. We conclude this paper with a roadmap for how Nigeria might implement such an integrative approach into their existing contaminated land regulatory system, as well as identify a series of policy priorities that should be addressed.

  16. Poverty of Primary Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Akindele Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Inspite of the fact that primary education forms the foundation on which education at the secondary and tertiary levels rests, the issue of poverty is undermining its roles in Nigeria. In this paper, this issue of poverty of primary education was examined, from the perspectives of its history, scope, indicators, in terms of inadequacy of resource…

  17. 75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    .... firms find business partners and sell equipment and services in Lagos and Abuja, Nigeria. Targeted... broad range of credible Nigerian business partners and Nigerian officials. Best Prospects Energy: At 20..., transportation and construction. This mission will be led by a senior official and will include...

  18. Biliteracy and the Attainment of Sustainable Development in Multilingual Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onukaogu, Chukwuemeka

    2008-01-01

    Although Nigeria understands the indispensability of English in its human and material development, sustainable development has continued to elude it because of its failure to develop bi-literacy in English and its Mother Tongues (MTs). The products of its school system cannot, with fluency, read and write in both. Examining why inter/intra…

  19. Behavioural Constraints on Practices of Auditing in Nigeria (BCPAN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpomi, Margaret E.; Amesi, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the behavioural constraints on practices of auditing (BCPAN) in Nigeria and to proffer strategies for making incidence of auditing (internal and external auditors) more effective. Thirty-seven administrators drawn from some public limited liability companies, private companies and tertiary institutions were…

  20. Problems and Prospects of Open and Distance Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere

    2006-01-01

    Distance education as a mean of providing access to education, particularly tertiary level education, has gained great prominence in the world. Nigeria has taken giant steps of recent to introduce open and distance education programme. This paper explores the major terms inherent in open and distance education, its potentials, possible factors…

  1. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    PubMed

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries.

  2. Newspaper Framing of Climate Change in Nigeria and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Chinenye; Egbra, Stella

    2016-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of two newspapers from Nigeria and Ghana to determine the coverage and framing of climate change issues for a period of 7 months. The main objective of this study is to find out how climate change stories are framed in Nigerian and Ghanaian national dailies. It was found among others, that the overall dominant…

  3. Online Scientific and Technological Information in Nigeria: Prospects and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodipe, R. O.

    Nigeria is faced with developmental problems, most of which can be solved with the aid of scientific and technological information contained in books, journals and patents, largely obtainable from the advanced countries. There are academic and research institutions generating information that could enhance the economic development of the country…

  4. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  5. Skills Mismatch among University Graduates in the Nigeria Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, S. O.

    2012-01-01

    University graduates in Nigeria have been reported to be poorly prepared for work in recent years. This has implications on the relevance of university education, the employability and productivity of university graduates. One of the reasons suggested for this condition by previous studies was skill mismatch--a situation where there is a disparity…

  6. Operationalizing universal health coverage in Nigeria through social health insurance

    PubMed Central

    Okpani, Arnold Ikedichi; Abimbola, Seye

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria faces challenges that delay progress toward the attainment of the national government's declared goal of universal health coverage (UHC). One such challenge is system-wide inequities resulting from lack of financial protection for the health care needs of the vast majority of Nigerians. Only a small proportion of Nigerians have prepaid health care. In this paper, we draw on existing evidence to suggest steps toward reforming health care financing in Nigeria to achieve UHC through social health insurance. This article sets out to demonstrate that a viable path to UHC through expanding social health insurance exists in Nigeria. We argue that encouraging the states which are semi-autonomous federating units to setup and manage their own insurance schemes presents a unique opportunity for rapidly scaling up prepaid coverage for Nigerians. We show that Nigeria's federal structure which prescribes a sharing of responsibilities for health care among the three tiers of government presents serious challenges for significantly extending social insurance to uncovered groups. We recommend that rather than allowing this governance structure to impair progress toward UHC, it should be leveraged to accelerate the process by supporting the states to establish and manage their own insurance funds while encouraging integration with the National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:26778879

  7. Curbing Examination Dishonesty in Nigeria through Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekayinfa, Alice Arinlade; Omosewo, E. O.; Yusuf, A. A.; Ajidagba, U. A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination dishonesty is one of the most devastating and conspicuous forms of indiscipline in Nigeria. It has become a cankerworm in the Nigerian education system over the years. It has graduated from being an educational issue to an educational crisis. It has many forms, causes and consequences and the Nigerian government has tried on many…

  8. Philosophical Education toward Democratization and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugwuozor, Felix Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Nigeria's democratization dilemmas and the imperatives of an educational framework against the backdrop of the Boko Haram insurgency. It identifies and connects the pattern, character and dynamics of the existing educational system. It also discusses the system's failure in calling for a new approach to overcome the prevailing…

  9. Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

  10. Internationalizing the Curriculum: The Case of the Sleeping Giant, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Emma T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In a Fulbright-Hays project to enhance multicultural education, 16 Pennsylvania educators traveled to Nigeria to develop curricula concerning that culture. Five resulting curriculum suggestions for the elementary level are listed and three college-level courses in modern art, communications media, and the role and status of Nigerian women are…

  11. LANGUAGE, ETHNIC IDENTITY AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLFF, HANS

    THE INHABITANTS OF THE OIL RIVERS OR RIVERS SECTION OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA ARE DIVIDED BY HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND LANGUAGE INTO TWO GROUPS--THE COASTAL PEOPLES AND THE HINTERLAND PEOPLES. COASTAL DIALECTS BELONG TO THE IJO GROUP OF LANGUAGES WHILE THE HINTERLAND DIALECTS ARE OF ANOTHER LANGUAGE FAMILY. DURING THE 19TH CENTURY THE HINTERLAND PEOPLES…

  12. Educational Practices for a New Nigeria: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Hasan; Lafer, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study conducted at the Nigerian Turkish International Colleges (NTICs) in Abuja, Nigeria. Twenty-two participants comprised of three administrators, seven teachers, four parents, and eight students participated in the study. The data collected through observations, informal, formal and semi-structured in-depth…

  13. Reflective Practice in Nigeria: Teachers' Voices and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyacinth, Timi; Mann, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This article presents data collected in a qualitative study of Nigerian English language teachers working in Nigeria. Many of these Nigerian teachers have not had a formal introduction to reflective practice. Most of them work in conditions of constraint and challenge, experiencing a lack of resources, support and often working with large classes.…

  14. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi infecting soybean in Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a major disease in many soybean-producing areas in Nigeria. To determine the virulence and the genetic structure of Nigerian field populations of the soybean rust pathogen, a total of 116 purified isolates established from infected leaves randomly co...

  15. Christian Education and Nation Building: A Focus on Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajani, Ezekiel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of Christian education to nation building with a focus on Nigeria. Books, journal articles, and personal observations combined to serve as the resources for the study. The major questions addressed relate to the importance of Christian education to building the Nigerian nation in order to promote infrastructure…

  16. Religious Conflicts and Education in Nigeria: Implications for National Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushe, Ushe Mike

    2015-01-01

    The persistent religious conflicts and insecurity in Nigeria has given meaningful Nigerians a cause for deep concern in recent times. Many of them wonder why religion which used to be the cohesive factor and core of national unity, peaceful co-existence and national development has become a tool for political manipulation, violence, destruction of…

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Tokashiki, Minami; Opara, Maxwell Nwachukwu; Iroh, Gabriel; Hayashi, Kei; Kumar, Uday Mohanta; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola gigantica is considered the major pathogen causing fasciolosis in Africa; however, molecular characterization of this fluke has not been adequately elucidated. It is important to scientifically elucidate the dispersal history of F. gigantica by analyzing its genetic diversity. Fasciola flukes from Nigeria were analyzed using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. A total of 172 Fasciola flukes collected from cattle were identified as F. gigantica because they displayed the F. gigantica fragment pattern in multiplex PCR for the nuclear marker, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck). In total, 70 haplotypes were detected from Nigerian F. gigantica on the basis of the concatenated sequence of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1). The index of neutrality (Fu's Fs) suggests rapid expansion of the Nigerian F. gigantica population. Although four haplogroups, Nigeria 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B, were detected from Nigerian F. gigantica, a climate-specific genetic structure was not observed among F. gigantica populations from three agro-climatic regions (Sahel, Savannah, and Forest). This is probably because of the frequent transportation of livestock from one part of the country to the other. Nigeria 1A and 1B had close relationships with the Egyptian population of F. gigantica, whereas Nigeria 2A and 2B were comparatively related to the Zambian population. No haplotype was shared among the three countries, and it therefore is difficult to estimate the dispersal route of F. gigantica within the African continent.

  18. Measles Virus Infection Among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Johnson A.; Olusola, Babatunde A.; Motayo, Babatunde O.; Akintunde, Grace B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated measles infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated children presenting with fever and maculopapular rash during measles outbreaks in the southern and western states of Nigeria. Measles, an acute viral illness caused by a virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a vaccine-preventable disease. Measles outbreak is common in Nigeria, despite the national immunization program. Children presenting with symptoms of measles infection in general hospitals and health centers in the states of southern and western Nigeria were recruited for this study. Vaccination history, clinical details, and 5 mL of blood were obtained from the children. Their sera samples were screened for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to measles virus. Of 234 children tested (124 [53.2%] female), 133 (56.8%) had previously been vaccinated against measles virus, while 93 (39.7%) had not been vaccinated. Vaccination information for eight children could not be retrieved. One hundred and forty-three (62.4%) had measles IgM antibodies. Of these, 79 (55.3%) had been vaccinated for measles, while 65 (44.7%) had not. Despite the ongoing vaccination program in Nigeria, a high number of children are still being infected with measles, despite their vaccination status. Therefore, there is need to identify the reason for the low level of vaccine protection. PMID:26102341

  19. A Multilevel Analysis of Late Entry in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delprato, Marcos; Sabates, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how factors operating at the state and community levels are associated with the prevalence of late school enrolment in Nigeria. We investigate the following three research themes. First, whether late entry varies across states and across communities and how much of this variation can be explained by the composition of…

  20. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

  1. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  2. Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

  3. Effects of Integrating Peace Education in the Nigeria Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olowo, Oluwatoyin Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempted to investigate the effects of integrating Peace Education into Nigeria educational system. Four research questions were designed for the study. The researcher designed an instrument tagged: Questionnaire on effect of Integrating Peace Education (QEIPE). The entire population of two hundred respondents spread across Secondary…

  4. Educational Policies and Problems of Implementation in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The poor performance of the education sector in Nigeria has become very worrisome. What is the problem? Is the educational policy faulty or is it the implementation that is faulty? What are the implications for national development? These are the issues explored in this paper, based on a literature review approach. The findings blame the…

  5. 25 Years of Centralised University Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Universities Commission, Lagos (Nigeria).

    The history of university education in Nigeria is examined, beginning with the implementation of the Lord Eric Ashby Commission's report in 1962, which started the march towards general access to university education. Following an introduction by Idris Abdulkadir, the following papers are presented: "The Nigerian University as a Trustee of…

  6. The Language-in-Education Politics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert; Peter, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the rejection of mother tongue-based bilingual education in Southern Nigeria and in Northern linguistic minority areas, this study investigates the micropolitics of language education by interrogating everyday language practices of education stakeholders which are at variance with language-in-education policy. It relied on…

  7. Knowledge Production in Higher Education: Policies and Practices in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbodo, Charles M.; Efanga, Sunday I.; Ikpe, Usen G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on knowledge production in higher education, policies and practices in Nigeria. At the introduction, the overall objectives of higher education are highlighted and the concepts of policies explained. The paper therefore identifies some factors as the major challenges to knowledge production; some of the factors are…

  8. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study of Sermons in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esimaje, Alexandra Uzoaku

    2012-01-01

    Religious sermons play a very significant role in a pluralist setting like Nigeria, as organs of social, political and moral education. The fulfilment of these functions is partly contingent on the effective use of language. If the sermon-giver and his audience draw from the same pool of lexis, communication in the genre will not only be enhanced…

  9. Globalizing Higher Education Access in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Mohammed Mubashiru; Kolawole, Oladipupo Fatai; Moyosore, Onabanjo Florence

    2013-01-01

    Education is central to national interest and cannot be solely determined by market forces. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy and funding education to embrace access cannot be overemphasized. The influence of globalization on Higher Education access in Southwest Nigeria as it affects policy making was investigated through the…

  10. The School System and the Social Development of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Oliver V. A.

    The goal of the Nigerian school system in the context of national integration, modernization, and stability is social equalitarianism and welfare. Also, historically, Nigerian schools have been competitive and Western because of the colonial regime and missionary schools. The pattern remains in independent Nigeria with English literacy and Western…

  11. University Autonomy in a Third-Generation University in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan; Ilusanya, Gboyega

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the level of autonomy in one of Nigeria's third-generation universities. Findings indicated that generally government intervention was rated as not unreasonable. Specifically, the study discovered that government never exerts any influence on the appointment, discipline, tenure and dismissal of staff; entry standards and pass…

  12. Motivations for Gang Membership in Lagos, Nigeria: Challenge and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaam, Abeeb Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores the major challenges (in the form of risk factors) that may influence unemployed youths' involvement in gang and criminal activity in Lagos, Nigeria. A combination of techniques (e.g., oral, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires) were used for the data collection. The computed outcomes establish some of the major…

  13. Computer Usage as Instructional Resources for Vocational Training in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguzor, Nkasiobi Silas

    2011-01-01

    The use of computers has become the driving force in the delivery of instruction of today's vocational education and training (VET) in Nigeria. Though computers have become an increasingly accessible resource for educators to use in their teaching activities, most teachers are still unable to integrate it in their teaching and learning processes.…

  14. Issues and Future Direction of Physical Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgbor, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the issues that influenced the development of physical education in Nigerian schools after the country's political independence in 1960. Negative forces, which affected the tempo of growth, are discussed, and suggestions for the future direction of physical education in Nigeria, particularly given its importance in national…

  15. Fertility and female employment in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Feyisetan, B J

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between fertility and female employment in a Nigerian urban center, Lagos. The study is built upon the data derived from the Survey of Household Structure, Family Employment, and the Small Family Ideal carried out in 1974. The study centered around currently married women aged 15-49, living in 2 residential areas chosen to include wage-earning and non wage-earning workers. It is principally a test of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis, whose major tenet is that the maternal role and function of worker are incompatible with each other. On the basis of the assumption, the fertility and female employment equations are estimated by the 2 stage least squares procedure and estimated results compared to those derived from the ordinary least squares procedure. The results demonstrate that mothering and working tend to conflict only if employment is undertaken in the formal sector of the labor market; a positive association is discernable between the proclivity to engage in non-domestic but irregular activities of the informal sector and the bearing and rearing of children. While the conflict between fertility and female employment in the formal sector suggests possible trade-offs between the number of children and employment, the positive association between fertility and female employment in the informal sector suggests the compatibility of the roles of a mother and of a worker in that sector. The results further demonstrate the inadequacy of using a mere rural-urban dichotomy in the examination of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis as done in some earlier works. The urban labor market, especially in a less developed country like Nigeria, needs formal disaggregation into formal and informal sectors on the basis of the activities being undertaken.

  16. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  17. Weaning practices in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuhor, P C

    1986-01-01

    A standardized questionnaire was administered to 65 mothers attending the Nutrition Clinic of the Ahmadu Bellow University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, over the October-December 1978 period to determine at what age the 1st supplementary diet was introduced, the age the child was weaned, and the weaning practices. The questionnaire dealt with various aspects of weaning knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The mothers were referred to the Nutrition Clinic because their babies already were suffering from protein energy malnutrition, had failed to thrive, or had severe infections, e.g., measles, gastroenteritis, or respiratory diseases. 58 (89.2%) of the families were of low socioeconomic status. 36 mothers (55.4%) introduced supplementary feeds to their babies between 4-6 months of life; 27 (41.5%) mothers introduced supplementary feeds when their children were between 7-9 months. All the mothers used corn, guinea corn, or millet gruel. A decision to wean a child may be made if the child can crawl, walk, or has a good set of erupted milk teeth, even if the child has not reached the traditional weaning age of 20-24 months. The mean age of weaning was 17 months in this study. 51 (78.5%) of the mothers responded to the question about weaning food taboos, prohibitions, and their reasons during the weaning period. Even when protein is available, a child may be denied the protein because of sociocultural factors. The use of carbohydrate gruels among these low socioeconomic families coupled with sociocultural factors compounded the feeding problem, and, consequently, protein energy malnutrition was common during the weaning period.

  18. Climatology of equatorial stratosphere over Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi Samuel

    We have used 12 complete calendar years (January 1993-December 2004) of monthly averages of measurements made by the Dobson spectrophotometer instrument over an urban site, Lagos (6.6oN, 3.3oE), southwest Nigeria, to study equatorial stratospheric column ozone variations and trends. Our results indicate that the time-averaged total column ozone has a seasonal cy-cle, which maximizes in June and July with a value of 259 Dobson units (DU) and minimizes in February with a magnitude of 250 DU. Statistical analysis of the climatological mean monthly total Dobson O3 record for 1993-2004 show that the local trend is approximately +0.041±0.0011 DU/year (+0.49±0.013% per decade). Spectral analysis was applied to the monthly averages series. The significant periodicity at 95% confidence level demonstrate prominent spectra peaks near 1.9 and 3.6 years, representative of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and quasi-triennial oscillation (QTO), respectively. Signal due to semiannual variation is also identified at Lagos sounding site. Comparison with the ozone observations from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom-eter (TOMS) on board the Earth-Probe (EP) satellite for the period from 1997 to 2002 reveal that EP/TOMS instrument consistently larger than the ground-based measurement from Dob-son station. Percentage mean relative disparity ranges from -11% to 15%. The root mean square error (RMSE) between satellite and ground-based observations over Lagos ranges be-tween ˜35-83 DU with largest and lowest variability occurring during the ascending phase of solar activity (1999, 10.7 cm radio flux, F10.7 equals 154 flux units) and during the peak phase of solar activity (2001, F10.7 equals 181), respectively.

  19. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2012-September 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-12-13

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria, and since 2003, Nigeria has been a reservoir for WPV reintroduction to 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government activated an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized 1) improving quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), 2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, 3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, 4) improving outbreak response, 5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and 6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During January-September 2013, 49 polio cases were reported from 26 local government areas (LGAs) in nine states in Nigeria, compared with 101 cases reported from 70 LGAs in 13 states during the same period in 2012. For all of 2012, a total of 122 cases were reported. No WPV type 3 (WPV3) cases have been reported since November 2012. For the first time ever, in 2013, no polio cases of any type have been detected in the northwest of Nigeria; however, transmission continues in Kano and states in the northeast. Despite considerable progress, 24 LGAs in 2012 and seven LGAs in 2013 reported two or more cases; WPV continues to circulate in eight LGAs that had cases in 2012. Efforts to interrupt transmission remain impeded by insecurity, anti-polio-vaccine sentiment, and chronically poor SIA implementation in selected areas. Improvement of SIA quality and effective outbreak response will be needed to interrupt WPV transmission in 2014.

  20. Prokaryotic Community Structure Driven by Salinity and Ionic Concentrations in Plateau Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Wang, Fang; Chu, Li-Min; Wang, Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    The prokaryotic community composition and diversity and the distribution patterns at various taxonomic levels across gradients of salinity and physiochemical properties in the surface waters of seven plateau lakes in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. These lakes included Lakes Keluke (salinity, <1 g/liter), Qing (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter), Tuosu (salinity, 24 to 35 g/liter), Dasugan (salinity, 30 to 33 g/liter), Gahai (salinity, 92 to 96 g/liter), Xiaochaidan (salinity, 94 to 99 g/liter), and Gasikule (salinity, 317 to 344 g/liter). The communities were dominated by Bacteria in lakes with salinities of <100 g/liter and by Archaea in Lake Gasikule. The clades At12OctB3 and Salinibacter, previously reported only in hypersaline environments, were found in a hyposaline lake (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter) at an abundance of ∼1.0%, indicating their ecological plasticity. Salinity and the concentrations of the chemical ions whose concentrations covary with salinity (Mg2+, K+, Cl−, Na+, SO42−, and Ca2+) were found to be the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity at the level of individual clades as well as entire prokaryotic communities. The distribution patterns of two phyla, five classes, five orders, five families, and three genera were well predicted by salinity. The variation of the prokaryotic community structure also significantly correlated with the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, the total nitrogen concentration, and the PO43− concentration. Such correlations varied depending on the taxonomic level, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlation analyses at various taxonomic levels in evaluating the effects of environmental variable factors on prokaryotic community structures. Our findings clarify the distribution patterns of the prokaryotic community composition in plateau lakes at the levels of individual clades as well as whole

  1. Prokaryotic Community Structure Driven by Salinity and Ionic Concentrations in Plateau Lakes of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Miao, Li-Li; Wang, Fang; Chu, Li-Min; Wang, Jia-Li; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-08

    The prokaryotic community composition and diversity and the distribution patterns at various taxonomic levels across gradients of salinity and physiochemical properties in the surface waters of seven plateau lakes in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau, were evaluated using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. These lakes included Lakes Keluke (salinity, <1 g/liter), Qing (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter), Tuosu (salinity, 24 to 35 g/liter), Dasugan (salinity, 30 to 33 g/liter), Gahai (salinity, 92 to 96 g/liter), Xiaochaidan (salinity, 94 to 99 g/liter), and Gasikule (salinity, 317 to 344 g/liter). The communities were dominated by Bacteria in lakes with salinities of <100 g/liter and by Archaea in Lake Gasikule. The clades At12OctB3 and Salinibacter, previously reported only in hypersaline environments, were found in a hyposaline lake (salinity, 5.5 to 6.6 g/liter) at an abundance of ∼1.0%, indicating their ecological plasticity. Salinity and the concentrations of the chemical ions whose concentrations covary with salinity (Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), Na(+), SO4 (2-), and Ca(2+)) were found to be the primary environmental factors that directly or indirectly determined the composition and diversity at the level of individual clades as well as entire prokaryotic communities. The distribution patterns of two phyla, five classes, five orders, five families, and three genera were well predicted by salinity. The variation of the prokaryotic community structure also significantly correlated with the dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, the total nitrogen concentration, and the PO4 (3-) concentration. Such correlations varied depending on the taxonomic level, demonstrating the importance of comprehensive correlation analyses at various taxonomic levels in evaluating the effects of environmental variable factors on prokaryotic community structures. Our findings clarify the distribution patterns of the prokaryotic community composition in plateau lakes at the levels of individual clades as

  2. Northern Nigeria: Stemming the Radicalization Through Vocational Education (a Proactive Approach)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Northern Nigeria : Stemming the Radicalization Through Vocational...14. ABSTRACT To stem the tide of radical violence in northern Nigeria , the government needs to strengthen the vocational and technical education...system. The violence in northern Nigeria is at least in part the consequence of a young unemployed population living in poverty that is vulnerable to

  3. Constraints on the early uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Zhifei; Lippert, Peter C; Graham, Stephan A; Coe, Robert S; Yi, Haisheng; Zhu, Lidong; Liu, Shun; Li, Yalin

    2008-04-01

    The surface uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya is among the most interesting topics in geosciences because of its effect on regional and global climate during Cenozoic time, its influence on monsoon intensity, and its reflection of the dynamics of continental plateaus. Models of plateau growth vary in time, from pre-India-Asia collision (e.g., approximately 100 Ma ago) to gradual uplift after the India-Asia collision (e.g., approximately 55 Ma ago) and to more recent abrupt uplift (<7 Ma ago), and vary in space, from northward stepwise growth of topography to simultaneous surface uplift across the plateau. Here, we improve that understanding by presenting geologic and geophysical data from north-central Tibet, including magnetostratigraphy, sedimentology, paleocurrent measurements, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar and fission-track studies, to show that the central plateau was elevated by 40 Ma ago. Regions south and north of the central plateau gained elevation significantly later. During Eocene time, the northern boundary of the protoplateau was in the region of the Tanggula Shan. Elevation gain started in pre-Eocene time in the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and expanded throughout the Neogene toward its present southern and northern margins in the Himalaya and Qilian Shan.

  4. Constraints on the early uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengshan; Zhao, Xixi; Liu, Zhifei; Lippert, Peter C.; Graham, Stephan A.; Coe, Robert S.; Yi, Haisheng; Zhu, Lidong; Liu, Shun; Li, Yalin

    2008-01-01

    The surface uplift history of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya is among the most interesting topics in geosciences because of its effect on regional and global climate during Cenozoic time, its influence on monsoon intensity, and its reflection of the dynamics of continental plateaus. Models of plateau growth vary in time, from pre-India-Asia collision (e.g., ≈100 Ma ago) to gradual uplift after the India-Asia collision (e.g., ≈55 Ma ago) and to more recent abrupt uplift (<7 Ma ago), and vary in space, from northward stepwise growth of topography to simultaneous surface uplift across the plateau. Here, we improve that understanding by presenting geologic and geophysical data from north-central Tibet, including magnetostratigraphy, sedimentology, paleocurrent measurements, and 40Ar/39Ar and fission-track studies, to show that the central plateau was elevated by 40 Ma ago. Regions south and north of the central plateau gained elevation significantly later. During Eocene time, the northern boundary of the protoplateau was in the region of the Tanggula Shan. Elevation gain started in pre-Eocene time in the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and expanded throughout the Neogene toward its present southern and northern margins in the Himalaya and Qilian Shan. PMID:18362353

  5. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  6. Seismic wave speed structure of the Ontong Java Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covellone, Brian M.; Savage, Brian; Shen, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the result of a significant event in the Earth's geologic history. Limited geophysical and geochemical data, as well as the plateau's relative isolation in the Pacific ocean, have made interpretation of the modern day geologic structure and its 120 Ma formation history difficult. Here we present the highest resolution image to date of the wave speed structure of the OJP region. We use a data set that combines Rayleigh waves extracted from both ambient noise and earthquake waveforms and an iterative finite-frequency tomography methodology. The combination of datasets allow us to best exploit the limited station distribution in the Pacific and image wave speed structures between 35 km and 300 km into the Earth. We image a region of fast shear wave speeds, greater than 4.75 km/s, that extends to greater than 100 km beneath the plateau. The wave speeds are similar to as observed in cratonic environments and are consistent with a compositional anomaly that resulted from the residuum of eclogite entrainment during the plateau's formation. The combination of our imaged wave speed structure and previous geochemical work suggest that a surfacing plume head entrained eclogite from the deep mantle and accounts for the anomalous buoyancy characteristics of the plateau and observed fast wave speeds.

  7. Women in physics in Nigeria: Status, actions, and progress (2011-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka A.; Rabiu, Babatunde; Ogunjo, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    In Nigeria the number of women taking up a career in physics is increasing. The progress made by Nigerian women in physics is presented. The Nigerian Women in Physics working group continues to organize activities to encourage more girls and women into physics. One of such activity is the biannual conference of women in physics in Nigeria. Through this event, many Nigerian women in physics attend and a few women from educationally disadvantaged parts of Nigeria attend and present their research. In this report we present progress that has been made to bring in more women into physics in Nigeria.

  8. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    PubMed

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  9. Fukushima Nuclear Accident Recorded in Tibetan Plateau Snow Pits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ninglian; Wu, Xiaobo; Kehrwald, Natalie; Li, Zhen; Li, Quanlian; Jiang, Xi; Pu, Jianchen

    2015-01-01

    The β radioactivity of snow-pit samples collected in the spring of 2011 on four Tibetan Plateau glaciers demonstrate a remarkable peak in each snow pit profile, with peaks about ten to tens of times higher than background levels. The timing of these peaks suggests that the high radioactivity resulted from the Fukushima nuclear accident that occurred on March 11, 2011 in eastern Japan. Fallout monitoring studies demonstrate that this radioactive material was transported by the westerlies across the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The depth of the peak β radioactivity in each snow pit compared with observational precipitation records, suggests that the radioactive fallout reached the Tibetan Plateau and was deposited on glacier surfaces in late March 2011, or approximately 20 days after the nuclear accident. The radioactive fallout existed in the atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau for about one month. PMID:25658094

  10. More evidence of the plateau effect: a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Prades, J L; Lopez-Nicolás, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the existence of the plateau effect at the social level. The authors tried to confirm the preliminary conclusion that people may not be willing to trade off any longevity to improve the health state of a large number of people if the health states are mild enough. They tested this assumption using the person-tradeoff technique. They also used a parametric approach and a nonparametric approach to study the relationship between individual and social values. Results show the existence of the plateau effect in the context of resource allocation. Furthermore, with the nonparametric approach, a plateau effect in the middle part of the scale was also observed, suggesting that social preference may not be directly predicted from individual utilities. The authors caution against the possible framing effects that may be present in these kinds of questions.

  11. Geologic applications of ERTS images on the Colorado Plateau, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Billingsley, F. C.; Elston, D. P.; Lucchitta, I.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Three areas in central and northern Arizona centered on the (1) Verde Valley, (2) Coconino Plateau, and (3) Shivwits Plateau were studied using ERTS photography. Useful applications results include: (1) upgrading of the existing state geologic map of the Verde Valley region; (2) detection of long NW trending lineaments in the basalt cap SE of Flagstaff which may be favorable locations for drilling for new water supplies; (3) tracing of the Bright Angel and Butte faults to twice their previously known length and correlating the extensions with modern seismic events, showing these faults to be present-day earthquake hazards; (4) discovering and successfully drilling perched sandstone aquifers in the Kaibab Limestone on the Coconino Plateau; and (5) determining the relationship between the Shivwits lavas and the formation of the lower Grand Canyon and showing that the lavas should be an excellent aquifer, as yet untapped.

  12. State of tectonic stress in Shillong Plateau of northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Saikia, Sowrav; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Sharma, Antara; Reddy, C. D.; Kayal, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tectonic stress regime in the Shillong plateau, northeast region of India, is examined by stress tensor inversion. Some 97 reliable fault plane solutions are used for stress inversion by the Michael and Gauss methods. Although an overall NNW-SSE compressional stress is observed in the area, the stress regime varies from western part to eastern part of the plateau. The eastern part of the plateau is dominated by NNE-SSW compression and the western part by NNW-SSE compression. The NNW-SSE compression in the western part may be due to the tectonic loading induced by the Himalayan orogeny in the north, and the NNE-SSW compression in the eastern part may be attributed to the influence of oblique convergence of the Indian plate beneath the Indo-Burma ranges. Further, Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) derived stress also indicates a variation from west to east.

  13. Spontaneous rupture of thinning liquid films with Plateau borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Anthony; Brush, Lucien; Davis, Stephen

    2009-11-01

    Spontaneous film rupture from van der Waals instability is investigated in 2D. A thin liquid film between adjacent bubbles in a foam has finite length, curved boundaries (Plateau borders), and a drainage flow from capillary suction that causes thinning. A full linear stability analysis of this thinning film shows that rupture occurs once the film has thinned to tens of nanometers. Whereas, in an unbounded, quiescent, flat free film, rupture occurs when the thickness is hundreds of nanometers. Finite length, Plateau borders and flow are all found to contribute to the stabilization. The drainage flow leads to several distinct qualitative features as well. In particular, unstable disturbances are advected by the flow to the edges of the thin film. As a result, the edges of the film close to the Plateau borders are more susceptible to rupture that the center of the film.

  14. Bedrock geology of the northern Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Wright, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau is surrounded by a complex assemblage of highly deformed Precambrian to lower Tertiary continental and oceanic rocks that reflects numerous episodes of continental accretion. The plateau itself is comprised of the Columbia River basalt group formed between about 16.5 x 1 million years B.P. and 6 x 1 million years B.P. Eruptions were infrequent between about 14 and 6 x 1 million years B.P., allowing time for erosion and deformation between successive outpourings. The present-day courses of much of the Snake River, and parts of the Columbia River, across the plateau date from this time. Basalt produced during this waning activity is more heterogeneous chemically and isotopically than older flows, reflecting its prolonged period of volcanism.

  15. A Multistage Volcanic and Tectonic Evolution History on the High Plateau, Part of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, R.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.

    2014-12-01

    For the Manihiki Plateau, a Large Igneous Province (LIP), a multistage volcanic emplacement history is revealed in new, multi channel high resolution seismic reflection data. Gathered during cruise So224 the profiles are distributed to study the initial emplacement of the High Plateau (HP), part of the Manihiki Plateau, as well as tectonic related processes at its margins. Extension of a previously defined seismostratigraphic model has allowed an identification of an intra-basalt reflector which has been formed by volcanism prior to the major emplacement during the early Cretaceous. We suggest that it represents the nucleus of the HP's formation and conclude that the Manihiki Plateau is older than the proposed ~120 Ma. We have identified evidence that the plateau extended to the east and broke-up along the Manihiki Scarp prior to the second volcanic active phase. The south-western margin shows a stretched and rifted structure, which could be related to the separation of the Manihiki and Hikurangi Plateaus. Identification of extrusion centers associated with a third volcanic active period ending ~65 Ma ago and their spatial distribution hint on a shift of the emplacement mechanism from sources related to initial emplacement to tectonic induced volcanism at the margins. Later stage tectonic and volcanic reactivations occurred, which were concentrated in the south-western part of the HP.

  16. The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon over the Tibetan Plateau on the rainfall in the Tarim Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of the summer plateau monsoon (PM) over the Tibetan Plateau on summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin in northwest China are investigated, based on the observed rainfall data at 34 stations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1961 to 2007. Results showed that the PM is well correlated to the summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin. Process analysis shows that strong PM corresponds to an anomalous cyclone over the Tibetan Plateau in the middle troposphere and an anomalous anticyclone in the upper troposphere over northwest part of Tibetan Plateau. They result in cold air moving from high latitudes into Central Asia over the western part of Tibetan Plateau. The concurrences of the cooling in the middle-upper troposphere over Central Asia leads to an anomalous cyclone over Central Asia at 500 hPa and the anomalous descending motions prevailing over the cooling region. Associated with this anomaly, there are enhanced southerly winds and corresponding ascending motion over the Tarim Basin located in the east of the cooling region. These processes lead to more summer rainfall over the Tarim Basin.

  17. Sedimentary basin framework of Exmouth Plateau, northwest Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.; Exon, N.; Williamson, P.

    1987-05-01

    The Exmouth Plateau is a marginal plateau lying off northwest Australia. Water depths range between 800 m and 4000 m, and the area shallower than 2000 m covers approximately 150,000 km/sup 2/. The plateau consists of rifted and deeply subsided continental crust, with a Phanerozoic sedimentary sequence around 10 km thick, deposited in the Canning and Carnarvon basins. The plateau is separated from the Northwest Shelf by the Kangaroo syncline and is bounded to the north, west, and south by oceanic crust of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. The present structural configuration of Exmouth Plateau was initiated by rifting in the Triassic to Middle Jurassic, followed by northwest-oriented sea floor spreading. The western margin has a normal rifted structure, while the southern margin structure was dominated by transform motion. The complex rifted and sheared northern margin contains at least one crustal block of post-breakup igneous origin. Below a rift onset unconformity of Neocomian age lies a thick Triassic paralic sequence to the south, while farther north the unconformity is of Callovian age and overlies a Jurassic sequence of Tethyan carbonates, coal measures, and volcanics. The post-breakup sequence consists of Late Jurassic-Cenomanian deltaic and shelf clastics, overlain by thin Late Cretaceous-Tertiary shallow marine to pelagic carbonates. Exmouth Plateau therefore represents classic rift to mature ocean stage development of a sediment-starved passive margin. The large fault blocks in the rifted Triassic-Jurassic sequences and large areal closures in the Cretaceous deltas encouraged petroleum exploration over the last two decades. The rifted section was shown to be gas prone, while the overlying section proved to be largely immature.

  18. Climate sensitivity of Tibetan Plateau glaciers - past and future implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, Jakob; Hubbard, Alun; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most extensively glaciated, non-Polar regions of the world, and its mountain glaciers are the primary source of melt water for several of the largest Asian rivers. During glacial cycles, Tibetan Plateau glaciers advanced and retreated multiple times, but remained restricted to the highest mountain areas as valley glaciers and ice caps. Because glacier extent is dominantly controlled by climate, the past extent of Tibetan glaciers provide information on regional climate. Here we present a study analyzing the past maximum extents of glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau with the output of a 3D glacier model, in an effort to quantify Tibetan Plateau climate. We have mapped present-day glaciers and glacial landforms deposited by formerly more extensive glaciers in eight mountain regions across the Tibetan Plateau, allowing us to define present-day and past maximum glacier outlines. Using a high-resolution (250 m) higher-order glacier model calibrated against present-day glacier extents, we have quantified the climate perturbations required to expand present-day glaciers to their past maximum extents. We find that a modest cooling of at most 6°C for a few thousand years is enough to attain past maximum extents, even with 25-75% precipitation reduction. This evidence for limited cooling indicates that the temperature of the Tibetan Plateau remained relatively stable over Quaternary glacial cycles. Given the significant sensitivity to temperature change, the expectation is perhaps that a future warmer climate might result in intense glacier reduction. We have tested this hypothesis and modeled the future glacier development for the three mountain regions with the largest present-day glacier cover using a projected warming of 2.8 to 6.2°C within 100 years (envelope limits from IPCC). These scenarios result in dramatic glacier reductions, including 24-100% ice volume loss after 100 years and 77-100% ice volume loss after 300 years.

  19. The Colorado Plateau and its Role in the Laramide Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bump, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The Colorado Plateau is a relatively undeformed region bordered on the south and west by the highly extended Basin and Range province and on the north and east by the towering Laramide uplifts of the Rocky Mountains. Tectonically, the Plateau is a part of the Laramide orogen and contains basement-cored uplifts similar in style to those of the Rocky Mountains but with lower structural and topographic relief. Together, these observations have led some workers to hypothesize that the Plateau is anomalously strong and behaved as a rigid microplate during the Laramide orogeny. Evidence for a fundamental difference between the Plateau and the Rocky Mountains is largely circumstantial however, and is not supported by structural, topographic, geophysical or crustal assemblage data. The gradation in deformational intensity is better explained as the product of northeastward-increasing tectonic force, which is a predictable result of coupling between the North American crust and the flat, northeastward-subducting Farallon slab. Assuming that coupling-related stress and crustal strength are approximately constant, net force (and hence deformational intensity) grow with distance over which the coupling is active resulting in low tectonic force/minor deformation in the hinterland and high force/intense deformation in the foreland just before the subducting slab loses contact with the overriding plate. Minimal deformation of the Colorado Plateau is thus a logical result of its location in the hinterland of the Laramide orogen. Interpreted northeastward translation and clockwise rotation of the Plateau are consistent with a normal along-strike "bow and arrow" orogenic shortening profile and require no special explanation.

  20. Ion plateau transport near the tokamak magnetic axis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-04-01

    Conventional neoclassical transport theory does not pertain near the magnetic axis, where orbital variation of the minor radius and the poloidal field markedly change the nature of guiding-center trajectories. Instead of the conventional tokamak banana-shaped trajectories, near-axis orbits, called potato orbits, are radially wider and lead to distinctive kinetic considerations. Here it is shown that there is a plateau regime for the near-axis case; the corresponding potato-plateau ion thermal conductivity is computed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. COMPREHENSIVE CLOSURE PLAN FOR THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    LACKEY, M.B.

    2005-05-31

    This paper describes a comprehensive and strategic plan that has been recently developed for the environmental closure of the Central Plateau area of the Hanford Site, a former weapons-production complex managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This approach was submitted to the DOE Richland Operations Office by Fluor Hanford to provide a framework and roadmap to integrate ongoing operations with closure of facilities that are no longer actively used--all with a view to closing the Central Plateau by 2035. The plan is currently under consideration by the DOE.

  2. Geologic Mapping of the Aristarchus Plateau Region on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lough, T. A.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Yingst, Aileen R.

    2010-01-01

    Aristarchus plateau (25 N, 40 W) is a volcanologically diverse region containing sinuous rilles, volcanic depressions, mare material of various ages - including a candidate for the youngest mare unit on the lunar surface - pyroclastic deposits, and material of possible highland origin [1-5]. Here, we present preliminary mapping of a 13deg x 10deg area around Aristarchus plateau [6]. Interpretations of the region s volcanic evolution have implications for the global history of lunar volcanism, the crustal and mantle development of the Moon, and may ultimately help support successful lunar exploration [7].

  3. Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, V.; Gallo, A.; Carboni, G.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    The agricultural sector in Nigeria is particularly important for the country's food security, natural resources, and growth agenda. The cultivable areas comprise more than 70% of the total area; however, the cultivated area is about the 35% of the total area. The most important components in the food basket of the nation are cereals and tubers, which include rice, maize, corn, millet, sorghum, yam, and cassava. These crops represent about 80% of the total agricultural product in Nigeria (from NPAFS). The major crops grown in the country can be divided into food crops (produced for consumption) and export products. Despite the importance of the export crops, the primary policy of agriculture is to make Nigeria self-sufficient in its food and fiber requirements. The projected impacts of future climate change on agriculture and water resources are expected to be adverse and extensive in these area. This implies the need for actions and measures to adapt to climate change impacts, and especially as they affect agriculture, the primary sector for Nigerian economy. In the framework of the Project Climate Risk Analysis in Nigeria (founded by World Bank Contract n.7157826), a study was made to assess the potential impact of climate change on the main crops that characterize Nigerian agriculture. The DSSAT-CSM (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer - Cropping System Model) software, version 4.5 was used for the analysis. Crop simulation models included in DSSAT are tools that simulate physiological processes of crop growth, development and production by combining genetic crop characteristics and environmental (soil and weather) conditions. For each selected crop, the models were calibrated to evaluate climate change impacts on crop production. The climate data used for the analysis are derived by the Regional Circulation Model COSMO-CLM, from 1971 to 2065, at 8 km of spatial resolution. The RCM model output was "perturbed" with 10 Global Climate Models to have

  4. Technical Training Skills Needs of Youth for Sustainable Job Security in Rice Production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…

  5. Private Cost of Education: A Comparative Study of Distance and Campus-Based University Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olakulehin, Felix K.; Panda, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the comparative private costs of distance and conventional (classroom-based) university students in Nigeria. A total of 200 subjects comprising students registered for the B.Sc. Computer Science and B.A. English Studies programmes at the University of Lagos, Nigeria and the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) were…

  6. Obstetric Knowledge of Nurse-Educators in Nigeria: Levels, Regional Differentials and Their Implications for Maternal Health Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Salisu Ishaku; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Oginni, Ayodeji Babatunde; Tukur, Jamilu; Adoyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurse-midwife educators on the major causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Setting: Schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria. Method: A total of 292 educators from 171 schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria were surveyed for their knowledge of the major causes of maternal mortality as a prelude to…

  7. The Spite Lithium Plateau: Ultrathin but Postprimordial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Sean G.; Norris, John E.; Beers, Timothy C.

    1999-10-01

    We have studied 23 very metal-poor field turnoff stars, specifically chosen to enable a precise measurement of the dispersion in the lithium abundance of the Spite Li plateau. We concentrated on stars having a narrow range of effective temperature and very low metallicities ([Fe/H]<~-2.5) to reduce the effects of systematic errors and have made particular efforts to minimize random errors. A typical statistical error for our abundances is 0.033 dex (1 σ), which represents a factor of 2 improvement on most previous studies. Our sample does not exhibit a trend with effective temperature, although the temperature range is limited. However, for -3.6<[Fe/H]<-2.3 we do recover a dependence on metallicity at dA(Li)/d[Fe/H]=0.118+/-0.023 (1 σ) dex per dex, almost the same level as discussed previously. Earlier claims for a lack of dependence of A(Li) on abundance are shown to have arisen probably from noisier estimates of effective temperatures and metallicities, which have erased the real trend. The dependence is concordant with theoretical predictions of Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) of Li (even in such metal-poor stars) and with the published level of 6Li in two of the stars of our sample, which we use to infer the GCE 7Li contribution. One of the 23 stars, G186-26, was known already to be strongly Li-depleted. Of the remaining 22 objects, 21 have abundances consistent with an observed spread about the metallicity trend of a mere 0.031 dex (1 σ). Because the formal errors are 0.033 dex, we conclude that the intrinsic spread is effectively zero at the very metal-poor halo turnoff. This is established at much higher precision than previous studies (~0.06-0.08 dex). The essentially zero intrinsic spread leads to the conclusion that either these stars have all changed their surface Li abundances very uniformly, or else they exhibit close to the primordial abundance sought for its cosmological significance. We cannot rule out a uniform depletion mechanism, but economy

  8. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    PubMed

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  9. [Brazilian physician José Pinto de Azeredo (1766?-1810) and the chemical examination of Rio de Janeiro's atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Manuel Serrano; Cecchini, Marco Antonio G; Malaquias, Isabel Maria; Moreira-Nordemann, Lycia Maria; Pita, João Rui

    2005-01-01

    José Pinto de Azeredo, of Rio de Janeiro, studied medicine and conducted notable experimental research in Edinburgh (1786-88), presenting his graduate thesis on gout in Leiden. Already appointed surgeon-general of Angola, he returned to Rio in 1789 and practiced medicine in Brazil. In 1790 he moved to Luanda, where he practiced at the Hospital Real and founded a medical school that did not survive his departure for Portugal in 1797. He worked at Lisbon's main military hospital and as a private physician until his death. His written works (some ten manuscripts and five publications) warrant an examination from the perspective of the history of medicine. In an article published in 1790 on Rio de Janeiro's air quality, he reveals the skills of an analytical chemist, his interest in the effects of different air components on organisms, and his concern with air quality in Brazil and Europe.

  10. Neurology at Escola Paulista de Medicina (1933-1995). From Fausto Guerner to José Geraldo Camargo Lima.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Neves, Afonso Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM) was founded in 1933 and the first Professor of Neurology was Fausto Guerner, who could not effectively assume the teaching activities due to his premature death in 1938. Professor Guerner had had his neurological training at Paris. Professor Longo was his successor. Longo was one of the founders of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria the foremost journal of neurosciences in Latin American. Longo died in 1967 and Professor Paulo Pupo succeeded him. Pupo introduced electroencephalography in Brazil. After his death in 1970, Professor Dante Giorgi succeeded him until 1974. Professor José Geraldo Camargo Lima took over the position after Giorgi's death. He created the Neurological Emergency unit, initiated the Post-Graduation in Neurology and divided the Discipline in specialized units. During the 1980's and until his retirement in 1995, EPM had become one of most important centers of Brazil training neurologists and researchers in neurological sciences.

  11. Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest: José Toro-Alfonso.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest recognize persons who have advanced psychology as a science and/or profession by a single extraordinary achievement or a lifetime of outstanding contributions in the public interest. The 2016 corecipient of the Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest is José Toro-Alfonso, who was posthumously given this award for his commitment to "issues of inequity, diversity, and to the alleviation of human suffering particularly among Latino/Latina and LGBTQ communities." He "pioneered HIV/AIDS-related services for youth, women, gay, and transgender populations," and Toro-Alfonso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The Demographic Implications of the HIV Prevalence Trend in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the demographic implications of the HIV prevalence trend in Nigeria. Data from the 2010 National Antenatal Sentinel Survey was used to produce various graphs to determine the trend of HIV at the national level, state levels, urban and rural areas, and various age groups. This study has found that though a decline exists in the national HIV prevalence and the HIV prevalence among women aged 15-24 years, there is a potential for an increased trend if adequate HIV services are not provided in rural areas. This is because the HIV prevalence in many states has risen between 2008 and 2010 owing to a rise in HIV prevalence in rural areas and in women aged 15-39 years. This study has significant implications for achieving Millennium Development Goals 4, 5, and 6 related to HIV in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan countries. PMID:28299111

  13. History of energy sources and their utilization in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Nigeria, a major oil producer, is rich in other energy sources. These include wood, coal, gas, tar sands, and hydro power. Although oil has been the most popular, some other energy sources have a longer history. This article discusses the historical trends in the production and utilization of Nigerian energy sources. Wood has the longest history. However,its utilization was limited to domestic cooking. Imported coal was first used in 1896, but it was not discovered in Nigeria until 1909 and was first produced in 1916. Although oil exploration started in 1901, it was first discovered in commercial quantity in 1956 and produced in 1958. Oil thereafter took over the energy scene from coal until 1969, when hydro energy was first produced. Energy consumption has been mainly from hydro. Tar sands account for about 55% of total proven non-renewable reserves.

  14. The pattern of childhood accidents in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1969-01-01

    All childhood accidents treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, during a 4-year period are analysed. The pattern of childhood injuries in the part of Nigeria served by this hospital does not differ significantly from the pattern reported in studies from other parts of the world. The chain of events leading to an accident appears in large measure to be directly influenced by the mode of life in the community. This in turn is related to the prevailing level of technological development. There is an obvious need for more exhaustive studies of childhood accidents in developing countries. However, these countries need not wait for this information to become available before initiating accident-prevention programmes. PMID:5309535

  15. Phenotypic diversity in Terminalia catappa from South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Bola; Ogunkanmi, Bayo; Olasan, Lekan

    2008-01-01

    The diversity amongst Teminalia catappa population in two different locations in the Lagos area of South Western Nigeria was investigated. Forty trees were sampled for twenty eight quantitative and twelve qualitative characters. Variability was observed in qualitative characters such as leaf shape and ripe fruit colour. Quantitative characters analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis showed high intraspecific variability for most of the characters determined. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method revealed four main clusters which were not based on location of collection but on morphological characters. The trees were grouped into the main clusters based mainly on plant architecture. The result from the trees studied showed that selections based on traits such as fruit size, fruit colour and leaf sizes can be undertaken for future improvement or development of this tree crop in Nigeria.

  16. Lassa fever in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria in 1974.

    PubMed

    Bowen, G S; Tomori, O; Wulff, H; Casals, J; Noonan, A; Downs, W G

    1975-01-01

    Three cases of Lassa fever occurred in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in January and February 1974. The first case was a 19-year-old Nigerian; the other 2 cases were German missionary physicians at St Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, one of whom cared for the patient who was the first case. Thus, 2 of the 3 cases were hospital acquired. Investigations failed to discover a village outbreak or the source of virus for the first case. A serosurvey of 258 hospital staff members and contacts of the 3 cases showed no other persons with antibody to Lassa virus. The absence of Lassa virus antibody in a high-risk group indicates a low or nonexistent level of past Lassa virus activity in southeastern Nigeria.

  17. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate...

  18. Proceedings of the second biennial conference on research in Colorado Plateau National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles

    1995-01-01

    On 25-28 October 1993 in Flagstaff, Arizona, the National Biological Service Colorado Plateau Research Station (formerly National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit) and Northern Arizona University hosted the Second Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. The conference theme focused on research, inventory, and monitoring on the federal, state, and private lands in the Colorado Plateau biogeographic province.

  19. Nitrogen loss from windblown agricultural soils in the Columbia Plateau

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion of agricultural soils can degrade both air quality and soil productivity in the Columbia Plateau of the Pacific Northwest United States. Soils in the region contain fine particles that, when suspended, are highly susceptible to long range transport in the atmosphere. Nitrogen (N) associ...

  20. Structural model of the Balkassar area, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Akhter, Gulraiz; Bibi, Sehrish

    2015-11-01

    Balkassar is an important hydrocarbon producing area of the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. Two-dimensional seismic reflection data of the area revealed tectonically controlled, distinct episodes of (1) normal faulting in the basement followed by (2) reverse faulting in the cover sequence. Himalayan orogeny and associated diapirism of the Precambrian Salt Range Formation have produced many salt-cored anticlines in the Potwar Plateau, and one such salt-cored anticline is present in the Balkassar. This anticline has NE-SW-oriented axis, and both the SE and NW limbs are bounded by reverse faults. The basement normal faults indicate Jurassic rifting and splitting of Pangaea. We interpret reverse faults with dip angles of about 60°-75° in the cover sequence, having both hinterland and foreland vergence. Both NW- and SE-dipping faults are present in contrast to the only southward-directed thrusts of previous models. Duplexes and triangle zones, which are common in the northern part of the Potwar Plateau, are not developed in the Balkassar area due to comparatively less crustal shortening in the area. The present interpretation can help in understanding the complex structures in other parts of the Potwar Plateau for hydrocarbons exploration and also in deformed foreland basins worldwide that display similar characteristics but are considered to be dominated by low-angle thrust tectonics.

  1. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  2. Levoglucosan and phenols in Antarctic marine, coastal and plateau aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Kehrwald, Natalie M; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    Due to its isolated location, Antarctica is a natural laboratory for studying atmospheric aerosols and pollution in remote areas. Here, we determined levoglucosan and phenolic compounds (PCs) at diverse Antarctic sites: on the plateau, a coastal station and during an oceanographic cruise. Levoglucosan and PCs reached the Antarctic plateau where they were observed in accumulation mode aerosols (with median levoglucosan concentrations of 6.4 pg m(-3) and 4.1 pg m(-3), and median PC concentrations of 15.0 pg m(-3) and 7.3 pg m(-3)). Aged aerosols arrived at the coastal site through katabatic circulation with the majority of the levoglucosan mass distributed on larger particulates (24.8 pg m(-3)), while PCs were present in fine particles (34.0 pg m(-3)). The low levoglucosan/PC ratios in Antarctic aerosols suggest that biomass burning aerosols only had regional, rather than local, sources. General acid/aldehyde ratios were lower at the coastal site than on the plateau. Levoglucosan and PCs determined during the oceanographic cruise were 37.6 pg m(-3) and 58.5 pg m(-3) respectively. Unlike levoglucosan, which can only be produced by biomass burning, PCs have both biomass burning and other sources. Our comparisons of these two types of compounds across a range of Antarctic marine, coastal, and plateau sites demonstrate that local marine sources dominate Antarctic PC concentrations.

  3. Behavior of Colorado Plateau uranium minerals during oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrels, Robert Minard; Christ, C.L.

    1956-01-01

    Uranium occurs as U(VI) and U(IV) in minerals of the Colorado Plateau ores. The number of species containing U(VI) is large, but only two U(IV) minerals are known from the Plateau: uraninite, and oxide, and coffinite, a hydroxy-silicate. These oxidize to yield U(VI) before reacting significantly with other mineral constituents. Crystal-structure analysis has shown that U(VI) invariable occurs as uranyl ion, UO2+2. Uranyl ion may form complex carbonate or sulfate ions with resulting soluble compounds, but only in the absence of quinquevalent vanadium, arsenic, or phosphorous. In the presence of these elements in the +5 valence state, the uranyl ion is fixed in insoluble layer compounds formed by union of uranyl ion with orthovanadate, orthophosphate, or orthoarsenate. Under favorable conditions UO2+2 may react to form the relatively insoluble rutherfordine, UO2CO3, or hydrated uranyl hydroxides. These are rarely found on the Colorado Plateau as opposed to their excellent development in other uraniferous areas, a condition which is apparently related to the semiarid climate and low water table of the Plateau. Uranium may also be fixed as uranyl silicate, but little is known about minerals of this kind. In the present study emphasis has been placed on a detailing of the chemical and crystal structural changes which occur in the oxidation paragenetic sequence.

  4. Factors Associated with Job Content Plateauing among Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify personal and work environment factors associated with the experience of job content plateauing among older workers. Design/methodology/approach: Two cross-sectional studies, each including two samples, were conducted. In each study, one sample consisted of a diverse group of older workers and the…

  5. Second Plateau Voltage in Nickel-cadmium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasanth, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Sealed nickel cadmium cells having large number of cycles on them are discharged using Hg/HgO reference electrode. The negative electrode exhibits the second plateau. A SEM of negative plates of such cells show a number of large crystals of cadmium hydroxide. The large crystals on the negative plates disappear after continuous overcharging in flooded cells.

  6. Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia Plateau

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils commonly found across the Columbia Plateau region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of...

  7. Stratified crustal shortening under the Longmenshan thrust belt, Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Stratified crustal shortening under the Longmenshan thrust belt, Tibetan plateau Xiwei Xu1&2, Baojin Liu3, John H. Shaw2, Guihua Yu11. Key Lab of Active Tectonics & Volcano, Institute of Geology, CEA, Beijing 100029, China 2. Department of Earth & Planetary Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 3. Geophysical Prospecting Center, CEA, Zhengzhou 450002, China Crustal velocity structure and new seismic reflection profiling across the foothills of the Longmen Shan and Sichuan Basin reveals a distinct pattern of crustal structure under Longmenshan thrust belt: brittle thrust faults with multiple detachments in the upper crust that are localized above, but decoupled from, a steep contact (FL) in the lower crust and upper mantle across which the lower crust thickens abruptly. Then two models are presented: 1) Model showing breakthrough thrusting of the plateau crust over the Sichuan Basin above the basal detachment (FD2); 2) Model showing indentation of a strong structural wedge of the Yangtze Craton into the weak plateau, but no sliding on the contact FL or sliding on the contact FL. This observation provides insights that help us to understand the mechanisms of crustal shortening, thickening, and uplift of the Tibetan Plateau.

  8. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  9. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Methods Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Results We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. Conclusions This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25011940

  10. Basin history in fracture zone setting: Falkland Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Although virtually all passive continental margins are intersected by fracture zones, models describing margin evolution seldom include the tectonic effects of the latter. On the Falkland Plateau, whose northern margin is dominated by a large fracture zone, up to 5 km of terrigenous, transitional, and hemipelagic sediments have been deposited since the Middle Jurassic, largely under the control of a northern basement high. This high marks the Falkland fracture zone, formed during the opening of the South Atlantic in the Early Cretaceous. The Falkland Plateau lies submerged in 2500 m of water and can be physiographically subdivided into (1) the Maurice Ewing Bank, a broad, triangular, shallow feature on its eastern extremity, (2) a boundary steep Falkland Escarpment in the north, (3) a southern Falkland Trough, and (4) a central saddle. Using well data (DSDP sites 511, 330, and 327) and extensive single-channel and regional multichannel seismic data, a detailed seismic stratigraphy has been developed for the Falkland Plateau. Results show four widespread depositional sequences dipping southward over both oceanic (in the west) and continental basement (in the east). Late Jurassic sapropelic black shales overlain by claystones thin and possibly crop out along the northern margin of the plateau. Good control of structure has allowed recalculation of geophysical models, thus confirming three-dimensional basin geometry estimated seismically. Basin evolution is intimately related to the plate-tectonic setting and history, and may provide additional constraints on the breakup of Gondwanaland.

  11. Socio-Economic Problems in Nigeria: Causes and Remedy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-15

    regional elites. In the Western Region, the Yoruba group predominated and supported the Action Group (AG) Party.16 Cocoa and palm oil economy provided...Cameroons (NCNC) Party. Coal, Palm Oil and agro-products were the foundation of regional revenues before the discovery of petroleum in the region in 1958.17...populous country in Africa with a population of about 150 million and is endowed with numerous mineral resources. Nigeria is the fourteenth largest oil

  12. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Nigeria, January 2014-July 2015.

    PubMed

    Etsano, Andrew; Gunnala, Rajni; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Ticha, Johnson M; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Chevez, Ana Elena; Enemaku, Ogu; Corkum, Melissa; Davis, Lora B; Nganda, Gatei-Wa; Burns, Cara C; Wassilak, Steven G F; Vertefeuille, John F

    2015-08-21

    Since the 1988 launch of global poliomyelitis eradication efforts, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free. Nigeria is one of only three countries, along with Afghanistan and Pakistan, where transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. During 2003-2013, northern Nigeria served as a reservoir for WPV reintroduction into 26 previously polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government launched a national polio eradication emergency plan to intensify efforts to interrupt WPV transmission. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2014-July 2015 and updates previous reports. No WPV cases have been reported to date in 2015, compared with a total of six cases reported during 2014. Onset of paralysis in the latest reported WPV type 1 (WPV1) case was July 24, 2014. Only one case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported to date in 2015, compared with 20 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2014. Pending final laboratory testing of 218 remaining specimens of 16,617 specimens collected since January 2015, Nigeria could be removed from the WHO list of polio-endemic countries in September 2015. Major remaining challenges to the national polio eradication program include sustaining political support and program funding in the absence of active WPV transmission, maintaining high levels of population immunity in hard-to-reach areas, and accessing children in security-compromised areas of the northeastern states.

  13. Nigeria and the United States: An Analysis of National Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-28

    George W. Bush made assessment that clear in a joint speech with President Yar’Adua in December 2007.79 More succinctly, Donald L. Heflin , U.S. DOS...powerpoint/Febpoll/NOI_GovtPriorities_ Feb08.pdf; Internet; accessed 16 March 2008. 58 Donald Heflin , “Political Dynamics Affecting the business...Internet; accessed 11 February 2008. 59 Usman, 3. 32 60 Heflin . 61 Usman S. Goni, “Towards the Development of Infrastructure for Nigeria,” linked

  14. Control of Large-Scale Civil Conflicts in Democratic Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    country. On the 7 other hand, the federal government handles the lucrative taxes from imports, customs, excises , business and mining. The states generate...Adisa (Ibadan, Nigeria: Institut Francais de Recherche en Afrique , 1994), 115. 8 Isaac Olawale Albert, Introduction to Third-Party Intervention in...Institut Francais de Recherche en Afrique , 2001),3. 10 Isaac Olawale Albert, Introduction to Third-Party Intervention in Community Conflicts (Ibadan

  15. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Nigeria, January 2011-September 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-11-09

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) and, in 2012, declared the completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health. To date, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases reported worldwide in 2012 are at historically low levels. Nigeria is one of only three countries with uninterrupted WPV transmission (in addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan) and has been the origin of WPV imported into 25 previously polio-free countries since 2003. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Nigeria during January 2011-September 2012, as of October 30, 2012. The number of reported WPV cases increased from 21 in 2010 to 62 in 2011. During January-September 2012, a total of 99 WPV cases were reported, more than doubling from the 42 cases reported during the same period in 2011. During 2011, a total of 32 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were confirmed; six cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during January-September 2012, compared with 18 cVDPV2 cases during the same period in 2011. Nigeria's 2012 Polio Eradication Emergency Plan includes senior government leadership oversight, new program management and strategic initiatives, an accountability framework, and a surge in human resources to address chronically missed children during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs).* In 2012, indicators of immunization campaign quality show modest improvements; available data indicate gaps in surveillance. Continuing WPV transmission in Nigeria poses an ongoing risk for WPV reintroduction and outbreaks in polio-free countries and is a major obstacle to achieving global eradication.

  16. Nigeria’s Elusive Peace: How Culture Influences Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Nigeria is the eighth largest crude oil exporter in the world.10 Despite this, 70 percent of Nigerians live below the poverty line on less than two...is the most effective COIN strategy.27 Many aphorisms encapsulate this idea, such as winning the hearts and minds or using Mao’s metaphor and...exchange earnings in 2011.”50 The military and political elites were now embezzling vast amounts of money while most Nigerians still lived in poverty

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guitang; Wang, Liquan; Li, Rongshe; Yuan, Sihua; Ji, Wenhua; Yin, Fuguang; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Baodi

    2012-07-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, composed of several continental slivers within the eastern Tethyan domain, is one of the pivotal sites to examine to better understand the theory of plate tectonics and the orogenic evolution on Earth. This plateau is generally inferred to be a collage of several continental blocks that rifted from Gondwanaland and subsequently accreted to the Asian continent. However, recent recognition of over twenty ophiolite mélange zones and their associated island arcs indicates that the traditional model of tectonic evolution requires revision. Based on 177 recently finished 1:250,000 scale geological maps and related studies, we summarize the main tectonic context of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and propose a new integrated model to account for the new findings. The complex orogen of the immense Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consisting of multiple island arc-basin systems that developed at different stages while surrounded by the North China, Yangtze, Tarim, and Indian plates, is emphasized. The entire orogen, surrounded by suture zones that mark the locations of oceanic closure, is investigated by examining (I) the first-order tectonic units and ophiolitic mélanges (including arc-arc/continent collision zones) and (II) their internally enclosed blocks as the second-order tectonic units. Therefore, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is divided into three major orogenic systems, namely, from northeast to southwest, the Early Paleozoic Qinling-Qilianshan-Kunlunshan (Qin-Qi-Kun), the Late Paleozoic-Triassic Qiangtang-Sanjiang, and the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic Gangdese-Himalaya orogenic systems, which are separated by the Kangxiwa-Muzitagh-Maqin-Mianxian and the Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian sutures, respectively. We propose that the formation and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to have been intrinsically related to those of the eastern Tethys, recorded by the Longmu Co-Shuanghu ophiolite mélange zone, the Southern Qiangtang Paleozoic accretionary arc

  18. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  19. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  20. An Investigation into the State of Status Planning of Tiv Language of Central Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terkimbi, Atonde

    2016-01-01

    The Tiv language is one of the major languages spoken in central Nigeria. The language is of the Benue-Congo subclass of the Bantu parent family. It has over four million speakers spoken in five states of Nigeria. The language like many other Nigerian languages is in dire need of language planning efforts and strategies. Some previous efforts were…

  1. Niger Delta Youth Restiveness and Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukwuemeka, Emma E. O.; Aghara, V. N. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines youth restiveness in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, and the challenges it posed to Nigeria democracy and foreign investment. Non-parametric statistical and content analyses were essentially used as tools of analysis. The results showed that dissatisfaction of the people of Niger Delta especially the youths on the level of…

  2. Issues of Human Security and Educational Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Kpolovie, Peter James; Amaele, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from documents, observation, interview and questionnaire, we highlighted the role of issues of human security and its impact on the educational development of the Niger Delta region as well as means of enhancing human security in Nigeria. This article is a conceptual and methodological breakthrough in Nigeria's academic landscape where…

  3. Effectiveness of Animated Instructional Resource for Learning Facilitation among Secondary School Student in Bauchi Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, Isaac Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study seek to reveal the importance of instructional visual in educational systems in Bauchi Nigeria. Instructional visual play very significant roles as medium of communication for learning. The research for this article was motivated by this understanding of the need. The study carried out in Nigeria in one of the most challenging state,…

  4. Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

  5. Demographic Characteristics as Determinants of Unemployment among University Graduates in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, Segun O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated demographic characteristics such as type of university attended, course of study and gender as determinants of duration of unemployment among university graduates in Nigeria. Data were collected from 1 451 employed university graduates in 300 firms in Nigeria. Results showed a significant difference between duration of…

  6. Social Media and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in South-East Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…

  7. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Service of the National Open University of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enuku, Usiwoma Evawoma; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major issues in the operation of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). The paper presents a brief development of the concept of distance education in Nigeria and the development of flexible open distance learning through the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper also…

  8. Educational Policies/Programmes' Effect on Attrition Rates in Primary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duze, Chinelo O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined attrition in primary schools in Nigeria with specific reference and focus on some policies and programmes of Nigeria's educational system with a view to highlighting its possible effect on the attainment of the Education for All (EFA) goals by 2015. It reviewed equal educational opportunity in relation to school environments…

  9. Prejudice and Change in Librarianship, Okoro's Critique of Library Recruitment in Nigeria: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogundipe, O. O.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to a paper by Okechukwu Okoro on library recruitment policies in Nigeria. Background on the origin of the undergraduate degree in library science in Nigeria is provided; problems with degree programs that led to charges of discrimination are addressed; and new definitions of a professional librarian are explained. (three references) (MES)

  10. An Analysis of the New 9-Year Basic Education Mathematics Curriculum in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.

    2012-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to describe and reflect on the changes in the new 9-year basic education mathematics curriculum in Nigeria. The paper is divided into four major themes: history of curriculum development in mathematics education at the basic education level in Nigeria, the motivations for the revision of the primary and junior…

  11. Repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for Youths Employment and National Security in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbunaya, T. C.; Udoudo, Ekereobong S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focused on repositioning Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) for youth's employment and national security in Nigeria. It examined briefly the concepts of technical vocational education and training (TVET), youths, unemployment and national security as well as the effects of unemployment on national security in Nigeria.…

  12. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  13. Peace Education in Secondary Schools: A Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubogu, Rowell

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses Peace Education as Strategic Tool for Peace Building and Peace Culture in Nigeria. This was prompted by the inherent incompatibility between the objectives of individuals, ethnic/social groups in Nigeria. The research question addresses Normative and Ethical issues regarding peace, the absence of violence/hostility and its…

  14. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi

    2015-01-01

    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  15. Teacher Characteristics as Correlates of Students Achievement in Social Studies: A Case Study in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwelim, Samuel Chiedu

    2016-01-01

    The study on teacher characteristics and students achievement in social Studies in Nigeria is geared towards investigating and determining the relationship between teachers' characteristics and students achievement in social studies in Nigeria. The main purpose of the study is to determine if there is relationship between certain teacher…

  16. Stakeholders' Perception on the Investment in Higher Education in South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, J. B.; Olaiya, Foluke M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the perceptions of stakeholders on investment in higher education and economic development in south-west Nigeria. The study was based on the argument that despite the fact that Nigeria celebrates her wealth of human capital and boasts of her educated labour force, there is still widespread ignorance and poverty with no…

  17. Women and HIV/AIDS Epidemic: The Issue of College Age Girls' Awareness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Solomon O.; Moses, Ailemen I.; Ugiomoh, Maria M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine women and HIV/AIDS epidemic: the issue of school age girls' awareness in Nigeria information was elicited from 1,222 randomly selected regular under-graduate female students from the 11 faculties of the university of Lagos, Nigeria, with the use of a standardized structured questionnaire. Results of the major…

  18. Partnership Learning: An Imperative for the Continuing Professional Development of Primary School Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ushie, Beshel Cee

    2009-01-01

    Emphasis has been on in-service training of primary school teachers in Nigeria with low laid down practises of continued professional development of teachers. This paper submits that there is need for school based professional development programmes for primary school teachers in Nigeria if they are to remain effective.

  19. Indiscipline in Political Parties: Bane of Democratic Consolidation and Good Governance in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oviasuyi, Patrick Osatohanmwen

    2006-01-01

    Indiscipline in political parties is antithetic to democratic consolidation and good governance in Nigeria. This article looks at the reasons and provides examples of actions of indiscipline in political parties in Nigeria and recommends that: the party must be superior to all its members, funding of the party should never be on individualistic…

  20. Terrorism and Insecurity in Nigeria: Moral, Values and Religious Education as Panaceas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omede, Jacob; Omede, Andrew Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The act of terrorism and general insecurity situations in Nigeria require that solution be sought to safe-guard the nation against Balkanization and the educational system from collapse. Every nation's educational system is to help it overcome her peculiar problems. If this is a truism, then Nigeria's educational system is supposed to help her…

  1. Professional Development of Principals: A Path to Effective Secondary School Administration in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibara, Emmanuel C.

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the professional development of secondary school principals in Nigeria. Drawing from vast review of literature on professional development and appointment of school principals in other countries, the article canvasses the position that secondary schools in Nigeria should be administered by skilled personnel who have the…

  2. Exploring Ecopedagogy for the Attainment of Education for All in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omiyefa, Muraina Olugbenga; Ajayi, Ayo; Adeyanju, Lawrence Olugbade

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress so far recorded on the Education For All (EFA) programme in Nigeria, vulnerable children such as students with disabilities, street children referred to as "almajirai", nomadic Fulani children, orphans, the girl-child particularly in Northern Nigeria are yet to qualitatively access and benefit from the programme.…

  3. Predictors of Career Adaptability Skill among Higher Education Students in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenehi, Amos Shaibu; Rashid, Abdullah Mat; Bakar, Ab Rahim

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study. A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used…

  4. Resolving Contradictions of Predictive Validity of University Matriculation Examinations in Nigeria: A Meta-Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modupe, Ale Veronica; Babafemi, Kolawole Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the various means of solving contradictions of predictive studies of University Matriculation Examination in Nigeria. The study used a sample size of 35 studies on predictive validity of University Matriculation Examination in Nigeria, which was purposively selected to have met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two null hypotheses…

  5. Improving the Quality of the Girl-Child Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arowoshegbe, Amos O.; Anthony, Enoma

    2011-01-01

    The National population commission of Nigeria estimated the population of Nigeria to be 121 million in the year 2001. Out of this population, women constitute 50 percent. Inspite of this massive size, the Annual Abstract of Statistics reveals that 9.6 million female pupils were registered for the primary school as against 11.9 million male pupils…

  6. Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E.

    The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

  7. Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

  8. Identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a genotype XIV Newcastle disease virus from Nigeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a m...

  9. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  10. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  11. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  12. Challenging the Status Quo: Alan Pifer and Higher Education Reform in Colonial Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Ogechi E.

    2013-01-01

    The historiography of higher education in Nigeria has not fully accounted for Alan Pifer's crucial contributions in reforming the elitist British higher education tradition in colonial Nigeria. Through qualitative analysis of mostly primary sources acquired from the Rare Book and Manuscript Library in Columbia University, this article argues that…

  13. Lapses in Education Policy Formulation Processes in Nigeria: Implications for the Standard of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyedeji, Samson Oyelola

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria's Education Policy is quite laudable yet her investments in education are not too rewarding considering the deteriorating educational standards. The poor performance of the education sector in Nigeria, which is evident in the falling in standard of education and poor quality, has become very worrisome. What is the problem? Is the…

  14. Socioeconomic Situations of the Elderly within the Context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Elias Olukorede

    2011-01-01

    It is still unknown how the MDGs have impacted the socioeconomic situations of the elderly in Nigeria. This has become essential to appraise the attainability of the MDGs in Nigeria. Quantitative data were collected through an individual-based questionnaire. Multistage sampling was employed to select local government areas, enumeration areas, and…

  15. Access and Success: The Role of Distance Education in Girl-Child Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkechinyere Amadi, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for affecting national development. In spite of the global efforts to broaden opportunities in many schools all over Nigeria, many are not responding adequately to the needs of their students. A large majority of the learners do not acquire even minimal levels of learning due to such factors as…

  16. Accreditation of University Undergraduate Programs in Nigeria from 2001-2012: Implications for Graduates Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dada, M. S.; Imam, Hauwa

    2015-01-01

    This study analysed accreditation exercises of universities undergraduate programs in Nigeria from 2001-2013. Accreditation is a quality assurance mechanism to ensure that undergraduate programs offered in Nigeria satisfies benchmark minimum academic standards for producing graduates with requisite skills for employability. The study adopted the…

  17. Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use…

  18. Power to the People: Developing Electrical Co-Ops to Improve Stability in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    business&Itemid=266. 11. Linda Van Buren, " Europa World Plus, Nigeria: Economy," Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, accessed 29 August 2012, http...Haram." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Accessed 10 October 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram. Buren, Linda Van. " Europa World Plus, Nigeria

  19. China’s Africa Policy in Nigeria: Understanding Its Strategy and Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    24-25. Nigeria, in Europa World online. London, Rutledge. Naval War College. Retrieved 31 August 2012 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ng...www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2007-08/13/content_6023257.htm Young, Ralph and Richard Synge. Recent History (Nigeria), in Europa World online. London

  20. Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' Approach on Some Nigeria Primary Pupils' Achievement in Decimal Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurumeh, M. S. C.; Achor, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on some Nigeria primary pupils' achievement in decimal fractions. Three hypotheses guided the study. A total of 200 Primary six pupils (that is, 6th grade) from randomly selected schools in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State of Nigeria served as the sample for the study. A Mathematics…

  1. Future options for the management of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chidi; Kankam, Charity

    2012-02-01

    The lack of health care infrastructure and prevalence of infectious disease in Nigeria exacerbate the growing problem of diagnosing and treating chronic kidney disease. Nigeria should place more emphasis on chronic kidney disease education, screening, and prevention; propagation of acceptance of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis; subsidization of renal replacement costs; and advancement of the national renal transplantation program.

  2. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  3. Multilingualism and healthcare in Nigeria: a management perspective.

    PubMed

    Antia, Bassey E; Bertin, Fankep D A

    2004-01-01

    Nigeria has a healthcare system that has been described as defective even by its managers. A year 2000 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) of health systems in 191 member countries ranked Nigeria 187th. These several evaluations consistently point to inadequate managerial skills. Regrettably, very little is known of the import of language and communication as management issues in healthcare delivery in this country of 400 languages. This article therefore proposes a language-driven audit of health management in Borno State (northeast Nigeria) as a means of sensitizing policy makers and implementers. Based largely on data from questionnaires completed by 129 health professionals belonging to various professional categories (physicians, nurses, pharmacy staff, laboratory staff, and medical and health workers) and drawn from four hospitals, the study explores the relationship between multilingualism and the following: (a) patients' rights; (b) staff recruitment, deployment and commitment; (c) human asset accounting; (d) physician-population ratio. This language-driven audit reveals a number of points, including: ethically questionable practices; distributional imbalance in personnel; commendable cases of employee commitment; and inequity in renumeration.

  4. Liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria: the undergraduates' perspective.

    PubMed

    Orji, E O; Adeyemi, A B; Esimai, O A

    2003-01-01

    Nothing in the field of health care generates more controversy than does the issue of abortion. The views of 396 undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria concerning the liberalisation of abortion laws were investigated in May 2001. Ninety respondents (22.7%) supported the liberalisation of abortion laws in Nigeria because they believed that it would lead to reduction in associated morbidity and mortality, encourage more qualified personnel to perform it, encourage women to request abortion openly and encourage accurate statistics on abortion. However, the majority of the respondents (59.6%) opposed the liberalisation of abortion laws due to the fear that it would increase promiscuity, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion rates. Religious opposition and the belief that liberalisation would not reduce the level of poverty, ignorance and poor reproductive health facilities were the common factors leading to unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion in Nigeria. Support for the liberalisation of abortion laws shows significant relationship with increasing age (P = 0.001), male sex (P = 0.001) and a science-orientated faculty (P<0.05), but not religion. There is every indication that the issue of abortion is one that will continue to be unresolved for the forseeable future.

  5. Assessing the progress of malaria control in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2011-01-01

    One third of the world's malaria deaths occur in Nigeria. It is doubtful whether Nigeria will meet the malaria control target of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, having failed to meet the Abuja target to halve the burden of malaria by 2010. This paper assesses the current malaria burden and progress toward malaria control. Substantial data were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and other secondary sources. Data showed that the malaria burden is still enormous because of inadequate control efforts. In 2008, only 17% of Nigerians owned at least one net, compared with 12% in 2003. Eight percent owned an insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN), but only 6% of under-five children and 5% of pregnant women slept under an ITN. Only one third of under-five children with fever received antimalarial drugs, while one fifth of pregnant women took antimalarial drugs for prevention. Chloroquine is still the most common drug used in malaria treatment, despite its ban in first-line treatment since 2005. The paper concludes that scaling up home management of malaria and a community-centred approach to ITN and artemisinin-based combination therapy provisioning should be prioritized.

  6. Air Quality in Nigeria as Observed from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, Eloise; Jacob, Daniel; Wecht, Kevin; Vigouroux, Corinne; Lerot, Christophe; Kurosu, Thomas; Chance, Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) in Nigeria, as observed using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, indicate a large source of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We isolate an anthropogenic signal of HCHO by removing the biomass burning and biogenic signal. We use space-based observations of gas flare hotspots, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide and glyoxal to identify emission source locations - city centers (Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt); Niger Delta petroleum and natural gas extraction; and intense biofuel use in populous rural regions. GEOS-Chem underestimates anthropogenic HCHO in Nigeria and we use aircraft observations of VOCs made over Lagos during the AMMA campaign (Jul-Aug 2006) and SCIAMACHY methane observations over the Niger Delta to address this discrepancy. After updating GEOS-Chem VOC emissions in Nigeria we find that local emissions increase surface ozone north of the Nigerian coastline (persistent onshore winds) and ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate in the free troposphere stretching from the Gulf of Guinea to the east coast of South America (monsoonal convection and advection along a branch of the African Easterly Jet).

  7. Current Trends of Immunization in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ophori, Endurance A.; Tula, Musa Y.; Azih, Azuka V.; Okojie, Rachel; Ikpo, Precious E.

    2014-01-01

    Immunization is aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. In Nigeria, the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) suffers recurrent setbacks due to many factors including ethnicity and religious beliefs. Nigeria is made up of 36 states with its federal capital in Abuja. The country is divided into six geo-political zones; north central, north west, north east, south east, south west and south south. The population is unevenly distributed across the country. The average population density in 2006 was estimated at 150 people per square kilometres with Lagos, Anambra, Imo, Abia, and Akwa Ibom being the most densely populated states. Most of the densely populated states are found in the south east. Kano with an average density of 442 persons per square kilometre, is the most densely populated state in the northern part of the country. This study presents a review on the current immunization programme and the many challenges affecting its success in the eradication of childhood diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25237283

  8. Crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, A.C.; Malone, S.D.

    1983-04-01

    Refraction data from blasts recorded in eastern Washington between 1980 and 1983 are used to determine the upper crustal structure of the Columbia Plateau. Fourteen blast sites with over 25 individual shots were recorded on the University of Washington regional seismic network made up of 36 short-period seismograph stations recorded digitally at 100 samples/s. Additional data were obtained from a 12-station dense digital network in the central plateau operated by the Rockwell Hanford Operations Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Major crustal refractors of 5.1 and 6.05 km/s are observed at distances of 15 to 50 km and 50 to 120 km, respectively. A time-term method is used to model layer thicknesses below the stations for each major refractor. A statistical source-receiver separation operation is used to handle the inherent nonindependence of the data. Constraints are used to fix the mean values of the time terms. Ray tracing through two-dimensional velocity structures is used to augment the interpretation of the time-term solutions for areas where the lateral velocity changes are large. Station delays for the 5.1-km/s layer show a good correlation with elevation and surficial geology. The areal extent of the 5.1-km/s layer roughly coincides with the Columbia River basalts. Time terms from the 6.05-km/s layer indicate a nearly uniform depth of 1 to 2 km in the northern plateau. Time terms in the central plateau indicate a depth to the 6.05-km/s layer of over 8 km, and a systematic thinning away from its center. Magnetotelluric studies indicate that the basalts are probably no thicker than 5 km in the central Columbia Plateau region.

  9. Capitalizing on Nigeria's demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E; Mberu, Blessing U

    2014-03-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world, yet there is a dearth of published research about its demography. As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working-age population, it is critical to understand the demographic trends in the country. This paper examines the age and sex composition of Nigeria as it relates to various population characteristics using the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Nigeria (2003 and 2008), as well as some data from the 2006 Census. It also highlights Nigeria's demographic composition and trends using United Nations population projection data, and its implications for the country reaping the demographic dividend. Finally, it draws some conclusions and makes some policy recommendations based on the findings.

  10. The Enormity of Chronic Kidney Disease in Nigeria: The Situation in a Teaching Hospital in South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ulasi, Ifeoma I.; Ijoma, Chinwuba K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The magnitude of the problem of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is enormous, and the prevalence keeps rising. To highlight the burden of CKD in developing countries, the authors looked at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Method. ESRD patients seen from 01/05/1990 to 31/12/2003 were recruited. Records from A&E Department, medical-out-patients, wards and dialysis unit were used. Results. A total of 1001 male versus 537 female patients were reviewed. About 593 male versus 315 female patients had haemodialysis. The mean age was 42.55 ± 15.43 years and 86.5% were <60 years. Primary renal disease could not be determined in 51.6% while hypertension and glomerulonephritis accounted for −17.2% and 14.6%, respectively. Death from renal causes constituted 22.03% of medical deaths. Conclusion. The prognosis for CKD patients in Nigeria is abysmal. Only few patients had renal-replacement-therapy (RRT). The prohibitive cost precludes many patients. This underscores the need for preventive measures to reduce the impact of CKD in the society. PMID:20613945

  11. Evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of reliable and culturally sensitive measures of attributes of the built and social environment is necessary for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in low-income countries, that can inform international evidence-based policies and interventions in the worldwide prevention of physical inactivity epidemics. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Nigeria and evaluated aspects of reliability and validity of the adapted version among Nigerian adults. Methods The adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by African and international experts, and final items were selected for NEWS-Nigeria after a cross-validation of the confirmatory factor analysis structure of the original NEWS. Participants (N = 386; female = 47.2%) from two cities in Nigeria completed the adapted NEWS surveys regarding perceived residential density, land use mix – diversity, land use mix – access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. Self-reported activity for leisure, walking for different purposes, and overall physical activity were assessed with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). Results The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.59 –0.91). Construct validity was good, with residents of high-walkable neighborhoods reporting significantly higher residential density, more land use mix diversity, higher street connectivity, more traffic safety and more safety from crime, but lower infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling and aesthetics than residents of low-walkable neighborhoods. Concurrent validity correlations were low to moderate (r = 0.10 –0.31) with residential density, land use mix diversity, and traffic safety significantly associated with most physical activity outcomes. Conclusions The NEWS-Nigeria

  12. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the

  13. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiangning; Zhang, Wang; Tang, Xinyuan; Xin, Youquan; Xu, Yanmei; Sun, Hui; Luo, Xuelian; Pu, Ji; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Lu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging group of zoonotic pathogens. Ruminants are the natural reservoir of STEC. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of the STEC in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. A total of 1116 pika samples, including 294 intestinal contents samples, 317 fecal samples, and 505 intestinal contents samples, were collected from May to August in the years 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. Twenty-one samples (1.88%) yielded at least one STEC isolate; in total, 22 STEC isolates were recovered. Thirteen different O serogroups and 14 serotypes were identified. One stx1 subtype (stx1a) and three stx2 subtypes (stx2a, stx2b, and stx2d) were present in the STEC isolates. Fifteen, fourteen, and three STEC isolates harbored the virulence genes ehxA, subA, and astA, respectively. Adherence-associated genes iha and saa were, respectively, present in 72.73 and 68.18% of the STEC isolates. Twenty antibiotics were active against all the STEC isolates; all strains were resistant to penicillin G, and some to cephalothin or streptomycin. The 22 STEC isolates were divided into 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and 12 sequence types. Plateau pikas may play a role in the ongoing circulation of STEC in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. This study provides the first report on STEC in plateau pikas and new information about STEC reservoirs in wildlife. Based on the serotypes, virulence gene profiles and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, the majority of these pika STECs may pose a low public health risk. PMID:27047483

  14. Crustal rheological strength heterogeneities control the formation of continental plateau margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Yang, Xiaolin

    2015-08-01

    The margins bordering the Tibetan Plateau show two end-member morphologies in topographic gradient: steep margins and low-gradient margins. To investigate the formation mechanism of convergent intracontinental plateau margins, we conduct 2D numerical experiments to simulate crustal deformation process across plateau margins. Our numerical experiments demonstrate that heterogeneities in crustal rheological strength control significantly the formation of plateau margins when subjected to crustal convergence. A very steep margin is the result of crustal convergence between plateau with weak lower crust and foreland basin with strong lower crust. By contrast, a low-gradient margin could result from crustal convergence between plateau and foreland with less strength contrast. This finding suggests that the diversity in topographic gradient along the Tibetan Plateau borders reflects heterogeneities in crustal rheological strength across the plateau margins. Steep gradient at the margins indicate large crustal rheological strength contrasts between the weak ductile lower crust of the Tibetan Plateau and its strong surrounding foreland basins, like the Sichuan Basin, the Tarim Basin and the Qaidam Basin. Beneath these steep margins the horizontal flow of the Tibetan ductile lower crust is inhibited and forced to extrude to support escarpments. Low-gradient at the margins indicate less crustal strength variations between the plateau and outer forelands, like at the northeastern and southeastern margins, where they might be outlets for the weak ductile Tibetan lower crust to flow away from the plateau.

  15. On the cenozoic uplift and tectonic stability of the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Models of plateau uplift which can be applied to the Colorado Plateau are presented. The sequence and consequences of the 2-km Cenzoic uplift of the Plateau and volcanism and rifting in the adjoining Basin and Range and Southern Rocky Mountain-Rio Grande rift provinces are examined. Geologic and geophysical data suggest that more than one mechanism is required to explain the 2 km of uplift, and that thermal expansion and magmatic crustal thickening are the dominant mechanisms. It is argued that the early Cenzoic stability of the Plateau was related to the relatively cool geotherm and hence high strength of the Plateau lithosphere relative to the adjoining regions. As the Plateau lithosphere has been heated and uplift has occurred, the overall stability of the Plateau has decreased.

  16. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  17. High pre-industrial and modern Tibetan Plateau fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Li, Q.; Wang, N.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    The South Asian brown cloud created from a mix of biomass burning and fossil fuel aerosols is warming the atmosphere between 5000 to 7000 meters above sea level (m asl) along the southern slope of the Himalaya. The extent to which this atmospheric brown cloud is transported up and over the 7000 to 8000 m asl ridge of the Himalaya and northward across the Tibetan Plateau is unknown. Intense Eastern Asian industry and associated coal burning may also export fossil fuel burning products to the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, local cooking, agricultural and natural fires emit combustion products that alter atmospheric chemistry and are deposited on glacier surfaces. It is essential to differentiate between the effects of fossil fuel and biomass burning across the Tibetan Plateau to determine if combustion products affect glacier surfaces and, by extension, glacier volume. The specific biomarker levoglucosan can only be produced by biomass burning at temperatures of 300°C or higher and is trapped and preserved in glaciers across the globe. This specificity may allow the possibility of differentiating between fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions when comparing levoglucosan concentrations with more general ice core combustion proxies such as black carbon. Here, we present a biomass burning record from the entire 164 m Muztag ice core (36.35°N; 87.17°E; 5780 m asl) and from a southwest to northeast transect of snow pits across the Tibetan Plateau. Multiple total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon surface samples demonstrate organic carbon concentrations at or near detection limits. However, these samples have high levoglucosan concentrations suggesting that the biomass burning recorded in these sites may be from a regional rather than local source. The Tibetan Plateau levoglucosan concentrations are surprisingly substantially greater than Kilimanjaro levoglucosan concentrations, where Kilimanjaro is located in a relatively similar low-latitude high

  18. Understanding the Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: An Interview with Jay Fox and José María Gutiérrez.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jay W; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-16

    Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic "Snake Venom Metalloproteinases" in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez their research on the SVMPs and their perspectives on the future trends and challenges for studying snake venoms.

  19. Understanding the Snake Venom Metalloproteinases: An Interview with Jay Fox and José María Gutiérrez

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-01

    Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez recently finished editing a Special Issue on the topic “Snake Venom Metalloproteinases” in Toxins. The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics, including the molecular evolution and structure of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), the mechanisms involved in the generation of diversity of SVMPs, the mechanism of action of SVMPs, and their role in the pathophysiology of envenomings, with implications for improving the therapy of envenomings. In this interview, we discussed with Jay W. Fox and José María Gutiérrez their research on the SVMPs and their perspectives on the future trends and challenges for studying snake venoms. PMID:28275208

  20. [Radon-222 in drinking water of Karkonoskie Plateau].

    PubMed

    Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Gorzkowski, Bohdan; Rózycki, Zdzisław; Wieprzowski, Kamil; Bekas, Marcin; Wilejczyk, Elzbieta; Smoter, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Radon-222 concentration in surface water, wells water and tap water in the main towns and villages which are located in area of Karkonoskie Plateau has been quantitative determined. The measurements were performed using the alpha liquid scintillation counting method. Majority of waterworks in Karkonoskie Plateau is supplied with the ground water in which the radon concentration is high from 87.5 Bq/l to 818.1 Bq/l. The waterworks in Karpacz are supplied with the surface water, which main characteristic is low radon concentration (below 10 Bq/l) and with the ground water have a high radon concentration (to 541 Bq/l). Radon-222 concentration in water of individual wells was similar to concentration in the ground water.

  1. Independently dated paleomagnetic secular variation records from the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberzettl, T.; Henkel, K.; Kasper, T.; Ahlborn, M.; Su, Y.; Appel, E.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J. S.; Daut, G.; Wang, J.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been serving as a valuable tool for dating and confirming chronologies of lacustrine sediments in many parts of the world. However, suitable paleomagnetic records on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and adjacent areas are extremely scarce. Here, independently radiocarbon dated sediments of two lakes on the southern central TP, Tangra Yumco and Taro Co some 250 km further west, were investigated for their potential to record paleomagnetic secular variations. Multiple sediment cores resemble a very similar inclination pattern for the past 4000 years. This demonstrates the high potential of inclination to compare records over the Tibetan Plateau and eventually date other Tibetan records stratigraphically. Comparisons to an existing record from Nam Co, a lake 350 km west of Tangra Yumco, a varve dated record from the Makran Accretionary Wedge, and a stack record from East Asia reveal many similarities. However, model output data of geomagnetic field models for the coordinates of Tangra Yumco do not agree with our findings.

  2. [Minimally invasive treatment of tibial plateau fracture under arthroscopy monitoring].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixin; Ma, Shaoyun; Li, Xianpeng

    2014-05-01

    Twenty six patients with fracture of tibial plateau was under arthroscopy assisted reduction, the joint surface of bone graft, and USES the steel plate fixation treatment. Average surgery time was 65 min (70-120 min), average fracture healing time was 15 weeks (12-17 weeks), joint surface anatomical reattachment rate was 92.9%. Using break knee function criteria evaluation of curative effect: 18 cases great 6 cases wed, 2 cases ok, fine rate was 92.3%. No infection, deep venous thrombosis and small leg fascia chamber syndrome and other complications. Conclusion is that treatment of tibial plateau fractures under arthroscope has advantages of small trauma, check intuitively and reset accurately, functional recovery of patients are satisfied, the treatment has certain clinical application value.

  3. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Tectonic analysis of folds in the Colorado plateau of Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Structural mapping and analysis of folds in Phanerozoic rocks in northern Arizona, using LANDSAT-1 imagery, yielded information for a tectonic model useful in identifying regional fracture zones within the Colorado Plateau tectonic province. Since the monoclines within the province developed as a response to differential movements of basement blocks along high-angle faults, the monoclinal fold pattern records the position and trend of many elements of the regional fracture system. The Plateau is divided into a mosaic of complex, polyhedral crustal blocks whose steeply dipping faces correspond to major fracture zones. Zones of convergence and changes in the trend of the monoclinal traces reveal the corners of the blocks. Igneous (and salt) diapirs have been emplaced into many of the designated zones of crustal weakness. As loci of major fracturing, folding, and probably facies changes, the fractures exert control on the entrapment of oil and gas.

  5. Exploring Aristarchus Plateau as a Potential Lunar Base Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Allen, Carlton C.

    1998-01-01

    As part the exploration strategy, NASA has been studying the feasibility of a low cost human return to the Moon. The currently planned mission has a dual focus on the advancement of lunar science and the use of in situ resources. Thus far, our space exploration plans have relied almost exclusively on equipment and supplies transported from Earth. This may be appropriate for operations in Earth orbit, or for short duration stays on the lunar surface. However, the ability to "live off the land," will prove vital for long term habitation of the Moon and planets. This study takes a close look at the Aristarchus Plateau, one of the primary candidate sites for human lunar exploration. Based on this synthesis study, we recommend two sites on the Aristarchus Plateau that will maximize science return and provide a convincing demonstration of the use of in situ resources and which may be a viable future lunar base site.

  6. [Carbon sequestration of young Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-qun; Su, Yin-quan; Kang, Yong-xiang; Xu, Xi-ming; Qin, Yue

    2009-12-01

    In order to understand the carbon sequestration of ecological forests in Loess Plateau, a comparative study was made on the organic carbon density (OCD) of soil, litter, and plant organs in an 8-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantation and nearby barren land. Comparing with the barren land, the young R. pseudoacacia plantation had a decrease (0.26 kg x m(-2)) of soil OCD, but the OCD in its litter, root system, and aboveground organs increased by 121.1%, 202.0%, and 656. 7%, respectively, with a total carbon sequestration increased by 3.3% annually, which illustrated that R. pseudoacacia afforestation on Loess Plateau had an obvious positive effect on carbon sequestration.

  7. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  8. Landslide development within the Barlad Plateau of Eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niacsu, Lilian; Ionita, Ion

    2014-05-01

    The Barlad Plateau, extending about 8,230 square kilometers is considered as the most typical unit of the Moldavian Plateau of the Eastern Romania. The Miocene-Pliocene clay-sandy layers are inter-bedded with shallow sandstone and limestone seams. These sedimentary layers that have outcropped as a result of erosion are gently dipping toward S-SE in the form of a monocline. Landslides have been recognized as an important environmental threat in the major subunits of the Barlad Plateau, namely: Central Moldavian Plateau, Falciu Hills and Tutova Rolling Hills. Four main areas of monitoring landslides were explored such as successive aerial photographs of the 1960, 1970, 2005 and 2009 flights, repeated field surveys for a thorough reconnaissance of the study area, classical levelling work and GIS software applications as TNT Mips and Arc GIS. Also, the Caesium-137 technique has been used to get information on documenting sedimentation rates in some small catchments. Results have indicated that the landslide development is strongly controlled by the northern and western looking steep faces of cuestas, by changes of rock composition and by human impact. Also, it showed great pulses in conjunction with the rainfall distribution. For example, half of the Upper Barlad catchment that drains an area of 22,560 ha is covered by landslides. Furthermore, the active landslides amounted 11% of the total (2,317 ha) after the rainy 1968-1973 period and since 1982 under drier conditions they gradually limited to 444.0 ha (2% of the total).

  9. On the Intrinsic Diversity of Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Prieto, Jose L.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen-rich Type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe) exhibit correlations between the plateau luminosity {L}{pl}, the nickel mass {M}{Ni}, the explosion energy {E}{exp}, and the ejecta mass {M}{ej}. Using our global, self-consistent, multi-band model of nearby well-observed SNe, we find that the covariances of these quantities are strong and that the confidence ellipsoids are oriented in the direction of the correlations, which reduces their significance. By proper treatment of the covariance matrix of the model, we discover a significant intrinsic width to the correlations between {L}{pl}, {E}{exp} and {M}{Ni}, where the uncertainties due to the distance and the extinction dominate. For fixed {E}{exp}, the spread in {M}{Ni} is about 0.25 dex, which we attribute to the differences in the progenitor internal structure. We argue that the effects of incomplete γ-ray trapping are not important in our sample. Similarly, the physics of the Type II-Plateau SN light curves leads to inherently degenerate estimates of {E}{exp} and {M}{ej}, which makes their observed correlation weak. Ignoring the covariances of SN parameters or the intrinsic width of the correlations causes significant biases in the slopes of the fitted relations. Our results imply that Type II-Plateau SN explosions are not described by a single physical parameter or a simple one-dimensional trajectory through the parameter space, but instead reflect the diversity of the core and surface properties of their progenitors. We discuss the implications for the physics of the explosion mechanism and possible future observational constraints.

  10. Crustal Lg-wave attenuation in and around Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Xie, X.; Yao, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Based on regional Lg-wave data, we develop a broadband high-resolution attenuation model for Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions. We collect vertical component seismograms recorded at 146 stations form 232 crustal earthquakes to calculate the Lg-wave amplitude spectra. The spectra are sampled at 58 discrete frequencies distributed log evenly between 0.05 and 10.0 Hz. Both dual-station and single-station datasets are constructed for jointly inverting the Lg Q distribution and Lg wave excitation function. The maximum spatial resolution is approximately 0.8°×0.8° in well-covered areas and for frequencies between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz. The Lg Q image reveals the relations between attenuations and geological structures. The average Lg Q0 (1 Hz Q) is 280 for Tibetan Plateau (regions with elevations above 4,000 m ). The Q0 values change from the south to north by first decrease (the Himalaya: 386, Lhasa : 284, Qiangtang: 238, and Songpan-Ganze blocks: 217), and then increase ( East Kunlun: 289, West Kunlun: 330, and Qilianshan blocks: 315). The QLg distributions are consistent with the lower crust material flow around the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis and the rigid Sichuan basin. The regions surrounding the Tibetan plateau are characterized by high Q0 values (Tarim basin: 433, Altyn mountain: 517, Qaidam basin: 385, Alashan uplift: 452, Inner Mongolian platform: 444, Ordos: 395, and Sichuan basins: 456), except for Yungui Plateau which has a relatively low Q0 of 247. A statistical method is used to investigate the regional variations of the Lg Q frequency dependence. The Lg Q generally increases with the increase of frequencies but show complex frequency dependency, indicating the commonly used power-law Q model may not be appropriate within a broad frequency band. The Lg Q frequency dependence also shows regional variations.

  11. Regional Phase Attenuation across the Turkish-Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E. A.; Kaviani, A.; Ku, W.; Ghalib, H. A. A.; Burch, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed and validated regional wave (Pg and Lg) attenuation models for the crust and upper mantle throughout the Iranian plateau and surrounding regions. This research has increased ray path coverage of critical areas and help to create robust regional phase amplitude and attenuation models. We have recently combined our Iranian data set with our existing Middle Eastern Lg waveform database including stations from the recent CDCAT seismic experiment in central Anatolia. Together, these two data sets give us reasonably good coverage of the northern Middle East using both a two-station and reverse-two-station (RTM) attenuation measurements. We have also processed Pg waveforms in order to obtain robust estimates of Qp in the crust within the Anatolian-Iranian plateau. In general we have found a good correlation between Lg and Pg Q values with the exception of northwestern Iran. We are using our models of Qp and Qs for the crust to better understand the origin of the crustal models and to help determine the origin of the seismic anomalies in the crust beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. We will correlate our Q models with variations in seismic wave speed from ambient noise tomography and local body wave tomography to understand whether composition or temperature anomalies are generating the observed seismic anomalies.

  12. Mesozoic tectonic features of the Floridan Plateau basement

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, K.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Digitally-filtered Bouguer gravity anomaly maps of the Floridan Plateau delineate the Mesozoic extensional basins in the southwestern half of the plateau and suggest modification of existing basement models. The extension into Florida of the Triassic South Georgia Rift is marked by a gravity low and appears to have small ancillary rift basins paralleling its southeastern border. The Jurassic Apalachicola, Tampa, and South Florida Basins are delineated by positive anomalies, possibly attributable to the emplacement of hypabyssal rocks, and are separated by the negative anomalies of the Middle Ground and Sarasota Arches. The Tampa Basin is more aerially extensive than shown on previous basement maps, extending from the Jay Fault zone to the western edge of the plateau. The South Florida Basin is likely comprised of three separate NW-trending grabens sharing a common northwestern boundary. Existing seismic reflection profiles provide a characterization of some of the boundaries of these features. All of them, with the possible exception of the Apalachicola Basin, are bounded by the Jay Fault zone, a probable Paleozoic right-lateral strike-slip zone, segments of which were reactivated during the Mesozoic to accommodate differential vertical movement related to extension.

  13. Thrust kinematics in the Kohat Plateau, Trans Indus Range, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed; McElroy, Ronan

    The Kohat Plateau consists of a heavily deformed and structurally elevated thrust sheet. Pop-ups, broad synclines and narrow fault- and evaporite-cored anticlines record high-level translation of a large thrust mass along Eocene evaporites. A lower detachment level is also inferred, located at the base of the Mesozoic-Palaeozoic section. This lower detachment is common to both the Kohat and the adjacent Potwar Plateaux whereas the upper level is restricted to the Kohat. Beneath the Kohat, a blind imbricate stack of pre-Tertiary rocks is developed. Above their roof thrust, the foreland basin-fill of Kohat records greater internal deformation compared to that of the adjacent Potwar Plateau. In contrast, the Potwar thrust belt displays a greater amount of overthrusting on its basal surface, this displacement emerging in the Salt Range. Total shortening across the two plateaux is comparable, but is accommodated in an areally smaller thrust belt with a higher structural relief in the Kohat as compared to the Potwar structural province. The resultant geographical offset of the thrust front is denoted by the Hukni-Kalabagh lateral ramp. The differences in the thrust kinematics are tentatively suggested to be caused by the mechanical response of the orogenic wedge to different imposed geometries of the wedge laterally within the basin. The Kohat Plateau appears to have a lower basal dip than does the western Potwar, and thus shows greater internal deformation.

  14. Arthroscopy-assisted operative management of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Cetik, Ozgur; Talu, Ufuk; Sozen, Yunus V

    2002-11-01

    This retrospective review evaluated the results of arthroscopy-assisted surgery for tibial plateau fractures in 45 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures. The fracture involved articular depression in 27 patients in whom lifting and bone grafting with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft was required. In 23 patients there were also meniscal lesions, which were treated by partial resection in 16 and repaired in 7. Internal fixation was performed using screws in 36 knees and plate in 10 knees. Radiological results were evaluated according to the Resnic-Niwoyama criteria; mean follow-up was 36 months (range 14-72). There was no intraoperative complication in the series, but postoperatively there were one infection and one loss of correction. Results were satisfactory in 89% of cases, according the Rasmussen criteria. Arthroscopy is thus an excellent and minimally invasive method for assessment and treatment of tibial plateau fractures. The advantages are complete and anatomical reduction in the fractured articular surface and evaluation of other concomitant intra-articular pathology and entails only little additional morbidity, especially compared to arthrotomy.

  15. Sequence stratigraphy on an early Cretaceous passive margin, Exmouth Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.; Gorur, N.; Ito, M.; O'Brien, D.; Wilkens, R.; Tang, C.

    1989-03-01

    Permian-Jurassic rifting of northwestern Australia resulted in the development of a passive continental margin flanking the northeastern Indian Ocean. On this margin the relatively thin synrift to postrift sedimentary sequence of southern Exmouth Plateau was drilled during ODP Leg 122. A sequence-stratigraphy analysis of the complete Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary succession at Sites 762 and 763 was derived from a synthesis of seismic stratigraphy, wireline logs, lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy. Results indicate that during breakup, the southern Exmouth Plateau was a transform margin with an extensional component. Between the Tithonian and Valanginian, a thick clastic wedge prograded from the transform margin south of Site 763 northwestward toward Site 762 and onto subsiding continental crust. Southern clastic supply decreased into the Aptian-Cenomanian, and cyclic deposition of deep-water mudstones continued during subsidence of the earlier shelf margin wedge. Between the Albian and Cenomanian, deposition gradually became dominated by pelagic carbonates. Two regional unconformities mark the Cenomanian/Turonian and Cretaceous/Tertiary boundaries. Each was an erosional event, succeeded by renewed pelagic carbonate deposition that began in the distal northern basin and onlapped progressively toward the topographic high, which persisted into the Tertiary along the southern margin. The entire Jurassic to Holocene record at the southern Exmouth Plateau ODP sites is less than 1500 m thick and represents a classic rift to mature ocean passive-margin succession.

  16. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  17. Climatology of monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau from 13-year TRMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aijuan, Bai; Guoping, Li

    2016-10-01

    Based on the 13-year data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite during 2001-2013, the influencing geographical location of the Tibetan Plateau (Plateau) monsoon is determined. It is found that the domain of the Plateau monsoon is bounded by the latitude between 27° N and 37° N and the longitude between 60° E and 103° E. According to the annual relative precipitation, the Plateau monsoon can be divided into three sections: the Plateau winter monsoon (PWM) over Iran and Afghanistan, the Plateau summer monsoon (PSM) over the central Plateau, and the transiting zone of the Plateau monsoon (TPM) over the south, west, and east edges of the Plateau. In PWM and PSM, the monsoon climatology has a shorter rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of less than 800 mm. In TPM, it has a longer rainy season with the mean annual rainfall of more than 1800 mm. PWM experiences a single-peak monthly rainfall with the peak during January to March; PSM usually undergoes a multi-peak pattern with peaks in the warm season; TPM presents a double-peak pattern, with a strong peak in late spring to early summer and a secondary peak in autumn. The Plateau monsoon also characterizes an asymmetrical seasonal advance of the rain belt. In the east of the Plateau, the rain belt migrates in a south-north orientation under the impact of the tropical and subtropical systems' oscillation. In the west of the Plateau, the rain belt advances in an east-west direction, which is mainly controlled by the regional Plateau monsoon.

  18. Nigeria Anopheles Vector Database: An Overview of 100 Years' Research

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Ademowo, Olusegun George; Bockarie, Moses; Kelly-Hope, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles

  19. Evidence of human induce factors in automotive crashes in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abidemi, Awopeju K

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa highly affected by automotive crashes which led to establishment of Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The organization fought and is fighting against reckless driving in the country to prevent loss of life through automotive crashes. The record of the organization and the Statistical investigation of the researcher reveal that most of the crashes were due to human error such as alcoholism, inexperience and peer influence on the high-way. The data for the research was collected from published report of FRSC 2012 and analyzed using chi-square dependency test and charts due to the nature of the presentation. Ratios were used to determine Number of people killed per Road Total Crashes (RTC), Casualty per RTC and RTC severity Index from 2007 to 2010 in the country. Among the human induced factors, it was discovered that most of the drivers involved in road crashes were drunk during the period and the years of experience play major role in the automotive crashes as drivers with less than 2years of experience were more involved than the other groups. In the consideration of life style of drivers involve in road crashes, it was discovered that drivers with less than 30years of age are vulnerable to road crashes than drivers with ages higher than 30years. Among the findings, the most common automobile in Nigeria road crashes is commercial buses in the years considered. It was recommended that proper and adequate training should be given to drivers on the high-way to prevent injuries and loss of life. Alcoholism should be discouraged in totality and age of obtaining drivers license could be increased in developing countries such as Nigeria.

  20. How Nigeria built child survival themes into national television.

    PubMed

    Gleason, G

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Government of Nigeria's goal of providing universal child immunization, a strategy was developed to strengthen the production capacity of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and to award higher priority to health issues in NTA programming. At the national level, a child survival-oriented training, coordination, and production unit was established to produce "spot messages" on primary health care. In 1985-86, radio and television staff from all Nigerian states attended workshops at which Ministry of Health officials outlined Nigeria's maternal-child health problems and emphasized the potential of the broadcast media in health education. Each station was linked with an officer in the local Ministry of Health to ensure ongoing collaboration on technical problems and health programs in need of promotion. Another set of state-level workshops brought together media producers and radio and television writers to encourage them to integrate primary health care themes into their programs. In addition, a Nigerian nongovernmental organization has organized workshops for electronic media writers and producers aimed at incorporating family planning themes into several popular television programs. In 1986, both NTA and the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria signed agreements further committing their networks to the child survival campaign. The Nigerian experience exemplifies the potential for creating and institutionalizing long-term efforts to use the mass media to bring new information to the general population on health-related issues. Needed at this point is more knowledge about specific communication strategies that are most effective in promoting sustainable behavioral change on the family and community levels in a country with much social and cultural diversity.

  1. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  2. Incorporating bioinformatics into biological science education in Nigeria: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ojo, O O; Omabe, M

    2011-06-01

    The urgency to process and analyze the deluge of data created by proteomics and genomics studies worldwide has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. However, its multidisciplinary nature has created a unique demand for specialist trained in both biology and computing. Several countries, in response to this challenge, have developed a number of manpower training programmes. This review presents a description of the meaning, scope, history and development of bioinformatics with focus on prospects and challenges facing bioinformatics education worldwide. The paper also provides an overview of attempts at the introduction of bioinformatics in Nigeria; describes the existing bioinformatics scenario in Nigeria and suggests strategies for effective bioinformatics education in Nigeria.

  3. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  4. The Role of Astronomy in Space Technology Development: the Case of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okere, B. I.; Okeke, P. N.

    2010-10-01

    Efforts to build Hi-Tech modern astronomical observatories for viewing space results in unbelievable technological spin offs, because these instruments require not only astronomers but skilled engineers and technicians in electronics, optics, mechanics, computer hardwares and softwares to function. There is need for African National Governments to recognize the intrinsic value of astronomy and its importance as an essential component for technological and economic growth. In this paper we highlight astronomy development in Nigeria, Nigeria's Space initiative and the contribution of astronomy to the success of Nigeria's Space initiative.

  5. Soil moisture balance and magnetic enhancement in loess-paleosol sequences from the Tibetan Plateau and Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengxiang; Liu, Qingsong; Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.; Jin, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    We present a first combined environmental magnetic and geochemical investigation of a loess-paleosol sequence (<55 ka) from the Chuanxi Plateau on the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Detailed comparison between the Ganzi section and the Luochuan section from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) allows quantification of the effects of provenance and climate on pedogenic magnetic enhancement in Chinese loess. Rare earth element patterns and clay mineral compositions indicate that the Ganzi loess originates from the interior of the Tibetan Plateau. The different Ganzi and CLP loess provenances add complexity to interpretation of magnetic parameters in terms of the concentration and grain size of eolian magnetic minerals. Enhanced paleosol magnetism via pedogenic formation of ferrimagnetic nanoparticles is observed in both sections, but weaker ferrimagnetic contributions, finer superparamagnetic (SP) particles and stronger chemical weathering are found in the Ganzi loess, which indicates the action of multiple pedogenic processes that are dominated by the combined effects of mean annual precipitation (MAP), potential evapotranspiration (PET), organic matter and aluminium content. Under relatively high MAP and low PET conditions, high soil moisture favours transformation of ferrimagnetic minerals to hematite, which results in a relatively higher concentration of hematite but weaker ferrimagnetism of Ganzi loess. Initial growth of superparamagnetic (SP) particles is also documented in the incipient loess at Ganzi, which directly reflects the dynamic formation of nano-sized pedogenic ferrimagnets. A humid pedogenic environment with more organic matter and higher Al content also helps to form finer SP particles. We therefore propose that soil water balance, rather than solely rainfall, dominates the type, concentration and grain size of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals produced by pedogenesis.

  6. Geomorphological significance of the palaeodrainage network on a karst plateau: The Una-Korana plateau, Dinaric karst, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bočić, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen; Mihevc, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    Karst plateaus often have a complex geological and geomorphological history. It is widely accepted that their development requires a long period of karst denudation. This study reconstructs the palaeodrainage network of a karst plateau, analyses its properties and establishes its geomorphological significance. The main purpose of this research was to deepen our understanding of a key stage in the evolution of karst plateaus - the transition from a fluvial land surface to one dominated by karst surface processes. The study was conducted on a large part of the Una-Korana plateau, the largest plateau in the Dinaric karst. The majority of the plateau is made of carbonate rocks of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age that set the conditions for the development of the karst. We have reconstructed the palaeodrainage network based on 1:25,000 topographic maps with 10 m contours. The transition of the surface drainage network to the underground karst drainage network is still in progress, so, depending on the degree of karstification, the drainage network was divided into three categories: active, dry and relict. It was found that 90.5% of the pre-existing drainage network has undergone some degree of karstification. The active surface drainage network gradually shifted to a dry network, then to a relict network. The surface drainage network is gradually replaced by a dense network of dolines. Today, the flat and karstified inter-fluvial area is drained underground towards the main watercourses and these drain the entire region over the surface towards the Pannonian basin. This is the largest known karst palaeodrainage network in the Dinaric karst that has been reconstructed in this way.

  7. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  8. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  9. Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) caused by a lepocreadiid digenean in San José Gulf, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Averbuj, A; Cremonte, F

    2010-12-01

    Parasitic castration of Buccinanops cochlidium from San José Gulf, Argentina, caused by a lepocreadiid digenean, is reported for the first time. Rediae and ophtalmotrichocercous cercariae probably belonging to Opechona sp. were identified in the gonad and digestive gland. Opechona sp. has been reported previously parasitizing B. monilifer from a northern locality in the Argentine Sea. Overall prevalence of infection was 15.5%; it varied seasonally, rising during the warm months after the host oviposition period. Cercariae were expelled at the same time as the hatching of snail embryos (during the higher water temperature period). Rediae affected male and female snails equally, but prevalence increases along with host size. The parasite causes the complete castration of the host. Parasitized adult snails showed a reduction of penis size in comparison with healthy males. It remains to be confirmed whether the peak of cercariae emission coincides with the presence of jellyfishes and scombrid or other fishes in the area, which could act as second intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively.

  10. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  11. Inequalities in Health: The Role of Health Insurance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chukwudozie, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Health financing is a core necessity for sustainable healthcare delivery. Access inequalities due to financial restrictions in low-middle income countries, and in Africa especially, significantly affect disease rates and health statistics in these regions. This paper focuses on the role of a national health insurance cover as a funding medium in Nigeria, highlighting the theoretical premise of health insurance, its driving forces, key benefits and key limitations particular to the country under scrutiny. Emphasis is laid on its overall effect on the pressing public health issue of health inequality. PMID:28299138

  12. Transparency in Nigeria's public pharmaceutical sector: perceptions from policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Garuba, Habibat A; Kohler, Jillian C; Huisman, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals are an integral component of health care systems worldwide, thus, regulatory weaknesses in governance of the pharmaceutical system negatively impact health outcomes especially in developing countries [1]. Nigeria is one of a number of countries whose pharmaceutical system has been impacted by corruption and has struggled to curtail the production and trafficking of substandard drugs. In 2001, the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) underwent an organizational restructuring resulting in reforms to reduce counterfeit drugs and better regulate pharmaceuticals [2]. Despite these changes, there is still room for improvement. This study assessed the perceived level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption that exists in four essential areas of Nigeria's pharmaceutical sector: registration, procurement, inspection (divided into inspection of ports and of establishments), and distribution. Methods Standardized questionnaires were adapted from the World Health Organization assessment tool and used in semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the public and private pharmaceutical system. The responses to the questions were tallied and converted to scores on a numerical scale where lower scores suggested greater vulnerability to corruption and higher scores suggested lower vulnerability. Results The overall score for Nigeria's pharmaceutical system was 7.4 out of 10, indicating a system that is marginally vulnerable to corruption. The weakest links were the areas of drug registration and inspection of ports. Analysis of the qualitative results revealed that the perceived level of corruption did not always match the qualitative evidence. Conclusion Despite the many reported reforms instituted by NAFDAC, the study findings suggest that facets of the pharmaceutical system in Nigeria remain fairly vulnerable to corruption. The most glaring deficiency seems to be the absence of conflict of

  13. Phenotypic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from livestock in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ocholi, R A; Kwaga, J K P; Ajogi, I; Bale, J O O

    2004-10-05

    Isolation of brucellae from aborted fetuses, hygroma fluids, milk and vaginal swabs obtained from aborting cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and horses in Nigeria was carried out. A total of 25 isolates, obtained mainly from cattle, sheep and horses, were biotyped. All strains belonged to one species, Brucella abortus biovar 1. The epidemiological significance of this finding is discussed. Some preliminary observations on the zoonotic and public health implications of Brucella infection in Nigerian livestock are presented. A control programme involving improved management, animal movement restrictions, public health education and mass vaccination of animals is suggested.

  14. Prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, I E; Olatunji, P O; Okunade, M A; Ogunsanwo, B A; Jeje, O M; Shokunbi, W A; Essien, E M

    1990-12-01

    Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) seen in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, still have low rates of complete remission and relatively short survival. Yet the overall prognosis was expected to have improved because the proportions of adults, males and people of low socio-economic class among the patients have decreased steadily over the past three decades. Possible causes of the persistent poor performance were sought for in 30 new ALL patients seen in the hospital over a period of 2 years and 9 months. Unfavourable prognostic factors, lack of standard cytotoxic drugs, inadequate supportive care and absence of modern facilities for therapy combined to make their disease outcome worse than expected.

  15. Women in physics in Nigeria: An update, 2008-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Fasunwon, Sola; Obiekezie, Nkechi; Said, Rabia

    2013-03-01

    Although the number of women in physics in Nigeria is increasing, there is still poor enrollment in physics compared with all other science and engineering fields. At the last annual meeting of the Nigerian Institute of Physics, the Association of Women Physicists was formed. It is hoped that the activities of this new group will encourage more women at all levels of educational development to study physics. This paper presents the trends in female participation in physics from 2008 to 2010 and reports on the first national conference of Nigerian women in physics, held in February 2011.

  16. Isolation of pathogenic bacteria from hospital staff apparel in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orji, M U; Mbata, T I; Kalu, O U

    2005-12-01

    A survey of bacteria contamination of hospital staff apparel in use in Anambra State, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the extent of contamination by clinically important bacteria. Of a total of 125 swab samples of hospital staff apparel, 72 (58%) showed bacterial contamination including 32 (70%) of 46 samples from hand gloves, 28 of 45 (62%) samples from protective gowns, and 12 of 34 (35%) samples from face-shields. The potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolation of clinically important bacteria from the apparel suggests the need for improved infection control measures.

  17. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  18. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15-49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers' recall. Results The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83-19.5]), twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11-8.39]), primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15-3.77]), maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32-2.78]), and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08-3.37]). Conclusions The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  19. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5]), twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39]), primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77]), maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78]), and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]). Conclusions The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance. PMID:26790460

  20. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Plateau Through the Anterolateral Approach.

    PubMed

    Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial plateau is fractured more commonly than the medial plateau and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial plateau fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral plateau. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial plateau fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes.

  1. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an “out of Tibet” hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an “into Tibet” scenario–earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau

  2. Advocacy for reform of the abortion law in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Long, Carolyn M; Adewole, Isaac F

    2004-11-01

    Safe abortion services are only legal in Nigeria to save the life of the woman. Widespread incidence of unsafe induced abortions often results in death or irreparable harm to women. The Campaign Against Unwanted Pregnancy (CAUP) was launched on 17 August 1991 to address this public health crisis through advocacy for reform of the abortion law, research, education and preparation of service providers, and development of a constituency to support provision of safe abortion to the full extent of the law. CAUP commissioned an evaluation in 2004 to examine and analyse the work of the campaign during its 14 years of existence, which included a review of documents, a participatory learning workshop with CAUP, and almost 50 interviews with different stakeholders. This article, adapted from the evaluation report, tells how CAUP took a taboo topic and, in the midst of an extremely complex political and cultural environment, made it a legitimate subject for public discussion and debate. The Campaign undertook groundbreaking research on abortion in Nigeria. Service providers are being trained to provide, to the full extent of the law, safe abortions and post-abortion care, and advocacy efforts are continuing to lay the groundwork for improving the abortion law.

  3. Empowering women: interventions. Nigeria: new law to end FGM.

    PubMed

    Mcwest, C

    1995-04-01

    In March 1994, a Nigerian woman fighting to spare her young daughters from circumcision was saved from deportation from the US by a judge who called the practice cruel, painful and dangerous. Female Circumcision or Genital Mutilation has been a custom in male-dominated African societies to prevent promiscuity among women, reduce their sex urge and enhance their fertility and fecundity. The mutilation ranges from clitoridectomy (cuts in the clitoris) to infibulation (removal of the labia and sewing up most of the vagina). These practices that operated traditionally or in hospitals, are condemned in most parts of the world. In 1993, the WHO vowed to fight female circumcision, which has claimed the life of tens of thousands of women and subjected, and still subjects millions of others to suffering. In Nigeria, the Military Government is due to sign a new law that will end the practice. Indeed, parents who circumcise their daughters could face seven years imprisonment. This law is from legislation that is designed to improve health care for children in Nigeria.

  4. Nigeria. TOT or training of trainers of TBAs.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    Although traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are often illiterate and have rarely received any training other than their experience as assistants to older TBAs, they remain the main providers of health services to families and attend most births. In countries where there is a chronic shortage of TBAs and community health centers to care for the special needs of women, training courses to upgrade TBA skills contribute to the improvement of community health. Also, in Nigeria and other parts of Africa, TBAs are circumcisers, and they must be informed about the harmful effects of the operation and the lack of religious or scientific grounds for the tradition in order to eradicate the practice. The Nigeria National Committee of the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) has designed Training of Trainers (TOT) programs to familiarize trainers with the Ten Step Program, a curriculum developed for teaching illiterate TBAs. One trainer was at first unwilling to attend the TOT program; however, after three days, her reaction was positive. She could use role plays, songs, dramas, demonstrations, and discussions to train the TBAs. In this particular program, 40 TBAs were selected from 7 areas. Pre-tests revealed bad delivery methods and harmful traditional practices; these included widowhood rites, female genital mutilation, massaging of pregnant women and newborn babies, and nutritional taboos. Post-tests scores were high.

  5. Reproductive performance of the Y'ankasa sheep of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Molokwu, E C; Umunna, N N

    1980-10-01

    The reproductive performance of the Y'ankasa sheep of Nigeria was studied to determine any seasonal effects on their breeding pattern. The study also aimed at documenting the reproductive performance levels of these animals as a basis for evaluating the results of any breeding improvement program in Nigeria using indigenous or exotic breeds of sheep. The study shows that this breed of sheep is a year-round breeder although some months favor lambing more than others. The age at first lambing and the lambing interval for these animals are 15.5 months and 9.7 months respectively. For 1975, the conception and lambing rates were 87.8% and 139% respectively. The rates for 1976 were 91% and 148%. Seventy-seven percent of the lambing were singles and the rest twins. The sex ratio, number of females per 100 lambs, was 49%. Lamb mortality rate up to 3 months of age was 12.0%. The lambs in our study grew very slowly, gaining only 15 kg in a 9-month period. By 10 months of age these lambs weighed only 20 kg.

  6. Movie Piracy Networks at Alaba International Market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tade, Oludayo; Mmahi, Okoro Paul

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the veiled chain of film piracy, a major crime in the Nigeria entertainment industry. Studies on film piracy in Nigeria have focused on its economic implications, both on the copyright owners and on the Nigerian economy. The organization of the activities of the film pirates has, however, been neglected. Narratives were extracted through in-depth interviews with pirates, "marketers," and "producers." Data indicated that pirates were insiders in the film marketing industry and included importers of foreign movies, registered and nonregistered retailers of Nigerian films, as well as marketers appointed by copyright owners to distribute their films. With the connivance of sales girls working with the copyright owners and dubbing companies, original copies of films (white face) are "procured." Pirates distributed pirated copies, also secretly known as "green face," without issuing receipts or putting the logo of the company on it. For security reasons, pirated films are sold only to buyers introduced by a member in the piracy network. Efforts aimed at fighting piracy must take into account this veiled network to effectively combat intellectual theft via aggressive ban on the public sale of such products.

  7. The impacts of anthropogenic factors on the environment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Madu, Ignatius A

    2009-03-01

    Generally speaking, there has been a consensus on the primary drivers of anthropogenic induced environmental degradation. However, little progress has been made in determining the magnitude of the impacts, particularly in developing countries. This creates a lacuna that needs to be filled up. The purpose of this study therefore is to ascertain the degree of anthropogenic induced environmental impacts in Nigeria. To achieve the aim, fossil fuel consumption was used as a surrogate for carbon dioxide emissions while the magnitude of the impacts was determined by regression statistics and the STIRPAT model. The results show that only three variables, namely population, affluence and urbanization, were statistically significant and that the regression model accounts for 60% of the variation in the environmental impacts. However, population and affluence, which have ecological elasticities of 1.699 and 2.709, respectively, are the most important anthropogenic drivers of environmental impacts in Nigeria while urbanization, with an elasticity of -0.570, reduces the effect of the impacts. This implies that modernization brings about a reduction in environmental impacts. The paper therefore makes a significant contribution to knowledge by successfully testing the STIRPAT model in this part of the world and by being the first application of the model at political units below the regional or nation states.

  8. Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan

    2011-12-01

    A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem.

  9. Accidental Childhood Poisoning in Enugu, South-East, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Edelu, BO; Odetunde, OI; Eke, CB; Uwaezuoke, NA; Oguonu, T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accidental childhood poisoning is one of the recognized causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years worldwide. The prevalence and type of substance ingested vary from place to place and over time. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining the frequency and pattern of accidental childhood poisoning in Enugu. Subjects and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-East, Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012 (10 years). All the cases of childhood accidental poisoning that presented within the period were reviewed and important information extracted. Results: Sixty-five cases of childhood poisoning were recorded during the 10-year period, giving an incidence rate of 442 per 100,000 children. The mean age was 22.15 ± 11.7 months. Male:female ratio was 1.5:1. The prevalence was higher among those with low socioeconomic background. Kerosene poisoning was the most common agent. The overall mortality rate was 3.1% (2/65). Conclusion: Accidental childhood poisoning is common in Enugu, with appreciable mortality, with kerosene being the most common agent. We advocate regulatory policy on proper ways of storing kerosene and other harmful household chemicals and medications. PMID:27398248

  10. Morbidity and mortality following induced abortion in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikechebelu, J I; Okoli, C C

    2003-07-01

    We present a study of the maternal morbidity and mortality among 76 patients treated at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi for complications of induced abortion from January 1996 to December 2000. The total number of maternal admissions over this period was 5750, and illegal induced abortion was responsible for 1.3% of the admissions, with a mortality rate of 5.3% (n = 4) for induced abortion. This accounted for 21.1% of the total maternal deaths (n = 19) for the period. The mean age of the women was 20.6 years (range 15-34 years), 94.7% (n = 72) were unmarried, 93.5% (n = 71) were nulliparous and 76.5% (n = 58) were unemployed, 67.1% (n = 51) had had a mid-trimester termination at > 13 weeks gestational age. It is significant that 55.3% of the patients were teenagers and 45.1% of the mid-trimester abortions occurred in this group. Genital sepsis, haemorrhage, pelvic infection with peritonitis and abscess formation, uterine perforation, and gut injury were the major complications encountered. This study demonstrates that induced abortion is still a major cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Integrated family health education, planned parenthood and contraceptive education, a mass literacy campaign and improvement of the existing national health services are recommended in order to ameliorate the problems of illegally induced abortion in Nigeria.

  11. Declining frequency of blood donation among elites in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S G; Gamas, M G; Kagu, M B

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the causes of declining frequency of voluntary blood donations among educated elites as seen at the blood bank of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria, over the last decade. The number of blood units received from educated elite donors during a 10-year period (1995-2004) at the blood bank were determined and expressed as percentages of total donations collected annually. The reasons for elite donor default were obtained through the use of questionnaires filled by defaulting donors. The proportion of educated elite donations steadily fell from 28% in 1995 to 7% in 2004. Reasons for defaulting from voluntary blood donations included fear for HIV screening in 86.7% of respondents, economic hardship/poor nourishment in 50.6% of respondents, changed address/logistic difficulties in 4.8% of respondents and ill health in 2.4% of respondents. Therefore, the steady fall in the proportion of elite donors over the years was mainly due to fear of HIV screening coupled with economic difficulties. Hence, there is the need to review our donor campaign strategy with respect to predonation counseling for HIV, initiate regular haematinics supplementation for donors and introduce sustainable mobile donor clinic services for distant donors. Further more, there is the need for a functional national blood transfusion service in Nigeria.

  12. Seroepidemiology of human retroviruses in Ogun State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, O; Lawoko, A; Blomberg, J

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed sera collected during 1987 and 1988 from 385 healthy business employees of both sexes, of Ogun state in Nigeria, for antibodies to the 3 human retroviruses HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-I. No serum was HIV-1 positive, 1 was HIV-2 positive and 2 were HTLV-I positive. A few sera were false-positive in the antibody screening tests which preceded the confirmatory antibody tests. In the confirmatory tests, we found that in the HIV-1 Western blot test 1 serum reacted only with the HIV-1 gag protein p17, and 2 sera reacted only with the HIV-1 pol proteins p64, p53 and p31. None of these reactivities fulfill internationally accepted criteria for HIV-1 seropositivity. We conclude that HIV-1 was rare in the study population and that HIV-2 and HTLV-I are present at a low frequency. The false positive serological reactions observed are similar to those described previously from Africa and elsewhere. The findings emphasize the importance of routinely testing blood donations for antibodies to these retroviruses in Nigeria.

  13. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Tuberculosis Suspects in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus, Simeon Idowu; Diarra, Bassirou; Traore, Brehima; Maiga, Mamoudou; Siddiqui, Sophia; Tounkara, Anatole; Falodun, Olutayo; Lawal, Wole; Adewole, Isaac Folurunso; Murphy, Rob; van Soolingen, Dick; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdened nations, sputum smear microscopy is routinely employed for TB diagnosis at Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) Centers. This diagnostic algorithm does not differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Between December 2008 and January 2009, consecutive patients diagnosed with TB were screened for inclusion at 10 DOTS centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. To verify Mycobacterium species in patients diagnosed, we cultured and identified mycobacterial isolates using PCR, line probe assay, and spoligotyping techniques. From 48 patients screened, 23 met the inclusion criteria for the study. All the 23 study patients had a positive culture. Overall, we identified 11/23 patients (48%) with MTC only, 9/23 (39%) with NTM only, and 3/23 (13%) with evidence of both MTC and NTM. Strains of MTC identified were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) genotype (n = 12), M. africanum (n = 1), and the genotype family T (n = 1). Four M. avium-intracellulare-M. scrofulaceum complexes, one M. chelonae complex, one M. abscessus, and one M. intracellulare were identified. Our findings underscore the need to incorporate molecular techniques for more precise diagnosis of TB at DOTS centers to improve clinical outcomes and safe guard public health, particularly in TB endemic countries. PMID:27099795

  14. Autistic disorder in Nigeria: profile and challenges to management.

    PubMed

    Lagunju, I A; Bella-Awusah, T T; Omigbodun, O O

    2014-10-01

    Autism represents one of the most common developmental disorders affecting children, but there are few reports on autism in African children. Our study describes the profile of autistic disorder in a cohort of Nigerian children and appraises short-term outcomes. Children seen at the pediatric neurology and the child psychiatry clinic of the University College Hospital, Nigeria were screened for autistic disorder using the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Forty-five males and 9 females were identified with autism, and the disease accounted for 2.3% of 2320 new cases seen during the period. The mean age at which parents observed deviations in behavior was 22.5 (SD=6.6) months, while the mean age at diagnosis was 44.7 (SD=21.2) months. Twelve (22.6%) children had a positive family history of autism, and forty (75.5%) had associated neurological comorbidities. Diagnosis of autism is often delayed in Nigeria, and affected children have a high frequency of neurological comorbidities.

  15. Blood transfusion safety; current status and challenges in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aneke, John C.; Okocha, Chide E.

    2017-01-01

    The attainment of blood transfusion safety in Nigeria (and probably the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa) remains an uphill task due to a number of factors, ranging from shortage of blood, poor implementation of blood transfusion guidelines, infrastructural deficits to high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), particularly hepatitis and human immune deficiency viruses. We reviewed available data on blood transfusion practices and safety in Nigeria using the PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and African Index Medicus search engines, through a combination of word and phrases relevant to the subject. The World Health Organization has been in the forefront of efforts to establish safe, available, and affordable blood transfusion services in most parts of Africa through encouraging adequate blood donor recruitment, donor blood testing, and collection as well developing strategies for the rational use of blood. Even though modest improvement has been recorded, particularly with regards to donor blood screening for common TTIs, considerable efforts are needed in the form of robust public enlightenment campaigns (on blood donation) and continuous system improvement to drive the current transfusion practices in the country toward safety and self-sustenance. PMID:28316432

  16. Mycobacterium fortuitum from lesions of slaughtered pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K; Okker, M; Jahans, K

    2010-12-01

    To ascertain the cause of tuberculous-like lesions in pigs slaughtered in a local abattoir in Ibadan (south-western Nigeria), a total of 516 pigs were inspected over a period of four months, 18 of which had gross lesions suggestive of tuberculosis at post-mortem. Mycobacterial culture and molecular typing (GenoType Mycobacterium CM [Common Mycobacteria] assay) analysis were used to identify and confirm the mycobacteria species responsible for these lesions. Results show that 2.3% (12/516) of the animals screened were infected with mycobacteria; Mycobacterium fortuitum was confirmed in 33.3% (4/12) of these cases. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first report confirming the isolation of M. fortuitum in slaughtered pigs in Nigeria. There is a need to improve on necessary preventive and control measures that will reduce potential sources of mycobacterial infections in pig-rearing herds. These infections may also have public health implications, especially to workers in the pig industry.

  17. The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Talabi, J K

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming.

  18. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region. PMID:26052462

  19. The development role of community banks in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onugu, C U

    2000-02-01

    This paper examined the development role of community banks in rural Nigeria by using the deposit mobilization capability and funding capacity in key sectors of the rural economy as yardsticks. By using a cluster sampling technique, it looks at the achievements of the community banking scheme initiative in terms of economic development. The scheme, established in 1991, has sustained itself and promoted rural development in the country. It is noted that communities have, for the first time, realized that they can advance their own economic fortunes. However, the scheme's performance as supporter of the agricultural sector has not been as well as expected, despite the fact that agriculture dominates Nigeria's rural economy. In view of this, non-banking activities are a welcome development since some of their approaches are proven to be knowledge enhancing and empowering for the rural population. Overall, community banks should attempt to strengthen non-banking approaches by collaborating more with self-help groups or nongovernmental organizations to be more empowering, results-oriented, and sustainable. Moreover, regulatory authorities should ensure that guidelines relate to credit application in terms of volume and sector allocation.

  20. An outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O E; Amoni, S S; Samaila, E; Thaker, U; Darougar, S

    1990-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out on two groups of patients with acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) during an epidemic in 1985 in Northern Nigeria. Group 1 consisted of 99 students attending a girls' boarding school, group 2 of 200 patients selected randomly from 1000 examined at the local clinic. Moderate to severe hyperaemia and papillary responses were present in the palpebral conjunctiva of all patients, and 234 (66%) had subconjunctival haemorrhages. Transient superficial punctate keratitis was noted in over 60% of patients. A transient flare suggestive of a low grade iritis was seen in five patients. No neurological disorders were noted. Serological studies were carried out on patients from group 2. Fifteen paired and 20 single serum samples were titrated against adenovirus type 4 (Ad-4) and enterovirus type 70 (EV-70). Two pairs of sera showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to EV-70, whereas the antibody titres to EV-70 in the rest of the sera ranged from 1:20 (no antibody) to 1:160. None of the paired serum samples showed a 4-fold rise in antibody levels to adenovirus. The results of clinical studies and serological findings support EV-70 as a probable cause of AHC in Nigeria. PMID:2155654